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Sample records for viability steroid testosterone

  1. Metabolic Action Of Sex Steroids: The Effects Of Testosterone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been widely reported that sex steroids affect carbohydrate metabolism and may have influences on hepatic enzymes. There have also been reports that glucocorticoids and sex steroids sometimes bind to similar receptors. All these suggest possible functional similarities or antagonism between glucocorticoids and ...

  2. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  3. Synthesis of steroids {sup 14}C-4: acetates of 19-nor-testosterone and testosterone; Syntheses de steroides {sup 14}C-4: acetates de 19-nor-testosterone et de testosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floch, H

    1962-07-01

    The acetates of 19-nor-testosterone 4-{sup 14}C and testosterone 4-{sup 11}C have been prepared from ICH{sub 3}H{sub 8} {sup 14}C with respective yields of 32 percents and 56 percents in report of ICH{sub 3}-{sup 14}C. The cyclization in acid medium has given correct yields in opposition with the cyclization in alkaline medium that gives low yields for the testosterone and negative yields for the 19-nor-testosterone. [French] Les acetates de 19-nortestosterone 4-{sup 14}C et de testosterone 4-{sup 11}C ont ete prepares a partir de l'ICH{sub 3}H{sub 8} {sup 14}C avec des rendements respectifs de 32 pour cent et de 56 pour cent par rapport a l'ICH{sub 3}-{sup 14}C. La cyclisation en milieu acide nous a donne de bons rendements contrairement a la cyclisation en milieu alcalin qui donne des rendements faibles pour la testosterone et negatifs pour la 19-nortestosterone. (auteur)

  4. Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Abram McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use.

  5. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. RESULTS: Former AAS abusers...... exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0) nmol/l) (P testosterone levels below...... the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P

  6. Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purves-Tyson Tertia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting

  7. Long-Duration Space Flight and Bed Rest Effects on Testosterone and Other Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Wang, Zuwei; Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited data suggest that testosterone is decreased during space flight, which could contribute to bone and muscle loss. Objective: The main objective was to assess testosterone and hormone status in long- and short-duration space flight and bed rest environments and to determine relationships with other physiological systems, including bone and muscle. Design: Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after long-duration space flight. Samples were also collected before and after 12- to 14-d missions and from participants in 30- to 90-d bed rest studies. Setting: Space flight studies were conducted on the International Space Station and before and after Space Shuttle missions. Bed rest studies were conducted in a clinical research center setting. Data from Skylab missions are also presented. Participants: All of the participants were male, and they included 15 long-duration and nine short-duration mission crew members and 30 bed rest subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Serum total, free, and bioavailable testosterone were measured along with serum and urinary cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG. Results: Total, free, and bioavailable testosterone was not changed during long-duration space flight but were decreased (P space flight. There were no changes in other hormones measured. Testosterone concentrations dropped before and soon after bed rest, but bed rest itself had no effect on testosterone. Conclusions: There was no evidence for decrements in testosterone during long-duration space flight or bed rest. PMID:22049169

  8. Developmental Programming: Impact of Prenatal Testosterone Excess on Steroidal Machinery and Cell Differentiation Markers in Visceral Adipocytes of Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Lu, Chunxia; Martin, Jacob D; Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Dumesic, Daniel; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T)-treated female sheep manifest reduced adipocyte size and peripheral insulin resistance. The small adipocyte phenotype may reflect defects in adipogenesis and its steroidal machinery. To test whether prenatal T treatment from gestational days 30 to 90 alters the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) steroidal machinery and reduces adipocyte differentiation, we examined expression of the steroidogenic enzymes, steroid receptors, and adipocyte differentiation markers at fetal day 90 and postnatal ages 10 and 21 months. Because gestational T treatment increases fetal T and maternal insulin, the contributions of these were assessed by androgen receptor antagonist or insulin sensitizer cotreatment, either separately (at fetal day 90 and 21 months of age time points) or together (10 months of age). The effects on adipogenesis were assessed in the VAT-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) from pre- and postpubertal time points to evaluate the effects of pubertal steroidal changes on adipogenesis. Our results show that VAT manifests potentially a predominant estrogenic intracrine milieu (increased aromatase and estrogen receptor α) and reduced differentiation markers at fetal day 90 and postnatal 21 months of age. These changes appear to involve both androgenic and metabolic pathways. Preliminary findings suggest that prenatal T treatment reduces adipogenesis, decreases expression of differentiation, and increases expression of commitment markers at both pre- and postpubertal time points. Together, these findings suggest that (1) increased commitment of AT-MSCs to adipocyte lineage and decreased differentiation to adipocytes may underlie the small adipocyte phenotype of prenatal T-treated females and (2) excess T-induced changes in steroidal machinery in the VAT likely participate in the programming/maintenance of this defect.

  9. Dose-dependent testosterone sensitivity of the steroidal passport and GC-C-IRMS analysis in relation to the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Mullen, Jenny E; Gårevik, Nina; Ericsson, Magnus; Schulze, Jenny J; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The newly implemented Steroid Module of the Athlete Biological Passport has improved doping tests for steroids. A biomarker included in this passport is the urinary testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio, a ratio greatly affected by a deletion polymorphism in UGT2B17. Suspect urine doping tests are further analyzed with gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to determine the origin of the androgen. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of the steroidal module and the IRMS analysis, in subjects administered with three doses of testosterone enanthate (500, 250, and 125 mg), in relation to the UGT2B17 polymorphism. All subjects carrying the UGT2B17 enzyme reached the traditionally used threshold, a T/E ratio of 4, after all three administered doses, whereas none of the subjects devoid of this enzyme reached a T/E of 4. On the other hand, using the athlete biological passport and IRMS analysis, all three doses could be detected to a high degree of sensitivity. The concentrations of all steroids included in the steroidal module were dose dependently increased, except for epitestosterone which decreased independent of dose. The decrease in epitestosterone was significantly associated with circulatory levels of testosterone post dose (rs =0.60 and p=0.007). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that administration of a single dose of 125-500 mg testosterone enanthate could be detected using the athlete biological passport, together with IRMS. Since IRMS is sensitive to testosterone doping independent of UGT2B17 genotype, also very small changes in the steroidal passport should be investigated with IRMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment...

  11. Sexual dimorphism of growth plate prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes in response to testosterone requires metabolism to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by steroid 5-alpha reductase type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, P; Nasatzky, E; Boyan, B D; Ornoy, A; Schwartz, Z

    2005-05-01

    Rat costochondral growth plate chondrocytes exhibit sex-specific and cell maturation dependent responses to testosterone. Only male cells respond to testosterone, although testosterone receptors are present in both male and female cells, suggesting other mechanisms are involved. We examined the hypothesis that the sex-specific response of rat costochondral cartilage cells to testosterone requires further metabolism of the hormone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Resting zone (RC) and growth zone (GC, prehypertrophic and upper hypertrophic zones) chondrocytes from male and female Sabra strain rats exhibited sex-specific responses to testosterone and DHT: only male cells were responsive. Testosterone and DHT treatment for 24 h caused a comparable dose-dependent increase in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in quiescent preconfluent cultures of male GC cells, and a comparable increase in alkaline phosphatase specific activity in confluent cultures. RC cells responded in a differential manner to testosterone and DHT. Testosterone decreased DNA synthesis in male RC cells but DHT had no effect and alkaline phosphatase specific activity of male RC cells was unaffected by either hormone. Inhibition of steroid 5alpha-reductase activity with finasteride (1, 5, or 10 microg/ml), reduced the response of male GC cells to testosterone in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that metabolism to DHT was required. RT-PCR showed that both male and female cells expressed mRNAs for steroid 5alpha-reductase type 1 but lacked mRNAs for the type 2 form of the enzyme. Male cells also exhibited 5alpha-reductase activity but activity of this enzyme was undetectable in female cells. These observations show that sex-specific responses of rat growth zone chondrocytes to testosterone requires the further metabolism of the hormone to DHT and that the effect of DHT in the male growth plate is maturation-state dependent. Failure of female chondrocytes to respond to testosterone may reflect differences in

  12. Developmental programming: exposure to testosterone excess disrupts steroidal and metabolic environment in pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Salloum, B; Veiga-Lopez, A; Abbott, D H; Burant, C F; Padmanabhan, V

    2015-06-01

    Gestational exposure to excess T leads to intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, and adult metabolic/reproductive disorders in female sheep. We hypothesized that as early mediators of such disruptions, gestational T disrupts steroidal and metabolic homeostasis in both the mother and fetus by both androgenic and metabolic pathways. Maternal blood samples were measured weekly for levels of insulin, glucose, and progesterone from four groups of animals: control; gestational T (twice weekly im injections of 100 mg of T propionate from d 30 to d 90 of gestation); T plus an androgen antagonist, flutamide (15 mg/kg·d oral; T-Flutamide); and T plus the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone (0.11 mg/kg·d oral; T-Rosi) (n = 10-12/group). On day 90 of gestation, maternal and umbilical cord samples were collected after a 48-hour fast from a subset (n = 6/group) for the measurement of steroids, free fatty acids, amino acids, and acylcarnitines. Gestational T decreased maternal progesterone levels by 36.5% (P fetal estradiol were not prevented by either cotreatment. Gestational T disrupted associations of steroids with metabolites and progesterone with acylcarnitines, which was prevented either by androgen antagonist or insulin sensitizer cotreatment. These findings suggest a future combination of these treatments might be required to prevent alteration in maternal/fetal steroidal and metabolic milieu(s).

  13. Gonadal steroids differentially modulate neurotoxicity of HIV and cocaine: testosterone and ICI 182,780 sensitive mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mactutus Charles F

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV Associated Dementia (HAD is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection that erodes the quality of life for patients and burdens health care providers. Intravenous drug use is a major route of HIV transmission, and drug use is associated with increased HAD. Specific proteins released as a consequence of HIV infection (e.g., gp120, the HIV envelope protein and Tat, the nuclear transactivating protein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. In primary cultures of human fetal brain tissue, subtoxic doses of gp120 and Tat are capable of interacting with a physiologically relevant dose of cocaine, to produce a significant synergistic neurotoxicity. Using this model system, the neuroprotective potential of gonadal steroids was investigated. Results 17β-Estradiol (17β-E2, but not 17α-estradiol (17α-E2, was protective against this combined neurotoxicity. Progesterone (PROG afforded limited neuroprotection, as did dihydrotestosterone (DHT. The efficacy of 5α-testosterone (T-mediated neuroprotection was robust, similar to that provided by 17β-E2. In the presence of the specific estrogen receptor (ER antagonist, ICI-182,780, T's neuroprotection was completely blocked. Thus, T acts through the ER to provide neuroprotection against HIV proteins and cocaine. Interestingly, cholesterol also demonstrated concentration-dependent neuroprotection, possibly attributable to cholesterol's serving as a steroid hormone precursor in neurons. Conclusion Collectively, the present data indicate that cocaine has a robust interaction with the HIV proteins gp120 and Tat that produces severe neurotoxicity, and this toxicity can be blocked through pretreatment with ER agonists.

  14. Effect of oral testosterone treatment on serum concentrations of sex steroids gonadotrophins and prolactin in alcoholic cirrhotic men. Copenhagen Study Group for Liver Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Svenstrup, Bo

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the serum concentrations of sex steroids and pituitary hormones in a randomly selected group of alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled study on the efficacy of oral testosterone treatment on the liver. Before treatment......, patients (n = 25) had median serum concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, non-sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) bound oestradiol and oestrone sulphate which did not differ significantly from those of healthy controls (n = 16), but the patients had significantly (P less...... than 0.01) higher median serum concentrations of oestrone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin. The patients were randomized to treatment with either oral micronized testosterone (200 mg t.d.s.) or placebo for a median duration of 1 year. In the placebo group (n...

  15. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... return of symptoms and sometimes joint pain. SIDE EFFECTS Steroids can cause a wide range of unwanted effects. ... please talk with your doctor. MANAGING COMMON SIDE EFFECTS WEIGHT GAIN AND INCREASED BLOOD SUGAR LEVELS Steroids increase the appetite and often cause weight gain. ...

  16. Cardiotonic steroids trigger non-classical testosterone signaling in Sertoli cells via the α4 isoform of the sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Lutz; Dietze, Raimund; Kirch, Ulrike; Kirch, Herbert; Eva, Alexander; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2011-12-01

    The α4 isoform of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is known to be expressed in spermatozoa and to be critical for their motility. In the investigation presented here, we find that the rat-derived Sertoli cell line 93RS2 also expresses considerable amounts of the α4 isoform in addition to the α1 isoform. Since Sertoli cells are not motile, one can assume that the function of the α4 isoform in these cells must differ from that in spermatozoa. Thus, we assessed a potential involvement of this isoform in signaling pathways that are activated by the cardiotonic steroid (CTS) ouabain, a highly specific sodium pump ligand. Treatment of 93RS2 cells with ouabain leads to activation of the c-Src/c-Raf/Erk1/2 signaling cascade. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the activation of this cascade by ouabain results in phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor CREB. This signaling cascade is induced at low nanomolar concentrations of ouabain, consistent with the involvement of the α4 isoform. This is further supported by experiments involving siRNA: silencing of α4 expression entirely blocks ouabain-induced activation of Erk1/2 whereas silencing of α1 has no effect. The findings of this study unveil new aspects in CTS/sodium pump interactions by demonstrating for the first time ouabain-induced signaling through the α4 isoform. The c-Src/c-Raf/Erk1/2/CREB cascade activated by ouabain is identical to the so-called non-classical signaling cascade that is normally triggered in Sertoli cells by testosterone. Taking into consideration that CTS are produced endogenously, our results may help to gain new insights into the physiological mechanisms associated with male fertility and reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Steroids KidsHealth ... athletes, and why not? It's fun to think about being the very best in your favorite sport, not to mention earning a big salary. But ...

  18. Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of aggression and hostility Increased risk of heart disease, liver damage Addiction Read More about Steroids Be Informed. Search for information about a drug View Popular Searches: POT , HEROIN , METH Previous Pause Next Marijuana Featured Articles What You Should Know About Marijuana ...

  19. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Aims Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. Methods This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18–50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Results Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th –75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9–17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6–22.0) nmol/l) (P < 0.01). Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5) of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01). Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01). The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05). Conclusions Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation

  20. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Jarløv Rasmussen

    Full Text Available Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers.This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7 years and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18-50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction were recorded systematically.Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7 nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0 nmol/l (P < 0.01. Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5 of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01. Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01. The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2% (11.1; 42.2, erectile dysfunction ((27.3% (13.3; 45.6 and decreased libido ((40.1% (23.2; 57.0 than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05.Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation. Current AAS abusers exhibited severely decreased AMH

  1. The in vitro biosynthesis of epitestosterone and testosterone from C19 steroid precursors in the testis of the lizard Tiliqua rugosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huf, P.A.; Bourne, A.R.; Watson, T.G.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of androgens in the testis of the lizard Tiliqua rugosa has been studied in vitro by incubating cellular homogenates with radiolabeled C19-steroid substrates. The identification 17 beta-oxidoreductase and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase activities. Aromatase, 5 alpha-reductase, and 17 alpha/beta-epimerase activities were not detected. The 17 alpha-oxidoreductase activity was temperature dependent (maximal at 32 degrees), while the 17 beta-oxidoreductase activity was temperature independent. Time yield and dual-label studies indicated that testosterone biosynthesis mainly involves the 4-ene pathway (via androstenedione), whereas the formation of epitestosterone uses both the 4-ene and 5-ene (via 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 alpha-diol) pathways. The function of alternative pathways in androgen biosynthesis is discussed, as is the role of temperature in the intratesticular regulation of androgen production

  2. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  3. The many faces of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald Bain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance

  4. [Testosterone and psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber, C; Wetterauer, U; Berner, M

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone, like other steroid hormones, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the androgen receptor is present in most parts of the human brain. Therefore, testosterone has many effects on the psyche, mainly in men but also in women. Most often discussed is its influence on sexuality, especially on desire and sexual fantasies, spontaneous nighttime erections, sexual activity, and the number of orgasms and ejaculations. Mood and energy are also testosterone related. Testosterone deficiency in male patients can lead to depressive disorders. In the past, elevated testosterone levels were seen as responsible for strongly aggressive behaviour. Some cognitive functions (spatial and mathematical sense, verbal skills) are, at least to a certain point, testosterone related. Due to the extremely complex functioning of the human brain, a scientifically exact statement regarding the true relationship between testosterone and human behaviour is not possible. On the one hand, the cause is definitively multifactorial, but on the other, testosterone is metabolised in the brain, and the metabolites act by themselves. Furthermore, a bidirectional relationship exists between hormones and human behaviour: Human behaviour is influenced by hormones, and human behaviour also has a direct influence on the levels of many hormones in the human body. Finally, much data in this field are derived from animal studies; studies on humans cannot be conducted because of ethical reasons or scientific and technical problems.

  5. Prostate cancer cells differ in testosterone accumulation, dihydrotestosterone conversion, and androgen receptor signaling response to steroid 5α-reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Godoy, Alejandro; Azzouni, Faris; Wilton, John H; Ip, Clement; Mohler, James L

    2013-09-01

    Blocking 5α-reductase-mediated testosterone conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with finasteride or dutasteride is the driving hypothesis behind two prostate cancer prevention trials. Factors affecting intracellular androgen levels and the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis need to be examined systematically in order to fully understand the outcome of interventions using these drugs. The expression of three 5α-reductase isozymes, as determined by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, was studied in five human prostate cancer cell lines. Intracellular testosterone and DHT were analyzed using mass spectrometry. A luciferase reporter assay and AR-regulated genes were used to evaluate the modulation of AR activity. Prostate cancer cells were capable of accumulating testosterone to a level 15-50 times higher than that in the medium. The profile and expression of 5α-reductase isozymes did not predict the capacity to convert testosterone to DHT. Finasteride and dutasteride were able to depress testosterone uptake in addition to lowering intracellular DHT. The inhibition of AR activity following drug treatment often exceeded the expected response due to reduced availability of DHT. The ability to maintain high intracellular testosterone might compensate for the shortage of DHT. The biological effect of finasteride or dutasteride appears to be complex and may depend on the interplay of several factors, which include testosterone turnover, enzymology of DHT production, ability to use testosterone and DHT interchangeably, and propensity of cells for off-target AR inhibitory effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids are artificial versions of a hormone that's in all of us—testosterone. Some people take anabolic steroid pills or injections to try to build muscle faster. The Brain's Response to Anabolic Steroids Hi, ...

  7. Determination of steroids in manure and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Bengt Erland; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    A genuine analytical method to determine native steroids (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, 17b-estradiol, and 17a-estradiol) and one anthropogenic steroid (ethynylestradiol) in environmental solid samples is presented...

  8. Effect of testosterone replacement on the alteration of steroid metabolism in the hypothalamic-preoptic area of male hamsters treated with melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterborg, L J; West, D A; Rudeen, P K; Ganjam, V K

    1991-11-01

    Adult male hamsters were maintained under 14 hours of light per day and randomly assigned to groups that received daily afternoon melatonin (25 micrograms) or vehicle injections. Animals from both groups were killed following 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. By 12 weeks, the melatonin-treated hamsters had significant reductions in the weights of the testes and seminal vesicles, serum testosterone levels, and activities did not differ between groups. In a second experiment, hamsters were hypothalamic-preoptic area (HPOA) aromatase activities. Hypothalamic-preoptic area 5 alpha-reductase activities did not differ between groups. In a second experiment, hamsters were again treated with melatonin or vehicle for 12 weeks prior to being killed. After 10 weeks of treatment, groups of melatonin-treated animals received subcutaneous silastic capsules (5, 10, or 20 mm) filled with testosterone. Animals in two other groups were given blank implants or no implants at all. Two weeks later, at autopsy, reproductive organ weights, serum testosterone levels, and HPOA aromatase activities were significantly suppressed by melatonin administration. 5 alpha-Reductase activity in the HPOA was not affected. Hamsters that had been given the 10- and 20-mm testosterone implants exhibited normal seminal vesicle weights and HPOA aromatase activities. These results suggest that melatonin-induced reduction of HPOA aromatase activity is mediated by decreased circulating levels of testosterone.

  9. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Steroid profiling in doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Daniël Henri van de

    2001-01-01

    Profiling androgens in urine samples is used in doping analysis for the detection of abused steroids of endogenous origin. These profiling techniques were originally developed for the analysis of testosterone, mostly by means of the ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio). A study was

  11. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  12. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not apply any testosterone topical products to your penis or scrotum or to skin that has sores, ... are severe or do not go away: breast enlargement and/or pain decreased sexual desire acne depression ...

  13. Developmental Programming: Impact of Gestational Steroid and Metabolic Milieus on Mediators of Insulin Sensitivity in Prenatal Testosterone-Treated Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Andriessen, Victoria; Mesquitta, Makeda; Zeng, Lixia; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep leads to peripheral insulin resistance (IR), reduced adipocyte size, and tissue-specific changes, with liver and muscle but not adipose tissue being insulin resistant. To determine the basis for the tissue-specific differences in insulin sensitivity, we assessed changes in negative (inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity) and positive mediators (adiponectin and antioxidants) of insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of control and prenatal T-treated sheep. Because T excess leads to maternal hyperinsulinemia, fetal hyperandrogenism, and functional hyperandrogenism and IR in their female offspring, prenatal and postnatal interventions with antiandrogen, flutamide, and the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone were used to parse out the contribution of androgenic and metabolic pathways in programming and maintaining these defects. Results showed that (1) peripheral IR in prenatal T-treated female sheep is related to increases in triglycerides and 3-nitrotyrosine, which appear to override the increase in high-molecular-weight adiponectin; (2) liver IR is a function of the increase in oxidative stress (3-nitrotyrosine) and lipotoxicity; (3) muscle IR is related to lipotoxicity; and (4) the insulin-sensitive status of visceral adipose tissue appears to be a function of the increase in antioxidants that likely overrides the increase in proinflammatory cytokines, macrophages, and oxidative stress. Prenatal and postnatal intervention with either antiandrogen or insulin sensitizer had partial effects in preventing or ameliorating the prenatal T-induced changes in mediators of insulin sensitivity, suggesting that both pathways are critical for the programming and maintenance of the prenatal T-induced changes and point to potential involvement of estrogenic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  14. In vivo assay for conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by rat prostatic steroid 5 alpha-reductase and comparison of two inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomey, R.E.; Goode, R.L.; Petrow, V.; Neubauer, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    An in vivo assay for steroid 5 alpha-reductase in rat ventral prostate has been developed and used to compare the inhibitory activity of N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5 alpha-androstane-17 beta-carboxamide (4-MA) and 6-methylene-4-pregnene-3,20-dione (LY207320). Immature rats (70-80 g) received test compounds 30 min prior to s.c. injection of [3H]-T. The rats were sacrificed 30 min later and the ventral prostates were analyzed for [3H]-T metabolites. Intraprostatic [3H]-T and [3H]-DHT reached peak levels within 5 min after injection of [3H]-T and declined to about 25% of peak levels after 2 hr. 4-MA was a very potent inhibitor of [3H]-DHT formation with an estimated IC50 of 0.2 mg/kg. LY207320, an inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase in vitro, was weakly active in vivo and did not achieve greater than 45% inhibition at high doses (greater than 200 mg/kg, s.c.). Tissue uptake of [3H]-T was also inhibited by LY207320, which may contribute to its inhibitory activity on accessory sex organ growth in the rat

  15. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa

  16. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considerations when your dosage changes. What about side effects and inhaled steroids? The most common side effects with inhaled steroids ... inhaled steroid has much less potential for side effects than steroid pills or syrups. There have been concerns regarding ...

  17. Testosterone inhibits trust, but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; van den Bergh, B.; van Son, V.; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smids, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  18. Testosterone Inhibits Trust but Promotes Reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  19. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Kallmann, DelCastillo and Pasqualini. In the 1950s longer-acting injectable testosterone enanthate became the preferred therapeutic modality. In the 1950s and 1960s, research concentrated on the chemical modification of androgens in order to emphasize their anabolic effects. Although anabolic steroids have largely disappeared from clinical medicine, they continue to live an illegal life for doping in athletics. In the 1970s the orally effective testosterone undecanoate was added to the spectrum of preparations. Recent transdermal gels and long-acting injectable preparations provide options for physiological testosterone substitution therapy.

  20. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract from Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) Root on Gonadotropins, Testosterone, and Sperm Count and Viability in Male Mice with Nicotinamide/ Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    AHANGARPOUR, Akram; OROOJAN, Ali Akbar; HEIDARI, Hamid; GHAEDI, Ehsan; TAHERKHANI, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive dysfunction is a complication of diabetes. Arctium lappa (burdock) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties, which are traditionally used for treatment of impotence and sterility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of its hydro alcoholic extract on gonadotropin, testosterone, and sperm parameters in nicotinamide/ streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

  1. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electron-microscopic autoradiography of tritiated testosterone in rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederik, P.M.; Molen, H.J. van der; Galjaard, H.; Klepper, D.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a technique for autoradiography of diffusible substances has been further tested by analysing the localization of steroids in rats testes with the light- and electron-microscope. Testes of rats were perfused with tritiated testosterone (3 min) followed by 15-min perfusion with buffer containing a 100-fold excess of unlabelled testosterone. Tissue samples were frozen, freeze dried, fixed in osmium vapour and embedded in Epon. To exclude extraction of steroids, contact with water and other solvents was prevented during cutting of thin sections on an ultracryotome and further treatment for autoradiography. Light- and electron-microscopic observations indicated that the highest concentration of labelled testosterone was present within the basal parts of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm and in lipid inclusions of Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules. This is the first account of autoradiography of steroids at the electron-microscope level. (author)

  3. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, [3H]testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with [3H]testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis

  4. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  5. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract from Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) Root on Gonadotropins, Testosterone, and Sperm Count and Viability in Male Mice with Nicotinamide/ Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Heidari, Hamid; Ghaedi, Ehsan; Taherkhani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a complication of diabetes. Arctium lappa (burdock) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties, which are traditionally used for treatment of impotence and sterility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of its hydro alcoholic extract on gonadotropin, testosterone, and sperm parameters in nicotinamide/ streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 adult male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (30-35 g) were randomly divided into seven groups: control, diabetes, diabetes + glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg), diabetes + extract (200 or 300 mg/kg), and extract (200 or 300 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (NA) and streptozotocin (STZ). Twenty-four hours after the last extract and drug administration, serum samples, testes, and cauda epididymis were removed immediately for experimental assessment. Body weight, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels, and sperm count (P lappa plant has an effect on the health of the reproductive system in order to improve diabetic conditions.

  6. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  7. Steroidal Saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N. P.; Banerjee, S.; Mondal, N. B.; Mandal, D.

    The medicinal activities of plants are generally due to the secondary metabolites (1) which often occur as glycosides of steroids, terpenoids, phenols etc. Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides, characterized by their strong foam-forming properties in aqueous solution. The cardiac glycosides also possess this, property but are classified separately because of their specific biological activity. Unlike the cardiac glycosides, saponins generally do not affect the heart. These are classified as steroid or triterpenoid saponins depending on the nature of the aglycone. Steroidal glycosides are naturally occurring sugar conjugates of C27 steroidal compounds. The aglycone of a steroid saponin is usually a spirostanol or a furostanol. The glycone parts of these compounds are mostly oligosaccharides, arranged either in a linear or branched fashion, attached to hydroxyl groups through an acetal linkage (2, 3). Another class of saponins, the basic steroid saponins, contain nitrogen analogues of steroid sapogenins as aglycones.

  8. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2017-01-01

    and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested......After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase...... with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid...

  9. STUDIES ON WILD HOUSE MICE .4. ON THE HEREDITY OF TESTOSTERONE AND READINESS TO ATTACK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOORTMERSSEN, GA; BENUS, RF; SLUYTER, F

    1992-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the role of the Y chromosome in the development of aggression in wild house mice. The aggression-eliciting property of testosterone depends not only on circulating adult testosterone, but also on perinatal sensitization of the central nervous system to this steroid.

  10. Exogenous testosterone enhances responsiveness to social threat in the neural circuitry of social aggression in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.; Ramsey, N.F.; Honk, J. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a range of species, the androgen steroid testosterone is known to potentiate neural circuits involved in intraspecific aggression. Disorders of impulsive aggression in humans have likewise been associated with high testosterone levels, but human evidence for the link between

  11. Testosterone administration reduces lying in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wibral

    Full Text Available Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone testosterone, which has been shown to play an important role in social behavior. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 91 healthy men (24.32±2.73 years received a transdermal administration of 50 mg of testosterone (n=46 or a placebo (n=45. Subsequently, subjects participated in a simple task, in which their payoff depended on the self-reported outcome of a die-roll. Subjects could increase their payoff by lying without fear of being caught. Our results show that testosterone administration substantially decreases lying in men. Self-serving lying occurred in both groups, however, reported payoffs were significantly lower in the testosterone group (p<0.01. Our results contribute to the recent debate on the effect of testosterone on prosocial behavior and its underlying channels.

  12. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCullough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  13. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  14. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekchay, S.; Apichartsrungkoon, T.; Pongpiachan, P.

    1996-01-01

    Identification of sex in some kind of fowls can not be done by using their external appearances. Sex steroid hormone levels may be used as an indicator of sexual dimorphism in birds. The objective of this investigation was to measure plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol concentrations in 8 male and 15 female chickens by using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The relationship between plasma and faecal testosterone, and plasma and faecal estradiol are positively correlated. The correlation coefficients (r 2 ) between plasma and faecal steroids concentration were 0.621 (p<0.05) for testosterone and 0.692 (p<0.05) for estradiol. The average plasma and faecal sex steroid concentrations in male and female chickens were 10.05 ± 1.97 ng/ml and 511.50 ± 95.89 ng/g (for male testosterone), 24.85 ± 1.60 pg/ml and 49.65 ± 6.01 ng/g (for male estradiol), 0.79 ± 0.05 ng/ml and 134.20 ± 14.70 ng/ml (for female testosterone), 129.91 ± 19.30 pg/ml and 334.80 ± 15.62 ng/g (for female estradiol), respectively. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol levels in male and female chickens are significant difference (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). The results of this investigation suggested that plasma or faecal sex steroid concentrations can be used to discriminate sex of chicken which is show the possibility to use the plasma or faecal sex steroids for identification of sex in other bird species

  15. Advances in immunoassay of anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Putz, Z.; Bicikova, M.; Starka, L.

    1985-01-01

    A specific RIA for the main nortestosterone metabolites, norandrosterone and noretiocholanolone and a rapid, automatizable modification of testosterone RIA in urine are described. Additionally, an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA) variant for detection of 17α-methyltestosterone and related steroids is suggested. (Auth.)

  16. Steroid osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible.

  17. Steroid osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Patients receiving steroids or having disease processes which increase natural steroid production often demonstrate ''the classic x-ray changes'' of avascular necrosis of bone. Bone scintigraphy in these patients most frequently demonstrates an increased radionuclide localization. The literature suggests that the increased activity is related to healing of the avascular process. In a recent study of Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD), 37 of the children had multiple studies and increased activity within the epiphysis during revascularization was extremely rare. Not only are the scintigraphic findings in steroid osteopathy dissimilar to that in healing LCPD, but the time interval for healing is much to short for that of a vascular necrosis and no patients demonstrated an avascular phase on bone scintigraphy. Of 15 children with renal transplants on steroid therapy, 9 demonstrated x-ray and clinical findings of osteopathy. In 8 of 9 instances, bone scintigraphy showed increased localization of radionuclide in the affected bone. Improvement or a return to normal occurred in those patients in whom steroids were discontinued. The following is a proposed mechanism for steroid osteopathy. Steroids affect the osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity of bone and weaken its internal structure. Ordinary stress produces microtrabecular fractures. Fractures characteristically stimulate reactive hyperemia and increase bone metabolism. The result is increased bone radiopharmaceutical localization. The importance of recognizing this concept is that steroid osteopathy is preventable by reducing the administered steroid dose. As opposed to avascular necrosis, bone changes are reversible

  18. Testosterone and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  19. Testosterone levels and the genetic variation of sex hormone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lillian

    1Physiology and Hormones Department, Animal Health Research Institute, ... hormone-binging globulin (SHBG) that is the major transporter protein of sex ... genotypes, one of which is likely to be associated with low testosterone ..... sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

  20. Testosterone supplementation restores vasopressin innervation in the senescent rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the male rat brain is decreased in senescence. This decrease is particularly pronounced in brain regions where AVP fiber density is dependent on plasma levels of sex steroids. Since plasma testosterone levels decrease progressively with age in the rat, the

  1. Testosterone levels and the genetic variation of sex hormone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samy Naeem

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... 1Physiology and Hormones Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural ... Firstly, this study aimed to determine the levels of testosterone in different-age ..... reduction in steroid-binding affinity due to impairment .... gene influence serum SHBG levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  2. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroid bursts can cause a number of side effects. Steroid side effects usually occur after long-term use ... how the dosage of steroids is determined; side effects of inhaled steroids, and some recommendations to decrease or prevent side ...

  3. Testosterone 15β-hydroxylation by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijssenaars, H.J.; Sperling, E.M.G.M.; Wiegerinck, P.H.G.; Brands, F.T.L.; Wery, J.; Bont, J.A.M.de

    2007-01-01

    A steroid 15β-hydroxylating whole-cell solvent tolerant biocatalyst was constructed by expressing the Bacillus megaterium steroid hydroxylase CYP106A2 in the solvent tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12. Testosterone hydroxylation was improved by a factor 16 by co-expressing Fer, a putative Fe-S protein

  4. Stable carbon isotope ratio profiling of illicit testosterone preparations--domestic and international seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Lance; Cawley, Adam; Drury, Jason; Edey, Claire; Hasick, Nicole; Goebel, Catrin

    2014-10-01

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is now established as a robust and mature analytical technique for the doping control of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids in human sport. It relies on the assumption that the carbon isotope ratios of naturally produced steroids are significantly different to synthetically manufactured testosterone or testosterone prohormones used in commercial medical or dietary supplement products. Recent publications in this journal have highlighted the existence of black market testosterone preparations with carbon isotope ratios within the range reported for endogenous steroids (i.e. δ(13) C ≥ -25.8 ‰). In this study, we set out to profile domestic and international law enforcement seizures of illicit testosterone products to monitor the prevalence of 'enriched' substrates--which if administered to human subjects would be considered problematic for the use of current GC-C-IRMS methodologies for the doping control of testosterone in sport. The distribution of δ(13) C values for this illicit testosterone sample population (n = 283) ranged from -23.4 ‰ to -32.9 ‰ with mean and median of -28.6 ‰--comparable to previous work. However, only 13 out of 283 testosterone samples (4.6 %) were found to display δ(13) C values ≥ -25.8 ‰, confirming that in the vast majority of cases of illicit testosterone administration, current GC-C-IRMS doping control procedures would be capable of confirming misuse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The influence of sex steroids on pineal enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya, S.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the gonadal sex steroids namely, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone on the two major enzymes responsible for the synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland was investigated. These enzymes are Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (H10MT). Testosterone was found to be the only sex steroid capable of influencing SNAT activity whereas all three of the sex steroids were found to influence H10MT activity in a biphasic dose-dependent manner. The influence of these sex steroids on radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by pineals in organ culture was also investigated. Ovariectomy, castration and the sex steroids were all found to alter the pattern of the radiolabelled serotonin metabolism by these pineal glands in organ culture

  6. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  7. Steroid hormones and peptide hormones in atopic eczema. Radioimmunological determination of diurnal plasma level variations of testosterone, cortisol, prolactin and human growth factor in healthy volunteers and patients showing atopic eczemae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of hormone measurements in sera from healthy volunteers and patients that was carried out on the basis of different criteria yielded the following results: 1) The testosterone levels determined in the patients sera were significantly lower than those of the healthy individuals and the daily rhythmic variations seen here did not attain statistical significance. 2) There were no statistically relevant differences in the serum concentrations of cortisol between healthy individuals and patients, nor was the amplitude of the daily variations observed to be changed in a consistent way. 3) In the patients, as compared to the healthy individuals, the prolactin level was considerably increased, as was the amplitude of the daily rhythmic variations. 4) The values determined for the human growth hormone (HCG) varied considerably between the individuals of either group. Since this held true for both the fluctuations with time and the height of the serum concentrations, a statistical analysis of the results appeared pointless. The results confirm that central and autonomous components have an important role in ectopic eczemae. (TRV) [de

  8. Differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by gas chromatography-combustion-mass spectrometry isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes de Oca Porto, Rodny; Rosado Perez, Aristides; Correa Vidal, Margarita Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Urinary steroids profiles are used to control the misuse of endogenous steroids such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The testosterone/epistestosterone ratio, measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, is used to control testosterone administration. When T/E ratio is higher than 4, consumption of testosterone or its precursors is suspected. Recent researches have demonstrated the effectiveness of Carbon Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry to detect and confirm endogenous steroids administration. The ratio of the two stable carbon isotopes 1 3 C and 1 2 C allows the differentiation of natural and synthetic steroids because synthetic steroids have lower 1 3 C abundance. In fact, the carbon isotope ratios can be used to determine endogenous steroids administration even when testosterone/epistestosterone ratio is at its normal value. In the current work, some of the most important aspects related to differentiation of endogenous and exogenous steroids by means of Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry are discussed. Also, this article provides a review about the purification and sample preparation previous to the analysis, and diet effects on carbon isotope ratio of endogenous anabolics steroids is presented too

  9. Androgen Secreting Steroid Cell Tumor of the Ovary Represented with Postmenopasal Bleeding and Extensive Hirsutism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Georgievska

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In adult patients with hirsutism and elevated serum testosterone a possibility of a presence of an ovarian steroid cell tumor should be considered. Surgery is the main treatment of such patients.

  10. Steroid Hydroxylase Activities as Noninvasive Biomarkers of Toxicant Exposure and Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leblanc, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    .... The overall goal of this research project was to test the hypothesis that changes in the metabolic elimination of the steroid hormone testosterone could serve as a non-invasive biomarker of toxicant...

  11. Could you have low testosterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the testicles. It is important for a man's sex drive and physical appearance. Certain health conditions, medicines, or injury can lead to low testosterone (low-T). Testosterone level also naturally drops with age. Low testosterone can ... Testosterone makes a man look and feel like a man. In a ...

  12. Sexual Health: Testosterone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low testosterone may contribute to a decrease in motivation or self-confidence. You may feel sad or ... vein (deep vein thrombosis), which could break loose, travel through your bloodstream and lodge in your lungs, ...

  13. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids has not been traditionally discussed in mainstream medicine. With the increased diagnosis of hypogonadism a heterogeneous population of men is now being evaluated. In this larger patient population the existence of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism, whether transient or permanent, should now be considered. We performed an initial retrospective database analysis of all 6,033 patients who sought treatment for hypogonadism from 2005 to 2010. An anonymous survey was subsequently distributed in 2012 to established patients undergoing testosterone replacement therapy. Profound hypogonadism, defined as testosterone 50 ng/dl or less, was identified in 97 men (1.6%) in the large retrospective cohort initially reviewed. The most common etiology was prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure, which was identified in 42 men (43%). Because of this surprising data, we performed an anonymous followup survey of our current hypogonadal population of 382 men with a mean±SD age of 49.2±13.0 years. This identified 80 patients (20.9%) with a mean age of 40.4±8.4 years who had prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure. Hypogonadal men younger than 50 years were greater than 10 times more likely to have prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure than men older than 50 years (OR 10.16, 95% CI 4.90-21.08). Prior anabolic androgenic steroid use significantly correlated negatively with education level (ρ=-0.160, p=0.002) and number of children (ρ=-0.281, panabolic androgenic steroid use is common in young men who seek treatment for symptomatic hypogonadism and anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism is the most common etiology of profound hypogonadism. These findings suggest that it is necessary to refocus the approach to evaluation and treatment paradigms in young hypogonadal men. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Steroid radioimmunoassay: contribution of standards to blank values, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, M.; Termorshuizen, W.; Kenter, E.; Molenaar, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay of steroids is considerably reduced by high blank values which may be derived in part from co-chromatographed standards. Blank levels approach the detection limit of the radioimmunoassay of aldosterone, testosterone and androstenedione when 10,000 dpm (30-35 pg) labelled steroids are used as reference standard. When 20 μg aldosterone, testosterone, or androstenedione is used as standard, blank levels of up to 12,800 pg were measured in the radioimmunoassay. Application of the standards on a separate strip does not improve the results. From the experiments it appeared that contamination took place by transport by the solvent

  15. Stress-induced suppression of testosterone secretion in male alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, V A; Elsey, R M

    1986-08-01

    In order to test the effect of acute stress on gonadal hormone secretion in reptiles, six mature male alligators were captured, and a blood sample was taken within 5 min of capture. Additional blood samples were taken at timed intervals for up to 41 hr, and plasma testosterone and corticosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma testosterone declined to 50% of the initial value by 4 hr and dropped to less than 10% of initial by 24 hr. Plasma corticosterone increased during the first 12 hr, declined at 24 hr, and rose again at 40 hr. Blood samples from male alligators collected in North and South Carolina, south Florida, and in south Louisiana in two consecutive breeding seasons were also assayed for testosterone and corticosterone. In these populations there were significant differences in mean plasma testosterone and corticosterone levels. Elevated corticosterone levels were consistently seen in alligators caught in traps and from which a blood sample was taken several hours later. Plasma testosterone, although consistently lower in trapped alligators, did not show a negative correlation with plasma corticosterone. Farm-reared alligators bled once, released, and bled again at 24 hr also showed a highly significant suppression of testosterone secretion. These results demonstrate that stress has a rapid and dramatic effect on testicular steroid secretion in both farm-reared and wild alligators.

  16. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael E., E-mail: mbaker@ucsd.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States); Chang, David J. [Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States)

    2009-08-28

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  17. Radioummunoassay of steroids in serum and ovarian fluid during egg overripening in goldfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formacion, M.J.; Venkatesh, B.; Tan, C.H.; Lam, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in steroid hormone levels in the serum and ovarian fluid during egg overripening in goldfish were studied by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Ovulated eggs retained in the ovarian cavity became overripe at around 12h after ovulation based on loss of fertilizability with advanced degeneration by 24 hour. Blood and ovarian fluid (OF) were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 12, 187 and 24h after ovulation. Prior to RIA, serum steroids were extracted directly with redistilled diethyl ether. Because of limited availability, steroids were separated from the ovarian fluid by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both serum and ovarian fluid progesterone (P) showed a highly significant decline at 18h with a further decline at 24h. In the ovarian fluid, P levels were higher than in the serum. Serum 17 α, 20B-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20B-P) levels showed a progressive and more rapid decline, decreasing significantly at 12h with further decreases by 18h and 24h. Serum testosterone (T) increased significantly at 3h, remained high till 18h, and declined thereafter to the 0h level. for estradiol-17B (E 2 , levels there were no significant changes observed in the serum fluid, there were no significant difference between 6 and 24h. In the ovarian fluid, there were no significant changes in E 2 , T or 17,20B-P levels. The time course of changes in the levels of steroids in the serum and ovarian fluid (OF) did not strictly coincide with that of overripening based on egg viability. (author)

  18. Differential testosterone secretory capacity of the testes of aggressive and nonaggressive house mice during ontogeny

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruiter, Anne J H; Koolhaas, Jaap M; van Oortmerssen, Geert A; Bohus, Bela

    1992-01-01

    In this study, testosterone secretory capacity of testicular Leydig cells during ontogeny was determined in males of an aggressive and a nonaggressive genetic selection line of wild house mice. Neonates, 23-day-old prepubertals, and adult male mice were studied. A morphometric method was used to quantify 3-beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (3-beta-HSD)-stained Leydig cells in testicular sections to determine testosterone secretory capacity. We consider this parameter to reflect circulating t...

  19. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição, C.Q.; Engi, S.A.; Cruz, F.C.; Planeta, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. Howev...

