Sample records for viability assessment va

  1. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.


    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  2. Effect of air drying on bacterial viability: A multiparameter viability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nocker, A.; Fernández, P.S.; Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.


    The effect of desiccation on the viability of microorganisms is a question of great interest for a variety of public health questions and industrial applications. Although viability is traditionally assessed by plate counts, cultivation-independent methods are increasingly applied with the aim to

  3. Assessing the Viability of Tiger Subpopulations in a Fragmented Landscape

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew Linkie; Guillaume Chapron; Deborah J. Martyr; Jeremy Holden; Nigel Leader-Williams


    .... This study aimed to provide such information for tigers in the Kerinci Seblat (KS) region, Sumatra, by identifying and assessing subpopulation viability under different management strategies. 2...

  4. Assessment of myocardial viability using PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [College of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The potential for recovery of left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial revascularization represents a practical clinical definition for myocardial viability. The evaluation of viable myocardium in patients with severe global left ventricular dysfunction due to coronary artery disease and with regional dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction is an important issue whether left ventricular dysfunction may be reversible or irreversible after therapy. If the dysfunction is due to stunning or hibernation, functional improvement is observed. But stunned myocardium may recover of dysfunction with no revascularization. Hibernation is chronic process due to chronic reduction in the resting myocardial blood flow. There are two types of myocardial hibernation; 'functional hibernation' with preserved contractile reserve and 'structural hibernation' without contractile reserve in segments with preserved glucose metabolism. This review focus on the application of F-18 FDG and other radionuclides to evaluate myocardial viability. In addition the factors influencing predictive value of FDG imaging for evaluating viability and the different criteria for viability are also reviewed.

  5. Microcirculatory assessment of patients under VA-ECMO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, Atila; Akin, Sakir; Dos Reis Miranda, Dinis; Struijs, Ard; Caliskan, Kadir; van Thiel, Robert J.; Dubois, Eric A.; de Wilde, Wouter; Zijlstra, Felix; Gommers, Diederik; Ince, Can


    Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is an effective technique for providing emergency mechanical circulatory support for patients with cardiogenic shock. VA-ECMO enables a rapid restoration of global systemic organ perfusion, but it has not been found to always show a

  6. Microcirculatory assessment of patients under VA-ECMO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kara (Atila); S. Akin (Sakir); D. dos Reis Miranda (Dinis); A. Struijs (Ard); K. Caliskan (Kadir); R.J. van Thiel (Robert); E.A. Dubois; de Wilde, W. (Wouter); F. Zijlstra (Felix); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); C. Ince (Can)


    textabstractBackground: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is an effective technique for providing emergency mechanical circulatory support for patients with cardiogenic shock. VA-ECMO enables a rapid restoration of global systemic organ perfusion, but it has not been found

  7. Antioxidant N-Acetylcysteine and Glutathione Increase the Viability and Proliferation of MG63 Cells Encapsulated in the Gelatin Methacrylate/VA-086/Blue Light Hydrogel System. (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hsin; Lin, Kai-Fung; Mar, Kwei; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lin, Yuan-Min


    Photoencapsulation of cells inside a hydrogel system can provide a suitable path to establish a gel in situ for soft tissue regeneration applications. However, the presence of photoinitiators and blue or UV light irradiation can result in cell damage and an increase of reactive oxygen species. We here evaluate the benefits of an antioxidant pretreatment on the photoencapsulated cells. We study this by evaluating proliferation and viability of MG63 cells, which we combined with a gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel system, using the photoinitiator, VA-086, cured with 440 nm blue light. We found that blue light irradiation as well as the presence of 1% VA-086 reduced MG63 cell proliferation rates. Adding a short pretreatment step to the MG63 cells, consisting of the antioxidant molecules N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and reduced glutathione (GSH), and optimizing the GelMA encapsulation steps, we found that both NAC and GSH pretreatments of MG63 cells significantly increased both proliferation and viability of the cells, when using a 15% GelMA hydrogel, 1% VA-086, and 1-min blue light exposure. These findings suggest that the use of antioxidant pretreatment can counteract the negative presence of the photoinitiators and blue light exposure and result in a suitable environment for photoencapsulating cells in situ for tissue engineering and soft tissue applications.

  8. VA-INPC: Linking Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC) data to assess surveillance testing among veterans with colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Haggstrom, David A; Rosenman, Marc; Myers, Laura J; Teal, Evgenia; Doebbeling, Bradley N


    The goal of this project was to provide empiric evidence about the benefit to US veterans and the VA of capturing data from a citywide clinical informatics network (INPC) to assess care received outside the VA. We identified 468 veterans diagnosed with colorectal cancer from 2000-2007 in the Indianapolis VA cancer registry. Electronic VA healthcare data were linked with electronic health records from the regional health information organization (RHIO) INPC; 341 matches were found. Both the VA and INPC systems were queried regarding receipt of surveillance tests. The proportion with additional data from INPC varied by test: colonoscopy (3%), CT scan/abdomen (13%), CT scan/chest (79%), carcinoembryonic antigen test (8%), and other laboratory tests (25%-53%). An incremental benefit of linking VA and INPC data was present and may increase when expanded beyond patients with a single condition. New, important information about care outside the VA is obtained through RHIO data linkage.

  9. Assessment of viability of microorganisms employing fluorescence techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, P.


    Viability assessment of microorganisms is relevant for a wide variety of applications in industry, including evaluation of inactivation treatments and quality assessment of starter cultures for beer, wine, and yoghurt production.

    Usually, the ability of microbial cells to

  10. Multimodality imaging in the assessment of myocardial viability (United States)

    Partington, Sara L.; Kwong, Raymond Y.


    The prevalence of heart failure due to coronary artery disease continues to increase, and it portends a worse prognosis than non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Revascularization improves prognosis in these high-risk patients who have evidence of viability; therefore, optimal assessment of myocardial viability remains essential. Multiple imaging modalities exist for differentiating viable myocardium from scar in territories with contractile dysfunction. Given the multiple modalities available, choosing the best modality for a specific patient can be a daunting task. In this review, the physiology of myocardial hibernation and stunning will be reviewed. All the current methods available for assessing viability including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging with single photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography imaging and cardiac computed tomography will be reviewed. The effectiveness of the various techniques will be compared, and the limitations of the current literature will be discussed. PMID:21069458

  11. A Classification Method for Seed Viability Assessment with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men


    Full Text Available This paper presents a viability assessment method for Pisum sativum L. seeds based on the infrared thermography technique. In this work, different artificial treatments were conducted to prepare seeds samples with different viability. Thermal images and visible images were recorded every five minutes during the standard five day germination test. After the test, the root length of each sample was measured, which can be used as the viability index of that seed. Each individual seed area in the visible images was segmented with an edge detection method, and the average temperature of the corresponding area in the infrared images was calculated as the representative temperature for this seed at that time. The temperature curve of each seed during germination was plotted. Thirteen characteristic parameters extracted from the temperature curve were analyzed to show the difference of the temperature fluctuations between the seeds samples with different viability. With above parameters, support vector machine (SVM was used to classify the seed samples into three categories: viable, aged and dead according to the root length, the classification accuracy rate was 95%. On this basis, with the temperature data of only the first three hours during the germination, another SVM model was proposed to classify the seed samples, and the accuracy rate was about 91.67%. From these experimental results, it can be seen that infrared thermography can be applied for the prediction of seed viability, based on the SVM algorithm.

  12. Nuclear cardiac imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability. (United States)

    Slart, R H J A; Bax, J J; van der Wall, E E; van Veldhuisen, D J; Jager, P L; Dierckx, R A


    An important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy is the assessment of myocardial viability. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischaemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularisation. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using 201thallium, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc- tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularisation. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, such as attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and noninvasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification.

  13. Assessment of donor heart viability during ex vivo heart perfusion. (United States)

    White, Christopher W; Ambrose, Emma; Müller, Alison; Li, Yun; Le, Hoa; Hiebert, Brett; Arora, Rakesh; Lee, Trevor W; Dixon, Ian; Tian, Ganghong; Nagendran, Jayan; Hryshko, Larry; Freed, Darren


    Ex vivo heart perfusion (EVHP) may facilitate resuscitation of discarded donor hearts and expand the donor pool; however, a reliable means of demonstrating organ viability prior to transplantation is required. Therefore, we sought to identify metabolic and functional parameters that predict myocardial performance during EVHP. To evaluate the parameters over a broad spectrum of organ function, we obtained hearts from 9 normal pigs and 37 donation after circulatory death pigs and perfused them ex vivo. Functional parameters obtained from a left ventricular conductance catheter, oxygen consumption, coronary vascular resistance, and lactate concentration were measured, and linear regression analyses were performed to identify which parameters best correlated with myocardial performance (cardiac index: mL·min(-1)·g(-1)). Functional parameters exhibited excellent correlation with myocardial performance and demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for identifying hearts at risk of poor post-transplant function (ejection fraction: R(2) = 0.80, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.85; stroke work: R(2) = 0.76, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.77; minimum dP/dt: R(2) = 0.74, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.54; tau: R(2) = 0.51, sensitivity = 1.00, specificity = 0.92), whereas metabolic parameters were limited in their ability to predict myocardial performance (oxygen consumption: R(2) = 0.28; coronary vascular resistance: R(2) = 0.20; lactate concentration: R(2) = 0.02). We concluded that evaluation of functional parameters provides the best assessment of myocardial performance during EVHP, which highlights the need for an EVHP device capable of assessing the donor heart in a physiologic working mode.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Lancaster


    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars.

  15. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    to each other. Section 6 also discusses the DOE assessment of potential activities to increase the confidence in future TSPAs based on the results of TSPA-VA, gives a synopsis of the insights provided by the TSPA Peer Review Panel, includes a discussion of comments received by DOE from NRC, and closes with concluding remarks.



    Aires, Ayrana Soares; Silva, Luís Eduardo Carelli Teixeira da; Barros, Alderico Girão Campos de; Azevedo, Gustavo Borges Laurindo de; Naves, Cleiton Dias


    ABSTRACT Objective: This study describes the use of materials for modern cervical instrumentation, evaluating its viability in children and adolescents, and the techniques used in different cases. The efficacy of the techniques was analyzed through improvement of pain, maintenance of cervical range of motion, recovery of craniocervical stability, bone consolidation, and spinal stenosis in the postoperative follow-up. Method: Retrospective study of the clinical and radiological parameters of 2...

  17. Criteria for Viability Assessment of Discarded Human Donor Livers during Ex Vivo Normothermic Machine Perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutton, Michael E.; op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Weeder, Pepijn D.; de Boer, Marieke T.; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J.


    Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate

  18. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura


    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  19. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping


    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  20. Serving homeless veterans in the VA Desert Pacific Healthcare Network: a needs assessment to inform quality improvement endeavors. (United States)

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Yuan, Anita; Rubenstein, Lisa; Andersen, Ronald M; Gelberg, Lillian


    This report describes a needs assessment of VA programs for homeless Veterans in Southern California and Nevada, the geographic region with the most homeless Veterans in the nation. The assessment was formulated through key informant interviews. Current service provisions are discussed, along with salient unmet needs for this vulnerable population.

  1. Serving homeless Veterans in the VA Desert Pacific Healthcare Network: A needs assessment to inform quality improvement endeavors


    Gabrielian, Sonya; Yuan, Anita; Rubenstein, Lisa; Andersen, Ronald M.; Gelberg, Lillian


    This report describes a needs assessment of VA programs for homeless Veterans in Southern California and Nevada, the geographic region with the most homeless Veterans in the nation. The assessment was formulated through key informant interviews. Current service provisions are discussed, along with salient unmet needs for this vulnerable population.

  2. Direct In Situ Viability Assessment of Bacteria in Probiotic Dairy Products Using Viability Staining in Conjunction with Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy (United States)

    Auty, M. A. E.; Gardiner, G. E.; McBrearty, S. J.; O'Sullivan, E. O.; Mulvihill, D. M.; Collins, J. K.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.; Ross, R. P.


    The viability of the human probiotic strains Lactobacillus paracasei NFBC 338 and Bifidobacterium sp. strain UCC 35612 in reconstituted skim milk was assessed by confocal scanning laser microscopy using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability stain. The technique was rapid (diluent. PMID:11133474


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrana Soares Aires

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study describes the use of materials for modern cervical instrumentation, evaluating its viability in children and adolescents, and the techniques used in different cases. The efficacy of the techniques was analyzed through improvement of pain, maintenance of cervical range of motion, recovery of craniocervical stability, bone consolidation, and spinal stenosis in the postoperative follow-up. Method: Retrospective study of the clinical and radiological parameters of 27 patients aged two to 16 years with cervical spine diseases. Results: Two patients had chronic dislocation in C1-C2, one had congenital axis spondylolisthesis, two had congenital dislocation in C1-C2, three had tumors, one had kyphosis after laminectomy, one had post-infection kyphosis, one had fracture, 11 were syndromic with instabilities, and five had congenital cervical scoliosis. As to surgical approaches, two patients were transorally operated, three by anterior approach, 15 by posterior approach, two by anterior and posterior approaches, and five were treated in three stages (anterior, posterior and anterior approaches. Regarding the technique of cervical stabilization, seven patients were treated by Goel-Harms technique, two received Goel’s facet distraction, and three, Wright translaminar screws. There were complications in four cases. Two patients in the instrumentation of C1 lateral mass due to poor positioning, one with cerebrospinal fluid fistula and one with surgical wound infection. Conclusion: Modern cervical instrumentation in pediatric patients is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of cervical instability.

  4. Assessing the Pedagogical Impact of the VaNTH Engineering Research Center on Faculty and Postdoctoral Professionals (United States)

    Cox, Monica; Cawthorne, James; McNeill, Nathan; Cekic, Osman; Frye, Matthew; Stacer, Melissa


    From 1999 to 2007, the Vanderbilt-Northwestern-Texas-Harvard/MIT (VaNTH) Engineering Research Center focused on improving bioengineering education through the applications of learning science, learning technology, and assessment and evaluation within the domain of bioengineering. This paper discusses results from a survey to explore the impact of…

  5. Geriatric Assessment Units and Rural Health System Viability. (United States)

    Lassey, William R.; Lassey, Marie L.

    The Geriatric Assessment Unit (GAU), which has proven successful in urban areas, may be a viable system for providing health care to the elderly in rural areas. GAUs engage in assessment, follow-up response to findings, education, and research. The assessment component includes, at minimum, physical health, functional ability in activities of…

  6. Cardiac magnetic resonance for the assessment of myocardial viability: from pathophysiology to clinical practice. (United States)

    Dellegrottaglie, Santo; Guarini, Pasquale; Savarese, Gianluigi; Gambardella, Francesco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Cirillo, Annapaola; Vitagliano, Alice; Formisano, Tiziana; Pellegrino, Angela M; Bossone, Eduardo; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale


    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly applied for the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with ischemic ventricular dysfunction, and it holds potential advantages over more traditional imaging modalities, including single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). CMR-based techniques for viability assessment include the evaluation of transmural extent of the scar using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images, the evaluation of end-diastolic wall thickness from resting cine images and the study of inotropic reserve during low-dose dobutamine infusion. During the past decade, the diffusion of the use of CMR for viability assessment confirmed the clinical strengths of this modality and, at the same time, helped to use old techniques with an increased level of awareness. With LGE CMR, both viable and nonviable dysfunctional myocardium can be visualized in a single image, allowing a direct quantification of the amount of regional viability, with a significant impact on the estimation of chance for recovery. As well, studies with CMR applied in the setting of ischemic heart disease allowed a better understanding of the best way to apply and interpret other tests for viability evaluation. For instance, it has been demonstrated that the transmural extension of the scar may influence the level of concordance between SPECT and DSE in assessing myocardial viability. The transmural extent of scar on LGE CMR also correlates with the timing of postrevascularization recovery of systolic function, with significant impact on the diagnostic accuracy of any applied imaging modality.

  7. Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria


    Chitarra, L.G.


    Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on serological techniques. Plating methods provide information about cell viability, but are generally laborious and time-consuming. Serological techniques, such as immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzym...

  8. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 1: Introduction and Site Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This first volume contains an introduction to the viability assessment, including the purpose, scope, waste forms, technical challenges, an historical perspective, regulatory framework, management of the repository, technical components, preparations for the license application, and repository milestones after the assessment. The second part of this first volume addresses characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  9. The Geometric-VaR Backtesting Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis


    This paper develops a new test to evaluate Value af Risk (VaR) forecasts. VaR is a standard risk measure widely utilized by financial institutions and regulators, yet estimating VaR is a challenging problem, and popular VaR forecast relies on unrealistic assumptions. Hence, assessing the performa......This paper develops a new test to evaluate Value af Risk (VaR) forecasts. VaR is a standard risk measure widely utilized by financial institutions and regulators, yet estimating VaR is a challenging problem, and popular VaR forecast relies on unrealistic assumptions. Hence, assessing...

  10. A nationwide VA palliative care quality measure: the family assessment of treatment at the end of life. (United States)

    Casarett, David; Pickard, Amy; Bailey, F Amos; Ritchie, Christine Seel; Furman, Christian Davis; Rosenfeld, Ken; Shreve, Scott; Shea, Judy


    To evaluate the FATE (Family Assessment of Treatment at End of Life) Survey for use as a nationwide quality measure in the VA health care system. Nationwide telephone survey. Five VA medical centers. Eligible patients received inpatient or outpatient care from a participating VA facility in the last month of life. One respondent/patient was selected using predefined eligibility criteria and invited to participate. The FATE survey consists of 32 items in 9 domains: Well-being and dignity (4 items), Information and communication (5 items), Respect for treatment preferences (2 items), Emotional and spiritual support (3 items), Management of symptoms (4 items), Choice of inpatient facility (1 item), Care around the time of death (6 items), Access to VA services (4 items), and Access to VA benefits after the patient's death (3 items). Interviews were completed with 309 respondents. The FATE showed excellent psychometric characteristics, with good homogeneity (e.g., Cronbach (alpha = 0.91) and no evidence of significant ceiling effects. The FATE also demonstrated good discriminant validity. For instance, FATE scores varied across facilities (range 44-72; Kruskal Wallis test p < 0.001). Patients who were seen by a palliative care service had better scores (mean 66 versus 52; rank sum test p < 0.001), as did patients who were referred to hospice (67 versus 49; rank sum test p < 0.001). The FATE survey offers an important source of quality data that can be used to improve the end-of-life care of all veterans, regardless of the type of care they receive or their site of death.

  11. Veterans Justice Outreach Program: VA Could Improve Management by Establishing Performance Measures and Fully Assessing Risks (United States)


    30According to VA, public order offenses include weapons offenses, prostitution , public intoxication, disorderly conduct, and driving while...Nevada 275 Arkansas 318 New Hampshire 75 California 1,202 New Jersey 53 Colorado 402 New Mexico 92 Connecticut 201 New York 886 Delaware 73

  12. Imaging techniques in nuclear cardiology for the assessment of myocardial viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, RHJA; Bax, JJ; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van der Wall, EE; Dierckx, RAJO; Jager, PL

    The assessment of myocardial viability has become an important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although revascularization may be considered in patients with sufficient viable myocardium, patients with predominantly scar tissue should be

  13. Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.


    Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on

  14. Efficacy of propidium iodide and FUN-1 stains for assessing viability in basidiospores of Rhizopogon roseolus. (United States)

    Fernández-Miranda, Elena; Majada, Juan; Casares, Abelardo


    The use of spores in applications of ectomycorrhizal fungi requires information regarding spore viability and germination, especially in genera such as Rhizopogon with high rates of spore dormancy. The authors developed a protocol to assess spore viability of Rhizopogon roseolus using four vital stains to quantify spore viability and germination and to optimize storage procedures. They showed that propidium iodide is an excellent stain for quantifying nonviable spores. Observing red fluorescent intravacuolar structures following staining with 2-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene)-1-phenylquinolinium iodide (FUN-1) can help identify viable spores that are activated. At 6 mo and 1 y, the spores kept in a water suspension survived better than those left within intact, dry gasterocarps. Our work highlights the importance of temperature, nutrients, and vitamins for maturation and germination of spores of R. roseolus during 1 y of storage.

  15. Assessment of cryopreserved donor skin viability: the experience of the regional tissue bank of Siena. (United States)

    Pianigiani, E; Tognetti, L; Ierardi, F; Mariotti, G; Rubegni, P; Cevenini, G; Perotti, R; Fimiani, M


    Skin allografts from cadaver donors are an important resource for treating extensive burns, slow-healing wounds and chronic ulcers. A high level of cell viability of cryopreserved allografts is often required, especially in burn surgery, in Italy. Thus, we aimed to determine which conditions enable procurement of highly viable skin in our Regional Skin Bank of Siena. For this purpose, we assessed cell viability of cryopreserved skin allografts procured between 2011 and 2013 from 127 consecutive skin donors, before and after freezing (at day 15, 180, and 365). For each skin donor, we collected data concerning clinical history (age, sex, smoking, phototype, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cause of death), donation process (multi-tissue or multi-organ) and timing of skin procurement (assessment of intervals such as death-harvesting, harvesting-banking, death-banking). All these variables were analysed in the whole case study (127 donors) and in different groups (e.g. multi-organ donors, non refrigerated multi-tissue donors, refrigerated multi-tissue donors) for correlations with cell viability. Our results indicated that cryopreserved skin allografts with higher cell viability were obtained from female, non smoker, heartbeating donors died of cerebral haemorrhage, and were harvested within 2 h of aortic clamping and banked within 12 h of harvesting (13-14 h from clamping). Age, cause of death and dyslipidaemia or diabetes did not appear to influence cell viability. To maintain acceptable cell viability, our skin bank needs to reduce the time interval between harvesting and banking, especially for refrigerated donors.

  16. Viability Assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts by Vital Dyes: Dry Mounts Overestimate the Number of “Ghost” Oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi Huus; Enemark, Heidi L.


    Viability assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts is crucial for evaluation of the public health significance of this important zoonotic protozoon. Viability is commonly assessed in wet mounts after acid pretreatmentand staining with fluorogenic vital dyes. However, in some studies, oocyst v...

  17. Assessment of probiotic viability during Cheddar cheese manufacture and ripening using propidium monoazide-PCR quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eDesfossés-Foucault


    Full Text Available The use of a suitable food carrier such as cheese could significantly enhance probiotic viability during storage. The main goal of this study was to assess viability of commercial probiotic strains during Cheddar cheesemaking and ripening (four to six months by comparing the efficiency of microbiological and molecular approaches. Molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR allow bacterial quantification, and DNA-blocking molecules such as propidium monoazide (PMA select only the living cells’ DNA. Cheese samples were manufactured with a lactococci starter and with one of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RO011 or Lactobacillus helveticus RO052 or a mixed culture containing B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. helveticus RO052 (MC1, both lactobacilli strains (MC2 or all three strains (MC3. DNA extractions were then carried out on PMA-treated and non-treated cell pellets in order to assess PMA treatment efficiency, followed by quantification using the 16S rRNA gene, the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf or the transaldolase gene (tal. Results with intact/dead ratios of bacteria showed that PMA-treated cheese samples had a significantly lower bacterial count than non-treated DNA samples (P<0.005, confirming that PMA did eliminate dead bacteria from PCR quantification. For both quantification methods, the addition of probiotic strains seemed to accelerate the loss of lactococci viability in comparison to control cheese samples, especially when L. helveticus RO052 was added. Viability of all three probiotic strains was also significantly reduced in mixed culture cheese samples (P<0.0001, B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 being the most sensitive to the presence of other strains. However, all probiotic strains did retain their viability (log nine cfu/g of cheese throughout ripening. This study was successful in monitoring living probiotic species in Cheddar cheese samples through PMA-qPCR.

  18. Viability assessment of Ascaris suum eggs stained with fluorescent dyes using digital colorimetric analysis. (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Magdalena; Zdybel, Jolanta; Próchniak, Marek; Osiński, Zbigniew; Karamon, Jacek; Kłapeć, Teresa; Cencek, Tomasz


    The aim of the study was to develop a method for the colorimetric evaluation of nematode eggs using appropriate instruments. The materials for the study were live and dead (inactivated) eggs of the Ascaris suum. Viability of the eggs was assessed using four different kits for fluorescent staining (for each technique, a series of photos were taken). Images of stained eggs were analysed using graphic software with RGB (red-green-blue) function. The viability of the eggs was assessed according to the relative positions of the distributions of colour intensities of live or dead eggs - distributions area's overlap index (DAOI), and distributions area's separation index (DASI) were calculated. Computer analysis of the intensity of green colour was not satisfactory. However, analysis of images in the spectrum of red colour proved useful for the effective differentiation between live or dead eggs. The best parameters were observed using the Annexin V FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit (DASI = 41 and 67). The investigation confirmed the usefulness of fluorescent dyes used in conjunction with digital analysis for the assessment of the viability of A. suum eggs. The use of computer software allowed a better objectivity of the assessment, especially in the case of doubtful staining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tetrazolium test for assessment of seed viability of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.)


    Gimenez,Juliana Iassia; Ferreira,Gisela; Cavariani,Claudio


    The study aimed to adapt the tetrazolium test to assess the viability of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.) seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized in 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (tetrazolium salt concentrations x exposure times), totaling 9 treatments with four replicates of 25 seeds. After immersion in water for 24 hours, the seeds were longitudinally sectioned and exposed to three tetrazolium salt concentrations (0.05%, 0.5% and 1%) for three periods of time...

  20. Viability Assessment of a Scintillating Fibre Tracker for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bay, Aurelio; Bruggisser, Sebastian; Callot, Olivier; Chanal, Hervé; Cogneras, E; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Decreuse, Gerard; Demmer, Moritz; Egorychev, Victor; Ekelhof, Robert; Gascon, David; Golutvin, Andrei; Graugès, Eugeni; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Haefeli, Guido; Jaton, Pierre; Joram, Christian; Karacson, Matthias; Leverington, Blake; Lindner, Rolf; Lopez-March, Neus; Nakada, Tatsuya; Patel, Mitesh; Perret, Pascal; Puig Navarro, Albert; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rouvinet, Julien; Savidge, Trevor; Schneider, Olivier; Schneider, Thomas; Shatalov, Pavel; Spaan, Bernhard; Thomas, Eric; Veneziano, Giovanni; Uwer, Ulrich; Xu, Zhirui; Yu, Hao


    This document describes the parameters and qualities of scintillating fibres and silicon photodetectors for a central tracking detector for the LHCb upgrade and discusses the viability of the proposals for a tracking detector set forth in the Framework Technical Design Report and Letter of Intent. It summarizes experimental, simulation and literature studies to assess the viability of the baseline components with a particular emphasis being put on their tolerance to damage from radiation. The specifications of the fibre and photodetector will have strong impact on the design of the front- end electronics and vice versa. Some of the results for this are also reported here. Finally, we will present a conclusion based on the results of our studies and other collaborations, regarding the suitability of a scintillating fibre based tracker with a Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM) read out in the higher luminosity environment of the upgrade scenario.

  1. The use of fluorescent probes to assess viability of the plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis by flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, L.G.; Breeuwer, P.; Abee, T.; Bulk, van den R.W.


    Determination of the viability of bacteria by the conventional plating technique is a time-consuming process. Methods based on enzyme activity or membrane integrity are much faster and may be good alternatives. Assessment of the viability of suspensions of the plant pathogenic bacterium Clavibacter

  2. Imaging techniques in nuclear cardiology for the assessment of myocardial viability. (United States)

    Slart, Riemer H J A; Bax, Jeroen J; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Wall, Ernst E; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Jager, Pieter L


    The assessment of myocardial viability has become an important aspect of the diagnostic and prognostic work-up of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although revascularization may be considered in patients with sufficient viable myocardium, patients with predominantly scar tissue should be treated medically. Patients with left ventricular dysfunction who have viable myocardium are the patients at highest risk because of the potential for ischemia but at the same time benefit most from revascularization. It is important to identify viable myocardium in these patients, and radionuclide myocardial scintigraphy is an excellent tool for this. Single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion scintigraphy (SPECT), whether using (201)thallium, (99m)Tc-sestamibi, or (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, in stress and/or rest protocols, has consistently been shown to be an effective modality for identifying myocardial viability and guiding appropriate management. Metabolic and perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers frequently adds additional information and is a powerful tool for predicting which patients will have an improved outcome from revascularization. New techniques in the nuclear cardiology field, like attenuation corrected SPECT, dual isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) SPECT and gated FDG PET are promising and will further improve the detection of myocardial viability. Also the combination of multislice computed tomography scanners with PET opens possibilities of adding coronary calcium scoring and non-invasive coronary angiography to myocardial perfusion imaging and quantification. Evaluation of the clinical role of these creative new possibilities warrants investigation.

  3. Application of cyclic biamperometry to viability and cytotoxicity assessment in human corneal epithelial cells. (United States)

    Rahimi, Mehdi; Youn, Hyun-Yi; McCanna, David J; Sivak, Jacob G; Mikkelsen, Susan R


    The application of cyclic biamperometry to viability and cytotoxicity assessments of human corneal epithelial cells has been investigated. Electrochemical measurements have been compared in PBS containing 5.0 mM glucose and minimal essential growth medium. Three different lipophilic mediators including dichlorophenol indophenol, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (also called menadione or vitamin K3) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine have been evaluated for shuttling electrons across the cell membrane to the external medium. Transfer of these electrons to ferricyanide in the extra cellular medium results in the accumulation of ferrocyanide. The amount of ferrocyanide is then determined using cyclic biamperometry and is related to the extent of cell metabolic activity and therefore cell viability. To illustrate cytotoxicity assessment of chemicals, hydrogen peroxide, benzalkonium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate have been chosen as sample toxins, the cytotoxicities of which have been evaluated and compared to values reported in the literature. Similar values have been reported using colorimetric assays; however, the simplicity of this electrochemical assay can, in principle, open the way to miniaturization onto lab-on-chip devices and its incorporation into tiered-testing approaches for cytotoxicity assessment.

  4. Criteria for viability assessment of discarded human donor livers during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Sutton

    Full Text Available Although normothermic machine perfusion of donor livers may allow assessment of graft viability prior to transplantation, there are currently no data on what would be a good parameter of graft viability. To determine whether bile production is a suitable biomarker that can be used to discriminate viable from non-viable livers we have studied functional performance as well as biochemical and histological evidence of hepatobiliary injury during ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion of human donor livers. After a median duration of cold storage of 6.5 h, twelve extended criteria human donor livers that were declined for transplantation were ex vivo perfused for 6 h at 37 °C with an oxygenated solution based on red blood cells and plasma, using pressure controlled pulsatile perfusion of the hepatic artery and continuous portal perfusion. During perfusion, two patterns of bile flow were identified: (1 steadily increasing bile production, resulting in a cumulative output of ≥ 30 g after 6 h (high bile output group, and (2 a cumulative bile production <20 g in 6 h (low bile output group. Concentrations of transaminases and potassium in the perfusion fluid were significantly higher in the low bile output group, compared to the high bile output group. Biliary concentrations of bilirubin and bicarbonate were respectively 4 times and 2 times higher in the high bile output group. Livers in the low bile output group displayed more signs of hepatic necrosis and venous congestion, compared to the high bile output group. In conclusion, bile production could be an easily assessable biomarker of hepatic viability during ex vivo machine perfusion of human donor livers. It could potentially be used to identify extended criteria livers that are suitable for transplantation. These ex vivo findings need to be confirmed in a transplant experiment or a clinical trial.

  5. Perfusion Computed Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability — a Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morariu Mirabela


    Full Text Available Myocardial viability plays an important role in preventing the development of left ventricular remodeling following an acute myocardial infarction. A preserved viability in the infarcted area has been demonstrated to be associated with a lower amplitude of the remodeling process, while the extent of the non-viable myocardium is directly correlated with the amplitude of the remodeling process. A number of methods are currently in use for the quantification of the viable myocardium, and some of them are based on the estimation of myocardial perfusion during pharmacologic stress. 64-slice Multi-detector Computed Tomography (MDCT during vasodilator stress test, associated with CT Coronary Angiography (CCTA has a high diagnostic accuracy in evaluating myocardial perfusion. In this article, we present a sequence of 3 clinical cases that presented with symptoms of myocardial ischemia, who underwent 64-slice MDCT imaging at rest and during adenosine stress test, in order to assess the extent of the hypoperfused myocardial areas. Coronary artery anatomy and the Coronary Calcium Score was assessed for all 3 patients by performing CT Coronary Angiography. The combination of CT Angiography and adenosine stress CT myocardial perfusion imaging can accurately detect atherosclerosic lesions that cause perfusion abnormalities, compared with the combination of invasive angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT.

  6. Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: utility in assessment of rapid changes in the cutaneous microvasculature (United States)

    McNamara, Paul M.; O'Doherty, Jim; O'Connell, Marie-Louise; Fitzgerald, Barry W.; Anderson, Chris D.; Nilsson, Gert E.; Leahy, Martin J.


    This report outlines results from an independent study assessing the clinical potential of an emerging, contemporary imaging technology. Tissue Viability (TiVi) imaging is an easily implemented, non-invasive, and portable technique which maps the blood circulation in the surface dermal layer. However, its routine clinical implementation awaits the development of the necessary standardised protocols. Thus the pilot study examines the efficacy of a novel TiVi imaging device within a localised skin blood flow occlusion protocol. The test was administered to the upper volar forearm of 19 healthy subjects (10:9 Female:Male) for 5 different time periods ranging from 5 to 25 seconds. Dermal areas corresponding to 100 × 100 pixels (2.89 cm2) were monitored for 60 seconds prior to, during and after each occlusal test. Our results support the relevance of a TiVi occlusion protocol for physiological assessment of the skin microcirculation.

  7. Assessment of viability of sperm cells of Litopenaeus vannamei on cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fornari Uberti


    Full Text Available Aiming at assessing the cryopreservation potential of Litopenaeus vannamei sperm cells, 74 spermatophores were manually extracted from the sexually mature individuals. After the toxicity test to define the cryoprotectant concentration, suspensions of spermatic cells were cryopreserved in the groups in freezing solutions comprising different cryoprotectants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and ethylene glycol (EG at 10% concentration. Each treatment was divided in subgroups for storage in liquid nitrogen during 0, 30, 60 and 90 days, in triplicate. After thawing at 25ºC for 40 seconds, cell viability in the suspensions was analyzed under the microscope in eosin-nigrosin stain and flow cytometry. There were no significant differences between the cryoprotectants used. For all the treatments, lower and higher mortalities occurred in the 0 and 90 days, respectively. By applying the eosin-nigrosin technique, lower and higher mortalities were 23.17 and 82.11% for DMSO and 29.94 and 83.72% for EG, while the flow cytometry registered mortalities of 2.42 and 55.13% for DMSO and 0.90 and 55.56% for EG. The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a positive correlation (R=0.91 between the two techniques used. It was concluded that there was a decrease in cell viability within a longer cryopreservation time.

  8. Pilot study to assess the viability of a rape trauma syndrome questionnaire. (United States)

    Long, F Y; Pang, E; Kee, C


    Studies have revealed that rape victims undergo a number of psychological symptoms following the attack, which constitute a specific syndrome termed the rape trauma syndrome (RTS). Evidence of the RTS has been admitted as scientific testimony in the prosecution of sexual offences and has been integral in their successful conviction. The present study aims to assess the viability of a questionnaire designed to identify the RTS in victims of alleged rape. A 77-item rape trauma syndrome questionnaire (RTSQ) was developed and administered to 30 women who reported rape and 57 nurses who formed the control group. The data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Windows Version 6.0). Statistical analysis suggested that the questionnaire was internally consistent and effective in uncovering significant differences between rape victims and controls in their experience of rape trauma symptoms. Rape victims scored significantly higher than controls on the RTS scale. Those who faked rape were also found to endorse a greater number of the rape trauma symptoms than actual rape victims, as well as a greater number of fictitious and unlikely symptoms. This pilot study confirmed the viability of the RTSQ and paves the way for a more rigorous examination of its reliability and validity. In the future, the questionnaire may be of use in ascertaining the veracity of victims' claims of rape in the conviction of sexual offences where circumstances are equivocal.

  9. Challenges in Learning for Company‘s Financial Viability Assessment and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Koleda


    Full Text Available Many entrepreneurs in Latvia are limited in choice of tools for the improvement of their financial literacy. Therefore the training course “Financial literacy of entrepreneurs in the field of financial viability management” was elaborated and tested with the aim to improve the course and reveal the challenges facing different categories of learners. The research was formative as it combined the promotion of learners and trainers’ competencies and behaviours with the research process throughout all the five training cycles. The research methods applied were chosen based on the inner logics and aims of the teaching and learning processes: videorecording of learners’ activities and analysis of the videomaterials; analysis of the learners’ work and reflections. Out of the identified sixteen challenges faced by learners, three were especially crucial and caused further difficulties in coping with different tasks on assessment and management of company’s financial viability. It was concluded that there may be three categories of learners whose training should be organised in different modes taking into account the level of their preparedness in accountancy, tax accounting and financial analysis.

  10. Combining biofilm matrix measurements with biomass and viability assays in susceptibility assessments of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. (United States)

    Skogman, Malena Elise; Vuorela, Pia Maarit; Fallarero, Adyary


    Despite that three types of assays (measuring biofilm viability, biomass, or matrix) are described to assess anti-biofilm activity, they are rarely used together. As infections can easily reappear if the matrix is not affected after antibiotic treatments, our goal was to explore the simultaneous effects of antibiotics on the viability, biomass and matrix of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (ATCC 25923). Viability and biomass were quantified using resazurin and crystal violet staining sequentially in the same plate, while matrix staining was conducted with a wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent conjugate. Establishment of the detection limits and linearity ranges allowed concluding that all three methods were able to estimate biofilm formation in a similar fashion. In a susceptibility study with 18-h biofilms, two model compounds (penicillin G and ciprofloxacin) caused a reduction on the viability and biomass accompanied by an increase or not changed levels of the matrix, respectively. This response pattern was also proven for S. aureus Newman, S. epidermidis and E. coli biofilms. A classification of antibiotics based on five categories according to their effects on viability and matrix has been proposed earlier. Our data suggests a sixth group, represented by penicillin, causing decrease in bacterial viability but showing stimulatory effects on the matrix. Further, if effects on the matrix are not taken into account, the long-term chemotherapeutic effect of antibiotics can be jeopardized in spite of the positive effects on biofilms viability and biomass. Thus, measuring all these three endpoints simultaneously provide a more complete and accurate picture.

  11. Viability Assessment of Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae Embryonic Axes after Cryopreservation Using In Vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izulmé Rita Imaculada Santos


    Full Text Available Embryonic axes excised from seeds of Genipa americana L. desiccated to different water contents were successfully cryopreserved by rapidly plunging seed samples directly into liquid nitrogen. Control and cryopreserved embryonic axes were excised and grown in WPM culture medium for viability assessment. All control embryonic axes (−LN2 excised from fully hydrated seeds (43.89% moisture content germinated after 21 days of culture in vitro. These high germination percentages persisted even after the water content of the seeds was as low as 6.79%. After freezing in liquid nitrogen high germination percentages, 93%, 96%, and 93%, were observed for embryonic axes excised from seeds dehydrated to 13.26%, 9.57%, and 6.79 moisture content, respectively. The cryopreservation technique described here is recommended for long term conservation of G. americana germplasm.

  12. Assessment of a simple, non-toxic Alamar blue cell survival assay to monitor tomato cell viability. (United States)

    Byth, H A; Mchunu, B I; Dubery, I A; Bornman, L


    The Alamar Blue (AB) assay, which incorporates a medox indicator that changes colour or fluorescence in response to metabolic activity, is commonly used to assess quantitatively the viability and/or proliferation of mammalian cells and micro-organisms. In this study the AB assay was adapted for the determination of the viability of plant cells. Cell suspension cultures of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, L., with differing viabilities, served as the experimental model for a comparison of the AB assay with the conventional 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) viability assay. The AB assay showed a sigmoidal relationship between cell viability and AB reduction (as quantified by spectrofluorometry or spectrophotometry), which was similar to that obtained using the TTC assay. Both assays detected a significant reduction in cell viability after 48 h exposure to virulent Ralstonia solanacearum (biovar III), while the TTC assay, in addition, revealed cell proliferation in control cells from 24 to 72 h. The TTC assay detected cell proliferation over a wider range of cell densities, while the AB assay was more rapid and versatile whilst being non-toxic and thus allowing subsequent cell analysis.

  13. Assessment of factors that impact on the viability of contract farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research analyses factors that affect the viability of contract farming in the Zimbabwean maize and soya sector. The objective was to analyse how sustainability factors (social, ethical, environmental and economic factors) were integrated to ensure the viability and sustainability of contract ventures. A sample of 70 ...

  14. A novel method for the assessment of cellular composition and beta-cell viability in human islet preparations. (United States)

    Ichii, Hirohito; Inverardi, Luca; Pileggi, Antonello; Molano, R Damaris; Cabrera, Over; Caicedo, Alejandro; Messinger, Shari; Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ricordi, Camillo


    Current methodologies to evaluate islet cell viability are largely based on tests that assess the exclusion of DNA-binding dyes. While these tests identify cells that have lost selective membrane permeability, they do not allow us to recognize apoptotic cells, which do not yet stain with DNA-binding dyes. Furthermore, current methods of analysis do not discriminate between cell subsets in the preparation and, in particular, they do not allow for selectively defining beta-cell viability. For these reasons we have developed novel methods for the specific assessment of beta-cell content and viability in human islets based on cellular composition analysis through laser scanning cytometry (LSC) coupled with identification of beta-cell-specific apoptosis at the mitochondrial level. Our novel analytical methods hold promise to prospectively analyze clinical islet transplantation preparations and predict functional performance, as suggested by the observed correlation with in vivo analysis of islet potency in immunodeficient rodents.

  15. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 4: License Application Plan and Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Volume 4 provides the DOE plan and cost estimate for the remaining work necessary to proceed from completing this VA to submitting an LA to NRC. This work includes preparing an EIS and evaluating the suitability of the site. Both items are necessary components of the documentation required to support a decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend that the President approve the site for development as a repository. If the President recommends the site to Congress and the site designation becomes effective, then DOE will submit the LA to NRC in 2002 for authorization to construct the repository. The work described in Volume 4 constitutes the last step in the characterization of the Yucca Mountain site and the design and evaluation of the performance of a repository system in the geologic setting of this site. The plans in this volume for the next 4 years' work are based on the results of the previous 15 years' work, as reported in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 of this VA. Volume 1 summarizes what DOE has learned to date about the Yucca Mountain site. Volume 2 describes the current, reference repository design, several design options that might enhance the performance of the reference design, and several alternative designs that represent substantial departures from the reference design. Volume 2 also summarizes the results of tests of candidate materials for waste packages and for support of the tunnels into which waste would be emplaced. Volume 3 provides the results of the latest performance assessments undertaken to evaluate the performance of the design in the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain. The results described in Volumes 1, 2, and 3 provide the basis for identifying and prioritizing the work described in this volume. DOE believes that the planned work, together with the results of previous work, will be sufficient to support a site suitability evaluation for site recommendation and, if the site is recommended and designated, a

  16. Comparison of Meldola's Blue Staining and Hatching Assay with Potato Root Diffusate for Assessment of Globodera sp. Egg Viability. (United States)

    Kroese, Duncan; Zasada, Inga A; Ingham, Russell E


    Laboratory-based methods to test egg viability include staining with Meldola's Blue and/or juvenile (J2) hatching assays using potato root diffusate (PRD). These two methods have not been tested under identical conditions to directly compare their assessments of Globodera egg viability. Using two bioassay strategies, cysts from a Globodera sp. population found in Oregon were subjected to both viability assessment methods. In strategy one, intact cysts were first stained with Meldola's Blue (primary staining) and eggs were then transferred to PRD (secondary hatching). In the second strategy, intact cysts were exposed to PRD (primary hatching) and then unhatched eggs were transferred to Meldola's Blue (secondary staining). Two different cohorts of cysts were evaluated using these experimental strategies: cohort 1 was comprised of cysts produced on potato in the greenhouse that exhibited low hatch when exposed to PRD and cohort 2 consisted of field-collected cysts whose eggs yielded significant hatch when exposed to PRD. Percentage viability was calculated and is expressed as the number of hatched J2 or unstained eggs/total number of eggs within a cyst. With field-produced cysts, primary staining with Meldola's Blue and hatching with PRD produced similar viability estimates, with averages of 74.9% and 76.3%, respectively. In contrast, with greenhouse-produced cysts the two methods yielded much lower and unequal estimates 32.4% to 2.2%, respectively for primary hatching and staining methods. In addition, J2 hatch from unstained (viable) greenhouse-produced eggs was 13.7% after secondary exposure to PRD compared to 61.5% for field-produced eggs. The majority of eggs remaining unhatched after primary exposure to PRD (> 87%) stained with Meldola's Blue regardless of cyst cohort. Staining with Meldola's Blue provided a conservative assessment of egg viability compared to hatch assay with PRD regardless of diapause.

  17. Methods to assess the viability of cryopreserved Jatropha curcas L. seed germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jatropha curcas L. is a plant species with many potential applications, especially medicinal uses (hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, haemostatic, healing, anti-tumor. The objective of this study was to test germination in moist paper rolls for whole seeds and in vitro for excised embryonic axes, in an attempt to identify the best method to assess the quality of J. curcas seed germplasm, cryopreserved with different water contents. The experimental sample with a 6.2% moisture content (MC was divided in subsamples which were hydrated and dehydrated for 0 (control, 4, 8, 11 and 24h. The initial germination percentages were 63% for whole seeds and 81% for excised embryonic axes. After exposure to liquid nitrogen (LN, germination percentages were 48% (whole seeds and 57% (excised embryonic axes. There was no significant difference between germination percentages in embryonic excised from seeds subjected or not subjected to freezing, with different MC. In contrast, there was a reduction of the whole seed germination percentage when exposed to LN (contrast = 0.17, standard error = 0.04, t = 4.09, p = 0.001 and not for the hydration and dehydration treatments. The methodology based on in vitro cultures of the embryonic axis isolated from seeds stored in LN with distinct MC values was more efficient than the standard germination test to evaluate the viability of J. curcas seeds before and after LN storage.

  18. Assessing the viability of successful reconstruction of the dynamics of dark energy using varying fundamental couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, P.P., E-mail: [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Losano, L., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58051-970 Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Centro de Fisica do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Menezes, R., E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil); Oliveira, J.C.R.E., E-mail: [Centro de Fisica do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Engenharia Fisica da Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)


    We assess the viability of successful reconstruction of the evolution of the dark energy equation of state using varying fundamental couplings, such as the fine structure constant or the proton-to-electron mass ratio. We show that the same evolution of the dark energy equation of state parameter with cosmic time may be associated with arbitrary variations of the fundamental couplings. Various examples of models with the same (different) background evolution and different (the same) time variation of fundamental couplings are studied in the Letter. Although we demonstrate that, for a broad family of models, it is possible to redefine the scalar field in such a way that its dynamics is that of a standard quintessence scalar field, in general such redefinition leads to the breakdown of the linear relation between the scalar field and the variation of fundamental couplings. This implies that the assumption of a linear coupling is not sufficient to guarantee a successful reconstruction of the dark energy dynamics and consequently additional model dependent assumptions about the scalar field responsible for the dark energy need to be made.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Lukáčová


    Full Text Available Nonylphenol (NP is a toxic xenobiotic compound classified as an endocrine disruptor that bioaccumulates in the body and causes endocrine disruption. NP can result in male reproductive dysfunction, altered testicular development and decreased male fertility. The target of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of NP as an endocrine disruptor on the viability of spermatozoa. We examined the dose- and time-dependent effect of nonylphenol (1, 10, 100 and 200 µg/mL dissolved either in 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and 0.1% ethanol on the viability of bovine spermatozoa after 6 h of in vitro cultivation. The viability of bovine spermatozoa was detected by the MTT cytotoxicity assay. The viability in groups with NP dissolved in 0.1% DMSO was significantly (P 10 µg/mL of NP and was decreased significantly (P<0.001 in all experimental groups with NP dissolved in 0.1% ethanol. After 6 h of culture the MTT assay proved a negative effect of all NP doses on the cell viability. The lowest survival of spermatozoa was determined after the addition of 200 µg/mL of NP. The obtained data indicate that the negative effect of NP on the viability must be seriously considered in the case of exposure to NP in animals and humans.

  20. Assessment of myocardial viability using multidetector computed tomography in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B.J. [Department of Cardiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, D.K., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sun, J.S. [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    Aim: To assess the prognostic value of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to predict follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery after reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) as defined by echocardiography. Materials and methods: After reperfusion therapy for acute MI, 71 patients underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT and follow-up echocardiography. MDCT findings were compared with echocardiographic findings using kappa statistics. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) and the odds ratios (ORs) of early perfusion defects (EPD), delayed enhancement (DE), and residual perfusion defects (RPD) for predicting follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery were calculated on a segmental basis. Results: The presence of transmural EPD (EPD{sub TM}) or RPD showed good agreement (k = 0.611 and 0.658, respectively) with follow-up myocardial dysfunction, while subendocardial EPD (EPD{sub sub}) or subendocardial DE (DE{sub sub}) showed fair agreement with follow-up myocardial dysfunction (k = 0.235 and 0.234, respectively). The AUC of RPD (0.796) was superior (p < 0.001 and 0.031, respectively) to those of EPD{sub TM} (0.761) and DE{sub TM} (0.771). The presence of EPD{sub TM}, DE{sub TM}, and RPD were significant, independent positive predictors of follow-up myocardial dysfunction (OR = 6.4, 1.9, and 9.8, respectively). EPD{sub TM} was a significant, independent negative predictor of myocardial functional recovery (OR = 0.13). Conclusion: Abnormal myocardial attenuation on two-phase MDCT after reperfusion therapy may provide promising information regarding myocardial viability in patients with acute MI.

