WorldWideScience

Sample records for vi-cmos image sensors

  1. Design and Fabrication of Vertically-Integrated CMOS Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan

    2011-01-01

    Technologies to fabricate integrated circuits (IC) with 3D structures are an emerging trend in IC design. They are based on vertical stacking of active components to form heterogeneous microsystems. Electronic image sensors will benefit from these technologies because they allow increased pixel-level data processing and device optimization. This paper covers general principles in the design of vertically-integrated (VI) CMOS image sensors that are fabricated by flip-chip bonding. These sensors are composed of a CMOS die and a photodetector die. As a specific example, the paper presents a VI-CMOS image sensor that was designed at the University of Alberta, and fabricated with the help of CMC Microsystems and Micralyne Inc. To realize prototypes, CMOS dies with logarithmic active pixels were prepared in a commercial process, and photodetector dies with metal-semiconductor-metal devices were prepared in a custom process using hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The paper also describes a digital camera that was developed to test the prototype. In this camera, scenes captured by the image sensor are read using an FPGA board, and sent in real time to a PC over USB for data processing and display. Experimental results show that the VI-CMOS prototype has a higher dynamic range and a lower dark limit than conventional electronic image sensors. PMID:22163860

  2. Image Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Jerram, Paul; Stefanov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    An image sensor of the type for providing charge multiplication by impact ionisation has plurality of multiplication elements. Each element is arranged to receive charge from photosensitive elements of an image area and each element comprises a sequence of electrodes to move charge along a transport path. Each of the electrodes has an edge defining a boundary with a first electrode, a maximum width across the charge transport path and a leading edge that defines a boundary with a second elect...

  3. Focus on image sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jos Gunsing; Daniël Telgen; Johan van Althuis; Jaap van de Loosdrecht; Mark Stappers; Peter Klijn

    2013-01-01

    Robots need sensors to operate properly. Using a single image sensor, various aspects of a robot operating in its environment can be measured or monitored. Over the past few years, image sensors have improved a lot: frame rate and resolution have increased, while prices have fallen. As a result,

  4. Nanophotonic Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qin; Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Yu, Yan; Cumming, David R S

    2016-09-01

    The increasing miniaturization and resolution of image sensors bring challenges to conventional optical elements such as spectral filters and polarizers, the properties of which are determined mainly by the materials used, including dye polymers. Recent developments in spectral filtering and optical manipulating techniques based on nanophotonics have opened up the possibility of an alternative method to control light spectrally and spatially. By integrating these technologies into image sensors, it will become possible to achieve high compactness, improved process compatibility, robust stability and tunable functionality. In this Review, recent representative achievements on nanophotonic image sensors are presented and analyzed including image sensors with nanophotonic color filters and polarizers, metamaterial-based THz image sensors, filter-free nanowire image sensors and nanostructured-based multispectral image sensors. This novel combination of cutting edge photonics research and well-developed commercial products may not only lead to an important application of nanophotonics but also offer great potential for next generation image sensors beyond Moore's Law expectations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Photon-counting image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Teranishi, Nobukazu; Theuwissen, Albert; Stoppa, David; Charbon, Edoardo

    2017-01-01

    The field of photon-counting image sensors is advancing rapidly with the development of various solid-state image sensor technologies including single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs) and deep-sub-electron read noise CMOS image sensor pixels. This foundational platform technology will enable opportunities for new imaging modalities and instrumentation for science and industry, as well as new consumer applications. Papers discussing various photon-counting image sensor technologies and selected new applications are presented in this all-invited Special Issue.

  6. Large area CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchetta, R; Guerrini, N; Sedgwick, I

    2011-01-01

    CMOS image sensors, also known as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) or Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), are today the dominant imaging devices. They are omnipresent in our daily life, as image sensors in cellular phones, web cams, digital cameras, ... In these applications, the pixels can be very small, in the micron range, and the sensors themselves tend to be limited in size. However, many scientific applications, like particle or X-ray detection, require large format, often with large pixels, as well as other specific performance, like low noise, radiation hardness or very fast readout. The sensors are also required to be sensitive to a broad spectrum of radiation: photons from the silicon cut-off in the IR down to UV and X- and gamma-rays through the visible spectrum as well as charged particles. This requirement calls for modifications to the substrate to be introduced to provide optimized sensitivity. This paper will review existing CMOS image sensors, whose size can be as large as a single CMOS wafer, and analyse the technical requirements and specific challenges of large format CMOS image sensors.

  7. CMOS foveal image sensor chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Cesar (Inventor); Scott, Peter (Inventor); Sridhar, Ramalingam (Inventor); Xia, Shu (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A foveal image sensor integrated circuit comprising a plurality of CMOS active pixel sensors arranged both within and about a central fovea region of the chip. The pixels in the central fovea region have a smaller size than the pixels arranged in peripheral rings about the central region. A new photocharge normalization scheme and associated circuitry normalizes the output signals from the different size pixels in the array. The pixels are assembled into a multi-resolution rectilinear foveal image sensor chip using a novel access scheme to reduce the number of analog RAM cells needed. Localized spatial resolution declines monotonically with offset from the imager's optical axis, analogous to biological foveal vision.

  8. Image-based occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile; Brackney, Larry

    2015-05-19

    An image-based occupancy sensor includes a motion detection module that receives and processes an image signal to generate a motion detection signal, a people detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a people detection signal, a face detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a face detection signal, and a sensor integration module that receives the motion detection signal from the motion detection module, receives the people detection signal from the people detection module, receives the face detection signal from the face detection module, and generates an occupancy signal using the motion detection signal, the people detection signal, and the face detection signal, with the occupancy signal indicating vacancy or occupancy, with an occupancy indication specifying that one or more people are detected within the monitored volume.

  9. Automated Registration Of Images From Multiple Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J. M.; Kwok, Ronald; Curlander, John C.; Pang, Shirley S. N.

    1994-01-01

    Images of terrain scanned in common by multiple Earth-orbiting remote sensors registered automatically with each other and, where possible, on geographic coordinate grid. Simulated image of terrain viewed by sensor computed from ancillary data, viewing geometry, and mathematical model of physics of imaging. In proposed registration algorithm, simulated and actual sensor images matched by area-correlation technique.

  10. Fusion of Images from Dissimilar Sensor Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chow, Khin

    2004-01-01

    Different sensors exploit different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; therefore a multi-sensor image fusion system can take full advantage of the complementary capabilities of individual sensors in the suit...

  11. CMOS sensors for atmospheric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratlong, Jérôme; Burt, David; Jerram, Paul; Mayer, Frédéric; Walker, Andrew; Simpson, Robert; Johnson, Steven; Hubbard, Wendy

    2017-09-01

    Recent European atmospheric imaging missions have seen a move towards the use of CMOS sensors for the visible and NIR parts of the spectrum. These applications have particular challenges that are completely different to those that have driven the development of commercial sensors for applications such as cell-phone or SLR cameras. This paper will cover the design and performance of general-purpose image sensors that are to be used in the MTG (Meteosat Third Generation) and MetImage satellites and the technology challenges that they have presented. We will discuss how CMOS imagers have been designed with 4T pixel sizes of up to 250 μm square achieving good charge transfer efficiency, or low lag, with signal levels up to 2M electrons and with high line rates. In both devices a low noise analogue read-out chain is used with correlated double sampling to suppress the readout noise and give a maximum dynamic range that is significantly larger than in standard commercial devices. Radiation hardness is a particular challenge for CMOS detectors and both of these sensors have been designed to be fully radiation hard with high latch-up and single-event-upset tolerances, which is now silicon proven on MTG. We will also cover the impact of ionising radiation on these devices. Because with such large pixels the photodiodes have a large open area, front illumination technology is sufficient to meet the detection efficiency requirements but with thicker than standard epitaxial silicon to give improved IR response (note that this makes latch up protection even more important). However with narrow band illumination reflections from the front and back of the dielectric stack on the top of the sensor produce Fabry-Perot étalon effects, which have been minimised with process modifications. We will also cover the addition of precision narrow band filters inside the MTG package to provide a complete imaging subsystem. Control of reflected light is also critical in obtaining the

  12. Temperature Sensors Integrated into a CMOS Image Sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abarca Prouza, A.N.; Xie, S.; Markenhof, Jules; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a novel approach is presented for measuring relative temperature variations inside the pixel array of a CMOS image sensor itself. This approach can give important information when compensation for dark (current) fixed pattern noise (FPN) is needed. The test image sensor consists of

  13. Thermal infrared panoramic imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-05-01

    Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset control, security including port security, perimeter security, video surveillance, border control, airport security, coastguard operations, search and rescue, intrusion detection, and many others. Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence of target detection, and enables both man-in-the-loop and fully automated system operation. Thermal imaging provides the benefits of all-weather, 24-hour day/night operation with no downtime. In addition, thermal signatures of different target types facilitate better classification, beyond the limits set by camera's spatial resolution. The useful range of catadioptric panoramic cameras is affected by their limited resolution. In many existing systems the resolution is optics-limited. Reflectors customarily used in catadioptric imagers introduce aberrations that may become significant at large camera apertures, such as required in low-light and thermal imaging. Advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution include increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) combines the strengths of improved, high-resolution panoramic optics with thermal imaging in the 8 - 14 micron spectral range, leveraged by intelligent video processing for automated detection, location, and tracking of moving targets. The work in progress supports the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the

  14. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  15. Priority image transmission in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasri, M.; Helali, A.; Sghaier, H.; Maaref, H.

    2011-01-01

    The emerging technology during the last years allowed the development of new sensors equipped with wireless communication which can be organized into a cooperative autonomous network. Some application areas for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are home automations, health care services, military domain, and environment monitoring. The required constraints are limited capacity of processing, limited storage capability, and especially these nodes are limited in energy. In addition, such networks are tiny battery powered which their lifetime is very limited. During image processing and transmission to the destination, the lifetime of sensor network is decreased quickly due to battery and processing power constraints. Therefore, digital image transmissions are a significant challenge for image sensor based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Based on a wavelet image compression, we propose a novel, robust and energy-efficient scheme, called Priority Image Transmission (PIT) in WSN by providing various priority levels during image transmissions. Different priorities in the compressed image are considered. The information for the significant wavelet coeffcients are transmitted with higher quality assurance, whereas relatively less important coefficients are transmitted with lower overhead. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme prolongs the system lifetime and achieves higher energy efficiency in WSN with an acceptable compromise on the image quality.

  16. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  17. Toward CMOS image sensor based glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2012-09-07

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a powerful tool for biosensing applications. In this present study, CMOS image sensor has been exploited for detecting glucose levels by simple photon count variation with high sensitivity. Various concentrations of glucose (100 mg dL(-1) to 1000 mg dL(-1)) were added onto a simple poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip and the oxidation of glucose was catalyzed with the aid of an enzymatic reaction. Oxidized glucose produces a brown color with the help of chromogen during enzymatic reaction and the color density varies with the glucose concentration. Photons pass through the PDMS chip with varying color density and hit the sensor surface. Photon count was recognized by CMOS image sensor depending on the color density with respect to the glucose concentration and it was converted into digital form. By correlating the obtained digital results with glucose concentration it is possible to measure a wide range of blood glucose levels with great linearity based on CMOS image sensor and therefore this technique will promote a convenient point-of-care diagnosis.