  20. Synthesis of testosteron-1,2-T and its metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Barna, Catalina; Condac, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    The androgen dependent diseases appear due to some blocking in different steps of the sexual hormone synthesis (testosterone, dehydrotestosterone) or to some changes in the communication system through the androgen receptor. In the diagnosis of these diseases, the hormonal dosage in plasma plays a major role. The molecules of interest labelled with tritium can be easily identified in multi-component and very complex systems. In the studies conducted in the field of molecular biology, tritium must be introduced in the biological stable positions of the compounds. In the particular case of the testosterone, the positions 1, 2, or 7 of the steroid structure are recommended to be labelled. The labelled testosterone was obtained by selective hydrogenation of D1- testosterone acetate. The former was synthesized starting with testosterone, in two steps: (1) protection of the hydroxyl group by esterification of testosterone using acetic anhydride, and (2) selective oxidative dehydrogenation with 2,6-dichloro-3,5-dicyan-1,4 quinone (DDQ) of the ester formed in the first step. Testosterone acetate was synthesized and purified with yields of 73%, and 80%, respectively. The oxidative process was characterized by yields of 82 % for synthesis and 33% for purification. The products were analyzed by TLC, melting point determination and GC MS. The tritium labelled hormone was obtained by selective catalytic hydrogenation of D1- testosterone acetate in the presence of T 2 gas, at low pressure, and hydrolysis of the ester at basic pH, followed by neutralization of residual NaOH with HCl. The steric and thermodynamic parameters of the hydrogenation reaction were analyzed using computational chemistry methods (Hyperchem 7 and CS Chem Office). Labelled crude product obtained was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography. TLC - radiochromatograms of labelled compounds obtained by tritiation of 1,2 dehydrotestosterone acetate are shown. The physical and chemical characterization

  1. A simple chromatographic method for the radioimmunoassay of four androgenic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Small Sephadex LH-20 columns were used to separate testosterone (T), 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Δ 4 -androstenedione (A) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) present in serum prior to radioimmunoassay, to remove cross reacting steroids. The column successfully separated all major cross reactants and, where steroids overlapped, cross reactivity with the specific antiserum was low. The technique is simple, rapid, accurate, reproducible and inexpensive. Serum concentrations of these androgenic steroids in normal males and females were measured and were found to be comparable to previously published results. In hypogonadism, concentrations of testosterone in the male serum were significantly lower than in normal males. (UK)

  2. Use of 6α- and 6β-carboxymethyl testosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugates in radioimmunoassay for testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.D.; Mason, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis of 6α- and 6β-testosterone-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates is described. 6β-Carboxymethyl-4-androstene-3,17-dione was prepared by a route analogous to that described earlier for 6β-carboxymethyl progesterone. Sodium borohydride reduction of the 3 and 17 keto groups and subsequent selective oxidation of the resulting 3β,17β-diol using MnO 2 provided 6β-carboxymethyl testosterone. Further acid catalyzed epimerization of the C-6 center gave the isomeric 6α-carboxymethyl testosterone. The 6α- and 6β-testosterone derivatives were attached to BSA via a mixed anhydride coupling employing tributylamine and i-butylchlorocarbonate. For each molecule of BSA, the 6α- and 6β-conjugates contained an average of 23 and 20 steroid residues, respectively. Antisera to the conjugates exhibited similar high specificities toward various steroids, the only incidence of serious cross-reaction being the expected case of dihydrotestosterone. (U.S.)

  3. Effects of seco-steroids purified from Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae, on the viability of Leishmania sp Efeitos de seco-esteróides purificados de Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae na viabilidade de Leishmania sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisalva T. Guimarães

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae, is an annual herb commonly used in popular medicine in many tropical and subtropical countries. P. angulata extracts contain a variety of substances, but little is known about their pharmacological activities. In this work we investigated the in vitro antileishmanial activity of seco-steroids (physalins purified from P. angulata. Addition of physalins B, F, and G caused a concentration-dependent inhibition in the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes, being the IC50 values were 6.8, 1.4, and 9.2 μM, respectively. Physalin D was less active and had an IC50 value of 30.5 μM. Physalins were also active in cultures of other Leishmania species (L. major, L. braziliensis, and L. chagasi. Our results demonstrate the potent antileishmanial activity of physalins in cultures of Leishmania species of the New and Old Worlds and suggest the therapeutic potential of these seco-steroids in leishmaniasis.Physalis angulata L., Solanaceae, é uma erva anual utilizada na medicina popular em muitos países tropicais e subtropicais. Apesar dos extratos da P. angulata apresentarem uma grande variedade de substâncias, pouco é conhecido sobre a sua atividade farmacológica. Neste trabalho foi investigado a atividade antileishmania in vitro de seco-esteroides (fisalinas purificados da P. angulata. O tratamento com as fisalinas B, F e G causou uma inibição concentração-dependente do crescimento de promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis em cultura axênica, com valores de IC50 de 6,8, 1,4, e 9,2 μM respectivamente. A fisalina D foi menos ativa, com valores de IC50 de 30,5 μM. Foi também observada uma atividade leishmanicida em culturas de outras espécies de Leishmania (L. major, L. braziliensis e L. chagasi. Nossos resultados demonstram que as fisalinas inibem o crescimento dos promastigotas com o tratamento de espécies de Leishmania do Velho e do Novo Mundos e sugerem o potencial terapêutico destas moléculas na

  4. Sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation attributed to anabolic steroid use in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfeld, Jana; Deal, Barbara J; Crawford, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote the growth of skeletal muscles and have many recognised cardiovascular effects. We report the clinical presentation and pathological findings of an adolescent male whose sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation was attributed to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The age of our patient reflects the usage of anabolic androgenic steroids among younger athletes and highlights the need for increased awareness among practitioners.

  5. Testosterone: action, deficiency, substitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieschlag, E; Nieschlag, S. (Susan); Behre, H. M. (Hermann M.)

    2004-01-01

    ... reviews applications in male contraception, the role of 5 -reductase inhibitors and the controversial use of DHEA. For this book the editors have assembled the world leaders in testosterone research and clinical andrology and endocrinology. A special feature of the book is the fact that its 24 chapters were submitted simultaneously to ens...

  6. Development of LC-MS/MS confirmatory method for the determination of testosterone in bovine serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the European Union the use of steroid growth promoters is prohibited under Council Directive 96/22/EC. For effective control of illegal use of natural steroids, highly sensitive analytical methods are required, because sex hormones can be present in very low concentrations in biological samples. The aim of the study was to develop a confirmatory method for the detection of testosterone in bovine serum at ppt level.

  7. The "trouble" with salivary testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Douglas A; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Booth, Alan; Kivlighan, Katie T; Schwartz, Eve B

    2004-11-01

    In a series of studies, we identify several specific issues that can limit the value of integrating salivary testosterone in biosocial research. Salivary testosterone measurements can be substantially influenced during the process of sample collection, are susceptible to interference effects caused by the leakage of blood (plasma) into saliva, and are sensitive to storage conditions when samples have been archived. There are gender differences in salivary testosterone levels and variance, the serum-saliva association, the relationship of salivary testosterone to age and pubertal development, and the stability of individual differences in salivary testosterone levels over time. The findings have important implications at several levels of analysis for research that aims to test biosocial models of testosterone--behavior relationships. Recommendations are provided to steer investigators around these "troubles" with salivary testosterone.

  8. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrbach, Michael; Krauss, Martin; Preiss, Alfred; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Hollender, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4- 14 C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5α-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  9. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Michael, E-mail: michael.fahrbach@web.d [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Krauss, Martin, E-mail: martin.krauss@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Preiss, Alfred, E-mail: alfred.preiss@item.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Kohler, Hans-Peter E., E-mail: hkohler@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hollender, Juliane, E-mail: juliane.hollender@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5{alpha}-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  10. Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, L.; Archer-Hartmann, S. A.; Holland, L.A.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2010-01-01

    A capillary separation method that incorporates pH-mediated stacking is employed for the simultaneous determination of circulating steroid hormones in plasma from Perca flavescens (yellow perch) collected from natural aquatic environments. The method can be applied to separate eight steroid standards: progesterone, 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, estrone, 11-ketotestosterone, ethynyl estradiol, and 17β-estradiol. Based on screening of plasma, the performance of the analytical method was determined for 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17β-estradiol. The within-day reproducibility in migration time for these four steroids in aqueous samples was ≤2%. Steroid quantification was accomplished using a calibration curve obtained with external standards. Plasma samples from fish collected from the Choptank and Severn Rivers, Maryland, USA, stored for up to one year were extracted with ethyl acetate and then further processed with anion exchange and hydrophobic solid phase extraction cartridges. The recovery of testosterone and 17β-estradiol from yellow perch plasma was 84 and 85%, respectively. Endogenous levels of testosterone ranged from 0.9 to 44 ng/ml, and when detected 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one ranged from 5 to 34 ng/ml. The reported values for testosterone correlated well with the immunoassay technique. Endogenous concentrations of 17β-estradiol were ≤1.7 ng/ml. 11-Ketotestosterone was not quantified because of a suspected interferant. Higher levels of 17α,20β-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were found in male and female fish in which 17β-estradiol was not detected. Monitoring multiple steroids can provide insight into hormonal fluctuations in fish.

  11. Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Liliya; Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie A; Holland, Lisa A; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S

    2010-09-01

    A capillary separation method that incorporates pH-mediated stacking is employed for the simultaneous determination of circulating steroid hormones in plasma from Perca flavescens (yellow perch) collected from natural aquatic environments. The method can be applied to separate eight steroid standards: progesterone, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, estrone, 11-ketotestosterone, ethynyl estradiol, and 17beta-estradiol. Based on screening of plasma, the performance of the analytical method was determined for 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol. The within-day reproducibility in migration time for these four steroids in aqueous samples was < or =2%. Steroid quantification was accomplished using a calibration curve obtained with external standards. Plasma samples from fish collected from the Choptank and Severn Rivers, Maryland, USA, stored for up to one year were extracted with ethyl acetate and then further processed with anion exchange and hydrophobic solid phase extraction cartridges. The recovery of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol from yellow perch plasma was 84 and 85%, respectively. Endogenous levels of testosterone ranged from 0.9 to 44 ng/ml, and when detected 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one ranged from 5 to 34 ng/ml. The reported values for testosterone correlated well with the immunoassay technique. Endogenous concentrations of 17beta-estradiol were < or =1.7 ng/ml. 11-Ketotestosterone was not quantified because of a suspected interferant. Higher levels of 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were found in male and female fish in which 17beta-estradiol was not detected. Monitoring multiple steroids can provide insight into hormonal fluctuations in fish. Copyright 2010 SETAC.

  12. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Mark D; Fox, Elliott C; Larsen, Gregory D; Batson, Christopher G; Wagner, Benjamin A; Maher, Jack

    2013-05-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats' strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Short Communication: Testosterone Measured with an Automatic Immunoassay Compares Reasonbly Well to Results Obtained by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Cindy Søndersø; Højskov, Carsten Schriver; Møller, Holger Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported problems measuring testosterone with immunological assays. Here we explore an automatic second generation immunoassay compared to a LC-MS/MS method. Methods: We collected blood samples from 76 women and measured testosterone, progesterone, gender...... hormonebinding globulin (SHBG), and albumin employing Cobas e601/c501. Testosterone, androstenedione (andro), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations were measured employing LC-MS/MS. We evaluated the difference between testosterone measured by the two methods...... and examined the potential interference from the selected steroids and bindings proteins. Results: Testosterone concentrations measured by the two methods yielded: Cobas e601 = 1.240 x (LC-MS/MS) - 0.197, r = 0.84, for testosterone concentrations between 0.22 - 4.9 nmol/L. A positive correlation was observed...

  14. Use of [125I]-iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives as radioligands for radioimmunoassay of natural and synthetic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1981-01-01

    [ 125 I]-Iodohistamine-labelled steroid derivatives were prepared and utilized as radioligands in radioimmunoassays of progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, estriol-16α-glucuronide, levonorgestrel, norethindrone and medroxyprogesterone acetate. The binding of these iodinated radioligands was compared to that of the corresponding tritiated steroids and their effect on the sensitivity and slope of standard curves was examined. The results demonstrate that much higher antibody dilutions could be used with iodinated than with tritiated radioligands. In general, standard curves obtained with iodinated radioligands were more sensitive than those obtained with tritiated steroids, but standard curves had steeper slopes when tritiated rather than iodinated radioligands were used. The data, summarizing our 5-year experience with steroid-[ 125 I]-iodohistamine derivatives, indicate that these tracers play an important role in radioimmunoassay systems for both natural and synthetic steroids. (author)

  15. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability in time of iodinated tracers for Testosterone, Progesterone and cortisol radiommunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisembaum Alas, A.T.; Machado Curbelo, A.J.; Diaz Castro, D.; Chape Puertas, A.; Santander Lopez, A.M.; Cabrera Oliva, V.

    1996-01-01

    Stability in time of three iodihistamine derivates for steroid hormone radioimmunoassays (RIAs): Testosterone-3, Carboximetilxomine-histamine- 125I , Progesterone-11 Hemisuccinate-histamine- 125I and Cortisol-21 Hemisuccinate histamine- 125I produced in the National Institute of Endocrinology, Havana, Cuba was tested. Iodinated tracers were prepared according to Nars and Hunters's method, modifying in the purifying

  17. Water cortisol and testosterone in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, Vasco C.; Martins, Catarina I.M.; Eding, Ep H.; Canário, Adelino V.M.; Verreth, Johan A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of steroids released by fish in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) may potentially influence their physiology and behavior. The present study examined the release rate of cortisol and testosterone by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, and their accumulation in six identical

  18. Anabolic Steroid Use: Federal Efforts to Prevent and Reduce Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenagers. Report to the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Accountability Office, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of anabolic steroids by teenagers--that is, their use without a prescription--is a health concern. Anabolic steroids are synthetic forms of the hormone testosterone that can be taken orally, injected, or rubbed on the skin. Although a 2006 survey funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) found that less than 3 percent of 12th…

  19. Modulation by steroid hormones of a ''sexy'' acoustic signal in an Oscine species, the Common Canary Serinus canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybak Fanny

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The respective influence of testosterone and estradiol on the structure of the Common Canary Serinus canaria song was studied by experimentally controlling blood levels of steroid hormones in males and analyzing the consequent effects on acoustic parameters. A detailed acoustic analysis of the songs produced before and after hormonal manipulation revealed that testosterone and estradiol seem to control distinct song parameters independently. The presence of receptors for testosterone and estradiol in the brain neural pathway controlling song production strongly suggests that the observed effects are mediated by a steroid action at the neuronal level.

  20. Modulation by steroid hormones of a "sexy" acoustic signal in an Oscine species, the Common Canary Serinus canaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Fanny; Gahr, Manfred

    2004-06-01

    The respective influence of testosterone and estradiol on the structure of the Common Canary Serinus canaria song was studied by experimentally controlling blood levels of steroid hormones in males and analyzing the consequent effects on acoustic parameters. A detailed acoustic analysis of the songs produced before and after hormonal manipulation revealed that testosterone and estradiol seem to control distinct song parameters independently. The presence of receptors for testosterone and estradiol in the brain neural pathway controlling song production strongly suggests that the observed effects are mediated by a steroid action at the neuronal level.

  1. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János

    2016-02-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.

  2. Steroid radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Y.; Hacker, R.R.; Ntunde, B.; Smith, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    An estrogen radioimmunoassay was used to study the problem of blanks in steroid assays. Negligible binding (1.5 percent) in the non-antibody tubes prevailed throughout the study. The assay was validated using accepted procedures. Both water and solvent blanks had estrogen concentrations of 7-9 pg/tube. However, neither water nor solvent blanks showed a dose-related response, indicating that they were 'real' blanks. Exogenous estradiol, when added to water and solvent in quantities less than the estimated blank, was not quantitatively recovered. However, exogenous estradiol added to the water solvent in quantities greater than the blank estimate was quantitatively recovered. The sensitivity of the reference standard curve was 6-10 pg/tube, approximately the same as the blank estimate. These results indicated that the estimates of water and solvent blanks were measures of the assay sensitivity. In such circumstances, it is suggested that blank estimates should not be subtracted from sample values. If the blank estimates are high, attention should be directed towards improving the sensitivity of the assay

  3. Determination of association constants between steroid compounds and albumins by partial-filling ACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Lotta K; Sirén, Heli

    2007-10-01

    ACE is a popular technique for evaluating association constants between drugs and proteins. However, ACE has not previously been applied to study the association between electrically neutral biomolecules and plasma proteins. We studied the affinity between human and bovine serum albumins (HSA and BSA, respectively) and three neutral endogenous steroid hormones (testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione) and two synthetic analogues (methyltestosterone and fluoxymesterone) by applying the partial-filling technique in ACE (PF-ACE). From the endocrinological point of view, the distribution of endogenous steroids among plasma components is of great interest. Strong interactions with albumins suppress the biological activity of steroids. Notable differences in the association constants were observed. In the case of the endogenous steroids, the interactions between testosterone and the albumins were strongest, and those between androstenedione and the albumins were substantially weaker. The association constants, K(b), for testosterone, epitestosterone and androstenedione and HSA at 37 degrees C were 32 100 +/- 3600, 21 600 +/- 1500 and 13 300 +/- 1300 M(-1), respectively, while the corresponding values for the steroids and BSA were 18 800 +/- 1500, 14 000 +/- 400 and 7800 +/- 900 M(-1). Methyltestosterone was bound even more strongly than testosterone, while fluoxymesterone was only weakly bound by the albumins. Finally, the steroids were separated by PF-ACE with HSA and BSA used as resolving components.

  4. Sexual dimorphism in esterified steroid levels in the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis: the effect of xenoandrogenic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, Gemma; Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Bachmann, Jean; Oehlmann, Jörg; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Porte, Cinta

    2006-06-01

    Molluscs can conjugate a variety of steroids to form fatty acid esters. In this work, the freshwater ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis was used to investigate sex differences in endogenous levels of esterified steroids. Testosterone and estradiol were mainly found in the esterified form in the digestive gland/gonad complex of M. cornuarietis, and males had higher levels of esterified steroids than females (4-10-fold). Additionally, the ability of several xenobiotics, namely tributyltin (TBT), methyltestosterone (MT) and fenarimol (FEN) to interfere with the esterification of testosterone and estradiol was investigated. All three compounds induced imposex - appearance of male sexual characteristics in females. Exposure to TBT led to a decrease in both esterified testosterone (60-85%) and estradiol (16-53%) in females after 100 days exposure, but had no effect on males. Exposure to FEN and MT did not alter levels of esterified steroids in males or in females, although exposed females developed imposex after 150 days exposure. The decrease in esterified steroids by TBT could not be directly linked with a decrease in microsomal acyl-CoA:testosterone acyltransferase (ATAT) activity, which catalyzes the esterification of steroids. In fact, ATAT activity was marginally induced in organisms exposed to TBT for 50 days (1.3-fold), and significantly induced in males and females exposed to MT for 50 days (1.8- and 1.5-fold, respectively), whereas no effect on ATAT activity was observed after 150 days exposure.

  5. Structural characteristics of anabolic androgenic steroids contributing to binding to the androgen receptor and to their anabolic and androgenic activities. Applied modifications in the steroidal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Kokotos, G; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone introduced for therapeutic purposes providing enhanced anabolic potency with reduced androgenic effects. Androgens mediate their action through their binding to the androgen receptor (AR) which is mainly expressed in androgen target tissues, such as the prostate, skeletal muscle, liver and central nervous system. This paper reviews some of the wide spectrum of testosterone and synthetic AAS structure modifications related to the intended enhancement in anabolic activity. The structural features of steroids necessary for effective binding to the AR and those which contribute to the stipulation of the androgenic and anabolic activities are also presented.

  6. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  7. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  8. Developmental reprogramming of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in sheep: native steroids vs. environmental steroid receptor modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Sarma, Hiren N.; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Steckler, Teresa L.; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    The inappropriate programming of developing organ systems by exposure to excess native or environmental steroids, particularly the contamination of our environment and our food sources with synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals that can interact with steroid receptors, is a major concern. Studies with native steroids have found that in utero exposure of sheep to excess testosterone, an estrogen precursor, results in low birth weight offspring and leads to an array of adult reproductive / metabolic deficits manifested as cycle defects, functional hyperandrogenism, neuroendocrine / ovarian defects, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Furthermore, the severity of reproductive dysfunction is amplified by excess postnatal weight gain. The constellation of adult reproductive and metabolic dysfunction in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep is similar to features seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to result in similar phenotype suggesting that many effects of prenatal testosterone excess are likely facilitated via aromatization to estradiol. Similarly, exposure to environmental steroid imposters such as bisphenol A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC) from days 30-90 of gestation had long-term but differential effects. Exposure of sheep to BPA, which resulted in maternal levels of 30-50 ng/ml BPA, culminated in low birth-weight offspring. These female offspring were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and characterized by severely dampened preovulatory LH surges. Prenatal MXC-treated females had normal birth weight and manifested delayed but normal amplitude LH surges. Importantly, the effects of BPA were evident at levels, which approximated twice the highest levels found in human maternal circulation of industrialized nations. These findings provide evidence in support of developmental origin of adult reproductive and metabolic diseases and highlight the risk posed by exposure to environmental endocrine

  9. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  10. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  11. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  12. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism.

  13. Developmental programming: impact of excess prenatal testosterone on intrauterine fetal endocrine milieu and growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L; Abbott, David H; Welch, Kathleen B; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Phillips, David J; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ~147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64-66, 87-90, and 139-140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep.

  14. Gender ideology, same-sex peer group affiliation and the relationship between testosterone and dominance in adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2010-07-01

    Although the role of testosterone in the aetiology of social dominance is often suggested, surprisingly few studies have addressed the relationship between sex steroid hormones and dominance as a personality trait. In this paper, the relationship between testosterone and dominance is studied in a sample of adolescent boys and girls, taking into account the moderating role of gender ideology and same-sex peer group orientation. A direct association between free testosterone (FT) and dominance was found in girls but not in boys. In boys, masculine ideology moderated the relationship between FT and dominance, while in girls the relationship between FT and dominance was moderated by same-sex peer group affiliation.

  15. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Conceição

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days. After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  16. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, C Q; Engi, S A; Cruz, F C; Planeta, C S

    2017-11-17

    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days). After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip) and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  17. Increased blood pressure and aortic stiffness among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon J; Schou, Morten; Madsen, Per L

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among recreational athletes and adverse effects on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness could be substantial. Testosterone decreases natriuretic peptides which are key components in BP-regulation and may impair BP-homeosta......BACKGROUND: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among recreational athletes and adverse effects on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness could be substantial. Testosterone decreases natriuretic peptides which are key components in BP-regulation and may impair BP...

  18. Longitudinal analyses of the steroid metabolome in obese PCOS girls with weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas; Kulle, Alexandra; Rothermel, Juliane; Knop-Schmenn, Caroline; Lass, Nina; Bosse, Christina; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2017-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are not fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to get functional insights into the regulation of steroid hormones in PCOS by steroid metabolomics. This is a longitudinal study of changes of steroid hormones in 40 obese girls aged 13-16 years (50% with PCOS) participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. Girls with and without PCOS were matched to age, BMI and change of weight status. We measured progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17-hydroxyprogenolon, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostendione-sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone and estradiol by LC-MS/MS steroid profiling at baseline and one year later. At baseline, obese PCOS girls demonstrated significantly higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations compared to obese girls without PCOS, whereas the other steroid hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ significantly. Weight loss in obese PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations. Weight loss in obese non-PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations, whereas no significant changes of testosterone and androstenedione concentrations could be observed. Without weight loss, no significant changes of steroid hormones were measured except an increase of estradiol in obese PCOS girls without weight loss. The key steroid hormones in obese adolescents with PCOS are androstenedione and testosterone, whereas glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ between obese girls with and without PCOS. © 2017 The authors.

  19. Longitudinal analyses of the steroid metabolome in obese PCOS girls with weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reinehr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The underlying mechanisms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS are not fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to get functional insights into the regulation of steroid hormones in PCOS by steroid metabolomics. Design: This is a longitudinal study of changes of steroid hormones in 40 obese girls aged 13–16 years (50% with PCOS participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. Girls with and without PCOS were matched to age, BMI and change of weight status. Methods: We measured progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17-hydroxyprogenolon, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostendione-sulfate (DHEA-S, estrone and estradiol by LC–MS/MS steroid profiling at baseline and one year later. Results: At baseline, obese PCOS girls demonstrated significantly higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations compared to obese girls without PCOS, whereas the other steroid hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ significantly. Weight loss in obese PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations. Weight loss in obese non-PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations, whereas no significant changes of testosterone and androstenedione concentrations could be observed. Without weight loss, no significant changes of steroid hormones were measured except an increase of estradiol in obese PCOS girls without weight loss. Conclusions: The key steroid hormones in obese adolescents with PCOS are androstenedione and testosterone, whereas glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ between obese girls with and without PCOS.

  20. Androgen - secreting steroid cell tumor of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Ratilal Udhreja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumors (SCTs, not otherwise specified of the ovary are rare subgroup of sex cord tumors, which account for less than 0.1% of all ovarian tumors and also that will present at any age. The majority of these tumors produce steroids with testosterone being the most common. A case of a 28-year-old woman who presented with symptoms of virilization is reported. Although SCTs are generally benign, there is a risk for malignant transformation. Surgery is the most important and hallmark treatment.

  1. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ADVERSE EVENTS OF THEIR APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds originating from testosterone. Their main effects are the control of development and expression of male secondary sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects, and encourage muscle growth or anabolic effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids are most commonly used illegal substances. Besides these physiological effects, which are achieved using therapeutic doses of these preparations, higher doses than recommended, especially over the longer term, may be associated with the emergence of numerous adverse events. Adverse events may be registered in almost all organs and organ systems, but usually include changes in the reproductive system, skin, liver and cardiovascular system.

  2. Steroids (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build muscle, steroids can have very serious side effects. Using steroids for a long time can harm the reproductive ... Teen girls and women risk these additional side effects: male-type facial and body ... risks, kids who use steroids without a prescription are breaking the law. Drug ...

  3. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  4. Hippocampal testosterone relates to reference memory performance and synaptic plasticity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eSchulz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are important neuromodulators influencing cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. While the majority of literature concerns adrenal- and gonadectomized animals, very little is known about the natural endogenous release of hormones during learning. Therefore, we measured blood and brain (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone concentrations of intact male rats undergoing a spatial learning paradigm which is known to reinforce hippocampal plasticity. We found significant modulations of all investigated hormones over the training course. Corticosterone and testosterone were correlated manifold with behaviour, while estradiol expressed fewer correlations. In the recall session, testosterone was tightly coupled to reference memory performance, which is crucial for reinforcement of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus. Intriguingly, prefrontal cortex and hippocampal levels related differentially to reference memory performance. Correlations of testosterone and corticosterone switched from unspecific activity to specific cognitive functions over training. Correspondingly, exogenous application of testosterone revealed different effects on synaptic and neuronal plasticity in trained versus untrained animals. While hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP of the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP was prolonged in untrained rats, both the fEPSP- and the population spike amplitude-LTP was impaired in trained rats. Behavioural performance was unaffected, but correlations of hippocampal field potentials with behaviour were decoupled in treated rats. The data provide important evidence that besides adrenal, also gonadal steroids play a mechanistic role in linking synaptic plasticity to cognitive performance.

  5. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism treated with human chorionic gonadotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G. V.

    1998-01-01

    A case is presented of a young competitive body-builder who abused anabolic steroid drugs and developed profound symptomatic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. With the help of prescribed testosterone (Sustanon) he stopped taking anabolic drugs, and later stopped Sustanon also. Hypogonadism returned, but was successfully treated with weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin for three months. Testicular function remained normal thereafter on no treatment. The use of human chorionic gonad...

  6. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Progesterone, Estradiole by Simultaneous Injection of Different Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Fatima ŞAHİNGÖZ

    2014-01-01

    We report here the development of hybrid cells producing monoclonal antibodies specific for two different steroid hormones with mixed immunization using hybridoma technology. BALB/c mice were immunized with a mixture of three steroid antigens: progesterone, estradiole and testosterone linked to bovine serum albumine. These mice were used for fusion. In the two fusion experiments, ELISA tests showed that among 645 wells only 2 hybrids reacted with progesterone (MAM 3C2, MAM 3E3) and one o...

  7. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  8. Changes in the concentrations of four maternal steroids during embryonic development in the threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paitz, Ryan Thomas; Mommer, Brett Christian; Suhr, Elissa; Bell, Alison Marie

    2015-08-01

    Embryonic exposure to steroids often leads to long-term phenotypic effects. It has been hypothesized that mothers may be able to create a steroid environment that adjusts the phenotypes of offspring to current environmental conditions. Complicating this hypothesis is the potential for developing embryos to modulate their early endocrine environment. This study utilized the threespined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to characterize the early endocrine environment within eggs by measuring four steroids (progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol) of maternal origin. We then examined how the concentrations of these four steroids changed over the first 12 days post fertilization (dpf). Progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol of maternal origin could be detected within unfertilized eggs and levels of all four steroids declined in the first 3 days following fertilization. While levels of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol remained low after the initial decline, levels of cortisol rose again by 8 dpf. These results demonstrate that G. aculeatus embryos begin development in the presence of a number of maternal steroids but levels begin to change quickly following fertilization. This suggests that embryonic processes change the early endocrine environment and hence influence the ability of maternal steroids to affect development. With these findings, G. aculeatus becomes an intriguing system in which to study how selection may act on both maternal and embryonic processes to shape the evolutionary consequence of steroid-mediated maternal effects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A testosterone-related structural brain phenotype predicts aggressive behavior from childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N; Hudziak, James J; Ducharme, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Structural covariance, the examination of anatomic correlations between brain regions, has emerged recently as a valid and useful measure of developmental brain changes. Yet the exact biological processes leading to changes in covariance, and the relation between such covariance and behavior, remain largely unexplored. The steroid hormone testosterone represents a compelling mechanism through which this structural covariance may be developmentally regulated in humans. Although steroid hormone receptors can be found throughout the central nervous system, the amygdala represents a key target for testosterone-specific effects, given its high density of androgen receptors. In addition, testosterone has been found to impact cortical thickness (CTh) across the whole brain, suggesting that it may also regulate the structural relationship, or covariance, between the amygdala and CTh. Here, we examined testosterone-related covariance between amygdala volumes and whole-brain CTh, as well as its relationship to aggression levels, in a longitudinal sample of children, adolescents, and young adults 6-22 years old. We found: (1) testosterone-specific modulation of the covariance between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); (2) a significant relationship between amygdala-mPFC covariance and levels of aggression; and (3) mediation effects of amygdala-mPFC covariance on the relationship between testosterone and aggression. These effects were independent of sex, age, pubertal stage, estradiol levels and anxious-depressed symptoms. These findings are consistent with prior evidence that testosterone targets the neural circuits regulating affect and impulse regulation, and show, for the first time in humans, how androgen-dependent organizational effects may regulate a very specific, aggression-related structural brain phenotype from childhood to young adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of the sperm calcium channel CatSper by endogenous steroids and plant triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannowetz, Nadja; Miller, Melissa R; Lishko, Polina V

    2017-05-30

    The calcium channel of sperm (CatSper) is essential for sperm hyperactivated motility and fertility. The steroid hormone progesterone activates CatSper of human sperm via binding to the serine hydrolase ABHD2. However, steroid specificity of ABHD2 has not been evaluated. Here, we explored whether steroid hormones to which human spermatozoa are exposed in the male and female genital tract influence CatSper activation via modulation of ABHD2. The results show that testosterone, estrogen, and hydrocortisone did not alter basal CatSper currents, whereas the neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate exerted similar effects as progesterone, likely binding to the same site. However, physiological concentrations of testosterone and hydrocortisone inhibited CatSper activation by progesterone. Additionally, testosterone antagonized the effect of pregnenolone sulfate. We have also explored whether steroid-like molecules, such as the plant triterpenoids pristimerin and lupeol, affect sperm fertility. Interestingly, both compounds competed with progesterone and pregnenolone sulfate and significantly reduced CatSper activation by either steroid. Furthermore, pristimerin and lupeol considerably diminished hyperactivation of capacitated spermatozoa. These results indicate that ( i ) pregnenolone sulfate together with progesterone are the main steroids that activate CatSper and ( ii ) pristimerin and lupeol can act as contraceptive compounds by averting sperm hyperactivation, thus preventing fertilization.

  11. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  12. Multi residue screening of intact testosterone esters and boldenone undecylenate in bovine hair using liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Hende, van J.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Groot, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The abuse of esters of natural androgenic steroids in cattle fattening and sports is hard to control via routine urine testing. The esters are rapidly hydrolysed in vivo into substances which are also endogenously present in urine. In veterinary control strange findings of 17ß-testosterone and

  13. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verslycke, Tim; Poelmans, Sofie; De Wasch, Katia; Vercauteren, Jordy; Devos, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Patrick; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2003-09-01

    Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.

  14. An interlaboratory study of the pharmacokinetics of testosterone following intramuscular administration to Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, B C; Sams, R A; Guinjab-Cagmat, J; Szabo, N J; Colahan, P; Stanley, S D

    2011-12-01

    Testosterone is an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) that is endogenously produced by both male and female horses that also has the potential for abuse when administered exogenously to race horses. To recommend appropriate withdrawal guidelines so that veterinarians can discontinue therapeutic use prior to competition, the pharmacokinetics and elimination of testosterone were investigated. An aqueous testosterone suspension was administered intramuscularly in the neck of Thoroughbred horses (n = 20). The disposition of testosterone from this formulation was characterized by an initial, rapid absorption phase followed by a much more variable secondary absorption phase. The median terminal half-life was 39 h. A second focus of this study was to compare the testosterone concentrations determined by two different laboratories using a percentage similarity model with a coefficient of variation of 16.5% showing good agreement between the two laboratories results. Based on the results of this study, a withdrawal period of 30 days for aqueous testosterone administered IM is recommended. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Jarvis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone to treat the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadal men has increased recently due to patient and physician awareness. However, concerns regarding the effect of testosterone on the prostate, in particular any possible effect on the risk of prostate cancer have prompted further research in this regard. Surprisingly, numerous retrospective or small, randomized trials have pointed to a possible improvement in male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in patients treated with testosterone. The exact mechanism of this improvement is still debated but may have a close relationship to metabolic syndrome. For the clinician, the results of these studies are promising but do not constitute high levels of evidence. A thorough clinical examination (including history, examination and laboratory testing of testosterone should be undertaken before considering the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism or instigating treatment for it. Warnings still remain on the testosterone supplement product labels regarding the risk of urinary retention and worsening LUTS, and these should be explained to patients.

  16. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Knowledge about, Attitude toward, and Extent of Use by High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, R. J.; And Others

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) are pharmacologic derivatives of the hormone testosterone. They have therapeutic merit when used under a physician's prescription to treat certain hormonal imbalances and some forms of anemia; however, when taken in high doses they have a number of virilizing, feminizing, toxic, and psychological effects. This…

  17. Testosterone levels in healthy men correlate negatively with serotonin 4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfalk, Erik; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Holst, Klaus K.

    2017-01-01

    The serotonergic system integrates sex steroid information and plays a central role in mood and stress regulation, cognition, appetite and sleep. This interplay may be critical for likelihood of developing depressive episodes, at least in a subgroup of sensitive individuals. The serotonin 4...... receptor (5-HT4R) indexes central serotonergic tonus, which may be related to endogenous sex-steroid levels in the mentally healthy state even though this remains elusive. Here we evaluate if peripheral levels of estradiol and testosterone are associated with 5-HT4R binding as imaged by [11C]SB207145...... findings corroborate the link between sex hormone levels and serotonin signalling. Future longitudinal studies in clinical relevant populations are needed to elucidate the potential importance of testosterone in the pathophysiology of e.g. major depression and its treatment....

  18. Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940

  19. Steroid hormone profile in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The polar bear is an iconic Arctic species, threatened by anthropogenic impacts such as pollution and climate change. Successful reproduction of polar bears depends on a functioning steroid hormone system, which is susceptible to effects of persistent organic pollutants. The present study...... is the first study to report circulating concentrations of nine steroid hormones (i.e., estrogens, androgens and progestagens) in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age, condition, location and reproductive status on steroid profile in female polar...... bears. Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone, androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in blood (serum) of free-living female polar bears (n = 15) from Svalbard, Norway, by gas...

  20. Gender differences in serum testosterone and cortisol in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Hisashi; Maeshima, Hitoshi; Kida, Sayaka; Kurita, Hirofumi; Shimano, Takahisa; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Baba, Hajime; Suzuki, Toshihito; Arai, Heii

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone may have a role distinct from cortisol in the pathophysiology of depression. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis affects the functions of sex steroid hormones through interaction with corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The objective of this study was to investigate differences in serum levels of testosterone and cortisol in male and female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants included 87 inpatients with MDD at Juntendo University Koshigaya Hospital. Serum levels of testosterone and cortisol were assessed at admission. Matched controls included 128 healthy individuals. Data from MDD patients and controls were compared separately for men and women. Correlations between serum hormone levels and scores on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) of patients were assessed by sex. Effects of various factors on testosterone and cortisol were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In male patients with MDD, a significant negative correlation was seen between testosterone levels and the "retardation" score of HAM-D. However, serum testosterone levels were not significantly different in either male or female MDD patients compared with controls. Serum testosterone was negatively associated with the number of depressive episodes in male patients with MDD. Serum cortisol levels in female patients were significantly increased compared with female controls with no significant correlations between cortisol levels and HAM-D scores. The negative correlation between the sub-score of the HAM-D and testosterone may be associated with the biological pathophysiology of male depression. Findings of serum cortisol levels in women may suggest distinct characteristics of these hormones in men and women with MDD.

  1. Testosterone conjugating activities in invertebrates: are they targets for endocrine disruptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; Sternberg, R M; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-02-10

    Testosterone conjugation activities, microsomal acyltransferases and cytosolic sulfotransferases, were investigated in three invertebrate species, the gastropod Marisa cornuarietis, the amphipod Hyalella azteca, and the echinoderm Paracentrotus lividus. The goals of the study were to characterize steroid conjugation pathways in different invertebrate phyla and to assess the susceptibility of those processes to disruption by environmental chemicals. All three species exhibited palmitoyl-CoA: testosterone acyltransferase activity (ATAT) in the range of 100-510 pmol/min/mg protein. Despite similarities in specific activities, kinetic studies indicated that ATAT had a higher affinity for testosterone but a lower V(max) in M. cornuarietis than in P. lividus, and intermediate values were found for H. azteca. In contrast, the activity of testosterone sulfotransferase (SULT) was rather low (0.05-0.18 pmol/min/mg protein) in M. cornuarietis and H. azteca. The low activity precluded kinetic analyses and inhibition studies with these species. P. lividus digestive tube displayed high SULT activity (50-170 pmol/min/mg protein) at moderate testosterone concentrations, but was inhibited at high testosterone concentrations. The interference of model pollutants (triphenyltin (TPT), tributyltin (TBT), and fenarimol) with these conjugation pathways was investigated in vitro. Both TPT and TBT (100 microM) inhibited ATAT in P. lividus (68 and 42% inhibition, respectively), and appeared to act as non-competitive inhibitors. ATAT activity in M. cornuarietis was less affected by organotins, and a significant inhibition (20% inhibition) was detected only with TBT. Fenarimol (100 microM) did not affect ATAT in any of the species tested. Sulfation of testosterone was suppressed by the organotins as well as fenarimol when using cytosolic preparations from P. lividus. These results demonstrated the existence of interphyla differences in testosterone conjugation, and revealed that these

  2. Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J; Bos, Peter A; Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Ramsey, Nick F; Fernández, Guillén; van Honk, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Correlational evidence in humans shows that levels of the androgen hormone testosterone are positively related to reinforcement sensitivity and competitive drive. Structurally similar anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are moreover widely abused, and animal studies show that rodents self-administer testosterone. These observations suggest that testosterone exerts activational effects on mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways involved in incentive processing and reinforcement regulation. However, there are no data on humans supporting this hypothesis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of testosterone administration on neural activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic pathway. In a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design, 12 healthy women received a single sublingual administration of .5 mg of testosterone. During MRI scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive delay task, which is known to elicit robust activation of the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Results show a positive main effect of testosterone on the differential response in the ventral striatum to cues signaling potential reward versus nonreward. Notably, this effect interacted with levels self-reported intrinsic appetitive motivation: individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation exhibited larger testosterone-induced increases but had smaller differential responses after placebo. Thus, the present study lends support to the hypothesis that testosterone affects activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system but suggests that such effects may be specific to individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation. By showing a potential mechanism underlying central reinforcement of androgen use, the present findings may moreover have implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of AAS dependency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Testosterone levels in healthy men correlate negatively with serotonin 4 receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfalk, Erik; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Holst, Klaus K

    2017-01-01

    The serotonergic system integrates sex steroid information and plays a central role in mood and stress regulation, cognition, appetite and sleep. This interplay may be critical for likelihood of developing depressive episodes, at least in a subgroup of sensitive individuals. The serotonin 4...... positron emission tomography in a group of 41 healthy men. We estimated global 5-HT4R binding using a latent variable model framework, which models shared correlation between 5-HT4R across multiple brain regions (hippocampus, amygdala, posterior and anterior cingulate, thalamus, pallidostriatum...... and neocortex). We tested whether testosterone and estradiol predict global 5-HT4R, adjusting for age. We found that testosterone, but not estradiol, correlated negatively with global 5-HT4R levels (p=0.02) suggesting that men with high levels of testosterone have higher cerebral serotonergic tonus. Our...

  5. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  7. Pengaruh Tepung Teripang Pasir (Holothuria Scabra Terhadap Perilaku Seksual dan Kadar Testosteron Darah Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarifah Nurjanah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is generally believed as a natural material that can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sandfish powder on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Method applied in the study was laboratory experimental method. Mature male mice were treated with administration of sandfish powder with three dosage rate of steroid content (10, 30 and 50 ìg/100 g body weight during 12 days, whereas for control treatment were without hormone administration and with the metil testosterone administration. Parameters that were investigated were kissing vagina and mounting for sexual behavior and the blood testosterone level of male mice. It was found that administration of sandfish powder significantly give effect on the number of kissing vagina and mounting compared to control. Administration of 10 ìg/100 g body weight on male mice showed the highest sexual behavior with 25 kissing vagina for and 6 mounting for 30 minutes. Moreover, administration of sandfish powder increased the testosterone level in the male mice blood. This may due to the steroid contained in sandfish powder and nutrition value that increase mice libido. The study proved that the sandfish powder has a potential as a nature aphrodisiac.

  8. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Testosterone is inversely related to brain activity during emotional inhibition in schizophrenia.

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    Ans Vercammen

    Full Text Available Sex steroids affect cognitive function as well as emotion processing and regulation. They may also play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the effects of sex steroids on cognition and emotion-related brain activation in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone relates to brain activation in men with schizophrenia compared to healthy men during cognitive-emotional processing. We assessed brain activation in 18 men with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy men during an emotional go/no-go task using fMRI and measured total serum testosterone levels on the same morning. We performed an ROI analysis to assess the relationship between serum testosterone and brain activation, focusing on cortical regions involved the emotional go/no-go task. Slower RT and reduced accuracy was observed when participants responded to neutral stimuli, while inhibiting responses to negative stimuli. Healthy men showed a robust increase in activation of the middle frontal gyrus when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli, but there was no significant association between activation and serum testosterone level in healthy men. Men with schizophrenia showed a less pronounced increase in activation when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli; however, they did show a strong inverse association between serum testosterone level and activation of the bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left insula. Additionally, increased accuracy during inhibition of response to negative words was associated with both higher serum testosterone levels and decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus in men with schizophrenia only. We conclude that endogenous hormone levels, even within the normal range, may play an enhanced modulatory role in determining the neural and behavioural response during cognitive-emotional processing in schizophrenia.

  10. Divergence in sex steroid hormone signaling between sympatric species of Japanese threespine stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kitano

    Full Text Available Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexually dimorphic or sex-specific traits that are important both for mate choice within species and for behavioral isolation between species. We investigated divergence in sex steroid signaling between two sympatric species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus: the Japan Sea form and the Pacific Ocean form. These sympatric forms diverge in both male display traits and female mate choice behaviors, which together contribute to asymmetric behavioral isolation in sympatry. Here, we found that plasma levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol differed between spawning females of the two sympatric forms. Transcript levels of follicle-stimulating hormone-β (FSHβ gene were also higher in the pituitary gland of spawning Japan Sea females than in the pituitary gland of spawning Pacific Ocean females. By contrast, none of the sex steroids examined were significantly different between nesting males of the two forms. However, combining the plasma sex steroid data with testis transcriptome data suggested that the efficiency of the conversion of testosterone into 11-ketotestosterone has likely diverged between forms. Within forms, plasma testosterone levels in males were significantly correlated with male body size, a trait important for female mate choice in the two sympatric species. These results demonstrate that substantial divergence in sex steroid signaling can occur between incipient sympatric species. We suggest that investigation of the genetic and ecological mechanisms underlying divergence in hormonal signaling between incipient sympatric species will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of speciation in animals.