  1. A 'fragile cell' sub-population revealed during cytometric assessment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae viability in lipid-limited alcoholic fermentation. (United States)

    Delobel, P; Pradal, M; Blondin, B; Tesniere, C


    To show that in anaerobic fermentation with limiting lipid nutrients, cell preparation impacts the viability assessment of yeast cells, and to identify the factors involved. Saccharomyces cerevisiae viability was determined using propidium iodide staining and the flow cytometry. Analyses identified intact cells, dead cells and, under certain conditions, the presence of a third subpopulation of apparently damaged cells. This intermediate population could account for up to 40% of the entire cell population. We describe, analyse and discuss the effects of different solutions for cell resuspension on the respective proportion of these three populations, in particular that of the intermediate population. We show that this intermediate cell population forms in the absence of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+). Cell preparation significantly impacts population viability assessment by FCM. The intermediate population, revealed under certain conditions, could be renamed as 'fragile cells'. For these cells, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) reduce cell membrane permeability to PI. This is the first study that analyses and discusses the factors influencing the formation of an intermediate population when studying viability in yeast alcoholic fermentation. With a wider application in biological research, this study provides important support to the relatively new questioning of propidium iodide staining as a universal cell death indicator. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Viability assessment prior to heart surgery; Die Diagnose der Gewebevitalitaet aus der Sicht des Herzchirurgen: PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, F.; Haehnel, C.; Meisner, H. [Deutsches Herzzentrum Muenchen des Freistaates Bayern (Germany). Spezialklinik fuer Herz- und Gefaesschirurgie; Schwaiger, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik


    Patients with advanced coronary artery disease and severe left ventricular dysfunction are at higher risk for peri- and postoperative complications associated with CABG. Therefore, the selection of patients, who are likely to benefit from the long-term effect of CABG is an important clinical issue. We retrospectively evaluated 88 patients with coronary artery disease and severe left ventricular dysfunction (EF{<=}0,35) who were considered candidates for CABG. 43 patients were selected for CABG on the basis of clinical presentation and angiographic data (group A), and 45 of 55 patients were selected according to the extent of viable myocardium determined by PET (group B) in addition to clinical presentation and angiographic data. Patients of group B had a less complicated postoperative recovery and were discharged earlier from ICU (p=0.04). They required lower doses of catecholamines (p=0.05) and demonstrated a significantly decreased incidence of low output syndrome (p=0.04). However, most important was the difference in early and mid-term survival. There was an in-hospital mortality rate of 11.6% in group A and none in group B (p=0.04). After twelve months, the survival rate was 77% in group A and 93% in group B (p=0.03). These data suggest that selection of patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction on the basis of PET viability assessment in addition to clinical and angiographic data may lead to postoperative recovery with low early mortality and promising short-term outcome. Therefore, viability studies permit selection of patients, who are at low risk for serious perioperative complications. (orig.) [German] Mit der Positronenemissionstomographie kann zwischen funktionseingeschraenktem, vitalem Myokard und irreversiblem Narbengewebe hochspezifisch differenziert werden. Die hohe Wahrscheinlichkeit der funktionellen Restitution in myokardialen Arealen, die mittels PET als vital charakterisiert werden, macht diese Differenzierung zu besonderer Bedeutung

  3. Flow Cytometry Is a Powerful Tool for Assessment of the Viability of Fungal Conidia in Metalworking Fluids. (United States)

    Vanhauteghem, D; Demeyere, K; Callaert, N; Boelaert, A; Haesaert, G; Audenaert, K; Meyer, E


    Fungal contamination of metalworking fluids (MWF) is a dual problem in automated processing plants because resulting fungal biofilms obstruct cutting, drilling, and polishing machines. Moreover, some fungal species of MWF comprise pathogens such as Fusarium solani Therefore, the development of an accurate analytical tool to evaluate conidial viability in MWF is important. We developed a flow cytometric method to measure fungal viability in MWF using F. solani as the model organism. To validate this method, viable and dead conidia were mixed in several proportions and flow was cytometrically analyzed. Subsequently, we assessed the fungicidal activity of two commercial MWF using flow cytometry (FCM) and compared it with microscopic analyses and plating experiments. We evaluated the fungal growth in both MWF after 7 days using quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the predictive value of FCM. Our results showed that FCM distinguishes live from dead conidia as early as 5 h after exposure to MWF, whereas the microscopic germination approach detected conidial viability much later and less accurately. At 24 h, microscopic analyses of germinating conidia and live/dead analyses by FCM correlated well, although the former consistently underestimated the proportion of viable conidia. In addition, the reproducibility and sensitivity of the flow cytometric method were high and allowed assessment of the fungicidal properties of two commercial MWF. Importantly, the obtained flow cytometric results on viability of F. solani conidia at both early time points (5 h and 24 h) correlated well with fungal biomass measurements assessed via a qPCR methodology 7 days after the start of the experiment. IMPORTANCE This result shows the predictive power of flow cytometry (FCM) in assessing the fungicidal capacity of MWF formulations. It also implies that FCM can be implemented as a rapid detection tool to estimate the viable fungal load in an industrial processing matrix (MWF). Copyright © 2017

  4. Assessment of fungal viability after long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation combined with riboflavin administration. (United States)

    Kashiwabuchi, Renata T; Carvalho, Fabio R S; Khan, Yasin A; Hirai, Flavio; Campos, Mauro S; McDonnell, Peter J


    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), a technique that combines riboflavin administration with long-wave ultraviolet light irradiation, was primarily developed to increase the biomechanical strength of collagen fibrils of the cornea to avoid the progression of keratoconus. Recently, this method has been proposed to treat selected cases of infectious keratitis. To test the protocol used for progressive keratoconus in infectious keratitis, Candida albicans, and Fusarium solani, strains were exposed to irradiation using a wavelength of 365 nm at a power density of 3 mW/cm(2) for 30 min in the presence of riboflavin photosensitizer. All experiments were performed in triplicate. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of fungal viability used plate cultures and an automated trypan blue dye exclusion method respectively. Fungal cell diameter was also assessed in all groups. Statistical analyses were performed using the triplicate values of each experimental condition. Experimental findings of photodynamic therapy applied to the cell inactivation of both yeasts and filamentous fungi were compared with control groups. Qualitative results were corroborated with quantitative findings which showed no statistical significance between challenged samples (experimental groups) and the control group (p-value = 1). In comparison with a control group of live cells, statistical significance was observed when riboflavin solution alone had an effect on the morphologic size of filamentous fungi, while ultraviolet light irradiation alone showed a slight decrease in the cell structure of C. albicans. The impact of long-wave ultraviolet combined with riboflavin photosensitizer showed no antifungal effect on C. albicans and F. solani. The significant decrease in cell morphology of both filamentous fungi and yeasts submitted to photosensitizing riboflavin and exposure to ultraviolet light, respectively, may be promising in the development and standardization of alternatives for fungal cell

  5. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick


    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  6. Sperm Viability Assessment over elapsing time maintained at 2 degrees C of orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea (Herbst, 1796). (United States)

    Ikhwanuddin, M; Muhd-Farouk, H; Memon, A J; Wendy, W; Abol-Munafi, A B


    The aim of this study was to evaluate how long the fresh sperm maintained at 2 degrees C would be utilized for fishery management. The study was conducted every 2 h to assess the sperm viability of orange mud crab Scylla olivacea. Evaluations were conducted as 3 treatments; T1, T2 and T3. In T1, the live specimens were sacrificed; for T2, only spermatophores were extracted and for T3 spermatophore extraction followed by homogenization to create a sperm suspension. All samples were stored with ice in an insulated box was keep fresh longer at 2 degrees C. The time '0' referred the immediate collection of sperm after the specimen was sacrificed. Spermatophore viability was determined using the sperm suspension by eosin-nigrosin staining method. Sperm viability for the fresh sample at time zero was 97.36 ± 0.53%. Viability of the sperm significantly decreased in the 2nd h in all treatments, T1 was 44.66 ± 0.54 to 4.2 ± 0.22% at 16 and 18th h, T2 was 36.56 ± 0.5 to 2.69 ± 0.06% at the 12 and 14th h and T3 was 33.69 ± 1.26 to 6.4 ± 0.29% at 8 and 10th h. In comparison, T1 showed significantly higher than other treatments (p < 0.05). Extremely low viability percentages were recorded in T3. This study also proved that the time elapse had significant impact on the percentage of viable sperm count.

  7. Using a Bedside Video-assisted Test Tube Test to Assess Stoma Viability: A Report of 4 Cases. (United States)

    Ahmad, Sarwat; Turner, Keli; Shah, Paulesh; Diaz, Jose


    Mucosal discoloration of an intestinal stoma may indicate self-limited venous congestion or necrosis necessitating operative revision. A common bedside technique to assess stoma viability is the "test tube test". A clear tube is inserted into the stoma and a hand-held light is used to assess the color of the stoma. A technique (video-assisted test tube test [VATTT]) developed by the authors utilizes a standard video bronchoscope inserted into a clear plastic blood collection tube to visually inspect and assess the mucosa. This technique was evaluated in 4 patients (age range 49-72 years, all critically ill) with a discolored stoma after emergency surgery. In each case, physical exam revealed ischemic mucosa at the surface either immediately after surgery or after worsening hypotension weeks later. Serial test tube test assessments were ambiguous when trying to assess deeper mucosa. The VATTT assessment showed viable pink mucosa beneath the surface and until the fascia was revealed in 3 patients. One (1) patient had mucosal ischemia down to the fascia, which prompted operative revision of the stoma. The new stoma was assessed with a VATTT and was viable for the entire length of the stoma. VATTT provided an enhanced, magnified, and clearer way to visually assess stoma viability in the postoperative period that can be performed at the bedside with no adverse events. It may prevent unnecessary relaparotomy or enable earlier diagnosis of deep ostomy necrosis. Validity and reliability studies are warranted.

  8. State of the VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Earlier this week, President Obama gave his last State of the Union Address. Although this usually is a speech giving the President the opportunity of flaunt his accomplishments, no mention was made of the VA (1. Given the troubles at the VA, there seems little to tout. Over 70% of the VA medical centers were discovered to have falsified wait times (2. Because of the wait scandal, VA Secretary Eric Shinseki resigned and VA undersecretary, Robert Petzel MD, retired under pressure. Ironically, Shinseki, a retired Army general and member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, was viewed in a favorable light by the current administration because of a spat with the Bush administration's Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, over the number of troops needed to secure Iran and Afghanistan (3. However, during Shinseki's tenure the number of VA "medical troops", doctors and nurses, was insufficient to care for the number …

  9. DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Information In Support of TSPA-VA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Brewer; D. Cresap; D. Fillmore; H. Loo; M. Ebner; R. McCormack


    RW has started the viability assessment (VA) effort to determine the feasibility of Yucca Mountain as the first geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste. One component of the viability assessment will be a total system performance assessment (TSPA), based on the design concept and the scientific data and analysis available, describing the repository's probable behavior relative to the overall system performance standards. Thus, all the data collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility to-date have been incorporated into the latest TSPA model. In addition, the Repository Integration Program, an integrated probabilistic simulator, used in the TSPA has also been updated by Golder Associates Incorporated at December 1997. To ensure that the Department of Energy-owned (DOE-owned) SNF continues to be acceptable for disposal in the repository, it will be included in the TSPA-VA evaluation. A number of parameters are needed in the TSPA-VA models to predict the performance of the DOE-owned SNF materials placed into the potential repository. This report documents all of the basis and/or derivation for each of these parameters. A number of properties were not readily available at the time the TSPA-VA data was requested. Thus, expert judgement and opinion was utilized to determine a best property value. The performance of the DOE-owned SNF will be published as part of the TSPA-VA report. Each DOE site will be collecting better data as the DOE SNF program moves closer to repository license application. As required by the RW-0333P, the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program will be assisting each site in qualifying the information used to support the performance assessment evaluations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Cristian Popescu


    Full Text Available The cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. is a fruit crop of enormous economic importance with over eight million hectares planted in vineyards worldwide. Table grapes and wines represent a considerable share of the economy in many grape and wine-producing countries. During the dormant, due to low temperatures and how to prepare grape for entrance in winter time, wood annual increases and buds may be adversely affected. The way how the vines passed by dormant period can affect the buds and wood viability and rooting ability of vine cuttings. In this study were tested on different culture substrates vine cuttings belonging to a noble variety and a hybrid vines: Merlot and Isabella. Noble grapes are a term used to describe the international variety of grapes that are most recognizable for the top quality wine they produce. In this paper was determinate total dry matter of vine cuttings, humidity of biological material, vine cuttings rooting capacity and viability status buds cuttings placed on three nutritional substrates.

  11. Fate and behavior of ZnO- and Ag-engineered nanoparticles and a bacterial viability assessment in a simulated wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N


    Full Text Available The fate and behaviour assessment of ZnO- and Ag-engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and bacterial viability in a simulated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fed with municipal wastewater was investigated through determination of ENPs stability...

  12. The viability of the Parenting Representations Interview for assessing and measuring change in parents of adolescents. (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal


    Parents' representations include parents' views of their adolescent, of their own parenting and of the parent-adolescent relationship. Two longitudinal studies of parents and their adolescent sons and daughters support the validity of scales coding mothers in the Parenting Representations Interview-Adolescence (PRI-A). The studies, conducted in Israel during the transition from home to military service, demonstrated that three dimensions derived from the PRI-A: positive representations of adolescents, negative emotionality and inadequate boundaries were associated with adolescents' AAI variables, relatedness-autonomy behaviors with mothers, and with other indicators, such as adolescents' wellbeing, romantic intimacy and individuation. Examining parenting representations could help practitioners pinpoint targets for intervention and evaluate the changes that families go through during psychotherapy, as well as the therapeutic process and its outcomes. The findings support the viability of the PRI for use in attachment based interventions for adolescents.

  13. A multi-parametric approach assessing microbial viability and organic matter characteristics during managed aquifer recharge. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Noh, Jin Hyung; Chae, So-Ryong; Choi, Jaewon; Lee, Yunho; Maeng, Sung Kyu


    Soil column (SC) experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as microbial inhibitors; the microbial viability affecting the degradation of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and the characteristics of organic matter during managed aquifer recharge were specifically evaluated. Natural surface water samples treated with AgNPs (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg L(-1)) were continually fed into the soil columns for 2 years. The adverse impact of AgNPs on the cell membrane integrity and microbial enzymatic activity was quantitatively determined using flow cytometry and adenosine triphosphate analysis. The increase in AgNP concentration in the feed water (up to 10 mg L(-1)) resulted in a corresponding deterioration in the performance of the managed aquifer recharge (MAR), with respect to the removal of organic carbon, oxidation of nitrogenous compounds, and PhAC attenuation. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of feed water and treated water showed the favorable removal of protein-like substances compared to humic-like substances regardless of the AgNP concentrations; however, the extent of removed fractions decreased noticeably when the microbial viability was lowered via AgNP treatment. The biological oxidation of organic nitrogen was almost completely inhibited when 10 mg L(-1) AgNP was added during soil passage. The attenuation of bezafibrate, ketoprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, and gemfibrozil was strongly associated with the significant deterioration in biodegradation as a result of AgNP activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Agreement and disagreement between contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging for assessment of myocardial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roes, Stijntje D.; Kaandorp, Theodorus A.M.; Westenberg, Jos J.M.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Roos, Albert de [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Bax, Jeroen J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Dibbets-Schneider, Petra; Stokkel, Marcel P. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)


    The purpose of this study was to compare contrast-enhanced MRI and nuclear imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for assessment of myocardial viability. Included in the study were 60 patients with severe ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 18}F-FDG SPECT. Myocardial segments were assigned a wall motion score from 0 (normokinesia) to 4 (dyskinesia) and a scar score from 0 (no scar) to 4 (76-100% transmural extent). Furthermore, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 18}F-FDG segmental tracer uptake was categorized from 0 (tracer activity >75%) to 3 (tracer activity <25%). Dysfunctional segments were classified into viability patterns on SPECT: normal perfusion/{sup 18}F-FDG uptake, perfusion/{sup 18}F-FDG mismatch, and mild or severe perfusion/{sup 18}F-FDG match. Minimal scar tissue was observed on contrast-enhanced MRI (scar score 0.4{+-}0.8) in segments with normal perfusion/{sup 18}F-FDG uptake, whereas extensive scar tissue (scar score 3.1{+-}1.0) was noted in segments with severe perfusion/{sup 18}F-FDG match (p < 0.001). High agreement (91%) for viability assessment between contrast-enhanced MRI and nuclear imaging was observed in segments without scar tissue on contrast-enhanced MRI as well as in segments with transmural scar tissue (83%). Of interest, disagreement was observed in segments with subendocardial scar tissue on contrast-enhanced MRI. Agreement between contrast-enhanced MRI and nuclear imaging for assessment of viability was high in segments without scar tissue and in segments with transmural scar tissue on contrast-enhanced MRI. However, evident disagreement was observed in segments with subendocardial scar tissue on contrast-enhanced MRI, illustrating that the nonenhanced epicardial rim can contain either normal or ischaemically jeopardized myocardium. (orig.)

  15. A Comparative Assessment of Implant Site Viability in Humans and Rats. (United States)

    Chen, C-H; Pei, X; Tulu, U S; Aghvami, M; Chen, C-T; Gaudillière, D; Arioka, M; Maghazeh Moghim, M; Bahat, O; Kolinski, M; Crosby, T R; Felderhoff, A; Brunski, J B; Helms, J A


    Our long-term objective is to devise methods to improve osteotomy site preparation and, in doing so, facilitate implant osseointegration. As a first step in this process, we developed a standardized oral osteotomy model in ovariectomized rats. There were 2 unique features to this model: first, the rats exhibited an osteopenic phenotype, reminiscent of the bone health that has been reported for the average dental implant patient population. Second, osteotomies were produced in healed tooth extraction sites and therefore represented the placement of most implants in patients. Commercially available drills were then used to produce osteotomies in a patient cohort and in the rat model. Molecular, cellular, and histologic analyses demonstrated a close alignment between the responses of human and rodent alveolar bone to osteotomy site preparation. Most notably in both patients and rats, all drilling tools created a zone of dead and dying osteocytes around the osteotomy. In rat tissues, which could be collected at multiple time points after osteotomy, the fate of the dead alveolar bone was followed. Over the course of a week, osteoclast activity was responsible for resorbing the necrotic bone, which in turn stimulated the deposition of a new bone matrix by osteoblasts. Collectively, these analyses support the use of an ovariectomy surgery rat model to gain insights into the response of human bone to osteotomy site preparation. The data also suggest that reducing the zone of osteocyte death will improve osteotomy site viability, leading to faster new bone formation around implants.

  16. Use of a dissolved oxygen microsensor for assessing the viability and thickness of microbial biofilm on root surfaces. (United States)

    Tomazinho, F S F; Sousa-Neto, M D; Pécora, J D; Lamon, A W; Gonzalez, B C; Silva-Sousa, Y T C


    To evaluate the use of a dissolved oxygen microsensor (DOMS) for assessing the viability and thickness of microbial biofilms on the apical external surface of contaminated human tooth roots. Apical biofilm formation was evaluated in 15 roots contaminated in vitro with a polymicrobial mixture of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans for 7, 21 and 60 days and in three freshly extracted roots with associated radiographically visible periapical lesions. In each root, the thickness and viability (measured by the amount of dissolved oxygen) of biofilm formed on the apical 2 mm were examined with the DOMS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used as an auxiliary analysis to confirm the existence of the biofilms detected by the DOMS. The DOMS detected dissolved oxygen on the biofilms formed on the three residual roots up to thickness of 375 μm, 480 μm and 1650 μm. In the 15 roots contaminated in vitro, the DOMS detected dissolved oxygen in six specimens up to thicknesses from 75 to 250 μm, and the intensity of the metabolic activity (biofilm thickness) was directly proportional to the contamination time. SEM confirmed the presence of biofilm in all roots. The dissolved oxygen microsensor allowed the measurement of the amount of dissolved oxygen in the biofilm, which is indicative of the intensity of the microbial metabolic activity (viability), correlating the results with biofilm thickness. The DOMS was effective in freshly extracted roots, but had limitations in roots contaminated in vitro after short periods (7 and 21 days) of contamination. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Assessing the viability of bacterial species in drinking water by combined cellular and molecular analyses. (United States)

    Kahlisch, Leila; Henne, Karsten; Gröbe, Lothar; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred G


    The question which bacterial species are present in water and if they are viable is essential for drinking water safety but also of general relevance in aquatic ecology. To approach this question we combined propidium iodide/SYTO9 staining ("live/dead staining" indicating membrane integrity), fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and community fingerprinting for the analysis of a set of tap water samples. Live/dead staining revealed that about half of the bacteria in the tap water had intact membranes. Molecular analysis using 16S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprints and sequencing of drinking water bacteria before and after FACS sorting revealed: (1) the DNA- and RNA-based overall community structure differed substantially, (2) the community retrieved from RNA and DNA reflected different bacterial species, classified as 53 phylotypes (with only two common phylotypes), (3) the percentage of phylotypes with intact membranes or damaged cells were comparable for RNA- and DNA-based analyses, and (4) the retrieved species were primarily of aquatic origin. The pronounced difference between phylotypes obtained from DNA extracts (dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) and from RNA extracts (dominated by Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria) demonstrate the relevance of concomitant RNA and DNA analyses for drinking water studies. Unexpected was that a comparable fraction (about 21%) of phylotypes with membrane-injured cells was observed for DNA- and RNA-based analyses, contradicting the current understanding that RNA-based analyses represent the actively growing fraction of the bacterial community. Overall, we think that this combined approach provides an interesting tool for a concomitant phylogenetic and viability analysis of bacterial species of drinking water.

  18. [Comparison of low-dose dobutamine echocardiography and dual-isotope emission simultaneous myocardial perfusion acquisition for myocardial viability assessment]. (United States)

    Fang, Li-Gang; Chen, Li-Bo; Li, Fang; Zhu, Wen-Ling; Fang, Quan


    To compare the value of low-dose dobutamine echocardiography (LDDE) and dual-isotope emission simultaneous myocardial perfusion acquisition (technetium-99-m-tetrofosmin/fluorine 18-fluorodeoxy-glucose) single-photon emission computed tomography (DISA-SPECT) for myocardial viability assessment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). LDDE and DISA-SPECT were performed in 44 patients within 5-10 days after onset of first acute MI and percutaneous coronary intervention was made thereafter. A 16-segment semi-quantitative scoring model was adopted for both techniques. Wall motion improvement at follow-up (3 months after acute MI) compared with baseline before dobutamine infusion derived from two dimensional images was used as golden criteria for myocardial viability. The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, positive and predictive values for identification of viable myocardium were 77%, 82%, 79%, 82% and 77%, respectively by LDDE and 85%, 62%, 74%, 71% and 79%, respectively by DISA. No difference was found between LDDE and DISA for identifying viable myocardium in hypokinetic segments (74.1% vs. 77.6%, P > 0.05) but less viable myocardium was detected by LDDE than DISA in akinetic segments (29% vs. 53%, P DISA compared to LDDE. Combined use of the two techniques could improve viable myocardium detection in patients with acute MI.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Assessment of Ventricular Remodeling and Viability


    Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y.


    Cardiovascular MRI has effectively become a reference standard for quantifying ventricular volumes and function and for measuring the myocardial scar burden after myocardial infarction. Imaging of late gadolinium enhancement and microvascular obstruction carries strong prognostic information for identifying patients who would benefit from anti-remodeling therapy. The combination of gadolinium enhancement, perfusion, and cine imaging should make MRI the modality of choice in the assessment of ...

  20. Eu-NORSEWInD - Assessment of Viability of Open Source CFD Code for the Wind Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stickland, Matt; Scanlon, Tom; Fabre, Sylvie


    . The cost of the extra licences can become the limit on the final number of nodes employed. Whilst there are significant benefits to be found when using a commercial code which has a user friendly interface and has undergone significant verification testing the financial advantages of using an open source...... between the results of simulations created by the commercial code FLUENT and the open source code OpenFOAM. An assessment of the ease with which the open source code can be used is also included....

  1. Assessment of myocardial viability by dynamic tomographic iodine 123 iodophenylpentadecanoic acid imaging: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium 201 imaging. (United States)

    Iskandrian, A S; Powers, J; Cave, V; Wasserleben, V; Cassell, D; Heo, J


    This study examined the ability of dynamic 123I-labeled iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) imaging to detect myocardial viability in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction caused by coronary artery disease. Serial 180-degree single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images (five sets, 8 minutes each) were obtained starting 4 minutes after injection of 2 to 6 mCi 123I at rest in 21 patients with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction [EF] 34% +/- 11%). The segmental uptake was compared with that of rest-redistribution 201Tl images (20 segments/study). The number of perfusion defects (reversible and fixed) was similar by IPPA and thallium (11 +/- 5 vs 10 +/- 5 segments/patient; difference not significant). There was agreement between IPPA and thallium for presence or absence (kappa = 0.78 +/- 0.03) and nature (reversible, mild fixed, or severe fixed) of perfusion defects (kappa = 0.54 +/- 0.04). However, there were more reversible IPPA defects than reversible thallium defects (7 +/- 4 vs 3 +/- 4 segments/patient; p = 0.001). In 14 patients the EF (by gated pool imaging) improved after coronary revascularization from 33% +/- 11% to 39% +/- 12% (p = 0.002). The number of reversible IPPA defects was greater in the seven patients who had improvement in EF than in the patients without such improvement (10 +/- 4 vs 5 +/- 4 segments/patient; p = 0.075). 123I-labeled IPPA SPECT imaging is a promising new technique for assessment of viability. Reversible defects predict recovery of LV dysfunction after coronary revascularization.

  2. Comparative analysis of dynamic cell viability, migration and invasion assessments by novel real-time technology and classic endpoint assays. (United States)

    Limame, Ridha; Wouters, An; Pauwels, Bea; Fransen, Erik; Peeters, Marc; Lardon, Filip; De Wever, Olivier; Pauwels, Patrick


    Cell viability and motility comprise ubiquitous mechanisms involved in a variety of (patho)biological processes including cancer. We report a technical comparative analysis of the novel impedance-based xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis detection platform, with conventional label-based endpoint methods, hereby indicating performance characteristics and correlating dynamic observations of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, migration and invasion on cancer cells in highly standardized experimental conditions. Dynamic high-resolution assessments of proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration were performed using xCELLigence technology on the MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer) and A549 (lung cancer) cell lines. Proliferation kinetics were compared with the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay in a series of four cell concentrations, yielding fair to good correlations (Spearman's Rho 0.688 to 0.964). Cytotoxic action by paclitaxel (0-100 nM) correlated well with SRB (Rho>0.95) with similar IC(50) values. Reference cell migration experiments were performed using Transwell plates and correlated by pixel area calculation of crystal violet-stained membranes (Rho 0.90) and optical density (OD) measurement of extracted dye (Rho>0.95). Invasion was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells alone using Matrigel-coated Transwells as standard reference method and correlated by OD reading for two Matrigel densities (Rho>0.95). Variance component analysis revealed increased variances associated with impedance-based detection of migration and invasion, potentially caused by the sensitive nature of this method. The xCELLigence RTCA technology provides an accurate platform for non-invasive detection of cell viability and motility. The strong correlations with conventional methods imply a similar observation of cell behavior and interchangeability with other systems, illustrated by the highly correlating kinetic invasion profiles on different platforms applying only adapted matrix surface densities. The increased

  3. Comparative analysis of dynamic cell viability, migration and invasion assessments by novel real-time technology and classic endpoint assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Limame

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell viability and motility comprise ubiquitous mechanisms involved in a variety of (pathobiological processes including cancer. We report a technical comparative analysis of the novel impedance-based xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analysis detection platform, with conventional label-based endpoint methods, hereby indicating performance characteristics and correlating dynamic observations of cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, migration and invasion on cancer cells in highly standardized experimental conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Dynamic high-resolution assessments of proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration were performed using xCELLigence technology on the MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer and A549 (lung cancer cell lines. Proliferation kinetics were compared with the Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay in a series of four cell concentrations, yielding fair to good correlations (Spearman's Rho 0.688 to 0.964. Cytotoxic action by paclitaxel (0-100 nM correlated well with SRB (Rho>0.95 with similar IC(50 values. Reference cell migration experiments were performed using Transwell plates and correlated by pixel area calculation of crystal violet-stained membranes (Rho 0.90 and optical density (OD measurement of extracted dye (Rho>0.95. Invasion was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells alone using Matrigel-coated Transwells as standard reference method and correlated by OD reading for two Matrigel densities (Rho>0.95. Variance component analysis revealed increased variances associated with impedance-based detection of migration and invasion, potentially caused by the sensitive nature of this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The xCELLigence RTCA technology provides an accurate platform for non-invasive detection of cell viability and motility. The strong correlations with conventional methods imply a similar observation of cell behavior and interchangeability with other systems, illustrated by the highly correlating kinetic invasion profiles on

  4. Assessment of strategies to increase chondrocyte viability in cryopreserved human osteochondral allografts: evaluation of the glycosylated hydroquinone, arbutin. (United States)

    Rosa, S C; Gonçalves, J; Judas, F; Lopes, C; Mendes, A F


    Allogeneic cartilage is used to repair damaged areas of articular cartilage, requiring the presence of living chondrocytes. So far, no preservation method can effectively meet that purpose. Identification of more effective cryoprotective agents (CPAs) can contribute to this goal. The aim of this study was to determine whether the glycosylated hydroquinone, arbutin, alone or in combination with low concentrations of other CPAs, has cryoprotective properties towards human articular cartilage. Human tibial plateaus were procured from multi-organ donors, with the approval of the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Coimbra. The tibial plateaus were treated with or without arbutin (50 or 100mM), alone or in combination with various concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and glycerol, for 0.5-1.5h/37 degrees C, then frozen at -20 degrees C and 24h later transferred to a biofreezer at -80 degrees C. Two to 3 months later, thawing was achieved by immersion in cell culture medium at 37 degrees C/1h. Chondrocyte viability was assessed before and after freeze-thawing using a colorimetric assay based on the cell's metabolic activity and fluorescent dyes to evaluate cell membrane integrity. Before freezing, chondrocyte metabolic activity was identical in all the conditions tested. After freeze-thawing, the highest activity, corresponding to 34.2+/-2.1% of that in the Fresh Control, was achieved in tibial plateaus incubated in 50mM arbutin for 1h whereas in those left untreated it was 11.1+/-4.7. Addition of DMSO and glycerol to arbutin did not increase chondrocyte viability any further. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed these results and showed that living chondrocytes were mainly restricted to the superficial cartilage layers. Arbutin seems to be an effective cryoprotective agent for osteochondral allografts with potential benefits over DMSO and glycerol.

  5. Viability assessment of invasive microplankton in ship’s treated ballast water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgreen, Kim; Holbech, Henrik; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard

    The spreading of aquatic invasive species in ship’s ballast water has huge environmental and health-related consequences and is causing socio-economic losses around the world in the order of US$100 billion per year. Regulations now require all large ships to have an approved ballast water treatment...... system (BWTS) on-board for cleaning of the ballast water to avoid further spreading of invasive species. To ensure BWTS compliance with discharge standards water samples need to be verified for the number of viable organisms in different size classes. The current standard method for assessing organism...... this method. A special challenge is the verification UV based BWTS. UV causes damage to DNA, but leaves the cell membrane unaffected. DNA damage can either result in later death or in survival due to DNA repair. Current staining methods may therefore produce false positives as dead or dying organisms...

  6. Nitrate administration increases blood flow in dysfunctional but viable myocardium, leading to improved assessment of myocardial viability : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Agool, Ali; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Bax, Jeroen J.

    SPECT with Tc-99m-labeled agents is better able to detect viability after nitrate administration. Nitrates induce vasoclilation and may increase blood flow to severely hypoperfused but viable myocardium, thereby enhancing tracer delivery and improving the detection of viability. Quantitative data on

  7. Assessing the Potential Economic Viability of Precision Irrigation: A Theoretical Analysis and Pilot Empirical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Galioto


    Full Text Available The present study explores the value generated by the use of information to rationalize the use of water resources in agriculture. The study introduces the value of information concept in the field of irrigation developing a theoretical assessment framework to evaluate whether the introduction of “Precision Irrigation” (PI practices can improve expectations on income. This is supported by a Stakeholders consultation and by a numerical example, using secondary data and crop growth models. The study reveals that the value generated with the transition to PI varies with pedo-climate, economic, technological and other conditions, and it depends on the initial status of the farmer’s information environment. These factors affect the prerequisite needed to make viable PI. To foster the adoption of PI, stakeholders envisaged the need to set up free meteorological information and advisory service that supports farmers in using PI, as well as other type of instruments. The paper concludes that the profitability of adoption and the relevant impact on the environment cannot be considered as generally given, but must be evaluated case by case justifying (or not the activation of specific agricultural policy measures supporting PI practices to target regions.

  8. Symposium: innovative techniques in human embryo viability assessment. Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G and pregnancy success. (United States)

    Warner, Carol M; Lampton, Paula W; Newmark, Judith A; Cohen, Jacques


    Non-invasive methods of assessing embryo quality are critical for pregnancy success following IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The addition of new non-invasive morphological and biochemical analyses may further improve pregnancy success, allowing the transfer of a single embryo, thereby reducing the risks involved in multiple births following IVF/ICSI. The presence of a protein, soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (sHLA-G), in embryo cultures has been suggested as a way to non-invasively predict embryo quality and pregnancy success, especially when used in conjunction with current embryo quality assessment methods. Detection of sHLA-G in embryo culture medium has been correlated with pregnancy success in 12 studies, but three studies were not able to detect sHLA-G. This is a review of the literature on sHLA-G detection in IVF/ICSI, and reasons are proposed for the reported discrepancies, as well as guidelines for reporting of data in future studies. Furthermore, it is suggested that the use of an HLA-G transgenic mouse model would advance understanding of the mechanism of action of sHLA-G in preimplantation embryos and its correlation to embryo health and viability. Research on a mouse model, combined with clinical studies, should enable the development of a fast and reliable method for utilizing sHLA-G detection to improve pregnancy success after IVF/ICSI.

  9. VA Health Care Facilities Locator (United States)

    ... map [a-z] More VA More VA Health Health Care Information A-Z Health Topic Finder My Health ... General QUICK LIST Apply for Benefits Apply for Health Care Prescriptions My Health e Vet eBenefits Life Insurance ...

  10. Optimization of synbiotic yogurts with yacon pulp (Smallanthus sonchifolius and assessment of the viability of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne Montarroyos PADILHA

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was check the effects of sugar, yacon pulp and skimmed milk powder in the aroma, flavour, texture, appearance, overall impression and intent to purchase on synbiotic yogurts to optimize the formulation using Response Surface Methodology. The most accepted formulations were subjected to viability tests during 21 days by counting traditional and probiotic bacteria. Were constructed a complete 23 factorial design, totalling 17 experiments, and considered independent variables (percentage of ingredients and dependent variables (sensory attributes. All attributes were graded using an acceptability assessment, for this balanced incomplete block was applied. The number of viable cells was determined using specific culture medium for each species. The percentage of yacon pulp had a pronounced negative influence on flavour, texture, appearance, overall impression and intent to purchase. Model predictions adjusted to the variables aroma, flavour, texture, appearance, overall impression and intent to purchase exhibited good predictive ability and hence could be used as tools for process control. Traditional bacterial strains and probiotic remained viable throughout the storage period. The counts of probiotic bacterial in the formulations were above 6 log CFU/g. The addition of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei LBC 81 and yacon pulp to yogurt increased product acceptability.

  11. A machine vision system for automated non-invasive assessment of cell viability via dark field microscopy, wavelet feature selection and classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friehs Karl


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell viability is one of the basic properties indicating the physiological state of the cell, thus, it has long been one of the major considerations in biotechnological applications. Conventional methods for extracting information about cell viability usually need reagents to be applied on the targeted cells. These reagent-based techniques are reliable and versatile, however, some of them might be invasive and even toxic to the target cells. In support of automated noninvasive assessment of cell viability, a machine vision system has been developed. Results This system is based on supervised learning technique. It learns from images of certain kinds of cell populations and trains some classifiers. These trained classifiers are then employed to evaluate the images of given cell populations obtained via dark field microscopy. Wavelet decomposition is performed on the cell images. Energy and entropy are computed for each wavelet subimage as features. A feature selection algorithm is implemented to achieve better performance. Correlation between the results from the machine vision system and commonly accepted gold standards becomes stronger if wavelet features are utilized. The best performance is achieved with a selected subset of wavelet features. Conclusion The machine vision system based on dark field microscopy in conjugation with supervised machine learning and wavelet feature selection automates the cell viability assessment, and yields comparable results to commonly accepted methods. Wavelet features are found to be suitable to describe the discriminative properties of the live and dead cells in viability classification. According to the analysis, live cells exhibit morphologically more details and are intracellularly more organized than dead ones, which display more homogeneous and diffuse gray values throughout the cells. Feature selection increases the system's performance. The reason lies in the fact that feature

  12. Non-invasive viability assessment of day-4 frozen-thawed human embryos using near infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouw, C.G.; Botros, L.L.; Judge, K.; Henson, M.; Roos, P.; Kostelijk, E.H.; Schats, R.; Twisk, J.W.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Sakkas, D.; Lambalk, C.B.


    This study investigated if metabolomic profiling of culture media using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was related to live-birth rates after single-embryo transfer of frozen-thawed embryos. Analysis of culture media of frozen-thawed embryos was performed by NIR spectroscopy. A viability score was

  13. Diagnostic value of Tc-99m sestamibi gated SPECT to assess viability in a patient after acute myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Hambye, A S; Van Den Branden, F; Vandevivere, J


    The case of a 56-year-old woman who was admitted with an acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction showed severely decreased left ventricular function and regional wall motion abnormalities on planar Tc-99m gated blood pool imaging. Tc-99m sestamibi stress SPECT imaging demonstrated residual peri-infarct ischemia. At angiography, a solitary severe proximal left anterior descending stenosis was successfully dilated. Later, because of recurrent chest pain, a second Tc-99m sestamibi stress-rest SPECT was performed to exclude restenosis. Because the question of viability within the infarct region had also been asked, a gated protocol was applied and compared to TI-201 rest-redistribution SPECT. Both tests pointed to the existence of tissue viability in the septal region, without evidence for stress ischemia. The patient was then medically treated. One year later, because of angina, Tc-99m gated SPECT blood pool imaging showed a spectacular increase in left ventricular function and a dramatic improvement in regional wall motion. Angiographic data confirmed these findings and there was no significant restenosis. Thus, Tc-99m sestamibi gated SPECT may be helpful in predicting viability and recovery of function in patients with severely impaired left ventricular regional wall motion after acute myocardial infarction.

  14. Dipyridamole-dobutamine-stress-magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of myocardial viability in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and comparison to positron emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, B


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of (infra-low-dose)dipyridamole-(low-dose)-dobutamine-stress-MRI (DDS-MRI) for the assessment of myocardial viability by comparing the results to those of positron emission tomography (PET). Multisectional baseline- and stress-CINE-MRI as well as (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)and (13N)-ammonia-PET were performed in 8 patients with chronic coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. MRI data analysis included the quantitative assessment of enddiastolic wall thickness (EDWT) and systolic wall thickening (SWT) for both baseline and stress examination in a total of 864 myocardial segments (6 slices, 18 seg./slice). MRI- and PET-results were compared in 128 corresponding myocardial regions following a 16-regions-model covering the entire left ventricle from apex to base. MRI viability criterions were a mean regional EDWT > 5.5 mm or a mean regional stress-induced SWT > 1.5 mm. PET defined regional myocardial viability either by a norm...

  15. Exercise {beta}-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and resting thallium delayed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the assessment of ischemia and viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Takao; Hayakawa, Masanori; Hattori, Kaoru; Awano, Koujirou; Masuda, Jun; Inatome, Tetsuya; Fukuzaki, Hisashi [Miki City Hospital, Hyogo (Japan)


    To clarify the significance of exercise BMIPP and resting Tl delayed SPECT in the assessment of ischemia and viability, we studied maximal exercise-loading BMIPP SPECT following rest-injected Tl 3h SPECT in 11 control subjects, 20 with effort angina and 38 with old myocardial infarction. BMIPP and Tl uptake were scored as 0=normal, 1=reduced, 2=severely reduced, or 3=absent. Discordance was defined as when segments with a reduced BMIPP uptake had a better resting Tl uptake. Significant coronary artery stenosis was defined as stenosis of 75% or greater on coronary arteriogram. Left ventricular wall motion was assessed as either normokinesis, hypokinesis, severe hypokinesis, akinesis or dyskinesis on left ventriculogram. When discordance was considered to be a marker of ischemia, the sensitivity and specificity in effort angina and control subjects were 95.2% and 84.6% for patients and 83.9% and 94.4% for disease vessels, respectively. There were no differences between the sensitivity and specificity in left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) lesions (83.3%, 95.5% in LAD, 83.3%, 95.5% in LCx, 85.7%, 92.6% in RCA, respectively). All of the patients with old myocardial infarction had reduced exercise BMIPP uptake in infarcted regions. In old myocardial infarction, 35 patients had segments with discordant uptake. Discordance was observed in 75 (91.5%) of 82 segments with hypokinesis, and in 24 (92.3%) of 26 segments with severe hypokinesis. Even among the 36 segments with akinesis or dyskinesis, 25 (69.0%) had discordant uptake. When discordance in the infarcted region was considered to be a marker of viability, regions with severe asynergy showed a high possibility of viability. Thus, discordant uptake on exercise BMIPP and resting Tl delayed SPECT may be a useful marker of ischemia in effort angina and of viability in old myocardial infarction. (author).

  16. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 2: Preliminary Design Concept for the Repository and Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  17. Assessment of Radiobiological α/β Ratio in Lung Cancer and Fibroblast Cell Lines Using Viability Assays. (United States)

    Karagounis, Ilias V; Skourti, Eleni K; Liousia, Maria V; Koukourakis, Michael I


    Altered fractionation is an area of intense clinical research in radiation oncology. Estimation of the α/β ratio of individual carcinomas after establishment of primary cell cultures from tumor biopsies may prove of importance in the individualization of radiotherapy schemes. Here we proposed a simple method to estimate the α/β ratio in cultured cell lines (two lung carcinomas: A549 and H1299; one lung fibroblast cell line: MRC5), using viability assays. For the A549 cell line, the α/β ratio ranged from 14-25 Gy, for H1299 from 11-43 Gy and for the MRC5 fibroblast cell line this was far lower, ranging from 0.69 to 6 Gy. The α/β ratio decreased when extracted from comparisons of lower dose per fraction schemes. The α/β ratio of a cell line can be easily defined after simple viability/dose fractionation experiments. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of myocardial viability by exercise stress-redistribution myocardial scintigraphy with thallium-201; The usefulness of C-map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan))


    This study was intended to clarify whether Tl-201 washout rate abnormality after exercise stress can detect myocardial viability in the myocardium with perfusion defect on redistribution (RD) images. The subjects were 29 patients with ischemic heart disease in whom perfusion defect was seen on delayed (3 hr) RD images and had percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). A combined map (C-map) was prepared by adding the location of washout rate abnormality ([<=]30%) to perfusion defect on RD images before PTCA. The C-map and myocardial images after PTCA (Post-map) were compared. The left ventriculogram was divided into 17 segments. C-map and Post-map were qualitatively concordant with each other in 27 of 29 patients (93%). In the other 2 patients, only one segment showed discordance of findings between the two maps. Out of 152 segments with perfusion defect on RD images, 75 segments (50%) showed normal perfusion in both the C-map and the Post-map. In segmental analysis, the C-map and the Post-map were found consistent in 80% of the cases. In 12 patients with fixed defect before PTCA, the agreement between the C-map and the Post-map was also excellent (86%). The present C-map was useful for not only qualitative but also quantitative analyses of myocardial viability in myocardial segments which show perfusion defect on standard RD images. (N.K.).

  19. Hosn va Del: Sufist Reading of Khosro va Shirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s jabri


    Full Text Available The existence of eight imitations and five translations of Hosn va Del into other languages such as English and German shows the importance of this Persian book of verse. Many researchers have sought the sources of this work and some sources have been mentioned, but the imitation of Sibak Neishaburi from Nezami’s Khosrow va Shirin, as the most important source of this work, has not yet been mentioned. Due to the innovative mixing of symbolic story, folk tale and love story which is done by changing the names of characters into abstract concepts resulting in creating two layers of primary and interpretive meaning in the text of Hosn va Del, the similarities between the two books have not yet been discovered. The fruit of such mixing is the creation of a sufist and interpretive reading of Khosrow va Shirin (named Hosn va Del which is a love story at the primary level and is very similar to Nezami’s Khosrow va Shirin. At the interpretive level, it is a mystical book of verse which narrates the story of the Progression and reaching Knowledge and Immortality. This article tries to study the similarities between the two stories through comparing the texts of these two books and using the method of textual criticism. The results show that the love between lover and beloved is common between the two books. The structure and organization of the two books are very similar and there are very causes and motivations in the plot of the two stories. Also, more than half of the characters of the two stories are of common characteristics. There are similar events as well as places in the two stories. Also, many similarities can be seen in the content of dialogues. The results of this study show that Khosrow va Shirin is the main source of Hosn va Del and Sibak Neishaburi is among the imitators of Nezami in composing love story.

  20. VA National Bed Control System (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  1. Another Phoenix VA director leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Arizona Republic reports that the director at the Phoenix VA Medical Center, Deborah Amdur, will retire after only 9 months for health reasons (1. Amdur will be replaced by Barbara Fallen, director of the VA Loma Linda Healthcare System. Fallen will be interim director until a permanent replacement for Amdur can be found. This is the fifth hospital director since former Director Sharon Helman was removed in mid-2014 amid the nationwide veterans health-care scandal that was first exposed at the Phoenix VA. The Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN in Gilbert, which oversees the VA Medical Center in Arizona, New Mexico and West Texas has also been through a series of 4 directors since Susan Bowers retired under pressure in the wake of the VA scandal. Marie Weldon, current acting regional director, also oversees the Los Angeles-based VA Desert Pacific Healthcare System. Weldon described Fallen as “an experienced leader who ...

  2. Metabolic cardiac imaging in severe coronary disease: assessment of viability with iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid and multicrystal gamma camera, and correlation with biopsy. (United States)

    Murray, G; Schad, N; Ladd, W; Allie, D; vander Zwagg, R; Avet, P; Rockett, J


    Fifteen patients with coronary disease and resting left ventricular ejection fractions of less than or equal to 0.35 underwent resting metabolic cardiac imaging utilizing 1 mCi [123I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) intravenously and a multicrystal gamma camera. Parametric images of regional rates of IPPA clearance and accumulation were generated. Forty-two vascular territories (22 infarcted) were evaluated by metabolic imaging as well as transmural myocardial biopsy. Despite resting akinesis or dyskinesis in 20/22 (91%) infarcted territories, 16/22 (73%) of these territories were metabolically viable. Transmural myocardial biopsies in all patients (43 sites, 42 vascular territories) during coronary bypass surgery confirmed IPPA results in 39/43 patients (91%). When compared to biopsy, scan sensitivity for viability was 33/36 (92%) with a specificity of 6/7 (86%). Eighty percent of bypassed, infarcted but IPPA viable segments demonstrated improved regional systolic wall motion postoperatively as assessed by exercise radionuclide angiography. We conclude resting IPPA imaging identifies viable myocardium, thereby providing a safe, cost-effective technique for myocardial viability assessment.

  3. Continuous Excretion ofLeptospira borgpeterseniiBallum in Mice Assessed by Viability Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. (United States)

    Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Bierque, Emilie; Geroult, Sophie; Teurlai, Magali; Goarant, Cyrille


    Rodents are the main reservoir animals of leptospirosis. In this study, we characterized and quantified the urinary excretion dynamics of Leptospira by Mus musculus infected with 2 × 10 8 virulent Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum. Each micturition was collected separately in metabolic cages, at 12 time points from 7 to 117 days post-infection (dpi). We detected Leptospira in all urine samples collected (up to 8 per time point per mouse) proving that Leptospira excretion is continuous with ca. 90% live L. borgpetersenii Ballum, revealed by viability quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Microscopic visualization by Live/Dead fluorescence confirmed this high proportion of live bacteria and demonstrated that L. borgpetersenii Ballum are excreted, at least partly, as bacterial aggregates. We observed two distinct phases in the excretion dynamics, first an increase in Leptospira concentration shed in the urine between 7 and 63 dpi followed by a plateau phase from 63 dpi onward, with up to 3 × 10 7 Leptospira per mL of urine. These two phases seem to correspond to progressive colonization of renal tubules first, then to stable cell survival and maintenance in kidneys. Therefore, chronically infected adult mice are able to contaminate the environment via urine at each micturition event throughout their lifetime. Because Leptospira excretion reached its maximum 2 months after infection, older rodents have a greater risk of contaminating their surrounding environment.

  4. Does the balanced scorecard support organizational viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.; Beeres, R.J.M.; Vriens, D.J.


    In this paper we assess whether the balanced scorecard (BSC) supports the necessary functions for organizational viability. To this purpose, we use the viable system model (VSM) as a means to describe the functions required for organizational viability. Then we use the VSM as a template to assess

  5. Microencapsulation of new probiotic formulations for gastrointestinal delivery: in vitro study to assess viability and biological properties. (United States)

    D'Orazio, G; Di Gennaro, P; Boccarusso, M; Presti, I; Bizzaro, G; Giardina, S; Michelotti, A; Labra, M; La Ferla, B


    The paper describes the preparation of new probiotic formulations based on chitosan-coated alginate microcapsules containing three different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum PBS067, Lactobacillus rhamnosus PBS070, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis PBS075 taken individually and as a mixture of them. The effects of microencapsulation on the viability of the strains in conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract and under industrial processes conditions were studied. In addition, an evaluation of their probiotic properties was also investigated by in vitro tests on the human intestinal cell line HT-29 to explore the effect of microencapsulation on health beneficial effect of the considered strains. Non-encapsulated cells were completely destroyed when exposed to simulated gastric juice and other stress conditions, while encapsulated cells exhibited a significantly higher resistance to artificial intestinal juice and heat and osmotic treatment. Moreover, in this study, the effect of the various microencapsulated probiotic strain formulations was compared with analogous formulations also containing the β-glucan Pleuran. The microencapsulation effectively protected the selected bacteria, as single strain and as a mixture of the three strains in both the formulations with and without Pleuran, from simulating gastrointestinal tract and industrial process conditions in delivering the viable cells without any significant adverse effect on their functionalities. The comparative study of the immunomodulatory properties of each single strain and the mixture of the three strains revealed a synergistic effect of the probiotic mixture, but no appreciable difference between the two kinds of formulations could be detected, as the effect of Pleuran is covered by the higher potential of the probiotic strains.