  18. High dynamic range imaging sensors and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable

  19. Cell phones as imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nina; Baker, Harlyn; Marguier, Joanna; Berclaz, Jérôme; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2010-04-01

    Camera phones are ubiquitous, and consumers have been adopting them faster than any other technology in modern history. When connected to a network, though, they are capable of more than just picture taking: Suddenly, they gain access to the power of the cloud. We exploit this capability by providing a series of image-based personal advisory services. These are designed to work with any handset over any cellular carrier using commonly available Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) and Short Message Service (SMS) features. Targeted at the unsophisticated consumer, these applications must be quick and easy to use, not requiring download capabilities or preplanning. Thus, all application processing occurs in the back-end system (i.e., as a cloud service) and not on the handset itself. Presenting an image to an advisory service in the cloud, a user receives information that can be acted upon immediately. Two of our examples involve color assessment - selecting cosmetics and home décor paint palettes; the third provides the ability to extract text from a scene. In the case of the color imaging applications, we have shown that our service rivals the advice quality of experts. The result of this capability is a new paradigm for mobile interactions - image-based information services exploiting the ubiquity of camera phones.

  20. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on TRMM Science Data V4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) Science Data was collected by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), which was an instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measurement...

  1. Performance study of double SOI image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, T.; Arai, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Hamasaki, R.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Kurachi, I.; Nishimura, R.; Ono, S.; Tauchi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Yamada, M.

    2018-02-01

    Double silicon-on-insulator (DSOI) sensors composed of two thin silicon layers and one thick silicon layer have been developed since 2011. The thick substrate consists of high resistivity silicon with p-n junctions while the thin layers are used as SOI-CMOS circuitry and as shielding to reduce the back-gate effect and crosstalk between the sensor and the circuitry. In 2014, a high-resolution integration-type pixel sensor, INTPIX8, was developed based on the DSOI concept. This device is fabricated using a Czochralski p-type (Cz-p) substrate in contrast to a single SOI (SSOI) device having a single thin silicon layer and a Float Zone p-type (FZ-p) substrate. In the present work, X-ray spectra of both DSOI and SSOI sensors were obtained using an Am-241 radiation source at four gain settings. The gain of the DSOI sensor was found to be approximately three times that of the SSOI device because the coupling capacitance is reduced by the DSOI structure. An X-ray imaging demonstration was also performed and high spatial resolution X-ray images were obtained.

  2. Smart CMOS image sensor for lightning detection and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolando, Sébastien; Goiffon, Vincent; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Molina, Romain; Tulet, Michel; Bréart-de-Boisanger, Michel; Saint-Pé, Olivier; Guiry, Saïprasad; Larnaudie, Franck; Leone, Bruno; Perez-Cuevas, Leticia; Zayer, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We present a CMOS image sensor dedicated to lightning detection and imaging. The detector has been designed to evaluate the potentiality of an on-chip lightning detection solution based on a smart sensor. This evaluation is performed in the frame of the predevelopment phase of the lightning detector that will be implemented in the Meteosat Third Generation Imager satellite for the European Space Agency. The lightning detection process is performed by a smart detector combining an in-pixel frame-to-frame difference comparison with an adjustable threshold and on-chip digital processing allowing an efficient localization of a faint lightning pulse on the entire large format array at a frequency of 1 kHz. A CMOS prototype sensor with a 256×256 pixel array and a 60 μm pixel pitch has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2P 5M technology and tested to validate the selected detection approach.

  3. CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor using glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Takashi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Uejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Keita; Kawamura, Toshikazu; Ohta, Yasumi; Motoyama, Mayumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Okitsu, Teru; Takeuchi, Shoji; Ohta, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor based on an optical-sensing scheme is proposed and experimentally verified. A glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel is used as the mediator in the measurement scheme. The wired implantable glucose sensor was realized by integrating a CMOS image sensor, hydrogel, UV light emitting diodes, and an optical filter on a flexible polyimide substrate. Feasibility of the glucose sensor was verified by both in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  4. Robust Dehaze Algorithm for Degraded Image of CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor is a new type of solid image sensor device widely used in object tracking, object recognition, intelligent navigation fields, and so on. However, images captured by outdoor CMOS sensor devices are usually affected by suspended atmospheric particles (such as haze, causing a reduction in image contrast, color distortion problems, and so on. In view of this, we propose a novel dehazing approach based on a local consistent Markov random field (MRF framework. The neighboring clique in traditional MRF is extended to the non-neighboring clique, which is defined on local consistent blocks based on two clues, where both the atmospheric light and transmission map satisfy the character of local consistency. In this framework, our model can strengthen the restriction of the whole image while incorporating more sophisticated statistical priors, resulting in more expressive power of modeling, thus, solving inadequate detail recovery effectively and alleviating color distortion. Moreover, the local consistent MRF framework can obtain details while maintaining better results for dehazing, which effectively improves the image quality captured by the CMOS image sensor. Experimental results verified that the method proposed has the combined advantages of detail recovery and color preservation.

  5. CMOS Image Sensors: Electronic Camera On A Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    Recent advancements in CMOS image sensor technology are reviewed, including both passive pixel sensors and active pixel sensors. On- chip analog to digital converters and on-chip timing and control circuits permit realization of an electronic camera-on-a-chip. Highly miniaturized imaging systems based on CMOS image sensor technology are emerging as a competitor to charge-coupled devices for low cost uses.

  6. Retinal fundus imaging with a plenoptic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurin, Brice; Bloch, Edward; Nousias, Sotiris; Ourselin, Sebastien; Keane, Pearse; Bergeles, Christos

    2018-02-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery is moving towards 3D visualization of the surgical field. This require acquisition system capable of recording such 3D information. We propose a proof of concept imaging system based on a light-field camera where an array of micro-lenses is placed in front of a conventional sensor. With a single snapshot, a stack of images focused at different depth are produced on the fly, which provides enhanced depth perception for the surgeon. Difficulty in depth localization of features and frequent focus-change during surgery are making current vitreoretinal heads-up surgical imaging systems cumbersome to use. To improve the depth perception and eliminate the need to manually refocus on the instruments during the surgery, we designed and implemented a proof-of-concept ophthalmoscope equipped with a commercial light-field camera. The sensor of our camera is composed of an array of micro-lenses which are projecting an array of overlapped micro-images. We show that with a single light-field snapshot we can digitally refocus between the retina and a tool located in front of the retina or display an extended depth-of-field image where everything is in focus. The design and system performances of the plenoptic fundus camera are detailed. We will conclude by showing in vivo data recorded with our device.

  7. A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays.  The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications. The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel b...

  8. Beam imaging sensor and method for using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature. In another embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other things, a discontinuous partially circumferential slit. Also disclosed is a method for using the various beams sensor embodiments of the present invention.

  9. Introduction to sensors for ranging and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham

    2009-01-01

    ""This comprehensive text-reference provides a solid background in active sensing technology. It is concerned with active sensing, starting with the basics of time-of-flight sensors (operational principles, components), and going through the derivation of the radar range equation and the detection of echo signals, both fundamental to the understanding of radar, sonar and lidar imaging. Several chapters cover signal propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic energy, target characteristics, stealth, and clutter. The remainder of the book introduces the range measurement process, active ima

  10. A 128 x 128 CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensor for Highly Integrated Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Sunetra K.; Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A new CMOS-based image sensor that is intrinsically compatible with on-chip CMOS circuitry is reported. The new CMOS active pixel image sensor achieves low noise, high sensitivity, X-Y addressability, and has simple timing requirements. The image sensor was fabricated using a 2 micrometer p-well CMOS process, and consists of a 128 x 128 array of 40 micrometer x 40 micrometer pixels. The CMOS image sensor technology enables highly integrated smart image sensors, and makes the design, incorporation and fabrication of such sensors widely accessible to the integrated circuit community.

  11. Micro-digital sun sensor: an imaging sensor for space applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, N.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.; Büttgen, B.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Jasen, H.; Leijtens, J.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Micro-Digital Sun Sensor is an attitude sensor which senses relative position of micro-satellites to the sun in space. It is composed of a solar cell power supply, a RF communication block and an imaging chip which is called APS+. The APS+ integrates a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor (APS) of 512×512

  12. A Wildlife Monitoring System Based on Wireless Image Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguo Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Survival and development of wildlife sustains the balance and stability of the entire ecosystem. Wildlife monitoring can provide lots of information such as wildlife species, quantity, habits, quality of life and habitat conditions, to help researchers grasp the status and dynamics of wildlife resources, and to provide basis for the effective protection, sustainable use, and scientific management of wildlife resources. Wildlife monitoring is the foundation of wildlife protection and management. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN technology has become the most popular technology in the field of information. With advance of the CMOS image sensor technology, wireless sensor networks combined with image sensors, namely Wireless Image Sensor Networks (WISN technology, has emerged as an alternative in monitoring applications. Monitoring wildlife is one of its most promising applications. In this paper, system architecture of the wildlife monitoring system based on the wireless image sensor networks was presented to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional monitoring methods. Specifically, some key issues including design of wireless image sensor nodes and software process design have been studied and presented. A self-powered rotatable wireless infrared image sensor node based on ARM and an aggregation node designed for large amounts of data were developed. In addition, their corresponding software was designed. The proposed system is able to monitor wildlife accurately, automatically, and remotely in all-weather condition, which lays foundations for applications of wireless image sensor networks in wildlife monitoring.

  13. Virtual View Image over Wireless Visual Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamantyo Hendrantoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, visual sensors are applied to build virtual view images. When number of visual sensors increases then quantity and quality of the information improves. However, the view images generation is a challenging task in Wireless Visual Sensor Network environment due to energy restriction, computation complexity, and bandwidth limitation. Hence this paper presents a new method of virtual view images generation from selected cameras on Wireless Visual Sensor Network. The aim of the paper is to meet bandwidth and energy limitations without reducing information quality. The experiment results showed that this method could minimize number of transmitted imageries with sufficient information.

  14. Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) in netCDF

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) is a series of passive microwave conically scanning imagers and sounders onboard the DMSP satellites beginning...

  15. Ageing effects on image sensors due to terrestrial cosmic radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nampoothiri, G.G.; Horemans, M.L.R.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the “ageing” effect on image sensors introduced by neutrons present in natural (terrestrial) cosmic environment. The results obtained at sea level are corroborated for the first time with accelerated neutron beam tests and for various image sensor operation conditions. The results reveal

  16. Improved Denoising via Poisson Mixture Modeling of Image Sensor Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachao; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a study aimed at comparing the real image sensor noise distribution to the models of noise often assumed in image denoising designs. A quantile analysis in pixel, wavelet transform, and variance stabilization domains reveal that the tails of Poisson, signal-dependent Gaussian, and Poisson-Gaussian models are too short to capture real sensor noise behavior. A new Poisson mixture noise model is proposed to correct the mismatch of tail behavior. Based on the fact that noise model mismatch results in image denoising that undersmoothes real sensor data, we propose a mixture of Poisson denoising method to remove the denoising artifacts without affecting image details, such as edge and textures. Experiments with real sensor data verify that denoising for real image sensor data is indeed improved by this new technique.