  11. Sex steroid levels in urine of cattle of different ages: evaluation of abuse control procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Tomaz; Dolenc, Jozica; Kobal, Silvestra

    2014-04-01

    Levels of several natural urinary steroids have been determined in the urine of a large number of animals of different cattle categories in the context of steroid abuse in beef production. Bovine animals of different breeds, sex and age included in the Slovene national residue detection plan for steroid abuse were studied. Urine from 120 males and 174 females was analysed. Urinary boldenone, boldione, androstenedione, equiline, medroxyprogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, melengestrol acetate, progesterone, stanozolol, trenbolone, trenbolone acetate, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, epitestosterone, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, and nandrolone were determined by LC-MS/MS. Epitestosterone was found in all bulls; while the proportion of animals containing testosterone and androstenedione increased with age. Testosterone was not detected in bulls less than 5 months of age. Epitestosterone levels, however, were not age dependent. The ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone thus increased with age, from 0.13 ± 0.09 at 1-7 months to 0.42 ± 0.10 at 25-38 months. It was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in bulls above 13 months than in younger animals. In contrast to males, no urinary testosterone was found in females, whereas epitestosterone, androstenedione, progesterone and estradiol were present. The proportion of animals of various age groups in which epitestosterone was detected ranged from 68% to 100%, but the differences were not significant. The presence of both estradiol and progesterone in the same sample was not observed in any animal. The results of this study could be helpful in determining physiological urinary steroid levels in order to provide a baseline for the control of steroid abuse in beef production.

  12. Testosterone level and risk of type 2 diabetes in men: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Qiu-ming Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for testosterone deficiency and impaired sex steroid status. Some studies also investigated the association of testosterone level with diabetes risk in men, but reported controversial findings. To clarify this issue, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for eligible cohort or nested case–control studies published up to August 15, 2017. Meta-analysis was used to calculate the pooled relative risk (RR of type 2 diabetes associated with higher testosterone level. Results: Thirteen cohort or nested case–control studies with 16,709 participants were included. Meta-analysis showed that higher total testosterone level could significantly decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes in men (RR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.50–0.84; P = 0.001, and higher free testosterone level could also decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes in men (RR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.90–0.99; P = 0.014. After excluding two studies that did not calculate RRs by quartiles of testosterone levels, both higher total testosterone and free testosterone levels could decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes in men, and the pooled RRs were 0.62 (95% CI 0.51–0.76; P < 0.001 and 0.77 (95% CI 0.61–0.98; P = 0.03, respectively. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that higher testosterone level can significantly decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Therefore, combined with previous researches, the findings above suggest a reverse-causality scenario in the relation between testosterone deficiency and risk of type 2 diabetes in men.

  13. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ∼147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64–66, 87–90, and 139–140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep. PMID:20739662

  14. Consequences of elevating plasma testosterone in females of a socially monogamous songbird: evidence of constraints on male evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Neal, Dawn M; Gaudioso, Jacqueline M; Casto, Joseph M; Parker-Renga, Ian M; Snajdr, Eric A; Duffy, Deborah L; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2004-08-01

    To explore whether selection for testosterone-mediated traits in males might be constrained by costs of higher testosterone to females, we examined the effects of experimental elevation of plasma testosterone on physiological, reproductive, and behavioral parameters in a female songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis). We used subcutaneous implants to elevate testosterone (T) in captive and free-living female juncos. In captive birds, we measured the effects of high T on body mass, feather molt, and brood patch formation. In the field, we monitored its effects on the timing of egg laying, clutch size, egg size, egg steroid levels, incubation, and nest-defense behavior. Females implanted with testosterone (T-females) had significantly higher circulating levels of testosterone than did control females (C-females). Captive T-females had lower body mass, were less likely to develop brood patches, and delayed feather molt relative to C-females. Among free-living females, the interval between nest completion and appearance of the first egg was longer for T-females than for C-females and egg yolk concentrations of testosterone were higher, but there were no significant differences in estradiol levels, clutch size, or egg size. Incubation and nest defense behavior were also similar between T- and C-females. Our results suggest that selection on males for higher testosterone might initially lead to a correlated response in females producing changes in body mass and feather molt, both of which could be detrimental. Other possible female responses would be delayed onset of reproduction, which might reduce reproductive success, and higher yolk testosterone, which might have either positive or negative effects on offspring development. We found no reason to expect reduced parental behavior by females as a negative fitness consequence of selection for higher testosterone in males.

  15. Steroids in neuroinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of inflammatory response are primarily responsible for morbimortality in bacterial meningitis. Early use of steroids in these cases can reduce mortality and hearing loss and improve functional outcome without causing significant side effects. The formal recommendation towards pneumoccocal meningitis is being extended to other forms of Bacterial Meningitis. The same thought can be applied to tuberculous meningitis. In neurocysticercosis and neuroschistosomiasis steroids are more useful than parasiticides in most cases. Despite the evidence favoring the use of steroids in herpes simplex encephalitis, it is not sufficient to definitely support such indication. Among the opportunistic infections that affect AIDS patients, neurotoxoplasmosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopaty are those most often considered for the use of steroids; steroids are safe to use, but no definite benefit could be demonstrated in both conditions.

  16. Adjunctive steroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshin, André; Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Meyer, Christian N

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate local guidelines regarding early steroid treatment in adult community acquired bacterial meningitis, and assess the actual treatment given and its correlation to clinical outcome. Patient outcome was obtained retrospectively from the medical records of 210 adults...... admitted to 47 hospitals in Denmark during 2002-2004 (population 5.4 million) and was combined with results from a questionnaire regarding treatment guidelines in these hospitals. In 36 of 47 departments responding to the questionnaire, 21 recommended early steroid treatment, but none did so initially...... during 2002. Early steroid treatment was given to 15% of patients and was given more often when recommended locally (41% vs 11%, OR=5.7 (2.4-13.5)). Unfavourable outcome was demonstrated rarely in patients treated with early steroids compared to the non-steroid group (17% vs 42%, p

  17. Sex steroid imbalances in the muricid Stramonita haemastoma from TBT contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, M; Castro, I B; Paganini, C L; Colares, E P; Fillmann, G; Pinho, G L L

    2016-04-01

    Imposex incidence, organotin tissue levels, and sex steroid (free and esterified testosterone and estradiol) levels were assessed in Stramonita haemastoma from Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil). The imposex levels showed a reduction when compared to a previous evaluation performed in the same area. In spite of that, the detected imposex incidence indicated the occurrence of tributyltin (TBT) inputs that were still able to produce endocrine disruption in local gastropods. In addition, a high level of organotins was observed in tissues of imposexed females. These females also showed a hormonal imbalance, especially in the total testosterone/total estradiol ratio. These findings obtained under realistic field conditions suggest that the steroid pathway could be responsible by the imposex induction after exposure to TBT. In this case, measurements of sex steroid levels can be an additional evidence for monitoring sites and impose affected gastropod populations.

  18. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs do not influence the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone glucuronide ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eLundmark

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The UDP Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT enzymes are important in the pharmacokinetics, and conjugation, of a variety of drugs including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as well as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS. Testosterone glucuronidation capacity is strongly associated with a deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene. As the use of high doses of NSAIDs has been observed in athletes there is a risk for a drug-drug interaction that may influence the doping tests for AAS. In-vitro studies show inhibitory potential on UGT2B7, 2B15 and 2B17 enzymes by NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate if concomitant use of NSAIDs and a single dose of testosterone enanthate would affect the excretion rate of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronide (TG and EG as well as the T/E ratio, thereby affecting the outcome of the testosterone doping test.The study was designed as an open, randomized, cross-over study with subjects being their own control. The 23 healthy male volunteers, with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del or del/del of the UGT2B17 gene, received the maximum recommended dose of NSAID (Ibuprofen or Diclofenac for six days. On day three, 500 mg of testosterone enanthate was administered. Spot urine samples were collected for 17 days. After a wash out period of four months the volunteers received 500 mg testosterone enanthate only, with subsequent spot urine collection for 14 days. The glucuronides of testosterone and epitestosterone were quantified. NSAIDs did not affect the excretion of TG or EG before the administration of testosterone. The concomitant use of NSAIDs and testosterone slightly increased the TG excretion while the EG excretion was less suppressed compared to testosterone use only. The effects of the NSAIDs on the TG and EG excretion did not differ between the UGT2B17 genotype groups. In conclusion, the outcome of testosterone doping tests does not seem to be affected by the use of NSAIDs.

  19. Embryonic treatment with xenobiotics disrupts steroid hormone profiles in hatchling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, E; Rhen, T; Sakata, J T; Crews, D

    2000-01-01

    Many compounds in the environment capable of acting as endocrine disruptors have been assayed for their developmental effects on morphogenesis; however, few studies have addressed how such xenobiotics affect physiology. In the current study we examine the effects of three endocrine-disrupting compounds, chlordane, trans-nonachlor, and the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1242, on the steroid hormone concentrations of red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) hatchlings treated in ovo. Basal steroid concentrations and steroid concentrations in response to follicle-stimulating hormone were examined in both male and female turtles treated with each of the three compounds. Treated male turtles exposed to Aroclor 1242 or chlordane exhibited significantly lower testosterone concentrations than controls, whereas chlordane-treated females had significantly lower progesterone, testosterone, and 5[alpha]-dihydrotestosterone concentrations relative to controls. The effects of these endocrine disruptors extend beyond embryonic development, altering sex-steroid physiology in exposed animals. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753091

  20. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  1. Steroid receptors and their ligands: Effects on male gamete functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquila, Saveria; De Amicis, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.deamicis@unical.it

    2014-11-01

    In recent years a new picture of human sperm biology is emerging. It is now widely recognized that sperm contain nuclear encoded mRNA, mitochondrial encoded RNA and different transcription factors including steroid receptors, while in the past sperm were considered incapable of transcription and translation. One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. Expression studies on Progesterone Receptor, estrogen receptor, androgen receptor and their specific ligands, demonstrate the presence of these systems in mature spermatozoa as surface but also as nuclear conventional receptors, suggesting that both systemic and local steroid hormones, through sperm receptors, may influence male reproduction. However, the relationship between the signaling events modulated by steroid hormones and sperm fertilization potential as well as the possible involvement of the specific receptors are still controversial issues. The main line of this review highlights the current research in human sperm biology examining new molecular systems of response to the hormones as well as specific regulatory pathways controlling sperm cell fate and biological functions. Most significant studies regarding the identification of steroid receptors are reported and the mechanistic insights relative to signaling pathways, together with the change in sperm metabolism energy influenced by steroid hormones are discussed.The reviewed evidences suggest important effects of Progesterone, Estrogen and Testosterone and their receptors on spermatozoa and implicate the involvement of both systemic and local steroid action in the regulation of male fertility potential. - Highlights: • One of the main targets of steroid hormones and their receptors is reproductive function. • Pg/PR co-work to stimulate enzymatic activities to sustain a capacitation process. • E2/ERs regulate sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction and act as survival factors. • Androgens

  2. Hormonal regulation of steroid receptor coactivator-1 mRNA in the male and female green anole brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerver, H N; Wade, J

    2015-03-01

    Green anole lizards are seasonal breeders, with male sexual behaviour primarily regulated by an annual increase in testosterone. Morphological, biochemical and behavioural changes associated with reproduction are activated by testosterone, generally with a greater effect in the breeding season (BS) than in the nonbreeding season (NBS). The present study investigates the possibility that differences in a steroid receptor coactivator may regulate this seasonal difference in responsiveness to testosterone. In situ hybridisation was used to examine the expression of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) in the brains of gonadally intact male and female green anoles across breeding states. A second experiment examined gonadectomised animals with and without testosterone treatment. Gonadally intact males had more SRC-1 expressing cells in the preoptic area and larger volumes of this region as defined by these cells than females. Main effects of both sex and season (males > females and BS > NBS) were present in cell number and volume of the ventromedial hypothalamus. An interaction between sex and season suggested that high expression in BS males was driving these effects. In hormone-manipulated animals, testosterone treatment increased both the number of SRC-1 expressing cells in and volumes of the preoptic area and amygdala. These results suggest that testosterone selectively regulates SRC-1, and that this coactivator may play a role in facilitating reproductive behaviours across both sexes. However, changes in SRC-1 expression are not likely responsible for the seasonal change in responsiveness to testosterone. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  3. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  4. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  5. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an essential hormone for women, with physiological actions mediated directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol throughout the body. Despite the crucial role of testosterone and the high circulating concentrations of this hormone relative to oestradiol in women, studies of its...... action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...

  6. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? II. Critical review of the evidence that steroids have biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2013-02-01

    In assessing the evidence as to whether vertebrate sex steroids (e.g. testosterone, estradiol, progesterone) have hormonal actions in mollusks, ca. 85% of research papers report at least one biological effect; and 18 out of 21 review papers (published between 1970 and 2012) express a positive view. However, just under half of the research studies can be rejected on the grounds that they did not actually test steroids, but compounds or mixtures that were only presumed to behave as steroids (or modulators of steroids) on the basis of their effects in vertebrates (e.g. Bisphenol-A, nonylphenol and sewage treatment effluents). Of the remaining 55 papers, some can be criticized for having no statistical analysis; some for using only a single dose of steroid; others for having irregular dose-response curves; 40 out of the 55 for not replicating the treatments; and 50 out of 55 for having no within-study repetition. Furthermore, most studies had very low effect sizes in comparison to fish-based bioassays for steroids (i.e. they had a very weak 'signal-to-noise' ratio). When these facts are combined with the fact that none of the studies were conducted with rigorous randomization or 'blinding' procedures (implying the possibility of 'operator bias') one must conclude that there is no indisputable bioassay evidence that vertebrate sex steroids have endocrinological or reproductive roles in mollusks. The only observation that has been independently validated is the ability of estradiol to trigger rapid (1-5 min) lysosomal membrane breakdown in hemocytes of Mytilus spp. This is a typical 'inflammatory' response, however, and is not proof that estradiol is a hormone - especially when taken in conjunction with the evidence (discussed in a previous review) that mollusks have neither the enzymes necessary to synthesize vertebrate steroids nor nuclear receptors with which to respond to them. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in testicular interstitial fluid under thyroxine influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Isvania Maria S. da; Pereira, Simey de L.S.; Souza, Grace Mary L.; Carvalho, Elaine F.M.B.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de A.; Silveira, Maria de Fatima G. da; Lima Filho, Guilherme L.

    2000-01-01

    The thyroid hormones possibly exert a reciprocal action between testicular steroids and Sertoli's cells during the premature period. This work aims to evaluate thyroxine effect on testosterone serum levels and in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) in rats. Wistar males rats, 22 days old, 80g of body weight, were induced to hyperthyroidism with thyroxine (20μg/kg) in periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 consecutive days. After the treatment the animals were weighed and sacrificed for blood and testis collection. From the blood serum and from the TIF drained from the testis were performed testes in order to obtain testosterone attached to 125 I with a specific activity of 36,86 MBq/ig. The results have shown a testosterone significant lineal increase in both - serum and TIF - in the group treated with thyroxine as a time function. In the control group, testosterone levels remained low in both serum and TIF dosages. As a result, we were able to verify that the testosterone levels could be modified by thyroxine in serum and TIF. And so, it could affect luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in hypophysis. (author)

  8. The impact of exogenic testosterone and nortestosterone-decanoate toxicological evaluation using a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Teodor Cristina

    Full Text Available The impact of exogenic testosterone (T: 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg.bw and 19-nortestosterone 17-decanoate (ND: 1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg.bw in castrated male rats was evaluated based on: (a weight increase of the androgen target tissues, respecting the Hershberger methodology; (b the 17α and β-testosterone, 17 α and β-estradiol and 17 α and β-nortestosterone levels using the GC-MS/MS technique; and (c observation of the serum free thyroxine levels (T4. Results revealed that T and ND significantly increased the weight of androgen target tissues as follows: ND was more influential on seminal vesicles, levator ani-bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC and Cowper's glands and T (at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg.bw influenced the weight of the ventral prostate and glans penis. Serum samples analyzed for steroid hormone levels showed the presence of 17β-testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17β-nor-testosterone, in castrated male rats injected with testosterone and nortestosterone, but no significant differences were found between thyroid responses and thyroid hormone levels. The results of this research proved the disrupting activity of T and ND when administered in high doses and the useful application of the Hershberger bioassay in the case of ND.

  9. Effects of dietary components on testosterone metabolism via UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase (UGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl eJenkinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential interference in testosterone metabolism through ingested substances has ramifications for: i a range of pathologies such as prostate cancer, ii medication contra-indications, iii disruption to the endocrine system, and iv potential confounding effects on doping tests. Conjugation of anabolic steroids during phase II metabolism, mainly driven by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT 2B7, 2B15 and 2B17, has been shown to be impaired in vitro by a range of compounds including xenobiotics and pharmaceuticals. Following early reports on the effects of a range of xenobiotics on UGT activity in vitro, the work was extended to reveal similar effects with common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Notably, recent studies have evidenced inhibitory effects of the common foodstuffs green tea and red wine, along with their constituent flavonoids and catechins. This review amalgamates the existing evidence for the inhibitory effects of various pharmaceutical and dietary substances on the rate of UGT glucuronidation of testosterone; and evaluates the potential consequences for health linked to steroid levels, interaction with treatment drugs metabolised by the UGT enzyme and steroid abuse in sport.

  10. Confounding factors and genetic polymorphism in the evaluation of individual steroid profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuranne, Tiia; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the fight against doping, steroid profiling is a powerful tool to detect drug misuse with endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids. To establish sensitive and reliable models, the factors influencing profiling should be recognised. We performed an extensive literature review of the multiple factors that could influence the quantitative levels and ratios of endogenous steroids in urine matrix. For a comprehensive and scientific evaluation of the urinary steroid profile, it is necessary to define the target analytes as well as testosterone metabolism. The two main confounding factors, that is, endogenous and exogenous factors, are detailed to show the complex process of quantifying the steroid profile within WADA-accredited laboratories. Technical aspects are also discussed as they could have a significant impact on the steroid profile, and thus the steroid module of the athlete biological passport (ABP). The different factors impacting the major components of the steroid profile must be understood to ensure scientifically sound interpretation through the Bayesian model of the ABP. Not only should the statistical data be considered but also the experts in the field must be consulted for successful implementation of the steroidal module. PMID:24764553

  11. A Low-Testosterone State Associated with Endometrioma Leads to the Apoptosis of Granulosa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshihiro J.; Tanabe, Akiko; Nakamura, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Hayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Tomohito; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), the mechanism(s) underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis. PMID:25536335

  12. A low-testosterone state associated with endometrioma leads to the apoptosis of granulosa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro J Ono

    Full Text Available Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI, the mechanism(s underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis.

  13. The role of testosterone and estrogen in consumer behavior and social & economic decision making: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition.This manuscript reviews the current literature on the actions of the steroid hormones testosterone and estradiol in shaping humans' behavior within two applied contexts, specifically consumer behavior and decision making (both social and economic). The theoretical argument put forth is that steroids shape these everyday behaviors and choices in service to being more competitive in achieving long-term goals related to resource acquisition, mating success, and social dominance. In addition, a discussion of the increased research focus on the role of steroids in other applied business domains will highlight the relevant applications of basic science discoveries in behavioral endocrinology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Interlaboratory study of lipid effects on steroid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolelli, G.F.; Franceschetti, F.; Mimmi, P.; Malvano, R.; Pilo, A.; Zucchelli; Rota, G.

    1986-01-01

    The lipid effects on the performances of routine steroid radioimmunoassay (RIA) have been assessed using the scheme of the CNR interlaboratory quality control program. Cortisol, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assays have been considered. In the study, ca 80 laboratories were supplied with two sets of control plasma samples with different triglyceride contents (pool N, ca 120 mg/dl; pool L, ca 310 mg/dl), each corresponding to three steroid levels (level 0: charcoaldeprived samples; levels 1 and 2: the same added with increasing steroid amounts). A comparison of the neat results obtained by partecipants for both levels 1 and 2 of N and P panels - after subtraction of the concentrations estimated for level 0 - gave a direct information on lipid effects (triglycerides being assumed as an index of lipemia). In no case the abnormality high triglyceride content proved effective in practical terms, though significant differences were observed for testosterone and progesterone (ca 10% underestimation in pool L) and for estradiol (ca 10% overestimation in pool L)

  15. In vivo detection of fluctuating brain steroid levels SHORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Maaya; Rensel, Michelle A.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for in vivo measurement of steroid hormones in brain circuits of the zebra finch. In vivo microdialysis has been used successfully to detect fluctuating neurosteroids in the auditory forebrain (Remage-Healey et al., 2008; 2012; Ikeda et al., 2012) and in the hippocampus (Rensel et al., 2012; 2013) of behaving adult zebra finches. In some cases, the steroids measured are derived locally (e.g., ‘neurosteroids’ like estrogens in males) whereas in other cases the steroids measured reflect systemic circulating levels and/or central conversion (e.g., the primary androgen testosterone and the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone). We also describe the method of reverse-microdialysis (‘retrodialysis’) of compounds that can influence local steroid neurochemistry as well as behavior. In vivo microdialysis can now be used to study steroid signaling in the brain for a variety of experimental purposes. Furthermore, similar methods have been developed to examine changing levels of catecholamines in behaving zebra finches (e.g., Sasaki et al., 2006). Thus, the combined study of neurochemistry and behavior in a vocal learning species now has a new set of powerful tools. PMID:25342066

  16. Screening for anabolic steroids in urine of forensic cases using fully automated solid phase extraction and LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, David W; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A screening method for 18 frequently measured exogenous anabolic steroids and the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in forensic cases has been developed and validated. The method involves a fully automated sample preparation including enzyme treatment, addition of internal standards and solid phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) using electrospray ionization with adduct formation for two compounds. Urine samples from 580 forensic cases were analyzed to determine the T/E ratio and occurrence of exogenous anabolic steroids. Extraction recoveries ranged from 77 to 95%, matrix effects from 48 to 78%, overall process efficiencies from 40 to 54% and the lower limit of identification ranged from 2 to 40 ng/mL. In the 580 urine samples analyzed from routine forensic cases, 17 (2.9%) were found positive for one or more anabolic steroids. Only seven different steroids including testosterone were found in the material, suggesting that only a small number of common steroids are likely to occur in a forensic context. The steroids were often in high concentrations (>100 ng/mL), and a combination of steroids and/or other drugs of abuse were seen in the majority of cases. The method presented serves as a fast and automated screening procedure, proving the suitability of LC-MS-MS for analyzing anabolic steroids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  18. Anabolic Steroids (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the percentage of teens who misuse steroids. Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ... Drugs of Abuse Discover what happens to the brain on drugs. ... vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments Dopers Downfall ...

  19. Accumulation of steroid hormones in soil and its adjacent aquatic environment from a typical intensive vegetable cultivation of North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Song; Xie, Yun-Feng; Li, Xue-Wen; Wang, Dai-Yi; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Nie, Zhi-Qiang

    2015-12-15

    Steroid hormones released from manure agricultural application are a matter of global concern. The residual levels of steroid hormones were studied in a typical intensive vegetable cultivation area in northeast China, with a long history of heavy manure application. Seven steroids (estrone, 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol, estriol, testosterone, androstendione and progesterone) were analyzed from soil sampled from vegetable greenhouses, from sediments and water from the adjacent drainage ditch and from the groundwater. The results showed that target steroids were detected in the soil samples, with detection frequencies varying from 3.13 to 100%. The steroid concentrations varied substantially in soils, ranging from below the detection limit to 109.7μg·kg(-1). Three steroids-progesterone, androstendione and estrone-were found to have relatively high residue concentrations in soil, with maximum concentrations of 109.7, 9.83 and 13.30μg·kg(-1), respectively. In adjacent groundwater, all the steroids, with the exception of estrone, were detected in one or more of the 13 groundwater samples. The concentrations of steroids in groundwater ranged from below the method detection limit to 2.38ng·L(-1). Six of the seven (excluding androstendione) were detected in drainage ditch water samples, with concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 14ng·L(-1). Progesterone, androstendione and estrone accumulated relatively easily in soils; their concentrations in groundwater were lower than those of other steroids. The concentrations of testosterone and estriol were relatively low in soil, while in groundwater were higher than those of other steroids. The residual levels of steroids in soil and groundwater showed a clear spatial variation in the study area. The residual levels of steroid hormones in soil varied substantially between differently planted greenhouses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, T.D.; Howie, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro binding of estrone, estradiol-17β, estriol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrone-3-glucuronide by wheat, oat and corn brans, oat hulls, cellulose, lignin, and cholestyramine resin was measured. Steroid binding was carried out by mixing 50 mg of binding substance with varying substrate quantities (0.037 μCi; 0.50-2.51 pmol/incubation) of 3 H-estrone, 3 H-estradiol-17β, 3 H-estriol, 3 H-estrone-3-glucuronide, 4 H-testosterone, and 370 C for 1 hr with shaking. Following centrifugation of the reaction mixture, a 1 ml aliquot was analyzed for radioactivity. The extent of steroid sequestration was characteristic and reproducible for each hormone. Cholestyramine bound an average of 90% of all the steroids tested, whereas cellulose bound the least (12%). Of the other substances tested, lignin bound 87%; wheat and oat grans, 45% each; corn bran, 44%; and oat hulls, 32% of the unconjugated hormones. The conjugated steroid was less likely to bind than the unconjugated steroids. Lignin appeared to be an important component in the interaction with steroid hormones. The results support the hydrophobic of nature of adsorption and suggest that the components of the fiber in diet should be considered separately when evaluating in vivo metabolic effects. Implications include the possible modification of hormone-dependent cancer risk through dietary intervention

  1. Anabolic steroids, acute myocardial infarction and polycythemia: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Stergiopoulos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen Stergiopoulos1, Joseph J Brennan2, Robin Mathews1, John F Setaro2, Smadar Kort11Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA; 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: The association between testosterone-replacement therapy and cardiovascular risk remains unclear with most reports suggesting a neutral or possibly beneficial effect of the hormone in men and women. However, several cardiovascular complications including hypertension, cardiomyopathy, stroke, pulmonary embolism, fatal and nonfatal arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction have been reported with supraphysiologic doses of anabolic steroids. We report a case of an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with traditional cardiac risk factors using supraphysiologic doses of supplemental, intramuscular testosterone. In addition, this patient also had polycythemia, likely secondary to high-dose testosterone. The patient underwent successful percutaneous intervention of the right coronary artery. Phlebotomy was used to treat the polycythemia acutely. We suggest that the chronic and recent “stacked” use of intramuscular testosterone as well as the resultant polycythemia and likely increased plasma viscosity may have been contributing factors to this cardiovascular event, in addition to traditional coronary risk factors. Physicians and patients should be aware of the clinical consequences of anabolic steroid abuse.Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, anabolic steroid use, polycythemia

  2. The impact of genetics and hormonal contraceptives on the steroid profile in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Erkander Mullen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The steroid module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP, the newest innovation in doping testing, is currently being finalized for implementation. Several factors, other than doping, can affect the longitudinal steroid profile. In this study we investigated the effect of hormonal contraceptives as well as the effect of three polymorphisms on female steroid profiles in relation to doping controls.The study population consisted of 79 female elite athletes between the ages of 18 to 45. Hormonal contraceptives were used by 32 % of the subjects. A full urinary steroid profile was obtained using World Anti-Doping Agency accredited methods. In addition all subjects were genotyped for copy number variation of UGT2B17 and SNPs in UGT2B7 and CYP17.Subjects using hormonal contraceptives excreted 40 % less epitestosterone as compared to non-users (p = 0.005 but showed no difference in testosterone excretion. When removing individuals homozygous for the deletion in UGT2B17, the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio was 29 % higher in the hormonal contraceptives group (p = 0.016. In agreement with previous findings in men, copy number variation of UGT2B17 had significant effect on female urinary testosterone excretion and therefore also the T/E ratio. Subjects homozygous for the T allele of CYP17 showed a lower urinary epitestosterone concentration than the other CYP17 genotypes. It is of great importance that the athlete’s steroidal passport can compensate for all possible normal variability in steroid profiles from women. Therefore, considering the large impact of hormonal contraceptives on female steroid profiles, we suggest that the use of hormonal contraceptives should be a mandatory question on the doping control form.

  3. Rapid suppression of testosterone secretion after capture in male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Valentine A; Elsey, Ruth M; Butterstein, George; Trosclair, Phillip L

    2004-01-15

    All reptiles studied to date show an increase in circulating corticosterone following capture. This rise in corticosterone has also been shown in a number of instances to result in a decline in reproductive steroids within hours after capture. As a result of these observations it has been considered imperative to collect blood samples as soon as possible after capture to get reliable measures of reproductive hormones. It has been claimed, however, that there is no effect of capture stress on reproductive steroids in juvenile alligators held for 2 h following capture. As we generally reject blood samples that are not collected within 15 min of capture we decided to reinvestigate the effect of short-term capture (2 h) on corticosterone and testosterone in male alligators. Four groups of alligators, ranging in size from 74 to 212 cm total length were captured in a 2-week period in May, the time of year when testosterone levels are highest. Two groups were captured during the day (eight bled at capture and again at 2 h, eight bled at 2 h only) and two at night (10 bled at capture and again at 2 h, 10 bled at 2 h only). Testosterone and corticosterone in alligators bled immediately on capture and at 2 h were not significantly different in the AM and PM samples so the results were combined (Initial bleed: corticosterone, 0.95 +/- 0.09 ng/ml, n=18; testosterone, 6.06 +/- 2.09 ng/ml, n=18. Two-hour bleed: corticosterone 15.68 +/- 1.91, n=18; testosterone, 2.75 +/- 0.79, n=18). Both the increase in corticosterone and the decline in testosterone at 2 h were significant (palligators sampled only once at 2 h were not significantly different from the 2-h values in alligators sampled twice (corticosterone 15.04 +/- 1.29, n=18; testosterone, 1.85 +/- 0.62, n=18). These results clearly demonstrate that short-term capture stress results in a significant decline in testosterone in male alligators.

  4. CSF and plasma testosterone in attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Jon; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2016-12-01

    Very few studies have assessed testosterone levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters. Aggressiveness and impulsivity are common behavioural traits in suicide attempters. Dual-hormone serotonergic theory on human impulsive aggression implies high testosterone/cortisol ratio acting on the amygdala and low serotonin in the prefrontal cortex. Our aim was to examine the CSF and plasma testosterone levels in suicide attempters and in healthy volunteers. We also assessed the relationship between the testosterone/cortisol ratio, aggressiveness and impulsivity in suicide attempters. 28 medication-free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in the study. CSF and plasma testosterone sulfate and cortisol levels were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Karolinska Scales of Personality was used to assess impulsivity and aggressiveness. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up period was 21 years. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma testosterone levels than age- matched male healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences in CSF testosterone levels in female suicide attempters and healthy female volunteers. Testosterone levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. In male suicide attempters, the CSF testosterone/cortisol ratio showed a significant positive correlation with both impulsivity and aggressiveness. Higher CSF testosterone levels may be associated with attempted suicide in young men through association with both aggressiveness and impulsivity, a key endophenotype in young male suicide attempters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex steroids and neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberden, Christine

    2017-10-01

    The brain has long been known as a dimorphic organ and as a target of sex steroids. It is also a site for their synthesis. Sex steroids in numerous ways can modify cerebral physiology, and along with many processes adult neurogenesis is also modulated by sex steroids. This review will focus on the effects of the main steroids, estrogens, androgens and progestogens, and unveil some aspects of their partly disclosed mechanisms of actions. Gonadal steroids act on different steps of neurogenesis: cell proliferation seems to be increased by estrogens only, while androgens and progestogens favor neuronal renewal by increasing cell survival; differentiation is a common target. Aging is characterized by a cognitive deficiency, paralleled by a decrease in the rate of neuronal renewal and in the levels of circulating gonadal hormones. Therefore, the effects of gonadal hormones on the aging brain are important to consider. The review will also be expanded to related molecules which are agonists to the nuclear receptors. Sex steroids can modify adult neuronal renewal and the extensive knowledge of their actions on neurogenesis is essential, as it can be a leading pathway to therapeutic perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  7. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I

    2007-01-01

    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  8. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Le Masson, Gwendal; Oliet, Stéphane H.; Ciofi, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-α. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

  9. Effect of Purine Nucleoside Analogue-Acyclovir on The Sperm Parameters and Testosterone Production in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acyclovir (ACV, a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue derived fromguanosine, is known to be toxic to gonads and the aim of this study was to evaluate theeffect of ACV on the sperm parameters and testosterone production in rat.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, forty adult male Wistar rats (220± 20 g were randomly divided into five groups (n=8 for each group. One groupserved as control and one group served as sham control [distilled water was intraperitoneally(i.p. injected]. ACV was administered intraperitoneally in the drugtreatment groups (4, 16 and 48 mg/kg/day for 15 days. Eighteen days after the lastinjection, rats were sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. After that, cauda epididymideswere removed surgically. At the end, sperm concentrations in the cauda epididymis,sperm motility, morphology, viability, chromatin quality and DNA integrity wereanalyzed. Serum testosterone concentrations were determined.Results: The results showed that ACV did not affect sperm count, but decreased spermmotility and sperm viability at 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels. Sperm abnormalities increasedat 48 mg/kg dose-level of ACV. Further, ACV significantly increases DNA damageat 16 and 48 mg/kg dose-levels and chromatin abnormality at all doses. Besides, asignificant decrease in serum testosterone concentrations was observed at 16 and 48 mg/kg doses.Conclusion: The present results highly support the idea that ACV induces testicular toxicityby adverse effects on the sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in malerats.

  10. Testosterone sorption and desorption: Effects of soil particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yong, E-mail: yqi01@unomaha.edu [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Zhang, Tian C. [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Ren, Yongzheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Smaller soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates. • The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand. • Small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. • Colloids (clays) have high potential to facilitate the transport of hormones in soil–water environments. - Abstract: Soils contain a wide range of particles of different diameters with different mobility during rainfall events. Effects of soil particles on sorption and desorption behaviors of steroid hormones have not been investigated. In this study, wet sieve washing and repeated sedimentation methods were used to fractionate the soils into five ranges. The sorption and desorption properties and related mechanisms of testosterone in batch reactors filled with fractionated soil particles were evaluated. Results of sorption and desorption kinetics indicate that small soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates than that of big ones. Thermodynamic results show the sorption processes are spontaneous and exothermal. The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand, depending mainly on specific surface area and surface functional groups. The urea control test shows that hydrogen bonding contributes to testosterone sorption onto clay and silt but not on sand. Desorption tests indicate sorption is 36–65% irreversible from clay to sand. Clays have highest desorption hysteresis among these five soil fractions, indicating small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. The results provide indirect evidence on the colloid (clay)-facilitated transport of hormones (micro-pollutants) in soil environments.

  11. Postgame testosterone levels of individuals in team-based status games are affected by genetic makeup, gender, and winning versus losing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Belschak, F.D.; Bagozzi, R.P.; De Rijcke, Y. B.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone, a steroid hormone, affects the ability of the prefrontal cortex to regulate the limbic system and therefore has been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors such as facing status challenges, aggression and dominance. Here we use a team-based status game to examine factors that

  12. Short QT interval is unreliable marker of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in competitive athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vitomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous animal and human studies provided the evidence that testosterone may affect ventricular repolarization by shortening of the QT interval. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone, modified to enhance its anabolic properties, are occasionally abused by some competitive athletes. Objective. We assessed whether the QT interval duration could discriminate androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS-using strength athletes (SA from drug-free endurance athletes (EA, by comparing 25 formulas for QT interval correction. Methods. We recruited 22 elite male athletes involved in long-term strength or endurance training and 20 sedentary controls. All elite

  13. Variation in testosterone and corticosterone in amphibians and reptiles: relationships with latitude, elevation, and breeding season length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Husak, Jerry; Escallón, Camilo; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-11-01

    Latitudinal variation in life-history traits has been the focus of numerous investigations, but underlying hormonal mechanisms have received much less attention. Steroid hormones play a central role in vertebrate reproduction and may be associated with life-history trade-offs. Consequently, circulating concentrations of these hormones vary tremendously across vertebrates, yet interspecific geographic variation in male hormone concentrations has been studied in detail only in birds. We here report on such variation in amphibians and reptiles, confirming patterns observed in birds. Using phylogenetic comparative analyses, we found that in amphibians, but not in reptiles, testosterone and baseline corticosterone were positively related to latitude. Baseline corticosterone was negatively related to elevation in amphibians but not in reptiles. For both groups, testosterone concentrations were negatively related to breeding-season length. In addition, testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with baseline corticosterone in both groups. Our findings may best be explained by the hypothesis that shorter breeding seasons increase male-male competition, which may favor increased testosterone concentrations that modulate secondary sexual traits. Elevated energetic demands resulting from greater reproductive intensity may require higher baseline corticosterone. Thus, the positive relationship between testosterone and corticosterone in both groups suggests an energetic demand for testosterone-regulated behavior that is met with increased baseline glucocorticoid concentrations.

  14. Effects of centrifugation on gonadal and adrenocortical steroids in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakihana, R.; Butte, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Many endocrine systems are sensitive to external changes in the environment. Both the pituitary adrenal and pituitary gonadal systems are affected by stress including centrifugation stress. The effect of centrifugation on the pituitary gonadal and pituitary adrenocortical systems was examined by measuring the gonadal and adrenal steroids in the plasma and brain following different duration and intensity of centrifugation stress in rats. Two studies were completed and the results are presented. The second study was carried out to describe the developmental changes of brain, plasma and testicular testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in Sprague Dawley rats so that the effect of centrifugation stress on the pituitary gonadal syatem could be better evaluated in future studies.

  15. Regulation of phase I and phase II steroid metabolism enzymes by PPARα activators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Liqun; You Li; Brown-Borg, Holly; Brown, Sherri; Edwards, Robert J.; Corton, J. Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators (PP) are a large class of structurally diverse chemicals that mediate their effects in the liver mainly through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Exposure to some PP results in alterations of steroid levels that may be mechanistically linked to adverse effects in reproductive organs. We hypothesized that changes in steroid levels after PP exposure are due to alterations in the levels of P450 enzymes that hydroxylate testosterone and estrogen. In testosterone hydroxylase assays, exposure to the PP, WY-14,643 (WY), gemfibrozil or di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) led to compound-specific increases in 6β and 16β-testosterone and androstenedione hydroxylase activities and decreases in 16α, 2α-hydroxylase activities by all three PP. The decreases in 16α and 2α-testosterone hydroxylase activity can be attributed to a 2α and 16α- testosterone hydroxylase, CYP2C11, which we previously showed was dramatically down-regulated in these same tissues (Corton et al., 1998; Mol. Pharmacol. 54, 463-473). To explain the increases in 6β- and 16β-testosterone hydroxylase activities, we examined the expression of P450 family members known to carry out these functions. Alterations in the 6β-testosterone hydroxylases CYP3A1, CYP3A2 and the 16β-testosterone hydroxylase, CYP2B1 were observed after exposure to some PP. The male-specific estrogen sulfotransferase was down-regulated in rat liver after exposure to all PP. The mouse 6β-testosterone hydroxylase, Cyp3a11 was down-regulated by WY in wild-type but not PPARα-null mice. In contrast, DEHP increased Cyp3a11 in both wild-type and PPARα-null mice. These studies demonstrate that PP alter the expression and activity of a number of enzymes which regulate levels of sex steroids. The changes in these enzymes may help explain why exposure to some PP leads to adverse effects in endocrine tissues that produce or are the targets of sex hormones

  16. Hydroxylative activity of Aspergillus niger towards androst-4-ene and androst-5-ene steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świzdor, Alina; Panek, Anna; Milecka-Tronina, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Aspergillus niger, one of fungal species most frequently used for experimental and industrial-scale biotransformations of various organic compounds, is generally known to transform steroids at 16β position. In this work, application of the strain A. niger KCH910 to bioconversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol and testosterone is described, with emphasis on the metabolic steps leading to the products. Evidence from this study indicated that incubated 5-ene steroids underwent bioconversion within two metabolic pathways: oxidation by the action of 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) to 4-ene steroids, and minor allylic hydroxylation to epimeric 7-alcohols. Further transformation of the 3-oxo-4-ene metabolites resulted in non-selective 16-hydroxylation. It is the first report on an A. niger strain able to introduce not only 16β- but also 16α-hydroxyl function into steroids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meydia Meydia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally istraded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroidcompounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract thesteroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexaneand get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid ofgamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent duringthe first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids onlydissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable.Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf =0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  18. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? Part I: Critical appraisal of the evidence for the presence, biosynthesis and uptake of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2012-11-01

    The consensus view is that vertebrate-type steroids are present in mollusks and perform hormonal roles which are similar to those that they play in vertebrates. Although vertebrate steroids can be measured in molluscan tissues, a key question is 'Are they formed endogenously or they are picked up from their environment?'. The present review concludes that there is no convincing evidence for biosynthesis of vertebrate steroids by mollusks. Furthermore, the 'mollusk' genome does not contain the genes for key enzymes that are necessary to transform cholesterol in progressive steps into vertebrate-type steroids; nor does the mollusk genome contain genes for functioning classical nuclear steroid receptors. On the other hand, there is very strong evidence that mollusks are able to absorb vertebrate steroids from the environment; and are able to store some of them (by conjugating them to fatty acids) for weeks to months. It is notable that the three steroids that have been proposed as functional hormones in mollusks (i.e. progesterone, testosterone and 17β-estradiol) are the same as those of humans. Since humans (and indeed all vertebrates) continuously excrete steroids not just via urine and feces, but via their body surface (and, in fish, via the gills), it is impossible to rule out contamination as the sole reason for the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks (even in animals kept under supposedly 'clean laboratory conditions'). Essentially, the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks cannot be taken as reliable evidence of either endogenous biosynthesis or of an endocrine role. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Stranska, I.; Starka, L.; Picha, J.; Chundela, B.

    1978-01-01

    Alternative antisera against 17 α-methyltestosterone and 19-nortestosterone were raised and used for radioimmunoassay of anabolic steroids. Tritiated compounds were used as radioligands. The RIA method suitable for doping control is proposed for 17 α-alkylated anabolic steroids in both plasma and urine, using qoat antiserum against methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA. Sensitivity of the method was expressed as least amount of nonradioactive methandienone which, when added to normal urine or plasma, caused statistically significant decrease of measured supernatant radioactivity at 99% level. The amounts from 50 to 500 pg were tested, each in eight parallel determinations. The amounts of 100 pg for plasma and 200 pg for urine met these criteria. The respective coefficients of variation did not depend on the amount of steroid added in this range. They averaged 4.60% for plasma and 4.95% for urine, respectively. (T.I.)

  20. High-throughput bioaffinity mass spectrometry for screening and identification of designer anabolic steroids in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqai, Payam; Cevik, Ebru; Gerssen, Arjen; Haasnoot, Willem; Nielen, Michel W F

    2013-03-19

    A generic high-throughput bioaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (BioMS) approach was developed and applied for the screening and identification of known and unknown recombinant human sex hormone-binding globulin (rhSHBG)-binding designer steroids in dietary supplements. For screening, a semi-automated competitive inhibition binding assay was combined with fast ultrahigh-performance-LC-electrospray ionization-triple-quadrupole-MS (UPLC-QqQ-MS). 17β-Testosterone-D3 was used as the stable isotope label of which the binding to rhSHBG-coated paramagnetic microbeads was inhibited by any other binding (designer) steroid. The assay was performed in a 96-well plate and combined with the fast LC-MS, 96 measurements could be performed within 4 h. The concentration-dependent inhibition of the label by steroids in buffer and dietary supplements was demonstrated. Following an adjusted bioaffinity isolation procedure, suspect extracts were injected into a chip-UPLC(NanoTile)-Q-time-of-flight-MS system for full-scan accurate mass identification. Next to known steroids, 1-testosterone was identified in three of the supplements studied and the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone was identified in a spiked supplement. The generic steroid-binding assay can be used for high-throughput screening of androgens, estrogens, and gestagens in dietary supplements to fight doping. When combined with chip-UPLC-MS, it is a powerful tool for early warning of unknown emerging rhSHBG bioactive designer steroids in dietary supplements.