  6. Assessing the Viability of Sub-Surface Drip Irrigation for Resource-Efficient Alfalfa Production in Central and Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Zaccaria


    Full Text Available In California, alfalfa is grown on a large area ranging between 325,000 and 410,000 hectares and ranks among the thirstiest crops. While the hay production industry is often scrutinized for the large usage of the state’s agricultural water, alfalfa is a crucial feed-supplier for the livestock and dairy sectors, which rank among the most profitable commodity groups in the state. Sub-surface drip irrigation (SDI, although only practiced on approximately 2% of the alfalfa production area in California, is claimed to have the potential to significantly increase hay yield (HY and water productivity (WP compared with surface irrigation (SI. In 2014–2016 we interviewed a number of growers pioneering SDI for alfalfa production in Central and Southern California who reported that yield improvements in the order of 10–30% and water saving of about 20–30% are achievable in SDI-irrigated fields compared with SI, according to their records and perceptions collected over few years of experience. Results from our research on SDI at the University of California, Davis, revealed significantly smaller yield gain (~5% and a slight increase of water use (~2–3% that are similar to findings from earlier research studies. We found that most of the interviewed alfalfa producers are generally satisfied with their SDI systems, yet face some challenges that call for additional research and educational efforts. Key limitations of SDI include high investment costs, use of energy to pressurize water, the need for more advanced irrigation management skills, and better understanding of soil-water dynamics by farm personnel. SDI-irrigated fields also need accurate water monitoring and control, attentive prevention and repair of rodent damages, and careful salinity management in the root zone. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the viability of the SDI technology for alfalfa production on the basis of preliminary results of our research and extension activities, with

  7. Low-carbohydrate diet versus euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp for the assessment of myocardial viability with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET: a pilot study. (United States)

    Soares, José; Rodrigues Filho, Filadelfo; Izaki, Marisa; Giorgi, Maria Clementina P; Catapirra, Rosa M A; Abe, Rubens; Vinagre, Carmen G C M; Cerri, Giovanni G; Meneghetti, José Cláudio


    Positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is considered the gold standard for myocardial viability. A pilot study was undertaken to compare FDG-PET using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp before (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) administration (PET-CLAMP) with a new proposed technique consisting of a 24-h low-carbohydrate diet before (18)F-FDG injection (PET-DIET), for the assessment of hypoperfused but viable myocardium (hibernating myocardium). Thirty patients with previous myocardial infarction were subjected to rest (99m)Tc-sestamibi-SPECT and two (18)F-FDG studies (PET-CLAMP and PET-DIET). Myocardial tracer uptake was visually scored using a 5-point scale in a 17-segment model. Hibernating myocardium was defined as normal or mildly reduced metabolism ((18)F-FDG uptake) in areas with reduced perfusion ((99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake) since (18)F-FDG uptake was higher than the degree of hypoperfusion-perfusion/metabolism mismatch indicating a larger flow defect. PET-DIET identified 79 segments and PET-CLAMP 71 as hibernating myocardium. Both methods agreed in 61 segments (agreement = 94.5 %, κ = 0.78). PET-DIET identified 230 segments and PET-CLAMP 238 as nonviable. None of the patients had hypoglycemia after DIET, while 20 % had it during CLAMP. PET-DIET compared with PET-CLAMP had a good correlation for the assessment of hibernating myocardium. To our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence of the possibility of myocardial viability assessment with this technique.

  8. VA administrators breahe a sigh of relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. On May 30, Eric Shinseki, the Secretary for Veterans Affairs (VA, resigned under pressure amidst a growing scandal regarding falsification of patient wait times at nearly 40 VA medical centers. Before leaving office Shinseki fired Sharon Helman, the former hospital director at the Phoenix VA, where the story first broke, along with her deputy and another unnamed administrator. In addition, Susan Bowers, director of VA Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN 18 and Helman’s boss, resigned. Robert Petzel, undersecretary for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA, head of the VA hospitals and clinics, had resigned earlier. You could hear the sigh of relief from the VA administrators. With their bosses resigning left and right, the VA leadership in shambles and the reputation of the VA soiled for many years to come, why are the VA administrators relieved? The simple answer is that nothing has really changed. There for a moment it looked ...

  9. The problem of assessing the viability of invasive species in the conditions of the steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Holoborodko


    Full Text Available This article proposes a completely new method of resolving the pressing global environmental problem of assessing the capacity of invasive organisms to adapt to new environmental conditions. A new three-step approach to the evaluation of vital and ecological functions of invasive species is recommended. In addition to classic species and population surveys, it was proposed to apply a stress-resistance biochemical assessment of invasive species. Stress resistance can be regarded as the main response of living organisms to changes in continuous environmental components. The obtained results will provide an opportunity to give a qualitative prognisis of what adaptive capacity an invasive species has,what precise ecological functions and for what time period it can perform in a new ecosystem.

  10. Assessment of myocardial ischemia and viability using tissue Doppler and deformation imaging: the lessons from the experimental studies. (United States)

    Thibault, H; Derumeaux, G


    Tissue Doppler imaging and strain rate imaging are quantitative methods for assessing myocardial function and have been shown to overcome the limitations of current ultrasound methods in assessing the complex changes in regional myocardial function that occur in differing ischemic substrates. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) measures in real time the myocardial velocity gradient which is an index of myocardial deformation. Strain and strain rate (SR) imaging has been shown to be a sensitive technique for quantifying regional myocardial deformation. Strain rate is less load-dependent that strain and provides therefore a better measure of contractility. In the setting of ischemia, experimental studies have shown that strain imaging was an accurate method for quantitative evaluation of regional myocardial function and may yield important physiological data. In myocardial infarction, transmural extension of scar distribution in the infarct zone is proportionally related to the reduction in systolic function measured by the radial transmural velocity gradient or by strain rate imaging. Measurement of both systolic and post-systolic deformation both at rest and during a graded dobutamine infusion may help to distinguish between transmural and non transmural infarcts. In conclusion, strain imaging has the ability to evaluate of regional myocardial function. Strain rate has not replaced conventional grey-scale imaging in the assessment of regional left ventricular function and the implement of these new indices in the routine clinical practice will need additional clinical and large-scale studies.

  11. Assessment of myocardial viability using 123I-labeled iodophenylpentadecanoic acid at sustained low flow or after acute infarction and reperfusion. (United States)

    Yang, J Y; Ruiz, M; Calnon, D A; Watson, D D; Beller, G A; Glover, D K


    123I-labeled iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is a synthetic fatty acid that may be useful for determination of myocardial viability. We investigated the uptake and clearance kinetics of this tracer in canine models of ischemia and infarction. In protocol 1, 185 MBq (5 mCi) 123I-IPPA were injected intravenously in 19 dogs with 50% left anterior descending artery (LAD) flow reduction. In 9 dogs, 201TI was coinjected. In protocol 2, 5 dogs underwent LAD occlusion for 3 h, and 123I-IPPA was injected 60 min after reperfusion. All dogs had flow measured by microspheres, regional systolic thickening by ultrasonic crystals and measurements of postmortem risk area and infarct size. Tracer activities were quantified by gamma well counting and by serial imaging. In protocol 1 dogs with sustained low flow (50% +/- 4%) and absence of systolic thickening (-3.2% +/- 1%), 123I-IPPA defect magnitude (LAD/left circumflex artery [LCX] count ratios) decreased from 0.65 +/- 0.02 to 0.74 +/- 0.02 at 30 min and to 0.84 +/- 0.03 at 2 h (P IPPA LAD/LCX activity ratio (0.99 +/- 0.05) was significantly greater than the flow ratio (0.53 +/- 0.04) at injection, confirming complete rest redistribution. The final 123I-IPPA activity ratio was significantly greater than the 201TI ratio over the 2-h period (P IPPA, because uptake averaged 64% of normal in the central necrotic region, where flow averaged IPPA imaging may be useful for assessing myocardial viability under conditions of sustained low flow and myocardial asynergy, such as appears to exist in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and depressed left ventricular function. In contrast, 123I-IPPA given early after reperfusion following prolonged coronary occlusion overestimates the degree of viability and therefore may not provide useful information pertaining to the degree of myocardial salvage after reflow in the setting of acute myocardial infarction.

  12. Viability after myocardial infarction: can it be assessed within five minutes by low-dose dynamic iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid imaging with a multicrystal gamma camera? (United States)

    Murray, G L; Schad, N; Bush, A J


    Although positron emission tomography (PET) assesses myocardial viability (V) accurately, a rapid, inexpensive substitute is needed. Therefore, the authors developed a low-dose (1 mCi) Iodine-123-Iodophenylpentadecanoic Acid (IPPA) myocardial viability scan requiring analysis of only the first three minutes of data acquired at rest with a standard multicrystal gamma camera. Twenty-one patients > 2 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI) (24 MIs, 10 anterior, 14 inferoposterior, 21 akinetic or dyskinetic) had cardiac catheterization and resting IPPA imaging. V was determined by either transmural myocardial biopsy during coronary bypass surgery (12 patients, 14 MIs) or reinjection tomographic thallium scan (9 patients, 10 MIs), and 50% of MIs were viable. The IPPA variables analyzed were: time to initial left ventricular (LV) uptake in the region of interest (ROI), the ratio of three-minute uptake in the ROI to three-minute LV uptake, three-minute clearing (counts/pixel) in the ROI (decrease in IPPA after initial uptake), and three-minute accumulation (increase in IPPA after initial uptake) in the ROI. Rules for detecting V were generated and applied to 10 healthy volunteers to determine normalcy. While three-minute uptake in nonviable MIs was only 67% of volunteers (P IPPA clearing, however, was > or = 13.5 counts/pixel in 10/12 (83%) of viable MIs, and IPPA accumulation > or = 6.75 counts/pixel identified one more viable MI, for a sensitivity for V of 11/12 (92%), with a specificity of 11/12 (92%), and a 100% normalcy rate. The authors conclude low-dose IPPA (five-minute acquisition with analysis of the first three minutes of data) has potential for providing rapid, inexpensive V data after MI. Since newer multicrystal cameras are mobile, IPPA scans can be done in emergency rooms or coronary care units generating information that might be useful in decisions regarding thrombolysis, angioplasty, or bypass surgery.

  13. Temporal deformation pattern in acute and late phases of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: incremental value of longitudinal post-systolic strain to assess myocardial viability. (United States)

    Huttin, Olivier; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Benichou, Maxime; Bozec, Erwan; Lemoine, Simon; Mandry, Damien; Juillière, Yves; Sadoul, Nicolas; Micard, Emilien; Duarte, Kevin; Beaumont, Marine; Rossignol, Patrick; Girerd, Nicolas; Selton-Suty, Christine


    Identification of transmural extent and degree of non-viability after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is clinically important. The objective of the present study was to assess the regional mechanics and temporal deformation patterns using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in acute and later phases of STEMI to predict myocardial damage in these patients. Ninety-eight patients with first STEMI underwent both echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in acute phase and at 6 months follow-up with 2D STE-derived measurements of peak longitudinal strain (PLS), Pre-STretch index (PST) and post-systolic deformation index (PSI). For each segment, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was defined as transmural (LGE >66 %) or non-transmural (infarct size at both visits. A significantly lower value of segmental PLS and higher PSI and PST in necrotic segments were observed comparatively to control, adjacent and remote segments. The best parameters to predict transmural extent in acute phase were PSI with a cutoff value of 8 % (AUC: 0.84) and PLS with a cutoff value of -13 % (AUC: 0.86). PST showed high specificity, but poor sensitivity in predicting transmural extent. More importantly, the addition of PSI and PST to PLS in acute phase was associated with improved prediction of viability at 6 months (integrated discrimination improvement 2.5 % p < 0.01; net reclassification improvement 27 %; p < 0.01). All systolic deformation values separated transmural from non-transmural scarring. PLS combined with additional information relative to post-systolic deformation appears to be the most informative parameters to predict the transmural extent of MI in the early and late phases of MI. ; NCT01109225.

  14. Incorporating population viability models into species status assessment and listing decisions under the U.S. Endangered Species Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor P. McGowan


    Full Text Available Assessment of a species' status is a key part of management decision making for endangered and threatened species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Predicting the future state of the species is an essential part of species status assessment, and projection models can play an important role in developing predictions. We built a stochastic simulation model that incorporated parametric and environmental uncertainty to predict the probable future status of the Sonoran desert tortoise in the southwestern United States and North Central Mexico. Sonoran desert tortoise was a Candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, and decision makers wanted to use model predictions in their decision making process. The model accounted for future habitat loss and possible effects of climate change induced droughts to predict future population growth rates, abundances, and quasi-extinction probabilities. Our model predicts that the population will likely decline over the next few decades, but there is very low probability of quasi-extinction less than 75 years into the future. Increases in drought frequency and intensity may increase extinction risk for the species. Our model helped decision makers predict and characterize uncertainty about the future status of the species in their listing decision. We incorporated complex ecological processes (e.g., climate change effects on tortoises in transparent and explicit ways tailored to support decision making processes related to endangered species.

  15. Incorporating population viability models into species status assessment and listing decisions under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Allan, Nathan; Servoss, Jeff; Hedwall, Shaula J.; Wooldridge, Brian


    Assessment of a species' status is a key part of management decision making for endangered and threatened species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Predicting the future state of the species is an essential part of species status assessment, and projection models can play an important role in developing predictions. We built a stochastic simulation model that incorporated parametric and environmental uncertainty to predict the probable future status of the Sonoran desert tortoise in the southwestern United States and North Central Mexico. Sonoran desert tortoise was a Candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, and decision makers wanted to use model predictions in their decision making process. The model accounted for future habitat loss and possible effects of climate change induced droughts to predict future population growth rates, abundances, and quasi-extinction probabilities. Our model predicts that the population will likely decline over the next few decades, but there is very low probability of quasi-extinction less than 75 years into the future. Increases in drought frequency and intensity may increase extinction risk for the species. Our model helped decision makers predict and characterize uncertainty about the future status of the species in their listing decision. We incorporated complex ecological processes (e.g., climate change effects on tortoises) in transparent and explicit ways tailored to support decision making processes related to endangered species.

  16. Report of VA Medical Training Programs (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Report of VA Medical Training Programs Database is used to track medical center health services trainees and VA physicians serving as faculty. The database also...

  17. Non-VA Hospital System (NVH) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) pays for care provided to VA beneficiaries in non-VA hospitals through its contract hospitalization program as mandated by...

  18. Organically Modified Silica Nanoparticles Interaction with Macrophage Cells: Assessment of Cell Viability on the Basis of Physicochemical Properties. (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Keshvan, Prashant C; Bhat, Madhusudan; Dinda, Amit K; Mitra, Susmita


    Silica nanoparticles have drawn a lot of attention for nanomedicine application, and this is attributed to their biocompatibility and ease of surface functionalization. However, successful utilization of these inorganic systems for biomedical application depends on their physicochemical properties. This study, therefore, discusses in vitro toxicity of organically modified silica nanoparticles on the basis of size, shape, and surface properties of silica nanoparticles. Spherical- and oval-shaped nanoparticles having hydroxyl and amine groups were synthesized in Tween 80 micelles using different organosilanes. Nanoparticles of similar size and morphology were considered for comparative assessment. "As-prepared" nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, shape, and surface properties using ZetaSizer, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared to establish the above parameters. In vitro analysis in terms of nanoparticle-based toxicity was performed on J-774 (macrophage) cell line using propidium iodide-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Fluorescent dye-entrapped nanoparticles were used to visualize the uptake of the nanoparticles by macrophage cells. Results from cell studies suggested low levels of toxicity for different nanoparticle formulations studied, therefore are suitable for nanocarrier application for poorly soluble molecules. On the contrary, the nanoparticles of similar size and shape, having amine groups and low net negative charge, do not exhibit any in vitro cytotoxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Viability analysis in biological evaluations: Concepts of population viability analysis, biological population, and ecological scale (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward; John R. Squires


    Environmental protection strategies often rely on environmental impact assessments. As part of the assessment process biologists are routinely asked to evaluate the effects of management actions on plants and animals. This evaluation often requires that biologists make judgments about the viability of affected populations. However, population viability...

  20. Viability and Risk Assessment in Species Restoration: Planning Reintroductions for the Wild Boar, a Potential Disease Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Fernández


    Full Text Available The reintroduction of large mammals is often considered a priority conservation action in highly industrialized countries in which many of these species have been depleted. However, species reintroduction after decades of absence may involve important risks for human activities and ecological communities, such as favoring the spread of diseases. An example of a potentially troublesome reintroduction is the wild boar, which may act as a reservoir of diseases, e.g., classical swine fever, and cause high economic losses, and has become a species of concern in several European countries for both ecological and recreational reasons. Failure to prevent the disease consequences of species restoration can negate its conservation benefits. Here we evaluated the probability of both successfully reintroducing wild boar into Denmark and limiting their contact with domestic pig farms to which they might spread disease. For this purpose, we developed a spatially explicit, individual-based population model that incorporates information on boar habitat and demography information from Central European populations. We then compared model predictions with the spatial distribution of farms to achieve a spatial assessment of the contact risk. The most restrictive model scenario predicted that nearly 6% of Denmark provides habitat conditions that would allow wild boar to reproduce. The best habitats for reintroduction were aggregated in seven different areas throughout the country in which the extinction probability was < 5%. However, the expected population expansion was very limited in most of these areas. Both the number of suitable areas and the potential for population expansion greatly increased when we relaxed our habitat assumptions about boar forest requirements; this provided a more conservative scenario for a cautious risk analysis. We additionally found that part of the risk of contact with piggeries was associated with the magnitude of the expansion

  1. Improving search efficiency for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy: an exploratory study to assess the viability of limiting to MEDLINE, EMBASE and reference checking. (United States)

    Preston, Louise; Carroll, Christopher; Gardois, Paolo; Paisley, Suzy; Kaltenthaler, Eva


    Increasing numbers of systematic reviews evaluating the diagnostic test accuracy of technologies are being published. Currently, review teams tend to apply conventional systematic review standards to identify relevant studies for inclusion, for example sensitive searches of multiple bibliographic databases. There has been little evaluation of the efficiency of searching only one or two such databases for this type of review. The aim of this study was to assess the viability of an approach that restricted searches to MEDLINE, EMBASE and the reference lists of included studies. A convenience sample of nine Health Technology Assessment (HTA) systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy, with 302 included citations, was analysed to determine the number and proportion of included citations that were indexed in and retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE. An assessment was also made of the number and proportion of citations not retrieved from these databases but that could have been identified from the reference lists of included citations. 287/302 (95 %) of the included citations in the nine reviews were indexed across MEDLINE and EMBASE. The reviews' searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE accounted for 85 % of the included citations (256/302). Of the forty-six (15 %) included citations not retrieved by the published searches, 24 (8 %) could be found in the reference lists of included citations. Only 22/302 (7 %) of the included citations were not found by the proposed, more efficient approach. The proposed approach would have accounted for 280/302 (93 %) of included citations in this sample of nine systematic reviews. This exploratory study suggests that there might be a case for restricting searches for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies to MEDLINE, EMBASE and the reference lists of included citations. The conduct of such reviews might be rendered more efficient by using this approach.

  2. Clinical features and usefulness of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in assessing myocardial viability and prognosis in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome). (United States)

    Mitchell, James H; Hadden, Timothy B; Wilson, James M; Achari, Arup; Muthupillai, Raja; Flamm, Scott D


    In Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, or transient left ventricular (LV) apical ballooning syndrome, normalization of wall motion can occur after as long as 3 months. We report 1 of the largest series to date outside Japan and emphasize the utility of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to show a lack of irreversible damage in the acute setting, thereby reliably predicting recovery. During the previous 6 years, we saw 22 patients who met the following criteria: (1) a suspected myocardial infarction based on symptoms, an abnormal electrocardiogram, and/or elevated serum cardiac markers; (2) an anteroapical wall motion abnormality; and (3) no significant occlusive epicardial coronary artery disease or observed vasospasm. Ten patients underwent delayed enhancement CMR to assess myocardial viability during the index presentation. All 10 patients had an absence of irreversible damage, as evidenced by lack of gadolinium "hyperenhancement"; later, their LV function returned to normal. Eight other patients, available for outpatient follow-up evaluation, also had normalization of LV function. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is increasingly being recognized outside Japan and must be distinguished from acute myocardial infarction. In conclusion, CMR is useful to document segmental LV dysfunction and lack of irreversible damage and to predict functional recovery.

  3. Does adaptive strategy for delayed seed dispersion affect extinction probability of a desert species? an assessment using the population viability analysis and glass house experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Mathur


    Full Text Available Canopy seed bank is an important adaptive evolutionary trait that provides various types of protection to the seeds. However, costing of such evolutionary trait on plant survival is largely unknown. Present investigation provided a new insight on the serotonious habit of Blepharis sindica associated with its endangerment status. Extinction probabilities of two available population of B. sindica were quantified using two types of census data, i.e., fruiting body number and actual population size. Population Viability Analysis (PVA revealed that delayed seed release tendency (higher fruiting body number was not synchronized with actual ground conditions (lower population size. PVA analysis based on actual population size indicated that both the available populations would vanish within 20 years. The mean time of extinction calculated from both type census data indicated its extinction within 48 years. For assessing the conservation criteria, a glass house experiment was carried out with different soil types and compositions. Pure sand and higher proportions of sand -silt were more suitable compared to clay; further, gravelly surface was the most unsuitable habitat for this species. Collection of the seeds from mature fruits/capsule and their sowing with moderate moisture availability with sandy soil could be recommended.

  4. Assessment of myocardial viability using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose/Tc-99m sestamibi dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition SPECT: comparison with Tl-201 stress-reinjection SPECT. (United States)

    Wu, Yen-Wen; Huang, Por-Jau; Lee, Chii-Ming; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Lin, Lung-Chun; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi; Yen, Ruoh-Fang


    This study compared technetium 99m sestamibi/fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition (DISA) with stress-reinjection thallium 201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with regard to their ability to detect myocardial viability. The study cohort consisted of 42 angiographically significant coronary artery disease patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure or regional wall motion abnormalities. In total, 398 dysfunctional segments in 40 patients were analyzed (2 patients were excluded because of poor-quality F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose images). Of the segments, 217 were diagnosed as viable and 144 as nonviable by both DISA and Tl-201, 33 were viable by DISA but nonviable by Tl-201, and 4 were viable by Tl-201 but nonviable by DISA. Most discrepancies were in the inferior wall. Of the 40 patients, 16 underwent revascularization. From the follow-up results for the 105 dysfunctional segments in these 16 patients, DISA viability appears to be a significant predicting factor (P = .014) for functional recovery after revascularization statistically whereas Tl-201 viability does not (P = .09). Our study suggests that DISA viability provides more accurate prediction of postrevascularization functional recovery than Tl-201 viability. Given the small number of patients who underwent revascularization, the superiority of DISA over Tl-201 in detecting myocardial viability may be firmly established by further study on a large scale for patients with profound left ventricular dysfunction.

  5. Assessment of myocardial viability in patients with acute myocardial infarction by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography combined with low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography. (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Li, Dongye; Chen, Junhong; Wang, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongda; Li, Wenhua; Ren, Shaoyang; Wang, Cheng


    It is clinically important to determine the myocardial viability of regional wall motion abnormality segments in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The purpose of this study was to ascertain the ability and value of a combination of speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDDSE) for the evaluation of viable myocardium in patients with AMI. Forty-two hospitalized patients with AMI and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction <50%) were underwent STE in conjunction with LDDSE and dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA-SPECT). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed subsequently in all patients. STE was used to measure radial, circumferential, and longitudinal end-systolic strain and peak systolic strain rate. The movement of each segment was observed by routine echocardiography 1, 3, and 6 months after PCI, and its improvement over time was the criterion of viable myocardium. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of DISA-SPECT for the assessment of viable myocardium were 83.6, 74.4, and 80.7%, respectively. Among the radial, circumferential, and longitudinal strain and strain rate parameters, only longitudinal strain (LS) and longitudinal strain rate (LSr) at rest and LDDSE emerged as independent predictors of viable myocardium, When combining LS and LSr at LDDSE, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the assessment of viable myocardium rose to 89.8, 90.2 and 89.9%, respectively. The sensitivity of STE in conjunction with LDDSE was similar to DISA-SPECT for detecting viable myocardium in patients with AMI, but the specificity and accuracy of STE performed with LDDSE were higher than DISA-SPECT.

  6. Patient deaths blamed on long waits at the Phoenix VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. This morning the lead article in the Arizona Republic was a report blaming as many as 40 deaths at the Phoenix VA on long waits (1. Yesterday, Rep. Jeff Miller, the chairman of the House Committee on Veterans Affairs, held a hearing titled “A Continued Assessment of Delays in VA Medical Care and Preventable Veteran Deaths.” “It appears as though there could be as many as 40 veterans whose deaths could be related to delays in care,” Miller announced to a stunned audience. The committee has spent months investigating patient-care scandals and allegations at VA facilities in Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Miami and other cities. said that dozens of VA hospital patients in Phoenix may have died while awaiting medical care. He went on to say that staff investigators have evidence that the Phoenix VA Health Care System keeps two sets of records to conceal prolonged waits that patients must endure for ...

  7. First attempt to assess the viability of bluefin tuna spawning events in offshore cages located in an a priori favourable larval habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reglero


    Full Text Available Most of the Atlantic bluefin tuna caught by the purse-seine fleet in the Mediterranean Sea are transferred alive into transport cages and towed to coastal facilities where they are fattened. This major fishery is targeting aggregations of reproductive bluefin tuna that continue spawning within the transport cages. Our study is the first attempt to assess the viability of the spawning events within transport cages placed offshore in a priori favourable locations for larval survival. The study was conducted in June 2010 in the Balearic Sea, a main spawning area for bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean. The location of two transport cages, one with wild and one with captive tuna, coincide with the situation of the chlorophyll front using satellite imagery as a proxy for the salinity front between resident surface waters and those of recent Atlantic origin. The results showed that bluefin tuna eggs were spawned almost every day within the two cages but few or no larvae were found. The expected larval densities estimated after applying mortality curves to the daily egg densities observed in the cages were higher than the sampled larval densities. The trajectories of the eggs after hatching estimated from a particle tracking model based on observed geostrophic currents and a drifter deployed adjacent to the cage suggest that larvae were likely to be caught close to the cages within the sampling dates. Spawning events in captive tuna in transport cages may hatch into larvae though they may experience higher mortality rates than expected in natural populations. The causes of the larval mortality are further discussed in the text. Such studies should be repeated in other spawning areas in the Mediterranean if spawning in cages located offshore in areas favourable a priori for larval survival is likely to be considered a management measurement to minimize the impact of purse-seine fishing on tuna.

  8. A new GIS-based tsunami risk evaluation: MeTHuVA (METU tsunami human vulnerability assessment) at Yenikapı, Istanbul (United States)

    Cankaya, Zeynep Ceren; Suzen, Mehmet Lutfi; Yalciner, Ahmet Cevdet; Kolat, Cagil; Zaytsev, Andrey; Aytore, Betul


    Istanbul is a mega city with various coastal utilities located on the northern coast of the Sea of Marmara. At Yenikapı, there are critical vulnerable coastal utilities, structures, and active metropolitan life. Fishery ports, commercial ports, small craft harbors, passenger terminals of intercity maritime transportation, waterfront commercial and/or recreational structures with residential/commercial areas and public utility areas are some examples of coastal utilization that are vulnerable to marine disasters. Therefore, the tsunami risk in the Yenikapı region is an important issue for Istanbul. In this study, a new methodology for tsunami vulnerability assessment for areas susceptible to tsunami is proposed, in which the Yenikapı region is chosen as a case study. Available datasets from the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and Turkish Navy are used as inputs for high-resolution GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) evaluation of tsunami risk in Yenikapı. Bathymetry and topography database is used for high-resolution tsunami numerical modeling where the tsunami hazard, in terms of coastal inundation, is deterministically computed using the NAMI DANCE numerical code, considering earthquake worst case scenarios. In order to define the tsunami human vulnerability of the region, two different aspects, vulnerability at location and evacuation resilience maps were created using the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) method of MCDA. A vulnerability at location map is composed of metropolitan use, geology, elevation, and distance from shoreline layers, whereas an evacuation resilience map is formed by slope, distance within flat areas, distance to buildings, and distance to road networks layers. The tsunami risk map is then computed by the proposed new relationship which uses flow depth maps, vulnerability at location maps, and evacuation resilience maps.

  9. OneVA EA Vision and Strategy (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The outcomes/goals supported by effective use of an EA are: Improved Service Delivery, Functional Integration, Resource Optimization and Authoritative Reference. VA...

  10. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2012 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  11. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2007 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  12. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY1999 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  13. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2008 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  14. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2004 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  15. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2000 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  16. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2005 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  17. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2003 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  18. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY 2016 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  19. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2009 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  20. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2006 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  1. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2011 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  2. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2013 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  3. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY1997 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  4. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY2010 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  5. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures FY1996 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report details VA expenditures at the state, county, and Congressional District level. It includes categories such as Compensation and Pension, Construction,...

  6. Viability, invariance and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Carja, Ovidiu; Vrabie, Ioan I


    The book is an almost self-contained presentation of the most important concepts and results in viability and invariance. The viability of a set K with respect to a given function (or multi-function) F, defined on it, describes the property that, for each initial data in K, the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by that function or multi-function) to have at least one solution. The invariance of a set K with respect to a function (or multi-function) F, defined on a larger set D, is that property which says that each solution of the differential equation (or inclusion) driven by F and issuing in K remains in K, at least for a short time.The book includes the most important necessary and sufficient conditions for viability starting with Nagumo's Viability Theorem for ordinary differential equations with continuous right-hand sides and continuing with the corresponding extensions either to differential inclusions or to semilinear or even fully nonlinear evolution equations, systems and inclusions. In th...

  7. Comparative evaluation of the isolation and quantification of stem cells derived from dental pulp and periodontal ligament of a permanent tooth and to assess their viability and proliferation on a platelet-rich fibrin scaffold. (United States)

    Khurana, Rohit; Kudva, Praveen Bhasker; Husain, Syed Yawer


    The present study aims to comparatively evaluate the isolation and quantification of stem cells derived from dental pulp and periodontal ligament of a permanent tooth and to assess their viability and proliferation on a platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) scaffold. A total of 15 systemically healthy individuals between the age group of 15-25 years requiring third molar or orthodontic premolar extractions. Teeth were extracted atraumatically and transported to the laboratory. Stem cells were isolated from dental pulp and periodontal ligament. After attaining more than 90% confluency by the 7th day, these cells were tested for their viability and characterization. Stem cells were also incubated with PRF and viability was assessed on the 7th day. The mean number of cell for dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The mean live cell viability was compared between DPSC (98.07%) and PDLSC (98%). Both DPSC and PDLSC showed a high percentage of expression of CD73 markers, 30.40% and 29.80%, respectively. However, DPSCs and PDLSCs lacked expression of CD34 expressing only 3.47% and 3.53%, respectively. PRF membrane as a scaffold exhibited no cytotoxic effects on DPCS's or PDLSC's. The cell viability of cells cultured with PRF was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05) when compared to the cells cultured with culture media. The study thus indicates that dental pulp and periodontal ligament are both rich sources of mesenchymal stem cells and can be successfully used for obtaining stem cells. PRF exhibits no cytotoxic effects on the cells and can be used in conjunction with dental stem cells.

  8. Myocardial viability assessment with dynamic low-dose iodine-123-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid metabolic imaging: comparison with myocardial biopsy and reinjection SPECT thallium after myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Murray, G L; Schad, N C; Magill, H L; Vander Zwaag, R


    Aggressive cardiac revascularization requires recognition of stunned and hibernating myocardium, and cost considerations may well govern the technique used. Dynamic low-dose (1 mCi) [123I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolic imaging is a potential alternative to PET using either 18FDG or 15O-water. Resting IPPA images were obtained from patients with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy, and transmural myocardial biopsies were obtained during coronary bypass surgery to confirm viability. Thirty-nine of 43 (91%) biopsies confirmed the results of the IPPA images with a sensitivity for viability of 33/36 (92%) and a specificity of 6/7 (86%). Postoperatively, wall motion improved in 80% of IPPA-viable, dysfunctional segments. Furthermore, when compared to reinjection thallium (SPECT-TI) scans after myocardial infarction, IPPA-SPECT-TI concordance occurred in 27/35 (77%) (K = 0.536, p = 0.0003). Similar to PET, IPPA demonstrated more viability than SPECT-TI, 26/35 (74%) versus 18/35 (51%) (p = 0.047). Metabolic IPPA cardiac viability imaging is a safe, inexpensive technique that may be a useful alternative to PET.

  9. The PESERA-DESMICE modelling framework for spatial assessment of the physical impact and economic viability of land degradation mitigation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk eFleskens


    Full Text Available This paper presents the PESERA-DESMICE integrated model developed in the EU FP6 DESIRE project. PESERA-DESMICE combines a process-based erosion prediction model extended with process descriptions to evaluate the effects of measures to mitigate land degradation, and a spatially-explicit economic evaluation model to evaluate the financial viability of these measures. The model operates on a grid-basis and is capable of addressing degradation problems due to wind and water erosion, grazing and fire. It can evaluate the effects of improved management strategies such as maintaining soil cover, retention of crop residues, irrigation, water harvesting, terracing and strip cropping. These management strategies introduce controls to various parameters slowing down degradation processes. The paper first describes how the physical impact of the various management strategies is assessed. It then continues to evaluate the applicability limitations of the various mitigation options, and to inventory the spatial variation in the investment and maintenance costs involved for each of a series of technologies that are deemed relevant in a given study area. The physical effects of the implementation of the management strategies relative to the situation without mitigation are subsequently valuated in monetary terms. The model pays particular attention to the spatial variation in the costs and benefits involved as a function of environmental conditions and distance to markets. All costs and benefits are added to a cash flow and a discount rate is applied. This allows a cost-benefit analysis to be performed over a comparative planning period based on the economic lifetime of the technologies being evaluated. It is assumed that land users will only potentially implement technologies if they are financially viable. After this framework has been set-up, various analyses can be made, including the effect of policy options on the potential uptake of mitigation measures

  10. Technology Reference Model (TRM) Reports: VA Category Framework Count Report (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The One VA Enterprise Architecture (OneVA EA) is a comprehensive picture of the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) operations, capabilities and services and the...

  11. Technology Reference Model (TRM) Reports: VA Category Mapping Report (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The One VA Enterprise Architecture (OneVA EA) is a comprehensive picture of the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) operations, capabilities and services and the...

  12. Isolation and characterization of specific bacteriophage Va1 to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fernández Espinel


    Full Text Available Vibrio alginolyticus is associated with diseases in aquaculture. The misuse of antibiotics has led to the search for alternatives in the treatment of bacterial diseases, among them the application of bacteriophages that infect and destroy bacteria selectively. In this way, a highly lytic V. alginolyticus bacteriophage, termed Va1, was isolated, with the aim to evaluate its physical chemical parameters. For this purpose, different temperature, pH, chloroform exposure and host range conditions were evaluated. The temperature stability of phage Va1 showed higher titers at 20 and 30 °C decreasing from 40 °C. With respect to pH, the highest titers for the bacteriophage were between 5 and 8, and chloroform exposure reduced viability of the Va1 phage by 25%. The one-step curve determined that the latency period and the burst size were 20 minutes and 192 PFU / infective center respectively. Under the transmission electron microscope, the Va1 phage showed an icosahedral head and a non-contractile tail, belonging to the Podoviridae family. In conclusion, Va1 phage presents potential characteristics for use in phage therapy.

  13. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report FY2015 (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  14. The Possible Interplanetary Transfer of Microbes: Assessing the Viability of Deinococcus spp. Under the ISS Environmental Conditions for Performing Exposure Experiments of Microbes in the Tanpopo Mission (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yuko; Yang, Yinjie; Kawashiri, Narutoshi; Shiraishi, Keisuke; Takasu, Masako; Narumi, Issay; Satoh, Katsuya; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Kazumichi; Tanigawa, Yoshiaki; Momoki, Yoh-hei; Tanabe, Maiko; Sugino, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Yuta; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yokobori, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Akihiko


    To investigate the possible interplanetary transfer of life, numerous exposure experiments have been carried out on various microbes in space since the 1960s. In the Tanpopo mission, we have proposed to carry out experiments on capture and space exposure of microbes at the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experimental Module of the International Space Station (ISS). Microbial candidates for the exposure experiments in space include Deinococcus spp.: Deinococcus radiodurans, D. aerius and D. aetherius. In this paper, we have examined the survivability of Deinococcus spp. under the environmental conditions in ISS in orbit (i.e., long exposure to heavy-ion beams, temperature cycles, vacuum and UV irradiation). A One-year dose of heavy-ion beam irradiation did not affect the viability of Deinococcus spp. within the detection limit. Vacuum (10-1 Pa) also had little effect on the cell viability. Experiments to test the effects of changes in temperature from 80 °C to -80 °C in 90 min (±80 °C/90 min cycle) or from 60 °C to -60 °C in 90 min (±60 °C/90 min cycle) on cell viability revealed that the survival rate decreased severely by the ±80 °C/90 min temperature cycle. Exposure of various thicknesses of deinococcal cell aggregates to UV radiation (172 nm and 254 nm, respectively) revealed that a few hundred micrometer thick aggregate of deinococcal cells would be able to withstand the solar UV radiation on ISS for 1 year. We concluded that aggregated deinococcal cells will survive the yearlong exposure experiments. We propose that microbial cells can aggregate as an ark for the interplanetary transfer of microbes, and we named it `massapanspermia'.

  15. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabani Amin M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3 laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226 was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7% of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18, resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a

  16. VA Personal Health Record Sample Data (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — My HealtheVet ( is a Personal Health Record portal designed to improve the delivery of health care services to Veterans, to promote health and...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency (United States)

    ... bicarbonate. Bicarbonate is necessary to maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body, which is necessary for most biological reactions to proceed properly. The carbonic anhydrase VA enzyme ...

  18. A failure of oversight at the VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. On September 8, 2014 the Washington Examiner reported that the Central Office of the VA was allowed to change language in the VA Office of Inspector General (VAOIG report on delays in patient care at the Phoenix VA Medical Center (1. Crucial language that the VAOIG could not “conclusively” prove that delays in care caused patient deaths at a Phoenix hospital was added to its final report after a draft version was sent to agency administrators for comment. Rep. Jeff Miller, chairman of the House veterans' committee, said "there are significant differences between the final IG report and the draft version ...". The following day Richard Griffin, the acting VAOIG, vigorously defended the independence of his office and bristled at the allegations that the VA was allowed to alter his office's report. However, his denials and indignance seem disingenuous. To understand why, we need to go back a few years. ...

  19. 78 FR 32126 - VA Dental Insurance Program (United States)


    ... misinterpretations of eligibility for VA dental benefits, because these misinterpretations seemed to also create... communication channels to notify all eligible persons of their right to voluntarily enroll in VADIP. The...

  20. Addressing the Health Concerns of VA Women with Sexual Trauma (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0368 TITLE: Addressing the Health Concerns of VA Women with Sexual Trauma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Caron Zlotnick, PhD...develop and assess a computer-delivered intervention (Safety and Health Experiences Program; SHE) that will provide a screening and brief behavior...intervention for women veterans with any lifetime ST. More specifically, the intervention, SHE, will address interrelated health concerns for women

  1. Assessment of Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis promastigote viability after photodynamic treatment with aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto JG


    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania, which is transmitted through the bite of hematophagous insects of the genus Lutzomyia. This study aimed at testing in vitro the phototoxic effect of aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4 on the viability of Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis. Stationary phase promastigote forms were treated with AlPcS4 at 1.0 µM and 10.0 µM and incubated for one hour. Then 659 nm laser was applied at 5 and 10 J/cm². Parasite viability was determined by differential count using the trypan blue dye exclusion method and by monitoring growth curves for nine days. Trypan blue exclusion assay showed a significant reduction of viable parasites compared to controls, L. major seemed more sensitive to the toxic effects of AlPcS4 in the dark. The most effective photodynamic therapy (PDT was obtained with AlPcS4 at 10.0 µM and 10 J/cm² whereas L. braziliensis showed the highest mortality rate after treatment.

  2. Implementation of online suicide-specific training for VA providers. (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth; York, Janet; Magruder, Kathryn; Yeager, Derik; Knapp, Rebecca; De Santis, Mark L; Burriss, Louisa; Mauldin, Mary; Sulkowski, Stan; Pope, Charlene; Jobes, David A


    Due to the gap in suicide-specific intervention training for mental health students and professionals, e-learning is one solution to improving provider skills in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health system. This study focused on the development and evaluation of an equivalent e-learning alternative to the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS) in-person training approach at a Veteran Health Affairs medical center. The study used a multicenter, randomized, cluster, and three group design. the development of e-CAMS was an iterative process and included pilot testing. Eligible and consenting mental health providers, who completed a CAMS pre-survey, were randomized. Provider satisfaction was assessed using the standard VA evaluation of training consisting of 20 items. Two post training focus groups, divided by learning conditions, were conducted to assess practice adoption using a protocol focused on experiences with training and delivery of CAMS. A total of 215 providers in five sites were randomized to three conditions: 69 to e-learning, 70 to in-person, 76 to the control. The providers were primarily female, Caucasian, midlife providers. Based on frequency scores of satisfaction items, both learning groups rated the trainings positively. In focus groups representing divided by learning conditions, participants described positive reactions to CAMS training and similar individual and institutional barriers to full implementation of CAMS. This is the first evaluation study of a suicide-specific e-learning training within the VA. The e-CAMS appears equivalent to the in-person CAMS in terms of provider satisfaction with training and practice adoption, consistent with other comparisons of training deliveries across specialty areas. Additional evaluation of provider confidence and adoption and patient outcomes is in progress. The e-CAMS has the potential to provide ongoing training for VA and military mental health providers and serve as a tutorial for

  3. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney van der Ree


    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels for the endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus in Australia. The underpasses reduced, but did not completely remove, the negative effects of a road. The expected minimum population size of a "reconnected" population remained 15% lower than that of a comparable "undivided" population. We propose that the extent to which the risk of extinction decreases should be adopted as a measure of effectiveness of mitigation measures and that the use of population modeling become routine in these evaluations.

  4. Electrocardiographic-gated dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition SPECT using 18F-FDG and 99mTc-sestamibi to assess myocardial viability and function in a single study. (United States)

    Matsunari, Ichiro; Kanayama, Sugako; Yoneyama, Tatsuya; Matsudaira, Masamichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Taki, Junichi; Nekolla, Stephan G; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kinichi


    Dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition single-photon emission computed tomography (DISA SPECT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (99m)Tc-sestamibi appears attractive for the detection of viable myocardium because it permits simultaneous assessment of glucose utilisation and perfusion. Another potential benefit of this approach is that the measurement of left ventricular (LV) function may be possible by ECG gating. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that both myocardial viability and LV function can be assessed by a single ECG-gated 18F-FDG/(99m)Tc-sestamibi DISA SPECT study, based on comparison with 18F-FDG/13N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as reference techniques. Thirty-three patients with prior myocardial infarction underwent ECG-gated 18F-FDG/(99m)Tc-sestamibi DISA SPECT and 18F-FDG/13N-ammonia PET on a single day. Of these, 25 patients also underwent cine-MRI to assess LV function. The LV myocardium was divided into nine regions, and each region was classified as viable or scar using a semiquantitative visual scoring system as well as quantitative analysis. The global and regional LV function measured by gated SPECT was compared with the results of MRI. There was good agreement in respect of viability (90-96%, kappa 0.74-0.85) between DISA SPECT and PET by either visual or quantitative analysis. Furthermore, although both global and regional LV function measured by gated SPECT agreed with those by MRI, (99m)Tc-sestamibi showed a closer correlation with MRI than did 18F-FDG. In conclusion, ECG-gated DISA SPECT provides information on myocardial viability, as well as global and regional LV function, similar to that obtained by PET and MRI.

  5. Probiotic viability – does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampo J. Lahtinen


    Full Text Available Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells and, therefore, is also possible that also non-viable probiotics could have some health benefits. The efficacy of non-viable probiotics has been assessed in a limited number of studies, with varying success. While it is clear that viable probiotics are more effective than non-viable probiotics and that, in many cases, viability is indeed a prerequisite for the health benefit, there are also some cases where it appears that non-viable probiotics could also have beneficial effects on human health.

  6. Assessment of cytotoxicity of carbon nanoparticles using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) cell viability assay. (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Lin, Jonathan B; Hussain, Saber M


    Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, there has been an increasing interest in technologies that rely upon these incredibly small particles for their unique properties. However, assessment of their biological consequences has been riddled with assay limitations. Here, we describe application of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium cell viability assay to study cytotoxicity of various carbon-based nanomaterials on cells and discuss some pitfalls of this method.

  7. VaST: A variability search toolkit (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Lebedev, A. A.


    Variability Search Toolkit (VaST) is a software package designed to find variable objects in a series of sky images. It can be run from a script or interactively using its graphical interface. VaST relies on source list matching as opposed to image subtraction. SExtractor is used to generate source lists and perform aperture or PSF-fitting photometry (with PSFEx). Variability indices that characterize scatter and smoothness of a lightcurve are computed for all objects. Candidate variables are identified as objects having high variability index values compared to other objects of similar brightness. The two distinguishing features of VaST are its ability to perform accurate aperture photometry of images obtained with non-linear detectors and handle complex image distortions. The software has been successfully applied to images obtained with telescopes ranging from 0.08 to 2.5 m in diameter equipped with a variety of detectors including CCD, CMOS, MIC and photographic plates. About 1800 variable stars have been discovered with VaST. It is used as a transient detection engine in the New Milky Way (NMW) nova patrol. The code is written in C and can be easily compiled on the majority of UNIX-like systems. VaST is free software available at

  8. The relationship between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates. (United States)

    Samplaski, Mary K; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Mullen, Brendan; Garbens, Alaina; Jarvi, Keith A


    In humans, sperm DNA fragmentation rates have been correlated with sperm viability rates. Reduced sperm viability is associated with high sperm DNA fragmentation, while conversely high sperm viability is associated with low rates of sperm DNA fragmentation. Both elevated DNA fragmentation rates and poor viability are correlated with impaired male fertility, with a DNA fragmentation rate of >30% indicating subfertility. We postulated that in some men, the sperm viability assay could predict the sperm DNA fragmentation rates. This in turn could reduce the need for sperm DNA fragmentation assay testing, simplifying the infertility investigation and saving money for infertile couples. All men having semen analyses with both viability and DNA fragmentation testing were identified via a prospectively collected database. Viability was measured by eosin-nigrosin assay. DNA fragmentation was measured using the sperm chromosome structure assay. The relationship between DNA fragmentation and viability was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. From 2008-2013, 3049 semen analyses had both viability and DNA fragmentation testing. A strong inverse relationship was seen between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates, with r=-0.83. If viability was ≤50% (n=301) then DNA fragmentation was ≥ 30% for 95% of the samples. If viability was ≥75% (n=1736), then the DNA fragmentation was ≤30% for 95% of the patients. Sperm viability correlates strongly with DNA fragmentation rates. In men with high levels of sperm viability≥75%, or low levels of sperm viability≤ 30%, DFI testing may be not be routinely necessary. Given that DNA fragmentation testing is substantially more expensive than vitality testing, this may represent a valuable cost-saving measure for couples undergoing a fertility evaluation.

  9. Establishing guidelines to retain viability of probiotics during spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.


    We present a model-based approach to map processing conditions suitable to spray dry probiotics with minimal viability loss. The approach combines the drying history and bacterial inactivation kinetics to predict the retention of viability after drying. The approach was used to systematically assess

  10. Pollen viability and germination in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to assess pollen viability using the staining technique and in vitro germination with different concentrations of sucrose in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha mollissima, contributing to the knowledge of the reproductive biology and subsidizing their conservation, management and utilization. Pollen viability ...

  11. The mechanism of vinylacetylene (VA) hydrochlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, G.K.; Belskii, F.I.; Airyan, S.M.; Temkin, O.N.


    The mechanism of vinylacetylene (VA) hydrochlorination in a cupric chloride solution was studied at 50/sup 0/C in a gradientless flow reactor, and chromatographic analysis identified 2- and 1-chloro-1,3-butadienes as the main products. Analysis of the reaction kinetics showed that CuCl catalyzed both 1,4 and 1,2 (Markovnikov and anti-Markovnikov types) addition of HCl to VA and that no VA conversion occurred without CuCl. The formation of both products occurred via similar many-route mechanisms, with at least one of the routes involving formation and isomerization of 4-chloro-1,2-butadiene (''allene''). Based on the results of this study together with published data on hydrochlorination and hydration of acetylene and methylacetylene, some conclusions on the effect of substituents on the mechanism of hydrochlorination of acetylene compounds were reached. Tables, graphs, and 15 references.

  12. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs


    Shira C Shafir; Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.


    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months.

  13. In vivo assessment of myocardial viability after acute myocardial infarction: A head-to-head comparison of the perfusable tissue index by PET and delayed contrast-enhanced CMR. (United States)

    Timmer, Stefan A J; Teunissen, Paul F A; Danad, Ibrahim; Robbers, Lourens F H J; Raijmakers, Pieter G H M; Nijveldt, Robin; van Rossum, Albert C; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; van Royen, Niels; Knaapen, Paul


    Early recognition of viable myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is of clinical relevance, since affected segments have the potential of functional recovery. Delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-CMR) has been validated extensively for the detection of viable myocardium. An alternative parameter for detecting viability is the perfusable tissue index (PTI), derived using [ 15 O]H 2 O positron emission tomography (PET), which is inversely related to the extent of myocardial scar (non-perfusable tissue). The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of PTI on recovery of LV function as compared to DCE-CMR in patients with AMI, after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Thirty-eight patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) successfully treated by PCI were prospectively recruited. Subjects were examined 1 week and 3 months (mean follow-up time: 97 ± 10 days) after AMI using [ 15 O]H 2 O PET and DCE-CMR to assess PTI, regional function and scar. Viability was defined as recovery of systolic wall thickening ≥3.0 mm at follow-up by use of CMR. A total of 588 segments were available for serial analysis. At baseline, 180 segments were dysfunctional and exhibited DCE. Seventy-three (41%) of these dysfunctional segments showed full recovery during follow-up (viable), whereas 107 (59%) segments remained dysfunctional (nonviable). Baseline PTI of viable segments was 0.94 ± 0.09 and was significantly higher compared to nonviable segments (0.80 ± 0.13, P myocardial viability shortly after reperfused AMI is feasible using PET. PET-derived PTI yields a good predictive value for the recovery of LV function in PCI-treated STEMI patients, in excellent agreement with DCE-CMR.

  14. Effects of ibuprofen on the viability and proliferation of rainbow trout liver cell lines and potential problems and interactions in effects assessment. (United States)

    Schnell, Sabine; Kawano, Atsushi; Porte, Cinta; Lee, Lucy E J; Bols, Niels C


    Under some conditions ibuprofen was either cytotoxic or cytostatic to rainbow trout cell lines: RTL-W1 (liver) and RTH-149 (hepatoma). Ibuprofen at up to 15 microg/mL was not cytotoxic, regardless of dosing protocols, exposure conditions, viability endpoints, or cell lines. Responses to higher ibuprofen concentrations depended on the test methodology. No cytotoxicity was seen when stock ibuprofen solutions had been prepared in ethanol. For stock solutions in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ibuprofen from 50 to 1500 microg/mL elicited little cytotoxicity in cultures in which the final DMSO concentration was 0.05% (v/v), but was consistently cytotoxic after 24 h for cultures with 0.5% DMSO (v/v). Cytotoxicity was evaluated with alamar Blue (AB) and carboxyfluoroscein diacetate acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA-AM) as measures respectively of metabolic activity and membrane integrity. Effective concentrations (EC50s) for ibuprofen with AB and CFDA-AM depended on whether the stock solution was dosed directly into a culture well or mixed in medium prior to being added to a well. For indirect dosing, ibuprofen was more cytotoxic in medium without fetal bovine serum (FBS), whereas for direct dosing ibuprofen was equally cytotoxic in medium with or without FBS. As judged by AB and CFDA-AM EC50s, dosing ibuprofen was directly 10 to 30 times more cytotoxic. In FBS-containing cultures, which was dosed with increasing ibuprofen and DMSO at 0.05% (v/v), cell proliferation was impaired at 50 and 150 microg/mL ibuprofen. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 50 microg/mL had little influence on these cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of ibuprofen in medium with FBS. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. VA Suicide Prevention Applications Network (United States)

    Stephens, Brady; Morley, Sybil; Thompson, Caitlin; Kemp, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M.