  17. Image acquisition system using on sensor compressed sampling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravir Singh; Choi, Gwan Seong

    2018-01-01

    Advances in CMOS technology have made high-resolution image sensors possible. These image sensors pose significant challenges in terms of the amount of raw data generated, energy efficiency, and frame rate. This paper presents a design methodology for an imaging system and a simplified image sensor pixel design to be used in the system so that the compressed sensing (CS) technique can be implemented easily at the sensor level. This results in significant energy savings as it not only cuts the raw data rate but also reduces transistor count per pixel; decreases pixel size; increases fill factor; simplifies analog-to-digital converter, JPEG encoder, and JPEG decoder design; decreases wiring; and reduces the decoder size by half. Thus, CS has the potential to increase the resolution of image sensors for a given technology and die size while significantly decreasing the power consumption and design complexity. We show that it has potential to reduce power consumption by about 23% to 65%.

  18. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  19. A time-resolved image sensor for tubeless streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutomi, Keita; Han, SangMan; Seo, Min-Woong; Takasawa, Taishi; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a time-resolved CMOS image sensor with draining-only modulation (DOM) pixels for tube-less streak cameras. Although the conventional streak camera has high time resolution, the device requires high voltage and bulky system due to the structure with a vacuum tube. The proposed time-resolved imager with a simple optics realize a streak camera without any vacuum tubes. The proposed image sensor has DOM pixels, a delay-based pulse generator, and a readout circuitry. The delay-based pulse generator in combination with an in-pixel logic allows us to create and to provide a short gating clock to the pixel array. A prototype time-resolved CMOS image sensor with the proposed pixel is designed and implemented using 0.11um CMOS image sensor technology. The image array has 30(Vertical) x 128(Memory length) pixels with the pixel pitch of 22.4um. .

  20. CMOS image sensor with contour enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liya; Lai, Xiaofeng; Chen, Kun; Yuan, Xianghui

    2010-10-01

    Imitating the signal acquisition and processing of vertebrate retina, a CMOS image sensor with bionic pre-processing circuit is designed. Integration of signal-process circuit on-chip can reduce the requirement of bandwidth and precision of the subsequent interface circuit, and simplify the design of the computer-vision system. This signal pre-processing circuit consists of adaptive photoreceptor, spatial filtering resistive network and Op-Amp calculation circuit. The adaptive photoreceptor unit with a dynamic range of approximately 100 dB has a good self-adaptability for the transient changes in light intensity instead of intensity level itself. Spatial low-pass filtering resistive network used to mimic the function of horizontal cell, is composed of the horizontal resistor (HRES) circuit and OTA (Operational Transconductance Amplifier) circuit. HRES circuit, imitating dendrite of the neuron cell, comprises of two series MOS transistors operated in weak inversion region. Appending two diode-connected n-channel transistors to a simple transconductance amplifier forms the OTA Op-Amp circuit, which provides stable bias voltage for the gate of MOS transistors in HRES circuit, while serves as an OTA voltage follower to provide input voltage for the network nodes. The Op-Amp calculation circuit with a simple two-stage Op-Amp achieves the image contour enhancing. By adjusting the bias voltage of the resistive network, the smoothing effect can be tuned to change the effect of image's contour enhancement. Simulations of cell circuit and 16×16 2D circuit array are implemented using CSMC 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process.

  1. Imaging Sensor Flight and Test Equipment Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Kathleen; Simeone, Louis; Robertson, Byran; Frankford, Maytha; Trice, David; Wallace, Kevin; Wilkerson, DeLisa

    2007-01-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) is one of the components onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and was designed to detect and locate lightning over the tropics. The LIS flight code was developed to run on a single onboard digital signal processor, and has operated the LIS instrument since 1997 when the TRMM satellite was launched. The software provides controller functions to the LIS Real-Time Event Processor (RTEP) and onboard heaters, collects the lightning event data from the RTEP, compresses and formats the data for downlink to the satellite, collects housekeeping data and formats the data for downlink to the satellite, provides command processing and interface to the spacecraft communications and data bus, and provides watchdog functions for error detection. The Special Test Equipment (STE) software was designed to operate specific test equipment used to support the LIS hardware through development, calibration, qualification, and integration with the TRMM spacecraft. The STE software provides the capability to control instrument activation, commanding (including both data formatting and user interfacing), data collection, decompression, and display and image simulation. The LIS STE code was developed for the DOS operating system in the C programming language. Because of the many unique data formats implemented by the flight instrument, the STE software was required to comprehend the same formats, and translate them for the test operator. The hardware interfaces to the LIS instrument using both commercial and custom computer boards, requiring that the STE code integrate this variety into a working system. In addition, the requirement to provide RTEP test capability dictated the need to provide simulations of background image data with short-duration lightning transients superimposed. This led to the development of unique code used to control the location, intensity, and variation above background for simulated lightning strikes

  2. Collaborative Image Coding and Transmission over Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The imaging sensors are able to provide intuitive visual information for quick recognition and decision. However, imaging sensors usually generate vast amount of data. Therefore, processing and coding of image data collected in a sensor network for the purpose of energy efficient transmission poses a significant technical challenge. In particular, multiple sensors may be collecting similar visual information simultaneously. We propose in this paper a novel collaborative image coding and transmission scheme to minimize the energy for data transmission. First, we apply a shape matching method to coarsely register images to find out maximal overlap to exploit the spatial correlation between images acquired from neighboring sensors. For a given image sequence, we transmit background image only once. A lightweight and efficient background subtraction method is employed to detect targets. Only the regions of target and their spatial locations are transmitted to the monitoring center. The whole image can then be reconstructed by fusing the background and the target images as well as their spatial locations. Experimental results show that the energy for image transmission can indeed be greatly reduced with collaborative image coding and transmission.

  3. Third-generation imaging sensor system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reago, Donald A.; Horn, Stuart B.; Campbell, James, Jr.; Vollmerhausen, Richard H.

    1999-07-01

    Second generation forward looking infrared sensors, based on either parallel scanning, long wave (8 - 12 um) time delay and integration HgCdTe detectors or mid wave (3 - 5 um), medium format staring (640 X 480 pixels) InSb detectors, are being fielded. The science and technology community is now turning its attention toward the definition of a future third generation of FLIR sensors, based on emerging research and development efforts. Modeled third generation sensor performance demonstrates a significant improvement in performance over second generation, resulting in enhanced lethality and survivability on the future battlefield. In this paper we present the current thinking on what third generation sensors systems will be and the resulting requirements for third generation focal plane array detectors. Three classes of sensors have been identified. The high performance sensor will contain a megapixel or larger array with at least two colors. Higher operating temperatures will also be the goal here so that power and weight can be reduced. A high performance uncooled sensor is also envisioned that will perform somewhere between first and second generation cooled detectors, but at significantly lower cost, weight, and power. The final third generation sensor is a very low cost micro sensor. This sensor can open up a whole new IR market because of its small size, weight, and cost. Future unattended throwaway sensors, micro UAVs, and helmet mounted IR cameras will be the result of this new class.

  4. Fingerprint image reconstruction for swipe sensor using Predictive Overlap Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiansyah Ahmad Zafrullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Swipe sensor is one of many biometric authentication sensor types that widely applied to embedded devices. The sensor produces an overlap on every pixel block of the image, so the picture requires a reconstruction process before heading to the feature extraction process. Conventional reconstruction methods require extensive computation, causing difficult to apply to embedded devices that have limited computing process. In this paper, image reconstruction is proposed using predictive overlap method, which determines the image block shift from the previous set of change data. The experiments were performed using 36 images generated by a swipe sensor with 128 x 8 pixels size of the area, where each image has an overlap in each block. The results reveal computation can increase up to 86.44% compared with conventional methods, with accuracy decreasing to 0.008% in average.

  5. Multi-sensor image fusion and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Rick S

    2005-01-01

    Taking another lesson from nature, the latest advances in image processing technology seek to combine image data from several diverse types of sensors in order to obtain a more accurate view of the scene: very much the same as we rely on our five senses. Multi-Sensor Image Fusion and Its Applications is the first text dedicated to the theory and practice of the registration and fusion of image data, covering such approaches as statistical methods, color-related techniques, model-based methods, and visual information display strategies.After a review of state-of-the-art image fusion techniques,

  6. Fully wireless pressure sensor based on endoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yusaku; Mori, Hirohito; Nakagawa, Tomoaki; Takao, Hidekuni

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the result of developing a fully wireless pressure sensor based on endoscopy images for an endoscopic surgery is reported for the first time. The sensor device has structural color with a nm-scale narrow gap, and the gap is changed by air pressure. The structural color of the sensor is acquired from camera images. Pressure detection can be realized with existing endoscope configurations only. The inner air pressure of the human body should be measured under flexible-endoscope operation using the sensor. Air pressure monitoring, has two important purposes. The first is to quantitatively measure tumor size under a constant air pressure for treatment selection. The second purpose is to prevent the endangerment of a patient due to over transmission of air. The developed sensor was evaluated, and the detection principle based on only endoscopy images has been successfully demonstrated.

  7. A CMOS image sensor with row and column profiling means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, N.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.; Wang, X.; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Hakkesteegt, H.; Jansen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and firstmeasurement results of a new way that obtains row and column profile data from a CMOS Image Sensor, which is developed for a micro-Digital Sun Sensor (μDSS).The basic profiling action is achieved by the pixels with p-type MOS transistors which realize

  8. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Simple Floating Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Nakamura, Junichi; Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel image sensor integrated circuit features simple floating-gate structure, with metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as active circuit element in each pixel. Provides flexibility of readout modes, no kTC noise, and relatively simple structure suitable for high-density arrays. Features desirable for "smart sensor" applications.

  9. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  10. X-ray detectors based on image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.P.R.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray detectors based on image sensors are described and a comparison is made between the advantages and the disadvantages of such a kind of detectors with the position sensitive detectors. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Establishing imaging sensor specifications for digital still cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2007-02-01

    Digital Still Cameras, DSCs, have now displaced conventional still cameras in most markets. The heart of a DSC is thought to be the imaging sensor, be it Full Frame CCD, and Interline CCD, a CMOS sensor or the newer Foveon buried photodiode sensors. There is a strong tendency by consumers to consider only the number of mega-pixels in a camera and not to consider the overall performance of the imaging system, including sharpness, artifact control, noise, color reproduction, exposure latitude and dynamic range. This paper will provide a systematic method to characterize the physical requirements of an imaging sensor and supporting system components based on the desired usage. The analysis is based on two software programs that determine the "sharpness", potential for artifacts, sensor "photographic speed", dynamic range and exposure latitude based on the physical nature of the imaging optics, sensor characteristics (including size of pixels, sensor architecture, noise characteristics, surface states that cause dark current, quantum efficiency, effective MTF, and the intrinsic full well capacity in terms of electrons per square centimeter). Examples will be given for consumer, pro-consumer, and professional camera systems. Where possible, these results will be compared to imaging system currently on the market.