  1. Testosterone, oxytocin, and the development of human parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ilanit; Pratt, Maayan; Bergunde, Katharina; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    The steroid testosterone (T) and neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) have each been implicated in the development of parental care in humans and animals, yet very little research addressed the interaction between these hormones at the transition to parenthood in mothers and fathers. One hundred and sixty mothers and fathers (80 couples) were visited 1 and 6months after the birth of their first child, plasma OT and T were assayed at each time-point, and interactions between each parent and the infant were observed and micro-coded for two key parental behaviors; affectionate touch and parent-infant synchrony. T showed gender-specific effects. While paternal T was individually stable across the first six months of parenting and predicted lower father-infant synchrony, maternal T was neither stable nor predictive of maternal behavior. An interaction of OT and T showed that T has complex modulatory effects on the relations of OT and parenting. Slope analysis revealed that among fathers, only when T was high (+1SD), negative associations emerged between OT and father affectionate touch. In contrast, among mothers, the context of high T was related to a positive association between OT and maternal touch. Our findings, the first to test the interaction of OT and T in relation to observed maternal behavior, underscore the need for much further research on the complex bidirectional effects of steroid and neuropeptide systems on human mothering and fathering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection and quantification of 12 anabolic steroids and analogs in human whole blood and 20 in hair using LC-HRMS/MS: application to real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Etting, Isabelle; Alvarez, Jean-Claude

    2017-07-01

    We developed and validated a method to detect and quantify 12 anabolic steroids in blood (androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, boldenone, epitestosterone, mesterolone, methandienone, nandrolone, stanozolol, norandrostenedione, tamoxifene, testosterone, trenbolone) and eight more in hair samples (nandrolone phenylpropionate, nandrolone decanoate, testosterone propionate, testosterone benzoate, testosterone cypionate, testosterone decanoate, testosterone phenylpropionate, testosterone undecanoate) using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. This method used a benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer operating with an APCI probe under positive ionization mode. Analysis was realized in full scan experiment with a nominal resolving power of 140,000. After addition of the internal standard (testosterone-D3) and incubation in phosphate buffer pH = 5 for hair, 200 μL of blood and 30 mg of hair samples were extracted with heptane. LOQ and LOD were determined at 5 and 1 ng mL -1 in whole blood and 10 to 100 pg mg -1 and 2 to 20 pg mg -1 in hair according to the compounds, respectively. The method was linear in the 5-1000 ng mL -1 range in whole blood and between 10 or 100 pg mg -1 and 1000 pg mg -1 in hair with correlation coefficients >0.99, and intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision were <14.8% for all compounds except for some esters in hairs (<19.9%) probably due to an important matrix effect for these compounds. This sensitive and specific method to detect anabolic steroids has been successfully applied to two real cases, for which various anabolic steroids in whole blood, urine, and hair were identified and quantified.

  3. Changes in the metabolic elimination profile of testosterone following exposure of the crustacean Daphnia magna to tributyltin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, G A; McLachlan, J B

    2000-03-01

    The biocide tributyltin has been found to cause the development of pseudohermaphroditic conditions in some neogastropod species. These abnormalities of the reproductive system have adversely affected the fecundity of some field populations of gastropods, resulting in local population declines. Current evidence suggests that tributyltin elicits these effects by interfering with the biotransformation of testosterone to other steroid derivatives, resulting in an elevation in endogenous testosterone or some of its bioactive derivatives. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether tributyltin altered testosterone metabolism in daphnids (Daphnia magna), a species commonly used in ecotoxicology testing. Exposure of daphnids to 1.2 microg (tin)/L caused a general increase in the rate of elimination of oxido-reduced, hydroxylated, and glucose-conjugated derivatives of testosterone. However, tributyltin exposure had no significant effect on the rate of elimination of the glucose-conjugated forms of the various oxido-reduced and hydroxylated derivatives of testosterone. As a result, the percentage of the oxido-reduced and hydroxylated metabolites of testosterone eliminated as glucose conjugates decreased with increasing tributyltin exposure levels. These results demonstrate that tributyltin causes alterations in testosterone metabolism in daphnids that would result in an increase in the production of oxido-reduced derivatives. These products are preferentially retained in the tissues of daphnids and are variously androgenic in vertebrates. The increased production of oxido-reduced derivatives of testosterone may be mechanically responsible for the masculinizing effects of tributyltin in some species and suggests that daphnids may be a suitable surrogate for evaluating the potential of chemicals to elicit this form of toxicity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  4. New Insights on Steroid Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cabezon, Lorena; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays steroid manufacturing occupies a prominent place in the pharmaceutical industry with an annual global market over $10 billion. The synthesis of steroidal active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) such as sex hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progestogens) and corticosteroids is currentl...

  5. Radioimmunoassay for male canine plasma 4-androstenedione, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Toshio; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Imori, Tatsuo

    1977-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay for the simultaneous measurement of 4-androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in canine plasma was carried out. The assay for these 3 plasma steroids showed to be satisfactorily sensitive, specific, and accurate. The plasma steroid levels of peripheral and spermary vein plasma collected from 15 male dogs were (A) 0.86 +-0.75, (T) 1.19+-1.05 and (DHT) 0.30+-0.25 in peripheral vein, and (A) 30.2+-18.5, (T) 157+-98 and (DHT) 17.5+-10.7 in spermary vein, respectively (ng/ml and SD). Analysing these data, the significant correlation between two vein plasma levels was suggested. In order to estimate the normal or common diurnal variations of these plasma steroid levels in male dogs, 5 animals were employed, and their peripheral plasma samples were collected every an hour or two, throughout 24 hour period. In these data, the frequent intermittent peaks of plasma steroids were observed in each dog, and these seem to be their own diurnal changes. It was concluded that the peripheral plasma levels of A, T, and DHT were correlated to those in spermary vein, and these steroid levels were seemingly reflected by the episodic secretion from the gonads. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  7. Reduction in 24-Hour Plasma Testosterone Levels in Subjects Who Showered 15 or 30 Minutes After Application of Testosterone Gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; Vogel, S.; Bui, H.N.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Design. Prospective 3-way crossover trial.

  8. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R.; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Wu, Ed X.

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate the growth effects of four widely used over-the-counter testosterone and nandrolone precursors: 4-androstene-3 17-dione (androstenedione), 4-androstene-3β 17β-diol (4-androsdiol), 19-nor-4-androstene-3β-17β-diol (bolandiol) and 19-nor-4-androstene-3 17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). The results showed that providing precursor to castrated male guinea pigs led to plasma steroid levels sufficient to maintain normal SM growth. The anabolic growth effects of these specific precursors on individual and total muscle volumes, sexual organs, and total adipose tissue over a 10-week treatment period, in comparison with those in the respective positive control testosterone and nandrolone groups, were documented quantitatively by MRI. PMID:19463691

  9. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-01

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  10. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David

    2011-04-25

    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Vasselli, Joseph R; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steven B; Wu, Ed X

    2009-08-01

    Anabolic steroids are widely used to increase skeletal muscle (SM) mass and improve physical performance. Some dietary supplements also include potent steroid precursors or active steroid analogs such as nandrolone. Our previous study reported the anabolic steroid effects on SM in a castrated guinea pig model with SM measured using a highly quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol. The aim of the current study was to apply this animal model and in vivo MRI protocol to evaluate the growth effects of four widely used over-the-counter testosterone and nandrolone precursors: 4-androstene-3 17-dione (androstenedione), 4-androstene-3beta 17beta-diol (4-androsdiol), 19-nor-4-androstene-3beta-17beta-diol (bolandiol) and 19-nor-4-androstene-3 17-dione (19-norandrostenedione). The results showed that providing precursor to castrated male guinea pigs led to plasma steroid levels sufficient to maintain normal SM growth. The anabolic growth effects of these specific precursors on individual and total muscle volumes, sexual organs, and total adipose tissue over a 10-week treatment period, in comparison with those in the respective positive control testosterone and nandrolone groups, were documented quantitatively by MRI.

  12. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve

    2013-07-17

    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  13. Vitamin D deficiency and low ionized calcium are linked with semen quality and sex steroid levels in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Are low vitamin D levels linked with semen quality and sex steroids in infertile men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Infertile men with vitamin D deficiency had lower sperm motility, total numbers of motile sperm, Inhibin B, sex-hormone-binding-globulin (SHBG) and testosterone/estradiol ratio......, but higher levels of free sex steroids, than infertile men with normal vitamin D levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with decreased sperm motility in healthy men, but a relationship between vitamin D and calcium with semen quality and especially sex steroids has not been...... infertile men, consecutively referred to our tertiary andrological centre for fertility workup, underwent a physical examination and had semen quality assessed based on two samples and blood analysed for serum testosterone, SHBG, estradiol, inhibin B, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH...

  14. Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays.

  15. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  16. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  17. Selective amine catalysed steroidal dimerization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of cholesterol is the formation of a green colour in concentrated sulphuric acid, and this was shown to be due to a polyenyl steroidal dimer carbocation.7–9 Many dimeric and oligomeric steroids exhibit interesting micellular, detergent and liquid crystal behaviour.10,11. Most of the steroidal dimmers are also well-known.

  18. Steroids facing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  19. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  20. Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lucas; Planas, Jacques; Carles, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Comas, Inma; Ferrer, Roser; Morote, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9-120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18-3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16-3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  2. Bare-part color in female budgerigars changes from brown to structural blue following testosterone treatment but is not strongly masculinized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie E P Lahaye

    Full Text Available Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females compared to controls (C-females and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on

  3. Novel Uses for the Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone and Oxandrolone in the Management of Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christopher; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states. We also provide a brief synopsis of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and postulate how these orally active, non-aromatizing, tissue-selective agents might be used in contemporary andrology. Currently, the applications of testosterone alternatives in hypogonadism are limited. However, it is tempting to speculate that these agents may one day become accepted as alternatives, or adjuncts, to the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  4. The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function in the Guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Galbraith, H.

    1992-01-01

    The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function was investigated in the Guinea pig. Certain comparisons were made with testosterone, the naturally occurring androgen, administered as the phenylpropionate ester. Progesterone was analysed using radioimmunoassay. two milligrams trenbolone acetate per Kg given subcutaneously on alternate days for 20 days blocked oestrous cyclicity and ovulation in 9 of 10 animals. A similar effect was shown by 2.2 mg of testosterone phenylpropionate. Treatment of trenbolone acetate-treated animals with exogenous gonadotropins suggested that the production of follicle stimulating hormone had been suppressed. Signs of abnormality were seen in the livers of animals receiving 2 mg trenbolone acetate and 2.2 mg testosterone phenylpropionate. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone) for women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Helen E; Rishworth, Josephine R; Siristatidis, Charalampos S; Kroon, Ben

    2015-11-26

    Infertility is a condition affecting 10% to 15% of couples of reproductive age. It is generally defined as "the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse". The treatment of infertility may involve manipulation of gametes or of the embryos themselves. These techniques are together known as assisted reproductive technology (ART). Practitioners are constantly seeking alternative or adjunct treatments, or both, in the hope that they may improve the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques. This Cochrane review focusses on the adjunct use of synthetic versions of two naturally-produced hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T), in assisted reproduction.DHEA and its derivative testosterone are steroid hormones proposed to increase conception rates by positively affecting follicular response to gonadotrophin stimulation, leading to greater oocyte yields and, in turn, increased chance of pregnancy. To assess the effectiveness and safety of DHEA and testosterone as pre- or co-treatments in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. We searched the following electronic databases, trial registers and websites up to 12 March 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, electronic trial registers for ongoing and registered trials, citation indexes, conference abstracts in the Web of Science, PubMed and OpenSIGLE. We also carried out handsearches. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHEA or testosterone as an adjunct treatment to any other active intervention, placebo, or no treatment in women undergoing assisted reproduction. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted relevant data and assessed them for risk of bias. We pooled studies using fixed-effect models. We calculated

  6. The perinatal effects of maternal caffeine intake on fetal and neonatal brain levels of testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaismailoglu, S; Tuncer, M; Bayrak, S; Erdogan, G; Ergun, E L; Erdem, A

    2017-08-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone are the main sex steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, adrenal cells, and gonads play a key role in the production of sex steroids and express adenosine receptors. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist; therefore, it can modulate metabolic pathways in these tissues. Besides, the proportion of pregnant women that consume caffeine is ∼60%. That is why the relationship between maternal caffeine consumption and fetal development is important. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this modulatory effect of maternal caffeine consumption on sex steroids in the fetal and neonatal brain tissues. Pregnant rats were treated with a low (0.3 g/L) or high (0.8 g/L) dose of caffeine in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus were measured using radioimmunoassay at embryonic day 19 (E19), birth (PN0), and postnatal day 4 (PN4). The administration of low-dose caffeine increased the body weight in PN4 male and female rats and anogenital index in PN4 males. The administration of high-dose caffeine decreased the adrenal weight in E19 male rats and increased testosterone levels in the frontal cortex of E19 female rats and the hypothalamus of PN0 male rats. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy affects sex steroid levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of the offspring. This concentration changes of the sex steroids in the brain may influence behavioral and neuroendocrine functions at some point in adult life.

  7. Normally occurring intersexuality and testosterone induced plasticity in the copulatory system of adult leopard geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Putz, Oliver; Crews, David; Wade, Juli

    2005-04-01

    The copulatory neuromuscular system of lizards is highly sexually dimorphic. Adult males possess bilateral penises called hemipenes, which are independently controlled by two muscles, the retractor penis magnus (RPM) and transversus penis (TPN). These structures are not obvious in adult females. However, in adult female leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius), testosterone induces hemipene growth. We investigated whether these structures develop de novo in adulthood or are histologically present as rudimentary structures in the female leopard gecko. We also investigated the extent of sexual dimorphisms and plasticity in the associated neuromuscular components. To do this, we compared copulatory morphology (sizes of hemipenes, RPM and TPN muscle fibers, and associated motoneurons, as well as motoneuron and RPM fiber number) in adult females treated with testosterone, control females, and control males. All of the geckos possessed hemipenes, RPMs and TPNs, but these structures were indeed vestigial in control females. Testosterone induced striking increases in hemipene and copulatory muscle fiber size in females, but not to levels equivalent to control males. In parallel, males with increased levels of androgenic activity had larger hemipenes, suggesting naturally occurring steroid-induced plasticity. Copulatory motoneurons were not sexually dimorphic in size or number, and these measures did not respond to testosterone. The data demonstrate that the copulatory system of leopard geckos, in which gonadal sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, differs from that of many species (both reptilian and mammalian) with genotypic sex determination. Indeed, the system is remarkable in that adult females have normally occurring intersex characteristics and they exhibit substantial steroid-induced morphological plasticity in adulthood.

  8. Testosterone-dependency of male solo song in a duetting songbird--evidence from females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Cornelia; Leitner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    For male songbirds of the temperate zone there is a tight link between seasonal song behaviour and circulating testosterone levels. Such a relationship does not seem to hold for tropical species where singing can occur year-round and breeding seasons are often extended. White-browed sparrow weavers (Plocepasser mahali) are cooperatively breeding songbirds with a dominant breeding pair and male and female subordinates found in eastern and southern Africa. Each group defends an all-purpose territory year-round. While all group members sing duets and choruses, the most dominant male additionally sings a solo song that comprises a distinct and large syllable repertoire. Previous studies suggested this type of song being associated with reproduction but failed to support a relationship with males' circulating testosterone levels. The present study aimed to investigate the steroid hormone sensitivity of the solo song in more detail. We found that dominant males had significantly higher circulating testosterone levels than subordinates during the early and late breeding seasons. No changes in solo song characteristics were found between both time points. Further, experimental implantation of captive adult females with exogenous testosterone induced solo singing within one week of treatment. Such females produced male-typical song regarding overall structure and syllable composition. Sex differences existed, however, concerning singing activity, repertoire size and temporal organisation of song. These results suggest that solo singing in white-browed sparrow weavers is under the control of gonadal steroid hormones. Moreover, the behaviour is not male-specific but can be activated in females under certain conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed.

  10. Maternal steroids and contaminants in common tern eggs: A mechanism of endocrine disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Schwabl, H.

    2001-01-01

    We looked for evidence for the hypothesis that exposure of female birds to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) results in alteration of blood steroid hormone concentrations and alters subsequent hormone transfer of steroids to eggs. Eggs of three-egg clutches were collected from a PCB-exposed common tern (Sterna hirundo) colony (Ram Island, Buzzards Bay, MA, USA) and from a relatively clean colony (Bodkin Island, Chesapeake Bay, MD, USA), and were analyzed for concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and steroid hormones (17β-estradiol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone and androstenedione). There was no relationship between total PCBs and steroid concentrations considering all eggs together, considering eggs of different laying order or considering differences between sequentially laid eggs in a clutch. Similarly, concentrations of di- and tri-chlorinated biphenyls and steroids in eggs were not related. The concentrations of PCBs, mercury and selenium were below estimated thresholds for toxicity to embryos. Maternal steroids, except estradiol, were present in yolk of all eggs, with increasing concentrations in the second and third eggs laid. Our data provided no evidence for a maternal toxicological event that might alter the amount of maternal steroid hormone transferred to eggs.

  11. The rate of change in declining steroid hormones: a new parameter of healthy aging in men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-09-20

    Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P). Principal component analysis including ten salivary analytes identified a principal component mainly unifying the variance of the four sex steroid hormones. Subsequent principal component analysis including the four sex steroids extracted the principal component of declining steroid hormones (DSH). Moderation analysis of the association between age and DSH revealed significant moderation effects for psychosocial factors such as depression, chronic stress and perceived general health. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence that sex steroids decline in aging men and that the integrated hormone parameter DSH and its rate of change can be used as biomarkers for healthy aging in men. Furthermore, the negative association of age and DSH is moderated by psychosocial factors.

  12. Structural and biochemical properties of cloned and expressed human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Russell, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The microsomal enzyme steroid 5α-reductase is responsible for the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. In man, this steroid acts on a variety of androgen-responsive target tissues to mediate such diverse endocrine processes as male sexual differentiation in the fetus and prostatic growth in men. Here we describe the isolation, structure, and expression of a cDNA encoding the human steroid 5α-reductase. A rat cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human prostate cDNA library. A 2.1-kilobase cDNA was identified and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the human steroid 5α-reductase was a hydrophobic protein of 259 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 29,462. A comparison of the human and rat protein sequences revealed a 60% identity. Transfection of expression vectors containing the human and rat cDNAs into simian COS cells resulted in the synthesis of high levels of steroid 5α-reductase enzyme activity. Both enzymes expressed in COS cells showed similar substrate specificities for naturally occurring steroid hormones. However, synthetic 4-azasteroids demonstrated marked differences in their abilities to inhibit the human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

  13. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  14. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder affecting women. Melatonin, a small lipophilic indoleamine, and reproductive hormones may be interrelated. Melatonin influences sex steroid production at different stages of ovarian follicular maturation as melatonin receptors have been demonstrated at multiple sites in ovary and in intrafollicular fluid. It plays role as an antioxidant and free radical scavanger which protects follicles from oxidative stress, rescuing them from atresia, leading to complete follicular maturation and ovulation. Aims: To study the role of melatonin in PCOS and to investigate its correlation with testosterone in patients suffering from PCOS. Settings and Design: A total of 50 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria, 2003 and 50 age and weight matched healthy controls were selected and serum melatonin estimation was done in both the groups and correlated with serum total testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, detailed history, clinical examination and hormonal evaluation [basal levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin, total testosterone, progesterone and melatonin] were carried out in all the participants including both cases and controls. For melatonin estimation, blood samples were collected between 12:00 am and 04:00 am on day 2 nd of menstrual cycle and analyzed by using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the significant difference in mean values between cases and control groups. Chi-square test was used to test the significant association between the qualitative variables. Linear correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done to see the amount and direction of relationship between quantitative variables. Results: The mean melatonin level was observed to be significantly

  15. Symptomatic ovarian steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified in a post-menopausal woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS is a rare subtype of sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary and contributes less than 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms. The majority of tumors occur in pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43 years, in which 56-77% of patients present with virilization due to excess testosterone. An 80-year-old woman with worsening alopecia and excessive growth of coarse hair on abdomen and genital area was found to have elevated serum testosterone level (462 ng/mL. Radiologic studies were consistent with bilateral adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling ruled out the adrenal gland as origin of hormone secretion. A diagnostic and therapeutic bilateral salpingooophorectomy confirmed steroid cell tumor NOS of the left ovary. Post-operatively, the patient had complete resolution of her symptoms and normalization of testosterone level. Our case emphasizes the importance of a clinical suspicion for an occult testosterone secreting ovarian tumor in a symptomatic patient without obvious ovarian mass on imaging.

  16. Steroid metabolism and steroid receptors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eechaute, W.; de Thibault de Boesinghe, L.; Lacroix, E.

    1983-01-01

    Mammary tumors were induced in rats by treatment with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cytosol receptors for 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were estimated by means of sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the metabolism of [ 14 C]progesterone, [ 14 C]testosterone, and 17 beta-[ 14 C]estradiol by minced tumor tissue was studied. The estradiol receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels of the tumors varied considerably from less than 5 to 48 fmol/mg protein for ER and to 243 fmol/mg protein for PR. Considering a receptor level lower than 5 fmol/mg protein to be negative, four groups of tumors were found: ER-negative and PR-negative; ER-positive and PR-negative; ER-negative and PR-positive; ER-positive and PR-positive. In dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumor tissue, high 5 alpha-reductase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and somewhat lower 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 6 alpha-hydroxylase activities were found. No aromatization was detectable. Steroids, especially estradiol, were also metabolized in a high degree to unextractable metabolites. It was concluded that steroid metabolism of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors was not related to the ER and/or PR concentration of tumor tissue

  17. Acute effects of sex steroid hormones on susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute effects of sex steroid hormones likely contribute to the observation that post-pubescent males have shorter QT intervals than females. However, the specific role for hormones in modulating cardiac electrophysiological parameters and arrhythmia vulnerability is unclear. Here we use a computational modeling approach to incorporate experimentally measured effects of physiological concentrations of testosterone, estrogen and progesterone on cardiac ion channel targets. We then study the hormone effects on ventricular cell and tissue dynamics comprised of Faber-Rudy computational models. The "female" model predicts changes in action potential duration (APD at different stages of the menstrual cycle that are consistent with clinically observed QT interval fluctuations. The "male" model predicts shortening of APD and QT interval at physiological testosterone concentrations. The model suggests increased susceptibility to drug-induced arrhythmia when estradiol levels are high, while testosterone and progesterone are apparently protective. Simulations predict the effects of sex steroid hormones on clinically observed QT intervals and reveal mechanisms of estrogen-mediated susceptibility to prolongation of QT interval. The simulations also indicate that acute effects of estrogen are not alone sufficient to cause arrhythmia triggers and explain the increased risk of females to Torsades de Pointes. Our results suggest that acute effects of sex steroid hormones on cardiac ion channels are sufficient to account for some aspects of gender specific susceptibility to long-QT linked arrhythmias.

  18. Prolonged Hypogonadism in Males Following Withdrawal from Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: an Underrecognized Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; DeLuca, James; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Bhasin, Shalender; Pope, Harrison G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the frequency and severity of hypogonadal symptoms in male long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) misusers who have discontinued AAS use. Design Cross-sectional, naturalistic. Setting Outpatient facility. Participants Twenty-four male former long-term AAS users and 36 non-AAS-using weightlifters, recruited by advertisement in Massachusetts, USA. Five of the former users were currently receiving treatment with physiologic testosterone replacement, leaving 19 untreated users for the numerical comparisons below. Measurements The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, questions regarding history of AAS use, physical examination, serum hormone determinations, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Findings Compared with the 36 non-AAS-using weightlifters, the 19 untreated former AAS users displayed significantly smaller testicular volumes (estimated difference [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 2.3 [0.1, 4.5] ml; p = 0.042) and lower serum testosterone levels (estimated difference: 131 [25, 227] dL; p = 0.009), with five users showing testosterone levels below 200 ng/dL despite abstinence from AAS for 3–26 months. Untreated former users also displayed significantly lower scores on the IIEF Sexual Desire subscale (estimated difference: 2.4 [1.3, 3.5] points on a 10-point scale; p treatment. Conclusions Among long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid misusers, anabolic-androgenic steroid-withdrawal hypogonadism appears to be common, frequently prolonged, and associated with substantial morbidity. PMID:25598171

  19. Use of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Satav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial hood, vascularity of dartos pedicle in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. Injection aquaviron (oily solution each ml containing testosterone propionate 25 mg was given deep intramuscularly in three doses with an interval of 3 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Preoperatively penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of the penis were measured. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of penis was 1.01 ± 0.25 cm (P < 0.001, 1.250 ± 0.52 cm and 0.61 ± 0.35 cm, respectively, (P < 0.001. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Conclusion: Parenteral testosterone increased phallus size, diameter and prepuce hypertrophy without any adverse effects. However, due to lack of a control group we cannot make any inferences. Controlled studies are required to establish the benefits of parenteral testosterone.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  1. Relation of uptake and metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone to individual differences in sexual behavior in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, C F; Feder, H H

    1976-03-19

    Male guinea pigs were given 3 tests for sexual behavior. Animals that never ejaculated were classified as low activity (LA), animals that ejaculated on one test were classified as medium activity (MA), and animals that ejaculated on two or more tests were classified as high activity (HA). Subsequently, animals from each group were castrated and given an s.c. injection of 43 muCi of [1,2,6,7-3H]testosterone and were killed 0.5, 1, or 4 h after injection. There were no significant differences in uptake or metabolism of radioactive testosterone among LA, MA, and HA males in homogenates of anterior and posterior hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, midbrain, or seminal vesicle. Thus, differences in sexual behavior could not be attributed to differences in testosterone uptake in tissue homogenates. At the 1 h time interval (time of peak plasma radioactivity), radioactivity in the seminal vesicles of all males was primarily in the form of steroids with the chromatographic mobility of dihydrotestosterone. In all males, anterior and posterior hypothalamus contained a higher proportion of steroids with the mobility of testosterone than did midbrain, and midbrain contained more testosterone zone radioactivity than cerebral cortex at 1 h. The highest proportion of dihydrotestosterone zone radioactivity in neural tissues was found in anterior hypothalamus. These results are discussed in terms of androgenic mediation of sex behavior by the anterior hypothalamus in guinea pigs.

  2. Anabolic steroids and head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Bailes, Julian E; Turner, Ryan C; Dodson, Sean C; Sakai, Jun; Maroon, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that neurological changes seen in the syndrome of chronic traumatic encephalopathy may be due to exogenous anabolic steroid use rather than traumatic brain injury. To determine whether administration of anabolic steroids alters the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and a linear acceleration model of traumatic brain injury were used. Experimental groups were (1) preinjury anabolic steroids, (2) preinjury placebo carrier, (3) anabolic steroids without injury, (4) no steroids and no injury, (5) postinjury placebo carrier, and (6) postinjury anabolic steroids. Following a 30-day recovery, rats were euthanized, and brainstem white matter tracts underwent fluorescent immunohistochemical processing and labeling of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Digital imaging and statistical analyses were used to determine whether anabolic steroid administration resulted in a significant change in the number of injured axons. There was no statistically significant difference in number of APP-positive axons by immunohistochemical analysis between respective anabolic steroid and placebo groups. Using a standard acceleration-deceleration model of mild traumatic brain injury, we have shown successful visualization of traumatically injured axons with antibody staining of APP. Our results indicate no statistically significant effect of anabolic steroids on the number of APP-positive axons. With the use of this model, and within its limitations, we see no adverse effect or causative role of anabolic steroid administration on the brain following mild traumatic brain injury using APP counts as a marker for anatomic injury.

  3. Prenatal testosterone exposure worsen the reproductive performance of male rat at adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Ghasemi, Asghar; Piryaei, Abbas; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive system is extremely susceptible to environmental insults, for example exogenous steroids during gestational development and differentiation. Experimental induction of androgen excess during prenatal life in female animal models reprograms their reproductive physiology, however the fetal programming of the male reproductive system by androgen excess has not been well studied. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal exposure of two different doses of testosterone on different gestational days, on the male reproductive system using a rat model. Sixteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. Experimental group І were subcutaneously injected with 3 mg free testosterone on gestational days 16-19 and its controls received solvent for that time; experimental group П were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg free testosterone on day 20 of gestational period and its controls received solvent at the same time. The reproductive system morphology and function of 32 male offspring of these study groups were compared at days 6-30-60 of age and after puberty. The anogenital distance of the male offspring of both experimental groups had no significant differences on the different days of measurement, compared with controls. In the offspring of experimental group І, the testes weight, number of Sertoli, Spermatocyte and Spermatid cells, sperm count and motility and the serum concentration of testosterone after puberty were significantly decreased; except for reduction of sperm motility (pmale rat fetuses to excess testosterone disrupted reproductive function, an effect highly dependent on the time, duration and level of exposure. It seems that the reproductive system in individuals exposed to high levels of androgens during fetal life should be evaluated at puberty and likely to be treated.

  4. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  5. Biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones by human adrenal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a 15-year period, our university-based laboratory obtained 125 adrenal tumors, of which 15 (12% were adrenal cortical carcinomas. Of these, 6 (40% of the carcinomas occurred in patients with clear clinical manifestations of steroid hormone excess. Adrenal cortical carcinoma cells derived from the surgically resected tumors in 4 of these patients were isolated and established in primary culture. Radiotracer steroid interconversion studies were carried out with these cultures and also on mitochondria isolated from homogenized tissues. Large tumors had the lowest steroidogenic activities per weight, whereas small tumors had more moderately depressed enzyme activities relative to cells from normal glands. In incubations with pregnenolone as substrate, 1 mM metyrapone blocked the synthesis of corticosterone and cortisol and also the formation of aldosterone. Metyrapone inhibition was associated with a concomitant increase in the formation of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone from pregnenolone. Administration of metyrapone in vivo before surgery in one patient resulted in a similar increase in plasma androstenedione, though plasma testosterone levels were not significantly affected. In cultures of two of four tumors examined, dibutyryl cAMP stimulated 11ß-hydroxylase activity modestly; ACTH also had a significant stimulatory effect in one of these tumors. Unlike results obtained with normal or adenomatous adrenal cortical tissues, mitochondria from carcinomatous cells showed a lack of support of either cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme complex or steroid 11ß-hydroxylase activity by Krebs cycle intermediates (10 mM isocitrate, succinate or malate. This finding is consistent with the concept that these carcinomas may tend to function predominantly in an anaerobic manner, rather than through the oxidation of Krebs cycle intermediates.

  6. Testosterone and aging: clinical research directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liverman, Catharyn T; Blazer, Dan G., II

    2004-01-01

    .... In particular there has been growing concern about an increase in the number of middle-aged and older men using testosterone and the lack of scientific data on the effect it may have on aging males...

  7. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  8. Stable isotope labeling – Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of androgenic and progestagenic steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ning; Liu, Ping; Ding, Jun; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormones play important roles in mammal at very low concentrations and are associated with numerous endocrinology and oncology diseases. Therefore, quantitative analysis of steroid hormones can provide crucial information for uncovering underlying mechanisms of steroid hormones related diseases. In the current study, we developed a sensitive method for the detection of steroid hormones (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone) in body fluids by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. In this respect, a pair of isotopes labeling reagents, Girard reagent P (GP) and d_5-Girard reagent P (d_5-GP), were synthesized and utilized to label steroid hormones in follicular fluid samples and steroid hormone standards, respectively. The heavy labeled standards were used as internal standards for quantification to minimize quantitation deviation in MS analysis due to the matrix and ion suppression effects. The ionization efficiencies of steroid hormones were greatly improved by 4–504 folds through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium from GP. Using the developed method, we successfully quantified steroid hormones in human follicular fluid. We found that the contents of testosterone and androstenedione exhibited significant increase while the content of pregnenolone had significant decrease in follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients compared with healthy controls, indicating that these steroid hormones with significant change may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Taken together, the developed stable isotope labeling coupled LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated to be a promising method for the sensitive and accurate determination of steroid hormones, which may facilitate the in-depth investigation of steroid hormones related

  9. Stable isotope labeling – Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of androgenic and progestagenic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ning; Liu, Ping; Ding, Jun; Zheng, Shu-Jian; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi, E-mail: yqfeng@whu.edu.cn

    2016-01-28

    Steroid hormones play important roles in mammal at very low concentrations and are associated with numerous endocrinology and oncology diseases. Therefore, quantitative analysis of steroid hormones can provide crucial information for uncovering underlying mechanisms of steroid hormones related diseases. In the current study, we developed a sensitive method for the detection of steroid hormones (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone) in body fluids by stable isotope labeling coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. In this respect, a pair of isotopes labeling reagents, Girard reagent P (GP) and d{sub 5}-Girard reagent P (d{sub 5}-GP), were synthesized and utilized to label steroid hormones in follicular fluid samples and steroid hormone standards, respectively. The heavy labeled standards were used as internal standards for quantification to minimize quantitation deviation in MS analysis due to the matrix and ion suppression effects. The ionization efficiencies of steroid hormones were greatly improved by 4–504 folds through the introduction of a permanent charged moiety of quaternary ammonium from GP. Using the developed method, we successfully quantified steroid hormones in human follicular fluid. We found that the contents of testosterone and androstenedione exhibited significant increase while the content of pregnenolone had significant decrease in follicular fluid of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients compared with healthy controls, indicating that these steroid hormones with significant change may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Taken together, the developed stable isotope labeling coupled LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated to be a promising method for the sensitive and accurate determination of steroid hormones, which may facilitate the in-depth investigation of steroid hormones

  10. Oral contraceptives and neuroactive steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, Andrea J; Biggio, Giovanni; Concas, Alessandra

    2006-08-01

    A deregulation in the peripheral and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids has been found in certain pathological conditions characterized by emotional or affective disturbances, including major depression and anxiety disorders. In this article we summarize data pertaining to the modulatory effects of oral contraceptive treatment on neuroactive steroids in women and rats. Given that the neuroactive steroids concentrations are reduced by oral contraceptives, together with the evidence that a subset of women taking oral contraceptives experience negative mood symptoms, we propose the use of this pharmacological treatment as a putative model to study the role of neuroactive steroids in the etiopathology of mood disorders. Moreover, since neuroactive steroids are potent modulators of GABA(A) receptor function and plasticity, the treatment with oral contraceptives might also represent a useful experimental model to further investigate the physiological role of these steroids in the modulation of GABAergic transmission.

  11. The relationship between pubertal gynecomastia, prostate specific antigen, free androgen index, SHBG and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mustafa; Kanbur, Nuray; Derman, Orhan; Akgül, Sinem; Kutluk, Tezer

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationships between pubertal gynecomastia, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free androgen index (FAI), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and sex steroids. A total of 61 male adolescents (10-17 years old; mean: 13.67 +/- 1.08) with gynecomastia were enrolled into the study group. A total of 65 healthy age-matched adolescents were included in the control group. Body mass index (BMI), Tanner staging, testis volume, stretched penis length (SPL) and bone age were evaluated. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone, free testosterone, SHBG, PSA levels were determined and FAI was calculated. In the study group, free testosterone (p = 0.012) and FAI (p = 0.05) were significantly lower than the control group. In the control group, SHBG levels decreased (p 0.05). High FAI was found to decrease the risk of gynecomastia (odds ratio: 0.211, 95% confidence interval: 0.064-0.694, p = 0.01). PSA showed a positive correlation with FAI, free testosterone, Tanner staging, testosterone, E2 and LH levels. PSA is a good indicator of androgen activity during puberty. However, owing to FAI remaining as the single significant variable for pubertal gynecomastia, we suggest that it is still the best parameter to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of gynecomastia as well as other pubertal developmental abnormalities in male adolescents, and further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the relationships between PSA and FAI in puberty.

  12. Short term impact of Tribulus terrestris intake on doping control analysis of endogenous steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudan, Christophe; Baume, Norbert; Emery, Caroline; Strahm, Emmanuel; Saugy, Martial

    2008-06-10

    Tribulus terrestris is a nutritional supplement highly debated regarding its physiological and actual effects on the organism. The main claimed effect is an increase of testosterone anabolic and androgenic action through the activation of endogenous testosterone production. Even if this biological pathway is not entirely proven, T. terrestris is regularly used by athletes. Recently, the analysis of two female urine samples by GC/C/IRMS (gas chromatography/combustion/isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry) conclusively revealed the administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursors, even if the testosterone glucuronide/epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio and steroid marker concentrations were below the cut-off values defined by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To argue against this adverse analytical finding, the athletes recognized having used T. terrestris in their diet. In order to test this hypothesis, two female volunteers ingested 500 mg of T. terrestris, three times a day and for two consecutive days. All spot urines were collected during 48 h after the first intake. The (13)C/(12)C ratio of ketosteroids was determined by GC/C/IRMS, the T/E ratio and DHEA concentrations were measured by GC/MS and LH concentrations by radioimmunoassay. None of these parameters revealed a significant variation or increased above the WADA cut-off limits. Hence, the short-term treatment with T. terrestris showed no impact on the endogenous testosterone metabolism of the two subjects.

  13. [Successive ruptures of patellar and Achilles tendons. Anabolic steroids in competitive sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, J; Prokop, A; Skouras, E

    2008-01-01

    Derivatives of testosterone or of 19-nor-testosterone are used as anabolics for the purpose of improving performance although the effect of anabolics is known still to be under discussion. The use of anabolic steroids continues among competitive athletes despite increased controls and increasingly frequent dramatic incidents connected with them. Whereas metabolic dysfunction during anabolic use is well documented, ruptures of the large tendons are rarely reported. Within 18 months, a 29-year-old professional footballer needed surgery for rupture of the patellar tendon and of both Achilles tendons. Carefully directed questioning elicited confirmation that he had taken different anabolic steroids regularly for 3 years with the intention of improving his strength. After each operation anabolic steroids were taken again at a high dosage during early convalescence and training. Minimally invasive surgery and open suturing techniques led to complete union of the Achilles tendons in good time. Training and anabolic use (metenolon 300 mg per week) started early after suturing of the patellar tendon including bone tunnels culminated in histologically confirmed rerupture after 8 weeks. After a ligament reconstruction with a semitendinosus tendon graft with subsequent infection, the tendon and reserve traction apparatus were lost. Repeated warnings of impaired healing if anabolic use was continued had been given without success. In view of the high number of unrecorded cases in competitive and athletic sports, we can assume that the use of anabolic steroids is also of quantitative relevance in the operative treatment of tendon ruptures.

  14. Serum-sex steroids, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-binding globulin inprostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohammad A. Jalil; Begum, D.; Islam, F.

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) develops in elderly males when serumandrogens are relatively lower than in healthy younger males, but is not wellunderstood whether and how sex steroids are altered in prostatic hyperplasia.It is also uncertain that whether there is any change in sex steroids levelsin males older than 40 years of age. The use of androgens in elderly males isoften discouraged because of the probable worsening effect of androgens onprostatism. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prostatichyperplasia and sex steroid levels and whether there is any significantchange in these hormones after the age of 40 years. We studied healthy malesof >40 years with (n=92) or without (n=93) clinical prostatic hyperplasia.Serum testosterone, estradiol, gonadotrophins and sex hormone-bindingglobulin (SHBG) were compared. The hormones and SHGB were also correlatedwith age. No significant difference was found in any hormone in cases withprostatic hyperplasia as compared with the controls. There was no significantage-related change in any hormone except estradiol where as a negativecorrelation (P<0.003) with age was found. Serum sex steroids and SHGBremained unchanged in symptomatic prostatic hyperplasia and except forestrdoil there was no significant age-related change in serum testosterone,gonadotrophins and SHGB in healthy males after the fourth decade. Morestudies are needed to confirm the age-related decline of estrogens in males.(author)

  15. Are Steroids Worth the Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amounts. Testosterone helps build muscle and promotes the masculine traits that guys develop during puberty, such as ... increased facial and body hair growth development of masculine traits, such as deepening of the voice, and ...

  16. Circatrigintan cycle of testosterone in human male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celec, P.; Kudela, M.; Bursky, P.; Ostatnikova, D.; Zdenek PUTZ, Z.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the influence of testosterone on physical and mental well-being has become a focus of research attention. Testosterone is no more considered the m ale hormone . It was proved to influence woman's behaviour and mental functioning as well as that of a man. Cyclic changes throughout the menstrual cycle in women are known. To search for the infradian variations of human male testosterone levels in a follow up study, which was held in autumn 1999 (one month of continuous sampling) and in autumn 2000 (two and a half months of continuous sampling). Testosterone was determined in saliva, which contains biologically active fraction, unbound to proteins. In autumn 2000 sampling of 31 males (mean age 21.3 ± 1.3) collected saliva in the morning 30 minutes after waking-up every second day during one month and every third day during the following 6 weeks. Saliva was deeply frozen and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Data of our preliminary study (based on samples collected in 1999) indicated circatrigintan variations of male salivary testosterone. By the use of two different methods (zones of minimum-moving averages and analysis of variance) circatrigintan and circavigintan cycles of salivary testosterone were found in the collected data of our subjects. The article considerates clinical applications of variation of hormonal levels. (authors)

  17. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum Steroid Ratio Profiles in Prostate Cancer: A New Diagnostic Tool Toward a Personalized Medicine Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Adriana; Bruno, Antonino; Bassani, Barbara; D'Ambrosio, Gioacchino; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Consonni, Paolo; Castellani, Laura; Conti, Matteo; Cristoni, Simone; Noonan, Douglas M

    2018-01-01

    Serum steroids are crucial molecules altered in prostate cancer (PCa). Mass spectrometry (MS) is currently the elected technology for the analysis of steroids in diverse biological samples. Steroids have complex biological pathways and stoichiometry and it is important to evaluate their quantitative ratio. MS applications to patient hormone profiling could lead to a diagnostic approach. Here, we employed the Surface Activated Chemical Ionization-Electrospray-NIST (SANIST) developed in our laboratories, to obtain quantitative serum steroid ratio relationship profiles with a machine learning Bayesian model to discriminate patients with PCa. The approach is focused on steroid relationship profiles and disease association. A pilot study on patients affected by PCa, benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH), and control subjects [prostate-specific antigen (PSA) lower than 2.5 ng/mL] was done in order to investigate the classification performance of the SANIST platform. The steroid profiles of 71 serum samples (31 controls, 20 patients with PCa and 20 subjects with benign prostate hyperplasia) were evaluated. The levels of 10 steroids were quantitated on the SANIST platform: Aldosterone, Corticosterone, Cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, Androstenedione, Testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), 17-OH-Progesterone and Progesterone. We performed both traditional and a machine learning analysis. We show that the machine learning approach based on the steroid relationships developed here was much more accurate than the PSA, DHEAS, and direct absolute value match method in separating the PCa, BPH and control subjects, increasing the sensitivity to 90% and specificity to 84%. This technology, if applied in the future to a larger number of samples will be able to detect the individual enzymatic disequilibrium associated with the steroid ratio and correlate it with the disease. This learning machine approach could be valid in a personalized medicine

  19. Flip-Flop of Steroids in Phospholipid Bilayers: Effects of the Chemical Structure on Transbilayer Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisio, Giulia; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Ferrarini, Alberta

    2012-01-01

    is still missing. The scarce knowledge derives from the difficulty of experimental determination. Because of its slow rate on the molecular time scale, flip-flop is challenging also for computational techniques. Here, we report a study of the passive transbilayer diffusion of steroids, based on a kinetic......, dielectric permittivity, acyl chain order parameters, and lateral pressure. The flip-flop rates are determined by solving the Master Equation that governs the time evolution of the system, with transition rates between free energy minima evaluated according to the Kramers theory. Considering various steroids...... (cholesterol, lanosterol, ketosterone, 5-cholestene, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and testosterone), we can discuss how differences in molecular shape and polarity affect the pathway and the rate of flip-flop in a liquid crystalline 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer, at low steroid...

  20. A new dawn for androgens: Novel lessons from 11-oxygenated C19 steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Elzette; Arlt, Wiebke; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz

    2017-02-05

    The abundant adrenal C19 steroid 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione (11OHA4) has been written off as a dead-end product of adrenal steroidogenesis. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that 11OHA4 is the precursor to the potent androgenic 11-oxygenated steroids, 11-ketotestosterone and 11-ketodihydrotestosterone, that bind and activate the human androgen receptor similarly to testosterone and DHT. The significance of this discovery becomes apparent when considering androgen dependent diseases such as castration resistant prostate cancer and diseases associated with androgen excess, e.g. congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome. In this review we describe the production and metabolism of 11-oxygenated steroids. We subsequently discuss their androgenic activity and highlight the putative role of these androgens in disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study between phenol and imidazole derivatives in radiolabeling of some steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    A phenol or imidazole ring is rarely present in steroid hormones, So, the molecule of steroid hormone requires chemical modification by addition of an iodinable residue like phenol or imedazole. So that the comparative study between phenol derivatives, include tyrosine methyl ester (TME) and tyramine, and imidazole derivatives, like histamine and histedine methyl ester (HME), for radiolabeling of some steroid hormones include estradiol and testosterone is the aim of the present study. The conjugation step was carried using mixed anhydride method and followed by radioiodination using iodogen as an oxidizing agent. Purification step was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Optimization and validation of the tracer were carried out. Immunoreactivity of the all obtained tracers was check by using specific polyclonal antibodies. The results indicated that imidazols derivatives are more suitable from immunoreactivity view and storage period.