    Objectives: The US Department of Veterans Affairs’ Suicide Prevention Applications Network (SPAN) is a national system for suicide event tracking and case management. The objective of this study was to assess data on suicide attempts among people using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services. Methods: We assessed the degree of data overlap on suicide attempters reported in SPAN and the VHA’s medical records from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2014—overall, by year, and by region. Data on suicide attempters in the VHA’s medical records consisted of diagnoses documented with E95 codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Results: Of 50 518 VHA patients who attempted suicide during the 4-year study period, data on fewer than half (41%) were reported in both SPAN and the medical records; nearly 65% of patients whose suicide attempt was recorded in SPAN had no data on attempted suicide in the VHA’s medical records. Conclusion: Evaluation of administrative data suggests that use of SPAN substantially increases the collection of data on suicide attempters as compared with the use of medical records alone, but neither SPAN nor the VHA’s medical records identify all suicide attempters. Further research is needed to better understand the strengths and limitations of both systems and how to best combine information across systems. PMID:28123228

  16. 76 FR 75509 - Autopsies at VA Expense (United States)


    ... Facilities; 64.007, Blind Rehabilitation Centers; 64.008, Veterans Domiciliary Care; 64.009, Veterans Medical Care Benefits; 64.010, Veterans Nursing Home Care; 64.014, Veterans State Domiciliary Care; 64.015...-reference to VA regulations that authorize certain outpatient and ambulatory care. The proposed rule would...

  17. Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City, Philippine: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeninah Christia D. Borbon


    The research study on Viability of Event Management Business in Batangas City: Basis for Business Operation Initiatives aimed to assess the viability of this type of business using Thompson’s (2005...

  18. Viability of mesenchymal stem cells during electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zanatta


    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a technique by which a live tissue can be re-constructed and one of its main goals is to associate cells with biomaterials. Electrospinning is a technique that facilitates the production of nanofibers and is commonly used to develop fibrous scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering. In the present study, a different approach for cell incorporation into fibrous scaffolds was tested. Mesenchymal stem cells were extracted from the wall of the umbilical cord and mononuclear cells from umbilical cord blood. Cells were re-suspended in a 10% polyvinyl alcohol solution and subjected to electrospinning for 30 min under a voltage of 21 kV. Cell viability was assessed before and after the procedure by exclusion of dead cells using trypan blue staining. Fiber diameter was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the presence of cells within the scaffolds was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. After electrospinning, the viability of mesenchymal stem cells was reduced from 88 to 19.6% and the viability of mononuclear cells from 99 to 8.38%. The loss of viability was possibly due to the high viscosity of the polymer solution, which reduced the access to nutrients associated with electric and mechanical stress during electrospinning. These results suggest that the incorporation of cells during fiber formation by electrospinning is a viable process that needs more investigation in order to find ways to protect cells from damage.

  19. Pollen viability in Quercus robur L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batos Branislava


    Full Text Available The variability of viability (germination rate and the length of pollen tubes of fresh pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. pollen grains was studied in vitro on a medium containing 15% sucrose. Spatial variability was studied by sampling fresh pollen grains from a total of thirteen trees at four different sites in the area of Belgrade (Košutnjak, Banovo Brdo, Ada Ciganlija and Bojčin Forest in a single year (2011. In order to assess temporal variability and determine the effects of climate change on a small time scale, we studied the viability of the pollen grains collected from one tree at the Banovo Brdo site in six different years (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2011 and 2012. Interindividual variability was tested on the pollen grains sampled from eight trees at Ada Ciganlija in 2004. The percentage values of the pollen grain germination rate and the pollen tube length showed no statistically significant differences between the sites. However, the studied characteristics of the pollen grain viability (germination rate and pollen tube length showed statistically significant differences in both temporal (between the pollen collection years and interindividual variability. This type of research makes a valuable contribution to pedunculate oak breeding programs through the identification of trees with stable production and a good quality of pollen. Furthermore, it can be important in defining the patterns of spatial, temporal and individual variability of pollen grain viability under the influence of climate factors, which are showing compelling changing trends from year to year.

  20. Dobutamine stress echocardiography and technetium-99m-tetrofosmin/fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose single-photon emission computed tomography and influence of resting ejection fraction to assess myocardial viability in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and healed myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Rambaldi, R; Poldermans, D; Bax, J J; Boersma, E; Valkema, R; Elhendy, A; Vletter, W B; Fioretti, P M; Roelandt, J R; Krenning, E P


    The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different techniques--dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DSE) and dual-isotope simultaneous acquisition (technetium-99-m-tetrofosmin/fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose) single-photon emission computed tomography (DISA-SPECT)--for assessment of viable myocardium. One hundred ten patients (mean age 55 +/- 9 years) with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (mean LV ejection fraction 27 +/- 13%) underwent both DISA-SPECT and DSE. A 16-segment scoring model was adopted for both techniques. Four types of wall motion during DSE were assessed: (1) biphasic, improvement at low dose (10 microg/kg/min) with worsening at high dose; (2) worsening, deterioration without initial improvement; (3) sustained, persistent or late improvement; and (4) no change. Viability criteria were biphasic, worsening, and sustained improvement with DSE. Viability criteria with DISA-SPECT were normal perfusion and metabolism (normal), concordantly mildly reduced perfusion and metabolism (subendocardial scar), or severely reduced perfusion and increased metabolism (mismatch). Myocardium was considered nonviable with DSE in case of unchanged wall motion, or moderate reduction or absence in both technetium-99m-tetrofosmin perfusion and fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with DISA-SPECT. Of 1,756 of 1,760 analyzable LV segments, 1,373 (78%) had severe wall motion abnormalities at baseline (severe hypokinesia, akinesia, or dyskinesia). Of these abnormal segments, 282 (21%) were considered viable during DSE (63 [5%] with biphasic response, 47 [3%] with ischemia, and 172 [13%]) with sustained improvement, whereas 1,091 (79%) were considered nonviable. With DISA-SPECT, 396 (29%) segments were considered viable (312 [23%] with matched perfusion/metabolism and 84 [6%] with mismatch), whereas 977 segments (71%) were considered nonviable. Both techniques showed agreement for viability in 201 segments and 896 were concordantly classified as nonviable. Disagreement was

  1. Analysis of VA-1 and VA4 RIA tests with FRAPTRAN and SCANAIR codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagrado, I. C.; Vallejo, I.; Herranz, L. E.


    This paper summarizes the CIEMAT results of VA-1 and VA-3 RIA tests modeling with the FRAPTRAN 1.4 (PNNL) and SCANAIR 7.1 (IRSN) codes. This work is framed within the international OECD-CABRI project in which a RIA code benchmarking has been set up with a broad international participation, Both experiments were conducted in the Japanese NSRR experimental reactor.

  2. Accessing VA Healthcare During Large-Scale Natural Disasters. (United States)

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Pinnock, Laura; Dobalian, Aram


    Natural disasters can lead to the closure of medical facilities including the Veterans Affairs (VA), thus impacting access to healthcare for U.S. military veteran VA users. We examined the characteristics of VA patients who reported having difficulty accessing care if their usual source of VA care was closed because of natural disasters. A total of 2,264 veteran VA users living in the U.S. northeast region participated in a 2015 cross-sectional representative survey. The study used VA administrative data in a complex stratified survey design with a multimode approach. A total of 36% of veteran VA users reported having difficulty accessing care elsewhere, negatively impacting the functionally impaired and lower income VA patients.

  3. Acute effects of TiO2 nanomaterials on the viability and taxonomic composition of aquatic bacterial communities assessed via high-throughput screening and next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Thi Thanh Binh

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology industry is growing rapidly, leading to concerns about the potential ecological consequences of the release of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs to the environment. One challenge of assessing the ecological risks of ENMs is the incredible diversity of ENMs currently available and the rapid pace at which new ENMs are being developed. High-throughput screening (HTS is a popular approach to assessing ENM cytotoxicity that offers the opportunity to rapidly test in parallel a wide range of ENMs at multiple concentrations. However, current HTS approaches generally test one cell type at a time, which limits their ability to predict responses of complex microbial communities. In this study toxicity screening via a HTS platform was used in combination with next generation sequencing (NGS to assess responses of bacterial communities from two aquatic habitats, Lake Michigan (LM and the Chicago River (CR, to short-term exposure in their native waters to several commercial TiO2 nanomaterials under simulated solar irradiation. Results demonstrate that bacterial communities from LM and CR differed in their sensitivity to nano-TiO2, with the community from CR being more resistant. NGS analysis revealed that the composition of the bacterial communities from LM and CR were significantly altered by exposure to nano-TiO2, including decreases in overall bacterial diversity, decreases in the relative abundance of Actinomycetales, Sphingobacteriales, Limnohabitans, and Flavobacterium, and a significant increase in Limnobacter. These results suggest that the release of nano-TiO2 to the environment has the potential to alter the composition of aquatic bacterial communities, which could have implications for the stability and function of aquatic ecosystems. The novel combination of HTS and NGS described in this study represents a major advance over current methods for assessing ENM ecotoxicity because the relative toxicities of multiple ENMs to thousands

  4. No. 347-Obstetric Management at Borderline Viability. (United States)

    Ladhani, Noor Niyar N; Chari, Radha S; Dunn, Michael S; Jones, Griffith; Shah, Prakesh; Barrett, Jon F R


    The primary objective of this guideline was to develop consensus statements to guide clinical practice and recommendations for obstetric management of a pregnancy at borderline viability, currently defined as prior to 25+6 weeks. Clinicians involved in the obstetric management of women whose fetus is at the borderline of viability. Women presenting for possible birth at borderline viability. This document presents a summary of the literature and a general consensus on the management of pregnancies at borderline viability, including maternal transfer and consultation, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate, fetal heart rate monitoring, and considerations in mode of delivery. Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords: extreme prematurity, borderline viability, preterm, pregnancy, antenatal corticosteroids, mode of delivery. The results were then studied, and relevant articles were reviewed. The references of the reviewed studies were also searched, as were documents citing pertinent studies. The evidence was then presented at a consensus meeting, and statements were developed. The content and recommendations were developed by the consensus group from the fields of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Neonatology, Perinatal Nursing, Patient Advocacy, and Ethics. The quality of evidence was rated using criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology framework (reference 1). The Board of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada approved the final draft for publication. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology framework. The interpretation of strong and weak recommendations is described later. The Summary of Findings is available upon request. A multidisciplinary approach should be used in counselling women and families at borderline

  5. 38 CFR 74.27 - How will VA store information? (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will VA store... (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.27 How will VA store information? VA... electronically on the Department's secure servers. CVE personnel will compare information provided concerning...

  6. Troubles continue for the Phoenix VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. According to the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (Joint Commission, JCAHO, an independent organization that reviews hospitals, the Phoenix VA does not comply with U.S. standards for safety, patient care and management (1. The hospital was at the epicenter of the national scandal over the quality of care being afforded to the nation's veterans where the now notorious practice of double-booking patient appointments was first exposed. The hospital's indifferent management provoked congressional investigations that uncovered still more system-wide abuses leading to the removal of the hospital director and the resignation of then VA secretary, Eric Shinseki. The hospital maintains its accreditation but with a follow-up survey in 1-6 months where it must show that it has successfully addressed the 13 identified problems (1. Inspectors who conducted the review in July found that VA employees were unable to report concerns "without retaliatory action from the hospital." Other alarming ...

  7. Comparison of 99mTc-sestamibi-18F-fluorodeoxyglucose dual isotope simultaneous acquisition and rest-stress 99mTc-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography for the assessment of myocardial viability. (United States)

    De Boer, J; Slart, R H J A; Blanksma, P K; Willemsen, A T M; Jager, P L; Paans, A M J; Vaalburg, W; Piers, D A


    Dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA SPECT) offers the advantage of obtaining information on myocardial perfusion using Tc-sestamibi ( Tc-MIBI) and metabolism using F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( F-FDG) in a single study. The prerequisite is that the Tc-MIBI images are not degraded by scattered 511 keV photons or poor count statistics due to the lower efficiency of the extra high energy (EHE) collimator. Therefore, we compared the registered Tc-MIBI uptake and image quality of DISA and single isotope acquisition. Furthermore, we investigated whether DISA yields additional information for the assessment of myocardial viability in comparison with rest-stress Tc-MIBI. Nineteen patients with known coronary artery disease and irreversible perfusion defects on previous rest-stress MIBI test studies were investigated. After oral glucose loading and simultaneous injection of 600 MBq of Tc-MIBI and 185 MBq of F-FDG at rest, DISA was performed using energy windows of 140 (+/-15%), 170 (+/-20%) and 511 keV (+/-15%). Planar 140 keV images were corrected for scatter by subtraction using the 170 keV window. The single and dual isotope Tc-MIBI images were both displayed in a polar map with 128 segments normalized to maximum counts. F-FDG and Tc-MIBI images were visually scored for a perfusion-metabolism mismatch pattern using nine regions per heart. There was an excellent correlation (r =0.93, PDISA does not affect the quality of the Tc-MIBI images. Furthermore, F-FDG- Tc-MIBI DISA may show viability in a small but significant (7.6%, P<0.0034) number of regions with irreversible perfusion defects on rest-stress Tc-MIBI.

  8. Fluorescent multiple staining and CASA system to assess boar sperm viability and membranes integrity in short and long-term extenders. (United States)

    Lange-Consiglio, A; Meucci, A; Cremonesi, F


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on boar spermatozoa quality of in vitro storage in short and long-term extenders by fluorescent multiple staining (FMS) and computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). Fresh ejaculates from three healthy, sexually mature boars were diluted with equal volumes of six short-term or three long-term commercial extenders and stored at 19°C for 6 days (short-term) or 12 days (long-term). The integrity of spermatozoa membranes was analyzed by FMS using propidium iodide, 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3' tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). The results obtained from this staining were compared with spermatozoa motility assessed by CASA. Our study showed that the number of viable spermatozoa with non-reacted acrosomes and intact mitochondria was positively correlated with the rate of motile spermatozoa (r(2)>0.9) irrespective of the extender used. In all extenders the number of motile spermatozoa significantly decreased as preservation period increased (P<0.05). FMS test is a potent indicator of sperm motility because it analyses mitochondrial integrity independently from observable alterations in motility. The best performing extenders were BTS for short-term storage and TRI-x-Cell for long-term storage.

  9. Electroencephalogram (EEG spectral features discriminate between Alzheimer’s (AD and Vascular dementia (VaD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel eNeto


    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia (VaD present with similar clinical symptoms of cognitive decline, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms differ. To determine whether clinical electroencephalography (EEG can provide information relevant to discriminate between these diagnoses, we used quantitative EEG analysis to compare the spectra between non-medicated patients with AD (n=77 and VaD (n=77 and healthy elderly normal controls (NC (n=77. We use curve-fitting with a combination of a power loss and Gaussian function to model the averaged resting-state spectra of each EEG channel extracting six parameters. We assessed the performance of our model and tested the extracted parameters for group differentiation. We performed regression analysis in a MANCOVA with group, age, gender, and number of epochs as predictors and further explored the topographical group differences with pair-wise contrasts. Significant topographical differences between the groups were found in several of the extracted features. Both AD and VaD groups showed increased delta power when compared to NC, whereas the AD patients showed a decrease in alpha power for occipital and temporal regions when compared with NC. The VaD patients had higher alpha power than NC and AD. The AD and VaD groups showed slowing of the alpha rhythm. Variability of the alpha frequency was wider for both AD and VaD groups. There was a general decrease in beta power for both AD and VaD. The proposed model is a useful to parameterize spectra which allowed extracting relevant clinical EEG key features that move towards simple and interpretable diagnostic criteria.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Genotype 1 Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Non-VA and VA Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Liu PhD


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV infection affects millions of Americans. Health care systems face complex choices between highly efficacious, costly treatments. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of treatments for chronic, genotype 1 HCV monoinfected, treatment-naïve individuals in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA and general US health care systems. Methods: The study used a decision-analytic Markov model, employing appropriate payer perspectives and time horizons, and discounting benefits and costs at 3% annually. Interventions included the following: sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF-LDV; ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir/dasabuvir (3D; sofosbuvir/simeprevir (SOF-SMV; sofosbuvir/pegylated interferon/ribavirin (SOF-RBV-PEG; boceprevir/pegylated interferon/ribavirin (BOC-RBV-PEG; and pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PEG-RBV. Outcomes were sustained virologic response (SVR, advanced liver disease, costs, quality adjusted life years (QALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness. Results: SOF-LDV and 3D achieve high SVR rates, reducing advanced liver disease (>20% relative to no treatment, and increasing QALYs by >2 years per person. For the non-VA population, at current prices ($5040 per week for SOF-LDV; $4796 per week for 3D, SOF-LDV’s lifetime cost ($293,370 is $18,000 lower than 3D’s because of its shorter duration in subgroups. SOF-LDV costs $17,100 per QALY gained relative to no treatment. 3D costs $208,000 per QALY gained relative to SOF-LDV. Both dominate other treatments and are even more cost-effective for the VA, though VA aggregate treatment costs still exceed $4 billion at SOF-LDV prices of $3308 per week. Drug prices strongly determine relative cost-effectiveness for SOF-LDV and 3D; with price reductions of 20% to 30% depending on health system, 3D could be cost-effective relative to SOF-LDV. We currently lack head-to-head regimen effectiveness trials. Conclusions: New HCV treatments are cost-effective in multiple

  11. The viability of perilabyrinthine osteocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Sune Land; Kristensen, Søren Lund; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten


    Bone remodeling is highly inhibited around the inner ear space, most likely by the anti-resorptive action of the inner ear cytokine osteoprotegerin (OPG) entering perilabyrinthine bone through the lacuno-canalicular porosity (LCP). This extracellular signaling pathway depends on the viability...

  12. Assessment of cell viability and permeation enhancement in presence of lipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery systems using Caco-2 cell model: Polysorbate 80 as the surfactant. (United States)

    Bu, Pengli; Ji, Yue; Narayanan, Silpa; Dalrymple, Damon; Cheng, Xingguo; Serajuddin, Abu T M


    Lipid-based self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are commonly used for solubilizing and enhancing oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, their effects on viability of intestine epithelial cells and influence on membrane permeation are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken for safety assessment of lipid-based formulations containing medium-chain fatty acid esters as lipids and polysorbate 80 as the surfactant using the Caco-2 in vitro model. Any possible paracellular permeation enhancement through Caco-2 monolayers by the nontoxic formulations was also investigated. Mixtures of monoglyceride (Capmul MCM EP or 708G) or propylene glycol monoester (Capmul PG-8 NF) of medium chain fatty acids with polysorbate 80, with and without the incorporation of a medium-chain triglyceride (Captex 355), were prepared. After suitable dilution with aqueous culture medium, the formulations were incubated with a series of Caco-2 cultures of different maturity. Cell viability and membrane integrity were assessed. Any effects of nontoxic formulations on the transport of the fluorescent dye, Lucifer yellow, through Caco-2 monolayers were also determined. Formulations containing 1:1 ratios of monoglyceride or propylene glycol monoester to triglyceride (30% polysorbate 80, 35% monoglyceride or monoester and 35% triglyceride) were best tolerated by Caco-2 cells. Increased maturity obtained through longer culture durations rendered Caco-2 cells greater tolerance towards lipid-based formulations, and maximum tolerance to lipid-based formulations was observed with Caco-2 monolayers after being cultured for 21-23days. Furthermore, extent of cell membrane rupture caused by lipid-surfactant mixtures correlated positively with levels of cytotoxicity, suggesting a potential underlying mechanism. Permeation studies using Caco-2 monolayer model revealed that certain formulations significantly enhanced paracellular transport activities. Lipid-based SEDDS

  13. 48 CFR 853.215-70 - VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. (United States)


    ..., Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. 853.215-70 Section 853.215-70 Federal... 853.215-70 VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA. VA Form 10-1170, Application for Furnishing Nursing Home Care to Beneficiaries of VA, will be used for...

  14. Value at risk (VaR in uncertainty: Analysis with parametric method and black & scholes simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Banda Ortiz


    Full Text Available VaR is the most accepted risk measure worldwide and the leading reference in any risk management assessment. However, its methodology has important limitations which makes it unreliable in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. For this reason, the aim of this work is to test the VaR accuracy when is employed in contexts of volatility, for which we compare the VaR outcomes in scenarios of both stability and uncertainty, using the parametric method and a historical simulation based on data generated with the Black & Scholes model. VaR main objective is the prediction of the highest expected loss for any given portfolio, but even when it is considered a useful tool for risk management under conditions of markets stability, we found that it is substantially inaccurate in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. In addition, we found that the Black & Scholes simulations lead to underestimate the expected losses, in comparison with the parametric method and we also found that those disparities increase substantially in times of crisis. In the first section of this work we present a brief context of risk management in finance. In section II we present the existent literature relative to the VaR concept, its methods and applications. In section III we describe the methodology and assumptions used in this work. Section IV is dedicated to expose the findings. And finally, in Section V we present our conclusions.

  15. Gangrenous cholecystitis in an urban VA hospital. (United States)

    Wilson, A K; Kozol, R A; Salwen, W A; Manov, L J; Tennenberg, S D


    Gangrenous cholecystitis is an advanced form of acute cholecystitis associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine the incidence of gangrenous cholecystitis in an urban VA hospital patient population and identify any distinguishing characteristics that may aid in its preoperative diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed all urgent admissions that underwent cholecystectomy (n = 65) over the past 7 years at the Allen Park VAMC. Using histologic criteria, 17 (26%) of these patients had gangrenous cholecystitis. As a group compared to patients with nongangrenous cholecystitis, patients with gangrenous cholecystitis were statistically older (64 vs 54) and had an elevated WBC (15.4 vs 11.5) and increased serum glucose levels (203 vs 141). Preoperative imaging studies (ultrasound and cholescintigraphy) correctly identified only 31% of the gangrenous cholecystitis patients. We conclude that in an urban VA hospital patient population, the diagnosis of gangrenous cholecystitis cannot be accurately made or ruled out among urgent admissions with acute biliary disease. Considering the high incidence (26%) and difficulty confirming the diagnosis of gangrenous cholecystitis in this setting, we recommend early surgical intervention for this and similar patient populations.

  16. Value of coincidence gamma camera PET in tumors of the thorax and abdomen and assessment of myocardial viability; Stellenwert der Koinzidenz-Gammakamera-PET bei Tumoren des Thorax und Abdomens sowie Wertigkeit in der Vitalitaetsdiagnostik des Herzens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberger, J.; Eilles, C. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin


    In this paper we report our experience of the usefulness of FDG scanning using a gamma camera equipped with coincidence detection for staging lung cancer and in the follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer. We also tested the diagnostic accuracy of cardiac FDG imaging. Our results demonstrate that, although a coincidence camera is technically inferior to a dedicated PET scanner, it may provide clinically useful results in situations were a lesion of sufficient size and FDG-uptake is to be expected. In patients with chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy coincidence PET can be introduced into clinical practice for the assessment of myocardial viability. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit stellen wir die Ergebnisse des Einsatzes einer Koinzidenz-Gammakamera beim Staging des Bronchialkarzinoms dar sowie in der Nachsorge des kolorektalen Karzinoms. Zusaetzlich stellen wir die Zuverlaessigkeit bei der Frage der Myokardvitalitaet mit FDG vergleichend zum PET-Scanner dar. Zusammenfassend laesst sich dabei festhalten, dass, obwohl die KGK technisch den dedizierten PET-Scannern unterlegen ist, klinisch relevante Ergebnisse erzielt werden koennen, vor allem bei ausreichender Herdgroesse sowie hohem Glukosestoffwechsel. Bei der Frage der Myokardvitalitaet sehen wir eine uneingeschraenkte Einsatzfaehigkeit eines solchen Systems. (orig.)

  17. Visionary leadership and the future of VA health system. (United States)

    Bezold, C; Mayer, E; Dighe, A


    As the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) makes the change over to Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISNs) the need for new and better leadership is warranted if VA wants to not only survive, but thrive in the emerging twenty-first century healthcare system. VA can prepare for the future and meet the challenges facing them by adopting a system of visionary leadership. The use of scenarios and vision techniques are explained as they relate to VA's efforts to move toward their new system of VISNs. The four scenarios provide snapshots of possible futures for the U.S. healthcare system as well as the possible future role and mission of VA--from VA disappearing to its becoming a premier virtual organization.

  18. Viability of pollen grains of tetraploid banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliane Leila Soares


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Obtaining banana tetraploid cultivars from triploid strains results in total or partial reestablishment of fertility, allowing the occurrence of some fruits with seeds, a feature that is undesirable from a marketing perspective. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of pollen of 12 banana tetraploid hybrids (AAAB by means of in vitro germination and two histochemical tests (acetocarmine and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. The pollen tube growth was evaluated by germinating grains in three culture media — M1: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.02% Mg(SO4∙7H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 15% sucrose; M2: 0.03% Ca(NO3∙4H2O, 0.01% KNO3, 0.01% H3BO3 and 10% sucrose; and M3: 0.015% H3BO3, 0.045% Ca3(PO42 and 25% sucrose. The acetocarmine staining indicated high viability (above 80%, except for the genotypes YB42-17 and Caprichosa, which were 76 and 70%, respectively. However, the in vitro germination rate was lower than 50% for all the genotypes, except for the hybrids YB42-17 (M1 and YB42-47 (M1. The medium M1 provided the greatest germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Among the genotypes assessed, YB42-47 presented the highest germination rate (61.5% and tube length (5.0 mm. On the other hand, the Vitória cultivar had the lowest germination percentage (8.2% in medium M1. Studies of meiosis can shed more light on the differences observed in the evaluated tetraploids, since meiotic irregularities can affect pollen viability.

  19. VA/DoD Joint Executive Council Fiscal Year 2010 (United States)


    Medical Department (AMEDD) Center and School and the Military Departments to provide training to additional personnel. Joint VA/DoD training in TBI...Capital Region, VA initiated a “ paperless ” program for processing all DES claims electronically. VA worked with the MTFs in the National Capital...Management System for paperless claims processing. On March 29, 2010, DoD implemented a policy entitled “Cross-Service Support and Service Organization

  20. Optimizing Photo-Encapsulation Viability of Heart Valve Cell Types in 3D Printable Composite Hydrogels. (United States)

    Kang, Laura Hockaday; Armstrong, Patrick A; Lee, Lauren Julia; Duan, Bin; Kang, Kevin Heeyong; Butcher, Jonathan Talbot


    Photocrosslinking hydrogel technologies are attractive for the biofabrication of cardiovascular soft tissues, but 3D printing success is dependent on multiple variables. In this study we systematically test variables associated with photocrosslinking hydrogels (photoinitiator type, photoinitiator concentration, and light intensity) for their effects on encapsulated cells in an extrusion 3D printable mixture of methacrylated gelatin/poly-ethylene glycol diacrylate/alginate (MEGEL/PEGDA3350/alginate). The fabrication conditions that produced desired hydrogel mechanical properties were compared against those that optimize aortic valve or mesenchymal stem cell viability. In the 3D hydrogel culture environment and fabrication setting studied, Irgacure can increase hydrogel stiffness with a lower proportional decrease in encapsulated cell viability compared to VA086. Human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (HADMSC) survived increasing photoinitiator concentrations in photo-encapsulation conditions better than aortic valve interstitial cells (HAVIC) and aortic valve sinus smooth muscle cells (HASSMC). Within the range of photo-encapsulation fabrication conditions tested with MEGEL/PEGDA/alginate (0.25-1.0% w/v VA086, 0.025-0.1% w/v Irgacure 2959, and 365 nm light intensity 2-136 mW/cm2), the highest viabilities achieved were 95, 93, and 93% live for HASSMC, HAVIC, and HADMSC respectively. These results identify parameter combinations that optimize cell viability during 3D printing for multiple cell types. These results also indicate that general oxidative stress is higher in photocrosslinking conditions that induce lower cell viability. However, suppressing this increase in intracellular oxidative stress did not improve cell viability, which suggests that other stress mechanisms also contribute.

  1. Effects of the KiVa antibullying program on cyberbullying and cybervictimization frequency among Finnish youth. (United States)

    Williford, Anne; Elledge, L Christian; Boulton, Aaron J; DePaolis, Kathryn J; Little, Todd D; Salmivalli, Christina


    Cyberbullying among school-aged children has received increased attention in recent literature. However, no empirical evidence currently exists on whether existing school-based antibullying programs are effective in targeting the unique aspects of cyberbullying. To address this important gap, the present study investigates the unique effects of the KiVa Antibullying Program on the frequency of cyberbullying and cybervictimization among elementary and middle school youth. Using data from a group randomized controlled trial, multilevel ordinal regression analyses were used to examine differences in the frequencies of cyberbullying and cybervictimization between intervention (N = 9,914) and control students (N = 8,498). The effects of age and gender on frequencies of cyber behaviors were also assessed across conditions. Results revealed a significant intervention effect on the frequency of cybervictimization; KiVa students reported lower frequencies of cybervictimization at posttest than students in a control condition. The effect of condition on the perpetration of cyberbullying was moderated by age. When student age was below the sample mean, KiVa students reported lower frequencies of cyberbullying than students in the control condition. We also found evidence of classroom level variation in cyberbullying and cybervictimization, suggesting cyberbullying is in part a classroom-level phenomenon. KiVa appears to be an efficacious program to address cyber forms of bullying and victimization. We discuss several unique aspects of KiVa that may account for the significant intervention effects. Results suggest that KiVa is an intervention option for schools concerned with reducing cyberbullying behavior and its deleterious effects on children's adjustment.

  2. Abundance, viability and culturability of Antarctic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; DeSouza, M.J.B.D.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    The viability of total number of bacteria decide the mineralisation rate in any ecosystem and ultimately the fertility of the region. This study aims at establishing the extent of viability in the standing stock of the Antarctic bacterial population...

  3. VA office of inspector general releases scathing report of Phoenix VA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The long-awaited Office of Inspector General’s (OIG report on the Phoenix VA Health Care System (PVAHCS was released on August 27, 2014 (1. The report was scathing in its evaluation of VA practices and leadership. Five questions were investigated: 1.Were there clinically significant delays in care? 2. Did PVAHCS omit the names of veterans waiting for care from its Electronic Wait List (EWL? 3. Were PVAHCS personnel not following established scheduling procedures? 4. Did the PVAHCS culture emphasize goals at the expense of patient care? 5. Are scheduling deficiencies systemic throughout the VA? In each case, the OIG found that the allegations were true. Despite initial denials, the OIG report showed that former PVAHCS director Sharon Helman, associate director Lance Robinson, hospital administration director Brad Curry, chief of staff Darren Deering and other senior executives were aware of delays in care and unofficial wait lists. Perhaps most disturbing is ...

  4. Tychastic measure of viability risk

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Dordan, Olivier


    This book presents a forecasting mechanism of the price intervals for deriving the SCR (solvency capital requirement) eradicating the risk during the exercise period on one hand, and measuring the risk by computing the hedging exit time function associating with smaller investments the date until which the value of the portfolio hedges the liabilities on the other. This information, summarized under the term “tychastic viability measure of risk” is an evolutionary alternative to statistical measures, when dealing with evolutions under uncertainty. The book is written by experts in the field and the target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners.

  5. 76 FR 52230 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA AGENCY... Airspace at Forest, VA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Forest...

  6. 77 FR 70967 - Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services (United States)


    ..., Mental health programs, Nursing homes, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Veterans. Dated... may use this authority to provide needed non- VA care using community resources, such as private physicians or community hospitals. Care provided under VA's authority in 38 U.S.C. 1703 is usually referred...

  7. D-Va category phenotype and genotype in Japanese families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, TJ; Wiemann, [No Value; Ohto, H; Matuda, [No Value; Obara, T; Uchikawa, M; Kohler, M


    Background and Objectives: The genetic background of the D-Va category phenotype has been described in two Caucasian individuals. We were interested in the RHD sequence of 7 Japanese D-Va individuals and their families. Materials and Methods: With SSP-PCR we tested exons 4, 5 and 7 of the RHD gene

  8. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu


    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  9. 76 FR 40453 - Agency Information Collection (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Titles: a. Application for VA Education Benefits, VA Form 22-1990. b. Application for Family Member to Use Transferred Benefits, VA Form 22-1990E. ] c. Application for VA Education Benefits Under...

  10. Time for the VA to clean up its act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. One year after a Veterans Affairs (VA scandal was ignited here in Phoenix, the number of veterans on wait lists is 50 percent higher than at the same time last year, according to VA data (1. The VA is also facing a nearly $3 billion budget shortfall. VA Secretary Bob McDonald has asked for “flexibility” to reallocate billions of dollars in clinical funds to cover the shortfall. Since the scandal broke last year, VA providers have increased their workloads, adding 2.7 million more appointments than the previous year. However, the VA has played "games" with patient eligibility for years. When money was plentiful VA administrators would open the doors to patients since the following years' budgets were based on the number of patients seen. However, when money was tight, the doors would be slammed shut leaving many patients in the lurch scrambling to obtain health care elsewhere. Now it appears ...

  11. Malthus, Boserup and population viability. (United States)

    Bonneuil, N


    The Malthus-Boserup explanatory framework is revisited from the point of view of viability theory. Instead of imposing a univocal relationship between population pressure and level of knowledge, the way technology will change is not determined, it is only constrained. This leads to regard any situation as associated to a set of reachable futures. When no possibility is left for systems to avoid extinction, systems are no longer viable. Hence, the control-phase space can be divided into regions corresponding to gradual danger or security. This point of view allows the introduction of ideas such as incentives to create or to use new knowledge, gives a role to the threatening power of Malthusian checks, and leaves space for a specific variety of behaviors. The Boserupian theme then appears indirectly, emerging from the constraints imposed by the inertia of technological change.

  12. Viability of telework at PROCEMPA. (United States)

    Fetzner, Maria Amelia de Mesquita


    At the end of the 20th century, telework appears as one of the modalities of flexible work, which is related to new organizational structures as well as to increasing use of technology. It revolutionizes the traditional ways of performing work. Its implementation creates a number of questions to be answered by the organizations and the individuals involved. This article presents a case study on the viability of implementing telework at Procempa (The Data Processing Company of the City of Porto Alegre). The case study analyzes the technical, organizational, psychological, legal, and labor union dimensions. As a result of this study, we can identify the organization's stage of readiness for telework, the conditions under which it would be implemented, and the specific issues of an implementation.

  13. VA-086 methacrylate gelatine photopolymerizable hydrogels: A parametric study for highly biocompatible 3D cell embedding. (United States)

    Occhetta, Paola; Visone, Roberta; Russo, Laura; Cipolla, Laura; Moretti, Matteo; Rasponi, Marco


    The ability to replicate in vitro the native extracellular matrix (ECM) features and to control the three-dimensional (3D) cell organization plays a fundamental role in obtaining functional engineered bioconstructs. In tissue engineering (TE) applications, hydrogels have been successfully implied as biomatrices for 3D cell embedding, exhibiting high similarities to the natural ECM and holding easily tunable mechanical properties. In the present study, we characterized a promising photocrosslinking process to generate cell-laden methacrylate gelatin (GelMA) hydrogels in the presence of VA-086 photoinitiator using a ultraviolet LED source. We investigated the influence of prepolymer concentration and light irradiance on mechanical and biomimetic properties of resulting hydrogels. In details, the increasing of gelatin concentration resulted in enhanced rheological properties and shorter polymerization time. We then defined and validated a reliable photopolymerization protocol for cell embedding (1.5% VA-086, LED 2 mW/cm2) within GelMA hydrogels, which demonstrated to support bone marrow stromal cells viability when cultured up to 7 days. Moreover, we showed how different mechanical properties, derived from different crosslinking parameters, strongly influence cell behavior. In conclusion, this protocol can be considered a versatile tool to obtain biocompatible cell-laden hydrogels with properties easily adaptable for different TE applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Variation of Pollen Viability and Storability in Asparagus (Asparagus offcinalis L.) Cultivars


    Ozaki, Yukio; Tashiro, Tomoko; Kurahashi, Tomoko; Okubo, Hiroshi


    The optimal culture condition for evaluating pollen viability of asparagus was studied. Sucrose was an effective constituent of the media for raising pollen germination rate. The medium containing 30% sucrose, 0.01% borate and 3% agar was found to be optimum for assessing pollen viability. Effects of temperature and light conditions during in vitro culture on pollen germination rate were not recognized in the range of 20-30℃ in this investigation. Varietal difference of pollen viability and s...

  15. Hesperidin inhibits ovarian cancer cell viability through endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways


    Zhao, Jun; Li, Yali; Gao, Jinfang; De, Yinshan


    Hesperidin is a vitamin P flavonoid compound primarily present in citrus fruits. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hesperidin inhibits ovarian cancer cell viability via endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways. A2780 cells were treated with various doses of hesperidin for 6, 12 or 24 h, and the viability of A2780 cells was assessed using the MTT assay. Hesperidin decreased the viability of A2780 cells and increased cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner...

  16. The economic and social viability of Tanzanian Wildlife Management Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Katherine; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis

    This policy brief contributes to assessing the economic and social viability of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) through preliminary findings by the ‘Poverty and ecosystem Impacts of Tanzania’s Wildlife Management Areas’ (PIMA) project, focusing on benefits, costs, and their distribution...

  17. Dormancy, activation and viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, N.V.; Nout, M.J.R.


    Interruption of dormancy to improve viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores is crucial for the application of stored starter cultures for fungal (tempe) production. We aimed to assess the extent of dormancy and factors that could result in activation. Whereas heat treatments were

  18. VA INFORMATION SYSTEMS: Computer Security Weaknesses Persist at the Veterans Health Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... To determine the status of computer security within VHA, we (1) evaluated information system general controls at the VA Maryland Health Cafe System, the New Mexico VA Health Care System, and the VA North Texas Health Care System and (2...

  19. SlaVaComp: Konvertierungstool (= SlaVaComp Fonts Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Skilevic


    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag informiert über ein Tool, das im Rahmen eines Freiburger Projekts zur historischen Korpuslinguistik entwickelt wurde und dazu dient, kirchenslavische Texte, die ohne Einsatz von Unicode digitalisiert wurden, ohne Verlust von Information bzw. Formatierung ins Unicode-Format zu überführen. Das Tool heißt SlaVaComp-Konvertierer. Es eignet sich für die Konvertierung aller idiosynkratischen Fonts und kann somit nicht nur in der Paläoslavistik, sondern in allen historisch arbeitenden Philologien eingesetzt werden. ____________________ This paper presents a fonts converter that was developed as a part of the Freiburg project on historical corpus linguistics. The tool named SlaVaComp-Konvertierer converts Church Slavonic texts digitized with non-Unicode fonts into the Unicode format without any loss of information contained in the original file and without damage to the original formatting. It is suitable for the conversion of all idiosyncratic fonts—not only Church Slavonic—and therefore can be used not only in Palaeoslavistic, but also in all historical and philological studies.

  20. VA Enterprise Design Patters - 2.5 (Enterprise Architecture) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Enterprise architectural guidelines and constraints that provide references to the use of enterprise capabilities that will enable the VA to access and exchange data...

  1. 78 FR 62441 - VA Dental Insurance Program-Federalism (United States)


    ... and their corresponding regulatory paragraphs. Subsection of Paragraph of Sec. Topic section 510 17.... Administrative Procedure Act VA believes this regulatory amendment is non-controversial and anticipates that this...

  2. VA Facilities by Congressional District (FY2011): Overview (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Maps are organized by state and depict the Veteran population using VetPop2011 data as of 9/30/2013 and VA facilities using Veteran Affairs Site Tracking (VAST) data...

  3. VA Enterprise Design Patterns - 5.1 (Mobility) Mobile (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — First of a set of guidance documents that establish the architectural foundation for mobile computing in the VA. This document outlines the enterprise capabilities...

  4. Service Utilization of Veterans Dually Eligible for VA... (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Service Utilization of Veterans Dually Eligible for VA and Medicare Fee-For-Service, 1999-2004 According to findings in Service Utilization of Veterans Dually...

  5. Importance of Donor Chondrocyte Viability for Osteochondral Allografts. (United States)

    Cook, James L; Stannard, James P; Stoker, Aaron M; Bozynski, Chantelle C; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi R; Pfeiffer, Ferris M


    Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation provides a biological treatment option for functional restoration of large articular cartilage defects in multiple joints. While successful outcomes after OCA transplantation have been linked to viable donor chondrocytes, the importance of donor cell viability has not been comprehensively validated. To use a canine model to determine the importance of donor chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation with respect to functional success of femoral condylar OCAs based on radiographic, gross, cell viability, histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical outcome measures. Controlled laboratory study. After approval was obtained from the institutional animal care and use committee, adult female dogs (N = 16) were implanted with 8-mm cylindrical OCAs from male dogs in the lateral and medial femoral condyles of 1 knee. OCAs were preserved for 28 or 60 days after procurement, and chondrocyte viability was quantified before implantation. Two different storage media, temperatures, and time points were used to obtain a spectrum of percentage chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation. A successful outcome was defined as an OCA that was associated with graft integration, maintenance of hyaline cartilage, lack of associated cartilage disorder, and lack of fibrillation, fissuring, or fibrous tissue infiltration of the allograft based on subjective radiographic, gross, and histologic assessments at 6 months after implantation. Chondrocyte viability ranged from 23% to 99% at the time of implantation. All successful grafts had >70% chondrocyte viability at the time of implantation, and no graft with chondrocyte viability <70% was associated with a successful outcome. Live-dead stained sections and histologic findings with respect to cell morphological features suggested that successful grafts were consistently composed of viable chondrocytes in lacunae, while grafts that were not successful were composed of nonviable

  6. A VA medical center's PTSD residential recovery program. (United States)

    Devaney, Donald E


    With the influx of military veterans with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) increasingly affecting all healthcare facilities, including acute care and long term, learning from the experience of VA hospitals in treating those with PTSD may prove valuable. In this article, Tripler/VA Provost Marshal Donald E. Delaney describes a program that has been in operation since 1994. He may be contacted for further in formation at (808) 433-4465 or .mil

  7. Inpatient Mental Health Recaptre using Dod/VA Sharing (United States)


    Center. Although no diagnostic categories are excluded, common diagnosis include, adjustment disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychoses ... definition of acute psychiatry. Staffing The Waco VA has nurse managers who determine the number of RN’s and other support staff based on patient...Enrollment Priority Groups Priority Group Definition 1 • Veterans with VA-rated service-connected disabilities 50% or more disabling • Veterans

  8. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  9. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)


    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  10. Whistle-blower accuses VA inspector general of a "whitewash"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Yesterday, Dr. Sam Foote, the initial whistle-blower at the Phoenix VA, criticized the Department of Veterans Affairs inspector general's (VAOIG report on delays in healthcare at the Phoenix VA at a hearing before the House Committee of Veterans Affairs (1,2. Foote accused the VAOIG of minimizing bad patient outcomes and deliberately confusing readers, downplaying the impact of delayed health care at Phoenix VA facilities. "At its best, this report is a whitewash. At its worst, it is a feeble attempt at a cover-up," said Foote. Foote earlier this year revealed that as many as 40 Phoenix patients died while awaiting care and that the Phoenix VA maintained secret waiting lists while under-reporting patient wait times for appointments. His disclosures triggered the national VA scandal. Richard Griffin, the acting VAOIG, said that nearly 300 patients died while on backlogged wait lists in the Phoenix VA Health Care System, a much higher ...

  11. VA Health Care: Further Action Needed to Address Weaknesses in Management and Oversight of Non-VA Medical Care (United States)


    medical care when a VA facility is unable to provide certain specialty care services, such as cardiology or orthopedics, or when a veteran would have...needing treatment in several specialties—including audiology, cardiology , and ophthalmology—were referred to non-VA providers for this reason...Government Accountability Office, the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress , exists to support Congress in meeting its constitutional

  12. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.


    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  13. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Bhat


    Full Text Available Ischaemic left ventricular (LV dysfunction can arise from myocardial stunning, hibernation, or necrosis. Imaging modalities have become front-line methods in the assessment of viable myocardial tissue, with the aim to stratify patients into optimal treatment pathways. Initial studies, although favorable, lacked sufficient power and sample size to provide conclusive outcomes of viability assessment. Recent trials, including the STICH and HEART studies, have failed to confer prognostic benefits of revascularisation therapy over standard medical management in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In lieu of these recent findings, assessment of myocardial viability therefore should not be the sole factor for therapy choice. Optimization of medical therapy is paramount, and physicians should feel comfortable in deferring coronary revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease with reduced LV systolic function. Newer trials are currently underway and will hopefully provide a more complete understanding of the pathos and management of ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

  14. 76 FR 24570 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity; Comment Request (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for VA Education Benefits) Activity; Comment Request.... Titles: a. Application for VA Education Benefits, VA Form 22-1990. b. Application for Transfer of Entitlement (TOE), Basic Educational Assistance Under the Montgomery GI Bill, VA Form 22-1990E. c. Application...

  15. 78 FR 76412 - Agency Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Application, VA Form 0924t. e. National Veterans Wheelchair Games Event Application, VA Form 0925b. f. Voluntary Service Application, VA Form 0925d. g. National Veteran Golden Age Games Application, VA Form 0926...

  16. A Role for Myosin Va in Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress. (United States)

    Wilkie, Adrian R; Sharma, Mayuri; Pesola, Jean M; Ericsson, Maria; Fernandez, Rosio; Coen, Donald M


    Herpesviruses replicate and package their genomes into capsids in replication compartments within the nuclear interior. Capsids then move to the inner nuclear membrane for envelopment and release into the cytoplasm in a process called nuclear egress. We previously found that nuclear F-actin is induced upon infection with the betaherpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and is important for nuclear egress and capsid localization away from replication compartment-like inclusions toward the nuclear rim. Despite these and related findings, it has not been shown that any specific motor protein is involved in herpesvirus nuclear egress. In this study, we have investigated whether the host motor protein, myosin Va, could be fulfilling this role. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation, we observed associations between a nuclear population of myosin Va and the viral major capsid protein, with both concentrating at the periphery of replication compartments. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that nearly 40% of assembled nuclear capsids associate with myosin Va. We also found that myosin Va and major capsid protein colocalize with nuclear F-actin. Importantly, antagonism of myosin Va with RNA interference or a dominant negative mutant revealed that myosin Va is important for the efficient production of infectious virus, capsid accumulation in the cytoplasm, and capsid localization away from replication compartment-like inclusions toward the nuclear rim. Our results lead us to suggest a working model whereby human cytomegalovirus capsids associate with myosin Va for movement from replication compartments to the nuclear periphery during nuclear egress. IMPORTANCE Little is known regarding how newly assembled and packaged herpesvirus capsids move from the nuclear interior to the periphery during nuclear egress. While it has been proposed that an actomyosin-based mechanism facilitates intranuclear movement of alphaherpesvirus capsids, a functional role for

  17. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B


    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  18. Commodity Systems Assessment Methodology of Postharvest Losses in Vegetable Amaranths: The Case of Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred Osei-Kwarteng


    Full Text Available A semistructured questionnaire based on the commodity system assessment methodology (CSAM was used to determine postharvest losses in vegetable amaranths (VA. Fifty producers and retailers were randomly selected from five and four major VA producing areas and markets, respectively, and interviewed. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses. The survey revealed that absence of laws, regulation, incentives, and inadequate technical information affected the production of VA. The utmost preproduction challenge was poor quality seeds with poor seed yield (35%, low viability (19%, and nontrueness (46%. It was noted that some cultural practices including planting pattern and density, irrigation, and fertiliser use had effects on postharvest losses. Some postharvest practices used were cleaning with water, trimming, sorting, and grading. Usually the produce was transported to marketing centers by cars and motor cycle trailers. Generally poor temperature management after harvest was a big challenge for the postharvest handling of VA. The potential of vegetable amaranths as a commodity in the study area can be enhanced by providing the necessary institutional support, incentives, and use of good management practices along the value chain. An interdisciplinary approach and quantification of losses along the chain are recommended for any future study.

  19. A Survey of Physicians' Attitudes toward Decision-Making Authority for Initiating and Withdrawing VA-ECMO: Results and Ethical Implications for Shared Decision Making. (United States)

    Meltzer, Ellen C; Ivascu, Natalia S; Stark, Meredith; Orfanos, Alexander V; Acres, Cathleen A; Christos, Paul J; Mangione, Thomas; Fins, Joseph J


    Although patients exercise greater autonomy than in the past, and shared decision making is promoted as the preferred model for doctor-patient engagement, tensions still exist in clinical practice about the primary locus of decision-making authority for complex, scarce, and resource-intensive medical therapies: patients and their surrogates, or physicians. We assessed physicians' attitudes toward decisional authority for adult venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), hypothesizing they would favor a medical locus. A survey of resident/fellow physicians and internal medicine attendings at an academic medical center, May to August 2013. We used a 24-item, internet-based survey assessing physician-respondents' demographic characteristics, knowledge, and attitudes regarding decisional authority for adult VA-ECMO. Qualitative narratives were also collected. A total of 179 physicians completed the survey (15 percent response rate); 48 percent attendings and 52 percent residents/fellows. Only 32 percent of the respondents indicated that a surrogate's consent should be required to discontinue VA-ECMO; 56 percent felt that physicians should have the right to discontinue VA-ECMO over a surrogate's objection. Those who self-reported as "knowledgeable" about VA-ECMO, compared to those who did not, more frequently replied that there should not be presumed consent for VA-ECMO (47.6 percent versus 33.3 percent, p = 0.007), that physicians should have the right to discontinue VA-ECMO over a surrogate's objection (76.2 percent versus 50 percent, p = 0.02) and that, given its cost, the use of VA-ECMO should be restricted (81.0 percent versus 54.4 percent, p = 0.005). Surveyed physicians, especially those who self-reported as knowledgeable about VA-ECMO and/or were specialists in pulmonary/critical care, favored a medical locus of decisional authority for VA-ECMO. VA-ECMO is complex, and the data may (1) reflect physicians' hesitance to cede authority to presumably

  20. Health risk factors and differences in outcomes between younger and older veterans using VA transitional housing. (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M; Barnett, Scott D; Frahm, Kathryn A; Schinka, John A; Schonfeld, Lawrence; Casey, Roger J


    This study examined age-related differences in general medical and mental health risk factors for veterans participating in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Grant Per Diem (GPD) transitional supportive housing program. The subpopulation of older homeless veterans is growing, and little is known about the implications of this fact for health care providers and for supportive programs intended to meet homeless veterans' needs. Data were obtained from the VA records of all veterans (N=40,820) who used the GPD program during fiscal years 2003 to 2009. Unconditional adjusted and unadjusted odds ratios for general medical and psychiatric characteristics were calculated and were the primary study focus. Significant predictors of homeless program completion assessed from univariate models were then evaluated in multivariate models. Younger (homeless veterans reported an equal number of days homeless before enrollment. Younger veterans averaged 19 fewer days in GPD. Older veterans had more general medical problems and approximately $500 more in program costs. Findings from this study indicate that older homeless veterans are at increased risk of serious medical problems. This group is especially vulnerable to experiencing negative consequences related to homelessness. Addressing these complex needs will allow the VA to provide enhanced care to older homeless veterans.