  12. Integrated imaging sensor systems with CMOS active pixel sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Cunningham, T.; Ortiz, M.; Heynssens, J.; Sun, C.; Hancock, B.; Seshadri, S.; Wrigley, C.; McCarty, K.; Pain, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses common approaches to CMOS APS technology, as well as specific results on the five-wire programmable digital camera-on-a-chip developed at JPL. The paper also reports recent research in the design, operation, and performance of APS imagers for several imager applications.

  13. Extended Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Sensor Data Record (SDR) in netCDF

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) is a seven-channel linearly polarized passive microwave radiometer that operates at frequencies of 19.36 (vertically and...

  14. Imaging system design and image interpolation based on CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-feng; Liang, Fei; Guo, Rui

    2009-11-01

    An image acquisition system is introduced, which consists of a color CMOS image sensor (OV9620), SRAM (CY62148), CPLD (EPM7128AE) and DSP (TMS320VC5509A). The CPLD implements the logic and timing control to the system. SRAM stores the image data, and DSP controls the image acquisition system through the SCCB (Omni Vision Serial Camera Control Bus). The timing sequence of the CMOS image sensor OV9620 is analyzed. The imaging part and the high speed image data memory unit are designed. The hardware and software design of the image acquisition and processing system is given. CMOS digital cameras use color filter arrays to sample different spectral components, such as red, green, and blue. At the location of each pixel only one color sample is taken, and the other colors must be interpolated from neighboring samples. We use the edge-oriented adaptive interpolation algorithm for the edge pixels and bilinear interpolation algorithm for the non-edge pixels to improve the visual quality of the interpolated images. This method can get high processing speed, decrease the computational complexity, and effectively preserve the image edges.

  15. APPLICATION OF SENSOR FUSION TO IMPROVE UAV IMAGE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jabari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Image classification is one of the most important tasks of remote sensing projects including the ones that are based on using UAV images. Improving the quality of UAV images directly affects the classification results and can save a huge amount of time and effort in this area. In this study, we show that sensor fusion can improve image quality which results in increasing the accuracy of image classification. Here, we tested two sensor fusion configurations by using a Panchromatic (Pan camera along with either a colour camera or a four-band multi-spectral (MS camera. We use the Pan camera to benefit from its higher sensitivity and the colour or MS camera to benefit from its spectral properties. The resulting images are then compared to the ones acquired by a high resolution single Bayer-pattern colour camera (here referred to as HRC. We assessed the quality of the output images by performing image classification tests. The outputs prove that the proposed sensor fusion configurations can achieve higher accuracies compared to the images of the single Bayer-pattern colour camera. Therefore, incorporating a Pan camera on-board in the UAV missions and performing image fusion can help achieving higher quality images and accordingly higher accuracy classification results.

  16. Application of Sensor Fusion to Improve Uav Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, S.; Fathollahi, F.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Image classification is one of the most important tasks of remote sensing projects including the ones that are based on using UAV images. Improving the quality of UAV images directly affects the classification results and can save a huge amount of time and effort in this area. In this study, we show that sensor fusion can improve image quality which results in increasing the accuracy of image classification. Here, we tested two sensor fusion configurations by using a Panchromatic (Pan) camera along with either a colour camera or a four-band multi-spectral (MS) camera. We use the Pan camera to benefit from its higher sensitivity and the colour or MS camera to benefit from its spectral properties. The resulting images are then compared to the ones acquired by a high resolution single Bayer-pattern colour camera (here referred to as HRC). We assessed the quality of the output images by performing image classification tests. The outputs prove that the proposed sensor fusion configurations can achieve higher accuracies compared to the images of the single Bayer-pattern colour camera. Therefore, incorporating a Pan camera on-board in the UAV missions and performing image fusion can help achieving higher quality images and accordingly higher accuracy classification results.

  17. Parametric Optimization of Lateral NIPIN Phototransistors for Flexible Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Seok Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Curved image sensors, which are a key component in bio-inspired imaging systems, have been widely studied because they can improve an imaging system in various aspects such as low optical aberrations, small-form, and simple optics configuration. Many methods and materials to realize a curvilinear imager have been proposed to address the drawbacks of conventional imaging/optical systems. However, there have been few theoretical studies in terms of electronics on the use of a lateral photodetector as a flexible image sensor. In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of a Si-based lateral phototransistor as the pixel of a high-efficiency curved photodetector by conducting various electrical simulations with technology computer aided design (TCAD. The single phototransistor is analyzed with different device parameters: the thickness of the active cell, doping concentration, and structure geometry. This work presents a method to improve the external quantum efficiency (EQE, linear dynamic range (LDR, and mechanical stability of the phototransistor. We also evaluated the dark current in a matrix form of phototransistors to estimate the feasibility of the device as a flexible image sensor. Moreover, we fabricated and demonstrated an array of phototransistors based on our study. The theoretical study and design guidelines of a lateral phototransistor create new opportunities in flexible image sensors.

  18. Sparse Detector Imaging Sensor with Two-Class Silhouette Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Russomanno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and test of a simple active near-infrared sparse detector imaging sensor. The prototype of the sensor is novel in that it can capture remarkable silhouettes or profiles of a wide-variety of moving objects, including humans, animals, and vehicles using a sparse detector array comprised of only sixteen sensing elements deployed in a vertical configuration. The prototype sensor was built to collect silhouettes for a variety of objects and to evaluate several algorithms for classifying the data obtained from the sensor into two classes: human versus non-human. Initial tests show that the classification of individually sensed objects into two classes can be achieved with accuracy greater than ninety-nine percent (99% with a subset of the sixteen detectors using a representative dataset consisting of 512 signatures. The prototype also includes a Webservice interface such that the sensor can be tasked in a network-centric environment. The sensor appears to be a low-cost alternative to traditional, high-resolution focal plane array imaging sensors for some applications. After a power optimization study, appropriate packaging, and testing with more extensive datasets, the sensor may be a good candidate for deployment in vast geographic regions for a myriad of intelligent electronic fence and persistent surveillance applications, including perimeter security scenarios.

  19. Contact CMOS imaging of gaseous oxygen sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivasagaya, Daisy S; Yao, Lei; Yi Yung, Ka; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Cheung, Maurice C; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-10-01

    We describe a compact luminescent gaseous oxygen (O 2 ) sensor microsystem based on the direct integration of sensor elements with a polymeric optical filter and placed on a low power complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC). The sensor operates on the measurement of excited-state emission intensity of O 2 -sensitive luminophore molecules tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp) 3 ] 2+ ) encapsulated within sol-gel derived xerogel thin films. The polymeric optical filter is made with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that is mixed with a dye (Sudan-II). The PDMS membrane surface is molded to incorporate arrays of trapezoidal microstructures that serve to focus the optical sensor signals on to the imager pixels. The molded PDMS membrane is then attached with the PDMS color filter. The xerogel sensor arrays are contact printed on top of the PDMS trapezoidal lens-like microstructures. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. Correlated double sampling circuit, pixel address, digital control and signal integration circuits are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data is read out as a serial coded signal. The CMOS imager consumes a static power of 320 µW and an average dynamic power of 625 µW when operating at 100 Hz sampling frequency and 1.8 V DC. This CMOS sensor system provides a useful platform for the development of miniaturized optical chemical gas sensors.

  20. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid- 90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

  1. 3D-LSI technology for image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyoshi, Makoto; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the development of three-dimensional large-scale integration (3D-LSI) technologies has accelerated and has advanced from the research level or the limited production level to the investigation level, which might lead to mass production. By separating 3D-LSI technology into elementary technologies such as (1) through silicon via (TSV) formation, (2) bump formation, (3) wafer thinning, (4) chip/wafer alignment, and (5) chip/wafer stacking and reconstructing the entire process and structure, many methods to realize 3D-LSI devices can be developed. However, by considering a specific application, the supply chain of base wafers, and the purpose of 3D integration, a few suitable combinations can be identified. In this paper, we focus on the application of 3D-LSI technologies to image sensors. We describe the process and structure of the chip size package (CSP), developed on the basis of current and advanced 3D-LSI technologies, to be used in CMOS image sensors. Using the current LSI technologies, CSPs for 1.3 M, 2 M, and 5 M pixel CMOS image sensors were successfully fabricated without any performance degradation. 3D-LSI devices can be potentially employed in high-performance focal-plane-array image sensors. We propose a high-speed image sensor with an optical fill factor of 100% to be developed using next-generation 3D-LSI technology and fabricated using micro(μ)-bumps and micro(μ)-TSVs.

  2. Study of x-ray CCD image sensor and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyun; Li, Tianze

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we expounded the composing, specialty, parameter, its working process, key techniques and methods for charge coupled devices (CCD) twice value treatment. Disposal process for CCD video signal quantification was expatiated; X-ray image intensifier's constitutes, function of constitutes, coupling technique of X-ray image intensifier and CCD were analyzed. We analyzed two effective methods to reduce the harm to human beings when X-ray was used in the medical image. One was to reduce X-ray's radiation and adopt to intensify the image penetrated by X-ray to gain the same effect. The other was to use the image sensor to transfer the images to the safe area for observation. On this base, a new method was presented that CCD image sensor and X-ray image intensifier were combined organically. A practical medical X-ray photo electricity system was designed which can be used in the records and time of the human's penetrating images. The system was mainly made up with the medical X-ray, X-ray image intensifier, CCD vidicon with high resolution, image processor, display and so on. Its characteristics are: change the invisible X-ray into the visible light image; output the vivid images; short image recording time etc. At the same time we analyzed the main aspects which affect the system's resolution. Medical photo electricity system using X-ray image sensor can reduce the X-ray harm to human sharply when it is used in the medical diagnoses. At last we analyzed and looked forward the system's application in medical engineering and the related fields.

  3. An Imaging Sensor-Aided Vision Navigation Approach that Uses a Geo-Referenced Image Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hu, Qingwu; Wu, Meng; Gao, Yang

    2016-01-28

    In determining position and attitude, vision navigation via real-time image processing of data collected from imaging sensors is advanced without a high-performance global positioning system (GPS) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Vision navigation is widely used in indoor navigation, far space navigation, and multiple sensor-integrated mobile mapping. This paper proposes a novel vision navigation approach aided by imaging sensors and that uses a high-accuracy geo-referenced image database (GRID) for high-precision navigation of multiple sensor platforms in environments with poor GPS. First, the framework of GRID-aided vision navigation is developed with sequence images from land-based mobile mapping systems that integrate multiple sensors. Second, a highly efficient GRID storage management model is established based on the linear index of a road segment for fast image searches and retrieval. Third, a robust image matching algorithm is presented to search and match a real-time image with the GRID. Subsequently, the image matched with the real-time scene is considered to calculate the 3D navigation parameter of multiple sensor platforms. Experimental results show that the proposed approach retrieves images efficiently and has navigation accuracies of 1.2 m in a plane and 1.8 m in height under GPS loss in 5 min and within 1500 m.

  4. Imaging in scattering media using correlation image sensors and sparse convolutional coding

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Xiao, Lei; Kolb, Andreas; Hullin, Matthias B.; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Correlation image sensors have recently become popular low-cost devices for time-of-flight, or range cameras. They usually operate under the assumption of a single light path contributing to each pixel. We show that a more thorough analysis of the sensor data from correlation sensors can be used can be used to analyze the light transport in much more complex environments, including applications for imaging through scattering and turbid media. The key of our method is a new convolutional sparse coding approach for recovering transient (light-in-flight) images from correlation image sensors. This approach is enabled by an analysis of sparsity in complex transient images, and the derivation of a new physically-motivated model for transient images with drastically improved sparsity.