  2. Steroid production and estrogen binding in flowers of Gladiolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.H.; Wolfe, G.R.; Janik, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The bioconversion of 3 H-cholesterol to steroids was examined in excised tissue from the pistils and bracts of Gladiolus. Ovary-ovule and stigma-style tissues produce a compound with chromatographic properties on reverse phase HPLC similar to 17β-estradiol (E 2 ). The stigma-style fraction also produced a compound that chromatographed similarly to progesterone. Bracts and the oxidation controls produced no radiolabeled compounds which were chromatographically similar to E 2 . An endogenous E 2 binding protein was partially characterized from the ovules. The protein binds E 2 , estriol, and diethylstilbesterol whereas testosterone and progesterone do not bind. The total specific binding capacities in the cytosolic and nuclear fractions are 1.6 and 2.2 femtomoles of estradiol per mg of tissue. The dissociation constant is 1.1 x 10 -9 M -1 for both subcellular fractions. The protein-estradiol complex has a sedimentation coefficient of 4.7 +/- 0.1S. The tissue specific biosynthesis of estrogens and the presence of a steroid binding protein similar to a Type 1 estrogen receptor found in mammals is suggestive of a role for steroids in pistil ontogeny

  3. Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation. Versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vihko, R.; Hammond, G.L.; Pakarinen, A.; Viinikka, L.

    1978-01-01

    The combination of the efficient steroid-separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM) and the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstanedione, androsterone and 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol in 1- to 2-ml samples of both blood serum and amniotic fluid as well as in 300- to 600-mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyser, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and has decreased the experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (author)

  4. Multiple steroid radioimmunoassays and automation: versatile techniques for reproductive endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vihko, R.; Hammond, G.L.; Pakarinen, A.; Viinikka, L.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of the efficient steroid separating properties of a lipophilic Sephadex derivative Lipidex-5000sup(TM), with the use of antibodies with carefully selected specificity allows the quantitative determination of pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstanedione, androsterone and 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol from 1-2 ml samples of blood serum, amniotic fluid or 300-600 mg pieces of prostatic tissue. The adaptation of the pipetting unit and incubator of a discrete clinical chemical analyzer, System Olli 3000, for the automation of the radioimmunoassays has resulted in a greatly increased through-put and decreased experimental error of the procedure. In studies on reproductive endocrinology, the methodology developed has allowed the detection of a sex difference in androgen composition of the amniotic fluid early in pregnancy. Further, it is very likely that the decline in steroid production by the testis seen during the first year of life and then in senescence is affected by basically different mechanisms. There are also important differences in the steroid content of normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous prostate. (orig.) [de

  5. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  6. A simple method for the small scale synthesis and solid-phase extraction purification of steroid sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Christopher C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2014-12-01

    Steroid sulfates are a major class of steroid metabolite that are of growing importance in fields such as anti-doping analysis, the detection of residues in agricultural produce or medicine. Despite this, many steroid sulfate reference materials may have limited or no availability hampering the development of analytical methods. We report simple protocols for the rapid synthesis and purification of steroid sulfates that are suitable for adoption by analytical laboratories. Central to this approach is the use of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for purification, a technique routinely used for sample preparation in analytical laboratories around the world. The sulfate conjugates of sixteen steroid compounds encompassing a wide range of steroid substitution patterns and configurations are prepared, including the previously unreported sulfate conjugates of the designer steroids furazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[2,3-d]isoxazole), isofurazadrol (17β-hydroxyandrostan[3,2-c]isoxazole) and trenazone (17β-hydroxyestra-4,9-dien-3-one). Structural characterization data, together with NMR and mass spectra are reported for all steroid sulfates, often for the first time. The scope of this approach for small scale synthesis is highlighted by the sulfation of 1μg of testosterone (17β-hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one) as monitored by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dietary phytoestrogens on plasma testosterone and triiodothyronine (T3) levels in male goat kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Exposure to xenoestrogens in humans and animals has gained increasing attention due to the effects of these compounds on reproduction. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of low-dose dietary phytoestrogen exposure, i.e. a mixture of genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, on the establishment of testosterone production during puberty in male goat kids. Methods Goat kids at the age of 3 months received either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with phytoestrogens (3 - 4 mg/kg/day) for ~3 months. Plasma testosterone and total and free triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were determined weekly. Testicular levels of testosterone and cAMP were measured at the end of the experiment. Repeated measurement analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure on the generated averages, according to the Statistical Analysis System program package (Release 6.12, 1996, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) was carried out. Results No significant difference in plasma testosterone concentration between the groups was detected during the first 7 weeks. However, at the age of 5 months (i.e. October 1, week 8) phytoestrogen-treated animals showed significantly higher testosterone concentrations than control animals (37.5 nmol/l vs 19.1 nmol/l). This elevation was preceded by a rise in plasma total T3 that occurred on September 17 (week 6). A slightly higher concentration of free T3 was detected in the phytoestrogen group at the same time point, but it was not until October 8 and 15 (week 9 and 10) that a significant difference was found between the groups. At the termination of the experiment, testicular cAMP levels were significantly lower in goats fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Phytoestrogen-fed animals also had lower plasma and testicular testosterone concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens can stimulate testosterone synthesis during puberty in

  8. Effects of dietary phytoestrogens on plasma testosterone and triiodothyronine (T3 levels in male goat kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekstedt Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to xenoestrogens in humans and animals has gained increasing attention due to the effects of these compounds on reproduction. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of low-dose dietary phytoestrogen exposure, i.e. a mixture of genistein, daidzein, biochanin A and formononetin, on the establishment of testosterone production during puberty in male goat kids. Methods Goat kids at the age of 3 months received either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with phytoestrogens (3 - 4 mg/kg/day for ~3 months. Plasma testosterone and total and free triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations were determined weekly. Testicular levels of testosterone and cAMP were measured at the end of the experiment. Repeated measurement analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure on the generated averages, according to the Statistical Analysis System program package (Release 6.12, 1996, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA was carried out. Results No significant difference in plasma testosterone concentration between the groups was detected during the first 7 weeks. However, at the age of 5 months (i.e. October 1, week 8 phytoestrogen-treated animals showed significantly higher testosterone concentrations than control animals (37.5 nmol/l vs 19.1 nmol/l. This elevation was preceded by a rise in plasma total T3 that occurred on September 17 (week 6. A slightly higher concentration of free T3 was detected in the phytoestrogen group at the same time point, but it was not until October 8 and 15 (week 9 and 10 that a significant difference was found between the groups. At the termination of the experiment, testicular cAMP levels were significantly lower in goats fed a phytoestrogen-supplemented diet. Phytoestrogen-fed animals also had lower plasma and testicular testosterone concentrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that phytoestrogens can stimulate testosterone

  9. Isolation Of Compounds Of Steroids Teripang Gamat (Stichopus variegatus With Various Types Of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meydia Meydia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSea cucumber is one of the fisheries commodity that has an important economic value. Generally is traded in dried form (beche-de-mer. One of thebioactive substances contained in sea cucumber is steroid compounds that serves as an aphrodisiac and sex reversal. The purpose of this study was to extract the steroid of the gamma sea cucumber by using three types of solvents (methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane and get the best solvent in producing the highest yield of the steroids. The study revealed that steroid of gamma sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus dissolved completely ethyl acetate (semi-polar solvent during the first phase, second phase and the third phase of extraction. In the methanol (polar solvent steroids only dissolved in the first extraction phase, while using the hexane (non polar solvent steroid was undetectable. Fractionation by thin layer chromatography was obtained two fractions that identified as cholesterol (Rf = 0.96 and testosterone (Rf = 0.91.

  10. Practical aspects of screening of anabolic steroids in doping control with particular accent to nortestosterone radioimmunoassay using mixed antisera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampl, R.; Starka, L.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay of two main classes of anabolic steroids, suitable for screening of these drugs in doping control is described and evaluated. Antisera against 17α-methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyl-oxime-BSA were raised in both rabbits and goats. To enhance the specificity of nortestosterone assay, two goat antisera against nortestosterone-17β-hemisuccinate-BSA (Ab. 1) and nortestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA (Ab. 2) were raised which recognized selectively 19-nor-3-oxosteroids and 19-nor-17β-hydroxysteroids, respectively. Using their mixture, the cross-reaction of naturally occuring steroids except for testosterone could be minimized. Tritiated steroids were used as tracers. Iodinated methyltestosterone and nortestosterone, prepared by simple melting of these steroids with Na 125 I, could be used as alternative radioligands. Some questions concerning the expression of results and practical limitations of doping control of anabolics are discussed. (author)

  11. Practical aspects of screening of anabolic steroids in doping control with particular accent to nortestosterone radioimmunoassay using mixed antisera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampl, R; Starka, L [Research Institute Endocrinology Prague, Czechoslavakia

    1979-07-01

    A radioimmunoassay of two main classes of anabolic steroids, suitable for screening of these drugs in doping control is described and evaluated. Antisera against 17..cap alpha..-methyltestosterone-3-carboxymethyl-oxime-BSA were raised in both rabbits and goats. To enhance the specificity of nortestosterone assay, two goat antisera against nortestosterone-17..beta..-hemisuccinate-BSA (Ab. 1) and nortestosterone-3-carboxymethyloxime-BSA (Ab. 2) were raised which recognized selectively 19-nor-3-oxosteroids and 19-nor-17..beta..-hydroxysteroids, respectively. Using their mixture, the cross-reaction of naturally occuring steroids except for testosterone could be minimized. Tritiated steroids were used as tracers. Iodinated methyltestosterone and nortestosterone, prepared by simple melting of these steroids with Na/sup 125/I, could be used as alternative radioligands. Some questions concerning the expression of results and practical limitations of doping control of anabolics are discussed.

  12. Mouldy feed: A possible explanation for the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2016-05-01

    To ensure fair competition and to protect the horse's welfare, horses have to compete on their own merits, without any unfair advantage that might follow the use of drugs. Therefore, regulatory authorities list all substances that are not allowed in competition, including most anabolic-androgenic steroids. As zero-tolerance is retained, the question arose whether the consumption of mouldy feed could lead to the excretion of steroids, due to the biotransformation of plant phytosterols to steroids. A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analytical method, previously validated according to AORC (Association of Official Racing Chemists) and EC (European Commission) guidelines, was used to measure steroids in different sample types. Multiple mouldy feed samples were tested for the presence of steroids. The effect of digestion was tested by in vitro simulation of the horse's hindgut in batch incubations. In most feed samples no steroids were detected, even when the products were mouldy. Mouldy corn however showed to contain up to 3.0 ± 0.4 µg/kg AED (4-androstenedione), the main testosterone precursor. This concentration increased when mouldy corn (with added phytosterols) was digested in vitro. An herbal phytosupplement also showed to contain α-testosterone. These results demonstrate that it is important to caution against the consumption of any feed or (herbal) supplement of which the detailed ingredients and quantitative analysis are unknown. The consumption of mouldy corn should especially be avoided, not only from a horse health and welfare point of view, but also to avoid possible inadvertent positive doping results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of male multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Donatella; Melis, Marta; Fenu, Giuseppe; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Grimoldi, Maria; Crippa, Donatella; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2014-08-01

    Neuroactive steroid family includes molecules synthesized in peripheral glands (i.e., hormonal steroids) and directly in the nervous system (i.e., neurosteroids) which are key regulators of the nervous function. As already reported in clinical and experimental studies, neurodegenerative diseases affect the levels of neuroactive steroids. However, a careful analysis comparing the levels of these molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is still missing. To this aim, the levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in CSF and plasma of male adults affected by Relapsing-Remitting MS and compared with those collected in control patients. An increase in pregnenolone and isopregnanolone levels associated with a decrease in progesterone metabolites, dihydroprogesterone, and tetrahydroprogesterone was observed in CSF of MS patients. Moreover, an increase of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and of 17β-estradiol levels associated with a decrease of dihydrotestosterone also occurred. In plasma, an increase in pregnenolone, progesterone, and dihydrotestosterone and a decrease in dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone levels were reported. This study shows for the first time that the levels of several neuroactive steroids, and particularly those of progesterone and testosterone metabolites, are deeply affected in CSF of relapsing-remitting MS male patients. We here demonstrated that, the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma levels of several neuroactive steroids are modified in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis male patients. Interestingly, we reported for the first time that, the levels of progesterone and testosterone metabolites are deeply affected in cerebrospinal fluid. These findings may have an important relevance in therapeutic and/or diagnostic field of multiple sclerosis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wagels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status–seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration. A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants’ choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se. In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  15. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, Lisa; Votinov, Mikhail; Kellermann, Thilo; Eisert, Albrecht; Beyer, Cordian; Habel, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status-seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration). A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants' choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se . In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  16. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  17. Steroids and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Meroni, Marianna; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    From the middle of the 19th century, it is known that endocrine and immune systems interact bi-directionally in different processes that ensure organism homeostasis. Endocrine and nervous systems have a pivotal role in the balancing of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of immune system, and constitute a complex circadian neuroendocrine network. Autoimmune diseases have in fact a complex pathogenic origin in which the importance of endocrine system was demonstrated. In this chapter, we will mention the structure and function of steroidal hormones involved in the neuroendocrine immune network and we will address the ways in which endocrine and immune systems influence each other, in a bi-directional fashion. Adrenal hormones, sex hormones, vitamin D, and melatonin and prolactin importantly all contribute to the homeostasis of the immune system. Indeed, some of the steroidal hormone activities determine inhibition or stimulation of immune system components, in both physiological (i.e. suppression of an unwanted response in pregnancy, or stimulation of a protective response in infections) and pathological conditions. We will finally mention the rationale for optimization of exogenous administration of glucocorticoids in chronic autoimmune diseases, and the latest developments concerning these drugs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Steroidal saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Inoue, T; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    1996-12-01

    The methanol extract of the whole plant of Sansevieria trifasciata has yielded 12 steroidal saponins, 10 of which are new constituents. The respective structures of the new compounds have been shown by the spectroscopic evidence, and alkaline- and acid-catalysed degradation. This is the first report of the isolation of steroidal saponins from S. trifasciata.

  19. In Vitro Exposure of Porcine Ovarian Follicular Cells to PCB 153 Alters Steroid Secretion But Not Their Viability—Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous paper[1], we demonstrated that porcine follicles collected during the early stage of development are the most sensitive to the toxic action of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153. Follicles of this type were collected to test the effect of PCB 153 on cell steroidogenesis and viability. Cocultures of granulosa and theca cells were grown in M199 medium at 37ºC. Control cultures were maintained in that medium alone, while experimental ones were supplemented with PCB 153 at doses of 5, 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml. After 48, 96, and 144 h, media were collected for steroid analysis and cell viability was measured using an LDH (lactate dehydrogenase activity cytotoxicity test. A 2-day exposure of follicular cells to all the investigated doses of PCB 153 caused a statistically significant decrease in progesterone (P4 secretion, while in doses of 50 and 100 ng/ml there was also a decrease in testosterone (T secretion. No effect on estradiol (E2 secretion was observed. The observed decrease in P4 and T secretion, and lack of any statistically significant effect on E2 secretion by cells from small follicles exposed for 48 h to PCB, suggests that PCB 153 acts before P4 formation. Longer exposures caused an increase in P4 secretion, with a concomitant drastic decrease in T secretion and a tendency to decrease the E2 secretion, suggesting inhibition of P450 17α hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that converts P4 to T. The observed PCB 153–induced increase in P4 secretion by cells collected from small antral follicles, with a concomitant decrease in E2 secretion, accounts for the induction of luteinization and, in this case, inhibition of aromatization process in the follicles. However, in all doses tested and at all times of exposure, PCB 153 had no effect on cell viability. These findings suggest different time of exposure–dependent action of PCB 153 on particular steps of steroidogenesis but not action on cell viability. These results

  20. Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2014-01-01

    Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC.

  1. TeBG- and CBG-bound steroid hormones in rabbits are available for influx into uterus in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, G.; Steingold, K.A.; Pardridge, W.M.; Judd, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones in rabbits often does not bear the expected inverse relationship with hormone binding to testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) or corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). This suggests TeBG or CBG may not impede steroid hormone delivery to tissues. The effects of rabbit plasma proteins on the influxes of 3 H-labeled steroids from the circulation into the rabbit uterus were measured in vivo using a tissue sampling single-injection technique. In the absence of plasma proteins, estradiol (E 2 ) and testosterone (T) were freely diffusible through the uterine microvasculature (i.e., extraction >80%). The extractions of dihydrostestosterone (DHT) and corticosterone (B) ranged from 60 to 72%, while that of cortisol (F) was reduced at 40%. Rabbit serum exerted no inhibition of the influxes of the steroids tested. The influxes of T and B greatly exceeded the rates that would be expected if only the free and albumin-bound fractions estimated in vitro were diffusible in vivo. However, the extraction of [ 3 H]corticosteroid-binding globulin or bovine [ 3 H]albumin were low, consistent with little, if any, extravascular uptake of the plasma proteins. The results indicate both albumin-bound and globulin-bound steroid hormone are available for transport into the uterus in the rabbit in vivo without significant exodus of the plasma protein, per se

  2. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah MI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available M Iftekhar Ullah,1 Daniel M Riche,1,2 Christian A Koch1,31Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi, 3GV (Sonny Montgomery VA Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.Keywords: hypogonadism, transdermal, testosterone, sexual function, testosterone replacement therapy, estradiol

  3. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Vaqas; Berg, Maayken E L van den; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013), EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36), trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture.Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria), extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living) and adverse events, including mortality. We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high risk of bias, imprecise results and likelihood of publication bias

  4. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaqas Farooqi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8, MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013, EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36, trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living and adverse events, including mortality. MAIN RESULTS: We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high

  5. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase ≥25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease ≥25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  6. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, CA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  7. Direct effect of gonadal and contraceptive steroids on insulin release from mouse pancreatic islets in organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1984-01-01

    Sex steroids are supposed to contribute to the normal glucose homeostasis and to the altered glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnancy and during contraception. In the present study isolated mouse pancreatic islets were maintained in tissue culture medium RPMI 1640 supplemented with 0.5% newborn...... calf serum and 100 ng/ml of one of the following steroids: oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, megestrol acetate, medroxyprogesterone, chlormadinone acetate, norethynodrel, norethindrone acetate, and ethynyloestradiol. Release of insulin to the culture medium was measured during a 2 week culture...... in the presence of oestradiol, progesterone, or testosterone were subjected to 30 min stimulation with 5.5, 11, 22 mmol/l glucose, only the progesterone-treated islets released more insulin in response to glucose than the control islets. It is concluded that progesterone and its derivatives have a direct effect...

  8. Determination of the deuterium/hydrogen ratio of endogenous urinary steroids for doping control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Thomas; Thevis, Mario; Flenker, Ulrich; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2009-07-01

    The development and application of a combined gas chromatography/thermal conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/TC/IRMS) method for D/H ratio determination of endogenous urinary steroids are presented. The key element in sample preparation was the consecutive cleanup with high-performance liquid chromatography of initially native and subsequently acetylated steroids. This strategy enabled sufficient cleanup off all target analytes for determination of their respective D/H values. Ten steroids (11beta-hydroxyandrosterone, 5alpha-androst-16-en-3alpha-ol, pregnanediol, androsterone, etiocholanolone, testosterone, epitestosterone, 5alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol, 5beta-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol and dehydroepiandrosterone) were measured from a single urine specimen. Depending on the biological background, the determination limit for all steroids ranged from 10 to 15 ng/mL for a 20 mL specimen. The method was validated by application of linear mixing models on each steroid and covered repeatability and reproducibility. The specificity of the procedure was ensured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of the sample using equivalent chromatographic conditions to those employed in the GC/TC/IRMS measurement. Within the sample preparation, no isotopic fractionation was observed, and no amount-dependent shift of the D/H ratios during the measurement was noticed. Possible memory effects occurring during IRMS measurements were corrected by applying a simple rule of proportion. In order to determine the naturally occurring D/H ratios of all implemented steroids, a population of 18 male subjects was analyzed. Relevant mean Delta values among selected steroids were calculated which allowed us to study the metabolic pathways and production sites of all the implemented steroids with additional consideration of the corresponding (13)C/(12)C ratios. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Steroid isotopic standards for gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Tobias, Herbert J; Brenna, J Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Carbon isotope ratio (CIR) analysis of urinary steroids using gas chromatography-combustion isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) is a recognized test to detect illicit doping with synthetic testosterone. There are currently no universally used steroid isotopic standards (SIS). We adapted a protocol to prepare isotopically uniform steroids for use as a calibrant in GCC-IRMS that can be analyzed under the same conditions as used for steroids extracted from urine. Two separate SIS containing a mixture of steroids were created and coded CU/USADA 33-1 and CU/USADA 34-1, containing acetates and native steroids, respectively. CU/USADA 33-1 contains 5alpha-androstan-3beta-ol acetate (5alpha-A-AC), 5alpha-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one acetate (androsterone acetate, A-AC), 5beta-androstan-3alpha-ol-11, 17-dione acetate (11-ketoetiocholanolone acetate, 11k-AC) and 5alpha-cholestane (Cne). CU/USADA 34-1 contains 5beta-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one (etiocholanolone, E), 5alpha-androstan-3alpha-ol-17-one (androsterone, A), and 5beta-pregnane-3alpha, 20alpha-diol (5betaP). Each mixture was prepared and dispensed into a set of about 100 ampoules using a protocol carefully designed to minimize isotopic fractionation and contamination. A natural gas reference material, NIST RM 8559, traceable to the international standard Vienna PeeDee Belemnite (VPDB) was used to calibrate the SIS. Absolute delta(13)C(VPDB) and Deltadelta(13)C(VPDB) values from randomly selected ampoules from both SIS indicate uniformity of steroid isotopic composition within measurement reproducibility, SD(delta(13)C)<0.2 per thousand. This procedure for creation of isotopic steroid mixtures results in consistent standards with isotope ratios traceable to the relevant international reference material.

  10. Synthesis of 4-substituted and 6-substituted 4-En-3-ketosteroids to be used in radioimmunoassays of testosterone and progesterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handschuh, D.

    1983-01-01

    The synthetic antigens required for the development of a specific radioimmunoassay for steroids are obtained, if derivatives of steroid carboxylic acid are bound to the lysin residues of bovine serum albumin. In this study, the carboxyl groups were introduced into the steroid in positions C4 or C6. For this purpose the 4-en-3-ketosteroids, progesterone and testosterone, were functionalised in C6, which is an allylic C atom. One or two further steps were required for the formation of the carboxyl acid derivatives, which then replaced the above-mentioned atoms C4 and C6. Described are the synthesis of 4-S-mercaptopropionic acid derivatives of progesterone and testosterone using 2-step or 4-step reaction procedures as well as alternative methods of synthetising different derivatives of 6-methylidene carboxyl acid. In order to characterise the products obtained measurements were carried out on the basis of 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, IR spectra, CD and mass spectroscopy. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  12. Uptake of [3H]testosterone and its metabolites by the brain and pituitary gland of the fetal macaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, R.P.; Bonsall, R.W.; Rees, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Testosterone is secreted by the fetal testis during gestation, and this is thought to influence certain aspects of the brain's subsequent development. To study this action at the neuronal level, nine macaque fetuses were injected with 250 microCi [3H]testosterone via the umbilical vein at about 120 days gestation. After 60 min, samples of brain and peripheral tissue were studied by autoradiography or HPLC. Purified nuclear pellets were prepared, and radioactivity in ether extracts was fractionated by HPLC and identified by coelution with internal standard steroids. Concentrations of radioactivity were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) in the hypothalamus-preoptic area than in amygdala, hippocampus, midbrain, and cerebral and cerebellar cortexes, and most of the radioactivity (75%) in the hypothalamus-preoptic area coeluted with 17 beta-estradiol. Radioactivity coeluting with 17 beta-estradiol was also detected in nuclear fractions from amygdala (44%). In contrast, 80% of the radioactivity extracted from pituitary gland nuclei coeluted with testosterone. Most of the neurons labeled in autoradiograms were located in the hypothalamus and preoptic area, fewer were found in the amygdala, and labeling in the frontal or motor cortex did not exceed chance levels. Results suggested that aromatization and, consequently, estrogen receptors play a role in the effects of testosterone on the hypothalamus and amygdala of the primate fetus at this stage of development

  13. Heavy Testosterone Use Among Bodybuilders: An Uncommon Cohort of Illicit Substance Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Mary E; Charchenko, Cameron M; Ziegelmann, Matthew J; Bailey, George C; Nippoldt, Todd B; Trost, Landon

    2016-02-01

    To identify and characterize patterns of use among a contemporary cohort of current anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users. An anonymous, self-administered, 49-item questionnaire was posted on message boards of Internet websites popular among AAS users and administered via SurveyMonkey from February 1, 2015, to June 1, 2015. Thirty-seven questions were analyzed for this study. A total of 231 male respondents met the inclusion criteria. Most were white, were older than 25 years, were employed with above average income, and had received a formal education beyond high school. Ninety-three percent began using AAS after the age of 18 years, and 81% reported using 400 mg or more of testosterone per week. Factors associated with longer duration of use (>5 years) included higher incomes (≥$75,000, P=.003), increased testosterone dosages (>600 mg per week, P=.007), older age (≥35 years, PInternet was the most common source of testosterone (53%). Ninety-three percent used at least one additional performance-enhancing drug. Seventy-seven percent had routine laboratory tests performed, and 38% reported laboratory abnormalities at some point. Nearly all experienced subjective adverse effects while using and not using testosterone. Fifty-three percent reported use of other illegal substances, most commonly (90%) beginning before AAS initiation. Ten percent had a criminal conviction, 91% of which preceded AAS use. Fifty percent were felonies. The population of AAS users is disparate from that of other drugs of abuse. Laboratory test abnormalities and adverse effects are common and should be taken into account when counseling patients who may be using AASs. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Robert D.; Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Kanayama, Gen; Leone, James E.; Pavlovich, Mike; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    This NATA position statement was developed by the NATA Research & Education Foundation. Objective This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others. Background Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects. Recommendations Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research. PMID:23068595

  15. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  16. Subject-based steroid profiling and the determination of novel biomarkers for DHT and DHEA misuse in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Saugy, Martial; Delbeke, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Doping with natural steroids can be detected by evaluating the urinary concentrations and ratios of several endogenous steroids. Since these biomarkers of steroid doping are known to present large inter-individual variations, monitoring of individual steroid profiles over time allows switching from population-based towards subject-based reference ranges for improved detection. In an Athlete Biological Passport (ABP), biomarkers data are collated throughout the athlete's sporting career and individual thresholds defined adaptively. For now, this approach has been validated on a limited number of markers of steroid doping, such as the testosterone (T) over epitestosterone (E) ratio to detect T misuse in athletes. Additional markers are required for other endogenous steroids like dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). By combining comprehensive steroid profiles composed of 24 steroid concentrations with Bayesian inference techniques for longitudinal profiling, a selection was made for the detection of DHT and DHEA misuse. The biomarkers found were rated according to relative response, parameter stability, discriminative power, and maximal detection time. This analysis revealed DHT/E, DHT/5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol/5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol as best biomarkers for DHT administration and DHEA/E, 16α-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone/E, 7β-hydroxydehydroepiandrosterone/E and 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol/5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol for DHEA. The selected biomarkers were found suitable for individual referencing. A drastic overall increase in sensitivity was obtained. The use of multiple markers as formalized in an Athlete Steroidal Passport (ASP) can provide firm evidence of doping with endogenous steroids. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Development of a GC/C/IRMS method--confirmation of a novel steroid profiling approach in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Polet, Michael; Brooker, Lance; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In doping control, an athlete can only be convicted with the misuse with endogenous steroids like testosterone (T), if abnormal values of steroid metabolites and steroid ratios are observed and if the subsequent analysis with isotope ratios mass spectrometry (IRMS) confirms the presence of exogenously administered androgens. In this work, we compare the results of a novel steroid profiling approach with the performance an in-house developed IRMS method. The developed IRMS has the advantage over other methods to be relatively short in time and with target compounds androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5β-androstane 3α,17β-diol and 5α-androstane 3α,17β-diol. Pregnanediol was used as an endogenous reference compound (ERC). Reference limits for the IRMS values were established and applied as decision limits for the evaluation of excretion urine from administration with oral T, T-gel, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) - gel and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Results indicated the importance of both androstanediols as important IRMS markers where relative values compared to an ERC (Δδ(13)C) yielded better detection accuracy than absolute δ(13)C-values. The detection times of all administered endogenous steroids were evaluated using the proposed thresholds. The results of traditional steroid profiling and a new approach based upon minor steroid metabolites monitoring introduced in a longitudinal framework were evaluated with IRMS. With traditional steroid profiling methods, 95% of the atypical samples could be confirmed whereas an additional 74% of IRMS confirmed was provided by a new biomarkers strategy. These results prove that the other steroid profiling strategies can improve the efficiency in detection of misuse with endogenous steroids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Beyond the reproductive effect of sex steroids: their role during immunity to helminth parasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bello, R; Nava-Castro, K; Muñiz-Hernández, S; Nava-Luna, P; Trejo-Sánchez, Itztli; Tiempos-Guzmán, N; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Y; Morales-Montor, J

    2012-10-01

    During the helminth infections, the immune system tends to be modulated by host's sex hormones. Actually, many studies show the reciprocal relationship between sex steroids, the immune system and the elimination or establishment of helminth parasites. Is well known that innate immune response determines the type of adaptive immune response, so the effects in the innate immune response by hormones may affect subsequent adaptive immunity. The sex steroids as estrogens, progesterone and testosterone regulate growth, differentiation, survival and function of many cell types that could be involved in process like homeostasis and immunity, but also have a direct effect on the helminthes, that may probably be mediated by specific receptors on these parasites. Sex steroids, parasites and immunity are closely connected, and their interconnection is involved in the maintenance of elimination or establishment of helminthes in an immunocompetent host. For that reason, understanding the action's mechanisms of sex steroids on immune cells and its direct effect on helminth parasites is important for further progress in the development of novel therapies for chronic helminth diseases associated to immune dysregulation. In this review, we will describe the effects of sex steroids on the immune response during helminth infections as well as the direct effect in these parasites, and the possible implications of these effects on the incidence of several helminth infections.

  19. Validity of Serum Testosterone, Free Androgen Index, and Calculated Free Testosterone in Women with Suspected Hyperandrogenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal K. Al Kindi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are technical limitations for the currently available methods of measuring serum total and free testosteronein females. The study objectives were to evaluate the usefulness of serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free androgen index (FAI, and calculated free testosterone (CFT in the assessment of androgen status in women investigated for suspected hyperandrogenism.Methods: This is a case control study that was conducted during the period from 1st May 2011 to 31st October 2011 on 122 patients aged (18-45 years whom were referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory from the Endocrinology and Gynecology Clinics, Royal Hospital, Oman. Women with no clinical feature or laboratory data indicative of hormonal dysfunction and with midluteal progesterone >30 nmol/L were selected as controls (group 1; n=18. The patients were divided into subgroups based on the clinical/laboratory diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS [group 2; n=19, hirsutism (group 3; n=18, menstrual disturbances (irregularities or infertility (group 4; n=49, as well as combination of PCOS or hirsutism and menstrual disturbances or infertility (group 5;n=18. Serum total testosterone and SHBG were measured, FAI was calculated as percentage ratio of total testosterone to SHBG values, and CFT was calculated according to Vermeulen equation.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean levels of testosterone, FAI and CFT in each patient group compared with the control group. For diagnosing hyperandrogenism, each indicator was selected at the recommended cut-off: testosterone >3.0 nmol/L, SHBG 5%, and CFT >32 pmol/L. In group 2, 89.5% and 94.7% of the patients had increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 36.4% for increased testosterone. In group 3, 88.9% and 88.9% of the patients had similarly increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 66.7% for testosterone. In group 4, patients had 63.3% and 73

  20. Testosterone and aging: clinical research directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liverman, Catharyn T; Blazer, Dan G., II

    2004-01-01

    .... Viewed by some as an “antiaging tonic,†testosterone’s reputation and increased use by men of all ages in the United States have outpaced the scientific evidence about its potential benefits and risks...

  1. Testosterone inhibits trust but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although dominance behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior but also through prosocial behavior. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of testosterone

  2. Oestrogen, testosterone, cytotoxin and cholinesterase inhibitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oestrogen, testosterone, cytotoxin and cholinesterase inhibitor removal during reclamation of sewage to drinking water. ... Risks associated with sewage effluent and reclaimed sewage should be closely monitored; therefore water at the Gammams Sewage Treatment Plant (GSTP) inlet and outlet, as well as reclaimed water ...

  3. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.; Meergans, U.; Traish, A.; Saad, F.; Doros, G.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Gooren, L.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L,

  4. Urinary Steroid Profile in Ironman Triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos-Serrano Marta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine variations in the urinary steroid profile of triathletes following an Ironman event. A total of 10 male participants (age = 36.0 ± 1.27 years; body height = 179.29 ± 10.77 cm; body mass = 74.50 ± 1.04 kg completed an Ironman Championship. Urine samples were collected before, immediately after, and 24 hours following the race. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS was used to detect and quantify catabolic and anabolic hormones: Androsterone, Dehydroepiandrosteone (DHEA, Androstenedione and Testosterone (T, Betaestradiol, Estrone, Progesterone, Cortisol (C, Cortisone, Tetrahydrocortisol (THE and Tetrahydrocortisone (THF. These were measured in their glucuroconjugated and free forms. Androsterone (3297.80 ± 756.83 vs. 2154.26 ± 1375.38, DHEA (47.80 ± 19.21 vs. 32.62 ± 15.96 and Beta-estradiol (59.36 ± 11.7 vs. 41.67 ± 10.59 levels decreased after the event. The significant decrease of DHEA (47.80 ± 19.21 vs. 32.11 ± 14.03 remained at 24 hours. Cortisol (200.38 ± 56.60 vs. 257.10 ± 74.00 and THE (238.65 ± 81.55 vs. 289.62 ± 77.13 increased after exercise and remained elevated 24 hours later (200.38 ± 56.60 vs. 252.48 ± 62.09; 238.65 ± 81.55 vs. 284.20 ± 66.66. The following anabolic/catabolic ratios fell after exercise: T/C (0.85 ± 0.54 vs. 0.54 ± 0.29, T/THE (0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.40 ± 0.08, T/THE+THF (0.38 ± 0.17 vs. 0.24 ± 0.06, DHEA/THE (0.22 ± 0.05 vs. 0.12 ± 0.05, DHEA/THF (0.34 ± 0.02 vs. 0.21 ± 0.01 and DHEA/THE+THF (0.12 ± 0.02 vs. 0.08 ± 0.03. The steroid profile showed that athletes were fatigued after finishing the competition and a catabolic state remained 24 hours later.

  5. A validated UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantify low levels of anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Anneleen; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnes; Bonnaire, Yves; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Doping control is a main priority for regulatory bodies of both the horse racing industry and the equestrian sports. Urine and blood samples are screened for the presence of hundreds of forbidden substances including anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Based on the suspected endogenous origin of some AASs, with β-boldenone as the most illicit candidate, this study aimed to improve the knowledge of the naturally present AAS in horse urine. To this extent, a novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) and European Commission (EC) guidelines, proving the power of this new method. Low limits of detection (0.2 ng/mL), good reproducibility (percentage of standard deviation (%RSD)  0.99 and lack-of-fit analysis) were obtained for all included AASs. With this method, urine samples of 105 guaranteed untreated horses (47 geldings, 53 mares, and 5 stallions serving as a control) were screened for β-boldenone and five related natural steroids: androstadienedione (ADD), androstenedione (AED), alpha-testosterone (αT), beta-testosterone (βT), and progesterone (P). Progesterone, β-testosterone, and α-testosterone were detected in more than half of the horses at low concentrations (anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses (mares and geldings).

  6. The marketing of testosterone treatments for age-related low testosterone or 'Low T'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    To summarize the research evidence on promotion of testosterone for 'Low T', or age-related hypogonadism. Marketing of testosterone for 'Low T' has relied on strategies that are inadequately regulated to prevent off-label promotion, such as unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising campaigns targeting the general public, sponsored continuing medical education (CME) and ghostwriting. A recent US analysis of television advertising exposure levels versus insurance claims found that both unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising and branded ads were associated with increased rates of testosterone testing, treatment initiation, and treatment without prior testing. Exposés of sponsored CME and ghostwriting indicate misrepresentation of the research evidence on the sequelae of untreated low testosterone and on treatment efficacy. In the United States, advertising to the general public ceased in 2014 after the Food and Drug Administration changed product labeling to clarify that testosterone is only indicated for pathological hypogonadism. Unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising to the general public and 'Low T' messages for health professionals have continued elsewhere. The review of the experience of promotion of testosterone for 'Low T' and research evidence on effects of advertising targeting the public highlights the need for improved regulation of unbranded 'disease awareness' advertising to ensure adequate protection of public.

  7. Neurosteroids in Adult Hippocampus of Male and Female Rodents: Biosynthesis and Actions of Sex Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Hojo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain is not only the target of steroid hormones but also is able to locally synthesize steroids de novo. Evidence of the local production of steroids in the brain has been accumulating in various vertebrates, including teleost fish, amphibia, birds, rodents, non-human primates, and humans. In this review, we mainly focus on the local production of sex steroids in the hippocampal neurons of adult rodents (rats and mice, a center for learning and memory. From the data of the hippocampus of adult male rats, hippocampal principal neurons [pyramidal cells in CA1–CA3 and granule cells in dentate gyrus (DG] have a complete system for biosynthesis of sex steroids. Liquid chromatography with tandem-mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS enabled us to accurately determine the levels of hippocampal sex steroids including 17β-estradiol (17β-E2, testosterone (T, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which are much higher than those in blood. Next, we review the steroid synthesis in the hippocampus of female rats, since previous knowledge had been biased toward the data from males. Recently, we clarified that the levels of hippocampal steroids fluctuate in adult female rats across the estrous cycle. Accurate determination of hippocampal steroids at each stage of the estrous cycle is of importance for providing the account for the fluctuation of female hippocampal functions, including spine density, long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD, and learning and memory. These functional fluctuations in female had been attributed to the level of circulation-derived steroids. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that the dendritic spine density in CA1 of adult female hippocampus correlates with the levels of hippocampal progesterone and 17β-E2. Finally, we introduce the direct evidence of the role of hippocampus-synthesized steroids in hippocampal function including neurogenesis, LTP, and memory consolidation. Mild exercise (2 week of treadmill running elevated

  8. Testosterone is associated with self-employment among Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Francis J; Han, Liang; Martin, Sean; Zhang, Song; Wittert, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Testosterone has pronounced effects on men's physiological development and smaller, more nuanced, impacts on their economic behavior. In this study of 1199 Australian adult males, we investigate the relationship between the self-employed and their serum testosterone levels. Because prior studies have identified that testosterone is a hormone that is responsive to external factors (e.g. competition, risk-taking), we explicitly control for omitted variable bias and reverse causality by using an instrumental variable approach. We use insulin as our primary instrument to account for endogeneity between testosterone and self-employment. This is because prior research has identified a relationship between insulin and testosterone but not between insulin and self-employment. Our results show that there is a positive association between total testosterone and self-employment. Robustness checks using bioavailable testosterone and another similar instrument (daily alcohol consumption) confirm this positive finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  10. Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in testicular interstitial fluid under thyroxine influence; Avaliacao da testosterona no fluido intersticial testicular sob influencia da tiroxina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Isvania Maria S. da; Pereira, Simey de L.S.; Souza, Grace Mary L.; Carvalho, Elaine F.M.B.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Silveira, Maria de Fatima G. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia; Lima Filho, Guilherme L. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Nazare da Mata, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Formacao de Professores

    2000-07-01

    The thyroid hormones possibly exert a reciprocal action between testicular steroids and Sertoli's cells during the premature period. This work aims to evaluate thyroxine effect on testosterone serum levels and in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) in rats. Wistar males rats, 22 days old, 80g of body weight, were induced to hyperthyroidism with thyroxine (20{mu}g/kg) in periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 consecutive days. After the treatment the animals were weighed and sacrificed for blood and testis collection. From the blood serum and from the TIF drained from the testis were performed testes in order to obtain testosterone attached to {sup 125} I with a specific activity of 36,86 MBq/ig. The results have shown a testosterone significant lineal increase in both - serum and TIF - in the group treated with thyroxine as a time function. In the control group, testosterone levels remained low in both serum and TIF dosages. As a result, we were able to verify that the testosterone levels could be modified by thyroxine in serum and TIF. And so, it could affect luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in hypophysis. (author)

  11. Sudden or unnatural deaths involving anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Torok, Michelle; Duflou, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are frequently misused. To determine causes of death, characteristics, toxicology, and pathology of AAS positive cases, all cases (n = 24) presenting to the New South Wales Department of Forensic Medicine (1995-2012) were retrieved. All were male, and the mean age was 31.7 years. Deaths were mainly due to accidental drug toxicity (62.5%), then suicide (16.7%) and homicide (12.5%). Abnormal testosterone/epitestosterone ratios were reported in 62.5%, followed by metabolites of nandrolone (58.3%), stanozolol (33.3%), and methandienone (20.8%). In 23 of 24 cases, substances other than steroids were detected, most commonly psychostimulants (66.7%). In nearly half, testicular atrophy was noted, as was testicular fibrosis and arrested spermatogenesis. Left ventricular hypertrophy was noted in 30.4%, and moderate to severe narrowing of the coronary arteries in 26.1%. To summarize, the typical case was a male polydrug user aged in their thirties, with death due to drug toxicity. Extensive cardiovascular disease was particularly notable. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Reproductive steroids and ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Martel, Michelle M

    2018-02-01

    Although Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder shows (ADHD) male predominance, females are significantly impaired and exhibit additional comorbid disorders during adolescence. However, no empirical work has examined the influence of cyclical fluctuating steroids on ADHD symptoms in women. The present study examined estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and testosterone (T) associations with ADHD symptoms across the menstrual cycle in regularly-cycling young women (N=32), examining trait impulsivity as a moderator. Women completed a baseline measure of trait impulsivity, provided saliva samples each morning, and completed an ADHD symptom checklist every evening for 35days. Results indicated decreased levels of E2 in the context of increased levels of either P4 or T was associated with higher ADHD symptoms on the following day, particularly for those with high trait impulsivity. Phase analyses suggested both an early follicular and early luteal, or post-ovulatory, increase in ADHD symptoms. Therefore, ADHD symptoms may change across the menstrual cycle in response to endogenous steroid changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanistic studies with solubilized rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase: Elucidation of the kinetic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.A.; Brandt, M.; Greway, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    A solubilized preparation of steroid 5 alpha-reductase from rat liver has been used in studies focused toward an understanding of the kinetic mechanism associated with enzyme catalysis. From the results of analyses with product and dead-end inhibitors, a preferentially ordered binding of substrates and release of products from the surface of the enzyme is proposed. The observations from these experiments were identical with those using the steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity associated with rat liver microsomes. The primary isotope effects on steady-state kinetic parameters when [4S-2H]NADPH was used also were consistent with an ordered kinetic mechanism. Normal isotope effects were observed for all three kinetic parameters (Vm/Km for both testosterone and NADPH and Vm) at all substrate concentrations used experimentally. Upon extrapolation to infinite concentration of testosterone, the isotope effect on Vm/Km for NADPH approached unity, indicating that the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate is the first substrate binding to and the second product released from the enzyme. The isotope effects on Vm/Km for testosterone at infinite concentration of cofactor and on Vm were 3.8 +/- 0.5 and 3.3 +/- 0.4, respectively. Data from the pH profiles of these three steady-state parameters and the inhibition constants (1/Ki) of competitive inhibitors versus both substrates indicate that the binding of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate involves coordination of its anionic 2'-phosphate to a protonated enzyme-associated base with an apparent pK near 8.0. From these results, relative limits have been placed on several of the internal rate constants used to describe the ordered mechanism of the rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase

  14. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  15. Parasitic castration, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza R. W. Lima

    Full Text Available Cyphocharax gilbert shows parasitic castration when infested by the crustacean Riggia paranensis, being unable to reproduce. Fish were sampled in the middle rio Itabapoana, Brazil, to study the prevalence of parasitism, growth, and sex steroid concentrations, considering the body size, sex, and reproductive condition of specimens. Most of the fish analyzed were infested (56.0%. The presence of two lines on the scales was more frequent among infested fish (22.0% than among fish without parasites (12.0% for females and 10.0% for males. The occurrence of three lines on the scales was rare (3.5% among infested and 2.0% among females without parasites. These results suggest that growth of the host is faster than that of non infested fish. The serum concentrations of sex steroids from fish without parasites varied at different gonadal development stages (17 beta-estradiol: 60.0 to 976.7 pg/ml; total testosterone: 220.0 to 3,887.7 pg/ml. All infested fish had lower levels of the two sex steroids and undeveloped gonads. Sex steroids levels in infested females were close to those in females at post-spawning stages. Total testosterone concentrations of infested males were below those of males at early gonadal maturation stage. These results suggest that R. paranensis reduces the reproductive capacity of C. gilbert by affecting the host endocrine system.