  1. REACH VA: Moving from Translation to System Implementation. (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Zuber, Jeffrey; Graney, Marshall J


    Resources for Enhancing All Caregivers Health in the Department of Veterans Affairs (REACH VA) has been implemented in the VA system as a national program for caregivers. We describe the trajectory of REACH VA from national randomized clinical trial through translation to national implementation. The implementation is examined through the six stages of the Fixsen and Blasé implementation process model: exploration and adoption, program installation, initial implementation, full operation, innovation, and sustainability. Different drivers that move the implementation process forward are important at each stage, including staff selection, staff training, consultation and coaching, staff evaluation, administrative support, program evaluation/fidelity, and systems interventions. Caregivers in the REACH VA 4 session intervention currently implemented in the VA had similar outcomes to longer REACH interventions, including Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH II). Caregivers experienced significant decreases in burden, depression, anxiety, number of troubling patient behaviors reported, caregiving frustrations, stress symptoms (feeling overwhelmed, feeling like crying, being frustrated as a result of caregiving, being lonely), and general stress. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for these significant variables were between small and medium ranging from .24 to .46. The implementation of REACH VA provides a road map for implementation of other behavioral interventions in health care delivery settings. Lessons learned include the importance of implementing a proven, needed intervention, support from both leadership and clinical staff, willingness to respond to staff and organization needs and modify the intervention while preserving its integrity, and fitting the intervention into ongoing routines and practices. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  2. Pitfalls of converting practice guidelines into quality measures: lessons learned from a VA performance measure. (United States)

    Walter, Louise C; Davidowitz, Natalie P; Heineken, Paul A; Covinsky, Kenneth E


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) manages the largest health care system in the United States, and the Institute of Medicine has recommended that many practices of VA quality measurement be applied to the US health care system as a whole. The VA measures quality of care at all of its sites by assessing adherence rates to performance measures, which generally are derived from evidence-based practice guidelines. Higher adherence rates are used as evidence of better quality of care. However, there are problems with converting practice guidelines, intended to offer guidance to clinicians, into performance measures that are meant to identify poor-quality care. We suggest a more balanced perspective on the use of performance measures to define quality by delineating conceptual problems with the conversion of practice guidelines into quality measures. Focusing on colorectal cancer screening, we use a case study at 1 VA facility to illustrate pitfalls that can cause adherence rates to guideline-based performance measures to be poor indicators of the quality of cancer screening. Pitfalls identified included (1) not properly considering illness severity of the sample population audited for adherence to screening, (2) not distinguishing screening from diagnostic procedures when setting achievable target screening rates, and (3) not accounting for patient preferences or clinician judgment when scoring performance measures. For many patients with severe comorbid illnesses or strong preferences against screening, the risks of colorectal cancer screening outweigh the benefits, and the decision to not screen may reflect good quality of care. Performance measures require more thoughtful specification and interpretation to avoid defining high testing rates as good quality of care regardless of who received the test, why it was performed, or whether the patient wanted it.

  3. Prothrombotic skeletal muscle myosin directly enhances prothrombin activation by binding factors Xa and Va (United States)

    Deguchi, Hiroshi; Sinha, Ranjeet K.; Marchese, Patrizia; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; McCarty, Owen J. T.; Cohen, Mitchell J.


    To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle myosins can directly influence blood coagulation and thrombosis, ex vivo studies of the effects of myosin on thrombogenesis in fresh human blood were conducted. Addition of myosin to blood augmented the thrombotic responses of human blood flowing over collagen-coated surfaces (300 s−1 shear rate). Perfusion of human blood over myosin-coated surfaces also caused fibrin and platelet deposition, evidencing myosin’s thrombogenicity. Myosin markedly enhanced thrombin generation in both platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma, indicating that myosin promoted thrombin generation in plasma primarily independent of platelets. In purified reaction mixtures composed only of factor Xa, factor Va, prothrombin, and calcium ions, myosin greatly enhanced prothrombinase activity. The Gla domain of factor Xa was not required for myosin’s prothrombinase enhancement. When binding of purified clotting factors to immobilized myosin was monitored using biolayer interferometry, factors Xa and Va each showed favorable binding interactions. Factor Va reduced by 100-fold the apparent Kd of myosin for factor Xa (Kd ∼0.48 nM), primarily by reducing koff, indicating formation of a stable ternary complex of myosin:Xa:Va. In studies to assess possible clinical relevance for this discovery, we found that antimyosin antibodies inhibited thrombin generation in acute trauma patient plasmas more than in control plasmas (P = .0004), implying myosin might contribute to acute trauma coagulopathy. We posit that myosin enhancement of thrombin generation could contribute either to promote hemostasis or to augment thrombosis risk with consequent implications for myosin’s possible contributions to pathophysiology in the setting of acute injuries. PMID:27421960

  4. Near viability for fully nonlinear differential inclusions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irina Căpraru; Alina Lazu


    .... We establish a viability result under Lipschitz hypothesis on F, that consists in proving the existence of solutions of the differential inclusion above, starting from a given set, which remain...

  5. Poxvirus viability and signatures in historical relics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCollum, Andrea M; Li, Yu; Wilkins, Kimberly; Karem, Kevin L; Davidson, Whitni B; Paddock, Christopher D; Reynolds, Mary G; Damon, Inger K


    Although it has been >30 years since the eradication of smallpox, the unearthing of well-preserved tissue material in which the virus may reside has called into question the viability of variola virus decades or centuries...

  6. Intraspecific variation in pollen viability, germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleaceae) cultivars 'Koroneiki', 'Mastoidis' and 'Kalamata' was studied with scanning electron microscopy to identify genotype- distinguishing characters that could be employed for morphological cultivar discrimination. Pollen viability and germination ...

  7. Stratigraphic-structural characteristics of Mačva basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carević Ivana


    Full Text Available The analysis of stratigraphic-structural features of Mačva basin had been conducted in this paper on the basis of data obtained with deep exploratory boring performed for the needs of hydrogeothermal research project for the purpose of identifying the reserves of geothermal energy of Mačva. The research has been carried out with the aim of finding out the relation between the Tertiary and its Triassic bedrock (Ladinian and Carnian stages in which process the considerable realistic image of paleorelief (the bedrock of Tertiary deposits was obtained.

  8. Probiotic viability – does it matter?


    Sampo J. Lahtinen


    Probiotics are viable by definition, and viability of probiotics is often considered to be a prerequisite for the health benefits. Indeed, the overwhelming majority of clinical studies in the field have been performed with viable probiotics. However, it has also been speculated that some of the mechanisms behind the probiotic health effects may not be dependent on the viability of the cells, and therefore is also possible that also nonviable probiotics could have some health benefits. The eff...

  9. Childhood cause-specific mortality in rural Western Kenya: application of the InterVA-4 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyaguara O. Amek


    Full Text Available Background: Assessing the progress in achieving the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals in terms of population health requires consistent and reliable information on cause-specific mortality, which is often rare in resource-constrained countries. Health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS have largely used medical personnel to review and assign likely causes of death based on the information gathered from standardized verbal autopsy (VA forms. However, this approach is expensive and time consuming, and it may lead to biased results based on the knowledge and experience of individual clinicians. We assessed the cause-specific mortality for children under 5 years old (under-5 deaths in Siaya County, obtained from a computer-based probabilistic model (InterVA-4. Design: Successfully completed VA interviews for under-5 deaths conducted between January 2003 and December 2010 in the Kenya Medical Research Institute/US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HDSS were extracted from the VA database and processed using the InterVA-4 (version 4.02 model for interpretation. Cause-specific mortality fractions were then generated from the causes of death produced by the model. Results: A total of 84.33% (6,621 childhood deaths had completed VA data during the study period. Children aged 1–4 years constituted 48.53% of all cases, and 42.50% were from infants. A single cause of death was assigned to 89.18% (5,940 of cases, 8.35% (556 of cases were assigned two causes, and 2.10% (140 were assigned ‘indeterminate’ as cause of death by the InterVA-4 model. Overall, malaria (28.20% was the leading cause of death, followed by acute respiratory infection including pneumonia (25.10%, in under-5 children over the study period. But in the first 5 years of the study period, acute respiratory infection including pneumonia was the main cause of death, followed by malaria. Similar trends were also reported in infants (29 days–11 months and

  10. 76 FR 77270 - Board Meeting; January 9, 2012, Arlington, VA (United States)


    ... at the Ritz- Carlton Hotel, 1250 South Hayes Street, Arlington, Virginia 22202; (Tel) (703) 415-5000... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting; January 9, 2012, Arlington, VA The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board...

  11. Military and VA General Dentistry Training: A National Resource. (United States)

    Atchison, Kathryn A.; Bachand, William; Buchanan, C. Richard; Lefever, Karen H.; Lin, Sylvia; Engelhardt, Rita


    Compared the program characteristics of the postgraduate general dentistry (PGD) training programs sponsored by the military and the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Gathered information on program infrastructure and emphasis, resident preparation prior to entering the program, and patients served and types of services provided. Programs…

  12. 77 FR 70893 - Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services (United States)


    ..., Mental health programs, Nursing homes, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Veterans. Dated... authority to provide needed non- VA care using community resources, such as private physicians or community... such medical services for a veteran who has been furnished hospital care, nursing home care...

  13. 77 FR 67063 - VA Directive 0005 on Scientific Integrity (United States)


    ... interest to strengthen disclosure of and reduce conflict of interest among, employees, and reviewers. Conflict of interest policies should apply to research staff as well as research investigators. VA Response... developing conflict of interest requirements specifically applicable to research. Consequently, no changes...

  14. Cell Viability in Arthroscopic Versus Open Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation. (United States)

    Biant, Leela C; Simons, Michiel; Gillespie, Trudi; McNicholas, Michael J


    Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is an effective method of repair of articular cartilage defects. It is a 2-stage operation, with the second stage most commonly performed via mini-arthrotomy. Arthroscopic ACI is gaining popularity, as it is less invasive and may accelerate early rehabilitation. However, handling and manipulation of the implant have been shown to cause chondrocyte cell death. To assess the number and viability of cells delivered via an open versus arthroscopic approach in ACI surgery. Controlled laboratory study. Sixteen ACI surgeries were performed on young cadaveric knees by 2 experienced surgeons: 8 via mini-arthrotomy and 8 arthroscopically. Live and dead cells were stained and counted on implants after surgery. The cell number and viability were assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Surgery was timed from knife to skin until the end of cycling the knee 10 times after implantation of the cell-membrane construct. On receipt of cell membranes after transportation from the laboratory, ≥92% of the cells were viable. There were significantly more remaining cells (8.47E+07 arthroscopic vs 1.41E+08 open; P arthroscopic vs 37.34% open; P arthroscopic technique. Open surgery was of a significantly shorter duration (6 vs 32 minutes; P arthroscopic technique. The viability of cells delivered for ACI via an arthroscopic approach was 16 times less than via an open approach. The mini-arthrotomy approach is recommended until long-term clinical comparative data are available.

  15. Care at the edge of viability: medical and ethical issues. (United States)

    Haward, Marlyse F; Kirshenbaum, Nancy W; Campbell, Deborah E


    Decision-making for extremely immature preterm infants at the margins of viability is ethically, professionally, and emotionally complicated. A standard for prenatal consultation should be developed incorporating assessment of parental decision-making preferences and styles, a communication process involving a reciprocal exchange of information, and effective strategies for decisional deliberation, guided by and consistent with parental moral framework. Professional caregivers providing perinatal consultations or end-of-life counseling for extremely preterm infants should be sensitive to these issues and be taught flexibility in counseling techniques adhering to consistent guidelines. Emphasis must shift away from physician beliefs and behaviors about the boundaries of viability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 76 FR 71920 - Payment for Home Health Services and Hospice Care by Non-VA Providers (United States)


    ...The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulation and internal policy documents concerning the billing methodology for non-VA providers of home health services and hospice care. The proposed rulemaking would include home health services and hospice care under the VA regulation governing payment for other non-VA health care providers. Because the newly applicable methodology cannot supersede rates for which VA has specifically contracted, this rulemaking will only affect providers who do not have existing negotiated contracts with VA. The proposed rule would also rescind internal guidance documents that could be interpreted as conflicting with the proposed rule.

  17. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching. (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I


    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  18. [Hemodialysis improves the subendocardial viability ratio]. (United States)

    De Blasio, Antonella; Sirico, Maria; Di Micco, Lucia; Di Iorio, Biagio


    The subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), a parameter introduced by Buckberg, represents a non-invasive measure of myocardial perfusion related to left ventricular work. AIM. The aim of this study was to verify if dialysis may determine modifications of SEVR and how these modifications are modulated in the 2-day interdialytic period. METHODS.We studied 54 subjects of mean age 6314 years and receiving dialysis for 3215 months. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, resistant hypertension and peripheral vascular diseases and intradialytic hypotension evidenced during the study dialysis session. Pulse wave velocity and SEVR assessments were performed during the third dialysis session of the week, before (pre-HD) and after (post-HD) dialysis, in 2-day interdialytic period after and at the beginning of the following dialysis session. RESULTS.Dialysis reduces PWV, in particular the tertile with the lowest PWV presents the highest percentage reduction (-26%) compared with the second and the third tertiles. In the same way, dialysis leads to an increase of SEVR and patients in the tertile with the highest SEVR values maintain high SEVR values during dialysis and in the interdialytic period. Patients with severe vascular calcifications present higher PWV value and lower SEVR value. CONCLUSIONS.The results of present study demonstrate that ultrafiltration improves PWV (with a mean reduction of 16%) and SEVR (increase of 13%) and that the severity of vascular calcifications influences the effect of ultrafiltration on these two parameters. More studies are certainly necessary to verify our findings. Considered the higher mortality of patients with higher SEVR, it would be important to understand if new dialytic strategies are needed in patients with higher PVW and lower SEVR values.

  19. EPA, W. Va. DEP File Settlement with Justice Companies to Restore and Protect Monroe Co., W. Va. Waterways (United States)

    CHARLESTON, W.Va. (Dec. 10, 2015) Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection filed a settlement with James C. Justice II, the James C. Justice Companies, Inc. and High Mountain Living

  20. 75 FR 33216 - Payment or Reimbursement for Emergency Treatment Furnished by Non-VA Providers in Non-VA... (United States)


    ... grammatical errors and updating obsolete citations. DATES: Comments must be received by VA on or before August... amendments made to 38 U.S.C. 1725 and 1728, and would make technical changes such as correcting grammatical errors and updating obsolete regulatory citations: 38 CFR 17.120, 17.121, 17.1002, 17.1005, 17.1006, and...

  1. Fluorescence Microscopy Methods for Determining the Viability of Bacteria in Association with Mammalian Cells (United States)

    Johnson, M. Brittany; Criss, Alison K.


    Central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis is the ability to define if and how microbes survive after exposure to eukaryotic cells. Current protocols to address these questions include colony count assays, gentamicin protection assays, and electron microscopy. Colony count and gentamicin protection assays only assess the viability of the entire bacterial population and are unable to determine individual bacterial viability. Electron microscopy can be used to determine the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding their localization in host cells. However, bacteria often display a range of electron densities, making assessment of viability difficult. This article outlines protocols for the use of fluorescent dyes that reveal the viability of individual bacteria inside and associated with host cells. These assays were developed originally to assess survival of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in primary human neutrophils, but should be applicable to any bacterium-host cell interaction. These protocols combine membrane-permeable fluorescent dyes (SYTO9 and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole [DAPI]), which stain all bacteria, with membrane-impermeable fluorescent dyes (propidium iodide and SYTOX Green), which are only accessible to nonviable bacteria. Prior to eukaryotic cell permeabilization, an antibody or fluorescent reagent is added to identify extracellular bacteria. Thus these assays discriminate the viability of bacteria adherent to and inside eukaryotic cells. A protocol is also provided for using the viability dyes in combination with fluorescent antibodies to eukaryotic cell markers, in order to determine the subcellular localization of individual bacteria. The bacterial viability dyes discussed in this article are a sensitive complement and/or alternative to traditional microbiology techniques to evaluate the viability of individual bacteria and provide information regarding where bacteria survive in host cells. PMID:24056524

  2. Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition (United States)

    Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San


    We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

  3. Effect of stimulation intensity on assessment of voluntary activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, D.M.; de Ruiter, C.J.; de Haan, A.


    Introduction: The interpolated twitch technique is often used to assess voluntary activation (VA) of skeletal muscles. We investigated VA and the voluntary torque-superimposed torque relationship using either supramaximal nerve stimulation or better tolerated submaximal muscle stimulation, which is

  4. Effect of stimulation intensity on assessment of voluntary activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen; C.J. de Ruiter; A.J. de Haan


    INTRODUCTION: The interpolated twitch technique is often used to assess voluntary activation (VA) of skeletal muscles. We investigated VA and the voluntary torque-superimposed torque relationship using either supramaximal nerve stimulation or better tolerated submaximal muscle stimulation, which is

  5. PET/SPECT imaging: From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert [Department of Surgery, Isala Clinics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, Gooitzen M. van [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijckx, Gert-Jan [Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail:


    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could improve selection of patients with a vulnerable plaque and evaluation of brain viability in ischemic stroke. Objective: To describe the current applications of PET and SPECT as a diagnostic tool in relation to ischemic stroke. Methods: A literature search using PubMed identified articles. Manual cross-referencing was also performed. Results: Several papers, all observational studies, identified PET/SPECT to be used as a tool to monitor systemic atheroma modifying treatment and to select high-risk patients for surgery regardless of the degree of luminal stenosis in carotid lesions. Furthermore, PET/SPECT is able to quantify the penumbra region during ischemic stroke and in this way may identify those patients who may benefit from timely intervention. Discussion: Functional imaging modalities such as PET/SPECT may become important tools for risk-assessment and evaluation of treatment strategies in carotid plaque vulnerability and brain viability. Prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/SPECT.

  6. Dormancy, activation and viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores. (United States)

    Thanh, N V; Nout, M J R


    Interruption of dormancy to improve viability of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores is crucial for the application of stored starter cultures for fungal (tempe) production. We aimed to assess the extent of dormancy and factors that could result in activation. Whereas heat treatments were unsuccessful, Malt Extract Broth (MEB) showed to be a good activation medium, with 80% of dormant spores being activated as measured by fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescent marker, compared with 11% with the control. Peptone and yeast extract but not glucose played an important role in activating dormant spores. Metabolically active (fluorescent) and swollen spores, followed by germ tubes were obtained after activation in MEB for 25 min., 2 and 4 h, respectively, at 37 degrees C. Simultaneously, some interesting transitions took place. Dormant spores represent 85-90% of the total spores at harvest and after drying. Their number decreased to 21-32% after activation with MEB with a concomitant increase of metabolically active spores. As a result of storage, some dormancy was lost, yielding an increase of active spores from 11.2% at harvest to 28.8% after 3 months storage. Levels of active spores were well correlated with their viability. By activation of dormant spores, their viability increased; levels of viable and active spores were maximum in 1 month old starter (61.7% and 75.9% of total spores, respectively) but gradually decreased with concomitant increase of the number of dead spores.

  7. VA-Index: Quantifying Assortativity Patterns in Networks with Multidimensional Nodal Attributes (Open Access) (United States)


    comparison. In this work we introduce a novel network metric, which we call VA-index, for quantify- ing the multi-dimensional assortativity. In a nutshell randomization with statistical hypothesis testing. In a nutshell , the intuition of our approach is based on comparing the pairwise average...1)), we would need to normalize the VA-index with the maximum possible average similarity that Fig 2. The computation of VA-index in a nutshell . VA

  8. 78 FR 26250 - Payment for Home Health Services and Hospice Care to Non-VA Providers (United States)


    ...The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning the billing methodology for non-VA providers of home health services and hospice care. Because the newly applicable methodology cannot supersede rates for which VA has specifically contracted, this rulemaking will only affect home health and hospice care providers who do not have existing negotiated contracts with VA. This rule also rescinds internal guidance documents that could be interpreted as conflicting with this final rule.

  9. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen


    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  10. Economic Viability and Marketing Strategies of Periwinkle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic viability and marketing strategies of periwinkle species in twelve major markets across Rivers State Nigeria were investigated using structured questionnaires. The results indicated that marketing strategies are enroute, through harvesters (collectors), to wholesalers (those who purchase in small quantities ...

  11. Extending the viability of sea urchin gametes. (United States)

    Spiegler, M A; Oppenheimer, S B


    The sea urchin is the material of choice for studying many early developmental events. Methods to extend the viability of sea urchin gametes have not received much attention, but it is well known that the eggs are easily damaged by freezing. This study was designed to extend the viability of Lytechinus pictus eggs and sperm without freezing. Gamete viability measurements were based on relative numbers of fertilized vs unfertilized eggs, percentage fertilization, and on observations of embryonic development. Results indicate that gametes can be stored longer and at lower temperatures than previously described. Sperm were consistently kept viable for at least 12 days with little decrease in viability when stored in glass test tubes or plastic petri dishes and submerged in ice inside a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. In one experiment, sperm stored in glass test tubes on ice remained viable up to 20 days after extraction. Eggs were maintained from 1 to 7 days, rather than the 1 day or so previously reported, when stored in glass test tubes submerged in ice in a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. Results of egg and sperm experiments varied at different times in the season. Such variations may be caused by seasonal cytoplasmic changes, population differences, or the time mature individuals were maintained unfed in aquaria prior to use. Results from this study should be useful for a variety of research, mariculture, and teaching applications in which sea urchin supplies are limited or when the same gamete population is required for subsequent experiments.

  12. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierson, J.C.; Beissinger, S.R.; Bragg, J.G.; Coates, D.J.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Sunnucks, P.; Schumaker, N.H.; Trotter, M.V.; Young, A.G.


    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand

  13. Viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza, Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Mano, Renneth T; Ngongoni, Nobbert Takarwirwa


    Viability differences in smallholder dairy farming are a result of differences in access to markets and services. It is hypothesized that innovations that improve productivity and market linkages also improve returns and viability. The viability of smallholder dairying in Wedza was characterised by interviewing 52 households using semi-structured questionnaires. Information on demographics, production, marketing, livestock numbers, assets and constraints was obtained. Farmers were resource-constrained with differences in access to resources. The highly resourced farmers had higher milk output and numbers of livestock. Almost 40 % of the households were female-headed, and these dominated the poor category. Household sizes ranged from 4 to 13 persons. Milk off-take was low (3.7 ± 0.53 l/cow/day), due to various constraints. Only rich farmers had viable enterprises in purely financial terms. Per litre cost of milk was more than selling price (US$0.96) for most farmers except the relatively rich. Operating ratios were 1.7, 0.6, 1.4 and 1.1 for the poor, rich, sub-centre and milk collection centre farmers, respectively. This means incomes from the dairy activities did not cover costs. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increases in total variable costs and labour reduced returns. Milk production and viability were influenced by access to resources and markets.

  14. Intra-procedural determination of viability by myocardial deformation imaging: a randomized prospective study in the cardiac catheter laboratory. (United States)

    Schuh, Alexander; Karayusuf, Vadim; Altiok, Ertunc; Hamada, Sandra; Schröder, Jörg; Keszei, Andras; Kelm, Malte; de la Fuente, Matias; Frick, Michael; Radermacher, Klaus; Marx, Nikolaus; Becker, Michael


    The benefit of revascularization for functional recovery depends on the presence of viable myocardial tissue. Myocardial deformation imaging allows determination of myocardial viability. In a first approach, we assessed the optimal cutoff value to determine preserved viability by layer-specific echocardiographic myocardial deformation imaging at rest and low-dose dobutamine (DSE) echocardiography: regional endocardial circumferential strain (eCS) deformation imaging in the cardiac catheter laboratory (CLab), determination of myocardial viability by regional eCS deformation imaging in the CLab is feasible, safe, and cost effective and may become an emerging alternative to the current practice of two-stage viability diagnostics.

  15. 75 FR 3541 - Agency Information Collection (Verification of VA Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Verification of VA Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Verification of VA Benefits, VA Form 26-8937. OMB Control Number: 2900-0406. Type of... Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs will submit the collection of information...

  16. 77 FR 64383 - Proposed Information Collection (Verification of VA Benefits) Activity: Comment Request (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Verification of VA Benefits) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Verification of VA Benefits, VA Form... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act...

  17. Use of VA and Medicare services by dually eligible veterans with psychiatric problems. (United States)

    Carey, Kathleen; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Rosen, Amy K; Christiansen, Cindy L; Loveland, Susan; Ettner, Susan L


    To examine how service accessibility measured by geographic distance affects service sector choices for veterans who are dually eligible for veterans affairs (VA) and Medicare services and who are diagnosed with mental health and/or substance abuse (MH/SA) disorders. Primary VA data sources were the Patient Treatment (acute care), Extended Care (long-term care), and Outpatient Clinic files. VA cost data were obtained from (1) inpatient and outpatient cost files developed by the VA Health Economics and Resource Center and (2) outpatient VA Decision Support System files. Medicare data sources were the denominator, Medicare Provider Analysis Review (MEDPAR), Provider-of-Service, Outpatient Standard Analytic and Physician/Supplier Standard Analytic files. Additional sources included the Area Resource File and Census Bureau data. We identified dually eligible veterans who had either an inpatient or outpatient MH/SA diagnosis in the VA system during fiscal year (FY)'99. We then estimated one- and two-part regression models to explain the effects of geographic distance on both VA and Medicare total and MH/SA costs. Results provide evidence for substitution between the VA and Medicare, demonstrating that poorer geographic access to VA inpatient and outpatient clinics decreased VA expenditures but increased Medicare expenditures, while poorer access to Medicare-certified general and psychiatric hospitals decreased Medicare expenditures but increased VA expenditures. As geographic distance to VA medical facility increases, Medicare plays an increasingly important role in providing mental health services to veterans.

  18. The Impact of VA's Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Centers on Academic Affiliates (United States)

    Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Shay, Kenneth; Gilman, Stuart C.; Zeiss, Robert A.; Hettler, Debbie L.


    The education mission of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is to train health professionals to benefit VA and the United States. One approach for achieving that mission, along with VA's research and clinical missions, was the establishment of Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Centers (GRECCs) in 1975. These were developed at VA…

  19. 77 FR 12697 - VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (United States)


    ... applicant takes measures to protect the capital securing VA's grant investment. We would remove the... would reduce the redundancy of current application requirements, provide an improved picture of overall... consist primarily of VA clinicians and VA homeless specialists, the current regulation could better...

  20. 78 FR 56271 - FY 2014-2020 Draft VA Strategic Plan (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS FY 2014-2020 Draft VA Strategic Plan AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice of... availability of the FY 2014-2020 Draft VA Strategic Plan (Strategic Plan) for public review and comment, as..., and leadership to meet our clients' needs and expectations. DATES: Comments must be received by VA on...

  1. Validation of KENO V.a Comparison with Critical Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, W.C.


    Section 1 of this report documents the validation of KENO V.a against 258 critical experiments. Experiments considered were primarily high or low enriched uranium systems. The results indicate that the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Criticality Program accurately calculates a broad range of critical experiments. A substantial number of the calculations showed a positive or negative bias in excess of 1 1/2% in k-effective (k{sub eff}). Classes of criticals which show a bias include 3% enriched green blocks, highly enriched uranyl fluoride slab arrays, and highly enriched uranyl nitrate arrays. If these biases are properly taken into account, the KENO V.a code can be used with confidence for the design and criticality safety analysis of uranium-containing systems. Section 2 of this report documents the results of investigation into the cause of the bias observed in Sect. 1. The results of this study indicate that the bias seen in Sect. 1 is caused by code bias, cross-section bias, reporting bias, and modeling bias. There is evidence that many of the experiments used in this validation and in previous validations are not adequately documented. The uncertainty in the experimental parameters overshadows bias caused by the code and cross sections and prohibits code validation to better than about 1% in k{sub eff}.

  2. Implementing goals of care conversations with veterans in VA long-term care setting: a mixed methods protocol. (United States)

    Sales, Anne E; Ersek, Mary; Intrator, Orna K; Levy, Cari; Carpenter, Joan G; Hogikyan, Robert; Kales, Helen C; Landis-Lewis, Zach; Olsan, Tobie; Miller, Susan C; Montagnini, Marcos; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanthi S; Reder, Sheri


    The program "Implementing Goals of Care Conversations with Veterans in VA LTC Settings" is proposed in partnership with the US Veterans Health Administration (VA) National Center for Ethics in Health Care and the Geriatrics and Extended Care Program Offices, together with the VA Office of Nursing Services. The three projects in this program are designed to support a new system-wide mandate requiring providers to conduct and systematically record conversations with veterans about their preferences for care, particularly life-sustaining treatments. These treatments include cardiac resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, and other forms of life support. However, veteran preferences for care go beyond whether or not they receive life-sustaining treatments to include issues such as whether or not they want to be hospitalized if they are acutely ill, and what kinds of comfort care they would like to receive. Three projects, all focused on improving the provision of veteran-centered care, are proposed. The projects will be conducted in Community Living Centers (VA-owned nursing homes) and VA Home-Based Primary Care programs in five regional networks in the Veterans Health Administration. In all the projects, we will use data from context and barrier and facilitator assessments to design feedback reports for staff to help them understand how well they are meeting the requirement to have conversations with veterans about their preferences and to document them appropriately. We will also use learning collaboratives-meetings in which staff teams come together and problem-solve issues they encounter in how to get veterans' preferences expressed and documented, and acted on-to support action planning to improve performance. We will use data over time to track implementation success, measured as the proportions of veterans in Community Living Centers (CLCs) and Home-Based Primary Care (HBPC) who have a documented goals of care conversation soon after admission. We will work with

  3. Making housing first happen: organizational leadership in VA's expansion of permanent supportive housing. (United States)

    Kertesz, Stefan G; Austin, Erika Laine; Holmes, Sally K; Pollio, David E; Schumacher, Joseph E; White, Bert; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen


    While most organizational literature has focused on initiatives that transpire inside the hospital walls, the redesign of American health care increasingly asks that health care institutions address matters outside their walls, targeting the health of populations. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)'s national effort to end Veteran homelessness represents an externally focused organizational endeavor. Our aim was to evaluate the role of organizational practices in the implementation of Housing First (HF), an evidence-based homeless intervention for chronically homeless individuals. This was an interview-based comparative case study conducted across eight VA Medical Centers (VAMCs). Front line staff, mid-level managers, and senior leaders at VA Medical Centers were interviewed between February and December 2012. Using a structured narrative and numeric scoring, we assessed the correlation between successful HF implementation and organizational practices devised according to the organizational transformation model (OTM). Scoring results suggested a strong association between HF implementation and OTM practice. Strong impetus to house Veterans came from national leadership, reinforced by Medical Center directors closely tracking results. More effective Medical Center leaders differentiated themselves by joining front-line staff in the work (at public events and in process improvement exercises), by elevating homeless-knowledgeable persons into senior leadership, and by exerting themselves to resolve logistic challenges. Vertical alignment and horizontal integration advanced at sites that fostered work groups cutting across service lines and hierarchical levels. By contrast, weak alignment from top to bottom typically also hindered cooperation across departments. Staff commitment to ending homelessness was high, though sustainability planning was limited in this baseline year of observation. Key organizational practices correlated with more successful

  4. Cell structure and percent viability by a slide centrifuge technique. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, M G; Hosking, C S


    It was found that a slide centrifuge (Cytospin) preparation of a cell suspension allowed a reliable assessment of not only cell structure but also the percentage of non-viable cells. The non-viable cells appeared as "smear" cells and paralleled in number the cells taking up trypan blue. Direct experiment showed the unstained viable cells in a trypan blue cell suspension remained intact in a Cytospin preparation while the cells taking up trypan blue were the "smear" cells. The non-viability of the "smear" cells was confirmed by their inability to survive in culture. Images PMID:7040483

  5. Viability of human corneal keratocytes during organ culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Pedersen, T; Møller, H J


    The viability of human corneal keratocytes was assessed during four weeks of 'closed system' organ culture at 31 degrees C. After 28 days of culturing, the entire keratocyte population was still alive and viable because all cells incorporated uridine; a parameter for RNA-synthesis. During the fir...... of keratan sulphate proteoglycan suggested that approximately 1% of the total content was lost during the period. In conclusion, our current organ culture technique can maintain a viable keratocyte population for four weeks; a viable stroma can be grafted within this period....

  6. Monitoring cell growth, viability, and apoptosis. (United States)

    Butler, Michael; Spearman, Maureen; Braasch, Katrin


    The accurate determination of cell growth and viability is pivotal to monitoring a bioprocess. Direct methods to determine the cell growth and/or viability in a bioprocess include microscopic counting, electronic particle counting, image analysis, in situ biomass monitoring, and dieletrophoretic cytometry. These methods work most simply when a fixed volume sample can be taken from a suspension culture. Manual microscopic counting is laborious but affords the advantage of allowing cell viability to be determined if a suitable dye is included. Electronic particle counting is a rapid total cell count method for replicate samples, but some data distortion may occur if the sample has significant cell debris or cell aggregates. Image analysis based on the use of digital camera images acquired through a microscope has advanced rapidly with the availability of several commercially available software packages replacing manual microscopic counting and viability determination. Biomass probes detect cells by their dielectric properties or their internal concentration of NADH and can be used as a continuous monitor of the progress of a culture. While the monitoring of cell growth and viability is an integral part of a bioprocess, the monitoring of apoptosis induction is also becoming more and more important in bioprocess control to increase volumetric productivity by extending bioprocess duration. Different fluorescent assays allow for the detection of apoptotic characteristics in a cell sample.Indirect methods of cell determination involve the chemical analysis of a culture component or a measure of metabolic activity. These methods are most useful when it is difficult to obtain intact cell samples. However, the relationship between these parameters and the cell number may not be linear through the phases of a cell culture. The determination of nucleic acid (DNA) or total protein can be used as an estimate of biomass, while the depletion of glucose from the media can be used

  7. Non-invasive imaging in detecting myocardial viability: Myocardial function versus perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal A. Elfigih


    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the most prevalent and single most common cause of morbidity and mortality [1] with the resulting left ventricular (LV dysfunction an important complication. The distinction between viable and non-viable myocardium in patients with LV dysfunction is a clinically important issue among possible candidates for myocardial revascularization. Several available non-invasive techniques are used to detect and assess ischemia and myocardial viability. These techniques include echocardiography, radionuclide images, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and recently myocardial computed tomography perfusion imaging. This review aims to distinguish between the available non-invasive imaging techniques in detecting signs of functional and perfusion viability and identify those which have the most clinical relevance in detecting myocardial viability in patients with CAD and chronic ischemic LV dysfunction. The most current available studies showed that both myocardial perfusion and function based on non-invasive imaging have high sensitivity with however wide range of specificity for detecting myocardial viability. Both perfusion and function imaging modalities provide complementary information about myocardial viability and no optimum single imaging technique exists that can provide very accurate diagnostic and prognostic viability assessment. The weight of the body of evidence suggested that non-invasive imaging can help in guiding therapeutic decision making in patients with LV dysfunction.

  8. Viability of encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 had advantages as probiotic digestive system cholesterol lowering Lactobacillus. Applying in industry, particular processing technique is necessary for gaining product that ready for marketing and consuming. Spray drying is common technique using in various food processing. High processing temperature, 100-200oC, for 3-10 second become the barrier because cells were under extreme temperature stress. Therefore, encapsulate was needed to protect the cells from those extreme conditions. Viability and survival rate of encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 have been investigated. The result showed that Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 that was encapsulated by 10% skim milk has higher viability than those by 5% skim milk, namely 72.37% and 51.69% respectively. Survival rate of encapsulated Lactobacillus cells will come to zero in 41.28 years. Therefore, encapsulated Lactobacillus sp. Mar 8 may use as probiotic agent.

  9. The market viability of nuclear hydrogen technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M. C.; Yildiz, B.


    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is supporting system studies to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options within a given market, and identifying the key drivers and thresholds for market viability of nuclear hydrogen options. One of the objectives of the current analysis phase is to determine how nuclear hydrogen technologies could evolve under a number of different futures. The outputs of our work will eventually be used in a larger hydrogen infrastructure and market analysis conducted for DOE-EE using a system-level market simulation tool now underway. This report expands on our previous work by moving beyond simple levelized cost calculations and looking at profitability, risk, and uncertainty from an investor's perspective. We analyze a number of technologies and quantify the value of certain technology and operating characteristics. Our model to assess the profitability of the above technologies is based on Real Options Theory and calculates the discounted profits from investing in each of the production facilities. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from a production plant. We also quantify the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production in order to maximize investor profits. Uncertainty in electricity and hydrogen prices can be represented with two different stochastic processes: Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) and Mean Reversion (MR). Our analysis finds that the flexibility to switch between hydrogen and electricity leads

  10. Noncoherent detection of DQPSK in OFDM systems using predictive VA (United States)

    Veludandi, Vineel K.; Vasudevan, K.


    Noncoherent detection of differential quaternary phase shift keying (DQPSK) signals in OFDM systems is efficiently implemented using a predictive Viterbi algorithm (VA) operating on a trellis with just S T = MP-1 states instead of M P states, where M denotes an M-ary PSK constellation and P denotes the order of the prediction filter. The prediction filter coefficients are generated based on the channel DFT alone making a high SNR approximation, since the estimation of the noise-variance using training symbols results in loss of throughput.

  11. The VA Maryland Health Care System's telemental health program. (United States)

    Koch, Edward F


    The VA Maryland Health Care System introduced videoconferencing technology to provide psychiatry, evidenced-based psychotherapy, case management, and patient education at rural clinics where it was difficult to recruit providers. Telemental health services enable rural clinics to offer additional services, such as case management and patient education. Services have been expanded to urban outpatient clinics where a limited number of mental health clinic hours are available. This technology expands the availability of mental health providers and services, allowing patients to receive services from providers located at distant medical centers.

  12. Viability of Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast preserved by lyophilization and cryopreservation. (United States)

    de Arruda Moura Pietrowski, Giovana; Grochoski, Mayara; Sartori, Gabriela Felkl; Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro


    Hanseniaspora yeasts are known to produce volatile compounds that give fruity aromas in wine and fermented fruit. This study aimed to verify the feasibility of the Hanseniaspora uvarum strain that had been isolated and identified during a previous study and preserved by lyophilization and freezing at -80 °C (cryopreservation). This strain was assessed in relation to its macroscopic and microscopic morphology and for its ability to ferment apple must. After having been subjected to lyophilization and cryopreservation, viability was assessed in relation to these characteristics during 12 months of storage. The strain showed stable colonial features and its microscopic appearance was unchanged during all recoveries. The plate count results showed consistency in both processes. Regarding the fermentative capacity, the kinetic results showed 100% viability for the strain subjected to lyophilization, as well as for those preserved at -80 °C. These results demonstrate that the preservation methods used are compatible with the maintenance of the relevant characteristics of the strain for the period of evaluation of this study (12 months). Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Prediction of viability of leek (Allium porrum seeds by a new test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Güvenç


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the suitability of boiling water test in the prediction of seed viability in leek seed and to compare this test with standard germination and vigour test. Basic principle of boiling water test is the evaluation of radicle protrusion from the seeds immersed to boiling water for certain time. The viability of aged and unaged leek seeds in boiling water test was correlated with standard germination and vigour test. In this research. the mean germination of unaged leek seeds varied from 29,639% to 70,18% depending on the cultivars. While the range of boiling water test in unaged leek seeds was between 35.57% to 51,06%, the range for emergence was between 27,63% to 72,05%. The viability of aged and unaged leek seeds in boiling water test was correlated with standard germination test. According to the results of this research, it might be assessed that boiling water test is a rapid and simple method to measure seed viability by evaluating radicle protrusion of leek seeds in boiling water. In conclusion. boiling water test as a new viability test for leek seed could be used as a rapid method for determining the viability in leek seeds.

  14. Use of alcoholic beverages in VA medical centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadri S Faiz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benzodiazepines are the first-line choice for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. However, several hospitals continue to provide alcoholic beverages through their formulary for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. While there are data on the prevalence of this practice in academic medical centers, there are no data on the availability of alcoholic beverages at the formularies of the hospitals operated by the department of Veteran's Affairs. Methods In this study, we surveyed the Pharmacy managers at 112 Veterans' Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs to ascertain the availability of alcohol on the VAMC formularies, and presence or lack of a policy on the use of alcoholic beverages in their VA Medical Center. Results Of the pharmacy directors contacted, 81 responded. 8 did not allow their use, while 20 allowed their use. There was a lack of a consistent policy across the VA medical centers on availability and use of alcoholic beverages for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Conclusion There is lack of uniform policy on the availability of alcoholic beverages across the VAMCs, which may create potential problems with difference in the standards of care.

  15. V-A hadronic tau decays : a QCD laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narison, Stephan E-mail:


    Recent ALEPH/OPAL data on the V-A spectral functions from hadronic {tau} decays are used for fixing the QCD continuum threshold at which the first and second Weinberg sum rules should be satisfied in the chiral limit, and for predicting the values of the low-energy constants f{sub {pi}}, m{sub {pi}{sup +}} - m{sub {pi}{sup 0}} and L{sub 10}. Some DMO-like sum rules and the {tau}-total hadronic widths R{sub {tau}}{sub ,V-A} are also used for extracting the values of the D = 6, 8 QCD vacuum condensates and the corresponding (in the chiral limit) electroweak kaon penguin matrix elements {sub 2{pi}}, where a deviation from the vacuum saturation estimate has been obtained. Combining these results with the one of the QCD penguin matrix element {sub 2{pi}} obtained from a (maximal) q-barq-gluonium mixing scheme from the scalar meson sum rules, we deduce, in the Electroweak Standard Model (ESM), the conservative upper bound for the CP-violating ratio: {epsilon}'/{epsilon} {<=} (22 {+-} 9)10{sup -4}, in agreement with the present measurements.

  16. V.A. Gorodtsov and Kazan: tour 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzminykh Sergey V.


    Full Text Available A fragment of an archival document is published, that is connected to the September 8-12, 1920, stay in Kazan of V.A. Gorodtsov, who headed the Archaeological Subdepartment with the Museum Department of the RSFSR People’s Commissariat for Education, in the framework of his inspecting tour around the towns of the Volga and Urals region. The document is a diary, and its entries reflect information about the tour and its results that had not been exhaustively reflected in official documentation. It narrates about meetings, polemic exchanges, Gorodtsov’s addresses to scientists and the public, his impressions of the archaeological investigations in the regions, and the state of the museums and collections. V.A. Gorodtsov’s encounters and personal contacts with B.F. Adler, N.F. Katanov, M.G. Hudyakov and other researchers had played a positive role in archaeology development in the Volga-Kama region during the hardest times after the revolution.

  17. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peplinski, William J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  18. Transportation – A Vehicle or Roadblock to Cancer Care for VA Colorectal Cancer Patients? (United States)

    Zullig, Leah L.; Jackson, George L.; Provenzale, Dawn; Griffin, Joan M.; Phelan, Sean; van Ryn, Michelle


    Introduction Patients must have transportation to the treatment site before they can access appropriate cancer care. This paper describes factors associated with patients experiencing transportation-related barriers to accessing cancer care. Patients and Methods The Cancer Care Assessment & Responsive Evaluation Studies (C-CARES) questionnaire was mailed to VA colorectal cancer (CRC) patients during fall 2009. Eligible patients were diagnosed at any VA facility in 2008, male, and alive at time of mailing. A total of 1,409 surveys were returned (approximately 67% response rate). To assess transportation barriers, patients were asked how often it was difficult to get transportation to or from treatment. Symptoms were assessed using validated PROMIS scales for fatigue, pain, and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine determinants of transportation barriers. Results A minority (19%) of respondents reported transportation barriers. Patients experiencing pain (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.06) had greater odds of transportation barriers than patients without this symptom. Patients who reported no primary social support (OR 6.13, 95% CI 3.10, 12.14) or non-spousal support (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.40, 2.87) were more likely to experience transportation barriers than patients whose spouse provided social support. Discussion Patients with uncontrolled pain or less social support have greater odds of transportation barriers. The directional association between social support, symptoms, and transportation cannot be determined in this data. Conclusion Inquiring about accessible transportation should become a routine part of cancer care, particularly for patients with known risk factors. PMID:21803001

  19. Influence of PVP/VA copolymer composition on drug-polymer solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Malte Bille; Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik


    polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl acetate (PVA) was predicted at 25 °C using a thermal analysis method based on the recrystallization of a supersaturated amorphous dispersion (recrystallization method). These solubilities were compared with a prediction based on the solubility of CCX in the liquid monomeric...... precursors of PVP/VA, N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and vinyl acetate (VA), using the Flory-Huggins lattice theory (liquid monomer solubility approach). The solubilities predicted from the liquid monomer solubility approach increased linearly with increasing VP/VA ratio from 0.03-0.60 w/w. Even though...... the solubilities predicted from the recrystallization method also increased with increasing VP/VA ratio from 0.02-0.40 w/w, the predicted solubility seemed to approach a plateau at high VP/VA ratios. Increasing positive deviations from the Gordon-Taylor equation with increasing VP/VA ratio indicated strong...

  20. Creating a Sustainability Scorecard as a predictive tool for measuring the complex social, economic and environmental impacts of industries, a case study: assessing the viability and sustainability of the dairy industry. (United States)

    Buys, L; Mengersen, K; Johnson, S; van Buuren, N; Chauvin, A


    Sustainability is a key driver for decisions in the management and future development of industries. The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987) outlined imperatives which need to be met for environmental, economic and social sustainability. Development of strategies for measuring and improving sustainability in and across these domains, however, has been hindered by intense debate between advocates for one approach fearing that efforts by those who advocate for another could have unintended adverse impacts. Studies attempting to compare the sustainability performance of countries and industries have also found ratings of performance quite variable depending on the sustainability indices used. Quantifying and comparing the sustainability of industries across the triple bottom line of economy, environment and social impact continues to be problematic. Using the Australian dairy industry as a case study, a Sustainability Scorecard, developed as a Bayesian network model, is proposed as an adaptable tool to enable informed assessment, dialogue and negotiation of strategies at a global level as well as being suitable for developing local solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Economic viability of cerrado vegetation management under conditions of risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simão Corrêa da Silva


    Full Text Available Cerrado vegetation is Brazil’s second largest biome, comprising about 388 municipalities in Minas Gerais state alone and serving as an important source of natural resources. A large share of the wood charcoal produced in Minas Gerais is sourced from Cerrado vegetation. The objective of this work is to assess the economic viability of Cerrado vegetation management for wood charcoal production, under conditions of risk. The study site is a fragment of Cerrado subjected to five levels of intervention as to basal area removal. For risk analysis, the Monte Carlo method was applied, using charcoal price, interest rate and land value as input variables, and using Net Present Value as output variable over an infinite planning horizon. It was concluded that introducing risk in the economic analysis of the various Cerrado management regimes helped provide additional information to that obtained by deterministic analysis, improving understanding and ensuring safety in decision-making about the economic viability of such regimes. For all treatments, the probability of VPL being negative increases with increasing cutting cycle lengths. For all treatments, the optimal cutting cycle is ten years. Treatments where a larger volume of wood was removed proved less prone to risks of economic inviability since they secure more revenue than treatments where less wood was removed.

  2. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography. (United States)

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W


    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These "thermal fingerprints" vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of "virtual pea seeds," that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such "cooling" compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development.

  3. Noninvasive diagnosis of seed viability using infrared thermography (United States)

    Kranner, Ilse; Kastberger, Gerald; Hartbauer, Manfred; Pritchard, Hugh W.


    Recent advances in the noninvasive analyses of plant metabolism include stress imaging techniques, mainly developed for vegetative tissues. We explored if infrared thermography can be used to predict whether a quiescent seed will germinate or die upon water uptake. Thermal profiles of viable, aged, and dead Pisum sativum seeds were recorded, and image analysis of 22,000 images per individual seed showed that infrared thermography can detect imbibition- and germination-associated biophysical and biochemical changes. These “thermal fingerprints” vary with viability in this species and in Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus seeds. Thermogenesis of the small individual B. napus seeds was at the limit of the technology. We developed a computer model of “virtual pea seeds,” that uses Monte Carlo simulation, based on the heat production of major seed storage compounds to unravel physico-chemical processes of thermogenesis. The simulation suggests that the cooling that dominates the early thermal profiles results from the dissolution of low molecular-weight carbohydrates. Moreover, the kinetics of the production of such “cooling” compounds over the following 100 h is dependent on seed viability. We also developed a deterministic tool that predicts in the first 3 hours of water uptake, when seeds can be redried and stored again, whether or not a pea seed will germinate. We believe that the early separation of individual, ungerminated seeds (live, aged, or dead) before destructive germination assessment creates unique opportunities for integrative studies on cell death, differentiation, and development. PMID:20133712

  4. Effect of Antarctic solar radiation on sewage bacteria viability. (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin A


    The majority of coastal Antarctic research stations discard untreated sewage waste into the near-shore marine environment. However, Antarctic solar conditions are unique, with ozone depletion increasing the proportion of potentially damaging ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the marine environment. This study assessed the influence of Antarctic solar radiation on the viability of Escherichia coli and sewage microorganisms at Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Cell viability decreased with increased exposure time and with exposure to shorter wavelengths of solar radiation. Cell survival also declined with decreasing cloud cover, solar zenith angle and ozone column depth. However, particulates in sewage increased the persistence of viable bacteria. Ultraviolet radiation doses over Rothera Point were highest during the austral summer. During this time, solar radiation may act to partially reduce the number of viable sewage-derived microorganisms in the surface seawater around Antarctic outfalls. Nevertheless, this effect is not reliable and every effort should be made to fully treat sewage before release into the Antarctic marine environment.