  5. Imaging in scattering media using correlation image sensors and sparse convolutional coding

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-10-17

    Correlation image sensors have recently become popular low-cost devices for time-of-flight, or range cameras. They usually operate under the assumption of a single light path contributing to each pixel. We show that a more thorough analysis of the sensor data from correlation sensors can be used can be used to analyze the light transport in much more complex environments, including applications for imaging through scattering and turbid media. The key of our method is a new convolutional sparse coding approach for recovering transient (light-in-flight) images from correlation image sensors. This approach is enabled by an analysis of sparsity in complex transient images, and the derivation of a new physically-motivated model for transient images with drastically improved sparsity.

  6. Characterization of modulated time-of-flight range image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Andrew D.; Dorrington, Adrian A.; Cree, Michael J.; Carnegie, Dale A.

    2009-01-01

    A number of full field image sensors have been developed that are capable of simultaneously measuring intensity and distance (range) for every pixel in a given scene using an indirect time-of-flight measurement technique. A light source is intensity modulated at a frequency between 10-100 MHz, and an image sensor is modulated at the same frequency, synchronously sampling light reflected from objects in the scene (homodyne detection). The time of flight is manifested as a phase shift in the illumination modulation envelope, which can be determined from the sampled data simultaneously for each pixel in the scene. This paper presents a method of characterizing the high frequency modulation response of these image sensors, using a pico-second laser pulser. The characterization results allow the optimal operating parameters, such as the modulation frequency, to be identified in order to maximize the range measurement precision for a given sensor. A number of potential sources of error exist when using these sensors, including deficiencies in the modulation waveform shape, duty cycle, or phase, resulting in contamination of the resultant range data. From the characterization data these parameters can be identified and compensated for by modifying the sensor hardware or through post processing of the acquired range measurements.

  7. Advanced pixel architectures for scientific image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Coath, R; Godbeer, A; Wilson, M; Turchetta, R

    2009-01-01

    We present recent developments from two projects targeting advanced pixel architectures for scientific applications. Results are reported from FORTIS, a sensor demonstrating variants on a 4T pixel architecture. The variants include differences in pixel and diode size, the in-pixel source follower transistor size and the capacitance of the readout node to optimise for low noise and sensitivity to small amounts of charge. Results are also reported from TPAC, a complex pixel architecture with ~160 transistors per pixel. Both sensors were manufactured in the 0.18μm INMAPS process, which includes a special deep p-well layer and fabrication on a high resistivity epitaxial layer for improved charge collection efficiency.

  8. Three dimensional multi perspective imaging with randomly distributed sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaneshPanah, Mehdi; Javidi, Bahrain

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review a three dimensional (3D) passive imaging system that exploits the visual information captured from the scene from multiple perspectives to reconstruct the scene voxel by voxel in 3D space. The primary contribution of this work is to provide a computational reconstruction scheme based on randomly distributed sensor locations in space. In virtually all of multi perspective techniques (e.g. integral imaging, synthetic aperture integral imaging, etc), there is an implicit assumption that the sensors lie on a simple, regular pickup grid. Here, we relax this assumption and suggest a computational reconstruction framework that unifies the available methods as its special cases. The importance of this work is that it enables three dimensional imaging technology to be implemented in a multitude of novel application domains such as 3D aerial imaging, collaborative imaging, long range 3D imaging and etc, where sustaining a regular pickup grid is not possible and/or the parallax requirements call for a irregular or sparse synthetic aperture mode. Although the sensors can be distributed in any random arrangement, we assume that the pickup position is measured at the time of capture of each elemental image. We demonstrate the feasibility of the methods proposed here by experimental results.

  9. Image-based environmental monitoring sensor application using an embedded wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Jeongyeup; Hicks, John; Coe, Sharon; Govindan, Ramesh

    2014-08-28

    This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet's built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Cannot Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  10. Image-Based Environmental Monitoring Sensor Application Using an Embedded Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyeup Paek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet’s built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  11. Self-Similarity Superresolution for Resource-Constrained Image Sensor Node in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehai Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks, in combination with image sensors, open up a grand sensing application field. It is a challenging problem to recover a high resolution (HR image from its low resolution (LR counterpart, especially for low-cost resource-constrained image sensors with limited resolution. Sparse representation-based techniques have been developed recently and increasingly to solve this ill-posed inverse problem. Most of these solutions are based on an external dictionary learned from huge image gallery, consequently needing tremendous iteration and long time to match. In this paper, we explore the self-similarity inside the image itself, and propose a new combined self-similarity superresolution (SR solution, with low computation cost and high recover performance. In the self-similarity image super resolution model (SSIR, a small size sparse dictionary is learned from the image itself by the methods such as KSVD. The most similar patch is searched and specially combined during the sparse regulation iteration. Detailed information, such as edge sharpness, is preserved more faithfully and clearly. Experiment results confirm the effectiveness and efficiency of this double self-learning method in the image super resolution.

  12. Autonomous vision networking: miniature wireless sensor networks with imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Gioia; Goldberg, Giora

    2006-09-01

    The recent emergence of integrated PicoRadio technology, the rise of low power, low cost, System-On-Chip (SOC) CMOS imagers, coupled with the fast evolution of networking protocols and digital signal processing (DSP), created a unique opportunity to achieve the goal of deploying large-scale, low cost, intelligent, ultra-low power distributed wireless sensor networks for the visualization of the environment. Of all sensors, vision is the most desired, but its applications in distributed sensor networks have been elusive so far. Not any more. The practicality and viability of ultra-low power vision networking has been proven and its applications are countless, from security, and chemical analysis to industrial monitoring, asset tracking and visual recognition, vision networking represents a truly disruptive technology applicable to many industries. The presentation discusses some of the critical components and technologies necessary to make these networks and products affordable and ubiquitous - specifically PicoRadios, CMOS imagers, imaging DSP, networking and overall wireless sensor network (WSN) system concepts. The paradigm shift, from large, centralized and expensive sensor platforms, to small, low cost, distributed, sensor networks, is possible due to the emergence and convergence of a few innovative technologies. Avaak has developed a vision network that is aided by other sensors such as motion, acoustic and magnetic, and plans to deploy it for use in military and commercial applications. In comparison to other sensors, imagers produce large data files that require pre-processing and a certain level of compression before these are transmitted to a network server, in order to minimize the load on the network. Some of the most innovative chemical detectors currently in development are based on sensors that change color or pattern in the presence of the desired analytes. These changes are easily recorded and analyzed by a CMOS imager and an on-board DSP processor

  13. Wireless Sensor Network Handles Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To relay data from remote locations for NASA s Earth sciences research, Goddard Space Flight Center contributed to the development of "microservers" (wireless sensor network nodes), which are now used commercially as a quick and affordable means to capture and distribute geographical information, including rich sets of aerial and street-level imagery. NASA began this work out of a necessity for real-time recovery of remote sensor data. These microservers work much like a wireless office network, relaying information between devices. The key difference, however, is that instead of linking workstations within one office, the interconnected microservers operate miles away from one another. This attribute traces back to the technology s original use: The microservers were originally designed for seismology on remote glaciers and ice streams in Alaska, Greenland, and Antarctica-acquiring, storing, and relaying data wirelessly between ground sensors. The microservers boast three key attributes. First, a researcher in the field can establish a "managed network" of microservers and rapidly see the data streams (recovered wirelessly) on a field computer. This rapid feedback permits the researcher to reconfigure the network for different purposes over the course of a field campaign. Second, through careful power management, the microservers can dwell unsupervised in the field for up to 2 years, collecting tremendous amounts of data at a research location. The third attribute is the exciting potential to deploy a microserver network that works in synchrony with robotic explorers (e.g., providing ground truth validation for satellites, supporting rovers as they traverse the local environment). Managed networks of remote microservers that relay data unsupervised for up to 2 years can drastically reduce the costs of field instrumentation and data rec

  14. Retina-like sensor image coordinates transformation and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengmei; Cao, Nan; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-03-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera, the image acquisition, coordinates transformation and interpolation need to be realized. Both of the coordinates transformation and interpolation are computed in polar coordinate due to the sensor's particular pixels distribution. The image interpolation is based on sub-pixel interpolation and its relative weights are got in polar coordinates. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes the real-time image acquisition, coordinate transformation and interpolation.

  15. Study of photoconductor-based radiological image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, Francois

    1989-01-01

    Because of the evolution of medical imaging techniques to digital Systems, it is necessary to replace radiological film which has many drawbacks, by a detector quite as efficient and quickly giving a digitizable signal. The purpose of this thesis is to find new X-ray digital imaging processes using photoconductor materials such as amorphous selenium. After reviewing the principle of direct radiology and functions to be served by the X-ray sensor (i.e. detection, memory, assignment, visualization), we explain specification. We especially show the constraints due to the object to be radiographed (condition of minimal exposure), and to the reading signal (electronic noise detection associated with a reading frequency). As a result of this study, a first photoconductor sensor could be designed. Its principle is based on photo-carrier trapping at dielectric-photoconductor structure interface. The reading System needs the scanning of a laser beam upon the sensor surface. The dielectric-photoconductor structure enabled us to estimate the possibilities offered by the sensor and to build a complete x-ray imaging System. The originality of thermo-dielectric sensor, that was next studied, is to allow a thermal assignment reading. The chosen System consists in varying the ferroelectric polymer capacity whose dielectric permittivity is weak at room temperature. The thermo-dielectric material was studied by thermal or Joule effect stimulation. During our experiments, trapping was found in a sensor made of amorphous selenium between two electrodes. This new effect was performed and enabled us to expose a first interpretation. Eventually, the comparison of these new sensor concepts with radiological film shows the advantage of the proposed solution. (author) [fr

  16. Information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatt, William C.; Gentry, Stephen M.; Boye, Clinton A.; Grotbeck, Carter L.; Stallard, Brian R.; Descour, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. The filter splits the light collected by an optical telescope into two channels for each of the pixels in a row in a scanned image, one channel to handle the positive elements of a spectral basis filter and one for the negative elements of the spectral basis filter. Each channel for each pixel disperses its light into n spectral bins, with the light in each bin being attenuated in accordance with the value of the associated positive or negative element of the spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. The attenuated light in the channels is re-imaged onto separate detectors for each pixel and then the signals from the detectors are combined to give an indication of the presence or not of the target in each pixel of the scanned scene. This system provides for a very efficient optical determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  17. Low-Power Low-Noise CMOS Imager Design : In Micro-Digital Sun Sensor Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, N.

    2012-01-01

    A digital sun sensor is superior to an analog sun sensor in aspects of resolution, albedo immunity, and integration. The proposed Micro-Digital Sun Sensor (µDSS) is an autonomous digital sun sensor which is implemented by means of a CMOS image sensor, which is named APS+. The µDSS is designed

  18. CMOS SPAD-based image sensor for single photon counting and time of flight imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Neale Arthur William

    2016-01-01

    The facility to capture the arrival of a single photon, is the fundamental limit to the detection of quantised electromagnetic radiation. An image sensor capable of capturing a picture with this ultimate optical and temporal precision is the pinnacle of photo-sensing. The creation of high spatial resolution, single photon sensitive, and time-resolved image sensors in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology offers numerous benefits in a wide field of applications....