  16. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  17. Testosterone, DHEA and DHEA-S in patients with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Frydecka, Dorota; Loska, Olga; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Kasznia, Justyna; Stańczykiewicz, Bartłomiej

    2018-03-01

    Neuroactive steroids, including testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEA-S) might play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the levels of testosterone, DHEA and DHEA-S in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We searched electronic databases from their inception until Oct 29, 2017. Effect size (ES) estimates were calculated as Hedges' g. Data analysis was performed using random-effects models. Our analysis included 34 eligible studies, representing 1742 patients and 1604 controls. Main analysis revealed elevated DHEA-S levels in the whole group of patients (ES = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.23-1.28, p = 0.005). In subgroup analyses, patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) had significantly higher levels of free testosterone (ES = 1.21, 95%CI: 0.30-2.12, p = 0.009) and DHEA-S (ES = 1.19, 95%CI: 0.66-1.71, p sMES) females (ES = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.33-0.80, p sMES males (ES = -0.62, 95%CI: -1.07 to 0.18, p = 0.006). Increased levels of biologically active, free testosterone and DHEA-S in FEP suggest that these alterations might appear as a response to stress that becomes blunted during subsequent exacerbations of schizophrenia. Differential changes in total testosterone levels in male and female sMES patients might represent medication effects related to prolactin-releasing effects of antipsychotics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel mechanism regulating a sexual signal: the testosterone-based inhibition of female sex pheromone expression in garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2014-08-01

    Vertebrates communicate their sex to conspecifics through the use of sexually dimorphic signals, such as ornaments, behaviors and scents. Furthermore, the physiological connection between hormones and secondary sexual signal expression is key to understanding their dimorphism, seasonality and evolution. The red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is the only reptile for which a described pheromone currently exists, and because garter snakes rely completely on the sexual attractiveness pheromone for species identification and mate choice, they constitute a unique model species for exploring the relationship between pheromones and the endocrine system. We recently demonstrated that estrogen can activate female pheromone production in male garter snakes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) acting to prevent female pheromone production in males. We found that castrated males (GX) are courted by wild males in the field and produce appreciable amounts of female sex pheromone. Furthermore, pheromone production is inhibited in castrates given testosterone implants (GX+T), suggesting that pheromone production is actively inhibited by the presence of testosterone. Lastly, testosterone supplementation alone (T) increased the production of several saturated methyl ketones in the pheromone but not the unsaturated ketones; this may indicate that saturated ketones are testosterone-activated components of the garter snake's skin lipid milieu. Collectively, our research has shown that pheromone expression in snakes results from two processes: activation by the feminizing steroid estradiol and inhibition by testosterone. We suggest that basal birds and garter snakes share common pathways of activation that modulate crucial intraspecific signals that originate from skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal Sex Steroids and Adult Sex Steroids in Challenge Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, John; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian; Crewther, Blair; Fink, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. This ratio is considered to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (T) and estrogen (E) in a narrow window of early ontogeny. Evidence for this assertion is derived from direct and indirect measures of prenatal hormonal exposure (in experimental animals, via amniotic fluid samples and in the study of sex-typical traits) in relation to 2D:4D. In contrast, the relationships between 2D:4D and levels of sex steroids in adults are less clear, as many correlational studies of 2D:4D and adult sex steroids have concluded that this association is statistically non-significant. Here, we suggest that in order to understand the link between 2D:4D and sex hormones, one must consider both fetal organizing and adult activating effects of T and E. In particular, we hypothesize that 2D:4D correlates with organizing effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood. We argue that this is particularly evident in "challenging" conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters, in which individuals show increased levels of T. We discuss this refinement of the 2D:4D paradigm in relation to the links between 2D:4D and sports performance, and aggression.

  20. Detection of Synthetic Testosterone Use by Novel Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC×GCC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Herbert J.; Zhang, Ying; Auchus, Richard J.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC×GCC-IRMS) for the analysis of urinary steroids to detect illicit synthetic testosterone use, of interest in sport doping. GC coupled to IRMS (GCC-IRMS) is currently used to measure the carbon isotope ratios (CIR, δ13C) of urinary steroids in anti-doping efforts; however, extensive cleanup of urine extracts is required prior to analysis to enable baseline separation of target steroids. With its greater separation capabilities, GC×GC has the potential to reduce sample preparation requirements and enable CIR analysis of minimally processed urine extracts. Challenges addressed include on-line reactors with minimized dimensions to retain narrow peaks shapes, baseline separation of peaks in some cases, and reconstruction of isotopic information from sliced steroid chromatographic peaks. Difficulties remaining include long-term robustness of on-line reactors and urine matrix effects that preclude baseline separation and isotopic analysis of low concentration and trace components. In this work, steroids were extracted, acetylated, and analyzed using a refined, home-built GC×GCC-IRMS system. 11-hydroxy-androsterone (11OHA) and 11-ketoetiocolanolone (11KE) were chosen as endogenous reference compounds (ERC) because of their satisfactory signal intensity, and their CIR was compared to target compounds (TC) androsterone (A) and etiocholanolone (E). Separately, a GC×GC-qMS system was used to measure testosterone (T)/EpiT concentration ratios. Urinary extracts of urine pooled from professional athletes, and urine from one individual that received testosterone gel (T-gel) and one individual that received testosterone injections (T-shot) were analyzed. The average precisions of δ13C and Δδ13C measurements were SD(δ13C) approximately ± 1‰ (n=11). The T-shot sample resulted in a positive for T use with a T/EpiT ratio of > 9 and CIR

  1. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traina, Maria Elsa; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-01-01

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17β-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage

  2. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Zahmatkesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal Jelly group (RJ: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p

  3. Light induced degradation of testosterone in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Falletta, Marine; Marote, Pedro [Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques - UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lomberget, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Pharmacie-ISPB, EA 4443 Biomolecules, Cancer et Chimioresistances, INSERM U863 Hormones steroides et proteines de liaison, IFR 62, 8 avenue Rockefeller, F-69373, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Paisse, Jean-Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2010-08-01

    The degradation of testosterone under simulated irradiations was studied in phosphate buffers and in natural waters at various excitation wavelengths. The quantum yield of photolysis was significantly lower at 313 nm (2.4 x 10{sup -3}) than at 254 nm (0.225). The formation of several photoproducts was observed, some of them being rapidly transformed in turn while others show higher stability towards subsequent irradiations. The nature of the main products was tentatively identified, both deduced from their spectral and spectrometric data and by comparison with synthesised standard compounds. Among the obtained photoproducts, the main one is possibly a spiro-compound, hydroxylated derivative of testosterone originating from the photohydratation of the enone group. The photodegradation pathway includes also photorearrangements. One of them leads to (1,5,10)-cyclopropyl-17{beta}-hydroxyandrostane-2-one. The pH of the water does not seem to affect the rate of phototransformation and the nature of the by-products.

  4. A Simple Thin Layer Chromatography Method for Separation of Selected Natural Steroid Hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowska, J.; Rudnicka-Litka, K.; Ciura, K.; Pikul, P.; Piotrowicz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatographic properties of seven steroids: estrogens (β-estradiol and estrone), androgens (testosterone, methyltestosterone, trans-androsterone), progesterone and cholesterol have been studied by planar chromatography with usage of High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates. Normal, reversed and cyano-bonded silica stationary phases were tested with five binary mobile phases (acetonitrile-water, acetonitrile-DMSO, acetonitrile-methanol, acetone-petroleum ether, acetone-water) in which the concentration of organic modifier varied from 0 to 100 % (v/v). This study reports the optimization of steroid hormones separation. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on calculated molecular descriptors quantitatively differentiating solutes was performed in order to investigate the similarity and dissimilarity between tested compounds. The separation abilities of mobile and stationary phases were compared based on separation factor α. Chromatographic retention data and possible retention mechanisms also were discussed. (author)

  5. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  6. Testosterone depot injection in male hypogonadism: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksam A Yassin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aksam A Yassin1, Mohamed Haffejee21Clinic of Urology/Andrology, Segeberger Kliniken, Norderstedt-Hamburg, Germany and Department of Urology, Gulf Medical College School of Medicine, Ajman-UAE 2Urology Division at the University of Witwaterstrand & Johannesburg Hospital, Johannesburg, South AfricaAbstract: Testosterone compounds have been available for almost 70 years, but the pharmaceutical formulations have been less than ideal. Traditionally, injectable testosterone esters have been used for treatment, but they generate supranormal testosterone levels shortly after the 2- to 3-weekly injection interval and then testosterone levels decline very rapidly, becoming subnormal in the days before the next injection. The rapid fluctuations in plasma testosterone are subjectively experienced as disagreeable. Testosterone undecanoate is a new injectable testosterone preparation with a considerably better pharmacokinetic profile. After 2 initial injections with a 6-week interval, the following intervals between two injections are almost always 12-weeks, amounting eventually to a total of 4 injections per year. Plasma testosterone levels with this preparation are nearly always in the range of normal men, so are its metabolic products estradiol and dihydrotestosterone. The “roller coaster” effects of traditional parenteral testosterone injections are not apparent. It reverses the effects of hypogonadism on bone and muscle and metabolic parameters and on sexual functions. Its safety profile is excellent due to the continuous normalcy of plasma testosterone levels. No polycythemia has been observed, and no adverse effects on lipid profiles. Prostate safety parameters are well within reference limits. There was no impairment of uroflow. Testosterone undecanoate is a valuable contribution to the treatment options of androgen deficiency.Keywords: testosterone treatment, testosterone undecanoate, pharmacokinetic profile, clinical efficacy, side effects

  7. Opposing effects of estradiol- and testosterone-membrane binding sites on T47D breast cancer cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampa, Marilena; Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Alexaki, Vassilia-Ismini; Theodoropoulos, Panayiotis A.; Stathopoulos, Efstathios N.; Gravanis, Achille; Castanas, Elias

    2005-01-01

    Classical steroid mode of action involves binding to intracellular receptors, the later acting as ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors. Recently, membrane sites for different steroids have been also identified, mediating rapid, non-genomic, steroid actions. Membrane sites for estrogen and androgen have been found in a number of different cell types, bearing or not classical intracellular receptors. In the present study, with the use of radioligand binding, flow cytometry and confocal laser microscopy, we report that T47D human breast cancer cells express specific and saturable membrane receptors for both estrogen (K D 4.06 ± 3.31 nM) and androgen (K D 7.64 ± 3.15 nM). Upon activation with BSA-conjugated, non-permeable ligands (E 2 -BSA and testosterone-BSA), membrane estrogen receptors protect cells from serum-deprivation-induced apoptosis, while androgen receptors induce apoptosis in serum-supplemented T47D cells. In addition, co-incubation of cells with a fixed concentration of one steroid and varying concentrations of the other reversed the abovementioned effect (apoptosis for androgen, and anti-apoptosis for E 2 ), suggesting that the fate of the cell depends on the relative concentration of either steroid in the culture medium. We also report the identification of membrane receptors for E 2 and androgen in biopsy slides from breast cancer patients. Both sites are expressed, with the staining for membrane E 2 being strongly present in ER-negative, less differentiated, more aggressive tumors. These findings suggest that aromatase inhibitors may exert their beneficial effects on breast cancer by also propagating the metabolism of local steroids towards androgen, inducing thus cell apoptosis through membrane androgen receptor activation

  8. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  9. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule. PMID:24470750

  10. Analysis of seminal plasma from brown bear (Ursus arctos during the breeding season: Its relationship with testosterone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Anel-López

    Full Text Available Seminal plasma (SP plays an important role in the motility, viability and maintenance of the fertilizing capacity of mammalian spermatozoa. This study is the first on brown bear (Ursus arctos SP components, and has two main objectives: 1 to define the SP composition in bear ejaculate and 2 to identify variations in SP composition in relation to high and low levels of testosterone in serum during the breeding season. Forty-eight sperm samples from 30 sexually mature male brown bears (Ursus arctos were obtained by electroejaculation, and their serum testosterone levels were assessed to sort the animals into 2 groups (high and low testosterone levels, threshold 5 ng/dl. The biochemical and protein compositions of the SP samples were assessed, and sperm motility was analyzed. We found that lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher in the low-serum-testosterone samples, while concentrations of lipase and Mg+ values were significantly higher in the high-serum-testosterone samples. In contrast, sperm motility did not significantly differ (P>0.05 between the testosterone level groups (total motility: 74.42.8% in the high-level group vs. 77.1±4.7% in the low-level group. A reference digital model was constructed since there is no information for this wild species. To do this, all gel images were added in a binary multidimensional image and thirty-three spots were identified as the most-repeated spots. An analysis of these proteins was done by qualitative equivalency (isoelectric point and molecular weight with published data for a bull. SP protein composition was compared between bears with high and low serum testosterone, and three proteins (binder of sperm and two enzymes not identified in the reference bull showed significant (P<0.05 quantitative differences. We conclude that male bears with high or low serum testosterone levels differs only in some properties of their SP, differences in enzyme LDIP2, energy source LACT2, one protein (similar to

  11. Viability of infrared FEL facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwettman, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared FELs have broken important ground in optical science in the past decade. The rapid development of optical parametric amplifiers and oscillators, and THz sources, however, has changed the competitive landscape and compelled FEL facilities to identify and exploit their unique advantages. The viability of infrared FEL facilities depends on targeting unique world-class science and providing adequate experimental beam time at competitive costs

  12. In vitro and in vivo binding of neuroactive steroids to the sigma-1 receptor as measured with the positron emission tomography radioligand [18F]FPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Rikki N; Chang, Raymond C; Atuehene, Nana; Collier, Thomas Lee

    2007-07-01

    Sigma-1 receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian brain and also in organs of the immune, endocrine and reproductive systems. Based on behavioral and pharmacological assessments, sigma-1 receptors are important in memory and cognitive processes, and are thought to be involved in specific psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia, depression, and drug addiction. It is thought that specific neuroactive steroids are endogenous ligands for these sites. In addition, several sigma-1 receptor binding steroids including progesterone, dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone are being examined clinically for specific therapeutic purposes; however, their mechanisms of action have not been clearly defined. We previously described the high affinity sigma-1 receptor selective PET tracer [(18)F]FPS. This study examines the effect of neuroactive steroids on [(18)F]FPS binding in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition constants were determined in vitro for progesterone, testosterone, DHEA, estradiol, and estriol binding to the [(18)F]FPS labeled receptor. The affinity order (K(i) values) for these steroids ranged from 36 nM for progesterone to >10,000 nM for estrodiol and estriol. Biodistribution studies revealed that i.v. coadministration of progesterone (10 mg/kg), testosterone (20 mg/kg), or DHEA (20 mg/kg) significantly decreased [(18)F]FPS uptake (%ID/g) by up to 50% in nearly all of eight brain regions examined. [(18)F]FPS uptake in several peripheral organs that express sigma-1 receptors (heart, spleen, muscle, lung) was also reduced (54-85%). These studies clearly demonstrate that exogenously administered steroids can occupy sigma-1 receptors in vivo, and that [(18)F]FPS may provide an effective tool for monitoring sigma-1 receptor occupancy of specific therapeutic steroids during clinical trials.

  13. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 β-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish

  14. Acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methylphenidate on circulating steroid levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Julia; Hysek, Cédric M; Penno, Carlos A; Schmid, Yasmin; Kratschmar, Denise V; Liechti, Matthias E; Odermatt, Alex

    2014-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') and methylphenidate are widely used psychoactive substances. MDMA primarily enhances serotonergic neurotransmission, and methylphenidate increases dopamine but has no serotonergic effects. Both drugs also increase norepinephrine, resulting in sympathomimetic properties. Here we studied the effects of MDMA and methylphenidate on 24-hour plasma steroid profiles. 16 healthy subjects (8 men, 8 women) were treated with single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), MDMA + methylphenidate, and placebo on 4 separate days using a cross-over study design. Cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, and testosterone were repeatedly measured up to 24 h using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. MDMA significantly increased the plasma concentrations of cortisol, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone and also tended to moderately increase aldosterone levels compared with placebo. MDMA also increased the sum of cortisol + cortisone and the cortisol/cortisone ratio, consistent with an increase in glucocorticoid production. MDMA did not alter the levels of cortisone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, or testosterone. Methylphenidate did not affect any of the steroid concentrations, and it did not change the effects of MDMA on circulating steroids. In summary, the serotonin releaser MDMA has acute effects on circulating steroids. These effects are not observed after stimulation of the dopamine and norepinephrine systems with methylphenidate. The present findings support the view that serotonin rather than dopamine and norepinephrine mediates the acute pharmacologically induced stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the absence of other stressors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Waste products of oilsands mine inhibit sex steroids in exposed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, A.; Van Der Kraak, G.J. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Nero, V.; Farwell, A.J.; Dixon, D.G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2002-07-01

    Mature fine tailings (MFT) and tailing pond water (TPW) are two of the wastes generated by oil sand mining operations at Syncrude Canada Ltd. in northern Alberta. A study was conducted to determine the impact of these wastes on reproductive steroid production in sexually mature goldfish. MFT is a toxic aqueous suspension consisting of organic acids, bitumen and metals. TPW is a saline solution consisting of both organic and inorganic contaminants. Goldfish were examined for 19 days in 3 of Syncrude's specially designed experimental ponds which were lined with or without MFT and capped with or without TPW. The study showed that plasma levels of testosterone and 17 {beta}-estradiol in male and female fish in ponds with MFT but no TPW and ponds with both MFT and TPW were much lower compared to fish in a control pond with neither MFT nor TPW. The study also involved in vitro testis and ovarian incubations on the fish to determine potential differences in basal steroid production levels and how they react to gonadotropin. Results showed that gonadal tissues of fish from all ponds behaved similarly to the gonadotropin, thereby suggesting that under normal conditions, the oilsands wastes do not affect the ability of gonads to produce steroids. Compared to the control pond, both male and female fish from the pond with both MFT and TPW had significantly lower basal levels of testosterone, suggesting that the steroid inhibition could be caused at a site within the gonad. It was concluded that waste products of oilsands mining disrupt the reproductive endocrine system in goldfish.

  16. Disse fire typer bruger steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2017-01-01

    Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden.......Vi render i motionscentret som aldrig før, og ønsket om at forbedre sin krop lokker nogle ud i at bruge steroider. Brugerne kan inddeles i fire typer – fra den eksperimenterende YOLO-type til de, der gerne vil være klar til stranden....

  17. Investigation of testosterone, androstenone, and estradiol metabolism in HepG2 cells and primary culture pig hepatocytes and their effects on 17βHSD7 gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    Full Text Available Steroid metabolism is important in various species. The accumulation of androgen metabolite, androstenone, in pig adipose tissue is negatively associated with pork flavor, odour and makes the meat unfit for human consumption. The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 (17βHSD7 expressed abundantly in porcine liver, and it was previously suggested to be associated with androstenone levels. Understanding the enzymes and metabolic pathways responsible for androstenone as well as other steroids metabolism is important for improving the meat quality. At the same time, metabolism of steroids is known to be species- and tissue-specific. Therefore it is important to investigate between-species variations in the hepatic steroid metabolism and to elucidate the role of 17βHSD7 in this process. Here we used an effective methodological approach, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, to investigate species-specific metabolism of androstenone, testosterone and beta-estradiol in HepG2 cell line, and pig cultured hepatocytes. Species- and concentration-depended effect of steroids on 17βHSD7 gene expression was also investigated. It was demonstrated that the investigated steroids can regulate the 17βHSD7 gene expression in HepG2 and primary cultured porcine hepatocytes in a concentration-dependent and species-dependent pattern. Investigation of steroid metabolites demonstrated that androstenone formed a 3'-hydroxy compound 3β-hydroxy-5α-androst-16-ene. Testosterone was metabolized to 4-androstene-3,17-dione. Estrone was found as the metabolite for β-estradiol. Inhibition study with 17βHSD inhibitor apigenin showed that apigenin didn't affect androstenone metabolism. Apigenin at high concentration (50 µM tends to inhibit testosterone metabolism but this inhibition effect was negligible. Beta-estradiol metabolism was notably inhibited with apigenin at high concentration. The study also established that the level of testosterone and

  18. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  20. Testosterone therapy in microphallic hypospadias: topical or parenteral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalapathi, G; Rao, K L N; Chowdhary, S K; Narasimhan, K L; Samujh, Ram; Mahajan, J K

    2003-02-01

    Local or systemic application of testosterone is reported to stimulate penile growth. Intramuscular testosterone has been found to be effective in 50% of patients; however, variable results have been reported with topical testosterone. The current study is an attempt to compare the efficacy of intramuscular versus topical testosterone application. A total of 26 consecutive patients with hypospadias and small penis (enlargement was observed in 60% children in group A and 75% in group B. Although the desired therapeutic effect of testosterone was achieved in both the groups, this study failed to show any significant difference between the 2 routes of administration. However, in group A, (topical) serum testosterone crossed the normal range in 15% of patients and was associated with significant reversible side effects. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  1. Hypochlorite Oxidation of Select Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steroid hormones are vital for regulation of various biological functions including sexual development. Elevated concentrations of natural and synthetic androgenic steroids have been shown to adversely affect normal development in indigenous aqueous species. Androgens and their s...

  2. In vitro metabolism of testosterone-4-14C by canine salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosadomi, A.; Ofner, P.

    1976-01-01

    Testosterone-4- 14 C (2430 pmol, 048 μM) was incubated aerobically in 67 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.4 with homogenates and minces of salivary glands from male dogs. Extracted radiosteroids were resolved by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel, removed and quantitated. Substantially higher NADsup(+)-dependent 17 β-hydroxy-C 19 -steroid oxidoreductase activity was found in submaxillary gland homogenates than in similar parotid-gland preparations. Preliminary evidence is presented that the enzyme activity per unit wet weight of the minced submaxillary gland is decreased in the 2-week male castrate, in the absence of any recognizable histologic changes in the gland. Testosterone metabolism by canine salivary glands is thus oxidative contrasting with the reductive 17 β-hydroxysteroid pathway characteristic of androgen-dependent organs such as the prostate, and is more extensive than in this accessory sex tissue. Our findings suggest that the canine salivary glands are not target organs for circulating male hormone. (author); LATING M

  3. Androgen radioimmunoassay in the ram: results of direct plasma testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone measurement and physiological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, D.-H.; Cotta, Y.; Terqui, M.

    1978-01-01

    Different radioimmunoassays of testosterone (T) dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) and 5 α-dihydrotestosterone (5 α-DHT) were investigated for ram plasma. Specificity of the antisera, lack of noticeable binding in plasma, very low levels of other androgens allow direct plasma RIA for DHA and T by the double antibody technique. The levels obtained by this simplified method are in agreement with those found after extraction alone, after extraction and celite chromatography and after quantification with a completely different technique such as gas chromatography. The within assay variabilities for T and DHA were 4.7 p. 100 and 4.6 p. 100 respectively but vary with the level of steroid in plasma. The inter assay variabilities of T were 9.5 p. 100 and 3.2 p. 100 for 1.5 and 11.6 ng/ml of plasma respectively. The antiserum for 5 α-DHT have a specificity such that, even after celite chromatography some androgens (5 β-DHT) may interfere. However determinations of 5 α/5 β-DHT amounts are possible. The physiological validations of direct plasma T and DHA RIA were studied in various conditions. The DHA plasma variations are similar to those of T in Ram from birth to puberty, but the levels are lower. DHA plasma levels show a seasonal variation as does testosterone. Variations within 24 hrs of these two androgens were in synchrony. The direct plasma T and DHA assays are useful and inexpensive tools to characterize ram testicular function

  4. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina eSorwell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  5. Effects of maternal acrolein exposure during pregnancy on testicular testosterone production in fetal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuzhuo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Hongliang; Hong, Kai; Tang, Wenhao; Zhao, Lianming; Lin, Haocheng; Liu, Defeng; Mao, Jiaming; Wu, Han; Jiang, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Acrolein has been reported to have diverse toxic effects on various organs, including the reproductive system. However, little is known regarding the effects of maternal acrolein exposure on testicular steroidogenesis in male offspring. The present study investigated the effects of acrolein on fetal testosterone production and associated genes. Pregnant Sprague‑Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle (normal saline) or 1, 2 or 5 mg/kg acrolein from gestational day (GD) 14‑20, and fetal testes were examined on GD 21. Fetal body and testicular weights were markedly reduced in pups following exposure to high doses of acrolein (5 mg/kg) in late pregnancy. Notably, in utero exposure of 5 mg/kg acrolein significantly decreased the testicular testosterone level and downregulated the expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β‑HSD), whereas the levels of other steroidogenic enzymes, including scavenger receptor class B, cholesterol side‑chain cleavage enzyme and steroid 17 alpha‑hydroxylase/17,20 lyase, were unaffected. Furthermore, the 3β‑HSD immunoreactive area in the interstitial region of the fetal testes was reduced at a 5 mg/kg dose, whereas the protein expression levels of 4‑hydroxynonenalwere dose‑dependently increased following maternal exposure to acrolein. mRNA expression levels of insulin‑like factor 3, a critical gene involved in testicular descent, were unaltered following maternal acrolein exposure. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that maternal exposure to high doses of acrolein inhibited fetal testosterone synthesis, and abnormal expression of StAR and 3β‑HSD may be associated with impairment of the steroidogenic capacity.

  6. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  7. HIIT produces increases in muscle power and free testosterone in male masters athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Herbert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity interval training (HIIT improves peak power output (PPO in sedentary aging men but has not been examined in masters endurance athletes. Therefore, we investigated whether a six-week program of low-volume HIIT would (i improve PPO in masters athletes and (ii whether any change in PPO would be associated with steroid hormone perturbations. Seventeen male masters athletes (60 ± 5 years completed the intervention, which comprised nine HIIT sessions over six weeks. HIIT sessions involved six 30-s sprints at 40% PPO, interspersed with 3 min active recovery. Absolute PPO (799 ± 205 W and 865 ± 211 W and relative PPO (10.2 ± 2.0 W/kg and 11.0 ± 2.2 W/kg increased from pre- to post-HIIT respectively (P < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.32−0.38. No significant change was observed for total testosterone (15.2 ± 4.2 nmol/L to 16.4 ± 3.3 nmol/L (P = 0.061, Cohen’s d = 0.32, while a small increase in free testosterone occurred following HIIT (7.0 ± 1.2 ng/dL to 7.5 ± 1.1 ng/dL pre- to post-HIIT (P = 0.050, Cohen’s d = 0.40. Six weeks’ HIIT improves PPO in masters athletes and increases free testosterone. Taken together, these data indicate there is a place for carefully timed HIIT epochs in regimes of masters athletes.

  8. Testosterone Administration Reduces Lying in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibral, M.; Dohmen, T.J.; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone

  9. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  10. Reproductive tradeoffs and yolk steroids in female leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhen, T; Crews, D; Fivizzani, A; Elf, P

    2006-11-01

    Life history theory predicts tradeoffs among reproductive traits, but the physiological mechanisms underlying such tradeoffs remain unclear. Here we examine reproductive tradeoffs and their association with yolk steroids in an oviparous lizard. Female leopard geckos lay two eggs in a clutch, produce multiple clutches in a breeding season, and reproduce for several years. We detected a significant tradeoff between egg size and the number of clutches laid by females during their first two breeding seasons. Total reproductive effort was strongly condition-dependent in the first season, but much less so in the second season. Although these and other tradeoffs were unmistakable, they were not associated with levels of androstenedione, oestradiol, or testosterone in egg yolk. Female condition and egg size, however, were inversely related to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in egg yolk. Finally, steroid levels in egg yolk were not directly related to steroid levels in the maternal circulation when follicles were developing, indicating that steroid transfer to eggs is regulated. These findings suggest that maternal allocation of DHT could mitigate tradeoffs that lead to poor offspring quality (i.e. poor female condition) and small offspring size (i.e. small egg size).

  11. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors.

  12. KAJIAN TERAPI AKUPUNKTUR TERHADAP KADAR HORMON TESTOSTERON PRIA USIA LANJUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wasito Tjipto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone was the most important androgen secreted into the blood in males. It was responsible for development of secondary male sex characteristics and its measurements are helpful in evaluating the hypogonadal states. Decreasing of testosterone in males started in middle age, about 45–59 years old. It is responsible of decreasing muscle mass and strength, increasing of body fat especially abdominal fat and gynecomastia, less of libido and sexual intercourse frequency, increase of erectile dysfunction. Objective: The objective of this study was conducted stimulation on acupuncture reproduction point to increase testosterone hormone level in elder’s men. Methods: The study used non randomized experiment pre- post test without control group design, the samples was 40 older men, about 50 – more than 70 years old. The stimulation on acupuncture point CV-4, Sp-6, LV-3, and ST-36, on older men were given five times per week, for ten treatments, before treatment each patient was determined the concentration of testosterone hormone and after ten times acupuncture treatment. Results: 15 old men, have increased testosterone level, 20 old men have decreased testosterone level, and 16 old men have no changes in libido after ten times acupuncture treatment. Not all responder after therapy acupuncture ten times at reproduction point have increased of hormone testosterone. Most of 50–69 year men have increased testosterone level. Men above 70 year have no changes testosterone level. There were 24 old men have changes in libido without increased testosterone level. Conclusion: acupuncture may used as alternative therapy to increased testosterone level and libido for elderly men. Key words: Acupuncture, testosterone hormone, old men

  13. Systematic review of serum steroid reference intervals developed using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavita, Nevada; Greaves, Ronda F

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the published literature to determine the available serum/plasma steroid reference intervals generated by mass spectrometry (MS) methods across all age groups in healthy subjects and to suggest recommendations to achieve common MS based reference intervals for serum steroids. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed databases were used to conduct a comprehensive search for English language, MS-based reference interval studies for serum/plasma steroids. Selection of steroids to include was based on those listed in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs, Chemical Pathology, Endocrine Program. This methodology has been registered onto the PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews (ID number: CRD42015029637). After accounting for duplicates, a total of 60 manuscripts were identified through the search strategy. Following critical evaluation, a total of 16 studies were selected. Of the 16 studies, 12 reported reference intervals for testosterone, 11 for 17 hydroxy-progesterone, nine for androstenedione, six for cortisol, three for progesterone, two for dihydrotestosterone and only one for aldosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate. No studies established MS-based reference intervals for oestradiol. As far as we are aware, this report provides the first comparison of the peer reviewed literature for serum/plasma steroid reference intervals generated by MS-based methods. The reference intervals based on these published studies can be used to inform the process to develop common reference intervals, and agreed reporting units for mass spectrometry based steroid methods. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in doping control using mammalian reporter gene bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Sterk, Saskia S; van de Heijning, Monique P M; Brouwer, Abraham; Stephany, Rainer W; van der Burg, Bart; Sonneveld, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are a class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone testosterone. They are frequently detected as drugs in sport doping control. Being similar to or derived from natural male hormones, AAS share the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) as common mechanism of action. The mammalian androgen responsive reporter gene assay (AR CALUX bioassay), measuring compounds interacting with the AR can be used for the analysis of AAS without the necessity of knowing their chemical structure beforehand, whereas current chemical-analytical approaches may have difficulty in detecting compounds with unknown structures, such as designer steroids. This study demonstrated that AAS prohibited in sports and potential designer AAS can be detected with this AR reporter gene assay, but that also additional steroid activities of AAS could be found using additional mammalian bioassays for other types of steroid hormones. Mixtures of AAS were found to behave additively in the AR reporter gene assay showing that it is possible to use this method for complex mixtures as are found in doping control samples, including mixtures that are a result of multi drug use. To test if mammalian reporter gene assays could be used for the detection of AAS in urine samples, background steroidal activities were measured. AAS-spiked urine samples, mimicking doping positive samples, showed significantly higher androgenic activities than unspiked samples. GC-MS analysis of endogenous androgens and AR reporter gene assay analysis of urine samples showed how a combined chemical-analytical and bioassay approach can be used to identify samples containing AAS. The results indicate that the AR reporter gene assay, in addition to chemical-analytical methods, can be a valuable tool for the analysis of AAS for doping control purposes.

  15. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid use by elite athletes and by members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D

    2018-03-15

    Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions. The creation of a longitudinal monitoring program known as the biological passport is a recent, important development in the efforts to prevent and detect the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs and methods. The biological passport program consists of the measurement of urinary and blood markers of anabolic androgenic steroid use (and other banned drugs or methods) at baseline and at random times. A panel of experts reviews the longitudinal data and interprets the likelihood of the use of banned drugs and methods. These advances in anti-doping appear to be highly effective, but some athletes persist in their efforts to cheat the detection process. In addition, some members of the general public use anabolic androgenic steroids for a variety of reasons including to improve physical appearance or to enhance performance in athletics. Clinicians must depend on clinical acumen and the measurement of serum testosterone and gonadotropins to guide them in making a tentative diagnosis of anabolic androgenic steroid use. Definitive diagnosis requires that the patient disclose the use of the drugs. Because anabolic androgenic steroids are effective for improving certain aspects of physical performance, some elite athletes (and members of the general public) will continue to use these drugs. Effective efforts to curtail the use of these drugs will require decreasing the ease of access to them, continued advancements in

  16. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  17. Sundhedspolitik på steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest

    2012-01-01

    Danmark er det land i verden der har valgt den måske mest drastiske metode til bekæmpelse af brug af anabole androgene steroider (AAS) i fitness- og styrketræningsmiljøerne. Ikke pga. oplysningskampagnerne, samarbejdet med SKAT eller at AAS er ulovlige. Der hvor Danmark skiller sig ud er ved brugen...

  18. Recent advances in steroid radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffcoate, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The advances since 1974 in the techniques of measuring steroid molecules by radioimmunoassay are reviewed in this paper. They are considered under the following headings: preparation and use of antisera; preparation and use of tracers; preparation of biological samples before assay; dispensing of the reagents in the assay; separation of free and bound radioactivity; counting and data processing; quality control and standardization. (orig.) [de

  19. Treatment of Men for "Low Testosterone": A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Huo

    Full Text Available Testosterone products are recommended by some prescribers in response to a diagnosis or presumption of "low testosterone" (low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, muscle weakness or wasting, mood and behavior, and cognition. We performed a systematic review of 156 eligible randomized controlled trials in which testosterone was compared to placebo for one or more of these conditions. We included studies in bibliographic databases between January 1, 1950 and April 9, 2016, and excluded studies involving bodybuilding, contraceptive effectiveness, or treatment of any condition in women or children. Studies with multiple relevant endpoints were included in all relevant tables. Testosterone supplementation did not show consistent benefit for cardiovascular risk, sexual function, mood and behavior, or cognition. Studies that examined clinical cardiovascular endpoints have not favored testosterone therapy over placebo. Testosterone is ineffective in treating erectile dysfunction and controlled trials did not show a consistent effect on libido. Testosterone supplementation consistently increased muscle strength but did not have beneficial effects on physical function. Most studies on mood-related endpoints found no beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on personality, psychological well-being, or mood. The prescription of testosterone supplementation for low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, physical function, mood, or cognitive function is without support from randomized clinical trials.

  20. The Relation Between Metabolic Syndrome and Testosterone Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Prashant

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The most important pathogenic factors for metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and obesity. The clinical presentation of this syndrome results from its influence on glucose and fat metabolism. Testosterone deficiency has a prevalence of up to 50% in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A low level of testosterone is a factor for cardiovascular diseases and predictor of metabolic syndrome and, on the other hand, the components of metabolic syndrome can lead to low testosterone. This article reveals the bidirectional link between low testosterone level or hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

  1. Testosterone and estrogen impact social evaluations and vicarious emotions: A double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Andreas; Kopsida, Eleni; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Savic, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    The abilities to "read" other peoples' intentions and emotions, and to learn from their experiences, are critical to survival. Previous studies have highlighted the role of sex hormones, notably testosterone and estrogen, in these processes. Yet it is unclear how these hormones affect social cognition and emotion using acute hormonal administration. In the present double-blind placebo-controlled study, we administered an acute exogenous dose of testosterone or estrogen to healthy female and male volunteers, respectively, with the aim of investigating the effects of these steroids on social-cognitive and emotional processes. Following hormonal and placebo treatment, participants made (a) facial dominance judgments, (b) mental state inferences (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and (c) learned aversive associations through watching others' emotional responses (observational fear learning [OFL]). Our results showed that testosterone administration to females enhanced ratings of facial dominance but diminished their accuracy in inferring mental states. In men, estrogen administration resulted in an increase in emotional (vicarious) reactivity when watching a distressed other during the OFL task. Taken together, these results suggest that sex hormones affect social-cognitive and emotional functions at several levels, linking our results to neuropsychiatric disorders in which these functions are impaired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone metabolites and dependency on receptor action on the morphology of somatic motoneurons following the death of neighboring motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi; Chew, Cory; Muñoz, Fernando; Sengelaub, Dale R

    2017-06-01

    Partial depletion of spinal motoneuron populations induces dendritic atrophy in neighboring motoneurons, and treatment with testosterone is neuroprotective, attenuating induced dendritic atrophy. In this study we examined whether the protective effects of testosterone could be mediated via its androgenic or estrogenic metabolites. Furthermore, to assess whether these neuroprotective effects were mediated through steroid hormone receptors, we used receptor antagonists to attempt to prevent the neuroprotective effects of hormones after partial motoneuron depletion. Motoneurons innervating the vastus medialis muscles of adult male rats were selectively killed by intramuscular injection of cholera toxin-conjugated saporin. Simultaneously, some saporin-injected rats were treated with either dihydrotestosterone or estradiol, alone or in combination with their respective receptor antagonists, or left untreated. Four weeks later, motoneurons innervating the ipsilateral vastus lateralis muscle were labeled with cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, and dendritic arbors were reconstructed in three dimensions. Compared with intact normal animals, partial motoneuron depletion resulted in decreased dendritic length in remaining quadriceps motoneurons. Dendritic atrophy was attenuated with both dihydrotestosterone and estradiol treatment to a degree similar to that seen with testosterone, and attenuation of atrophy was prevented by receptor blockade. Together, these findings suggest that neuroprotective effects on motoneurons can be mediated by either androgenic or estrogenic hormones and require action via steroid hormone receptors, further supporting a role for hormones as neurotherapeutic agents in the injured nervous system. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 691-707, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  4. Reliability of salivary testosterone measurements in diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Youssef

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active testosterone in the serum. Salivary testosterone provides a sensitive, simple, reliable, non-invasive and uncomplicated diagnostic approach for PCOS.

  5. Sex, age, pubertal development and use of oral contraceptives in relation to serum concentrations of DHEA, DHEAS, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstenedione, testosterone and their ratios in children, adolescents and young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sex, age, pubertal development and oral contraceptives on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEAS), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), Δ4-androstenedione (Adione), testosterone (T), calculated free testosterone (fT), free androgen index (FAI) and selected ratios in 1798...... serum samples from healthy children, adolescents and young adults was evaluated. Samples were analyzed by Turboflow-LC-MS/MS. Sex hormone-binding globulin was analyzed by immunoassay. All steroid metabolite concentrations were positively associated with age and pubertal development in both sexes....... Use of oral contraceptives significantly lowered serum concentrations of all steroid metabolites, fT, FAI, the 17-OHP/Adione, the Adione/T and the DHEA/Adione ratios, but not the DHEA/DHEAS ratio. We provide reference ranges for DHEA, DHEAS, 17-OHP, Adione, T, fT, FAI and selected ratios in relation...

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of steroid 5 alpha-reductase of rat liver and prostate microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, T.; Cheung, A.H.; Reynolds, G.F.; Rasmusson, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    21-Diazo-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (Diazo-MAPD) inhibits steroid 5 alpha-reductase in liver microsomes of female rats with a K/sub i/ value of 8.7 +/- 1.7 nM, and the inhibition is competitive with testosterone. It also inhibits the binding of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, [ 3 H] 17 beta-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one ([ 3 H]4-MA), to the enzyme in liver microsomes. The inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity and of inhibitor binding activity by diazo-MAPD becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. [1,2- 3 H]Diazo-MAPD binds to a single high affinity site in liver microsomes of female rats, and this binding requires NADPH. Without UV irradiation, this binding is reversible, and it becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. Both the initial reversible binding and the subsequent irreversible conjugation after UV irradiation are inhibited by inhibitors (diazo-MAPD and 4-MA) and substrates (progesterone and testosterone) of 5 alpha-reductase, but they are not inhibited by 5 alpha-reduced steroids. Photoaffinity labeled liver microsomes of female rats were solubilized and fractionated by high performance gel filtration. The radioactive conjugate eluted in one major peak at Mr 50,000

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Dose Titration and Serum Testosterone Level Assessments in Patients Treated With Topical Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muram, David; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Boytsov, Natalie; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Ivanova, Jasmina; Birnbaum, Howard G; Swindle, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of care following topical testosterone agent (TTA) initiation are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize care following TTA initiation and compare results between patients with and without a serum testosterone (T) assay within 30 days before and including TTA initiation. Adult men (N=4,146) initiating TTAs from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, were identified from a commercially insured database. Patients were included if they initiated at recommended starting dose (RSD) and had ≥12 and ≥6 months of continuous eligibility preinitiation (baseline) and postinitiation (study period), respectively. Patients were stratified by preinitiation T assay. Maintenance dose attainment month was determined using unadjusted generalized estimating equations regression to compare dose relative to RSD month by month. Outcomes included maintenance dose attainment month, time to stopping of index TTA refills or a claim for nonindex testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), and proportion of patients with study period T assay or diagnosis of hypogonadism (HG) or another low testosterone condition, and were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Maintenance dose was attained in Month 4 postinitiation, at 115.2% of RSD. Approximately 46% of patients had a preinitiation T assay; these men were more likely to receive a diagnosis of HG or another low testosterone condition, to have a follow-up T assay, to continue treatment by filling a nonindex TRT, and less likely to stop refilling treatment with their index TTA. Differences in care following TTA initiation suggest that preinitiation T assays (i.e., guideline-based care) may be helpful in ensuring treatment benefits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  9. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Intracellular Calcium Signaling: A Mini Review on Mechanisms and Physiological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio, J.M.; Estrada, M.; Galvis, D.; Bravo, R.; Contreras, A.E.; Rotter, D.; Szabadkai, G.; Hill, J.A.; Rothermel, B.A.; Jaimovich, E.; Lavandero, S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that nongenomic effects of testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) operate concertedly with genomic effects. Classically, these responses have been viewed as separate and independent processes, primarily because nongenomic responses are faster and appear to be mediated by membrane androgen receptors, whereas long-term genomic effects are mediated through cytosolic androgen receptors regulating transcriptional activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated increases in intracellular Ca2+ in response to AAS. These Ca2+ mediated responses have been seen in a diversity of cell types, including osteoblasts, platelets, skeletal muscle cells, cardiac myocytes and neurons. The versatility of Ca2+ as a second messenger provides these responses with a vast number of pathophysiological implications. In cardiac cells, testosterone elicits voltage-dependent Ca2+ oscillations and IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from internal stores, leading to activation of MAPK and mTOR signaling that promotes cardiac hypertrophy. In neurons, depending upon concentration, testosterone can provoke either physiological Ca2+ oscillations, essential for synaptic plasticity, or sustained, pathological Ca2+ transients that lead to neuronal apoptosis. We propose therefore, that Ca2+ acts as an important point of crosstalk between nongenomic and genomic AAS signaling, representing a central regulator that bridges these previously thought to be divergent responses. PMID:21443511

  10. Persistent organic contaminants and steroid hormones levels in Morelet's crocodiles from the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Jauregui, Mauricio; Valdespino, Carolina; Salame-Méndez, Arturo; Aguirre-León, Gustavo; Rendón-Vonosten, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Effects of endocrine disruptors on reproductive variables of top predators, such as alligators and crocodiles, have long been cited. Due to their long life span, these predators provide us with historic contaminant annals. In this study we tried to test whether lifestyle (free-ranging vs. farm animals) and reproductive age of Morelet's crocodiles in Campeche, Mexico, affect the bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Subsequently, we tested to see whether their concentration was related to steroid hormones (testosterone and estradiol-17β) levels once normal cyclic hormone variation and reproductive age had been taken into account. From the group of contaminants considered (analyzed as families), only frequency of hexachlorocyclohexanes (∑HCH) and ∑PCB permitted analyses. Whereas there was a greater concentration of ∑HCH bioaccumulated by free-ranging crocodiles, ∑PCB was found in equal quantities in free-ranging and farm animals. No difference was observed in relation to reproductive age for any of the contaminants. However, ∑PCB concentrations were related to testosterone levels among female crocodiles. This androgenic effect of ∑PCB has not been reported previously. Because testosterone promotes aggressive behavior in vertebrates, excessive aggression during the estrous season, or when female crocodiles should be caring for their young, could result in reproductive failure in Morelet's crocodiles and potential long-term decline of the population.

  11. Preliminary study on the effect of castration and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently healthy adult male rabbits were used. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having four rabbits. The first group served as the control group. The rabbits in the second group ...

  12. An improved ultrafiltration method for determining free testosterone in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, I.; MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.; Bowers, W.; Thompson, J.; Trawick, W.