  5. Effect of magnetic nanoparticle heating on cortical neuron viability. (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher J; Yuan, Yuan; Gilbert, Ryan J; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra


    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are currently approved for use as an adjunctive treatment to glioblastoma multiforme radiotherapy. Radio frequency stimulation of the nanoparticles generates localised hyperthermia, which sensitises the tumour to the effects of radiotherapy. Clinical trials reported thus far are promising, with an increase in patient survival rate; however, what are left unaddressed are the implications of this technology on the surrounding healthy tissue. Aminosilane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles suspended in culture medium were applied to chick embryonic cortical neuron cultures. Cultures were heated to 37 °C or 45 °C by an induction coil system for 2 h. The latter regime emulates the therapeutic conditions of the adjunctive therapy. Cellular viability and neurite retraction was quantified 24 h after exposure to the hyperthermic events. The hyperthermic load inflicted little damage to the neuron cultures, as determined by calcein-AM, propidium iodide, and alamarBlue® assays. Fluorescence imaging was used to assess the extent of neurite retraction which was found to be negligible. Retention of chick, embryonic cortical neuron viability was confirmed under the thermal conditions produced by radiofrequency stimulation of iron oxide nanoparticles. While these results are not directly applicable to clinical applications of hyperthermia, the thermotolerance of chick embryonic cortical neurons is promising and calls for further studies employing human cultures of neurons and glial cells.

  6. KENO V.a Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO V.a Using CSPAN for Input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, R.D.


    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO V.a three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is the primary criticality safety analysis tool in SCALE. The KENO V.a primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO V.a Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO V.a in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO V.a that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 4.4a, which includes the Criticality Safety Processor for Analysis (CSPAN) input processor for Windows personal computers (PCs). A second edition of the primer, which uses the new KENO Visual Editor, is currently under development at ORNL and is planned for publication in late 2003. Each example in this first edition of the primer uses CSPAN to provide the framework for data input. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO V.a input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO V.a. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO V.a features which are covered in detail in the example problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using CSPAN to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO V.a.

  7. Penn/VA center for studies of addiction. (United States)

    O'Brien, Charles P; McLellan, A Thomas; Childress, Anna Rose; Woody, George E


    The Penn/VA Center was founded in 1971 because of great concern over the number of Vietnam veterans returning home addicted to heroin. At that time little was known about the science of addiction, so our program from the very beginning was designed to gather data about the nature of addiction and measure the effects of available treatments. In other words, the goals were always a combination of treatment and research. This combination has continued to the present day. A human laboratory for the study of addiction phenomena such as conditioned responses was also founded in 1971. The key clinician investigators in this group have remained in the Center since the 1970s with most of the research staff continuing to work together. Important new investigators have been added over the years. Treatment was empirically based with randomized, controlled clinical trials as the gold standard for determining evidence-based treatment. The patients coming to treatment do not distinguish between abuse of alcohol and other drugs, so the treatment and research programs have always focused on all drugs including ethyl alcohol and the combination of ethyl alcohol with other drugs such as cocaine and opioids. Most of the patients coming for treatment also suffered from additional psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Thus, the addiction treatment program in 1980 absorbed the rest of the VA Psychiatry Service into the Substance Abuse Program forming a new Behavioral Health Service with responsibility for over 9000 patients. The integration of substance abuse treatment with overall mental health care was the most efficient way to handle patients with complicated combinations of disorders. While this continues to be the best way to treat patients, it has proven difficult in practice. The main reason for this difficulty is that most mental health therapists whether they are psychiatrists, psychologists or social workers feel very inadequate

  8. Population Viability Analysis of Riverine Fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, P.; Chandler, J.; Jager, H.I.; Lepla, K.; Van Winkle, W.


    Many utilities face conflkts between two goals: cost-efficient hydropower generation and protecting riverine fishes. Research to develop ecological simulation tools that can evaluate alternative mitigation strategies in terms of their benefits to fish populations is vital to informed decision-making. In this paper, we describe our approach to population viability analysis of riverine fishes in general and Snake River white sturgeon in particular. We are finding that the individual-based modeling approach used in previous in-stream flow applications is well suited to addressing questions about the viability of species of concern for several reasons. Chief among these are: (1) the abiIity to represent the effects of individual variation in life history characteristics on predicted population viabili~, (2) the flexibili~ needed to quanti~ the ecological benefits of alternative flow management options by representing spatial and temporal variation in flow and temperaturty and (3) the flexibility needed to quantifi the ecological benefits of non-flow related manipulations (i.e., passage, screening and hatchery supplementation).

  9. Lessons learned from usability testing of the VA's personal health record. (United States)

    Haggstrom, David A; Saleem, Jason J; Russ, Alissa L; Jones, Josette; Russell, Scott A; Chumbler, Neale R


    In order to create user-centered design information to guide the development of personal health records (PHRs), 24 patients participated in usability assessments of VA's MyHealtheVet program. Observational videos and efficiency measures were collected among users performing four PHR scenarios: registration and log-in, prescription refill, tracking health, and searching for health information. Twenty-five percent of users successfully completed registration. Individuals preferred prescription numbers over names, sometimes due to privacy concerns. Only efficiency in prescription refills was significantly better than target values. Users wanted to print their information to share with their doctors, and questioned the value of MyHealtheVet search functions over existing online health information. In summary, PHR registration must balance simplicity and security, usability tests guide how PHRs can tailor functions to individual preferences, PHRs add value to users' data by making information more accessible and understandable, and healthcare organizations should build trust for PHR health content.

  10. Training satisfaction for subspecialty fellows in internal medicine: Findings from the Veterans Affairs (VA Learners' Perceptions Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne John M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Learner satisfaction assessment is critical in the design and improvement of training programs. However, little is known about what influences satisfaction and whether trainee specialty is correlated. A national comparison of satisfaction among internal medicine subspecialty fellows in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA provides a unique opportunity to examine educational factors associated with learner satisfaction. We compared satisfaction across internal medicine fellows by subspecialty and compared factors associated with satisfaction between procedural versus non-procedural subspecialty fellows, using data from the Learners' Perceptions Survey (LPS, a validated survey tool. Methods We surveyed 2,221 internal medicine subspecialty fellows rotating through VA between 2001 and 2008. Learners rated their overall training satisfaction on a 100-point scale, and on a five-point Likert scale ranked satisfaction with items within six educational domains: learning, clinical, working and physical environments; personal experience; and clinical faculty/preceptor. Results Procedural and non-procedural fellows reported similar overall satisfaction scores (81.2 and 81.6. Non-procedural fellows reported higher satisfaction with 79 of 81 items within the 6 domains and with the domain of physical environment (4.06 vs. 3.85, p Conclusions Internal medicine fellows are highly satisfied with their VA training. Nonprocedural fellows reported higher satisfaction with most items. For both procedural and non-procedural fellows, clinical faculty/preceptor and personal experience have the strongest impact on overall satisfaction.

  11. Determination of the Economic Viability & Technical Feasibility of Commercial Jatropha Curcas Production for Generation of Jatropha oil as Bio-Fuel Feedstock from Wasteland: Final Technical Report on Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Jatropha Cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Arup [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Chikara, Jitendra [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Wheeler, Candace [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States)


    assessment studies were to be performed as a part of the project.

  12. A simple colony-formation assay in liquid medium, termed 'tadpoling', provides a sensitive measure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. (United States)

    Welch, Aaron Z; Koshland, Douglas E


    Here we describe the first high-throughput amenable method of quantifying Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture viability. Current high-throughput methods of assessing yeast cell viability, such as flow cytometry and SGA analysis, do not measure the percentage viability of a culture but instead measure cell vitality or colony fitness, respectively. We developed a method, called tadpoling, to quantify the percentage viability of a yeast culture, with the ability to detect as few as one viable cell amongst ~10(8) dead cells. The most important feature of this assay is the exploitation of yeast colony formation in liquid medium. Utilizing a microtiter dish, we are able to observe a range of viability of 100% to 0.0001%. Comparison of tadpoling to the traditional plating method to measure yeast culture viability reveals that, for the majority of Saccharomyces species analyzed there is no significant difference between the two methods. In comparison to flow cytometry using propidium iodide, the high-throughput method of measuring yeast culture viability, tadpoling is much more accurate at culture viabilities < 1%. Thus, we show that tadpoling provides an easy, inexpensive, space-saving method, amenable to high-throughput screens, for accurately measuring yeast cell viability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Lactate as a novel quantitative measure of viability in Schistosoma mansoni drug sensitivity assays. (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie; Zöphel, Dorina; Subbaraman, Harini; Unger, Clemens; Held, Jana; Engleitner, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H; Kreidenweiss, Andrea


    Whole-organism compound sensitivity assays are a valuable strategy in infectious diseases to identify active molecules. In schistosomiasis drug discovery, larval-stage Schistosoma allows the use of a certain degree of automation in the screening of compounds. Unfortunately, the throughput is limited, as drug activity is determined by manual assessment of Schistosoma viability by microscopy. To develop a simple and quantifiable surrogate marker for viability, we targeted glucose metabolism, which is central to Schistosoma survival. Lactate is the end product of glycolysis in human Schistosoma stages and can be detected in the supernatant. We assessed lactate as a surrogate marker for viability in Schistosoma drug screening assays. We thoroughly investigated parameters of lactate measurement and performed drug sensitivity assays by applying schistosomula and adult worms to establish a proof of concept. Lactate levels clearly reflected the viability of schistosomula and correlated with schistosomulum numbers. Compounds with reported potencies were tested, and activities were determined by lactate assay and by microscopy. We conclude that lactate is a sensitive and simple surrogate marker to be measured to determine Schistosoma viability in compound screening assays. Low numbers of schistosomula and the commercial availability of lactate assay reagents make the assay particularly attractive to throughput approaches. Furthermore, standardization of procedures and quantitative evaluation of compound activities facilitate interassay comparisons of potencies and, thus, concerted drug discovery approaches. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Helman defends decision to pull VA sponsorship of Veterans day parade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Sharon Helman, Phoenix VA Director, defended her decision to cancel VA sponsorship of the annual Phoenix Veterans Day Parade in a 4/10/13 email to VA employees. Helman said that VA sponsorship was cancelled because of “…priorities in the organization (specifically access, and heightened awareness over liability concerns which VA Legal Counsel brought forward”. She concluded her letter by warning “… that all media inquiries should be forwarded to Paul Coupaud, Acting Public Affairs Officer”. VA officials initially said fear of litigation prompted the review of VA support. Last year, a float carrying wounded Veterans in a Midland, Texas, parade collided with a freight train, killing four and injuring 17. Crash victims and their families filed lawsuits in Texas against Union Pacific Railroad and the float owner. The VA was not a defendant, and the VA has not issued any national directives on liability as a result of the tragedy.In…

  15. Differential patterns of myosin Va expression during the ontogenesis of the rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Brinn


    Full Text Available Myosin Va is an actin-based, processive molecular motor protein highly enriched in the nervous tissue of vertebrates. It has been associated with processes of cellular motility, which include organelle transport and neurite outgrowth. The in vivo expression of myosin Va protein in the developing nervous system of mammals has not yet been reported. We describe here the immunolocalization of myosin Va in the developing rat hippocampus. Coronal sections of the embryonic and postnatal rat hippocampus were probed with an affinity-purified, polyclonal anti-myosin Va antibody. Myosin Va was localized in the cytoplasm of granule cells in the dentate gyrus and of pyramidal cells in Ammon's horn formation. Myosin Va expression changed during development, being higher in differentiating rather than already differentiated granule and pyramidal cells. Some of these cells presented a typical migratory profile, while others resembled neurons that were in the process of differentiation. Myosin Va was also transiently expressed in fibers present in the fimbria. Myosin Va was not detected in germinative matrices of the hippocampus proper or of the dentate gyrus. In conclusion, myosin Va expression in both granule and pyramidal cells showed both position and time dependency during hippocampal development, indicating that this motor protein is under developmental regulation.

  16. Huddle up!: The adoption and use of structured team communication for VA medical home implementation. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Hector P; Meredith, Lisa S; Hamilton, Alison B; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V


    Daily clinical team meetings (i.e., "huddles") may be helpful in implementing new roles and responsibilities for patient care because they provide a regular opportunity for member learning and feedback. We examined how huddles were implemented in the context of the VA patient-centered medical home (PCMH) transformation, including assessing barriers and facilitators to regular huddling among small teams ("teamlets"). We assessed the extent to which teamlet members that huddled had higher self-efficacy for PCMH changes, reported better teamwork experiences, and perceived more supportive practice environments. We used a convergent mixed-methods approach to analyze 79 teamlet member interviews from six VA primary care practices and 418 clinician and staff PCMH survey responses from the six interviewed practices and 13 additional practices in the same region. Most members reported participating in teamlet huddles when asked in surveys (85%). A minority of interview participants, however, described routine huddling focused on previsit planning that included all members. When members reported routine teamlet huddling, activities included (a) previsit planning, (b) strategizing treatment plans for patients with special or complex needs, (c) addressing daily workflow and communication issues through collective problem solving, and (d) ensuring awareness of what team members do and what actions are happening on the teamlet and in the practice. Primary care providers (PCPs) were least likely to report routine huddling. PCP huddlers reported greater self-efficacy for implementing PCMH changes. All huddlers, irrespective of role, reported better teamwork and more supportive practice climates. The most common barriers to teamlet huddling were limited time and operational constraints. In order to improve the impact of huddles on patient care, practice leaders should clearly communicate the goals, requirements, and benefits of huddling and provide adequate time and resources to

  17. Fireworks algorithm for mean-VaR/CVaR models (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Zhifeng


    Intelligent algorithms have been widely applied to portfolio optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce a novel intelligent algorithm, named fireworks algorithm, to solve the mean-VaR/CVaR model for the first time. The results show that, compared with the classical genetic algorithm, fireworks algorithm not only improves the optimization accuracy and the optimization speed, but also makes the optimal solution more stable. We repeat our experiments at different confidence levels and different degrees of risk aversion, and the results are robust. It suggests that fireworks algorithm has more advantages than genetic algorithm in solving the portfolio optimization problem, and it is feasible and promising to apply it into this field.

  18. Factor Va alternative conformation reconstruction using atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Chaves, R C; Dahmane, S; Odorico, M; Nicolaes, G A F; Pellequer, J-L


    Protein conformational variability (or dynamics) for large macromolecules and its implication for their biological function attracts more and more attention. Collective motions of domains increase the ability of a protein to bind to partner molecules. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) topographic images, it is possible to take snapshots of large multi-component macromolecules at the single molecule level and to reconstruct complete molecular conformations. Here, we report the application of a reconstruction protocol, named AFM-assembly, to characterise the conformational variability of the two C domains of human coagulation factor Va (FVa). Using AFM topographic surfaces obtained in liquid environment, it is shown that the angle between C1 and C2 domains of FVa can vary between 40° and 166°. Such dynamical variation in C1 and C2 domain arrangement may have important implications regarding the binding of FVa to phospholipid membranes.

  19. Archetypal Analysis of "Almalek and Albrahmh” from Kalila va Demna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Noori


    Full Text Available Archetype Theory, has been raised from Carl Gustav Young’s Psychoanalytical School. Young knows mental images and Sediments and Hereditary information which there are in the collective unconscious as Archetype. In other word, archetype is general type of repeated experiences and behaviors of human forefathers which rooted in collective unconscious. the most important Archetypes are "Anima"," Animus", "old wise man", "shadow", "mask", "rebirth" ,and "self" and "individuality". Kalila va Demna is the book which is full of allegorical stories, which because of their mythical aspect, are researchable from Archetypal Analytic criticism. One of this stories which Archetypal color is Dominant in it, is "Almalek and Albrahmh” from 16th chapter of Kalila va Demna. In this study, some archetypes such as "shadow", "Anima", "mask", "old wise man", " self " and "individuality" in the story of "Almalek and Albrahmh" from sixteenth chapter of book, has been analyzed. Since either this tale because of being legendary, and consisting of series of dreams – which have given it mythical, symbolic and interpretable nature – has capacity for archetypal analysis, or archetypal approach has high capacity and power to analyze such narrations. The story was investigated on mentioned view, and it was found that king Heblar which has stricken to a kind of Psychosis, Finds its way into the subconscious through dreams and After a confrontation with his anima, under guidance of old wise meets his self (true self and reach to his individuality and Is rescued from distress. It can be said that the king starts his path of the individual process with a dream.  He, in the bigining of the story, with the help of Iran Dokht and at the end of the story, with the help of minister is released of grief and psychosis.

  20. InterVA-4 as a public health tool for measuring HIV/AIDS mortality: a validation study from five African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Byass


    Full Text Available Background: Reliable population-based data on HIV infection and AIDS mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are scanty, even though that is the region where most of the world’s AIDS deaths occur. There is therefore a great need for reliable and valid public health tools for assessing AIDS mortality. Objective: The aim of this article is to validate the InterVA-4 verbal autopsy (VA interpretative model within African populations where HIV sero-status is recorded on a prospective basis, and examine the distribution of cause-specific mortality among HIV-positive and HIV-negative people. Design: Data from six sites of the Alpha Network, including HIV sero-status and VA interviews, were pooled. VA data according to the 2012 WHO format were extracted, and processed using the InterVA-4 model into likely causes of death. The model was blinded to the sero-status data. Cases with known pre-mortem HIV infection status were used to determine the specificity with which InterVA-4 could attribute HIV/AIDS as a cause of death. Cause-specific mortality fractions by HIV infection status were calculated, and a person-time model was built to analyse adjusted cause-specific mortality rate ratios. Results: The InterVA-4 model identified HIV/AIDS-related deaths with a specificity of 90.1% (95% CI 88.7–91.4%. Overall sensitivity could not be calculated, because HIV-positive people die from a range of causes. In a person-time model including 1,739 deaths in 1,161,688 HIV-negative person-years observed and 2,890 deaths in 75,110 HIV-positive person-years observed, the mortality ratio HIV-positive:negative was 29.0 (95% CI 27.1–31.0, after adjustment for age, sex, and study site. Cause-specific HIV-positive:negative mortality ratios for acute respiratory infections, HIV/AIDS-related deaths, meningitis, tuberculosis, and malnutrition were higher than the all-cause ratio; all causes had HIV-positive:negative mortality ratios significantly higher than unity. Conclusions

  1. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie


    Purpose: Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses......, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Methods: Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated...... and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Results: Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p

  2. Artificial evolution by viability rather than competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Maesani

    Full Text Available Evolutionary algorithms are widespread heuristic methods inspired by natural evolution to solve difficult problems for which analytical approaches are not suitable. In many domains experimenters are not only interested in discovering optimal solutions, but also in finding the largest number of different solutions satisfying minimal requirements. However, the formulation of an effective performance measure describing these requirements, also known as fitness function, represents a major challenge. The difficulty of combining and weighting multiple problem objectives and constraints of possibly varying nature and scale into a single fitness function often leads to unsatisfactory solutions. Furthermore, selective reproduction of the fittest solutions, which is inspired by competition-based selection in nature, leads to loss of diversity within the evolving population and premature convergence of the algorithm, hindering the discovery of many different solutions. Here we present an alternative abstraction of artificial evolution, which does not require the formulation of a composite fitness function. Inspired from viability theory in dynamical systems, natural evolution and ethology, the proposed method puts emphasis on the elimination of individuals that do not meet a set of changing criteria, which are defined on the problem objectives and constraints. Experimental results show that the proposed method maintains higher diversity in the evolving population and generates more unique solutions when compared to classical competition-based evolutionary algorithms. Our findings suggest that incorporating viability principles into evolutionary algorithms can significantly improve the applicability and effectiveness of evolutionary methods to numerous complex problems of science and engineering, ranging from protein structure prediction to aircraft wing design.

  3. Soybean farm-saved seed viability and vigor as influenced by agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 31, 2016 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: The experiment was conducted with the aim of assessing the soybean farm-saved seed viability and vigor as influenced by agro-ecological conditions of Meru South Sub-County, Kenya. Methodology and results: Within one month of harvest, soybean farm-saved-seed was randomly ...

  4. Development and viability of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Baveco, J.M.


    We monitored survival, reproduction and emigration of a translocated beaver Castor fiber population in the Netherlands for five years and used a stochastic model to assess its viability. Between 1988 and 1991, 42 beavers were released in the Biesbosch National Park. The mortality was initially high

  5. Soybean farm-saved seed viability and vigor as influenced by agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The experiment was conducted with the aim of assessing the soybean farm-saved seed viability and vigor as influenced by agro-ecological conditions of Meru South Sub-County, Kenya. Methodology and results: Within one month of harvest, soybean farm-saved-seed was randomly sampled from 30 households ...

  6. Comparing the health status of VA and non-VA ambulatory patients: the veterans' health and medical outcomes studies. (United States)

    Rogers, William H; Kazis, Lewis E; Miller, Donald R; Skinner, Katherine M; Clark, Jack A; Spiro, Avron; Fincke, R Graeme


    The purpose of this study was to compare health status and disease profiles of ambulatory patients in specific Veterans Administration (VA) and civilian healthcare settings. A random sample of 2425 male veterans seeking care at 4 Boston-area VA outpatient clinics, who took part in the Veterans Health Study (VHS) in 1993-1995, were compared to 1318 male patients seeking civilian outpatient care in 3 major metropolitan areas covered in the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) in 1986. The MOS sampled patients who had 1 of 5 conditions--hypertension, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, recent myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or depression. These 2 samples were age adjusted and compared in terms of the SF-36 Health Status/Quality of Life measures, and a list of 100 clinical variables (diagnostic, symptom, and medical event reports) collected with comparable instruments by a trained clinical observer. Individual odds ratios (VHS to MOS) were calculated for each measure and clinical variables. SF-36 measures of patient health in the VHS were lower than those in the MOS by more than one half of a standard deviation (SD) on 4 of 8 scales, by more than one quarter of a SD on the other 4, by 58% of a SD on the physical health summary scale, and by 37% of a SD on the mental health summary scale (P illness burden than did patients in the MOS. Current economic condition and service-connected disability explain most, if not all, of the differences. The differences were clinically and socially meaningful and would be consistent with substantially higher expected healthcare use.

  7. Non-destructive monitoring of viability in an ex vivo organ culture model of osteochondral tissue. (United States)

    Elson, K M; Fox, N; Tipper, J L; Kirkham, J; Hall, R M; Fisher, J; Ingham, E


    Organ culture is an increasingly important tool in research, with advantages over monolayer cell culture due to the inherent natural environment of tissues. Successful organ cultures must retain cell viability. The aim of this study was to produce viable and non-viable osteochondral organ cultures, to assess the accumulation of soluble markers in the conditioned medium for predicting tissue viability. Porcine femoral osteochondral plugs were cultured for 20 days, with the addition of Triton X-100 on day 6 (to induce necrosis), camptothecin (to induce apoptosis) or no toxic additives. Tissue viability was assessed by the tissue destructive XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide tetrazolium salt) assay method and LIVE/DEAD® staining of the cartilage at days 0, 6 and 20. Tissue structure was assessed by histological evaluation using haematoxylin & eosin and safranin O. Conditioned medium was assessed every 3-4 days for glucose depletion, and levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Necrotic cultures immediately showed a reduction in glucose consumption, and an immediate increase in LDH, GAG, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Apoptotic cultures showed a delayed reduction in glucose consumption and delayed increase in LDH, a small rise in MMP-2 and MMP-9, but no significant effect on GAGs released into the conditioned medium. The data showed that tissue viability could be monitored by assessing the conditioned medium for the aforementioned markers, negating the need for tissue destructive assays. Physiologically relevant whole- or part-joint organ culture models, necessary for research and pre-clinical assessment of therapies, could be monitored this way, reducing the need to sacrifice tissues to determine viability, and hence reducing the sample numbers necessary.

  8. Viability assessment of in vitro produced synthetic seeds of cucumber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mature somatic embryos were encapsulated in sodium alginate mixture in synthetic seeds. The encapsulation mixture containing 3% sodium alginate, 100 mM calcium chloride and one-fourth volume of the cell suspension nutrient mixture containing 5x10-4 somatic embryos per ml was found the best. Synthetic seeds ...

  9. Terrestrial species viability assessments for national forests in northeastern Washington (United States)

    William L. Gaines; Barbara C. Wales; Lowell H. Suring; James S. Begley; Kim Mellen-McLean; Shawne. Mohoric


    We developed a process to address terrestrial wildlife species for which management for ecosystem diversity may be inadequate for providing ecological conditions capable of sustaining viable populations. The process includes (1) identifying species of conservation concern, (2) describing source habitats, and other important ecological factors, (3) organizing species...

  10. Framework for assessing the viability of implementing dual water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A dual water reticulation system comprises separate pipes that supply different water qualities to the end consumer. A set of pipes supply potable water while another set of pipes supply non-potable water. The non-potable water is targeted at meeting water requirements traditionally met using potable water (e.g. toilet and ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia


    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  12. 75 FR 6098 - VA Veteran-Owned Small Business Verification Guidelines (United States)


    ... verification are brand new and have not yet applied for any Federal or VA contracts. Also VA finds that... of his/her time to managing the concern.'' This commenter further recommended ``permitting the..., environmental, public health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity). The Executive...

  13. Homeless Veterans: Management Improvements Could Help VA Better Identify Supportive Housing Projects (United States)


    HOMELESS VETERANS Management Improvements Could Help VA Better Identify Supportive-Housing Projects Report to...VETERANS Management Improvements Could Help VA Better Identify Supportive-Housing Projects What GAO Found As of September 2016, for veterans who...disabled veterans. These supportive-housing EULs receive project -based HUD-VASH vouchers, which provide housing subsidies, on-site case management

  14. 78 FR 28949 - Fund Availability Under VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (Rehabilitation) (United States)


    ... Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program, Department of Veterans Affairs, 10770 North 46th Street... AFFAIRS Fund Availability Under VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (Rehabilitation) AGENCY... grantee facilities originally funded under VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (see funding...

  15. 77 FR 56709 - Proposed Information Collection (VA Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-Owned... (United States)


    ... Information Collection (VA Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business and Veteran... needed to collect information from subcontractors to compare information obtained from subcontracting... collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: VA Subcontracting Report...

  16. 77 FR 70210 - Agency Information Collection (VA Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-owned Small... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-owned Small....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: VA Subcontracting Report for Service Disabled Veteran-owned Small Business and... from subcontractors to compare information obtained from subcontracting plans submitted by prime...

  17. 38 CFR 58.16 - VA Form 10-0144-Certification Regarding Lobbying. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VA Form 10-0144-Certification Regarding Lobbying. 58.16 Section 58.16 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FORMS § 58.16 VA Form 10-0144—Certification Regarding Lobbying. ER06JA00.013 ...

  18. PSO-based optimization of PI regulator and VA loading of a SRF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    results show that the proposed PSO technique causes minimum error and minimum VA loading angle by optimally choosing parameters of PI and minimum VA angle as compared to GA technique. Keywords: Active power filter (APF), synchronous reference frame (SRF), Genetic algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm. Optimization ...

  19. 75 FR 25321 - Agency Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Wheelchair Games Application, VA Form 0925a series. c. National Veterans Golden Age Games Application, VA... therapeutic rehabilitation programs such as the National Veterans Wheelchair Games, National Veterans Golden...

  20. 75 FR 9277 - Proposed Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... period, comments may be viewed online through FDMS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matt Bristol at (202... Sports Clinic Application, VA Form 0924--233 hours. b. National Veterans Wheelchair Games Application, VA...

  1. 78 FR 55777 - Proposed Information Collection (VA, National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Events, Event... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed online through FDMS. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... Wheelchair Games Event Application, VA Form 0925b. f. Voluntary Service Application, VA Form 0925d. g...

  2. 78 FR 48543 - Veterans Health Administration Fund Availability Under the VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Veterans Health Administration Fund Availability Under the VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per... continue to deliver services to the homeless Special Need veteran population as outlined in their FY 2009.... Quarles, Director, VA's Homeless Providers GPD Program, Department of Veterans Affairs, 10770 N. 46th...

  3. 48 CFR 853.236-70 - VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal. 853.236-70 Section 853.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...-Engineer Fee Proposal. VA Form 10-6298, Architect-Engineer Fee Proposal, shall be used as prescribed in 836...

  4. Comparing VA and private sector healthcare costs for end-stage renal disease. (United States)

    Hynes, Denise M; Stroupe, Kevin T; Fischer, Michael J; Reda, Domenic J; Manning, Willard; Browning, Margaret M; Huo, Zhiping; Saban, Karen; Kaufman, James S


    Healthcare for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is intensive, expensive, and provided in both the public and private sector. Using a societal perspective, we examined healthcare costs and health outcomes for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ESRD patients comparing those who received hemodialysis care at VA versus private sector facilities. Dialysis patients were recruited from 8 VA medical centers from 2001 through 2003 and followed for 12 months in a prospective cohort study. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, quality of life, healthcare use, and cost data were collected. Healthcare data included utilization (VA), claims (Medicare), and patient self-report. Costs included VA calculated costs, Medicare dialysis facility reports and reimbursement rates, and patient self-report. Multivariable regression was used to compare costs between patients receiving dialysis at VA versus private sector facilities. The cohort comprised 334 patients: 170 patients in the VA dialysis group and 164 patients in the private sector group. The VA dialysis group had more comorbidities at baseline, outpatient and emergency visits, prescriptions, and longer hospital stays; they also had more conservative anemia management and lower baseline urea reduction ratio (67% vs. 72%; Pprivate sector dialysis group (Pprivate sector settings is critical in informing health policy options for patients with complex chronic illnesses such as ESRD.

  5. 78 FR 77204 - Proposed Information Collection (VA National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Event Surveys... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VA National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Event Surveys... solicits comments on the information needed to evaluate the National Veterans Sports Programs and Special... ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (VA National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Event Surveys)'' in any...

  6. 76 FR 44288 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at New Market, VA, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for New Market Airport. This action...

  7. 77 FR 75918 - VA Health Professional Scholarship and Visual Impairment and Orientation and Mobility... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO34 VA Health Professional Scholarship and Visual Impairment and Orientation and Mobility Professional Scholarship Programs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... Professional Scholarship Program (HPSP) regulations. VA also proposes to establish regulations for a new...

  8. 78 FR 51067 - VA Health Professional Scholarship and Visual Impairment and Orientation and Mobility... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO34 VA Health Professional Scholarship and Visual Impairment and Orientation and Mobility Professional Scholarship Programs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... Scholarship Program (HPSP) regulations. VA is also establishing regulations for a new program, the Visual...

  9. 38 CFR 17.96 - Medication prescribed by non-VA physicians. (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Outpatient Treatment § 17.96 Medication prescribed by non-VA physicians. Any prescription... of osteopathy duly licensed to practice in the jurisdiction where the prescription is written, shall... contract with VA for filling prescriptions for patients in state homes, provided: (a) The prescription is...

  10. 48 CFR 852.219-9 - VA Small business subcontracting plan minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... Provisions and Clauses 852.219-9 VA Small business subcontracting plan minimum requirements. As prescribed in subpart 819.709, insert the following clause: VA Small Business Subcontracting Plan Minimum Requirements... plan, the minimum goals for award of subcontracts to service-disabled veteran-owned small business...

  11. 75 FR 60171 - Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA... Affairs (VA), is announcing an opportunity for public comment on the proposed collection of certain... publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each...

  12. 78 FR 60379 - Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Credit Underwriting Standards and Procedures for Processing VA... Affairs (VA), is announcing an opportunity for public comment on the proposed collection of certain... publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each...

  13. Cell adhesion and viability of human endothelial cells on electrospun polymer scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matschegewski Claudia


    Full Text Available The usage of electrospun polymer scaffolds is a promising approach for artificial heart valve design. This study aims at the evaluation of biological performance of nanofibrous polymer scaffolds poly(L-lactide PLLA L210, PLLA L214 and polyamide-6 fabricated by electrospinning via analyzing viability, adhesion and morphology of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926. Nanofibrous surface topography was shown to influence cell phenotype and cell viability according to the observation of diminished cell spreading accompanied with reduced cell viability on nonwovens. Among those, highest biocompatibility was assessed for PLLA L214, although being generally low when compared to the planar control surface. Electrospinning was demonstrated as an innovative technique for the fabrication of advanced biomaterials aiming at guided cellular behavior as well as the design of novel implant platforms. A better understanding of cell–biomaterial interactions is desired to further improve implant development.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  15. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze


    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  16. VA Health Professional Scholarship and Visual Impairment and Orientation and Mobility Professional Scholarship Programs. Final rule. (United States)


    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its VA Health Professional Scholarship Program (HPSP) regulations. VA is also establishing regulations for a new program, the Visual Impairment and Orientation and Mobility Professional Scholarship Program (VIOMPSP). These regulations comply with and implement sections 302 and 603 of the Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010 (the 2010 Act). Section 302 of the 2010 Act established the VIOMPSP, which authorizes VA to provide financial assistance to certain students seeking a degree in visual impairment or orientation or mobility, in order to increase the supply of qualified blind rehabilitation specialists for VA and the United States. Section 603 of the 2010 Act reauthorized and modified HPSP, a program that provides scholarships for education or training in certain health care occupations.

  17. L'Agnese va a morire (novela, fragmento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Viganò


    Full Text Available RENATA VIGANÒ (Bologna, 1900 - 1976, iniciada en la poesía desde muy pequeña, la mala situación económica familiar y la llegada del fascismo la obligaron a dejar temporalmente sus dos grandes pasiones, la medicina y la literatura, para volcarse, en calidad de correo, enlace y enfermera, a la causa partisana, una verdadera “scuola di partito” a la que llegó de la mano del que sería su compañero por el resto de su vida, Antonio Meluschi. Su experiencia entre los partisanos, primero en la zona de Romagna y luego en el valle de Comacchio, le sirvió de materia para su obra maestra, L’Agnese va a morire, de la que ofrecemos la traducción de su capítulo IV. La obra está considerada una de las novelas más significativas de la posguerra italiana y precursora, en ciertos aspectos, del neorrealismo. Escrita en 1949, la novela le valió ese mismo año el premio Viareggio. Aunque el mismo tema es parte ineludible de otras narraciones como Donne nella Resistenza (1955 o Matrimonio in brigata (1976, todas ellas con un importante transfondo autobiográfico, Renata Viganò sigue siendo hoy en día especialmente recordada por su Agnese va a morire, de la que en 1976 Giuliano Montaldo realizó una exitosa adaptación con la actriz Ingrid Thullin en el papel de Agnese. El fragmento seleccionado, con traducción de Sara Garrote Gutiérrez, se encuentra al inicio de la novela: Agnese acaba de perder a su marido, Palita, muerto en una prisión nazi a la que ha ido a parar tras la denuncia de una vecina que vio cómo escondía a un desertor, y, poco a poco, empieza a colaborar con los grupos partisanos de la zona.

  18. Identifying Homelessness among Veterans Using VA Administrative Data: Opportunities to Expand Detection Criteria (United States)

    Peterson, Rachel; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Metraux, Stephen; Carter, Marjorie E.; Palmer, Miland; Redd, Andrew; Samore, Matthew H.; Fargo, Jamison D.


    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) have used administrative criteria to identify homelessness among U.S. Veterans. Our objective was to explore the use of these codes in VA health care facilities. We examined VA health records (2002-2012) of Veterans recently separated from the military and identified as homeless using VA conventional identification criteria (ICD-9-CM code V60.0, VA specific codes for homeless services), plus closely allied V60 codes indicating housing instability. Logistic regression analyses examined differences between Veterans who received these codes. Health care services and co-morbidities were analyzed in the 90 days post-identification of homelessness. VA conventional criteria identified 21,021 homeless Veterans from Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn (rate 2.5%). Adding allied V60 codes increased that to 31,260 (rate 3.3%). While certain demographic differences were noted, Veterans identified as homeless using conventional or allied codes were similar with regards to utilization of homeless, mental health, and substance abuse services, as well as co-morbidities. Differences were noted in the pattern of usage of homelessness-related diagnostic codes in VA facilities nation-wide. Creating an official VA case definition for homelessness, which would include additional ICD-9-CM and other administrative codes for VA homeless services, would likely allow improved identification of homeless and at-risk Veterans. This also presents an opportunity for encouraging uniformity in applying these codes in VA facilities nationwide as well as in other large health care organizations. PMID:26172386

  19. Identifying Homelessness among Veterans Using VA Administrative Data: Opportunities to Expand Detection Criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Peterson

    Full Text Available Researchers at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA have used administrative criteria to identify homelessness among U.S. Veterans. Our objective was to explore the use of these codes in VA health care facilities. We examined VA health records (2002-2012 of Veterans recently separated from the military and identified as homeless using VA conventional identification criteria (ICD-9-CM code V60.0, VA specific codes for homeless services, plus closely allied V60 codes indicating housing instability. Logistic regression analyses examined differences between Veterans who received these codes. Health care services and co-morbidities were analyzed in the 90 days post-identification of homelessness. VA conventional criteria identified 21,021 homeless Veterans from Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn (rate 2.5%. Adding allied V60 codes increased that to 31,260 (rate 3.3%. While certain demographic differences were noted, Veterans identified as homeless using conventional or allied codes were similar with regards to utilization of homeless, mental health, and substance abuse services, as well as co-morbidities. Differences were noted in the pattern of usage of homelessness-related diagnostic codes in VA facilities nation-wide. Creating an official VA case definition for homelessness, which would include additional ICD-9-CM and other administrative codes for VA homeless services, would likely allow improved identification of homeless and at-risk Veterans. This also presents an opportunity for encouraging uniformity in applying these codes in VA facilities nationwide as well as in other large health care organizations.

  20. The use of VA Disability Compensation and Social Security Disability Insurance among working-aged veterans. (United States)

    Wilmoth, Janet M; London, Andrew S; Heflin, Colleen M


    Although there is substantial disability among veterans, relatively little is known about working-aged veterans' uptake of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Disability Compensation and Social Security Disability Insurance (DI). This study identifies levels of veteran participation in VA disability and/or DI benefit programs, examines transitions into and out of VA and DI programs among veterans, and estimates the size and composition of the veteran population receiving VA and/or DI benefits over time. Data from the 1992, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2004, and 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) are used to describe VA and DI program participation among veterans under the age of 65. The majority of working-aged veterans do not receive VA or DI benefits and joint participation is low, but use of these programs has increased over time. A higher percentage of veterans receive VA compensation, which ranges from 4.9% in 1992 to 13.2% in 2008, than DI compensation, which ranges from 2.9% in 1992 to 6.7% in 2008. The rate of joint participation ranges from less than 1% in 1992 to 3.6% in 2008. Veterans experience few transitions between VA and DI programs during the 36-48 months they are observed. The number of veterans receiving benefits from VA and/or DI nearly doubled between 1992 and 2008. There have been substantial shifts in the composition of veterans using these programs, as cohorts who served prior to 1964 are replaced by those who served after 1964. The findings suggest potential gaps in veterans' access to disability programs that might be addressed through improved coordination of VA and DI benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytotoxicity and Effects on Cell Viability of Nickel Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Jose E.


    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles are finding an increased use in biomedical applications and research. Nanobeads are widely used for cell separation, biosensing and cancer therapy, among others. Due to their properties, nanowires (NWs) are gaining ground for similar applications and, as with all biomaterials, their cytotoxicity is an important factor to be considered before conducting biological studies with them. In this work, the cytotoxic effects of nickel NWs (Ni NWs) were investigated in terms of cell viability and damage to the cellular membrane. Ni NWs with an average diameter of 30-34 nm were prepared by electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina templates. The templates were obtained by a two-step anodization process with oxalic acid on an aluminum substrate. Characterization of NWs was done using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDAX), whereas their morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cell viability studies were carried out on human colorectal carcinoma cells HCT 116 by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cell proliferation colorimetric assay, whereas the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) homogenous membrane fluorimetric assay was used to measure the degree of cell membrane rupture. The density of cell seeding was calculated to obtain a specific cell number and confluency before treatment with NWs. Optical readings of the cell-reduced MTT products were measured at 570 nm, whereas fluorescent LDH membrane leakage was recorded with an excitation wavelength of 525 nm and an emission wavelength of 580 - 640 nm. The effects of NW length, cell exposure time, as well as NW:cell ratio, were evaluated through both cytotoxic assays. The results show that cell viability due to Ni NWs is affected depending on both exposure time and NW number. On the other hand, membrane rupture and leakage was only significant at later exposure times. Both

  2. Sperm viability staining in ecology and evolution: potential pitfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke


    a number of interesting results, it has some potential pitfalls that have rarely been discussed. In the present paper, I review the major findings of ecology and evolution studies employing sperm viability staining and outline the method's principle limitations. The key problem is that the viability assay......The causes and consequences of variation in sperm quality, survival and ageing are active areas of research in ecology and evolution. In order to address these topics, many recent studies have measured sperm viability using fluorescent staining. Although sperm viability staining has produced...

  3. Fault Detection and Isolation using Viability Theory and Interval Observers (United States)

    Ghaniee Zarch, Majid; Puig, Vicenç; Poshtan, Javad


    This paper proposes the use of interval observers and viability theory in fault detection and isolation (FDI). Viability theory develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty. These methods can be used for checking the consistency between observed and predicted behavior by using simple sets that approximate the exact set of possible behavior (in the parameter or state space). In this paper, fault detection is based on checking for an inconsistency between the measured and predicted behaviors using viability theory concepts and sets. Finally, an example is provided in order to show the usefulness of the proposed approach.

  4. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of storage conditions on the viability of enteropathogenics bacteria in biobanking of human stools: Cases of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae O: 1.

  5. Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Christ; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal; Limpaitoon, Tanachai; Phan, Trucy; Megel, Olivier; Chang, Jessica; DeForest, Nicholas


    Non-residential sectors offer many promising applications for electrical storage (batteries) and photovoltaics (PVs). However, choosing and operating storage under complex tariff structures poses a daunting technical and economic problem that may discourage potential customers and result in lost carbon and economic savings. Equipment vendors are unlikely to provide adequate environmental analysis or unbiased economic results to potential clients, and are even less likely to completely describe the robustness of choices in the face of changing fuel prices and tariffs. Given these considerations, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have designed the Storage Viability and Optimization Web Service (SVOW): a tool that helps building owners, operators and managers to decide if storage technologies and PVs merit deeper analysis. SVOW is an open access, web-based energy storage and PV analysis calculator, accessible by secure remote login. Upon first login, the user sees an overview of the parameters: load profile, tariff, technologies, and solar radiation location. Each parameter has a pull-down list of possible predefined inputs and users may upload their own as necessary. Since the non-residential sectors encompass a broad range of facilities with fundamentally different characteristics, the tool starts by asking the users to select a load profile from a limited cohort group of example facilities. The example facilities are categorized according to their North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code. After the load profile selection, users select a predefined tariff or use the widget to create their own. The technologies and solar radiation menus operate in a similar fashion. After these four parameters have been inputted, the users have to select an optimization setting as well as an optimization objective. The analytic engine of SVOW is LBNL?s Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), which is a mixed

  6. Continuation of Iranshahri Thoughts in Kalileh va Demne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Zahirinav


    Full Text Available In this essay, Iranshahri’s thoughts such as ideal king, divine charisma, togetherness of religion and kingdom, justice, truth etc in kalileh va Demneh are investigated. In Kalileh and Demneh, kingdom is a divine gift and the king is at the center of the state affairs. Therefore, affection and kindness must be imprinted on his forehead, otherwise he would be a devilish creature who disturbs governing orders of the universe. He must metaphysically be supported in the circus of governmental affairs, and this is possible only by divine charisma. Such a king must be decorated with justice ornament, so that every body does his best in his own special class and approaches the salvation of soul. The king must also be decorated with accomplishments such as battle assistance and with virtues such as religion assistance. He must strengthen the social connection by “truth”. Basically, without truth life has no harmony because falsehood diverts life form its regular direction. But finally, with the dominance of divine forces over devilish ones, utopia, which is a secure place for releasing from disorder and injustice is proven to be true. Therefore, we conclude that Kalileh and Demneh has a contribution to the continuation of Iranshahri’s thoughts and also to the historical and cultural continuation of Iran in transition to the Islamic period.

  7. Incorporating evolutionary processes into population viability models. (United States)

    Pierson, Jennifer C; Beissinger, Steven R; Bragg, Jason G; Coates, David J; Oostermeijer, J Gerard B; Sunnucks, Paul; Schumaker, Nathan H; Trotter, Meredith V; Young, Andrew G


    We examined how ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) processes in population dynamics could be better integrated into population viability analysis (PVA). Complementary advances in computation and population genomics can be combined into an eco-evo PVA to offer powerful new approaches to understand the influence of evolutionary processes on population persistence. We developed the mechanistic basis of an eco-evo PVA using individual-based models with individual-level genotype tracking and dynamic genotype-phenotype mapping to model emergent population-level effects, such as local adaptation and genetic rescue. We then outline how genomics can allow or improve parameter estimation for PVA models by providing genotypic information at large numbers of loci for neutral and functional genome regions. As climate change and other threatening processes increase in rate and scale, eco-evo PVAs will become essential research tools to evaluate the effects of adaptive potential, evolutionary rescue, and locally adapted traits on persistence. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Test-retest reliability of the VA National Center for Patient Safety culture questionnaire. (United States)

    Shiner, Brian; Ronconi, Julia M; McKnight, Scott; Young-Xu, Yinong; Mills, Peter D; Watts, Bradley V


    Patient safety culture may have a significant influence on safety processes and outcomes. Therefore, it is important to have valid tools to measure patient safety culture in order to identify potential levers for cultural change that could improve patient safety. The 65-item Department of Veterans Affairs Patient Safety Culture Survey (VA PSCS) consists of 14 dimensions and is administered biannually to VA employees. Test-retest reliability of the VA PSCS has not been established. We conducted repeated administrations of the VA PSCS among 28 VA employees. We measured intraclass correlation coefficients for each item and dimension. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.7 or greater for 13 out of 14 dimensions of the VA PSCS. Employees had difficulty reliably reporting how others feel about patient safety. In general, the VA PSCS survey showed adequate test-retest reliability. Items asking what others think or feel showed lower reliability. Further work is needed to better understand the relationship between safety culture, safety processes and safety outcomes. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Myocardial viability estimation during the recovery phase of stress echocardiography after acute beta-blocker administration. (United States)

    Karagiannis, Stefanos E; Feringa, Harm H H; Bax, Jeroen J; Elhendy, Abdu; Dunkelgrun, Martin; Vidakovic, Radosav; Hoeks, S E; van Domburg, Ron; Valhema, Roelf; Cokkinos, Dennis V; Poldermans, Don


    Myocardial viability assessment in severely dysfunctional segments by dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is less sensitive than nuclear scanning. To assess the additional value of using the recovery phase of DSE after acute beta-blocker administration for identifying viable myocardium. The study included 49 consecutive patients with ejection fraction (LVEF)DISA-SPECT) evaluation for viability of severely dysfunctional segments. Patients with >or=4 viable segments were considered viable. Coronary revascularization followed within 3 months in all patients. Radionuclide evaluation of LVEF was performed before and 12 months after revascularization. Viability with DISA-SPECT was detected in 463 (59%) segments, while 154 (19.7%) segments presented as scar. The number of viable segments increased from 415 (53%) at DSE to 463 (59%) at DSE and recovery, and the number of viable patients increased from 43 to 49 respectively. LVEF improved by >or=5% in 27 patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed that, DSE with recovery phase was the only independent predictor of >or=5% LVEF improvement after revascularization (OR 14.6, CI 1.4-133.7). In this study, we demonstrate that the recovery phase of DSE has an increased sensitivity for viability estimation compared to low-high dose DSE.

  10. Probabilistic methods for verbal autopsy interpretation: InterVA robustness in relation to variations in a priori probabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Fottrell

    Full Text Available InterVA is a probabilistic method for interpreting verbal autopsy (VA data. It uses a priori approximations of probabilities relating to diseases and symptoms to calculate the probability of specific causes of death given reported symptoms recorded in a VA interview. The extent to which InterVA's ability to characterise a population's mortality composition might be sensitive to variations in these a priori probabilities was investigated.A priori InterVA probabilities were changed by 1, 2 or 3 steps on the logarithmic scale on which the original probabilities were based. These changes were made to a random selection of 25% and 50% of the original probabilities, giving six model variants. A random sample of 1,000 VAs from South Africa, were used as a basis for experimentation and were processed using the original InterVA model and 20 random instances of each of the six InterVA model variants. Rank order of cause of death and cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs from the original InterVA model and the mean, maximum and minimum results from the 20 randomly modified InterVA models for each of the six variants were compared.CSMFs were functionally similar between the original InterVA model and the models with modified a priori probabilities such that even the CSMFs based on the InterVA model with the greatest degree of variation in the a priori probabilities would not lead to substantially different public health conclusions. The rank order of causes were also similar between all versions of InterVA.InterVA is a robust model for interpreting VA data and even relatively large variations in a priori probabilities do not affect InterVA-derived results to a great degree. The original physician-derived a priori probabilities are likely to be sufficient for the global application of InterVA in settings without routine death certification.

  11. Variation in Utilization of Health Care Services for Rural VA Enrollees With Mental Health-Related Diagnoses. (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher E; Bush, Ruth L; Harman, Jeffrey; Bolin, Jane; Evans Hudnall, Gina; Nguyen, Ann M


    Rural-dwelling Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) enrollees are at high risk for a wide variety of mental health-related disorders. The objective of this study is to examine the variation in the types of mental and nonmental health services received by rural VA enrollees who have a mental health-related diagnosis. The Andersen and Aday behavioral model of health services use and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data were used to examine how VA enrollees with mental health-related diagnoses accessed places of care from 1999 to 2009. Population survey weights were applied to the MEPS data, and logit regression was conducted to model how predisposing, enabling, and need factors influence rural veteran health services use (measured by visits to different places of care). Analyses were performed on the subpopulations: rural VA, rural non-VA, urban VA, and urban non-VA enrollees. For all types of care, both rural and urban VA enrollees received care from inpatient, outpatient, office-based, and emergency room settings at higher odds than urban non-VA enrollees. Rural VA enrollees also received all types of care from inpatient, office-based, and emergency room settings at higher odds than urban VA enrollees. Rural VA enrollees had higher odds of a mental health visit of any kind compared to urban VA and non-VA enrollees. Based on these variations, the VA may want to develop strategies to increase screening efforts in inpatient settings and emergency rooms to further capture rural VA enrollees who have undiagnosed mental health conditions. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  12. Evidence for substantial maintenance of membrane integrity and cell viability in normally developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries throughout development. (United States)

    Krasnow, Mark; Matthews, Mark; Shackel, Ken


    Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) was used as a vital stain to assay membrane integrity (cell viability) in mesocarp tissue of the developing grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry in order to test the hypothesis that there is a substantial loss of compartmentation in these cells during ripening. This technique was also used to determine whether loss of viability was associated with symptoms of a ripening disorder known as berry shrivel. FDA fluorescence of berry cells was rapid, bright, and stable for over 1 h at room temperature. Confocal microscopy detected FDA staining through two to three intact surface cell layers (300-400 mum) of bisected berries, and showed that the fluorescence was confined to the cytoplasm, indicating the maintenance of integrity in both cytoplasmic as well as vacuolar membranes, and the presence of active cytoplasmic esterases. FDA clearly discriminated between living cells and freeze-killed cells, and exhibited little, if any, non-specific staining. Propidium iodide and DAPI, both widely used to assess cell viability, were unable to discriminate between living and freeze-killed cells, and did not specifically stain the nuclei of dead cells. For normally developing berries under field conditions there was no evidence of viability loss until about 40 d after veraison, and the majority (80%) of mesocarp cells remained viable past commercial harvest (26 degrees Brix). These results are inconsistent with current models of grape berry development which hypothesize that veraison is associated with a general loss of compartmentation in mesocarp cells. The observed viability loss was primarily in the locule area around the seeds, suggesting that a localized loss of viability and compartmentation may occur as part of normal fruit development. The cell viability of berry shrivel-affected berries was similar to that of normally developing berries until the onset of visible symptoms (i.e. shrivelling), at which time viability declined in visibly shrivelled

  13. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated by field artificial ...