  19. Oriented Edge-Based Feature Descriptor for Multi-Sensor Image Alignment and Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Ho Ju

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an efficient image alignment and enhancement method for multi-sensor images. The shape of the object captured in a multi-sensor images can be determined by comparing variability of contrast using corresponding edges across multi-sensor image. Using this cue, we construct a robust feature descriptor based on the magnitudes of the oriented edges. Our proposed method enables fast image alignment by identifying matching features in multi-sensor images. We enhance the aligned multi-sensor images through the fusion of the salient regions from each image. The results of stitching the multi-sensor images and their enhancement demonstrate that our proposed method can align and enhance multi-sensor images more efficiently than previous methods.

  20. System overview and applications of a panoramic imaging perimeter sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and potential applications of a 360-degree scanning, multi-spectral intrusion detection sensor. This moderate-resolution, true panoramic imaging sensor is intended for exterior use at ranges from 50 to 1,500 meters. This Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) simultaneously uses three sensing technologies (infrared, visible, and radar) along with advanced data processing methods to provide low false-alarm intrusion detection, tracking, and immediate visual assessment. The images from the infrared and visible detector sets and the radar range data are updated as the sensors rotate once per second. The radar provides range data with one-meter resolution. This sensor has been designed for easy use and rapid deployment to cover wide areas beyond or in place of typical perimeters, and tactical applications around fixed or temporary high-value assets. AES prototypes are in development. Applications discussed in this paper include replacements, augmentations, or new installations at fixed sites where topological features, atmospheric conditions, environmental restrictions, ecological regulations, and archaeological features limit the use of conventional security components and systems

  1. Photon detection with CMOS sensors for fast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudot, J.; Dulinski, W.; Winter, M.; Barbier, R.; Chabanat, E.; Depasse, P.; Estre, N.

    2009-01-01

    Pixel detectors employed in high energy physics aim to detect single minimum ionizing particle with micrometric positioning resolution. Monolithic CMOS sensors succeed in this task thanks to a low equivalent noise charge per pixel of around 10 to 15 e - , and a pixel pitch varying from 10 to a few 10 s of microns. Additionally, due to the possibility for integration of some data treatment in the sensor itself, readout times of 100μs have been reached for 100 kilo-pixels sensors. These aspects of CMOS sensors are attractive for applications in photon imaging. For X-rays of a few keV, the efficiency is limited to a few % due to the thin sensitive volume. For visible photons, the back-thinned version of CMOS sensor is sensitive to low intensity sources, of a few hundred photons. When a back-thinned CMOS sensor is combined with a photo-cathode, a new hybrid detector results (EBCMOS) and operates as a fast single photon imager. The first EBCMOS was produced in 2007 and demonstrated single photon counting with low dark current capability in laboratory conditions. It has been compared, in two different biological laboratories, with existing CCD-based 2D cameras for fluorescence microscopy. The current EBCMOS sensitivity and frame rate is comparable to existing EMCCDs. On-going developments aim at increasing this frame rate by, at least, an order of magnitude. We report in conclusion, the first test of a new CMOS sensor, LUCY, which reaches 1000 frames per second.

  2. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene-CMOS integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Stijn; Navickaite, Gabriele; Monasterio, Carles; Gupta, Shuchi; Piqueras, Juan José; Pérez, Raúl; Burwell, Gregory; Nikitskiy, Ivan; Lasanta, Tania; Galán, Teresa; Puma, Eric; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Koppens, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Integrated circuits based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) are at the heart of the technological revolution of the past 40 years, enabling compact and low-cost microelectronic circuits and imaging systems. However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible-light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. Here, we report the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, operating as a high-mobility phototransistor. We demonstrate a high-resolution, broadband image sensor and operate it as a digital camera that is sensitive to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light (300-2,000 nm). The demonstrated graphene-CMOS integration is pivotal for incorporating 2D materials into the next-generation microelectronics, sensor arrays, low-power integrated photonics and CMOS imaging systems covering visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies.

  3. Image sensor for testing refractive error of eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangning; Chen, Jiabi; Xu, Longyun

    2000-05-01

    It is difficult to detect ametropia and anisometropia for children. Image sensor for testing refractive error of eyes does not need the cooperation of children and can be used to do the general survey of ametropia and anisometropia for children. In our study, photographs are recorded by a CCD element in a digital form which can be directly processed by a computer. In order to process the image accurately by digital technique, formula considering the effect of extended light source and the size of lens aperture has been deduced, which is more reliable in practice. Computer simulation of the image sensing is made to verify the fineness of the results.

  4. CMOS image sensors: State-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, Albert J. P.

    2008-09-01

    This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art of CMOS image sensors. The main focus is put on the shrinkage of the pixels : what is the effect on the performance characteristics of the imagers and on the various physical parameters of the camera ? How is the CMOS pixel architecture optimized to cope with the negative performance effects of the ever-shrinking pixel size ? On the other hand, the smaller dimensions in CMOS technology allow further integration on column level and even on pixel level. This will make CMOS imagers even smarter that they are already.

  5. BIOME: An Ecosystem Remote Sensor Based on Imaging Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David L.; Hammer, Philip; Smith, William H.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Until recent times, optical remote sensing of ecosystem properties from space has been limited to broad band multispectral scanners such as Landsat and AVHRR. While these sensor data can be used to derive important information about ecosystem parameters, they are very limited for measuring key biogeochemical cycling parameters such as the chemical content of plant canopies. Such parameters, for example the lignin and nitrogen contents, are potentially amenable to measurements by very high spectral resolution instruments using a spectroscopic approach. Airborne sensors based on grating imaging spectrometers gave the first promise of such potential but the recent decision not to deploy the space version has left the community without many alternatives. In the past few years, advancements in high performance deep well digital sensor arrays coupled with a patented design for a two-beam interferometer has produced an entirely new design for acquiring imaging spectroscopic data at the signal to noise levels necessary for quantitatively estimating chemical composition (1000:1 at 2 microns). This design has been assembled as a laboratory instrument and the principles demonstrated for acquiring remote scenes. An airborne instrument is in production and spaceborne sensors being proposed. The instrument is extremely promising because of its low cost, lower power requirements, very low weight, simplicity (no moving parts), and high performance. For these reasons, we have called it the first instrument optimized for ecosystem studies as part of a Biological Imaging and Observation Mission to Earth (BIOME).

  6. Low-power high-accuracy micro-digital sun sensor by means of a CMOS image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, N.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A micro-digital sun sensor (?DSS) is a sun detector which senses a satellite’s instant attitude angle with respect to the sun. The core of this sensor is a system-on-chip imaging chip which is referred to as APS+. The APS+ integrates a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) array of 368×368??pixels , a

  7. SENSOR CORRECTION AND RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF A 6-BAND MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING SENSOR FOR UAV REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelcey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased availability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has resulted in their frequent adoption for a growing range of remote sensing tasks which include precision agriculture, vegetation surveying and fine-scale topographic mapping. The development and utilisation of UAV platforms requires broad technical skills covering the three major facets of remote sensing: data acquisition, data post-processing, and image analysis. In this study, UAV image data acquired by a miniature 6-band multispectral imaging sensor was corrected and calibrated using practical image-based data post-processing techniques. Data correction techniques included dark offset subtraction to reduce sensor noise, flat-field derived per-pixel look-up-tables to correct vignetting, and implementation of the Brown- Conrady model to correct lens distortion. Radiometric calibration was conducted with an image-based empirical line model using pseudo-invariant features (PIFs. Sensor corrections and radiometric calibration improve the quality of the data, aiding quantitative analysis and generating consistency with other calibrated datasets.

  8. 77 FR 26787 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2895] Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain CMOS image sensors and...

  9. 77 FR 33488 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-846] Certain CMOS Image Sensors and... image sensors and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No... image sensors and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1 and 2 of the `126...

  10. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Intensity-Driven Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Harry T.; Fossum, Eric R.; Kemeny, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Proposed complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image sensor automatically provides readouts from pixels in order of decreasing illumination intensity. Sensor operated in integration mode. Particularly useful in number of image-sensing tasks, including diffractive laser range-finding, three-dimensional imaging, event-driven readout of sparse sensor arrays, and star tracking.

  11. Highly integrated image sensors enable low-cost imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Paul K.; Lake, Don; Chalmers, David; Hurwitz, J. E. D.

    1997-09-01

    The highest barriers to wide scale implementation of vision systems have been cost. This is closely followed by the level of difficulty of putting a complete imaging system together. As anyone who has every been in the position of creating a vision system knows, the various bits and pieces supplied by the many vendors are not under any type of standardization control. In short, unless you are an expert in imaging, electrical interfacing, computers, digital signal processing, and high speed storage techniques, you will likely spend more money trying to do it yourself rather than to buy the exceedingly expensive systems available. Another alternative is making headway into the imaging market however. The growing investment in highly integrated CMOS based imagers is addressing both the cost and the system integration difficulties. This paper discusses the benefits gained from CMOS based imaging, and how these benefits are already being applied.

  12. Commercial CMOS image sensors as X-ray imagers and particle beam monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, A.; Guazzoni, C.; Maffessanti, S.; Montemurro, G.V.; Carraresi, L.

    2015-01-01

    CMOS image sensors are widely used in several applications such as mobile handsets webcams and digital cameras among others. Furthermore they are available across a wide range of resolutions with excellent spectral and chromatic responses. In order to fulfill the need of cheap systems as beam monitors and high resolution image sensors for scientific applications we exploited the possibility of using commercial CMOS image sensors as X-rays and proton detectors. Two different sensors have been mounted and tested. An Aptina MT9v034, featuring 752 × 480 pixels, 6μm × 6μm pixel size has been mounted and successfully tested as bi-dimensional beam profile monitor, able to take pictures of the incoming proton bunches at the DeFEL beamline (1–6 MeV pulsed proton beam) of the LaBeC of INFN in Florence. The naked sensor is able to successfully detect the interactions of the single protons. The sensor point-spread-function (PSF) has been qualified with 1MeV protons and is equal to one pixel (6 mm) r.m.s. in both directions. A second sensor MT9M032, featuring 1472 × 1096 pixels, 2.2 × 2.2 μm pixel size has been mounted on a dedicated board as high-resolution imager to be used in X-ray imaging experiments with table-top generators. In order to ease and simplify the data transfer and the image acquisition the system is controlled by a dedicated micro-processor board (DM3730 1GHz SoC ARM Cortex-A8) on which a modified LINUX kernel has been implemented. The paper presents the architecture of the sensor systems and the results of the experimental measurements

  13. Imaging moving objects from multiply scattered waves and multiple sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Analee; Cheney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a linearized imaging theory that combines the spatial, temporal and spectral components of multiply scattered waves as they scatter from moving objects. In particular, we consider the case of multiple fixed sensors transmitting and receiving information from multiply scattered waves. We use a priori information about the multipath background. We use a simple model for multiple scattering, namely scattering from a fixed, perfectly reflecting (mirror) plane. We base our image reconstruction and velocity estimation technique on a modification of a filtered backprojection method that produces a phase-space image. We plot examples of point-spread functions for different geometries and waveforms, and from these plots, we estimate the resolution in space and velocity. Through this analysis, we are able to identify how the imaging system depends on parameters such as bandwidth and number of sensors. We ultimately show that enhanced phase-space resolution for a distribution of moving and stationary targets in a multipath environment may be achieved using multiple sensors. (paper)

  14. Development of integrated semiconductor optical sensors for functional brain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T.