    1982-01-01

    In this method, we use the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane in measuring free testosterone in serum. Two independent assays are combined: total testosterone and the ultrafiltrable fraction of added [ 3 H]testosterone. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.15-0.5 mL ultrafiltrates of 0.6 to 1 mL of variably diluted serum that has been equilibrated with [ 3 H]testosterone at 37 degrees C. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practicable (requires 0.6 mL of serum), and reproducible (CV 3.2% within assay, 3.9% between assays). Accuracy was evaluated as the fraction of free testosterone in the ultrafiltrate of dialyzed serum vs that in a prior dialysate; they were the same confirming the validity of the free testosterone measurement. Samples from ostensibly healthy men and women and from hirsute and pregnant women gave results that agreed with those obtained by equilibrium dialysis. Total testosterone concentrations for normal and hirsute women showed considerable overlap, but data on free testosterone concentrations in these populations were better resolved

  13. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT)...

  14. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  15. Testosterone for the aging male; current evidence and recommended practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Stanworth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger D Stanworth, T Hugh JonesCentre of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom; Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United KingdomAbstract: An international consensus document was recently published and provides guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in men. The diagnosis of LOH requires biochemical and clinical components. Controversy in defining the clinical syndrome continues due to the high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the aging male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Further controversy surrounds setting a lower limit of normal testosterone, the limitations of the commonly available total testosterone result in assessing some patients and the unavailability of reliable measures of bioavailable or free testosterone for general clinical use. As with any clinical intervention testosterone treatment should be judged on a balance of risk versus benefit. The traditional benefits of testosterone on sexual function, mood, strength and quality of life remain the primary goals of treatment but possible beneficial effects on other parameters such as bone density, obesity, insulin resistance and angina are emerging and will be reviewed. Potential concerns regarding the effects of testosterone on prostate disease, aggression and polycythaemia will also be addressed. The options available for treatment have increased in recent years with the availability of a number of testosterone preparations which can reliably produce physiological serum concentrations.Keywords: review, testosterone, male, aging

  16. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: Mechanisms, morbidity and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ng Tang Fui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.

  17. Vitamin D supplementation and testosterone concentrations in male human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Oosterwerff, Mirjam; Schroten, Nicolas F.; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M. W.; Chel, Victor G. M.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Lips, Paul

    ObjectiveA possible association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and testosterone levels has been reported; however, contradictory results have emerged. DesignTo investigate a causal link between vitamin D and testosterone status, we studied the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum

  18. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens), including primary and secondary hypogonadism, delayed or precocious puberty, impotence in males and, in females...

  19. Seasonal changes in plasma testosterone levels in the male South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-18

    Feb 18, 1991 ... It is also known that melatonin, B-endorphin and prolactin are important in the timing of reactivation of reproduction in the European hedgehog (Fowler 1988b). Although the present study, based upon total circulating testosterone levels illustrates a clear seasonal cycle in plasma testosterone in A. fronlalis,.

  20. Plasma testosterone levels in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, M S; DeLong, M R; Hanfelt, J; Gearing, M; Levey, A

    2004-02-10

    Testosterone deficiency, a treatable condition commonly seen in aging men, has been linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). In normal subjects, low testosterone levels are associated with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, yet the relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive function in PD and AD remains unclear. To examine the relationship of testosterone levels to age and cognitive function in PD and AD. Plasma testosterone levels were determined in men enrolled in a clinical registry of subjects with PD and AD, and neuropsychological testing was performed on subjects who consented. Testosterone levels in men with PD were compared with those in men with AD. In both groups, the relationship between testosterone levels and neuropsychological test scores was analyzed, adjusting for age and education. Linear regression analysis revealed that testosterone levels decreased with age in male PD patients (p frontal lobe dysfunction in normal aged men, together with these results, suggest that the hormonal deficiency may act as a "second hit" to impair cognitive function in neurodegenerative disease.

  1. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups. The first (control group) ...

  2. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for plasma testosterone using a plastic microtiter tray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogi, Hidemi

    1975-01-01

    In order to simplify radioimmunoassay for plasma testosterone and to measure many samples at the same time, a method of solid phase radioimmunoassay utilizing a plastic disposable microtiter tray (DMT) by which chromatography can be omitted was investigated. Other steroids except for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) had a low degree of cross reactivity with the antiserum. Five α-DHT which could be measured together with testosterone in this assay was not a problem clinically because of its strong androgenic activity. The best standard curve was obtained when the antiserum was diluted to 1:1000. The sensitivity of this assay was 10 pg-tube. The maximal adsorption of antibody to plastic DMT was observed when the pH of the antiserum was within the range of 6.5-9.5 and the precoating time was 24 hr at room temperature. The best pH of the incubation buffer was 0.8, and the antigen-antibody reaction became a plateau when the incubation exceeded 6 hrs. The water blank in this assay was 4.6 +- 2.1 pg/tube. The recovery of testosterone (50, 100, 200 pg) when added to 0.1 ml female plasma was 99 +- 6.8%. Coefficients of variation within assay and between assays were below 11.2% and 20.0%, respectively. Correlation between this method and the dextran-coated charcoal method was fairly good (r=0.938). Plasma testosterone levels in 10 normal males and 12 normal females were 616 +- 202 (mean +- SD) ng/dl and 66 +- 29 (mean +- SD) ng/dl, respectively. The levels were low in patients with hypopituitarism, hypogonadism and acromegaly. They were normal in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal hyperplasia and adenoma, but they were high in a patient with adrenal carcinoma. In a patient with testicular feminization, the level was 632 ng/dl. This increased after the administration of HCG, and decreased to 127.5 ng/dl after castration. (auth.)

  3. Comparison of steroid pulse therapy and conventional oral steroid therapy as initial treatment for autoimmune pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Takashi; Uchida, Kazushige; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Fukui, Toshiro; Takaoka, Makoto; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of oral steroid therapy for autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is well known, and oral prednisolone treatment is most usually commenced at 30-40 mg/day, but there have been few reports about comparative studies of oral steroid therapy and steroid pulse therapy as the initial treatment for AIP. We studied the clinical course and image findings to estimate the utility of steroid pulse therapy for AIP, comparing it with oral steroid therapy. Laboratory and image findings were assessed retrospectively in 11 patients who received steroid pulse therapy, and the findings were compared to those in 10 patients who received conventional oral steroid therapy. Change in pancreatic size showed no significant difference between the therapies after 2 weeks of treatment. Significant improvement of lower bile duct strictures after 2 weeks of treatment and that of immunoglobulin values within 6 months were shown with both therapies. However, steroid pulse therapy showed significant improvement of γ-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) in 2 weeks and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 2 and 8 weeks, compared with oral steroid therapy. Moreover, there was one patient in whom the lower bile duct stricture was not improved by oral steroid therapy, but it did show improvement with steroid pulse therapy. Initial steroid pulse therapy is a beneficial alternative to oral steroid therapy for the improvement of bile duct lesions. In future, the accumulation of a larger number of patients receiving steroid pulse therapy is needed, and prospective studies will be required. (author)

  4. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-09-22

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of 'free' money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game offers are interpreted as challenges, then high-testosterone men may be more likely to reject such offers. In this experiment, men who reject low offers ($5 out of $40) have significantly higher testosterone levels than those who accept. In addition, high testosterone levels are associated with higher ultimatum game offers, but this second finding is not statistically significant.

  5. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  6. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P traits (r = 0. 376, P trait (r = 0. 544, P trait (r = 0. 485, P trait (r = 0.632, P traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits.

  7. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgens, Fred; Kuipers, Harm

    2004-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual (adverse) effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. Strength gains of about 5-20% of the initial strength and increments of 2-5 kg bodyweight, that may be attributed to an increase of the lean body mass, have been observed. A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions. The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour. AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels. In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS

  8. Sex steroids and glucose metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Allan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone levels are lower in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and also predict the onset of these adverse metabolic states. Body composition (body mass index, waist circumference is an important mediator of this relationship. Sex hormone binding globulin is also inversely associated with insulin resistance and T2DM but the data regarding estrogen are inconsistent. Clinical models of androgen deficiency including Klinefelter's syndrome and androgen deprivation therapy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer confirm the association between androgens and glucose status. Experimental manipulation of the insulin/glucose milieu and suppression of endogenous testicular function suggests the relationship between androgens and insulin sensitivity is bidirectional. Androgen therapy in men without diabetes is not able to differentiate the effect on insulin resistance from that on fat mass, in particular visceral adiposity. Similarly, several small clinical studies have examined the efficacy of exogenous testosterone in men with T2DM, however, the role of androgens, independent of body composition, in modifying insulin resistance is uncertain.

  9. Use of [1,2-3 h] testosterone in 5 α- reductase enzymatic activity dosing in dermal fibroblast cultures from polycystic ovarian patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, Lidia; Postolache, Cristian; Condac, Eduard

    2003-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is an endocrine malady very frequent in women characterized by the presence of ovarian cysts, visible or not by ultrasonography, menstrual cycle deregulation and sometimes by high plasmatic concentrations of androgen hormones. Many cases of polycystic syndrome could not be easily diagnosed or had an erroneous diagnostic. Therefore, is useful to know the plasmatic androgen hormone profile. This profile could indicate the cause for observed clinical manifestations; this cause may be observed in ovarian, suprarenal glands or hypothalamo-hypophysis level. In vitro studies on dermal fibroblasts permit the detail determination of steroid hormones metabolism in target organs and offer important information regarding action mechanism. This study follows the identification of testosterone metabolites in fibroblasts and enzymatic activities of 5α-reductase using testosterone radioactively labeled with tritium. (authors)

  10. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Sluss, P.M.; Hayes, F.J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D.L.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome

  11. Flowers for Algernon: steroid dysgenesis, epigenetics and brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bryan K

    2012-01-01

    While a recent study has reported that early citalopram exposure alters cortical network function and produces autistic-like behaviors in male rats, when evaluating antidepressant animal models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) it is important to note that some selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors alter 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, and thus steroidogenesis. At least one study has examined the effect of repeated citalopram administration on the serum and brain concentration of testosterone (T) and its metabolites and shown that citalopram increases serum T. Several in vitro studies also suggest that sex steroid can alter 5-HT homeostasis. While research efforts have demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing the most common of multiple gain-of-function 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT) coding variants, SERT Ala56, previously identified in children with ASD, exhibit autistic-like behaviors, elevated p38 MAPK-dependent transporter phosphorylation, enhanced 5-HT clearance rates and hyperserotonemia, a few studies provide some evidence that 5-HT may alter gonadal steroidogenesis. T, 17β-estradiol and synthetic estrogens are known inhibitors of AKR1C21 (BRENDA, E.C. 1.1.1.209), the epitestosterone (epiT) producing enzyme in rodents. EpiT is a naturally occurring steroid in mammals, including man. An analysis of the literature suggests that epiT may be the central mediator in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Over thirty years ago, it was shown that rat brain epiT production is higher in females than in males. A similar finding in humans could explain the sex differences in the incidence of autism and other brain disorders. Despite this, the role of epiT in brain development remains a long neglected area of research.

  12. Fast IRMS screening of pseudoendogenous steroids in doping analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Xavier; Colamonici, Cristiana; Curcio, Davide; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    The detection of the abuse of pseudoendogenous steroids (testosterone and/or its precursors) is currently based, when possible, on the application of the steroid module of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), athlete biological passport (ABP), implemented through the global database, ADAMS. When a suspicious sample is detected, the confirmation by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is required. It is well known that this confirmation procedure is time consuming and expensive and can be only applied on a reduced number of samples. In previous studies we have demonstrated that the longitudinal evaluation of the IRMS data is able to detect positive samples that otherwise will be evaluated as negative, improving the efficacy of the fight against doping in sport. This would require the analysis of a much larger volume of samples by IRMS. The aim of the present work is to describe an IRMS screening method allowing to increase the throughput of samples that can be analyzed by IRMS. The detection efficacy of the method is compared with the confirmation method in use, and to assess its robustness and applicability, all the samples of a major cycling stage competition were analyzed, with the agreement of the testing authority, under routine conditions and response times. The results obtained permit to conclude that the IRMS screening method here proposed has adequate selectivity and produces results that overlap with the already validated method currently in use permitting to analyze a much higher volume of samples even during a major event without compromising the detection capacity. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Short-term parenteral and peroral testosterone administration in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Dietrichson, O

    1981-01-01

    other day, rather constant serum concentrations with median values of about 30 ng/ml were reached after 4 days. Peroral testosterone administration (800 mg micronized free testosterone) each day also resulted in fairly constant serum concentrations after 4 days, and the median values were about 50 ng......Serum concentrations of testosterone were measured in 24 male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis during testosterone administration. The purpose was to compare serum concentrations of testosterone during peroral with those during parenteral testosterone administration in these patients. Patients who...... were injected intramuscularly with a combination of short- and long-acting testosterone (Triolandren, 348 mg testosterone) had median peak values of serum testosterone of about 40 ng/ml, which fell to basal levels after a fortnight. During testosterone propionate injections (84 mg testosterone) every...

  14. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two...... radioimmunoassays using different purification procedures and antibody batches did not differ significantly and correlated significantly (r=0.91; p less than 0.001). The median serum concentration of non-protein bound testosterone was 0.265 nmol/l (range 0.068-0.495 nmol/l) when determined by equilibrium dialysis...... and 0.232 nmol/l (range 0.042-0.610 nmol/l) when calculated according to the law of mass action. This difference is insignificant. The concentrations of non-protein bound testosterone determined by the two methods correlated significantly (r=0.83; p less than 0.001). In the calculation of non...

  15. Saliva as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide and immune markers in sport and exercise science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacosta, Elena; Nassis, George P

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of saliva analysis as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide, and immune markers of sports training. Salivary gland physiology, regarding the regulation and stimulation of saliva secretion, as well as methodological issues including saliva collection, storage and analysis are addressed in this paper. The effects of exercise on saliva composition are then considered. Exercise elicits changes in salivary levels of steroid hormones, immunoglobulins, antimicrobial proteins and enzymes. Cortisol, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone can be assessed in saliva, providing a non-invasive option to assess the catabolic and anabolic effects of exercise. Validation studies using blood and salivary measures of steroid hormones are addressed in this paper. Effects of acute exercise and training on salivary immunoglobulins (SIgA, SIgM, SIgG) and salivary antimicrobial proteins, including α-amylase, lysozyme and lactoferrin, are also discussed. Analysis of cortisol and testosterone in saliva may help detect the onset of non-functional overreaching and subsequently may help to prevent the development of overtraining syndrome. Assessment of salivary immunoglobulins and antimicrobial proteins has been shown to successfully represent the effects of exercise on mucosal immunity. Increases in SIgA and antimicrobial proteins concentration and/or secretion rate are associated with acute exercise whereas conversely, decreases have been reported in athletes over a training season leaving the athlete susceptible for upper respiratory tract infections. The measurement of physiological biomarkers in whole saliva can provide a significant tool for assessing the immunological and endocrinological status associated with exercise and training. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  17. Metabolism of 7-ethoxycoumarin, flavanone and steroids by cytochrome P450 2C9 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Tomohide; Nakano, Ryosuke; Kanamaru, Kengo; Takenaka, Shinji; Uno, Yuichi; Imaishi, Hiromasa

    2017-11-01

    CYP2C9 is a human microsomal cytochrome P450c (CYP). Much of the variation in CYP2C9 levels and activity can be attributed to polymorphisms of this gene. Wild-type CYP2C9 and mutants were coexpressed with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Escherichia coli. The hydroxylase activities toward 7-ethoxycoumarin, flavanone and steroids were examined. Six CYP2C9 variants showed Soret peaks (450 nm) typical of P450 in reduced CO-difference spectra. CYP2C9.38 had the highest 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase activity. All the CYP2C9 variants showed lower flavanone 6-hydroxylation activities than CYP2C9.1 (the wild-type). CYP2C9.38 showed higher activities in testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, progesterone 6β-/16α-hydroxylation, estrone 11α-hydroxylation and estradiol 6α-hydroxylation than CYP2C9.1. CYP2C9.40 showed higher testosterone 17-oxidase activity than CYP2C9.1; CYP2C9.8 showed higher estrone 16α-hydroxylase activity and CYP2C9.12 showed higher estrone 11α-hydroxylase activity. CYP2C9.9 and CYP2C9.10 showed similar activities to CYP2C9.1. These results indicate that the substrate specificity of CYP2C9.9 and CYP2C9.10 was not changed, but CYP2C9.8, CYP2C9.12 and CYP2C9.40 showed different substrate specificity toward steroids compared with CYP2C9.1; and especially CYP2C9.38 displayed diverse substrate specificities towards 7-ethoxycoumarin and steroids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses by male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Andersen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Since both paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and stress alter male reproductive function, the purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of PSD and other stressors (restraint, electrical footshock, cold and forced swimming, N = 10 per group on steroid hormones in adult Wistar male rats. Rats were submitted to chronic stress for four days. The stressors (footshock, cold and forced swimming were applied twice a day, for periods of 1 h at 9:00 and 16:00 h. Restrained animals were maintained in plastic cylinders for 22 h/day whereas PSD was continuous. Hormone determination was measured by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (testosterone, competitive immunoassay (progesterone and by radioimmunoassay (corticosterone, estradiol, estrone. The findings indicate that PSD (13.7 ng/dl, footshock (31.7 ng/dl and cold (35.2 ng/dl led to lower testosterone levels compared to the swimming (370.4 ng/dl and control (371.4 ng/dl groups. However, progesterone levels were elevated in the footshock (4.5 ng/ml and PSD (5.4 ng/ml groups compared to control (1.6 ng/ml, swimming (1.1 ng/ml, cold (2.3 ng/ml, and restrained (1.2 ng/ml animals. Estrone and estradiol levels were reduced in the PSD, footshock and restraint groups compared to the control, swimming and cold groups. A significant increase in corticosterone levels was found only in the PSD (299.8 ng/ml and footshock (169.6 ng/ml groups. These changes may be thought to be the full steroidal response to stress of significant intensity. Thus, the data suggest that different stress modalities result in distinct steroid hormone responses, with PSD and footshock being the most similar.

  19. Relationships between POPs, biometrics and circulating steroids in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma. Subsequently, associations between hormone concentrations (9 steroids), POPs (21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 8 OH-PCBs, 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and OCP metabolites, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) and biological variables (age, head length, body mass, girth, body condition index), capture date, location (latitude and longitude), lipid content and cholesterol levels were examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) modelling. Average concentrations of androgens, estrogens and progestagens were in the range of 0.57-83.7 (0.57-12.4 for subadults, 1.02-83.7 for adults), 0.09-2.69 and 0.57-2.44 nmol/L, respectively. The steroid profiles suggest that sex steroids were mainly synthesized through the Δ-4 pathway in male polar bears. The ratio between androgens and estrogens significantly depended on sexual maturity with androgen/estrogen ratios being approximately 60 times higher in adult males than in subadult males. PCA plots and OPLS models indicated that TS was positively related to biometrics, such as body condition index in male polar bears. A negative relationship was also observed between POPs and DHT. Consequently, POPs and body condition may potentially affect the endocrinological function of steroids, including development of reproductive tissues and sex organs and the

  20. Quantification of steroid hormones in human serum by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysik, Silke; Liebisch, Gerhard

    2017-12-01

    A limited specificity is inherent to immunoassays for steroid hormone analysis. To improve selectivity mass spectrometric analysis of steroid hormones by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been introduced in the clinical laboratory over the past years usually with low mass resolution triple-quadrupole instruments or more recently by high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Here we introduce liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/HR-MS) to further increase selectivity of steroid hormone quantification. Application of HR-MS demonstrates an enhanced selectivity compared to low mass resolution. Separation of isobaric interferences reduces background noise and avoids overestimation. Samples were prepared by automated liquid-liquid extraction with MTBE. The LC-MS/HR-MS method using a quadrupole-Orbitrap analyzer includes eight steroid hormones i.e. androstenedione, corticosterone, cortisol, cortisone, 11-deoxycortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, and testosterone. It has a run-time of 5.3min and was validated according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. For most of the analytes coefficient of variation were 10% or lower and LOQs were determined significantly below 1ng/ml. Full product ion spectra including accurate masses substantiate compound identification by matching their masses and ratios with authentic standards. In summary, quantification of steroid hormones by LC-MS/HR-MS is applicable for clinical diagnostics and holds also promise for highly selective quantification of other small molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls decrease circulating steroids in female polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Lisa; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Styrishave, Bjarne; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2015-04-01

    As a top predator in the Arctic food chain, polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are exposed to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Because several of these compounds have been reported to alter endocrine pathways, such as the steroidogenesis, potential disruption of the sex steroid synthesis by POPs may cause implications for reproduction by interfering with ovulation, implantation and fertility. Blood samples were collected from 15 female polar bears in Svalbard (Norway) in April 2008. The concentrations of nine circulating steroid hormones; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione (AN), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2), 17β-estradiol (βE2), pregnenolone (PRE) and progesterone (PRO) were determined. The aim of the study was to investigate associations among circulating levels of specific POP compounds and POP-metabolites (hydroxylated PCBs [OH-PCBs] and hydroxylated PBDEs [OH-PBDEs]), steroid hormones, biological and capture variables in female polar bears. Inverse correlations were found between circulating levels of PRE and AN, and circulating levels of OH-PCBs. There were no significant relationships between the steroid concentrations and other analyzed POPs or the variables capture date and capture location (latitude and longitude), lipid content, condition and body mass. Although statistical associations do not necessarily represent direct cause-effect relationships, the present study indicate that OH-PCBs may affect the circulating levels of AN and PRE in female polar bears and that OH-PCBs thus may interfere with the steroid homeostasis. Increase in PRO and a decrease in AN concentrations suggest that the enzyme CYP17 may be a potential target for OH-PCBs. In combination with natural stressors, ongoing climate change and contaminant exposure, it is possible that OH-PCBs may disturb the reproductive potential of polar bears. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex hormone binding globulin and sex steroids among premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E

    2013-07-01

    It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (~11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs.

  3. The use of stable isotopes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the identification of steroid metabolites in the equine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, E.; Dumasia, M.C.; Teale, P.; Smith, S.J.; Cox, J.; Marshall, D.; Gower, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Stable isotope gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been used successfully in the elucidation of structures of urinary steroid metabolites in the horse and in the identification of metabolites isolated from in vivo perfusion and in vitro incubation studies using equine tissue preparations. Deuterium-labeled steroids, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and 5-androstene-3 beta,17 beta-diol have been synthesized by base-catalyzed isotope exchange methods and the products characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. [16,16(-2)H2]Dehydroepiandrosterone (plus radiolabeled dehydroepiandrosterone) was perfused into a testicular artery of a pony stallion and was shown to be metabolized into 2H2-labeled testosterone, 4-androstenedione, isomers of 5-androstene-3,17-diol, 19-hydroxytestosterone, and 19-hydroxy-4-androstenedione. In further studies, equine testicular minces have been incubated with 2H2-labeled and radiolabeled dehydroepiandrosterone and 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The metabolites, whose identity was confirmed by stable isotope gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, proved the interconversion of the two substrates, as well as formation of testosterone and 4-androstenedione. The aromatization of dehydroepiandrosterone was also confirmed, together with the formation of an isomer of 5(10)-estrene-3,17-diol from both substrates showing 19-demethylation without concomitant aromatization. In studies of the feto-placental unit, the allantochorion was shown to aromatize [2H5]testosterone to [2H4]estradiol, the loss of one 2H from the substrate being consistent with aromatization of the A ring. The formation of 6-hydroxyestradiol was also confirmed in this study. The same technique has been valuable in determining the structure of two metabolites of nandrolone isolated from horse urine

  4. Clinical practice experience with testosterone treatment in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Drew; Siemens, D Robert; Izard, Jason; Black, Angela; Morales, Alvaro

    2008-11-01

    To report on a clinical practice series of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), examining clinical efficacy, biochemical parameters and effects on prostate health over a 2-year period. A retrospective review of 85 patients with symptoms of TDS and at least a 3-month trial of TRT was performed in this single-centre, clinical practice setting. Three domains of symptomatology were evaluated: libido, erectile function and energy levels. Symptoms were assessed by a combination of patient reporting, physician's assessment and validated symptom assessment scores. Total testosterone (TT), calculated bio-available testosterone (BT) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were continuously measured and effects on prostate health were examined. Only 38 (45%) patients in this cohort remained on TRT for >2 years. The most common reason for discontinuing treatment was lack of clinical response but those remaining on TRT had continued improvement in libido, erectile function and energy levels. During treatment, the average TT and calculated BT values significantly increased compared with the baseline values at most of the evaluated time points, with no significant change in average PSA values. In all, 15% of this cohort had some degree of progression of lower urinary tract symptoms. Seven patients had eight 'for-cause' prostate biopsies either during supplementation or at any date after completion, with an only three positive for cancer. Only 45% of men on TRT remained on treatment for >2 years in this clinical practice experience of men with TDS. Those remaining showed persistent improvement in their symptoms. The average TT and BT values increased significantly with no significant change in PSA levels.

  5. Hypothalamic transcriptional expression of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors differs among polycystic ovary syndrome rat models with different endocrine phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Carvalho, Kátia Cândido; Giannocco, Gisele; Duarte, Daniele Coelho; Garcia, Natália; Soares-Junior, José Maria; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Maliqueo, Manuel; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder that affects reproductive-age women. The mechanisms underlying the endocrine heterogeneity and neuroendocrinology of polycystic ovary syndrome are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of the kisspeptin system and gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse regulators in the hypothalamus as well as factors related to luteinizing hormone secretion in the pituitary of polycystic ovary syndrome rat models induced by testosterone or estradiol. A single injection of testosterone propionate (1.25 mg) (n=10) or estradiol benzoate (0.5 mg) (n=10) was administered to female rats at 2 days of age to induce experimental polycystic ovary syndrome. Controls were injected with a vehicle (n=10). Animals were euthanized at 90-94 days of age, and the hypothalamus and pituitary gland were used for gene expression analysis. Rats exposed to testosterone exhibited increased transcriptional expression of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-β and reduced expression of kisspeptin in the hypothalamus. However, rats exposed to estradiol did not show any significant changes in hormone levels relative to controls but exhibited hypothalamic downregulation of kisspeptin, tachykinin 3 and estrogen receptor-α genes and upregulation of the gene that encodes the kisspeptin receptor. Testosterone- and estradiol-exposed rats with different endocrine phenotypes showed differential transcriptional expression of members of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors in the hypothalamus. These differences might account for the different endocrine phenotypes found in testosterone- and estradiol-induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats.

  6. Growth and viability of Aedes albopictus cell line in vitro after cesium-137 gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of the cultured mosquito cell line Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was investigated. Population growth was followed by total cell counts and by viable cell counts on aliquots of cultures exposed to various doses of gamma radiation during exponential growth. Viable cell determinations were based on the cellular exclusion of the dye, alcian blue, in a procedure adapted to the insect cells in culture. Viability determinations in the irradiated exponential cultures indicated that initially there was some increase in the gestation, suggesting that gonadal steroids may have unusual effects on uterine physiology and biochemistry in this species. Consequently, studies were undertaken to elucidate some of the basic responses of hamster uteri to estradiol benzoate and progesterone under conditions of protein malnutrition, actinomycin D administration and corticosterone injection. Furthermore, the effects of gonadal steroids on uteri of pregnant ovariectomized hamsters were studied

  7. Plasmatic testosterone values in 105 Klinefelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboch, J; Neuwirth, J; Starka, L

    1975-01-01

    Clinical, spermiologic and karyologic examinations and determinations of plasmatic testosterone were performed in a group of 105 chromatin-positive patients aged 16 to 45 years. A comparison with a control group of 108 somatosexually well developed and fertile men at the age of 21 to 55 years has established that in the Klinefelter's syndrome the male sex hormone level in the blood was highly significantly lower. Whereas in the control group the male sex hormone values in the blood were dependent on age, it was not possible to prove any dynamic changes in the process of ageing between 21 and 45 years in chromatin-positive patients. A comparison of some phenotypical and laboratory findings in the various chromosomal variants of Klinefelter's syndrome shows that comparatively the least changes were found in patients with a mosaic of 46,XY/47,XXY.

  8. Testosterone, Cortisol and Financial Risk-Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Herbert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Both testosterone and cortisol have major actions on financial decision-making closely related to their primary biological functions, reproductive success and response to stress, respectively. Financial risk-taking represents a particular example of strategic decisions made in the context of choice under conditions of uncertainty. Such decisions have multiple components, and this article considers how much we know of how either hormone affects risk-appetite, reward value, information processing and estimation of the costs and benefits of potential success or failure, both personal and social. It also considers how far we can map these actions on neural mechanisms underlying risk appetite and decision-making, with particular reference to areas of the brain concerned in either cognitive or emotional functions.

  9. Measurement of dihydro testosterone by radioimmunoassay after celite column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lando, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring dihydro testosterone after celite column chromatography is developed. One milliliter of serum containing 1000 cpm of tritiated dihydro testosterone was extracted with hexane: ethyl acetate (2:3): dried, diluted with non saturated iso octane and injected in the column previously washed with 3.5 ml of pure iso octane. The serum was eluted from the column with pure iso octane (3.5 ml) followed by 5% ethyl acetate in iso octane. The quantity of tritiated dihydro testosterone which was recovered ranged from 50% to 80% in all assays. The sensitivity of the method was 4 ng/d l. The intra-assay variation was less than 9% and the inter-assay variation was less than 9,7%. It was measured dihydro testosterone, testosterone and testosterone/dihydro testosterone ratio in the following groups: Group 1- forty-one normal adult subjects in basal conditions, Group 2 - six normal adult subjects, evaluated in basal conditions and after stimulus with 6000 International Unity of human Chorionic Gonadotropin; Group 3- six pre-puberal children with unilateral cryptochidism. Group 4- eight patients with male pseudo hermaphroditism due to 5-alpha-reductase deficiency in basal conditions and after HCG. (author)

  10. Testosterone regulates granzyme K expression in rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Dibyendu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Testosterone depletion induces increased germ cell apoptosis in testes. However, limited studies exist on genes that regulate the germ cell apoptosis. Granzymes (GZM are serine proteases that induce apoptosis in various tissues. Multiple granzymes, including GZMA, GZMB and GZMN, are present in testes. Th us, we investigated which granzyme may be testosterone responsive and possibly may have a role in germ cell apoptosis aft er testosterone depletion. Methods. Ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS, a toxicant that selectively ablates the Leydig cells, was injected into rats to withdraw the testosterone. The testosterone depletion effects after 7 days post-EDS were verified by replacing the testosterone exogenously into EDS-treated rats. Serum or testicular testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Using qPCR, mRNAs of granzyme variants in testes were quantified. The germ cell apoptosis was identified by TUNEL assay and the localization of GZMK was by immunohistochemistry. Results. EDS treatment eliminated the Leydig cells and depleted serum and testicular testosterone. At 7 days post-EDS, testis weights were reduced 18% with increased germ cell apoptosis plus elevation GZMK expression. GZMK was not associated with TUNEL-positive cells, but was localized to stripped cytoplasm of spermatids. In addition, apoptotic round spermatids were observed in the caput epididymis. Conclusions. GZMK expression in testes is testosterone dependent. GZMK is located adjacent to germ cells in seminiferous tubules and the presence of apoptotic round spermatids in the epididymis suggest its role in the degradation of microtubules in ectoplasmic specializations. Thus, overexpression of GZMK may indirectly regulate germ cell apoptosis by premature release of round spermatids from seminiferous tubule lumen.

  11. Beyond the HPA-axis: The role of the gonadal steroid hormone receptors in modulating stress-related responses in an animal model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenchel, Daphna; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Vainer, Ella; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which plays a major role in the response to stress, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis are closely linked with the ability to inhibit the other. Testosterone, a product of the HPG, has many beneficial effects beyond its functions as a sex hormone including anti-anxiety properties. In this study we examined the effect of stress exposure on gonadal hormones, and their efficacy in modulating anxiety-like response in an animal model of PTSD. Male rats were exposed to predator scent stress, followed by analysis of brain expression of androgen receptor (AR) receptor and estrogen receptor α (ERα). The behavioral effects of immediate treatment with testosterone, testosterone receptor antagonist (flutamide) or vehicle were evaluated using the elevated plus-maze, acoustic startle response and trauma-cue response. Levels of circulating corticosterone and testosterone were also measured after treatment. The behavioral effects of delayed testosterone treatment were explored in the same manner. We report that animals whose behavior was extremely disrupted (EBR) selectively displayed significant down-regulation of AR and ERα in the hippocampus. Immediate treatment with flutamide or delayed treatment with testosterone significantly increased prevalence rates of minimal behavioral response (MBR) and decreased prevalence of EBR with favorable behavioral results. Testosterone levels were higher in control un-exposed animals, while corticosterone was higher in control exposed animals. This study suggests that gonadal steroid hormones are involved in the neurobiological response to predator scent stress and thus warrant further study as a potential therapeutic avenue for the treatment of anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. The binding patterns of antisera to sex steroids and human gonadotropins on human and rhesus monkey spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allag, I S; Das, R P; Roy, S

    1983-01-01

    The presence of different hormones on the surface of ejaculated spermatozoa was determined by immunofluorescence studies of the binding patterns of specific antisera to these hormones. There were striking similarities in the binding pattern of antisera to steroid hormones found on human and monkey spermatozoa. Assuming the intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the concentration of the hormone, concentrations of testosterone on the acrosomal and the postacrosomal regions were higher than levels of progesterone and estrogens. Spermatozoa with a "tapering head" had more hCG bound on the acrosomal and postacrosomal regions than spermatozoa with "normal head" (oval shaped). Correlating these findings to the functions of spermatozoa will require further studies.

  13. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand 11C-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Jong, Johan R. de; Vries, Erik F. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Waarde, Aren van; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2009-01-01

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined changes in binding of the sigma-1 agonist 11 C-SA4503 in C6 glioma cells and in living rats after modification of endogenous steroid levels. 11 C-SA4503 binding was assessed in C6 monolayers by gamma counting and in anaesthetized rats by microPET scanning. C6 cells were either repeatedly washed and incubated in steroid-free medium or exposed to five kinds of exogenous steroids (1 h or 5 min before tracer addition, respectively). Tumour-bearing male rats were repeatedly treated with pentobarbital (a condition known to result in reduction of endogenous steroid levels) or injected with progesterone. Binding of 11 C-SA4503 to C6 cells was increased (∝50%) upon removal and decreased (∝60%) upon addition of steroid hormones (rank order of potency: progesterone > allopregnanolone = testosterone = androstanolone > dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate, IC 50 progesterone 33 nM). Intraperitoneally administered progesterone reduced tumour uptake and tumour-to-muscle contrast (36%). Repeated treatment of animals with pentobarbital increased the PET standardized uptake value of 11 C-SA4503 in tumour (16%) and brain (27%), whereas the kinetics of blood pool radioactivity was unaffected. The binding of 11 C-SA4503 is sensitive to steroid competition. Since not only increases but also decreases of steroid levels affect ligand binding, a considerable fraction of the sigma-1 receptor population in cultured tumour cells or tumour-bearing animals is normally occupied by endogenous steroids. (orig.)

  14. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Jong, Johan R. de; Vries, Erik F. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Waarde, Aren van [University of Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Ishiwata, Kiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Positron Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined changes in binding of the sigma-1 agonist {sup 11}C-SA4503 in C6 glioma cells and in living rats after modification of endogenous steroid levels. {sup 11}C-SA4503 binding was assessed in C6 monolayers by gamma counting and in anaesthetized rats by microPET scanning. C6 cells were either repeatedly washed and incubated in steroid-free medium or exposed to five kinds of exogenous steroids (1 h or 5 min before tracer addition, respectively). Tumour-bearing male rats were repeatedly treated with pentobarbital (a condition known to result in reduction of endogenous steroid levels) or injected with progesterone. Binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 to C6 cells was increased ({proportional_to}50%) upon removal and decreased ({proportional_to}60%) upon addition of steroid hormones (rank order of potency: progesterone > allopregnanolone = testosterone = androstanolone > dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate, IC{sub 50} progesterone 33 nM). Intraperitoneally administered progesterone reduced tumour uptake and tumour-to-muscle contrast (36%). Repeated treatment of animals with pentobarbital increased the PET standardized uptake value of {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour (16%) and brain (27%), whereas the kinetics of blood pool radioactivity was unaffected. The binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 is sensitive to steroid competition. Since not only increases but also decreases of steroid levels affect ligand binding, a considerable fraction of the sigma-1 receptor population in cultured tumour cells or tumour-bearing animals is normally occupied by endogenous steroids. (orig.)

  15. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  16. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on parameters of the haematological and steroidal modules of the athletes biological passport - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, K; Voss, S C; Kraiem, S; Alwahaibi, A; Alyazedi, S; Dbes, N; Goebel, R; Mohamed-Ali, V; Alsowaidi, S; Seyam, A M; Bashraheel, A S; Alsayrafi, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. In vitro steroid profiling system for the evaluation of endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yosuke; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Masashi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disruptors (ED) are chemicals that affect various aspects of the endocrine system, often leading to the inhibition of steroidogenesis. Current chemical safety policies that restrict human exposure to such chemicals describe often time-consuming and costly methods for the evaluation of ED effects. We aimed to develop an effective tool for accurate phenotypic chemical toxicology studies. We developed an in vitro ED evaluation system using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) methods for metabolomic analysis of multi-marker profiles. Accounting for sample preparation and GC/MS/MS conditions, we established a screening method that allowed the simultaneous analysis of 17 steroids with good reproducibility and a linear calibration curve. Moreover, we applied the developed system to H295R human adrenocortical cells exposed to forskolin and prochloraz in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines and observed dose-dependent variations in steroid profiles. While the OECD guidelines include only testosterone and 17β-estradiol, our system enabled a comprehensive and highly sensitive analysis of steroid profile alteration due to ED exposure. The application of our ED evaluation screen could be economical and provide novel insights into the hazards of ED exposure to the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing reproductive status in elasmobranch fishes using steroid hormones extracted from skeletal muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Bianca K.; Tsang, Paul C. W.; Driggers, William B.; Hoffmayer, Eric R.; Wheeler, Carolyn R.; Brown, A. Christine; Sulikowski, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) are particularly susceptible to anthropogenic threats, making a thorough understanding of their life history characteristics essential for proper management. Historically, elasmobranch reproductive data have been collected by lethal sampling, an approach that is problematic for threatened and endangered species. However, recent studies have demonstrated that non-lethal approaches can be as effective as lethal ones for assessment of the reproductive status of an animal. For example, plasma has been used to examine concentrations of steroid hormones. Additionally, skeletal muscle tissue, which can be obtained non-lethally and with minimal stress, can also be used to quantify concentrations of steroid hormones. Skeletal muscle progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations were determined to be statistically significant indicators of reproductive status in the oviparous Leucoraja erinacea, the yolk-dependent viviparous Squalus acanthias, and the yolk-sac placental viviparous Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. The results of the present study demonstrate that steroid hormones present in non-lethally harvested skeletal muscle tissue can be used as reliable indicators of reproductive status in elasmobranchs. PMID:27293612

  19. Steroid Cell Ovarian Neoplasm, Not Otherwise Specified: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Steroid cell ovarian tumors, not otherwise specified, represent a unique cause of female virilization. Most commonly encountered in premenopausal women, these tumors can exist throughout a women’s lifetime, from before puberty until after menopause. Case. Steroid cell, not otherwise specified, was diagnosed in a 70-year-old female significant for hirsutism. The patient demonstrated elevated total testosterone levels with normal gonadotropins, DHEA, and DHEA-S levels. CT imaging revealed a right ovarian mass and subsequent laparoscopic right oophorectomy yielded clinical improvement promptly. Conclusion. Virilization in females can occur based on ovarian or adrenal pathology. In terms of ovarian-based female virilization, many tumors exist that may induce women to demonstrate masculine features, such as pure Sertoli, pure Leydig, Sertoli-Leydig combinations, and gynandroblastomas. Each of these tumor types possesses a unique histologic pattern that allows for pathologic identification after removal. A rare source of ovarian-based female virilization is steroid cell neoplasms, not otherwise specified, that do not demonstrate these specific histologic characteristics and thus represent a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes of ovarian-based female virilization have been ruled out.

  20. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p267

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urival Magno Gomes Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences of the increase in the consumption of anabolic steroids and the damages to health caused by their indiscriminate use, mainly among children and youngsters. The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS consist in testosterone and its derivatives. They are produced endogenously in the testicles and adrenal cortex and are responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics associated to masculinity. Although the results of the exogenous use of AAS are still controversial, they have been used for the increase of physical strength and muscle mass. These substances are directly related to different clinical conditions such as: bladder cancer, coronary disease, gynecomastia, hepatic disorders and cancer, and sterility. This study aimed at approaching relevant topics related to the drugs action mechanisms, ways of use and metabolism, and side effects, besides the importance of the prevention in the use of those drugs in most diverse age groups. The abusive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids consists in a problem that has gradually occurred, which has given rise to laws, rules and support groups turned to the prevention, education and restriction of their use.

  1. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  2. A computational model to predict rat ovarian steroid secretion from in vitro experiments with endocrine disruptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Quignot

    Full Text Available A finely tuned balance between estrogens and androgens controls reproductive functions, and the last step of steroidogenesis plays a key role in maintaining that balance. Environmental toxicants are a serious health concern, and numerous studies have been devoted to studying the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. The effects of EDCs on steroidogenic enzymes may influence steroid secretion and thus lead to reproductive toxicity. To predict hormonal balance disruption on the basis of data on aromatase activity and mRNA level modulation obtained in vitro on granulosa cells, we developed a mathematical model for the last gonadal steps of the sex steroid synthesis pathway. The model can simulate the ovarian synthesis and secretion of estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, and testosterone, and their response to endocrine disruption. The model is able to predict ovarian sex steroid concentrations under normal estrous cycle in female rat, and ovarian estradiol concentrations in adult female rats exposed to atrazine, bisphenol A, metabolites of methoxychlor or vinclozolin, and letrozole.

  3. [Ingestion of anabolic steroids and ischaemic stroke. A clinical case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esperón, Carlos; Hervás-García, José Vicente; Jiménez-González, Marta; Pérez de la Ossa-Herrero, Natalia; Gomis-Cortina, Meritxell; Dorado-Bouix, Laura; López-Cancio Martinez, Elena; Castaño-Duque, Carlos H; Millán-Torné, Mónica; Dávalos, Antonio

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic substances derived from testosterone that are employed for their trophic effect on muscle tissue, among other uses. Their consumption can give trigger a series of adverse side effects on the body, including the suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis as well as liver, psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. The most common effects are altered fat profiles and blood pressure values, cardiac remodelling, arrhythmias or myocardial infarcts. CASE REPORT. We report the case of a young male, with a background of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse, who visited because of an acute neurological focus in the right hemisphere related with an ischaemic stroke. The aetiological study, including cardiac monitoring, echocardiograph and imaging studies (magnetic resonance and arteriography) and lab findings (thrombophilia, serology, autoimmunity, tumour markers) showed no alterations. CONCLUSIONS. The association between consumption of anabolic-androgenic steroids and cardiovascular pathologies is known, but its relation with cerebrovascular disease has not received so much attention from researchers.

  4. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (pyoung muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic androgenic steroids doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Franchini, M; Banfi, G

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AASs) are chemical and pharmacological derivatives of the male hormone testosterone which are widely used for increasing burst and sprinting activities in sports. Although AASs are thought to be transversal to the plurality of sports disciplines, they are principally misused by bodybuilders, weightlifters, shot, hammer, discus or javelin throwers, rugby and American football players as well as by swimmers and runners. AAS exert a kaleidoscope of effects on human biology, principally through the 5-α-reductase-mediated conversion into dihydrotestosterone, the aromatase-mediated conversion into female sex hormones, a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors, the potential stimulation of erythropoietin secretion as well as psychoactive effects on the brain. The influence of AASs on physical performance is still undefined, since the large number of studies published so far have described discordant and often contradictory outcomes. Nevertheless, animal and human investigations support the hypothesis that the administration of AASs might increase lean body mass, muscle mass, and maximal voluntary strength especially in men, so that they would represent an appealing form of doping for increasing power capacity, sustaining intensive training periods and, last but not least, as a cosmetic muscle makeover. The aim of this article is to review the biochemistry, physiology and the ergogenic effects of AASs.