  14. Viability of dielectrophoretically trapped neuronal cortical cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Vulto, P; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico


    Negative dielectrophoretic trapping of neural cells is an efficient way to position neural cells on the electrode sites of planar micro-electrode arrays. The preservation of viability of the neural cells is essential for this approach. This study investigates the viability of postnatal cortical rat

  15. 37 CFR 1.807 - Viability of deposit. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viability of deposit. 1.807... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Deposit of Biological Material § 1.807 Viability of deposit. (a) A deposit of biological material that is capable of...

  16. Evaluation of pollen viability, stigma receptivity and fertilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 13, 2013 ... To provide theoretical basis for artificial pollination in Lagerstroemia indica L., pollen viability and stigma receptivity were tested and the morphological change of stigma was observed. Pollen viability tested by in vitro culture, stigma receptivity examined by benzidine-H2O2 testing and fruit set estimated.

  17. Studies On Fermentation, Alcohol Production And Viability In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reverse was true in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Yeasts with high viability tended to have high alcohol production ability in the sucrose medium and vice-versa. KEY WORDS: Alcohol production; fermentation; induced mutants; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; viability. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ...

  18. The Economy and Democracy: Viability and Challenges for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Economy and Democracy: Viability and Challenges for Sustainable Democratisation in Nigeria. ... Economic and Policy Review ... the viability for developing sustainable democracy in Nigeria against the background of the country's enormous economic potentials and the economic reforms introduced following the ...

  19. Viability, Advantages and Design Methodologies of M-Learning Delivery (United States)

    Zabel, Todd W.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the viability and principle design methodologies of Mobile Learning models in developing regions. Demographic and market studies were utilized to determine the viability of M-Learning delivery as well as best uses for such technologies and methods given socioeconomic and political conditions within the…

  20. Effects of inspired CO2, hyperventilation, and time on VA/Q inequality in the dog (United States)

    Tsukimoto, K.; Arcos, J. P.; Schaffartzik, W.; Wagner, P. D.; West, J. B.


    In a recent study by Tsukimoto et al. (J. Appl. Physiol. 68: 2488-2493, 1990), CO2 inhalation appeared to reduce the size of the high ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q) mode commonly observed in anesthetized mechanically air-ventilated dogs. In that study, large tidal volumes (VT) were used during CO2 inhalation to preserve normocapnia. To separate the influences of CO2 and high VT on the VA/Q distribution in the present study, we examined the effect of inspired CO2 on the high VA/Q mode using eight mechanically ventilated dogs (4 given CO2, 4 controls). The VA/Q distribution was measured first with normal VT and then with increased VT. In the CO2 group at high VT, data were collected before, during, and after CO2 inhalation. With normal VT, there was no difference in the size of the high VA/Q mode between groups [10.5 +/- 3.5% (SE) of ventilation in the CO2 group, 11.8 +/- 5.2% in the control group]. Unexpectedly, the size of the high VA/Q mode decreased similarly in both groups over time, independently of the inspired PCO2, at a rate similar to the fall in cardiac output over time. The reduction in the high VA/Q mode together with a simultaneous increase in alveolar dead space (estimated by the difference between inert gas dead space and Fowler dead space) suggests that poorly perfused high VA/Q areas became unperfused over time. A possible mechanism is that elevated alveolar pressure and decreased cardiac output eliminate blood flow from corner vessels in nondependent high VA/Q regions.

  1. Effects of ozone gas on skin flaps viability in rats: an experimental study. (United States)

    Güner, Mehmet Haşim; Görgülü, Tahsin; Olgun, Abdulkerim; Torun, Merve; Kargi, Eksal


    The main purpose of this study was to assess the effects of ozone gas on the viability of flaps for reconstruction and to determine the optimum application method. The antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and reperfusion effects of ozone gas have been previously assessed, and successful results have been reported. However, only one study has investigated the effect of ozone gas on flap viability. In the present study, it was hypothesised that the antioxidant and reperfusion effects of ozone gas would enhance flap viability. Forty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 rats each. A cranial-based, 3 × 11 cm modified McFarlane flap including the panniculus carnosus was raised from the dorsum of a rat and re-sutured to its own bed using 3/0 sharp propylene. Group 1 (n = 10): no pharmacological agent was used after the operation. Group 2 (n = 10): vegetable (olive) oil group; vegetable-oil-impregnated gauze was used as a dressing for 7 days. Group 3 (n = 10): Vegetable (olive) oil with ozone peroxide group; vegetable oil with ozone peroxide-impregnated gauze was used as a dressing for 7 days. Group 4 (n = 10): Hemo-ozone therapy group; hemo-ozone therapy was applied rectally once every day for 7 days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of week 1 and assessed macroscopically and histopathologically. The proportion of substantive necrosis was less in group 4 than in the other three groups. Survival area ratios were better in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1; however, there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. No significant differences in the histopathological scores were observed among the groups. Ozone gas enhanced flap viability. No differences in flap viability were observed between the vegetable oil and vegetable oil with ozone peroxide groups. The greatest benefit ratios were found in the hemo-ozone therapy group.

  2. Viability and functional integrity of washed platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, A.A.; Zylstra, V.W.; Clare, D.E.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Forstrom, L.A.


    The viability and functional integrity of saline- and ACD-saline-washed platelets were compared with those of unwashed platelets. After template bleeding time (TBT) was measured, 15 healthy volunteers underwent plateletpheresis and ingested 600 mg of aspirin. Autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets were transfused: unwashed (n = 5), washed with 0.9 percent saline solution (SS) (n = 5), and washed with a buffered 12.6 percent solution of ACD-A in 0.9 percent saline solution (n = 5). After transfusion, we measured TBT at 1, 4, and 24 hours; platelet survival at 10 minutes and 1, 4, and 24 hours and daily for 6 days; and the percentage of uptake in liver and spleen by quantitative whole-body radionuclide scintigraphy at 24 and 190 hours. We found that saline washing affected platelet recovery, 23.47 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.001) as compared to 52.43 +/- 17 percent (p less than 0.002) for ACD-saline and 73.17 +/- 8 percent for control; that saline washing resulted in a greater liver uptake than control and ACD-saline-washed platelets (31.9 +/- 8% (p less than 0.001) vs 17.7 +/- 4.1 and 19.3 +/- 2.1% (p greater than 0.1), respectively); that, unlike control and ACD-saline-washed platelets, saline-washed platelets did not shorten bleeding time; and that neither type of washing affected survival. Although ACD-saline washing affects recovery, it also results in intact function, normal survival, higher recovery than SS platelets, and no significant liver uptake.

  3. Characteristics and VA Health Care Utilization of U.S. Veterans Who Completed Suicide in Oregon between 2000 and 2005 (United States)

    Basham, Chandra; Denneson, Lauren M.; Millet, Lisa; Shen, Xun; Duckart, Jonathan; Dobscha, Steven K.


    Oregon Violent Death Reporting System data were linked with Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data to identify and describe veterans who completed suicide in Oregon from 2000 to 2005 (n = 968), and to describe their VA health care utilization in the year prior to death. Twenty-two percent had received health care in the VA system. Of these, 57%…

  4. A role for myosin Va in cerebellar plasticity and motor learning: a possible mechanism underlying neurological disorder in myosin Va disease. (United States)

    Miyata, Mariko; Kishimoto, Yasushi; Tanaka, Masahiko; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Hirashima, Naohide; Murata, Yoshiharu; Kano, Masanobu; Takagishi, Yoshiko


    Mutations of the myosin Va gene cause the neurological diseases Griscelli syndrome type 1 and Elejalde syndrome in humans and dilute phenotypes in rodents. To understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the neurological disorders in myosin Va diseases, we conducted an integrated analysis at the molecular, cellular, electrophysiological, and behavioral levels using the dilute-neurological (d-n) mouse mutant. These mice manifest an ataxic gait and clonic seizures during postnatal development, but the neurological disorders are ameliorated in adulthood. We found that smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) rarely extended into the dendritic spines of Purkinje cells (PCs) of young d-n mice, and there were few, if any, IP(3) receptors. Moreover, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber-PC synapses was abolished, consistent with our previous observations in juvenile lethal dilute mutants. Young d-n mice exhibited severe impairment of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. In contrast, adult d-n mice showed restoration of motor learning and LTD, and these neurological changes were associated with accumulation of SER and IP(3) receptors in some PC spines and the expression of myosin Va proteins in the PCs. RNA interference-mediated repression of myosin Va caused a reduction in the number of IP(3) receptor-positive spines in cultured PCs. These findings indicate that myosin Va function is critical for subsequent processes in localization of SER and IP(3) receptors in PC spines, LTD, and motor learning. Interestingly, d-n mice had defects of motor coordination from young to adult ages, suggesting that the role of myosin Va in PC spines is not sufficient for motor coordination.

  5. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population. (United States)

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H


    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. 76 FR 70076 - Technical Revisions To Update Reference to the Required Assessment Tool for State Nursing Homes... (United States)


    ... Tool for State Nursing Homes Receiving Per Diem Payments From VA AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... diem from VA for providing nursing home care to veterans. The proposed rule would require State nursing... Required Assessment Tool for State Nursing Homes Receiving Per Diem Payments From VA.'' Copies of comments...

  7. 75 FR 3970 - Fund Availability Under the VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (United States)


    ... accordance with their ranked order until funding is expended (approximately 900 beds). Methodology: VA will... respective funding category based on score and any ranking criteria set forth in that funding category only...

  8. 75 FR 3968 - Fund Availability Under the VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (United States)


    ... accordance with their ranked order until funding is expended (approximately $19 million). Methodology: VA... then be ranked within their respective funding category based on score and any ranking criteria set...

  9. EnviroAtlas -- Virginia Beach/Williamsburg, VA -- Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Virginia Beach, VA EnviroAtlas Meter-scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) dataset comprises 3,724 km2 of southeast Virginia and includes Hampton, Newport News, Suffolk,...

  10. 75 FR 77664 - Vaughan Furniture Company, Galax, VA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application... (United States)


    ... Employment and Training Administration Vaughan Furniture Company, Galax, VA; Notice of Affirmative... apply for Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Vaughn Furniture... workers supply administrative and support services in support of furniture production at foreign...

  11. 75 FR 41577 - VBA/VHA Musculoskeletal Forum: Improving VA's Disability Evaluation Criteria (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS VBA/VHA Musculoskeletal Forum: Improving VA's Disability Evaluation Criteria AGENCY: Department of... Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA)/Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Musculoskeletal Forum...

  12. 76 FR 10524 - Restricted Area, Potomac River, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Quantico, VA (United States)


    ... Quantico, Quantico, VA AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense ACTION: Final... Base Quantico (MCB Quantico), located in Quantico, Virginia. DATES: Effective March 7, 2011. FOR...

  13. 78 FR 18425 - Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist); Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Operations, Security, and Preparedness, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION...

  14. 78 FR 38452 - Agency Information Collection (VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist) Activities... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (VA Police Officer Pre-Employment Screening Checklist) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Policy, Planning and Preparedness, Department of Veterans Affairs...

  15. 77 FR 23204 - VA Acquisition Regulation: Electronic Submission of Payment Requests (United States)


    ... Presentment and Payment System; (2) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 electronic data... vendor payment process. The automated data validation, digital transmission, and expedited payment and... payments by including automated invoice data validation checks. VA's electronic invoicing system would...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Virginia Beach/Williamsburg, VA - BenMAP Results by Block Group (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 1057 block groups in Virginia Beach/Williamsburg, VA....

  17. Do increased drilling speed and depth affect bone viability at implant site? (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Nazhvanai, Ali Dehghani; Farahmand, Mohammad Mahdi; Pourali, Sara Yasour; Hosseinpour, Sepanta


    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of increasing the drilling speed and depth during implant site preparation on bone viability. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, participants were divided into four groups based on the speed and depth of drilling at the first molar site in the mandible. Participants underwent drilling at Group 1: 1000 rpm and 10 mm depth, Group 2: 1500 rpm and 10 mm, Group 3: 1000 rpm and 13 mm, and Group 4: 1500 rpm and 13 mm. Obtained specimens were assessed histologically to the qualitative measurement of bone viability, and the percentage of vital bone were evaluated by histomorphometric analysis. ANOVA was used to compare age and the mean percentage of vital bone and Tukey's test as post hoc was applied for pairwise comparison of groups. Results: A total of 100 participants were studied in four groups (25 subjects in each group). Histological evaluation revealed a low level of bone viability maintenance in all groups. Histomorphometric analysis showed the mean percentage of vital bone was 9.5 ± 3.91% in Group 1, 8.86 ± 3.84% in Group 2, 8.32 ± 3.80% in Group 3, and 4.27 ± 3.22% in Group 4. A significant difference was noted in the mean percentage of bone viability among the four groups (P = 0.001). Conclusion: It seems that increasing the drilling speed or depth during dental implant site preparation does not affect the mean percentage of cell viability, while the increase in both depth and speed may decrease the percentage of viable cells. PMID:29109748

  18. [Newborn at the limit of viability. Part 1: Ethical dilemmas, international recommendations]. (United States)

    Rutkowska, Magdalena


    Immense scientific and technological progress in perinatal medicine during the 1990s enabled to save extremely immature newborns. The fact faced doctors with new challenges and ethical problems regarding especially infants born at the limit of viability (22-26 weeks of gestation). The aim of this study is an attempt to answer the question concerning the mode of operation in the delivery room and/or NICU towards this group of infants. Decisions may concern undertaking resuscitation, limiting medical procedures and the use of palliative care. Materials for preparation of this paper included international recommendations developed by teams of specialists (part 1), as well as Polish recommendations (part 2). The first part presents world epidemiological data regarding survival rate and long-term developmental assessment of extremely low gestational age infants, indicating difficulties in interpretation of some of the research. We also emphasized the discrepancies in precise evaluation of gestational age, which is of great significance for qualifying the newborn into the group unable to survive or at the limit of viability. For better assessment of the research, recommendations developed by FIGO Committee in 1994 are presented: "Ethical aspects in management of newborn infants at the threshold of viability." In the discussion part we presented differences between world recommendations regarding newborns at the limit of viability, emphasizing the need to define the "grey zone" (gestational age at which there is doubt about the newborns' viability and development and, as a result, the possibility of making "good" therapeutic decisions is limited). In summary it has been emphasized that at the current state of knowledge decisions cannot be based solely on gestational age and estimated body weight, but other factors improving or worsening the prognosis should be taken into consideration as well. Finally the situation in Poland is discussed, indicating problems regarding

  19. Federal Policy and the Rise in Disability Enrollment: Evidence for the VA's Disability Compensation Program


    Mark Duggan; Robert Rosenheck; Perry Singleton


    The U.S. Department of Veterans' Affairs (VA) currently provides disability benefits to 2.72 million veterans of U.S. military service through the Disability Compensation (DC) program. Until recently, the medical eligibility criteria for this program were the same across service eras, with the key condition being that the disability was caused or aggravated by military service. But in July of 2001, the VA relaxed the eligibility criteria for Vietnam veterans by including diabetes in the list ...

  20. 46 CFR 7.55 - Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. 7.55 Section 7.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.55 Cape Henry, VA to Cape Fear, NC. (a) A line drawn from Rudee Inlet Jetty Light “2” to...

  1. Bupivacaine decreases cell viability and matrix protein synthesis in an intervertebral disc organ model system. (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Vo, Nam V; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Hartman, Robert A; Ngo, Kevin; Choe, So Ra; Witt, William T; Dong, Qing; Lee, Joon Y; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Kang, James D


    Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic commonly used for back pain management in interventional procedures. Cytotoxic effects of bupivacaine have been reported in articular cartilage and, recently, in intervertebral disc cell culture. However, the relevance of these effects to discs in vivo remains unclear. This study examines the effect of bupivacaine on disc cell metabolism using an organotypic culture model system that mimics the in vivo environment. To assess the effect of bupivacaine on disc cell viability and matrix protein synthesis using an organotypic model system and to determine whether this anesthetic has toxic effects. Mouse intervertebral discs were isolated and maintained ex vivo in an organotypic culture then exposed to clinically relevant concentrations of bupivacaine, and the impact on disc cell viability and matrix proteoglycan (PG) and collagen syntheses were measured in the presence and absence of the drug. Mouse functional spine units (FSUs) were isolated from the lumbar spines of 10-week-old mice. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Total PG and collagen syntheses were determined by measuring the incorporation of radioactive (35)S-sulfate and (3)H-l-proline into PG and collagen, respectively. Organotypic cultures of mouse FSUs were exposed to different concentrations (0%-0.5%) of bupivacaine for variable amounts of time (0-2 hours). Cell viability within disc tissue was quantified by MTT staining and histologic assay. Matrix protein synthesis was measured by incorporation of radioactive (35)S-sulfate (for PG synthesis) and (3)H-l-proline (for collagen synthesis). Untreated mouse disc organs were maintained in culture for up to 1 month with minimal changes in tissue histology, cell viability, and matrix protein synthesis. Exposure to bupivacaine decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Exposure to bupivacaine at concentrations less than or equal to 0.25% did

  2. Viability, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Activation, and Cytokine Secretion of Human Keratoconus Keratocytes after Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC keratocytes, in vitro. Methods. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham’s F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm2 during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. Results. Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P0.06. Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P=0.037; however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P>0.12. Conclusions. Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours, normalizing after 24 hours.

  3. Evaluation of endoscopic vein extraction on structural and functional viability of saphenous vein endothelium. (United States)

    Hussaini, Bader E; Lu, Xiu-Gui; Wolfe, J Alan; Thatte, Hemant S


    Endothelial injury during harvest influences graft patency post CABG. We have previously shown that endoscopic harvest causes structural and functional damage to the saphenous vein (SV) endothelium. However, causes of such injury may depend on the extraction technique. In order to assess this supposition, we evaluated the effect of VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique (VsEVH) on structural and functional viability of SV endothelium using multiphoton imaging, biochemical and immunofluorescence assays. Nineteen patients scheduled for CABG were prospectively identified. Each underwent VsEVH for one portion and "No-touch" open SV harvesting (OSVH) for another portion of the SV. A two cm segment from each portion was immersed in GALA conduit preservation solution and transported overnight to our lab for processing. The segments were labeled with fluorescent markers to quantify cell viability, calcium mobilization and generation of nitric oxide. Morphology, expression, localization and stability of endothelial caveolin, eNOS, von Willebrand factor and cadherin were evaluated using immunofluorescence, Western blot and multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Morphological, biochemical and immunofluorescence parameters of viability, structure and function were well preserved in VsEVH group as in OSVH group. However, tonic eNOS activity, agonist-dependent calcium mobilization and nitric oxide production were partially attenuated in the VsEVH group. This study indicates that VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique preserves the structural and functional viability of SV endothelium, but may differentially attenuate the vasomotor function of the saphenous vein graft.

  4. The JAMM motif of human deubiquitinase Poh1 is essential for cell viability. (United States)

    Gallery, Melissa; Blank, Jonathan L; Lin, Yinghui; Gutierrez, Juan A; Pulido, Jacqueline C; Rappoli, David; Badola, Sunita; Rolfe, Mark; Macbeth, Kyle J


    Poh1 deubiquitinase activity is required for proteolytic processing of polyubiquitinated substrates by the 26S proteasome, linking deubiquitination to complete substrate degradation. Poh1 RNA interference (RNAi) in HeLa cells resulted in a reduction in cell viability and an increase in polyubiquitinated protein levels, supporting the link between Poh1 and the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. To more specifically test for any requirement of the zinc metalloproteinase motif of Poh1 to support cell viability and proteasome function, we developed a RNAi complementation strategy. Effects on cell viability and proteasome activity were assessed in cells with RNAi of endogenous Poh1 and induced expression of wild-type Poh1 or a mutant form of Poh1, in which two conserved histidines of the proposed catalytic site were replaced with alanines. We show that an intact zinc metalloproteinase motif is essential for cell viability and 26S proteasome function. As a required enzymatic component of the proteasome, Poh1 is an intriguing therapeutic drug target for cancer.

  5. Changes in subendocardial viability ratio with acute high-altitude exposure and protective role of acetazolamide. (United States)

    Salvi, Paolo; Revera, Miriam; Faini, Andrea; Giuliano, Andrea; Gregorini, Francesca; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Becerra, Carlos G Ramos; Bilo, Grzegorz; Lombardi, Carolina; O'Rourke, Michael F; Mancia, Giuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco


    High-altitude tourism is increasingly frequent, involving also subjects with manifest or subclinical coronary artery disease. Little is known, however, on the effects of altitude exposure on factors affecting coronary perfusion. The aim of our study was to assess myocardial oxygen supply/demand ratio in healthy subjects during acute exposure at high altitude and to evaluate the effect of acetazolamide on this parameter. Forty-four subjects (21 men, age range: 24-59 years) were randomized to double-blind acetazolamide 250 mg bid or placebo. Subendocardial viability ratio and oxygen supply/demand ratio were estimated on carotid artery by means of a validated PulsePen tonometer, at sea level, before and after treatment, and after acute and more prolonged exposure to high altitude (4559 m). On arrival at high altitude, subendocardial viability ratio was reduced in both placebo (from 1.63±0.15 to 1.18±0.17; PSubendocardial viability ratio returned to sea level values (1.65±0.24) after 3 days at high altitude under acetazolamide but remained lower than at sea level under placebo (1.42±0.22; Psubendocardial oxygen supply triggered by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. Further studies involving also subjects with known or subclinical coronary artery disease are needed to confirm a protective action of acetazolamide on myocardial viability under high-altitude exposure.

  6. Population viability analysis of American mink (Neovison vison) escaped from Danish mink farms. (United States)

    Pertoldi, C; Rødjajn, S; Zalewski, A; Demontis, D; Loeschcke, V; Kjærsgaard, A


    The American mink (Neovison vison) was introduced to Danish fur farms in the 1930s. An unknown number of mink have managed to escape these farms over the years. Today feral mink are found in the wild in most parts of Denmark. A population viability analysis (PVA) was performed using VORTEX, a stochastic population simulation software, to 1) predict the viability and potential population expansion from different sizes of founding populations of farm escapees, 2) investigate which parameters mostly affect the viability, 3) assess the effects of continuous escapes on the feral populations and how the feral populations are affected by management programs, and 4) discuss eradication strategies and their efficiency in management of the feral American mink population in Denmark. The simulations showed that juvenile mortality had the greatest effect on population viability followed by fecundity, adult mortality, and initial population size. Populations supplemented yearly by escapees all reached the carrying capacity and gained genetic variability over the years. Harvesting was modeled as the yearly number of mink caught in Denmark. Most of the simulated harvested populations crashed within few years after the first harvesting event. This indicates that the feral number of mink in Denmark is sustained due to supplements from mink farms and no true feral population exists. To manage the number of feral mink in Denmark it is essential to prevent escapees. The eradication effort would be most effective if focused on late summer and autumn when juvenile mink leave the maternal territory.

  7. Effects of the utilization of homeopathic elements in commercial diluent on swine sperm viability. (United States)

    Soto, Francisco Rafael Martins; Vuaden, Erlete Rosalina; de Paula Coelho, Cideli; Bonamin, Leoni Villano; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Benites, Nilson Roberti; de Barros, Flavia Regina Oliveira; Goissis, Marcelo Demarchi; Ortiz D'Ávila Assumpção, Mayra Elena; Visintin, José Antônio; Marques, Mariana Groke


    It has been speculated that the homeopathic treatment of sperm cells in order to improve semen quality could be promising. However, few data is available and its use in spermatozoa requires investigation. It is well established that mitochondrial membrane potential is an important viability parameter of spermatozoa and it is intimately related to reproductive efficiency. In this manner, new technologies in order to improve the activity of sperm cells and, finally, the fecundity of swine herds are of extremely importance. Due to the lack of knowledge of homeopathic treatment effect on spermatozoa, the aim of the present study was to verify the effect of three different homeopathic treatments on viability of boar sperm cells. Three homeopathic treatments composed by Pulsatila CH6, Pulsatila and Avena CH6, Avena CH6 and one control treatment (sucrose) were added to diluted boar semen, which were cooled for 24 or 48 h. Interestingly, no positive effect of homeopathic treatments was observed over semen viability. However, it was demonstrated that the 24 h of cooling storage provided more viable sperm cells when compared to the 48-h period. This effect of storage period on sperm viability was assessed by intact plasmatic membrane, intact acrosome and mitochondrial membrane potential evaluation.

  8. Viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus keratocytes after cross-linking. (United States)

    Song, Xuefei; Stachon, Tanja; Wang, Jiong; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold; Szentmáry, Nóra


    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of cross-linking (CXL) on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, activation, and cytokine secretion of human keratoconus (KC) keratocytes, in vitro. Primary KC keratocytes were cultured in DMEM/Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 10% FCS and underwent UVA illumination (370 nm, 2 J/cm(2)) during exposure to 0.1% riboflavin and 20% Dextran in PBS. Twenty-four hours after CXL, viability was assessed using Alamar blue assay; apoptosis using APO-DIRECT Kit; proliferation using ELISA-BrdU kit; and CD34 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression using flow cytometry. Five and 24 hours after CXL, FGFb, HGF, TGFβ1, VEGF, KGF, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 secretion was measured using enzyme-linked-immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Following CXL, cell viability and proliferation decreased (P 0.06). Five hours after CXL, FGFb secretion increased significantly (P = 0.037); however no other cytokine secretion differed significantly from controls after 5 or 24 hours (P > 0.12). Cross-linking decreases viability, triggers apoptosis, and inhibits proliferation, without an impact on multipotent hematopoietic stem cell transformation and myofibroblastic transformation of KC keratocytes. CXL triggers FGFb secretion of KC keratocytes transiently (5 hours), normalizing after 24 hours.

  9. Viability of Biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveistrup, Marte; van Mastrigt, Frank; Norrman, Jens; Picchioni, Francesco; Paso, Kristofer


    Xanthan gum and scleroglucan are assessed as environmentally friendly enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Viscometric and interfacial tension measurements show that the polysaccharides exhibit favorable viscosifying performance, robust shear tolerance, electrolyte tolerance, and moderate

  10. Partnership to improve quality care for veterans: the VA Nursing Academy. (United States)

    Harper, Doreen C; Selleck, Cynthia S; Eagerton, Gregory; Froelich, Kimberly


    More than 22 million living veterans reside in the United States. In fact, understanding military culture and the experiences of these veterans is important to their ongoing health care and the unique challenges faced by many. The Veterans Affairs (VA) Nursing Academy began in 2007 to fund pilot partnerships between schools of nursing and local VA health care facilities to better serve our veteran population. Fifteen academic/service partnerships were selected for funding between 2007 and 2009 with the goals of expanding faculty and professional development, increasing nursing student enrollment, providing opportunities for educational and practice innovations, and increasing the recruitment and retention of VA nurses. This article details critical components of the partnership developed between the Birmingham VA Medical Center and the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing, a VA Nursing Academy partnership funded in the 2009 cohort. Site-specific goals of the partnership are described along with a discussion of the framework used to develop the Birmingham VA Nursing Academy, which includes relationship building, engagement, governance, evaluation of outcomes, and sustainability. The logic model developed for the partnership is included, and the interim outputs and outcomes of this practice-academic partnership are detailed, a number of which can be replicated by VAs and schools of nursing across the country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  12. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier


    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  13. Teacher factors contributing to dosage of the KiVa anti-bullying program. (United States)

    Swift, Lauren E; Hubbard, Julie A; Bookhout, Megan K; Grassetti, Stevie N; Smith, Marissa A; Morrow, Michael T


    The KiVa Anti-Bullying Program (KiVa) seeks to meet the growing need for anti-bullying programming through a school-based, teacher-led intervention for elementary school children. The goals of this study were to examine how intervention dosage impacts outcomes of KiVa and how teacher factors influence dosage. Participants included 74 teachers and 1409 4th- and 5th-grade students in nine elementary schools. Teachers and students completed data collection at the beginning and end of the school year, including measures of bullying and victimization, correlates of victimization (depression, anxiety, peer rejection, withdrawal, and school avoidance), intervention cognitions/emotions (anti-bullying attitudes, and empathy toward victims), bystander behaviors, and teacher factors thought to relate to dosage (self-efficacy for teaching, professional burnout, perceived principal support, expected effectiveness of KiVa, perceived feasibility of KiVa). The dosage of KiVa delivered to classrooms was measured throughout the school year. Results highlight dosage as an important predictor of change in bullying, victimization, correlates of victimization, bystander behavior, and intervention cognitions/emotions. Of the teacher factors, professional burnout uniquely predicted intervention dosage. A comprehensive structural equation model linking professional burnout to dosage and then to child-level outcomes demonstrated good fit. Implications for intervention design and implementation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VaRank: a simple and powerful tool for ranking genetic variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Geoffroy


    Full Text Available Background. Most genetic disorders are caused by single nucleotide variations (SNVs or small insertion/deletions (indels. High throughput sequencing has broadened the catalogue of human variation, including common polymorphisms, rare variations or disease causing mutations. However, identifying one variation among hundreds or thousands of others is still a complex task for biologists, geneticists and clinicians.Results. We have developed VaRank, a command-line tool for the ranking of genetic variants detected by high-throughput sequencing. VaRank scores and prioritizes variants annotated either by Alamut Batch or SnpEff. A barcode allows users to quickly view the presence/absence of variants (with homozygote/heterozygote status in analyzed samples. VaRank supports the commonly used VCF input format for variants analysis thus allowing it to be easily integrated into NGS bioinformatics analysis pipelines. VaRank has been successfully applied to disease-gene identification as well as to molecular diagnostics setup for several hundred patients.Conclusions. VaRank is implemented in Tcl/Tk, a scripting language which is platform-independent but has been tested only on Unix environment. The source code is available under the GNU GPL, and together with sample data and detailed documentation can be downloaded from

  15. Tissue viability monitoring: a multi-sensor wearable platform approach (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Davidson, Alan; Buis, Arjan; Glesk, Ivan


    Health services worldwide are seeking ways to improve patient care for amputees suffering from diabetes, and at the same time reduce costs. The monitoring of residual limb temperature, interface pressure and gait can be a useful indicator of tissue viability in lower limb amputees especially to predict the occurrence of pressure ulcers. This is further exacerbated by elevated temperatures and humid micro environment within the prosthesis which encourages the growth of bacteria and skin breakdown. Wearable systems for prosthetic users have to be designed such that the sensors are minimally obtrusive and reliable enough to faithfully record movement and physiological signals. A mobile sensor platform has been developed for use with the lower limb prosthetic users. This system uses an Arduino board that includes sensors for temperature, gait, orientation and pressure measurements. The platform transmits sensor data to a central health authority database server infrastructure through the Bluetooth protocol at a suitable sampling rate. The data-sets recorded using these systems are then processed using machine learning algorithms to extract clinically relevant information from the data. Where a sensor threshold is reached a warning signal can be sent wirelessly together with the relevant data to the patient and appropriate medical personnel. This knowledge is also useful in establishing biomarkers related to a possible deterioration in a patient's health or for assessing the impact of clinical interventions.

  16. The viability of native microbial communities in martian environment (model) (United States)

    Vorobyova, Elena; Cheptcov, Vladimir; Pavlov, Anatolyi; Vdovina, Mariya; Lomasov, Vladimir

    For today the important direction in astrobiology is the experimental simulation of extraterrestrial habitats with the assessment of survivability of microorganisms in such conditions. A new task is to investigate the resistance of native microbial ecosystems which are well adapted to the environment and develop unique protection mechanisms that enable to ensure biosphere formation. The purpose of this research was to study the viability of microorganisms as well as viability of native microbial communities of arid soils and permafrost under stress conditions simulating space environment and martian regolith environment, estimation of duration of Earth like life in the Martian soil. The experimental data obtained give the proof of the preservation of high population density, biodiversity, and reproduction activity under favorable conditions in the Earth analogues of Martian soil - arid soils (Deserts of Israel and Morocco) and permafrost (East Siberia, Antarctica), after the treatment of samples by ionizing radiation dose up to 100 kGy at the pressure of 1 torr, temperature (- 50oC) and in the presence of perchlorate (5%). It was shown that in simulated conditions close to the parameters of the Martian regolith, the diversity of natural bacterial communities was not decreased, and in some cases the activation of some bacterial populations occurred in situ. Our results allow suggesting that microbial communities like those that inhabit arid and permafrost ecosystems on the Earth, can survive at least 500 thousand years under conditions of near surface layer of the Martian regolith. Extrapolation of the data according to the intensity of ionizing radiation to the open space conditions allows evaluating the potential lifespan of cells inside meteorites as 20-50 thousand years at least. In this work new experimental data have been obtained confirming the occurrence of liquid water and the formation of wet soil layer due to sublimation of ice when the temperature of the

  17. Evaluation of endoscopic vein extraction on structural and functional viability of saphenous vein endothelium


    Hussaini, Bader E; Lu, Xiu-Gui; Wolfe, J Alan; Thatte, Hemant S


    Abstract Objectives Endothelial injury during harvest influences graft patency post CABG. We have previously shown that endoscopic harvest causes structural and functional damage to the saphenous vein (SV) endothelium. However, causes of such injury may depend on the extraction technique. In order to assess this supposition, we evaluated the effect of VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique (VsEVH) on structural and functional viability of SV endothelium using multiphoton imaging, bioch...

  18. Puget Sound steelhead life cycle model analyses - Population Viability Analysis (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research was initiated by the Puget Sound Steelhead Technical Recovery Team to develop viability criteria for threatened Puget Sound steelhead and to support...

  19. Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium affects the mitochondrial viability and the acid soluble thiols concentration in liver, kidney, heart and gills of Ancistrus brevifilis (Eigenmann, 1920). P Velasquez-Vottelerd, Y Anton, R Salazar-Lugo ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina ŞTEFLEA


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to estimate the relationship between pollen viability and atmospheric pollution (in polluted and non-polluted conditions. The study was carried out in the city of Timisoara. Two areas, with different intensity of road traffic (very high and absent but all characterized by the presence of the same plant species, were selected. The pollen of herbaceous spontaneous species, arboreal species and a shrub species was used (Robinia pseudacacia, Aesculus x carnea, Catalpa bignonioides, Albizzia julibrissin, Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra, Malva neglecta, Ranunculus acer, Trifolium repens, Cichorium intybus. The pollen of these species was treated with TTC (2, 3, 5 Tryphenil-Tetrazolium-Chloride staining solution and viability was then estimated by light microscopy. The results of the mean pollen viability percentage of the examined species are reported. Pollen viability of herbaceous plants is significantly different between the two environments.

  1. Maintaining yeast viability in continuous primary beer fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Côrte‐Real, Manuela; Vicente, António A


    .... This work was aimed at solving one of the most relevant obstacles to implementing ICT on a large scale in beer fermentations, namely the control of biomass and the maintenance of cell viability in a gas‐lift bioreactor...

  2. Desiccation-induced changes in viability, lipid peroxidation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Hendry et al., 1992) and A. saccharinum (Pukacka and Ratajczak, 2006) and intermediate seeds like Azadirachta indica (Varghese and. Naithani, 2002), Coffea Arabica (Dussert et al., 2006), indicating that loss of seed viability ...

  3. Femtosecond optical transfection of cells:viability and efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. Stevenson; B. Agate; X. Tsampoula; P. Fischer; C. T. A. Brown; W. Sibbett; A. Riches; F. Gunn-Moore; K. Dholakia


    .... However, there remains no study into the true efficiency of this procedure. Here, we present a detailed analysis of transfection efficiency and cell viability for femtosecond optical transfection using a titanium sapphire laser at 800 nm...

  4. Equine ovarian tissue viability after cryopreservation and in vitro culture (United States)

    The efficiency of several cryoprotective agents were compared using both slow-freezing and vitrification methods. Results indicate that the viability of ovarian tissue cells increases when DMSO (slow-freezing) and ethylene glycol (vitrification) are used....

  5. Approximate viability for nonlinear evolution inclusions with application to controllability

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    Omar Benniche


    Full Text Available We investigate approximate viability for a graph with respect to fully nonlinear quasi-autonomous evolution inclusions. As application, an approximate null controllability result is given.

  6. Viability and contribution to proteolysis of an adjunct culture of Lactobacillus plantarum in two model cheese systems: Cheddar cheese‐type and soft‐cheese type

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milesi, M.M; McSweeney, P.L.H; Hynes, E.R


    Aims:  The influence of the cheese‐making process, ripening conditions and primary starter on the viability and proteolytic activity of an adjunct culture of Lactobacillus plantarum I91 was assessed in two miniature cheese models...

  7. VA/Q distribution during heavy exercise and recovery in humans: implications for pulmonary edema (United States)

    Schaffartzik, W.; Poole, D. C.; Derion, T.; Tsukimoto, K.; Hogan, M. C.; Arcos, J. P.; Bebout, D. E.; Wagner, P. D.


    Ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequality has been shown to increase with exercise. Potential mechanisms for this increase include nonuniform pulmonary vasoconstriction, ventilatory time constant inequality, reduced large airway gas mixing, and development of interstitial pulmonary edema. We hypothesized that persistence of VA/Q mismatch after ventilation and cardiac output subside during recovery would be consistent with edema; however, rapid resolution would suggest mechanisms related to changes in ventilation and blood flow per se. Thirteen healthy males performed near-maximal cycle ergometry at an inspiratory PO2 of 91 Torr (because hypoxia accentuates VA/Q mismatch on exercise). Cardiorespiratory variables and inert gas elimination patterns were measured at rest, during exercise, and between 2 and 30 min of recovery. Two profiles of VA/Q distribution behavior emerged during heavy exercise: in group 1 an increase in VA/Q mismatch (log SDQ of 0.35 +/- 0.02 at rest and 0.44 +/- 0.02 at exercise; P less than 0.05, n = 7) and in group 2 no change in VA/Q mismatch (n = 6). There were no differences in anthropometric data, work rate, O2 uptake, or ventilation during heavy exercise between groups. Group 1 demonstrated significantly greater VA/Q inequality, lower vital capacity, and higher forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity for the first 20 min during recovery than group 2. Cardiac index was higher in group 1 both during heavy exercise and 4 and 6 min postexercise. However, both ventilation and cardiac output returned toward baseline values more rapidly than did VA/Q relationships. Arterial pH was lower in group 1 during exercise and recovery. We conclude that greater VA/Q inequality in group 1 and its persistence during recovery are consistent with the hypothesis that edema occurs and contributes to the increase in VA/Q inequality during exercise. This is supported by observation of greater blood flows and acidosis and, presumably therefore

  8. Group B streptococcal beta-hemolysin/cytolysin directly impairs cardiomyocyte viability and function.

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    Mary E Hensler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis where myocardial dysfunction is an important contributor to poor outcome. Here we study the effects of the GBS pore-forming beta-hemolysin/cytolysin (Bh/c exotoxin on cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, and calcium transients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HL-1 cardiomyocytes exposed to intact wild-type (WT or isogenic Deltabeta h/c mutant GBS, or to cell-free extracts from either strain, were assessed for viability by trypan blue exclusion and for apoptosis by TUNEL staining. Functionality of exposed cardiomyocytes was analyzed by visual quantitation of the rate and extent of contractility. Mitochondrial membrane polarization was measured in TMRE-loaded cells exposed to GBS beta h/c. Effects of GBS beta h/c on calcium transients were studied in fura-2AM-loaded primary rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Exposure of HL-1 cardiomyocytes to either WT GBS or beta h/c extracts significantly reduced both rate and extent of contractility and later induced necrotic and apoptotic cell death. No effects on cardiomyocyte viability or function were observed after treatment with Deltabeta h/c mutant bacteria or extracts. The beta h/c toxin was associated with complete and rapid loss of detectable calcium transients in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and induced a loss of mitochondrial membrane polarization. These effects on viability and function were abrogated by the beta h/c inhibitor, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show a rapid loss of cardiomyocyte viability and function induced by GBS beta h/c, and these deleterious effects are inhibited by DPPC, a normal constituent of human pulmonary surfactant.. These findings have clinical implications for the cardiac dysfunction observed in neonatal GBS infections.

  9. Neonatal viability evaluation by Apgar score in puppies delivered by cesarean section in two brachycephalic breeds (English and French bulldog). (United States)

    Batista, M; Moreno, C; Vilar, J; Golding, M; Brito, C; Santana, M; Alamo, D


    This study tried to define neonatal viability after cesarean section in brachycephalic breeds and the efficacy of an adapted Apgar test to assess newborn survival. Data from 44 cesarean sections and 302 puppies were included. Before surgery (59-61 days after ovulation), an ultrasound evaluation defined the fetal biparietal diameter (BPD). Immediately after the uterine delivery, the pups were evaluated to detect birth defects and then, a modified Apgar score (range: 0-10) was used to define neonatal health at 5min (Apgar 1) and 60min (Apgar 2) after neonatal delivery; puppies were classified into three categories: critical neonates (score: 0-3), moderate viability neonates (score: 4-6) and normal viability neonates (score: 7-10). Mean (±SEM) value of BPD was 30.8±0.1mm and 28.9±0.1mm in English and French Bull-Dog fetus, respectively. The incidence of spontaneous neonatal mortality (4.98%, 14/281) and birth defects (6.95%) were not influenced by the sex; however, congenital anomalies and neonatal mortality were higher (pApgar 1, the percentage of critical neonates, moderate viability neonates and normal viability neonates were 20.5%, 46.3% and 33.1% respectively; sixty minutes after birth, the critical neonates only represented 10.3% of the total puppies. Almost all neonates (238/239) showing moderate or normal viability at Apgar 1, survived for the first 24h after birth. The results of the study showed a direct relationship (pApgar score and neonatal viability. Therefore, the routine performance of the Apgar score would appear to be essential in the assessment of the status of brachycephalic breed puppies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Demographic rates and population viability of black bears in Louisiana (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Clark, Joseph D.; Hooker, Michael J.; Lowe, Carrie L.; O'Connell-Goode, Kaitlin C.; Troxler, Jesse C.; Davidson, Maria M.; Chamberlain, Michael J.; Chandler, Richard B.


    >0.95 for all scenarios. Probability of persistence at the TRB and the UARB based on projection models that used vital rate estimates from CMR analyses ranged from 0.928 to 0.954 and from 0.906 to 0.959, respectively, depending on model assumptions. Data from the LARB were insufficient for a viability assessment. Thus, individual persistence probabilities for TRB and UARB did not meet the strict definition of viability (i.e., >0.95) under some model assumptions. However, the joint probability of bears persisting either in the TRB or UARB was >0.993 assuming individual population dynamics were independent and was >0.958 assuming dynamics were perfectly correlated. Furthermore, including the TRC increased the joint probability of bears persisting somewhere in the TRB, UARB, or TRC to >0.999 based on the most pessimistic individual persistence estimates from those subpopulations. Therefore, if the intent of specifying that 2 subpopulations should be viable was to ensure the persistence of Louisiana black bears somewhere within its historical range, then the viability threshold was met. © 2016 The Wildlife Society.

  11. Implementation outcomes of evidence-based quality improvement for depression in VA community based outpatient clinics

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    Fortney John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaborative-care management is an evidence-based practice for improving depression outcomes in primary care. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA has mandated the implementation of collaborative-care management in its satellite clinics, known as Community Based Outpatient Clinics (CBOCs. However, the organizational characteristics of CBOCs present added challenges to implementation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI as a strategy to facilitate the adoption of collaborative-care management in CBOCs. Methods This nonrandomized, small-scale, multisite evaluation of EBQI was conducted at three VA Medical Centers and 11 of their affiliated CBOCs. The Plan phase of the EBQI process involved the localized tailoring of the collaborative-care management program to each CBOC. Researchers ensured that the adaptations were evidence based. Clinical and administrative staff were responsible for adapting the collaborative-care management program for local needs, priorities, preferences and resources. Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles were used to refine the program over time. The evaluation was based on the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance Framework and used data from multiple sources: administrative records, web-based decision-support systems, surveys, and key-informant interviews. Results Adoption: 69.0% (58/84 of primary care providers referred patients to the program. Reach: 9.0% (298/3,296 of primary care patients diagnosed with depression who were not already receiving specialty care were enrolled in the program. Fidelity: During baseline care manager encounters, education/activation was provided to 100% (298/298 of patients, barriers were assessed and addressed for 100% (298/298 of patients, and depression severity was monitored for 100% (298/298 of patients. Less than half (42.5%, 681/1603 of follow-up encounters during the acute

  12. Fluorescent antibody-viability staining and beta-glucuronidase assay as rapid methods for monitoring Escherichia coli viability in coastal marine waters. (United States)

    Caruso, G; De Pasquale, F; Mancuso, M; Zampino, D; Crisafi, E


    A faecal pollution monitoring of coastal Messina waters was performed by comparing three (microscopic, enzyme, and culture) methods. Evidence of Escherichia coli cells (29.99 to 96.79% of the total enteropathogenic serotypes) retaining their viability into the marine environment was shown. beta-Glucuronidase activity rates suggested that living cells were also metabolically active. Heavily polluted sites were detected, where improperly treated urban wastes were discharged. Significant relationships between microscopic and enzymatic data proved both methods to be suitable alternatives to the culture method for E. coli detection, improving environmental quality assessment.

  13. Serial hCG and progesterone levels to predict early pregnancy outcomes in pregnancies of uncertain viability: A prospective study. (United States)

    Puget, Claire; Joueidi, Yolaine; Bauville, Estelle; Laviolle, Bruno; Bendavid, Claude; Lavoué, Vincent; Le Lous, Maela


    To assess the value of serial hCG and progesterone serum level in the diagnosis of early pregnancy viability. It was a prospective cohort study. Women with a pregnancy of uncertain viability (PUV), defined as the presence of an intra-uterine embryo with a crown-rump length hCG levels on the first day and 48h after as well as the initial progesterone level were evaluated to diagnose pregnancy viability. Pregnancy viability was assessed by TVS 7 to 14days after inclusion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of an hCG H48/H0 ratio increase hCG H48/H0 ratio increase >75% to diagnose a viable pregnancy were 100%, 31%, 45.9% and 100%, respectively. hCG H48/H0 ratio increase hCG H48/H0 ratio increase >75% was associated with 100% of viable pregnancies in 100% of the cases. Serial hCG levels alone permitted an early viability diagnosis within 48h for 41.1% of patients with PUV instead of 7 to 14days with TVS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of reintroduction and enhancement effects on metapopulation viability (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.


    Metapopulation viability depends upon a balance of extinction and colonization of local habitats by a species. Mechanisms that can affect this balance include physical characteristics related to natural processes (e.g. succession) as well as anthropogenic actions. Plant restorations can help to produce favorable metapopulation dynamics and consequently increase viability; however, to date no studies confirm this is true. Population viability analysis (PVA) allows for the use of empirical data to generate theoretical future projections in the form of median time to extinction and probability of extinction. In turn, PVAs can inform and aid the development of conservation, recovery, and management plans. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) is a dune endemic that exhibited metapopulation dynamics. We projected viability of three natural and two restored populations with demographic data spanning 15–23 years to determine the degree the addition of reintroduced population affects metapopulation viability. The models were validated by comparing observed and projected abundances and adjusting parameters associated with demographic and environmental stochasticity to improve model performance. Our chosen model correctly predicted yearly population abundance for 60% of the population-years. Using that model, 50-year projections showed that the addition of reintroductions increases metapopulation viability. The reintroduction that simulated population performance in early-successional habitats had the maximum benefit. In situ enhancements of existing populations proved to be equally effective. This study shows that restorations can facilitate and improve metapopulation viability of species dependent on metapopulation dynamics for survival with long-term persistence of C. pitcheri in Indiana likely to depend on continued active management.

  15. In aftermath of financial investigation Phoenix VA employee demoted after her testimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A previous Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care Journal editorial commented on fiscal mismanagement at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Medical Center in Phoenix (1. Now Paula Pedene, the former Phoenix VA public affairs officer, claims she was demoted for testimony she gave to the VA Inspector General’s Office (OIG regarding that investigation (2. In 2011, the OIG investigated the Phoenix VA for excess spending on private care of patients (3. The report blamed systemic failures for controls so weak that $56 million in medical fees were paid during 2010 without adequate review. The report particularly focused on one clinician assigned by the Chief of Staff to review hundreds of requests per week and the intensive care unit physicians for transferring patients to chronic ventilator units (1,3. After the investigation, the director and one of the associate directors left the VA and the chief of staff was promoted …

  16. Viability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicles after vitrification in a metal container. (United States)

    Marques, Lis S; Bos-Mikich, Adriana; Godoy, Leandro C; Silva, Laura A; Maschio, Daniel; Zhang, Tiantian; Streit, Danilo P


    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been studied for female germline preservation of farm animals and endangered mammalian species. However, there are relatively few reports on cryopreservation of fish ovarian tissue and especially using vitrification approach. Previous studies of our group has shown that the use of a metal container for the cryopreservation of bovine ovarian fragments results in good primordial and primary follicle morphological integrity after vitrification. The aim of this study was to assess the viability and in vitro development of zebrafish follicles after vitrification of fragmented or whole ovaries using the same metal container. In Experiment 1, we tested the follicular viability of five developmental stages following vitrification in four vitrification solutions using fluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide fluorescent probes. These results showed that the highest viability rates were obtained with immature follicles (Stage I) and VS1 (1.5 M methanol + 4.5 M propylene glycol). In Experiment 2, we used VS1 to vitrify different types of ovarian tissue (fragments or whole ovaries) in two different carriers (plastic cryotube or metal container). In this experiment, Stage I follicle survival was assessed following vitrification by vital staining after 24 h in vitro culture. Follicular morphology was analyzed by light microscopy after vitrification. Data showed that the immature follicles morphology was well preserved after cryopreservation. Follicular survival rate was higher (P vitrification devices were compared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conidial vigor vs. viability as predictors of virulence of entomopathogenic fungi. (United States)

    Faria, Marcos; Lopes, Rogério Biaggioni; Souza, Daniela Aguiar; Wraight, Stephen P


    We tested the hypothesis that debilitated conidia exhibiting slow-germination (requiring>16h to germinate) are less virulent than vigorous conidia exhibiting fast germination (requiring⩽16h to germinate). Preparations of Beauveria bassiana s.l. strain CG 1027 with variable ratios of vigorous to debilitated conidia were assayed against third-instar larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda. As the proportion of debilitated conidia in test preparations increased, LC50 expressed in terms of total viable conidia increased, while LC50 expressed solely in terms of vigorous conidia remained constant, indicating that vigorous conidia were responsible for nearly all mortality observed in the assays. Larvae treated with conidia from low-quality batches (with high proportions of debilitated conidia) survived consistently longer than those treated with comparable doses of conidia from high-quality batches. These results confirm our previous hypotheses that inclusion of debilitated conidia in viability assessments can lead to overestimation of the quality (potency) of mycoinsecticide preparations and support our recommendation for use of short incubation periods for assessing viability whenever viability is relied upon as an indicator of product quality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Polyphenolic Extracts of Edible Flowers Incorporated onto Atelocollagen Matrices and Their Effect on Cell Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López-García


    Full Text Available The phenolic extract of chives flowers (Allium schoenoprasum, Liliaceae, introduced Sage (Salvia pratensis, Lamiaceae, European elderberry (Sambucus nigra, Caprifoliaceae and common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, Asteraceae were characterised by High Performance Liquid Chromatography and incorporated in different concentrations onto atelocollagen thin films. In order to assess the biological impact of these phenolic compounds on cell viability, human immortalised non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line was seeded on the thin films and cell proliferation was determined by using an MTT assay. In addition, their antimicrobial activity was estimated by using an agar diffusion test. Data indicated the concomitance between cell viability and concentration of polyphenols. These findings suggest that these phenolic-endowed atelocollagen films might be suitable for tissue engineering applications, on account of the combined activity of polyphenols and collagen.