    Optical imaging of neural activity is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain function in the field of neuroscience research, and has been used to study the cerebral cortex in vivo for over two decades. Maps of brain activity are obtained by monitoring intensity changes in back-scattered light, called Intrinsic Optical Signals (IOS), that correspond to fluctuations in blood oxygenation and volume associated with neural activity. Current imaging systems typically employ bench-top equipment including lamps and CCD cameras to study animals using visible light. Such systems require the use of anesthetized or immobilized subjects with craniotomies, which imposes limitations on the behavioral range and duration of studies. The ultimate goal of this work is to overcome these limitations by developing a single-chip semiconductor sensor using arrays of sources and detectors operating at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. A single-chip implementation, combined with wireless telemetry, will eliminate the need for immobilization or anesthesia of subjects and allow in vivo studies of free behavior. NIR light offers additional advantages because it experiences less absorption in animal tissue than visible light, which allows for imaging through superficial tissues. This, in turn, reduces or eliminates the need for traumatic surgery and enables long-term brain-mapping studies in freely-behaving animals. This dissertation concentrates on key engineering challenges of implementing the sensor. This work shows the feasibility of using a GaAs-based array of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and PIN photodiodes for IOS imaging. I begin with in-vivo studies of IOS imaging through the skull in mice, and use these results along with computer simulations to establish minimum performance requirements for light sources and detectors. I also evaluate the performance of a current commercial VCSEL for IOS imaging, and conclude with a proposed prototype sensor.

  15. Honeywell's Compact, Wide-angle Uv-visible Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, D.; Billing-Ross, J.

    1993-01-01

    Honeywell is currently developing the Earth Reference Attitude Determination System (ERADS). ERADS determines attitude by imaging the entire Earth's limb and a ring of the adjacent star field in the 2800-3000 A band of the ultraviolet. This is achieved through the use of a highly nonconventional optical system, an intensifier tube, and a mega-element CCD array. The optics image a 30 degree region in the center of the field, and an outer region typically from 128 to 148 degrees, which can be adjusted up to 180 degrees. Because of the design employed, the illumination at the outer edge of the field is only some 15 percent below that at the center, in contrast to the drastic rolloffs encountered in conventional wide-angle sensors. The outer diameter of the sensor is only 3 in; the volume and weight of the entire system, including processor, are 1000 cc and 6 kg, respectively.

  16. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  17. Optical fiber sensors for image formation in radiodiagnostic - preliminary essays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Cesar C. de; Werneck, Marcelo M.

    1998-01-01

    This work describes preliminary experiments that will bring subsidies to analyze the capability to implement a system able to capture radiological images with new sensor system, comprised by FOs scanning process and I-CCD camera. These experiments have the main objective to analyze the optical response from FOs bundle, with several typos of scintillators associated with them, when it is submitted to medical x-rays exposition. (author)

  18. Multi sensor satellite imagers for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronje, T.; Burger, H.; Du Plessis, J.; Du Toit, J. F.; Marais, L.; Strumpfer, F.

    2005-10-01

    This paper will discuss and compare recent refractive and catodioptric imager designs developed and manufactured at SunSpace for Multi Sensor Satellite Imagers with Panchromatic, Multi-spectral, Area and Hyperspectral sensors on a single Focal Plane Array (FPA). These satellite optical systems were designed with applications to monitor food supplies, crop yield and disaster monitoring in mind. The aim of these imagers is to achieve medium to high resolution (2.5m to 15m) spatial sampling, wide swaths (up to 45km) and noise equivalent reflectance (NER) values of less than 0.5%. State-of-the-art FPA designs are discussed and address the choice of detectors to achieve these performances. Special attention is given to thermal robustness and compactness, the use of folding prisms to place multiple detectors in a large FPA and a specially developed process to customize the spectral selection with the need to minimize mass, power and cost. A refractive imager with up to 6 spectral bands (6.25m GSD) and a catodioptric imager with panchromatic (2.7m GSD), multi-spectral (6 bands, 4.6m GSD), hyperspectral (400nm to 2.35μm, 200 bands, 15m GSD) sensors on the same FPA will be discussed. Both of these imagers are also equipped with real time video view finding capabilities. The electronic units could be subdivided into the Front-End Electronics and Control Electronics with analogue and digital signal processing. A dedicated Analogue Front-End is used for Correlated Double Sampling (CDS), black level correction, variable gain and up to 12-bit digitizing and high speed LVDS data link to a mass memory unit.

  19. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  20. Fast regional readout CMOS Image Sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, H.; Harris, E.; Osmond, J.; Evans, P.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ~400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  1. Fast regional readout CMOS image sensor for dynamic MLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, H; Harris, E; Osmond, J; Evans, P

    2014-01-01

    Advanced radiotherapy techniques such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) require verification of the complex beam delivery including tracking of multileaf collimators (MLC) and monitoring the dose rate. This work explores the feasibility of a prototype Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor Image Sensor (CIS) for tracking these complex treatments by utilising fast, region of interest (ROI) read out functionality. An automatic edge tracking algorithm was used to locate the MLC leaves edges moving at various speeds (from a moving triangle field shape) and imaged with various sensor frame rates. The CIS demonstrates successful edge detection of the dynamic MLC motion within accuracy of 1.0 mm. This demonstrates the feasibility of the sensor to verify treatment delivery involving dynamic MLC up to ∼400 frames per second (equivalent to the linac pulse rate), which is superior to any current techniques such as using electronic portal imaging devices (EPID). CIS provides the basis to an essential real-time verification tool, useful in accessing accurate delivery of complex high energy radiation to the tumour and ultimately to achieve better cure rates for cancer patients.

  2. Visualization of heavy ion-induced charge production in a CMOS image sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Végh, J; Klamra, W; Molnár, J; Norlin, LO; Novák, D; Sánchez-Crespo, A; Van der Marel, J; Fenyvesi, A; Valastyan, I; Sipos, A

    2004-01-01

    A commercial CMOS image sensor was irradiated with heavy ion beams in the several MeV energy range. The image sensor is equipped with a standard video output. The data were collected on-line through frame grabbing and analysed off-line after digitisation. It was shown that the response of the image sensor to the heavy ion bombardment varied with the type and energy of the projectiles. The sensor will be used for the CMS Barrel Muon Alignment system.

  3. High-speed imaging using CMOS image sensor with quasi pixel-wise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, T.; Nagahara, H.; Endo, K.; Sugiyama, Y.; Taniguchi, R.

    2017-02-01

    Several recent studies in compressive video sensing have realized scene capture beyond the fundamental trade-off limit between spatial resolution and temporal resolution using random space-time sampling. However, most of these studies showed results for higher frame rate video that were produced by simulation experiments or using an optically simulated random sampling camera, because there are currently no commercially available image sensors with random exposure or sampling capabilities. We fabricated a prototype complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with quasi pixel-wise exposure timing that can realize nonuniform space-time sampling. The prototype sensor can reset exposures independently by columns and fix these amount of exposure by rows for each 8x8 pixel block. This CMOS sensor is not fully controllable via the pixels, and has line-dependent controls, but it offers flexibility when compared with regular CMOS or charge-coupled device sensors with global or rolling shutters. We propose a method to realize pseudo-random sampling for high-speed video acquisition that uses the flexibility of the CMOS sensor. We reconstruct the high-speed video sequence from the images produced by pseudo-random sampling using an over-complete dictionary.

  4. Laser Doppler Blood Flow Imaging Using a CMOS Imaging Sensor with On-Chip Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cally Gill

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  5. Laser doppler blood flow imaging using a CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Diwei; Nguyen, Hoang C; Hayes-Gill, Barrie R; Zhu, Yiqun; Crowe, John A; Gill, Cally; Clough, Geraldine F; Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-09-18

    The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF) imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  6. Miniature infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for airborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-05-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4 lenslet array on a 1024 x 1024 pixel element focal plane array which gives 16 spectral images of 256 x 256 pixel resolution each

  7. Two-dimensional pixel image lag simulation and optimization in a 4-T CMOS image sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Junting; Li Binqiao; Yu Pingping; Xu Jiangtao [School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Mou Cun, E-mail: xujiangtao@tju.edu.c [Logistics Management Office, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Pixel image lag in a 4-T CMOS image sensor is analyzed and simulated in a two-dimensional model. Strategies of reducing image lag are discussed from transfer gate channel threshold voltage doping adjustment, PPD N-type doping dose/implant tilt adjustment and transfer gate operation voltage adjustment for signal electron transfer. With the computer analysis tool ISE-TCAD, simulation results show that minimum image lag can be obtained at a pinned photodiode n-type doping dose of 7.0 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, an implant tilt of -2{sup 0}, a transfer gate channel doping dose of 3.0 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and an operation voltage of 3.4 V. The conclusions of this theoretical analysis can be a guideline for pixel design to improve the performance of 4-T CMOS image sensors. (semiconductor devices)

  8. Extended SWIR imaging sensors for hyperspectral imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A.; Benecke, M.; Wendler, J.; Sieck, A.; Hübner, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Breiter, R.

    2016-05-01

    AIM has developed SWIR modules including FPAs based on liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) grown MCT usable in a wide range of hyperspectral imaging applications. Silicon read-out integrated circuits (ROIC) provide various integration and readout modes including specific functions for spectral imaging applications. An important advantage of MCT based detectors is the tunable band gap. The spectral sensitivity of MCT detectors can be engineered to cover the extended SWIR spectral region up to 2.5μm without compromising in performance. AIM developed the technology to extend the spectral sensitivity of its SWIR modules also into the VIS. This has been successfully demonstrated for 384x288 and 1024x256 FPAs with 24μm pitch. Results are presented in this paper. The FPAs are integrated into compact dewar cooler configurations using different types of coolers, like rotary coolers, AIM's long life split linear cooler MCC030 or extreme long life SF100 Pulse Tube cooler. The SWIR modules include command and control electronics (CCE) which allow easy interfacing using a digital standard interface. The development status and performance results of AIM's latest MCT SWIR modules suitable for hyperspectral systems and applications will be presented.