  6. Brain connectivity aberrations in anabolic-androgenic steroid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars T. Westlye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested the effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 151 males engaged in heavy resistance strength training. 50 users tested positive for AAS based on the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio and doping substances in urine. 16 previous users and 59 controls tested negative. We estimated brain network nodes and their time-series using ICA and dual regression and defined connectivity matrices as the between-node partial correlations. In line with the emotional and behavioral consequences of AAS, current users exhibited reduced functional connectivity between key nodes involved in emotional and cognitive regulation, in particular reduced connectivity between the amygdala and default-mode network (DMN and between the dorsal attention network (DAN and a frontal node encompassing the superior and inferior frontal gyri (SFG/IFG and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, with further reductions as a function of dependency, lifetime exposure, and cycle state (on/off.

  7. Sex Difference in Testosterone Response to a Video Game Contest

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Allan; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Edelbrock, Sandy

    1997-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were assayed from saliva samples given by young men (n = 28) and women (n = 32) before, during, and after competing with a same-sex partner in a video game. The T response to the competition is different in each sex; the C response is the same. Male results confirm prior reports of a pre-contest rise in testosterone. Male results did not confirm previous findings that after a contest, the testosterone of winners is higher than that of losers, perhaps because ...

  8. The endocrine pharmacology of testosterone therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettel, Michael

    The review starts off by outlining the history of the discovery of the male sex hormone testosterone and the historical background to the various, often dubious, approaches to the treatment of age-related endocrine disorders in older men. A discussion of congenital androgen deficiency in young men is followed by methods of diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Among therapeutic options, the alternatives to direct testosterone replacement are discussed, although none of them have proved to be particularly successful in clinical practice. For testosterone replacement itself, various routes of administration and pharmaceutical formulations are now available, facilitating good monitoring and individualized therapy.

  9. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Polycythemia in HIV-infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkas, Charles Kyriakos; Vaamonde, Carlos M.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to assess testosterone use as a primary risk factor for polycythemia in 21 HIV-infected men. Any testosterone use within two months of first elevated hemoglobin was associated with polycythemia (matched odds ratio 6.55; 95% CI 1.83-23.4; P=0.004) and intramuscular administration demonstrated a stronger association than topical use. No adverse cardiovascular or thrombotic events were observed. HIV-infected patients taking testosterone should undergo routine hematologic monitoring with adjustment of therapy when appropriate. PMID:22008652

  10. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Gill, Thomas M; Shumaker, Sally A; Pleasants, Debbie D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P; Cunningham, Glenn R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Farrar, John T; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2017-02-21

    Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to -26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, -290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, -80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the testosterone group and 245 men in the placebo completed the memory study. There was no significant mean

  11. Molecular characterization of kiss2 and differential regulation of reproduction-related genes by sex steroids in the hypothalamus of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Quan; Liu, Xuezhou; Xu, Yongjiang; Song, Xuesong; Shi, Bao

    2017-11-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) plays a critical role in mediating gonadal steroid feedback to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in mammals. However, little information regarding the regulation of kisspeptin gene by sex steroids is available in teleosts. In this study, we examined the direct actions of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) on hypothalamic expression of kisspeptin and other key factors involved in reproductive function of half-smooth tongue sole. As a first step, a partial-length cDNA of kiss2 was identified from the brain of tongue sole and kiss2 transcript levels were shown to be widely expressed in various tissues, notably in the ovary. Then, the actions of sex steroids on kiss2 and other reproduction-related genes were evaluated using a primary hypothalamus culture system. Our results showed that neither kiss2 nor its receptor kiss2r mRNA levels were significantly altered by sex steroids. Moreover, sex steroids did not modify hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (gnih) and its receptor gnihr mRNAs, either. However, E2 markedly stimulated both gnrh2 and gnrh3 mRNAs levels. Overall, this study provides insights into the role of sex steroids in the reproductive function of Pleuronectiform teleosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A brief review comparing the effects of sex steroids on two forms of aggression in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, M; Brain, P F; Kamis, A B

    1986-01-01

    This brief review examines the roles of sex steroids in two forms of "aggression" in laboratory mice. The social conflict induced in male mice by individual housing or reproductive experience was contrasted with the attack shown by small groups of female mice on lactating intruders. Gonadectomy of males largely abolishes the former response but actually augments the latter activity in male subjects. Testosterone, estradiol and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone all restore social conflict in gonadectomized male mice but these sex steroids inhibit attack on lactating female intruders by gonadectomized males. The data clearly confirm that there is no simple relationship between a particular hormone and "aggression." These forms of attack may serve very different functions even though they involve similar action patterns and distributions of bites on the attacked animal. A tentative discussion is included about the roles of these activities.

  13. Testosterone Responders to Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy Show Considerable Variations in Testosterone Levels on Followup: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyid, Rashid K; Sayyid, Abdallah K; Klaassen, Zachary; Fadaak, Kamel; Goldberg, Hanan; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Leao, Ricardo; Perlis, Nathan; Chadwick, Karen; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil E

    2018-01-01

    We determined whether men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy who achieve testosterone less than 0.7 nmol/l demonstrate subsequent testosterone elevations during followup and whether such events predict worse oncologic outcomes. We evaluated a random, retrospective sample of 514 patients with prostate cancer treated with continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom serum testosterone was less than 0.7 nmol/l at University Health Network between 2007 and 2016. Patients were followed from the date of the first testosterone measurement of less than 0.7 nmol/l to progression to castrate resistance, death or study period end. Study outcomes were the development of testosterone elevations greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, and progression to a castrate resistant state. Survival curves were constructed to determine the rate of testosterone elevations. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was done to assess whether elevations predicted progression to castrate resistance. Median patient age was 74 years and median followup was 20.3 months. Within 5 years of followup 82%, 45% and 18% of patients had subsequent testosterone levels greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, respectively. In 96% to 100% of these patients levels less than 0.7 nmol/l were subsequently reestablished within 5 years. No patient baseline characteristic was associated with elevations and elevations were not a significant predictor of progression to a castrate resistant state. Men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom initial testosterone is less than 0.7 nmol/l frequently show subsequent elevations in serum testosterone. Such a development should not trigger an immediate response from physicians as these events are prognostically insignificant with regard to oncologic outcomes. Levels are eventually reestablished at less than 0.7 nmol/l. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  14. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  15. Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi; Maestripieri, Dario

    2009-09-08

    Women are generally more risk averse than men. We investigated whether between- and within-gender variation in financial risk aversion was accounted for by variation in salivary concentrations of testosterone and in markers of prenatal testosterone exposure in a sample of >500 MBA students. Higher levels of circulating testosterone were associated with lower risk aversion among women, but not among men. At comparably low concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aversion disappeared, suggesting that testosterone has nonlinear effects on risk aversion regardless of gender. A similar relationship between risk aversion and testosterone was also found using markers of prenatal testosterone exposure. Finally, both testosterone levels and risk aversion predicted career choices after graduation: Individuals high in testosterone and low in risk aversion were more likely to choose risky careers in finance. These results suggest that testosterone has both organizational and activational effects on risk-sensitive financial decisions and long-term career choices.

  16. Injection of Carica papaya L. Seed Extract of Cibinong Variety to Macaca fascicularis L. and its Effect to Quality of Spermatozoa and Level of Testosterone Hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Nuraini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lack of contraceptive choices which meet the requirements is one of the contributing factors to less participation of man in contraceptive use. This research aimed to study the effectiveness of natural material for alternative male contraception, by injecting papaya seed extract with Cibinong variety (Carica papaya L. to long tail monkey (Macaca fascicularis L. The research was conducted at Primates Study Center, Institute of Agriculture, Bogor. Total samples of this research were 8 monkeys, with three intervention groupsand one control group. Papaya seed extract was injected via intramuscular in 21 days, with dose for each group were 40 mg/monkey, 80 mg/monkey, and 120 mg/monkey. Data analysis of spermatozoa quality (motility, viability, morfology was done by using Cochran test before and after intervention stages, and during recovery stage. Meanwhile, data aalysis of spermatozoa concentration and testosterone hormone level was done by using Friedman test. Result of this reseachdemonstrated reduction of motility, viability, and morfology ofspermatozoa after inejction of papaya seed extract and increase to normal level at recovery stage (p ≤ 0.05. These results was supported with cement aglutination. The most effective dose was at 40 mg/monkey/day, with reduction of spermatozoa motility from 87.5 % to 40%, and reduction of testosterone level from 2.35 ng/mL to 1.83 ng/mL. Even though spermatozoa motility and testosterone hormone levelreduced, but its conditions were still in good condition category.

  17. Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Peterson

    Full Text Available Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes.

  18. Oral enclomiphene citrate stimulates the endogenous production of testosterone and sperm counts in men with low testosterone: comparison with testosterone gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminetsky, Jed; Werner, Michael; Fontenot, Greg; Wiehle, Ronald D

    2013-06-01

    Clomiphene citrate is employed off-label in men who have low testosterone and for the restoration of sperm counts in men who have used exogenous testosterone. Clomiphene is a mixture of two diastereoisomers: zuclomiphene and enclomiphene. We evaluated enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism. Our aim was to compare oral enclomiphene citrate as an alternative to topical testosterone. Blood levels of total testosterone (TT), estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin, thyroid stimulation hormone, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 were measured at certain times after treatment with each agent. Sperm parameters were determined at the same visits. Free testosterone (FT) was calculated. This was a proof-of-principle, randomized, open-label, fixed dose, active-control, two-center phase IIB study in 12 men with secondary hypogonadism treated previously with topical testosterone. After discontinuation of topical testosterone, morning TT values averaged 165 ± 66 pg/dL. After 3 months, there was a significant rise in men receiving enclomiphene citrate and gel that was sustained for 3 months. At 6 months, TT levels were 545 ± 268 and 525 ± 256 pg/dL for groups receiving the gel and enclomiphene citrate, respectively. Only men in the enclomiphene citrate group demonstrated increased LH and FSH. TT decreased one month posttreatment to pretreatment values. Enclomiphene citrate elevated sperm counts in seven out of seven men at 3 months and six out of six men at 6 months with sperm concentrations in the 75-334 × 10(6) /mL range. The gel was ineffective in raising sperm counts above 20 × 10(6) /mL for all five men at 3 months and raised counts in only two or five men at 6 months. At follow-up, only enclomiphene citrate treatment was associated with elevated sperm counts. Enclomiphene citrate increased testosterone and sperm counts. Concomitant changes in LH and FSH suggest normalization

  19. Profiles of Steroid Hormones in Canine X-Linked Muscular Dystrophy via Stable Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio A Martins-Júnior

    Full Text Available Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD provides the best animal model for characterizing the disease progress of the human disorder, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. The purpose of this study was to determine steroid hormone concentration profiles in healthy golden retriever dogs (control group - CtGR versus GRMD-gene carrier (CaGR and affected female dogs (AfCR. Therefore, a sensitive and specific analytical method was developed and validated to determine the estradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone levels in the canine serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. To more accurately understand the dynamic nature of the serum steroid profile, the fluctuating levels of these four steroid hormones over the estrous cycle were compared across the three experimental groups using a multivariate statistical analysis. The concentration profiles of estradiol, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone revealed a characteristic pattern for each studied group at each specific estrous phase. Additionally, several important changes in the serum concentrations of cortisol and estradiol in the CaGR and AfCR groups seem to be correlated with the status and progression of the muscular dystrophy. A comprehensive and quantitative monitoring of steroid profiles throughout the estrous cycle of normal and GRMD dogs were achieved. Significant differences in these profiles were observed between GRMD and healthy animals, most notably for estradiol. These findings contribute to a better understanding of both dog reproduction and the muscular dystrophy pathology. Our data open new venues for hormonal behavior studies in dystrophinopathies and that may affect the quality of life of DMD patients.

  20. Removal of reproductive suppression reveals latent sex differences in brain steroid hormone receptors in naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Mo, Kaiguo; Peragine, Deane E; Monks, D Ashley; Holmes, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial mammals, living in large colonies with a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males. Breeders are socially dominant, and only the breeders exhibit traditional sex differences in circulating gonadal steroid hormones and reproductive behaviors. Non-reproductive subordinates also fail to show sex differences in overall body size, external genital morphology, and non-reproductive behaviors. However, subordinates can transition to breeding status if removed from their colony and housed with an opposite-sex conspecific, suggesting the presence of latent sex differences. Here, we assessed the expression of steroid hormone receptor and aromatase messenger RNA (mRNA) in the brains of males and females as they transitioned in social and reproductive status. We compared in-colony subordinates to opposite-sex subordinate pairs that were removed from their colony for either 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, or until they became breeders (i.e., produced a litter). Diencephalic tissue was collected and mRNA of androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), progesterone receptor (Pgr), and aromatase (Cyp19a1) was measured using qPCR. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone from serum were also measured. As early as 1 week post-removal, males exhibited increased diencephalic Ar mRNA and circulating testosterone, whereas females had increased Cyp19a1 mRNA in the diencephalon. At 1 month post-removal, females exhibited increased 17β-estradiol and progesterone. The largest changes in steroid hormone receptors were observed in breeders. Breeding females had a threefold increase in Cyp19a1 and fivefold increases in Esr1 and Pgr, whereas breeding males had reduced Pgr and increased Ar. These data demonstrate that sex differences in circulating gonadal steroids and hypothalamic gene expression emerge weeks to months after subordinate animals are removed from reproductive suppression in their home colony.

  1. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  2. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans,

  3. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... serum testosterone concentration during the non-breeding season is lower than that of the breeding season. .... confirm no impact of the stressful environmental conditions on the reproductive function of Arabian stallions.

  4. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  5. Fluconazole and testosterone: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, D P; Jevons, S; Shaw, J T

    1988-05-01

    Fluconazole (UK-49,858), a novel bis-triazole antifungal agent, was given orally to groups of 10 male volunteers at doses of 25 and 50 mg/day for 28 days. Blood samples for testosterone estimation were taken from these and from a placebo group at several time points on days 1, 14, and 28 of the study, and the assay results demonstrated that the compound had no significant effect on circulating testosterone levels. Similarly, in studies with rat Leydig cells in vitro, fluconazole at concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml was found to be only a weak inhibitor of testosterone production, whereas ketoconazole caused more than 50% inhibition at 0.1 microgram/ml. It is concluded that fluconazole, in contrast to ketoconazole, has little effect on the biosynthesis of testosterone by mammalian cells.

  6. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  7. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinology Products, warns teens and parents about the dangers of steroid use. Q: What are anabolic steroids ... لعربية | Kreyòl Ayisyen | Français | Polski | Português | Italiano | Deutsch | 日本語 | ف ...

  8. Osteonecrosis following alcohol, cocaine, and steroid use.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ziraldo, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol, steroids and cocaine have all been shown to be independent risk factors for osteonecrosis when taken in excess. Here we present a case of a young girl who developed debilitating osteonecrosis secondary to low doses of alcohol, steroids and cocaine. We feel it is important to highlight to those caring for such patients of the potential devastating complication of these three agents.

  9. Testosterone determination in amniotic fluid for sec diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroa C, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    This study was carried on 50 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from pregnant patients with gestation old of 38 to 40 weeks; diagnosis of the foetus sex was made by measuring the testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay technique. It was found that 94% of the cases were correctly diagnosed. The testosterone levels found in the amniotic fluid of male and female foetus were significantly different (L<0.01) these confirm the efficacy of the method. (author)

  10. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-01-01

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of ‘free’ money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game...

  11. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Musicki

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH levels compared with wild type (WT mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR, but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  12. Testosterone-Fatty Acid esterification: a unique target for the endocrine toxicity of tributyltin to gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Gerald A; Gooding, Meredith P; Sternberg, Robin M

    2005-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, a global occurrence of sexual aberration has occurred whereby females among populations of prosobranch snails exhibit male sex characteristics. This condition, called imposex, has been causally associated with exposure to the biocide tributyltin. Tributyltin-exposed, imposex snails typically have elevated levels of testosterone which have led to the postulate that this endocrine dysfunction is responsible for imposex. This overview describes recent evidence that supports this postulate. Gastropods maintain circulating testosterone levels and administration of testosterone to females or castrates stimulates male sex differentiation in several snail species. Studies in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta) have shown that gastropods utilize a unique strategy for regulating free testosterone levels. Excess testosterone is converted to fatty acid esters by the action of a testosterone-inducible, high capacity/low affinity enzyme, acyl-CoA:testosterone acyl transferase, and stored within the organisms. Free testosterone levels are regulated during the reproductive cycle apparently due to changes in esterification/desterification suggesting that testosterone functions in the reproductive cycle of the organisms. Testosterone esterification provides a unique target in the testosterone regulatory machinery of snails that is altered by tributyltin. Indeed, imposex and free testosterone levels were elevated in field collected snails containing high tin levels, while testosterone-fatty acid ester pools were reduced in these organisms. These observations indicate that tributyltin elevates free testosterone by reducing the retention of testosterone as fatty acid-esters. This endocrine effect of tributyltin may be responsible for imposex.

  13. Tritium labelling of testosteron by selective hydrogenation of dihydrotestosteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Simion, Elena; Barna, Catalina; Condac, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    Elemental tritium is obtained during the decontamination process of the moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. It might be stocked for use in controlled fusion, in a relatively far future, or, it might be immediately used as raw material in the synthesis of labelled compounds with important economic value. Labelling of testosteron with tritium was necessary for the carrying out of radiometric and molecular biology studies concerning androgen dependent diseases. Testosteron was labelled by selective hydrogenation of 1,2 dihydrotestosteron acetate. The forerunner was synthesized in two steps: 1) esterification of testosteron using acetic anhydride, and 2) selective dehydrogenation with 2,6-dichloro-3,5-dicyan-1,4 quinone (DDQ) of the ester formed in the first step. Testosteron acetate was synthesized and purified with yields of 73%, and 80%, respectively. The dehydrogenation process was characterized by yields of 82% for synthesis and 33% for purification. The tritium labelled hormone was obtained in two steps: 1) selective hydrogenation of Δ 1 - testosteron acetate in the presence of T 2 gas, at low pressure, and 2) hydrolysis of the ester at basic pH. The raw product obtained was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography. The physical and chemical characterization of labelled testosteron reveals a radiochemical purity higher than 98% and a specific activity of 53.4 Ci/mmol. (authors)

  14. Model approach for stress induced steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volko, Claus D; Regidor, Pedro A; Rohr, Uwe D

    2016-03-01

    Stress was described by Cushing and Selye as an adaptation to a foreign stressor by the anterior pituitary increasing ACTH, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The question is raised whether stress can induce additional steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases (SMD), since stress is the common denominator. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, where the steroidal hormone cascade of patients with SMD was compared to the impact of increasing stress on the steroidal hormone cascade (a) in healthy amateur marathon runners with no overtraining; (b) in healthy well-trained elite soldiers of a ranger training unit in North Norway, who were under extreme physical and mental stress, sleep deprivation, and insufficient calories for 1 week; and, (c) in soldiers suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia (SI), and bipolar disorders (BD). (a) When physical stress is exposed moderately to healthy men and women for 3-5 days, as in the case of amateur marathon runners, only few steroidal hormones are altered. A mild reduction in testosterone, cholesterol and triglycerides is detected in blood and in saliva, but there was no decrease in estradiol. Conversely, there is an increase of the glucocorticoids, aldosterone and cortisol. Cellular immunity, but not specific immunity, is reduced for a short time in these subjects. (b) These changes are also seen in healthy elite soldiers exposed to extreme physical and mental stress but to a somewhat greater extent. For instance, the aldosterone is increased by a factor of three. (c) In SMD, an irreversible effect on the entire steroidal hormone cascade is detected. Hormones at the top of the cascade, such as cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), aldosterone and other glucocorticoids, are increased. However, testosterone and estradiol and their metabolites, and other hormones at the lower end of the cascade, seem to be reduced. 1

  15. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  16. Effects of sex steroids on expression of genes regulating growth-related mechanisms in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Beth M; Weber, Gregory M

    2015-05-15

    Effects of a single injection of 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), or 5β-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on expression of genes central to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, muscle-regulatory factors, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily signaling cascade, and estrogen receptors were determined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver and white muscle tissue. In liver in addition to regulating GH sensitivity and IGF production, sex steroids also affected expression of IGF binding proteins, as E2, T, and DHT increased expression of igfbp2b and E2 also increased expression of igfbp2 and igfbp4. Regulation of this system also occurred in white muscle in which E2 increased expression of igf1, igf2, and igfbp5b1, suggesting anabolic capacity may be maintained in white muscle in the presence of E2. In contrast, DHT decreased expression of igfbp5b1. DHT and T decreased expression of myogenin, while other muscle regulatory factors were either not affected or responded similarly for all steroid treatments. Genes within the TGFβ superfamily signaling cascade responded to steroid treatment in both liver and muscle, suggesting a regulatory role for sex steroids in the ability to transmit signals initiated by TGFβ superfamily ligands, with a greater number of genes responding in liver than in muscle. Estrogen receptors were also regulated by sex steroids, with era1 expression increasing for all treatments in muscle, but only E2- and T-treatment in liver. E2 reduced expression of erb2 in liver. Collectively, these data identify how physiological mechanisms are regulated by sex steroids in a manner that promotes the disparate effects of androgens and estrogens on growth in salmonids. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Development of the fast, simple and fully validated high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector for quantification of testosterone esters in an oil-based injectable dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlik, Petr; Tircova, Barbora

    2016-11-01

    Counterfeit steroids are available on the black market, ultimately to consumers who believe they are buying a legitimate pharmaceutical item from the labeled company. In many cases, counterfeit steroids can contain lower doses or some products can be overdosed. This can unwittingly expose users to a significant health risks. The mixture of testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form belongs to the one of the most misused illicit drugs by a variety of athletes. This study developed a new, fast, simple and reliable HPLC method combined with a simple sample preparation step to determine testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form without the use of sophisticated and expensive instrumentation. The developed analytical procedure provides high throughput of samples where LC analysis takes only 6min and sample preparation of oil matrix in one step takes approximately 10min with precision ranging from 1.03 to 3.38% (RSD), and accuracy (relative error %) within ±2.01%. This method was found to be precise, linear, accurate, sensitive, selective and robust for routine application in screening of commercial pharmaceutical products based on content of mentioned testosterone esters in their oil-based injectable dosage form for counterfeit drugs. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of nine samples of commercial testosterone mixtures purchased from various sources and will be further used as an effective screening method for determination of previously mentioned testosterone esters in samples confiscated by Institute of Forensic Science (Slovakia) during the illegal trade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The laboratory diagnosis of testosterone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Darius A; Brannigan, Robert E; Fuchs, Eugene F; Kim, Edward D; Marmar, Joel L; Sandlow, Jay I

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and treatment of hypogonadal men has become an important part of urologic practice. Fatigue, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported, but nonspecific symptoms and laboratory verification of low testosterone (T) are an important part of evaluation in addition to a detailed history and physical examination. Significant intraindividual fluctuations in serum T levels, biologic variation of T action on end organs, the wide range of T levels in human serum samples, and technical limitations of currently available assays have led to poor reliability of T measurements in the clinical laboratory setting. There is no universally accepted threshold of T concentration that distinguishes eugonadal from hypogonadal men; thus, laboratory results have to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical setting. This review focuses on clinical, biological, and technological challenges that affect serum T measurements to educate clinicians regarding technological advances and limitations of the currently available laboratory methods to diagnose hypogonadism. A collaborative effort led by the American Urological Association between practicing clinicians, patient advocacy groups, government regulatory agencies, industry, and professional societies is underway to provide optimized assay platforms and evidence-based normal assay ranges to guide clinical decision making. Until such standardization is commonplace in clinical laboratories, the decision to treat should be based on the presence of signs and symptoms in addition to serum T measurements. Rigid interpretation of T ranges should not dictate clinical decision making or define coverage of treatment by third party payers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Testosterone Topical Solution in Hypogonadal Men With Suboptimal Response to a Topical Testosterone Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patrick R; Kim, Edward D; Ruff, Dustin D; Seftel, Allen D

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of axillary administration of a 2% testosterone solution (Axiron ® ) in hypogonadal (HGN) men who had had a suboptimal response to treatment with a commercially available topical testosterone gel. HGN men averaging 57 years old, with a mean body mass index of 31.9 kg/m 2 and median baseline testosterone level (T-level) of 185.2 ng/dL, who had failed to reach normal T-levels with a topical testosterone gel (Androgel 1.62%, Androgel, Testim, or Fortesta) were treated with a 2% testosterone solution until T-levels reached a normal range (from ≥300 to ≤1,050 ng/dL) or for up to 9 weeks. Outcomes included the cumulative percentage of men with a serum T-level in the normal range during treatment with Axiron and improvement in symptoms of low energy level and low sexual drive. During the study, 95% of HGN men (72/78) attained a T-level in the normal range. The median T-level at endpoint was 495.7 ng/dL, a threefold increase over baseline, p levels within the first 2 weeks of treatment. In a post hoc analysis, all subjects with baseline body mass indexes >35 kg/m 2 ( n = 19) achieved T-levels in the normal range. Prior to treatment, over 61% of subjects (48/78) reported impairment in either energy level or sexual drive. After treatment (or testosterone normalization), energy level improved in 75% of subjects and sexual drive improved in 70%. Topical 2% testosterone solution is a safe and effective treatment for HGN men who have had a suboptimal response to previous treatment with topical testosterone gels.

  20. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  1. Digit ratio (2D:4D) and circulating testosterone, oestradiol, and progesterone levels across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gareth; Klimek, Magdalena; Jasienska, Grazyna; Marcinkowska, Urszula M

    2018-02-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is used by researchers as an indicator of prenatal sex hormone exposure. Two previous studies have examined associations between 2D:4D and circulating sex steroid concentrations across the menstrual cycle in adult females. One reported that digit ratio correlated positively with oestradiol levels, whereas the other found no such effect; neither observed significant associations with progesterone. To examine associations between 2D:4D, as well as asymmetry (i.e. right minus left 2D:4D), and circulating sex steroids across the menstrual cycle. Correlational. 32 naturally cycling adult females from rural southern Poland. Salivary oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and testosterone to oestradiol ratio (T:O) measured during the follicular, peri-ovulatory, and luteal phases. Average levels across the cycle were also examined. Asymmetry in digit ratio correlated positively with oestradiol at each phase, as well as with average levels across the cycle. Each association, other than that relating to average levels, remained statistically significant after a range of covariates had been controlled for. No other significant correlations were observed between digit ratio variables and circulating hormone levels. Our results might suggest that low exposure to androgens and/or high exposure to oestrogens during gestation is a predictor of high oestradiol levels in naturally cycling females of reproductive age. However, considering that it was asymmetry in digit ratio, and not either right or left 2D:4D, that was a significant predictor, it is also possible that these effects reflect more general associations between bilateral asymmetry and circulating oestradiol levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex differences in the neural substrates of spatial working memory during adolescence are not mediated by endogenous testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Cservenka, Anita; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2014-12-17

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by notable changes in behavior, physical attributes, and an increase in endogenous sex steroid hormones, which may impact cognitive functioning. Moreover, sex differences in brain structure are present, leading to differences in neural function and cognition. Here, we examine sex differences in performance and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in a sample of adolescents during a spatial working memory (SWM) task. We also examine whether endogenous testosterone levels mediate differential brain activity between the sexes. Adolescents between ages 10 and 16 years completed a SWM functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task, and serum hormone levels were assessed within seven days of scanning. While there were no sex differences in task performance (accuracy and reaction time), differences in BOLD response between girls and boys emerged, with girls deactivating brain regions in the default mode network and boys showing increased response in SWM-related brain regions of the frontal cortex. These results suggest that adolescent boys and girls adopted distinct neural strategies, while maintaining spatial cognitive strategies that facilitated comparable cognitive performance of a SWM task. A nonparametric bootstrapping procedure revealed that testosterone did not mediate sex-specific brain activity, suggesting that sex differences in BOLD activation during SWM may be better explained by other factors, such as early organizational effects of sex steroids or environmental influences. Elucidating sex differences in neural function and the influence of gonadal hormones can serve as a basis of comparison for understanding sexually dimorphic neurodevelopment and inform sex-specific psychopathology that emerges in adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  4. Urinary steroid profile in females - the impact of menstrual cycle and emergency contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jenny E; Thörngren, John-Olof; Schulze, Jenny J; Ericsson, Magnus; Gårevik, Nina; Lehtihet, Mikael; Ekström, Lena

    2017-07-01

    Today's doping tests involving longitudinal monitoring of steroid profiles are difficult in women. Women have more complex hormonal fluctuations than men and commonly take drugs such as hormonal contraceptives that are shown to affect biomarkers used in these doping tests. In this study, we followed six women's urinary steroid profile during one menstrual cycle, including both glucuronides and sulfate conjugated fractions. Additionally, we studied what happens to the steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) after administration of an emergency contraceptive (levonorgestrel, NorLevo®). The study shows that there are large individual variations in all metabolites included in the ABP and that the administration of emergency contraceptives may lead to suspicious steroid profile findings in the ABP. Urinary epitestosterone concentration increased during the menstrual cycle, leading to a decrease in the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio. The ratios followed in the ABP varied widely throughout the menstrual cycle, the coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4 to 99%. There was a 3-fold decrease in epitestosterone 24 h post administration of the emergency contraceptive pill and androsterone, etiocholanolone, and 5β- androstan-3α,17β-diol concentrations decreased about 2-fold. When analyzed with the ABP software, one of the six women had an atypical profile after taking the emergency contraceptive. Furthermore, we could not find any alterations in excretion routes (i.e., if the metabolites are excreted as glucuronide or sulfate conjugates) during the menstrual cycle or after administration of emergency contraceptive, indicating no direct effect on phase II enzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. MRI and image quantitation for drug assessment - growth effects of anabolic steroids and precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haiying; Wu, Ed; Vasselli, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    MRI and image quantitation play an expanding role in modern drug research, because MRI offers high resolution and non-invasive ability, and provides excellent soft tissue contrast. Moreover, with development of effective image segmentation and analysis methods, in-vivo and serial tissue growth measurements could be assessed. In the study, MR image acquisition and analysis protocol were established and validated for investigating the effects of anabolic steroids and precursors on muscle growth and body composition in a guinea pig model. Semi-automatic and interactive segmentation methods were developed to accurately label the tissue of interest for tissue volume estimation. In addition, a longitudinal tissue area outlining procedure was proposed for study of tissue geometric features in relation to tissue growth. Finally, a fully automatic data retrieval and analysis scheme was implemented to facilitate the overall huge amount of image quantitation, statistical analysis, as well as study group comparisons. As a result, highly significant differences in muscle and organ growth were detected between intact and castrated guinea pigs using the selected anabolic steroids, indicating the viability of employing such protocol to assess other anabolic steroids. Furthermore, the anabolic potential of selected steroid precursors and their effects on muscle growth, in comparison with that in respective positive control groups of castrated guinea pigs, were evaluated with the proposed protocol.

  6. PPARα activators down-regulate CYP2C7, a retinoic acid and testosterone hydroxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Liqun; Brown-Borg, Holly; Brown, Sherri; Westin, Stefan; Mode, Agneta; Corton, J. Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators (PP) are a large class of structurally diverse chemicals that mediate their effects in the liver mainly through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Exposure to PP results in down-regulation of CYP2C family members under control of growth hormone and sex steroids including CYP2C11 and CYP2C12. We hypothesized that PP exposure would also lead to similar changes in CYP2C7, a retinoic acid and testosterone hydroxylase. CYP2C7 gene expression was dramatically down-regulated in the livers of rats treated for 13 weeks by WY-14,643 (WY; 500 ppm) or gemfibrozil (GEM; 8000 ppm). In the same tissues, exposure to WY and GEM and to a lesser extent di-n-butyl phthalate (20 000 ppm) led to decreases in CYP2C7 protein levels in both male and female rats. An examination of the time and dose dependence of CYP2C7 protein changes after PP exposure revealed that CYP2C7 was more sensitive to compound exposure compared to other CYP2C family members. Protein expression was decreased after 1, 5 and 13 weeks of PP treatment. CYP2C7 protein expression was completely abolished at 5 ppm WY, the lowest dose tested. GEM and DBP exhibited dose-dependent decreases in CYP2C7 protein expression, becoming significant at 1000 ppm or 5000 ppm and above, respectively. These results show that PP exposure leads to changes in CYP2C7 mRNA and protein levels. Thus, in addition to known effects on steroid metabolism, exposure to PP may alter retinoic acid metabolism

  7. Changes in steroid profiles of the blue mussel Mytilus trossulus as a function of season, stage of gametogenesis, sex, tissue and mussel bed depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarz, Katarzyna; Zabrzańska, Sandra; Konieczna, Lucyna; Hallmann, Anna

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes changes in the content of free steroid hormones e.g. testosterone (T), estradiol-17β (E2), estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) of Mytilus trossulus from the southern Baltic Sea as a function of season, stage of gametogenesis, sex, tissue (gonadal and somatic) and depth. The highest levels of T, E2, E1 and E3 were found in mussels sampled in spring and summer while the lowest levels were found in winter. This pattern was stable and was seen in both sexes and tissues in mussels from both mussel beds. The spring and summer peaks in steroid levels (SL) coincided with advanced levels of gametogenesis (the highest gonadal index, GI) of our model species. But, the lowest GI (autumn) and the lowest steroids content (winter) did not overlap. Instead, water temperature increase was followed by increase of SL and vice versa. This suggests that steroids may not be actively involved in the early stages of gamete development and does not preclude them from potentially being involved as endogenous modulators in the final stages of reproduction (e.g. spawning). Hence, observed fluctuations in SL in our model species are unlikely to be caused by reproductive cycle but are rather of unknown nature, likely linked with environmental conditions. Sex-related differences in steroid content included estrogen domination in females and androgen domination in males. A trend towards higher level of steroids in gills than in gonads was found, supporting the hypothesis about an exogenous origin of steroids in bivalves. However, based on the present results, we cannot exclude the possibility that these steroids have both an endogenous and exogenous origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuropeptide Y in the forebrain of the adult male cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus: distribution, effects of castration and testosterone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharkar, Amul J; Singru, Praful S; Sarkar, Koustav; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2005-08-22

    We studied the organization of the neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive system in the forebrain of adult male cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus and its response to castration and testosterone replacement by using morphometric methods. Immunoreactivity for NPY was widely distributed in the forebrain, and the pattern generally resembled that in other teleosts. Whereas immunoreactivity was conspicuous in the ganglia of nervus terminalis (NT; or nucleus olfactoretinalis), a weak reaction was detected in some granule cells in the olfactory bulb and in the cells of area ventralis telencephali pars lateralis (Vl). Moderately to intensely immunoreactive cells were distinctly seen in the nucleus entopeduncularis (NE), nucleus preopticus (NPO), nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLT), paraventricular organ (PVO), and midbrain tegmentum (MT). NPY fibers were widely distributed in the forebrain. Castration for 10/15 days resulted in a drastic loss of immunoreactivity in the cells of NE (P<0.001) and a significant decrease (P<0.01) in their cell nuclear size. However, cell nuclei of the NT neurons showed a significant increase in size. A highly significant reduction in the NPY-immunoreactive fiber density (P<0.001) was observed in several areas of the forebrain. Although testosterone replacement reversed these changes, fibers in some areas showed supranormal responses. Immunoreactive cells in Vl, NPO, NLT, PVO, and MT and fiber density in some other areas did not respond to castration. We suggest that the NPY-immunoreactive elements that respond to castration and testosterone replacement may serve as the substrate for processing the positive feedback action of the steroid hormone. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, certain routine sperm characteristics and testosterone in breeding Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to examine the relationships among frozen-thawed semen fertility, physical parameters, seminal quality, and testosterone concentration in Murrah buffalo bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 breeding Murrah buffalo bulls (either progeny tested or under progeny testing program were randomly selected from two government bull farms in Punjab. None of the bulls selected for this study had any preceding physical abnormality. A field fertility trial was conducted to determine the first service conception rate (FSCR. The number of females inseminated per bull semen was 10. All the bulls were inspected for structural soundness, measurement of scrotal circumference, testicular biometry, and internal pelvic area (IPA. Frozen-thawed semen was evaluated for total motility, progressive motility, viability, concentration, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST. Testosterone was estimated in blood plasma, seminal plasma as well as frozen-thawed semen extracts for establishing relationship. Results: The FSCR was 48% in the bulls having a scrotal circumference of ≥44 cm, although, there was no significant correlation between FSCR and scrotal circumference. Similarly, no consistent relationship existed between sperm concentration and scrotal circumference. A positive correlation was observed between IPA and FSCR (r=0.294. Of the six post-thaw seminal components (total motility, progressive motility, viability, HOST (%, total abnormality and concentration only total motility had a high significant (p<0.01 correlation with FSCR (r=0.694. Varied correlations existed between other seminal parameters and fertility. Using a simple regression analysis, the post-thaw motility, IPA, prepuce length and testosterone (independent variables combined to explain approximately 62% of the variation in the FSCR (dependent variable. Conclusion: The present study indicated that despite low to high correlations between seminal

  10. Safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in the treatment of male hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore M Lakshman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Kishore M Lakshman, Shehzad BasariaSection of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition. Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Transdermal testosterone gels were first introduced in the US in 2000. Since then, they have emerged as a favorable mode of testosterone substitution. Serum testosterone levels reach a steady-state in the first 24 hours of application and remain in the normal range for the duration of the application. This pharmacokinetic profile is comparable to that of testosterone patch but superior to injectable testosterone esters that are associated with peaks and troughs with each dose. Testosterone gels are as efficacious as patches and injectable forms in their effects on sexual function and mood. Anticipated increases in prostate-specific antigen with testosterone therapy are not significantly different with testosterone gels, and the risk of polycythemia is lower than injectable modalities. Application site reactions, a major drawback of testosterone patches, occur less frequently with testosterone gels. However, inter-personal transfer is a concern if appropriate precautions are not taken. Superior tolerability and dose flexibility make testosterone gel highly desirable over other modalities of testosterone replacement. Androgel and Testim, the two currently available testosterone gel products in the US, have certain brandspecific properties that clinicians may consider prior to prescribing.Keywords: testosterone gel, Androgel, Testim, hypogonadism

  11. Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle Tympanotonus Fuscatus in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... The results indicated that marketing strategies are enroute, through harvesters (collectors), ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  12. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  13. Effects of anabolic steroids on acute phase responses in intra-abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mealy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase response is an important adaptive response to sepsis and injury. As anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis we postulated that these agents might also increase hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with testosterone or danazol for 48 h prior to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Thirty-six h following surgery the animals were killed and blood taken for full blood count, total protein, albumin, α, β and γ globulin fractions on serum electrophoresis, complement C3 and transferrin levels. Danazol increased the α1, α2 and β1 globulin serum protein fractions in comparison with no surgery and CLP alone groups. These results indicate that danazol increases plasma acute phase proteins, as measured by electrophoresis, in this model of intra-abdominal sepsis.

  14. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  15. Effects of sub-lethal levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene on in vitro steroid biosynthesis by ovarian follicles or steroid metabolism by embryos of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkam, Rakpong; Renaud, Rick; Lin, Lucy; Boermans, Herman; Leatherland, John

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the possibility that DDT and DDE, at sub-lethal exposure levels, exert direct effects on the biotransformation of gonadal steroids by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles and embryos. Ovarian follicles were co-incubated with DDT or DDE at 0.01 or 1 mg l -1 to examine effects of the pesticides on basal or cAMP-activated steroidogenesis. Ovarian preparations were incubated with radiolabelled [ 3 H]pregnenolone ([ 3 H]P 5 ), and the tritiated metabolites of [ 3 H]P 5 metabolism were separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) production were also measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Embryos were either exposed to the pesticides in ovo, or co-incubated in vitro with the pesticides. The effect of the pesticides on embryo steroid biotransformation was examined using a range of radioactively labelled substrates, including [ 3 H]P 5 , [ 3 H]progesterone ([ 3 H]P 4 ), [ 3 H]T and [ 3 H]E 2 . At the concentrations used, the pesticides had no significant effect on the relative amounts of unconjugated radiolabelled steroids formed by the biotransformation of [ 3 H]P 5 under conditions of basal or cAMP-stimulated ovarian steroidogenesis. However, DDT and DDE appeared to reduce the basal accumulation of androgen as a product of P 5 biotransformation by ovarian follicles. Basal or cAMP-stimulated total estrogen production was not affected. In addition, DDT at 1 mg l -1 and DDE at 0.01 mg l -1 significantly increased and decreased cAMP-stimulated T accumulation, respectively. Also DDT at 0.01 mg l -1 and DDE at 1 mg l -1 significantly increased and decreased basal E 2 accumulation, respectively. The steroid metabolites synthesized from the different substrates by embryos were essentially similar in both controls and pesticide-exposed groups, and the survival of embryos to hatch was not significantly affected by pesticide exposure, in ovo, with an approximately 90% hatchability in

  16. Effects of sub-lethal levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene on in vitro steroid biosynthesis by ovarian follicles or steroid metabolism by embryos of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkam, Rakpong [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Renaud, Rick [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Lin, Lucy [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Boermans, Herman [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada); Leatherland, John [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont., N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: jleather@ovc.uoguelph.ca

    2005-07-01

    This study examined the possibility that DDT and DDE, at sub-lethal exposure levels, exert direct effects on the biotransformation of gonadal steroids by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovarian follicles and embryos. Ovarian follicles were co-incubated with DDT or DDE at 0.01 or 1 mg l{sup -1} to examine effects of the pesticides on basal or cAMP-activated steroidogenesis. Ovarian preparations were incubated with radiolabelled [{sup 3}H]pregnenolone ([{sup 3}H]P{sub 5}), and the tritiated metabolites of [{sup 3}H]P{sub 5} metabolism were separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Testosterone (T) and 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) production were also measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Embryos were either exposed to the pesticides in ovo, or co-incubated in vitro with the pesticides. The effect of the pesticides on embryo steroid biotransformation was examined using a range of radioactively labelled substrates, including [{sup 3}H]P{sub 5}, [{sup 3}H]progesterone ([{sup 3}H]P{sub 4}), [{sup 3}H]T and [{sup 3}H]E{sub 2}. At the concentrations used, the pesticides had no significant effect on the relative amounts of unconjugated radiolabelled steroids formed by the biotransformation of [{sup 3}H]P{sub 5} under conditions of basal or cAMP-stimulated ovarian steroidogenesis. However, DDT and DDE appeared to reduce the basal accumulation of androgen as a product of P{sub 5} biotransformation by ovarian follicles. Basal or cAMP-stimulated total estrogen production was not affected. In addition, DDT at 1 mg l{sup -1} and DDE at 0.01 mg l{sup -1} significantly increased and decreased cAMP-stimulated T accumulation, respectively. Also DDT at 0.01 mg l{sup -1} and DDE at 1 mg l{sup -1} significantly increased and decreased basal E{sub 2} accumulation, respectively. The steroid metabolites synthesized from the different substrates by embryos were essentially similar in both controls and pesticide-exposed groups, and the survival of embryos to hatch

  17. STEROIDS MOST OFTEN USED BY SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abusage of steroids can cause serious health problems some of which are incurable, such as liver cancer. They cause a series of other effects: pimples, hairiness, boldness, gynecomastness, headaches, impotence, problems with heart and kidney functions. In addition to physical disorders, there are psychological problems too, such as aggression, depression and even addiction. Why do sportsmen abuse steroids? The main reason is to improve results in sports competitions. Others do that in order to increase muscular mass and decrease fat tissue. So you should decide for yourselves – steroids or health?

  18. AB19. Testosterone replacement therapy: how safe is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone has a ubiquitous role in the male body and the importance of a decline in testosterone levels has wide ranging impact on: regulation of gonadal function, prostate development and growth, libido, cerebral function, behavior, mood, muscle mass, liver function, lipid regulation, bone formation, atherogenesis, erythropoiesis, hair growth and immune function. What the minimum required level of serum testosterone for the optimal health of each of these areas, nor whether each organ system’s biological response to increasing or decreasing testosterone levels follows a ‘dose-response’, ‘threshold’ or other behaviour is unclear. Late-onset hypogonadism (also known as age-associated testosterone deficiency syndrome) is a syndrome associated with advancing age and characterized by a spectrum of symptoms and a biochemical deficiency in serum testosterone levels below the young healthy adult male reference range (280-300 ng/dL; 9.8-10.4 nmol/L- Note: this level may vary in different laboratories). The decrease in serum testosterone levels seems to be a gradual, age-related process resulting in an approximate 1-2% annual decline after age 30 years, with a steep decline in bioavailable and free testosterone levels. The findings Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging demonstrated that 30% of men in their eighth have total testosterone values in the hypogonadal range (that is between 200 and 400 ng/dL), and 50% have low free testosterone values (5-9 ng/dL; 0.17-0.31 nmol/L). An estimated 500,000 new cases of late-onset hypogonadism occur annually in the USA, with similar levels reported worldwide. Testosterone deficiency has marked physiological and clinical effects on men in middle age and beyond. With subnormal testosterone levels, the potential positive benefits of TRT on factors such as muscle mass, libido or erectile function are likely a dose-response phenomena, and should be considered differen