  19. Viability and Tissue Quality of Cartilage Flaps From Patients With Femoroacetabular Hip Impingement: A Matched-Control Comparison (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fontan, Francisco; Payne, Karin A.; Chahla, Jorge; Mei-Dan, Omer; Richards, Abigail; Uchida, Soshi; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia


    Background: Chondrolabral damage is commonly observed in patients with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Chondral flap reattachment has recently been proposed as a possible preservation technique. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine the viability and tissue quality of chondral flaps from patients with FAI at the time of arthroscopy. It was hypothesized that chondral flaps from patients with cam lesions of the hip would exhibit less viability and greater tissue degeneration than would those of a matched control group. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Patients with cam-type FAI who were treated with hip arthroscopy between 2014 and 2016 were asked to participate in this study. The cartilage lesions were localized and classified intraoperatively according to Beck classification. A chondral flap (study group) and a cartilage sample (control group) were obtained from each patient for histologic evaluation. Cellular viability and tissue quality were examined and compared in both groups. Cellular viability was determined with live/dead staining, and tissue quality was evaluated using safranin O/fast green, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and immunohistochemistry for collagen II. Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) grading was used for quality assessment, and Image J software was used to calculate the percentage of tissue viability and Col II stain. Results: A total of 10 male patients with a mean age of 38.4 years (range, 30-55 years) were enrolled. All chondral flaps were classified as Beck grade 4. The mean cellular viability of the chondral flaps was reduced (54.6% ± 25.6%), and they were found to be degenerated (OARSI grade, 4 ± 1.27). Control samples also had reduced viability (38.8% ± 30.3%) and were degenerative (OARSI grade, 3.5 ± 1.38). There was no statistically significant intergroup difference for viability (P = .203) or OARSI grade (P = .645), nor was there an

  20. Direct evaluation of myocardial viability and stem cell engraftment demonstrates salvage of the injured myocardium. (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Ge, Xiaohu; Matsuura, Yuka; Toma, Ildiko; Metzler, Scott; Kooreman, Nigel G; Ramunas, John; Holbrook, Colin; McConnell, Michael V; Blau, Helen; Harnish, Phillip; Rulifson, Eric; Yang, Phillip C


    The mechanism of functional restoration by stem cell therapy remains poorly understood. Novel manganese-enhanced MRI and bioluminescence reporter gene imaging were applied to follow myocardial viability and cell engraftment, respectively. Human-placenta-derived amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMCs) demonstrate unique immunoregulatory and precardiac properties. In this study, the restorative effects of 3 AMC-derived subpopulations were examined in a murine myocardial injury model: (1) unselected AMCs, (2) ckit(+)AMCs, and (3) AMC-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (MiPSCs). To determine the differential restorative effects of the AMC-derived subpopulations in the murine myocardial injury model using multimodality imaging. SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice underwent left anterior descending artery ligation and were divided into 4 treatment arms: (1) normal saline control (n=14), (2) unselected AMCs (n=10), (3) ckit(+)AMCs (n=13), and (4) MiPSCs (n=11). Cardiac MRI assessed myocardial viability and left ventricular function, whereas bioluminescence imaging assessed stem cell engraftment during a 4-week period. Immunohistological labeling and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of the explanted myocardium were performed. The unselected AMC and ckit(+)AMC-treated mice demonstrated transient left ventricular functional improvement. However, the MiPSCs exhibited a significantly greater increase in left ventricular function compared with all the other groups during the entire 4-week period. Left ventricular functional improvement correlated with increased myocardial viability and sustained stem cell engraftment. The MiPSC-treated animals lacked any evidence of de novo cardiac differentiation. The functional restoration seen in MiPSCs was characterized by increased myocardial viability and sustained engraftment without de novo cardiac differentiation, indicating salvage of the injured myocardium. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. VA health service utilization for homeless and low-income Veterans: a spotlight on the VA Supportive Housing (VASH) program in greater Los Angeles. (United States)

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Yuan, Anita H; Andersen, Ronald M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Gelberg, Lillian


    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)-VA Supportive Housing (VASH) program-the VA's Housing First effort-is central to efforts to end Veteran homelessness. Yet, little is known about health care utilization patterns associated with achieving HUD-VASH housing. We compare health service utilization at the VA Greater Los Angeles among: (1) formerly homeless Veterans housed through HUD-VASH (HUD-VASH Veterans); (2) currently homeless Veterans; (3) housed, low-income Veterans not in HUD-VASH; and (4) housed, not low-income Veterans. We performed a secondary database analysis of Veterans (n=62,459) who received VA Greater Los Angeles care between October 1, 2010 and September 30, 2011. We described medical/surgical and mental health utilization [inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department (ED)]. We controlled for demographics, need, and primary care use in regression analyses of utilization data by housing and income status. HUD-VASH Veterans had more inpatient, outpatient, and ED use than currently homeless Veterans. Adjusting for demographics and need, HUD-VASH Veterans and the low-income housed Veterans had similar likelihoods of medical/surgical inpatient and outpatient utilization, compared with the housed, not low-income group. Adjusting first for demographics and need (model 1), then also for primary care use (model 2), HUD-VASH Veterans had the greatest decrease in incident rates of specialty medical/surgical, mental health, and ED care from models 1 to 2, becoming similar to the currently homeless, compared with the housed, not low-income group. Our findings suggest that currently homeless Veterans underuse health care relative to housed Veterans. HUD-VASH may address this disparity by providing housing and linkages to primary care.

  2. Military and Veteran Support: DOD and VA Programs That Address the Effects of Combat and Transition to Civilian Life (United States)


    transfer their benefits to dependents. VA – Veterans Benefit Administration ( VBA ) Spinal Cord Injury and Disorders Centers Disability; Physical...who are temporarily residing in a home owned by a family member to help adapt the home to meet his or her special needs. VA - VBA Yellow Ribbon...member and Veteran X X Allowance for Aid and Attendance for Housebound Veterans VA/ VBA Veteran X X X Appendix III

  3. Regional population viability of grassland songbirds: Effects of agricultural management (United States)

    Perlut, N.G.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Buckley, N.J.


    Although population declines of grassland songbirds in North America and Europe are well-documented, the effect of local processes on regional population persistence is unclear. To assess population viability of grassland songbirds at a regional scale (???150,000 ha), we quantified Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis and Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus annual productivity, adult apparent survival, habitat selection, and density in the four most (regionally) common grassland treatments. We applied these data to a female-based, stochastic, pre-breeding population model to examine whether current grassland management practices can sustain viable populations of breeding songbirds. Additionally, we evaluated six conservation strategies to determine which would most effectively increase population trends. Given baseline conditions, over 10 years, simulations showed a slightly declining or stable Savannah Sparrow population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.99; 95% CI = 1.00-0.989) and severely declining Bobolink population (mean bootstrap ?? = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.753-0.747). Savannah Sparrow populations were sensitive to increases in all demographic parameters, particularly adult survival. However for Bobolinks, increasing adult apparent survival, juvenile apparent survival, or preference by changing habitat selection cues for late-hayed fields (highest quality) only slightly decreased the rate of decline. For both species, increasing the amount of high-quality habitat (late- and middle-hayed) marginally slowed population declines; increasing the amount of low-quality habitat (early-hayed and grazed) marginally increased population declines. Both species were most sensitive to low productivity and survival on early-hayed fields, despite the fact that this habitat comprised only 18% of the landscape. Management plans for all agricultural regions should increase quality on both low- and high-quality fields by balancing habitat needs, nesting phenology, and species' response to

  4. The VA and VCD spectra of various isotopomers of L-alanine in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Jalkanen, Karl J.; Bohr, Henrik


    Density functional theory (DFT) at the Becke 3LYP level has been used to calculate the vibrational absorption (VA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of various deuterated species Of L-alanine. The effect of replacing the methine hydrogen, CH1, the methyl group, CH3, and both...... changes in the VA and VCD spectra are used as a check of the Becke 3LYP hybrid model to successfully reproduce these fine features in the VA and VCD intensities. Furthermore, several aspects of the isotopomers and the isotope effects on vibrational spectra are discussed in the light of the approximation......, i.e., validity of Born-Oppenheimer approximation. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. VA Disability Compensation and Money Spent on Substance Use Among Homeless Veterans: A Controversial Association. (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A


    There has long been concern that public support payments are used to support addictive behaviors. This study examined the amount of money homeless veterans spend on alcohol and drugs and the association between public support income, including VA disability compensation, and expenditures on alcohol and drugs. Data were from 1,160 veterans from 19 sites on entry into the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric analyses were conducted. About 33% of veterans reported spending money on alcohol and 22% reported spending money on drugs in the past month. No significant association was found between public support income, VA disability compensation, and money spent on alcohol and drugs. A substantial proportion of homeless veterans spend some income on alcohol and drugs, but disability income, including VA compensation, does not seem to be related to substance use or money spent on addictive substances.

  6. Calculating operational value-at-risk (OpVaR in a retail bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja'nel Esterhuysen


    Full Text Available The management of operational value-at-risk (OpVaR in financial institutions is presented by means of a novel, robust calculation technique and the influence of this value on the capital held by a bank for operational risk. A clear distinction between economic and regulatory capital is made, as well as the way OpVaR models may be used to calculate both types of capital. Under the Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA, banks may employ OpVaR models to calculate regulatory capital; this article therefore illustrates the differences in regulatory capital when using the AMA and the Standardised Approach (SA, by means of an example. Economic capital is found to converge with regulatory capital using the AMA, but not if the SA is used.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Ivanov


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to doctor of medicine, professor V.A. Sokolov. In 2017 he celebrates his eightieth birthday. Professor V.A. .Sokolov is one of the founders of polytrauma treatment in USSR and Russia. For a long time he had been heading polytrauma department at the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine. Due to his work, algorithms of life sustaining and recovery of serious patients were developed. Professor V.A. Sokolov is the author of 6 monographies and about 300 periodical papers. Besides, he is the holder of 32 patents. Some of his inventions were popularized and manufactured. He had been leading active scientific work, which resulted in 6 doctoral dissertations and 15 candidate theses. The staff of N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine congratulates on the anniversary.

  8. Performance-based budgeting in the public sector: an illustration from the VA health care system. (United States)

    Yaisawarng, Suthathip; Burgess, James F


    This paper estimates frontier cost functions for US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals in FY2000 that are consistent with economic theory and explicitly account for cost differences across patients' risk, level of access to care, quality of care, and hospital-specific characteristics. Results indicate that on average VA hospitals in FY2000 operate at efficiency levels of 94%, as compared to previous studies on US private sector hospitals that average closer to 90% efficient. Using these cost frontiers, management systems potentially could be implemented to enhance the equitable allocation of the VA medical care global budget and systematically distribute funds across hospitals and networks. The paper also provides recommendations to improve the efficiency of delivering health care services applicable to public sector organizations. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. MRI of ovarian torsion: Correlation of imaging features with the presence of perifollicular hemorrhage and ovarian viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkovska, Iva, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Duke, Eugene; Martin, Diego R.; Irani, Zeenia [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Geffre, Christopher P. [Department of Pathology, University of Arizona College of Public Health, Tucson, AZ (United States); Cragun, Janiel M. [Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Costello, James R.; Arif-Tiwari, Hina; Czeyda-Pommersheim, Ferenc; Udayasankar, Unni [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Kalb, Bobby, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to test for: (a) correlation between the presence of a perifollicular T2-hypointense rim on MRI with the presence of perifollicular hemorrhage on histology; and (b) correlation between this finding and diminished ovarian viability after intra-operative detorsion. Methods and materials: Our IRB-approved, retrospective study evaluated 780 patients between August 2012 and February 2016 with ovarian torsion as a diagnostic consideration on the emergency department note. Patients were included if they had preoperative MRI and intraoperatively confirmed case of ovarian torsion. MRIs were retrospectively reviewed for presence of perifollicular T2 hypointense rim in the torsed ovary. Two arms of analysis were performed: (a) assessment of perifollicular hemorrhage on histological exam; and (b) assessment of ovarian viability after intra-operative detorsion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MRI for predicting ovarian viability in the setting of torsion was performed. κ test assessed level of agreement between readers. Results: 24 patients included in one of the two arms; 20 in viability analysis and 12 in perifollicular hemorrhage analysis (8 in both). The presence of T2-hypointense rim on MRI demonstrated 88.9% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity for the diagnosis of perifollicular hemorrhage on histology, and 91.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity for predicting intraoperative viability. Conclusion: The presence of a perifollicular T2 hypointense rim on MRI in the setting of ovarian torsion correlates with perifollicular hemorrhage on histopathologic exam, and may also be a useful predictor of ovarian viability in patients presenting with ovarian torsion.

  10. Production of electricity through biomass gasification system downdraft and generator group with a capacity of 50 kVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrízio Luiz Figueiredo


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests performed with an internal combustion engine adapted to MWM Otto cycle, coupled to an electricity generator with a capacity of 50 kVA, fed exclusively with synthesis gas from a biomass gasifier downdraft, using wood eucalyptus. Also featured are the characteristics and efficiency of the generator set, in order to assess the feasibility of applying the system in remote locations, where biomass is available and the system of conventional electric power transmission is hampered by distance. The synthesis gas generated showed the average composition of 16,9% H2, 20% CO, 10,9% CO2, CH4, 2% and 50,1% N2. The performance of the span was monitored by applying loads of 0, 7, 13, 20,1 and 26,4 kW, the generator, keeping the average voltage of 222 V and currents of 0, 18,5, 33, 51, 84 and 67 A.

  11. Binge-drinking and non-partner aggression are associated with gambling among Veterans with recent substance use in VA outpatient treatment. (United States)

    Davis, Alan K; Bonar, Erin E; Goldstick, Jason E; Walton, Maureen A; Winters, Jamie; Chermack, Stephen T


    Gambling is relatively under-assessed in Veterans Affairs (VA) substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings, yet shared characteristics with substance addiction suggest the importance of understanding how gambling behaviors present in Veterans seeking SUD care. We evaluated substance use, mental health, and violence-related correlates of past 30-day gambling among 833 Veterans (93% male, M age 48years, 72% Caucasian) seeking treatment in VA outpatient mental health and SUD clinics who completed screening for a randomized clinical trial. A total of 288 (35%) Veterans reported past 30-day gambling. Among those who gambled, 79% had cravings/urges to gamble, whereas between 20%-27% of gamblers reported perceived relationship, legal, and daily life problems related to gambling, as well as difficulty controlling gambling. A logistic regression analysis revealed that age, recent binge-drinking, and non-partner physical aggression were associated with recent gambling. Gambling was associated with binge-drinking and non-partner physical aggression, supporting potential shared characteristics among these behaviors such as impulsivity and risk-taking, which may complicate SUD treatment engagement and effectiveness. Findings support the need to screen for gambling in the VA, and to adapt treatments to include gambling as a potential behavioral target or relapse trigger, particularly among heavy drinking patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang


    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  13. Validity testing and neuropsychology practice in the VA healthcare system: results from recent practitioner survey (.). (United States)

    Young, J Christopher; Roper, Brad L; Arentsen, Timothy J


    A survey of neuropsychologists in the Veterans Health Administration examined symptom/performance validity test (SPVT) practices and estimated base rates for patient response bias. Invitations were emailed to 387 psychologists employed within the Veterans Affairs (VA), identified as likely practicing neuropsychologists, resulting in 172 respondents (44.4% response rate). Practice areas varied, with 72% at least partially practicing in general neuropsychology clinics and 43% conducting VA disability exams. Mean estimated failure rates were 23.0% for clinical outpatient, 12.9% for inpatient, and 39.4% for disability exams. Failure rates were the highest for mTBI and PTSD referrals. Failure rates were positively correlated with the number of cases seen and frequency and number of SPVT use. Respondents disagreed regarding whether one (45%) or two (47%) failures are required to establish patient response bias, with those administering more measures employing the more stringent criterion. Frequency of the use of specific SPVTs is reported. Base rate estimates for SPVT failure in VA disability exams are comparable to those in other medicolegal settings. However, failure in routine clinical exams is much higher in the VA than in other settings, possibly reflecting the hybrid nature of the VA's role in both healthcare and disability determination. Generally speaking, VA neuropsychologists use SPVTs frequently and eschew pejorative terms to describe their failure. Practitioners who require only one SPVT failure to establish response bias may overclassify patients. Those who use few or no SPVTs may fail to identify response bias. Additional clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells cultured onto xenogenic tissue-engineered extracellular matrices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F


    To evaluate the viability and proliferative activity of human urothelial cells (HUCs) cultured on tissue-engineered extracellular matrix scaffolds and to assess the potential of extracellular matrixes to support the growth of HUCs in their expected in vivo urine environment.

  15. On the Viability of PTSD Checklist (PCL) Short Form Use: Analyses from Mississippi Gulf Coast Hurricane Katrina Survivors (United States)

    Hirschel, Michael J.; Schulenberg, Stefan E.


    One measure commonly used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder is the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Lang and Stein (2005) extracted 4 subsets of PCL items, validating 2 of them for possible use in screening in primary care settings. The viability of the 4 item subsets was evaluated psychometrically in the present study with a sample of Hurricane…

  16. Systems innovation model: an integrated interdisciplinary team approach pre- and post-bariatric surgery at a veterans affairs (VA) medical center. (United States)

    Eisenberg, Dan; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Kubat, Eric P; Bates, Cheryl C; Greenberg, Lauren M; Frayne, Susan M


    Provision of bariatric surgery in the Veterans Health Administration must account for obese veterans' co-morbidity burden and the geographically dispersed location of patients relative to Veterans Affairs (VA) bariatric centers. To evaluate a collaborative, integrated, interdisciplinary bariatric team of surgeons, bariatricians, psychologists, dieticians, and physical therapists working in a hub-and-spokes care model, for pre- and post-bariatric surgery assessment and management. This is a description of an interdisciplinary clinic and bariatric program at a VA healthcare system and a report on program evaluation findings. Retrospective data of a prospective database was abstracted. For program evaluation, we abstracted charts to characterize patient data and conducted a patient survey. Since 2009, 181 veterans have undergone bariatric surgery. Referrals came from 7 western U.S. states. Mean preoperative body mass index was 46 kg/m2 (maximum 71). Mean age was 53 years, with 33% aged>60 years; 79% were male. Medical co-morbidity included diabetes (70%), hypertension (85%), and lower back or extremity joint pain (84%). A psychiatric diagnosis was present in 58%. At 12 months, follow-up was 81% and percent excess body mass index loss was 50.5%. Among 54 sequential clinic patients completing anonymous surveys, overall satisfaction with the interdisciplinary team approach and improved quality of life were high (98% and 94%, respectively). The integrated, interdisciplinary team approach using a hub-and-spokes model is well suited to the VA bariatric surgery population, with its heavy burden of medical and mental health co-morbidity and its system of geographically dispersed patients receiving treatment at specialty centers. As the VA seeks to expand the use of bariatric surgery as an option for obese veterans, interdisciplinary models crafted to address case complexity, care coordination, and long-term outcomes should be part of policy planning efforts. Published by

  17. Tissue viability 2010 -2015:from good to great. (United States)

    Milne, Jeanette; Ousey, Karen


    This paper explores the challenges of the changing face of the NHS with specific relation to the challenges for community-based tissue viability services following the publication of government documents that identify the need to provide a quality service for all patients in health-care settings. Patients receiving care in the community is paramount to the success of the NHS going forward; service redesign, improvements in quality, outcome tracking, seamless discharge and patient satisfaction/responsibilities has been heralded as the core prerequisites of successful services. Tissue viability is a relatively young specialism, with most services being nurse led and established less than 15 years. It is argued that in order to continue to be successful as a specialism, tissue viability has to challenge traditional patient and nursing beliefs and values.

  18. Viability of Lucilia sericata maggots after exposure to wound antiseptics. (United States)

    Daeschlein, Georg; Napp, Matthias; Assadian, Ojan; von Podewils, Sebastian; Reese, Kevin; Hinz, Peter; Matiasek, Johannes; Spitzmueller, Romy; Humphreys, Paul; Jünger, Michael; Kramer, Axel


    After debridement and before dressing a wound with maggots of calliphorid flies, one frequently performed step is the application of antiseptics to the prepared wound bed. However, the concomitant application of antiseptic agents during maggot therapy is regarded controversial as antiseptics may interfere with maggots' viability. In this experimental in vitro study, the viability of fly maggots was investigated after exposure to various antiseptics frequently used in wound care. Here, we show that Lucilia sericata fly maggots can survive up to an hour's exposure to wound antiseptics such as octenidine, povidone-iodine or polihexanide. Concomitant short-term application of wound antiseptics together with maggots on wound beds is tolerated by larvae and does not impair their viability. © 2016 Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cardiac 99mTc sestamibi SPECT and 18F FDG PET as viability markers in takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Bang, Lia Evi; Holmvang, Lene


    In patients with heart failure (HF) due to coronary disease, a combined evaluation of perfusion and glucose metabolism by cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to distinguish viable from non-viable myocardium, and current...... guidelines recommend cardiac SPECT and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for viability assessment. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a disease characterized by acute but reversible HF leaving no scarring. To explore how robust the semi-quantitative viability criteria used in cardiac SPECT and FDG PET stands...

  20. Influence of PVP/VA copolymer composition on drug-polymer solubility. (United States)

    Rask, Malte Bille; Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, René; Rades, Thomas


    In this study, the influence of copolymer composition on drug-polymer solubility was investigated. The solubility of the model drug celecoxib (CCX) in various polyvinylpyrrolidone/vinyl acetate (PVP/VA) copolymer compositions (70/30, 60/40, 50/50 and 30/70 w/w) and the pure homopolymers polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl acetate (PVA) was predicted at 25 °C using a thermal analysis method based on the recrystallization of a supersaturated amorphous dispersion (recrystallization method). These solubilities were compared with a prediction based on the solubility of CCX in the liquid monomeric precursors of PVP/VA, N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and vinyl acetate (VA), using the Flory-Huggins lattice theory (liquid monomer solubility approach). The solubilities predicted from the liquid monomer solubility approach increased linearly with increasing VP/VA ratio from 0.03-0.60 w/w. Even though the solubilities predicted from the recrystallization method also increased with increasing VP/VA ratio from 0.02-0.40 w/w, the predicted solubility seemed to approach a plateau at high VP/VA ratios. Increasing positive deviations from the Gordon-Taylor equation with increasing VP/VA ratio indicated strong interactions between CCX and the VP repeat unit, which was in accordance with the relatively high solubilities predicted using both methods. As the solubility plateau may be a consequence of steric hindrance caused by the size differences between CCX and the VP repeat units, it is likely that a CCX molecule interacting with a VP repeat unit hinders another CCX molecule from binding to the neighboring repeat units in the polymer chain. Therefore, it is possible that replacing these neighboring hygroscopic VP repeat units with hydrophobic VA repeat units, could increase the physical stability of an amorphous solid dispersion without compromising the drug-polymer solubility. This knowledge could be used advantageously in future development of amorphous drug delivery systems as

  1. Improving PTSD/substance abuse treatment in the VA: a survey of providers. (United States)

    Najavits, Lisa M; Norman, Sonya B; Kivlahan, Daniel; Kosten, Thomas R


    We surveyed 205 Veterans Affairs (VA) staff on treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance use disorder (SUD), and the combination (PTSD/SUD). The survey was anonymous and VA-wide. PTSD/SUD was perceived as more difficult to treat than either disorder alone; gratification in the work was stronger than difficulty (for PTSD, SUD, and PTSD/SUD); and difficulty and gratification appeared separate constructs. Respondents endorsed views that represent expert treatment for the comorbidity; however, there was also endorsement of "myths." Thus, there is a need for more training, policy clarifications, service integration, and adaptations for veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. Limitations are described.

  2. Effect of refrigeration systems upon frozen bull sperm viability assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis and fluorescent probesEfeito de sistemas de refrigeração sobre a viabilidade do sêmen bovino congelado analisado por meio de sistema computadorizado e sondas fluorescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Ozanam Papa


    Full Text Available Sperm cryopreservation success depends upon the maintenance of spermatozoa fertility potential. Sperm cells must preserve both integrity and functionality of several cell structures. The stabilization phase must allow the exit of water from the sperm cells via osmosis. This study aimed to compare the effect of refrigeration in the commercial refrigerator (CR and the transport/refrigeration box (TRB upon the viability of frozen bull sperm diluted in three different extenders (A, B and C. Ten Nellore bulls, Bos taurus indicus maintained in Artificial Insemination Center were used and the spermatozoa samples was assessed for Plasma Membrane Integrity and CASA evaluation. The stabilization phase (5°C/4 hours was performed in the CR as well as in the TRB, and then samples were exposed to nitrogen vapor during 20 minutes and then plunged into nitrogen. The statistical analysis was done using the variance analysis and the significance level was set at 5%. In the CR the post-thawing parameters for PM and ALH were higher (p O sucesso da criopreservação do sêmen depende da manutenção do potencial de fertilidade dos espermatozoides. Nos espermatozoides deve haver a preservação da integridade e funcionalidade de várias das suas estruturas. A fase de estabilização permite a saída de água dos espermatozoides por osmose. Este estudo tem o objetivo de comparar o efeito da refrigeração em refrigerador comercial (RC e em caixa de transporte refrigerada (CTR na viabilidade do sêmen congelado bovino diluído em três diferentes meios (A, B e C. Dez touros Nelore, Bos taurus indicus mantidos em central de inseminação artificial foram utilizados e as amostras de sêmen analisadas para checar a integridade das membranas plasmáticas e por meio da análise computadorizada (CASA. A fase de estabilização (5°C/4 horas foi realizada em RC e em CTR, sendo as amostras expostas ao vapor de nitrogênio durante 20 minutos e após mergulhadas no nitrog

  3. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity (United States)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume


    several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of the associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Due to the stochastic nature of the system, there is a range of possible trajectories. Statistics can be derived from the probability distribution of the vulnerability of the trajectories. Dynamic programming methods can then yield the policies which, among available policies, minimize a given trajectory. Thus, this viability framework gives indication on both the possible consequences of a hazard or an environmental change, and on the policies that can mitigate or avert it. It also enables to assess the benefits of extending the set of available policy options, and we define adaptive capacity as the reduction in a given vulnerability statistic due to the introduction of new policy options.

  4. Subjective measures of hearing aid benefit in the NIDCD/VA Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Haskell, George B; Noffsinger, Douglas; Larson, Vernon D; Williams, David W; Dobie, Robert A; Rogers, Janette L


    Subjective measures of performance were assessed on three different hearing aid circuits as part of a large clinical trial. These measurements included the Profile of Hearing Aid Performance and a subjective ranking of individual preference. A multi-center, double-masked clinical trial of hearing aids was conducted at eight VA Medical Centers. Three hearing aid circuits, a linear peak-clipper, a linear compression limiter and a wide dynamic range compressor, were investigated. The experimental design was a three-period, three-treatment crossover design. Subjects (N = 360) were stratified by site and randomized to one of six sequences for the hearing aid circuits. All fittings were binaural and involved a 3-mo trial with each of the three circuits. All subjective measures were administered for unaided and aided conditions at the end of each trial period. While all of the circuits resulted in improved scores on the aided versus the unaided PHAP, there were few conditions in which one circuit outperformed the others. An exception was the aversiveness of sound subscale where the peak clipper frequently scored worse than either the compression limiter or the wide dynamic range compressor. In the subjective ranking scale the compression limiter received more first place rankings than the other two circuits, especially for one subgroup of patients with moderate flat hearing loss. All circuits were perceived as beneficial by these subjects in most situations. The peak clipper scored worse on aversiveness of sound than did the other two circuits for most subjects, while the compression limiter seemed to have a slight advantage in subjective rankings. Most subjects perceived considerable aided benefit in situations involving background noise and reverberation, situations where hearing aid benefit is often questioned.

  5. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  6. Economic viability of new launched school lunch programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne; Mørkbak, Morten Raun


    The objective of this paper is to investigate determinants for the viability of school lunch programmes with a zero-price start-up period. The study is based on a Danish pilot experiment, in which 38 schools were subsidized to provide free school lunch for all pupils during a two-month start...... activities related to the schools’ support and the users’ feeling of ownership, as well as internal professionalism and leadership in the implementation of the school lunch programme are important for the viability of the programme. Strong performance on the latter factors might to some extent compensate...... for the gap between cost and users’ willingness to pay for school lunches....

  7. Challenge testing of gametes to enhance their viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Henrik


    of survival mechanism that enables them to come through the process. The details of the mechanism remain unknown but, if identified, it could have immense potential as a new way to improve the viability of embryos produced by ART. However, few publications describe systematic ways to challenge test gametes...... and then to use the results as a basis for improving gamete viability. Furthermore, new methods to monitor the reactions of gametes to such challenge tests are needed. In the present review, these two issues are discussed, as are some of the conditions necessary before a challenge test protocol can be part...

  8. Population-specific life histories contribute to metapopulation viability (United States)

    Halsey, Samniqueka J.; Bell, Timothy J.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Pavlovic, Noel B.


    Restoration efforts can be improved by understanding how variations in life-history traits occur within populations of the same species living in different environments. This can be done by first understanding the demographic responses of natural occurring populations. Population viability analysis continues to be useful to species management and conservation with sensitivity analysis aiding in the understanding of population dynamics. In this study, using life-table response experiments and elasticity analyses, we investigated how population-specific life-history demographic responses contributed to the metapopulation viability of the Federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). Specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) Subpopulations occupying different environments within a metapopulation have independent demographic responses and (2) advancing succession results in a shift from a demographic response focused on growth and fecundity to one dominated by stasis. Our results showed that reintroductions had a positive contribution to the metapopulation growth rate as compared to native populations which had a negative contribution. We found no difference in succession on the contribution to metapopulation viability. In addition, we identified distinct population-specific contributions to metapopulation viability and were able to associate specific life-history demographic responses. For example, the positive impact of Miller High Dunes population on the metapopulation growth rate resulted from high growth contributions, whereas increased time of plant in stasis for the State Park Big Blowout population resulted in negative contributions. A greater understanding of how separate populations respond in their corresponding environment may ultimately lead to more effective management strategies aimed at reducing extinction risk. We propose the continued use of sensitivity analyses to evaluate population-specific demographic influences on

  9. Caffeine inhibits the viability and osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Guan, X X; Zhu, Z L; Guo, J; Huang, Y C; Hou, W W; Yu, H Y


    Caffeine is consumed extensively in Europe and North America. As a risk factor for osteoporosis, epidemiological studies have observed that caffeine can decrease bone mineral density, adversely affect calcium absorption and increase the risk of bone fracture. However, the exact mechanisms have not been fully investigated. Here, we examined the effects of caffeine on the viability and osteogenesis of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (rBMSCs). Cell viability, apoptosis and necrosis were quantified using thymidine incorporation and flow cytometry. Sequential gene expressions in osteogenic process were measured by real-time PCR. cAMP, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were assessed by immunoassay, spectrophotometry and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Mineralization was determined by calcium deposition. After treating BMSCs with high caffeine concentrations (0.1-1mM), their viability decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. This cell death was primarily due to necrosis and, to a small extent, apoptosis. Genes and protein sequentially expressed in osteogenesis, including Cbfa1/Runx2, collagen I, alkaline phosphatase and its protein, were significantly downregulated except for osteocalcin and its protein. Moreover, caffeine inhibited calcium deposition in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but increased intracellular cAMP in a concentration-dependent manner. By suppressing the commitment of BMSCs to the osteogenic lineage and selectively inhibiting gene expression, caffeine downregulated some important events in osteogenesis and ultimately affected bone mass.

  10. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marchetti


    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L., is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+i. Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.

  11. Optimizing conservation strategies for Mexican freetailed bats: a population viability and ecosystem services approach (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Svancara, Colleen; McCracken, Gary; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattson, Brady; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.; Rodrigo A. Medellín,


    Conservation planning can be challenging due to the need to balance biological concerns about population viability with social concerns about the benefits biodiversity provide to society, often while operating under a limited budget. Methods and tools that help prioritize conservation actions are critical for the management of at-risk species. Here, we use a multi-attribute utility function to assess the optimal maternity roosts to conserve for maintaining the population viability and the ecosystem services of a single species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana). Mexican free-tailed bats provide ecosystem services such as insect pest-suppression in agricultural areas and recreational viewing opportunities, and may be threatened by climate change and development of wind energy. We evaluated each roost based on five attributes: the maternity roost’s contribution to population viability, the pest suppression ecosystem services to the surrounding area provided by the bats residing in the roost, the ecotourism value of the roost, the risks posed to each roost structure, and the risks posed to the population of bats residing in each roost. We compared several scenarios that prioritized these attributes differently, hypothesizing that the set of roosts with the highest rankings would vary according to the conservation scenario. Our results indicate that placing higher values on different roost attributes (e.g. population importance over ecosystem service value) altered the roost rankings. We determined that the values placed on various conservation objectives are an important determinant of habitat planning.

  12. A key inactivation factor of HeLa cell viability by a plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Mayo [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Johkura, Kohei, E-mail: [Department of Histology and Embryology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)


    Recently, a plasma flow has been applied to medical treatment using effects of various kinds of stimuli such as chemical species, charged particles, heat, light, shock wave and electric fields. Among them, the chemical species are known to cause an inactivation of cell viability. However, the mechanisms and key factors of this event are not yet clear. In this study, we focused on the effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in plasma-treated culture medium because it is generated in the culture medium and it is also chemically stable compared with free radicals generated by the plasma flow. To elucidate the significance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, we assessed the differences in the effects of plasma-treated medium and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium against inactivation of HeLa cell viability. These two media showed comparable effects on HeLa cells in terms of the survival ratios, morphological features of damage processes, permeations of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into the cells, response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition by catalase and comprehensive gene expression. The results supported that among chemical species generated in a plasma-treated culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is one of the main factors responsible for inactivation of HeLa cell viability. (fast track communication)

  13. Extreme-Dipper Profile, Increased Aortic Stiffness, and Impaired Subendocardial Viability in Hypertension. (United States)

    Amah, Guy; Ouardani, Rahma; Pasteur-Rousseau, Adrien; Voicu, Sebastian; Safar, Michel E; Kubis, Nathalie; Bonnin, Philippe


    In treated hypertensives, extreme-dippers with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exhibit more severe nighttime cardiac ischemia than dippers. After excluding confounding factors such as diabetes, CAD or chronic kidney disease (CKD), we assessed whether subendocardial viability, determined by the Buckberg index, was more significantly impaired in extreme-dippers than in dippers. Two hundred thirteen consecutive treated hypertensives (156 dippers, 57 extreme-dippers), were included. After 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring, patients underwent radial applanation tonometry (with determination of: subendocardial viability ratio [SEVR], central augmentation index [AIx], and pulse pressure amplification [PPamp]), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) measurement, and cycle ergometer stress testing. Extreme-dippers showed higher cfPWV (8.99 ± 2.16 vs. 8.29 ± 1.69 m/s, P = 0.014), higher AIx (29.7 ± 9.4 vs. 26.4 ± 10.4%, P = 0.042), lower PPamp (1.22 ± 0.14 vs. 1.30 ± 0.15, P subendocardial viability compared to dippers. Extreme-dipper hypertensive patients, women in particular, may have a significantly higher risk of silent myocardial ischemia, thus justifying systematic screening.

  14. Influence of adhesion to activated carbon particles on the viability of waterborne pathogenic bacteria under flow. (United States)

    van der Mei, Henny C; Atema-Smit, Jelly; Jager, Debbie; Langworthy, Don E; Collias, Dimitris I; Mitchell, Michael D; Busscher, Henk J


    In rural areas around the world, people often rely on water filtration plants using activated carbon particles for safe water supply. Depending on the carbon surface, adhering microorganisms die or grow to form a biofilm. Assays to assess the efficacy of activated carbons in bacterial removal do not allow direct observation of bacterial adhesion and the determination of viability. Here we propose to use a parallel plate flow chamber with carbon particles attached to the bottom plate to study bacterial adhesion to individual carbon particles and determine the viability of adhering bacteria. Observation and enumeration is done after live/dead staining in a confocal laser scanning microscope. Escherichiae coli adhered in higher numbers than Raoultella terrigena, except to a coconut-based carbon, which showed low bacterial adhesion compared to other wood-based carbon types. After adhesion, 83-96% of the bacteria adhering to an acidic carbon were dead, while on a basic carbon 54-56% were dead. A positively charged, basic carbon yielded 76-78% bacteria dead, while on a negatively charged coconut-based carbon only 32-37% were killed upon adhesion. The possibility to determine both adhesion as well as the viability of adhering bacteria upon adhesion to carbon particles is most relevant, because if bacteria adhere but remain viable, this still puts the water treatment system at risk, as live bacteria can grow and form a biofilm that can then be shedded to cause contamination. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Postmortem morphology and viability of human Peyer's patches in distal ileum: a technical note. (United States)

    Solarino, Biagio; Di Vella, Giancarlo; Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Felicita; Tafaro, Angela; Piscitelli, Domenico; Casiello, Michela; Amati, Luigi; Jirillo, Emilio; Tattoli, Lucia


    The intestinal mucosa contains a highly specialized immune system which plays a central role in the induction of immune reactions. In the small bowel, Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) is organized in lymphoid aggregates which are known as Peyer's Patches (PP). Even though human PP involvement in systemic immunity has been described, little is known about their anatomy and morphology and viability. The aim of this study was to examine PP according to their macroscopic anatomy, distribution and cell viability after death. Specimens from the distal ileum were obtained from 72 serial autopsy cases: PP were identified and, parts of them were analyzed for histological examination. Moreover, viability of recovered PP cells was assessed by the trypan blue exclusion test. Most of the PP (90%) were situated on the antimesenteric border of ileum, and the greatest density of PP occurred in the most distal segment. The number of PP varied with age, with the maximum number observed in 21- to 30-years old cadavers. Histological examination showed their remarkable architectural preservation at different post-mortem intervals (PMI), while the mucosal surface underwent autolysis. In 56% of cases PP cells were still viable, especially at PMI < 24 hours after death. These data confirm that human PP are still well preserved in a remarkable percentage of cadavers also several hours after death, and their availability may be helpful in various fields of research.

  16. Tailoring an educational program on the AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators to meet stakeholder needs: lessons learned in the VA. (United States)

    Shin, Marlena H; Rivard, Peter E; Shwartz, Michael; Borzecki, Ann; Yaksic, Enzo; Stolzmann, Kelly; Zubkoff, Lisa; Rosen, Amy K


    Given that patient safety measures are increasingly used for public reporting and pay-for performance, it is important for stakeholders to understand how to use these measures for improvement. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) are one particularly visible set of measures that are now used primarily for public reporting and pay-for-performance among both private sector and Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals. This trend generates a strong need for stakeholders to understand how to interpret and use the PSIs for quality improvement (QI). The goal of this study was to develop an educational program and tailor it to stakeholders' needs. In this paper, we share what we learned from this program development process. Our study population included key VA stakeholders involved in reviewing performance reports and prioritizing and initiating quality/safety initiatives. A pre-program formative evaluation through telephone interviews and web-based surveys assessed stakeholders' educational needs/interests. Findings from the formative evaluation led to development and implementation of a cyberseminar-based program, which we tailored to stakeholders' needs/interests. A post-program survey evaluated program participants' perceptions about the PSI educational program. Interview data confirmed that the concepts we had developed for the interviews could be used for the survey. Survey results informed us on what program delivery mode and content topics were of high interest. Six cyberseminars were developed-three of which focused on two content areas that were noted of greatest interest: learning how to use PSIs for monitoring trends and understanding how to interpret PSIs. We also used snapshots of VA PSI reports so that participants could directly apply learnings. Although initial interest in the program was high, actual attendance was low. However, post-program survey results indicated that perceptions about the

  17. Evaluation of endoscopic vein extraction on structural and functional viability of saphenous vein endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiu-Gui


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Endothelial injury during harvest influences graft patency post CABG. We have previously shown that endoscopic harvest causes structural and functional damage to the saphenous vein (SV endothelium. However, causes of such injury may depend on the extraction technique. In order to assess this supposition, we evaluated the effect of VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique (VsEVH on structural and functional viability of SV endothelium using multiphoton imaging, biochemical and immunofluorescence assays. Methods Nineteen patients scheduled for CABG were prospectively identified. Each underwent VsEVH for one portion and "No-touch" open SV harvesting (OSVH for another portion of the SV. A two cm segment from each portion was immersed in GALA conduit preservation solution and transported overnight to our lab for processing. The segments were labeled with fluorescent markers to quantify cell viability, calcium mobilization and generation of nitric oxide. Morphology, expression, localization and stability of endothelial caveolin, eNOS, von Willebrand factor and cadherin were evaluated using immunofluorescence, Western blot and multiphoton microscopy (MPM. Results Morphological, biochemical and immunofluorescence parameters of viability, structure and function were well preserved in VsEVH group as in OSVH group. However, tonic eNOS activity, agonist-dependent calcium mobilization and nitric oxide production were partially attenuated in the VsEVH group. Conclusions This study indicates that VirtuoSaph endoscopic SV harvesting technique preserves the structural and functional viability of SV endothelium, but may differentially attenuate the vasomotor function of the saphenous vein graft. Ultramini-Abstract Endoscopic extraction preserved the structure and function, but attenuated the calcium mobilization and nitric oxide generation in human SV endothelium.

  18. Long-term viability and differentiation of bovine oviductal monolayers: bidimensional versus three-dimensional culture. (United States)

    Gualtieri, R; Mollo, V; Braun, S; Barbato, V; Fiorentino, I; Talevi, R


    Different in vitro models have been developed to study the interaction of gametes and embryos with the maternal tract. In cattle, the interaction of the oviduct with gametes and embryos have been classically studied using oviductal explants or monolayers (OMs). Explants are well differentiated but have to be used within 24 h after collection, whereas OMs can be used for a longer time after cell confluence but dedifferentiate during culture, losing cell polarity and ciliation. Herein, OMs were cultured either in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum or in a semidefined culture medium (Gray's medium), in an immersed condition on collagen-coated coated microporous polyester or polycarbonate inserts under air-liquid interface conditions. The influence of culture conditions on long-term viability and differentiation of OMs was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy, localization of centrin and tubulin at the confocal laser scanning microscope, and assessment of maintenance of viability of sperm bound to OMs. Findings demonstrated that OMs cultured in an immersed condition with Gray's medium retain a better morphology, do not exhibit signs of crisis at least until 3 wks postconfluence, and maintain the viability of bound sperm significantly better than parallel OMs cultured in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum. OM culture with Gray's medium in air-liquid interface conditions on porous inserts promotes cell polarity, ciliation, and maintenance of bound sperm viability at least until 3 wks postconfluence. In conclusion, oviduct culture in Gray's medium in an immersed or air-liquid condition allows long-term culture and, in the latter case, also ciliation of bovine OMs, and may represent in vitro systems that mimick more closely the biological processes modulated by the oviduct in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 76 FR 48204 - Fund Availability Under VA's Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (United States)


    ... programs addressing emotional, social, spiritual, and generative needs. Terminally Ill (1) Help... reintegration such as life-skills education, recreational activities, and follow up case management; (3) Ensure... education. Through this NOFA, VA seeks to renew the FY 2009 previous grant and per diem Special Need...

  20. Choosing Expected Shortfall over VaR in Basel III Using Stochastic Dominance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    textabstractBank risk managers follow the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) recommendations that recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2013, p. 3) noted that: “a

  1. 77 FR 20889 - Proposed Information Collection (Request One-VA Identification Verification Card) Activity... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Request One-VA Identification Verification Card) Activity... certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995, Federal agencies are required to publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information...

  2. 77 FR 38396 - Agency Information Collection (One-VA Identification Verification Card) Activities Under OMB Review (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (One-VA Identification Verification Card) Activities Under OMB... Affairs, will submit the collection of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and...

  3. 78 FR 6849 - Agency Information Collection (Verification of VA Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Verification of VA Benefits) Activity Under OMB Review . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0406.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Verification of... Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs will submit the collection of information...

  4. Myosin Va and Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Channel Complex Regulates Membrane Export during Axon Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Wada


    Full Text Available During axon guidance, growth cones navigate toward attractive cues by inserting new membrane on the cue side. This process depends on Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+ channels, but the Ca2+ sensor and effector governing this asymmetric vesicle export remain unknown. We identified a protein complex that controls asymmetric ER Ca2+-dependent membrane vesicle export. The Ca2+-dependent motor protein myosin Va (MyoVa tethers membrane vesicles to the ER via a common binding site on the two major ER Ca2+ channels, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors. In response to attractive cues, micromolar Ca2+ from ER channels triggers MyoVa-channel dissociation and the movement of freed vesicles to the cue side, enabling growth cone turning. MyoVa-Ca2+ channel interactions are required for proper long-range axon growth in developing spinal cord in vivo. These findings reveal a peri-ER membrane export pathway for Ca2+-dependent attraction in axon guidance.

  5. 38 CFR 74.29 - When will VA dispose of records? (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.29 When will VA dispose of records? The records, including those pertaining to businesses not determined to be eligible for the program... of the last Notice of Verified Status Approval letter. Longer retention will not be required unless a...

  6. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Alexandra [Seminole Canada Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon [Faculty of Management, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)


    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  7. Note from North America: "Linda, VA AG 2013 and Knitting Needles" and "Words" (United States)

    Alper, Paul


    This article is comprised of two essays by Paul Alper. The first essay, "Linda VA AG 2013 and Knitting Needles," provides examples of how a natural language does not necessarily work the way of logic. The second essay, "Words," discusses how the words of winners tend to become what we call the enduring historical record. The…

  8. Implementing the KiVa Antibullying Program: Recognition of Stable Victims (United States)

    Haataja, Anne; Sainio, Miia; Turtonen, Mira; Salmivalli, Christina


    Teachers do not always recognise students who are victimised by their peers. In this study, we examined the recognition of stable victims in 76 schools beginning to implement the KiVa antibullying programme. We focused on 348 victims (9-15 years) who reported victimisation at the pretest and still at wave 2, after five months of programme…

  9. Instructional Applications of Virginia's Public Education Network (VA PEN): Thomas Jefferson On-Line. (United States)

    Willett-Smith, Stephanie

    The motivational value of Virginia's Public Education Network (VA PEN), specifically the Thomas Jefferson On-line discussion group, is examined in this study. The instructional value of the network with respect to student motivation in fourth grade students of varied ability was gauged through observation of actual hands-on network experience,…

  10. 77 FR 35848 - Safety Zone, Fourth of July Fireworks Event, Pagan River, Smithfield, VA (United States)


    ..., VA will sponsor a fireworks display on the navigable waters of the Pagan River shoreline centered on... the navigable waters of the Pagan River within the area bounded by a 420-foot radius circle centered.... Small businesses may send comments on the actions of Federal employees who enforce, or otherwise...

  11. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA (United States)


    ... designated area in order to protect the life and property of the maritime public and spectators from the... event area. The Coast Guard will provide advance notifications to users of the affected waterways of the... offshore between 17th and 31st Streets of Virginia Beach, VA. The fireworks debris fallout area will extend...

  12. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DUIA-2G4VA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  13. Le CERN va devoir supprimer quelques 600 postes d'ici a 2007

    CERN Multimedia


    "Le Laboratoire europeen pour la physique des particules (CERN) qui procede actuellement a la construction du LHC (Large Hadron Collider) , le plus grand accelerateur de particules du monde, va devoir supprimer, comme cela avait ete evoque en juin, quelques 600 postes d'ici a 2007" (1 paragraph).

  14. Le CERN va supprimer 600 postes d'ici a 2007

    CERN Multimedia


    "Le Laboratoire europeen pour la physique des particules (CERN), qui doit economiser quelque 340 millions d'euros jusqu'en 2008, va reduire ses effectifs de 600 postes d'ici a 2007, a annonce jeudi son porte-parole, James Gillies" (1/2/ page).

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A4VA-1YAPA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  16. PSO-based optimization of PI regulator and VA loading of a SRF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is desirable to have optimization of PI components and generate the reference compensate voltages for series active filters (SAF) of MC-DVR. Therefore, series active filters help to inject optimal voltages at optimal angle in such a way that a minimum VA loading of MCDVR is possible. The optimal value PI components and ...

  17. Differential effects of the KiVa anti-bullying program on popular and unpopular bullies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380715066; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina


    This study utilized data from the evaluation of the Finnish KiVa program in testing the prediction that school bullies' high perceived popularity would impede the success of anti-bullying interventions. Multiple-group structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses were conducted on a subsample of 911

  18. 76 FR 44279 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Clinchco, VA, and Coal Run, KY (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Clinchco, VA, and Coal Run, KY AGENCY: Federal... reinstates and grants a rulemaking petition filed by East Kentucky Broadcasting Corporation (``East Kentucky... the Radio Broadcast Services, Report and Order, 71 FR 76208 (December 20, 2006). This document is not...

  19. 76 FR 6327 - Restricted Area, Potomac River, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Quantico, VA (United States)


    ... Quantico, Quantico, VA AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S... Base Quantico (MCB Quantico), located in Quantico, Virginia. The restricted area will address current security needs at MCB Quantico, including the protection of military assets at MCAF which includes the...

  20. 75 FR 53264 - United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Quantico VA; Restricted Area (United States)


    ... Quantico, Quantico VA; Restricted Area AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense. ACTION... River in the vicinity of Marine Corps Base (MCB) Quantico, located in Quantico, Virginia. The... MCB Quantico, including protection of military assets at the Marine Corps Air Facility (MCAF) Quantico...