  9. High speed global shutter image sensors for professional applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Meynants, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Global shutter imagers expand the use to miscellaneous applications, such as machine vision, 3D imaging, medical imaging, space etc. to eliminate motion artifacts in rolling shutter imagers. A low noise global shutter pixel requires more than one non-light sensitive memory to reduce the read noise. But larger memory area reduces the fill-factor of the pixels. Modern micro-lenses technology can compensate this fill-factor loss. Backside illumination (BSI) is another popular technique to improve the pixel fill-factor. But some pixel architecture may not reach sufficient shutter efficiency with backside illumination. Non-light sensitive memory elements make the fabrication with BSI possible. Machine vision like fast inspection system, medical imaging like 3D medical or scientific applications always ask for high frame rate global shutter image sensors. Thanks to the CMOS technology, fast Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) can be integrated on chip. Dual correlated double sampling (CDS) on chip ADC with high interface digital data rate reduces the read noise and makes more on-chip operation control. As a result, a global shutter imager with digital interface is a very popular solution for applications with high performance and high frame rate requirements. In this paper we will review the global shutter architectures developed in CMOSIS, discuss their optimization process and compare their performances after fabrication.

  10. Multiple-Event, Single-Photon Counting Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyu; Cunningham, Thomas J.; Sun, Chao; Wang, Kang L.

    2011-01-01

    The single-photon counting imaging sensor is typically an array of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes that are monolithically integrated with CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) readout, signal processing, and addressing circuits located in each pixel and the peripheral area of the chip. The major problem is its single-event method for photon count number registration. A single-event single-photon counting imaging array only allows registration of up to one photon count in each of its pixels during a frame time, i.e., the interval between two successive pixel reset operations. Since the frame time can t be too short, this will lead to very low dynamic range and make the sensor merely useful for very low flux environments. The second problem of the prior technique is a limited fill factor resulting from consumption of chip area by the monolithically integrated CMOS readout in pixels. The resulting low photon collection efficiency will substantially ruin any benefit gained from the very sensitive single-photon counting detection. The single-photon counting imaging sensor developed in this work has a novel multiple-event architecture, which allows each of its pixels to register as more than one million (or more) photon-counting events during a frame time. Because of a consequently boosted dynamic range, the imaging array of the invention is capable of performing single-photon counting under ultra-low light through high-flux environments. On the other hand, since the multiple-event architecture is implemented in a hybrid structure, back-illumination and close-to-unity fill factor can be realized, and maximized quantum efficiency can also be achieved in the detector array.

  11. Single Photon Counting Performance and Noise Analysis of CMOS SPAD-Based Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Neale A. W.; Gyongy, Istvan; Parmesan, Luca; Henderson, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    SPAD-based solid state CMOS image sensors utilising analogue integrators have attained deep sub-electron read noise (DSERN) permitting single photon counting (SPC) imaging. A new method is proposed to determine the read noise in DSERN image sensors by evaluating the peak separation and width (PSW) of single photon peaks in a photon counting histogram (PCH). The technique is used to identify and analyse cumulative noise in analogue integrating SPC SPAD-based pixels. The DSERN of our SPAD image sensor is exploited to confirm recent multi-photon threshold quanta image sensor (QIS) theory. Finally, various single and multiple photon spatio-temporal oversampling techniques are reviewed. PMID:27447643

  12. ANALYSIS OF SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS AMONG DIFFERENT SENSORS BY USE OF SIMULATED RS IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This research, by use of RS image-simulating method, simulated apparent reflectance images at sensor level and ground-reflectance images of SPOT-HRV,CBERS-CCD,Landsat-TM and NOAA14-AVHRR' s corresponding bands. These images were used to analyze sensor's differences caused by spectral sensitivity and atmospheric impacts. The differences were analyzed on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI). The results showed that the differences of sensors' spectral characteristics cause changes of their NDVI and reflectance. When multiple sensors' data are applied to digital analysis, the error should be taken into account. Atmospheric effect makes NDVI smaller, and atn~pheric correction has the tendency of increasing NDVI values. The reflectance and their NDVIs of different sensors can be used to analyze the differences among sensor' s features. The spectral analysis method based on RS simulated images can provide a new way to design the spectral characteristics of new sensors.

  13. CCD image sensor induced error in PIV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, M.; Nogueira, J.; Vargas, A. A.; Ventas, R.; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, M. C.

    2014-06-01

    The readout procedure of charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is known to generate some image degradation in different scientific imaging fields, especially in astrophysics. In the particular field of particle image velocimetry (PIV), widely extended in the scientific community, the readout procedure of the interline CCD sensor induces a bias in the registered position of particle images. This work proposes simple procedures to predict the magnitude of the associated measurement error. Generally, there are differences in the position bias for the different images of a certain particle at each PIV frame. This leads to a substantial bias error in the PIV velocity measurement (˜0.1 pixels). This is the order of magnitude that other typical PIV errors such as peak-locking may reach. Based on modern CCD technology and architecture, this work offers a description of the readout phenomenon and proposes a modeling for the CCD readout bias error magnitude. This bias, in turn, generates a velocity measurement bias error when there is an illumination difference between two successive PIV exposures. The model predictions match the experiments performed with two 12-bit-depth interline CCD cameras (MegaPlus ES 4.0/E incorporating the Kodak KAI-4000M CCD sensor with 4 megapixels). For different cameras, only two constant values are needed to fit the proposed calibration model and predict the error from the readout procedure. Tests by different researchers using different cameras would allow verification of the model, that can be used to optimize acquisition setups. Simple procedures to obtain these two calibration values are also described.

  14. CCD image sensor induced error in PIV applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, M; Nogueira, J; Vargas, A A; Ventas, R; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, M C

    2014-01-01

    The readout procedure of charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is known to generate some image degradation in different scientific imaging fields, especially in astrophysics. In the particular field of particle image velocimetry (PIV), widely extended in the scientific community, the readout procedure of the interline CCD sensor induces a bias in the registered position of particle images. This work proposes simple procedures to predict the magnitude of the associated measurement error. Generally, there are differences in the position bias for the different images of a certain particle at each PIV frame. This leads to a substantial bias error in the PIV velocity measurement (∼0.1 pixels). This is the order of magnitude that other typical PIV errors such as peak-locking may reach. Based on modern CCD technology and architecture, this work offers a description of the readout phenomenon and proposes a modeling for the CCD readout bias error magnitude. This bias, in turn, generates a velocity measurement bias error when there is an illumination difference between two successive PIV exposures. The model predictions match the experiments performed with two 12-bit-depth interline CCD cameras (MegaPlus ES 4.0/E incorporating the Kodak KAI-4000M CCD sensor with 4 megapixels). For different cameras, only two constant values are needed to fit the proposed calibration model and predict the error from the readout procedure. Tests by different researchers using different cameras would allow verification of the model, that can be used to optimize acquisition setups. Simple procedures to obtain these two calibration values are also described. (paper)

  15. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serov, Alexander; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor video camera for fast f low imaging with the laser Doppler technique. A single sensor is used for both observation of the area of interest and measurements of the interference signal caused by dynamic light scattering from moving particles inside

  16. Quantum dots in imaging, drug delivery and sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matea, Cristian T; Mocan, Teodora; Tabaran, Flaviu; Pop, Teodora; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Puia, Cosmin; Iancu, Cornel; Mocan, Lucian

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), also known as nanoscale semiconductor crystals, are nanoparticles with unique optical and electronic properties such as bright and intensive fluorescence. Since most conventional organic label dyes do not offer the near-infrared (>650 nm) emission possibility, QDs, with their tunable optical properties, have gained a lot of interest. They possess characteristics such as good chemical and photo-stability, high quantum yield and size-tunable light emission. Different types of QDs can be excited with the same light wavelength, and their narrow emission bands can be detected simultaneously for multiple assays. There is an increasing interest in the development of nano-theranostics platforms for simultaneous sensing, imaging and therapy. QDs have great potential for such applications, with notable results already published in the fields of sensors, drug delivery and biomedical imaging. This review summarizes the latest developments available in literature regarding the use of QDs for medical applications.

  17. Efficient demodulation scheme for rolling-shutter-patterning of CMOS image sensor based visible light communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Wei; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang; Yeh, Chien-Hung

    2017-10-02

    Recently even the low-end mobile-phones are equipped with a high-resolution complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. This motivates using a CMOS image sensor for visible light communication (VLC). Here we propose and demonstrate an efficient demodulation scheme to synchronize and demodulate the rolling shutter pattern in image sensor based VLC. The implementation algorithm is discussed. The bit-error-rate (BER) performance and processing latency are evaluated and compared with other thresholding schemes.

  18. Nanosecond-laser induced crosstalk of CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rongzhen; Wang, Yanbin; Chen, Qianrong; Zhou, Xuanfeng; Ren, Guangsen; Cui, Longfei; Li, Hua; Hao, Daoliang

    2018-02-01

    The CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) is photoelectricity image device which focused the photosensitive array, amplifier, A/D transfer, storage, DSP, computer interface circuit on the same silicon substrate[1]. It has low power consumption, high integration,low cost etc. With large scale integrated circuit technology progress, the noise suppression level of CIS is enhanced unceasingly, and its image quality is getting better and better. It has been in the security monitoring, biometrice, detection and imaging and even military reconnaissance and other field is widely used. CIS is easily disturbed and damaged while it is irradiated by laser. It is of great significance to study the effect of laser irradiation on optoelectronic countermeasure and device for the laser strengthening resistance is of great significance. There are some researchers have studied the laser induced disturbed and damaged of CIS. They focused on the saturation, supersaturated effects, and they observed different effects as for unsaturation, saturation, supersaturated, allsaturated and pixel flip etc. This paper research 1064nm laser interference effect in a typical before type CMOS, and observring the saturated crosstalk and half the crosstalk line. This paper extracted from cmos devices working principle and signal detection methods such as the Angle of the formation mechanism of the crosstalk line phenomenon are analyzed.

  19. Fabricating Optical Fiber Imaging Sensors Using Inkjet Printing Technology: a pH Sensor Proof-of-Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J C; Alvis, R M; Brown, S B; Langry, K C; Wilson, T S; McBride, M T; Myrick, M L; Cox, W R; Grove, M E; Colston, B W

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using Drop-on-Demand microjet printing technology for fabricating imaging sensors by reproducibly printing an array of photopolymerizable sensing elements, containing a pH sensitive indicator, on the surface of an optical fiber image guide. The reproducibility of the microjet printing process is excellent for microdot (i.e. micron-sized polymer) sensor diameter (92.2 {+-} 2.2 microns), height (35.0 {+-} 1.0 microns), and roundness (0.00072 {+-} 0.00023). pH sensors were evaluated in terms of pH sensing ability ({le}2% sensor variation), response time, and hysteresis using a custom fluorescence imaging system. In addition, the microjet technique has distinct advantages over other fabrication methods, which are discussed in detail.

  20. Experimental single-chip color HDTV image acquisition system with 8M-pixel CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Takayuki; Funatsu, Ryohei; Mitani, Kohji; Nojiri, Yuji

    2006-02-01

    We have developed an experimental single-chip color HDTV image acquisition system using 8M-pixel CMOS image sensor. The sensor has 3840 × 2160 effective pixels and is progressively scanned at 60 frames per second. We describe the color filter array and interpolation method to improve image quality with a high-pixel-count single-chip sensor. We also describe an experimental image acquisition system we used to measured spatial frequency characteristics in the horizontal direction. The results indicate good prospects for achieving a high quality single chip HDTV camera that reduces pseudo signals and maintains high spatial frequency characteristics within the frequency band for HDTV.

  1. Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) Temperature Data Record (TDR) in netCDF

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) is a series of passive microwave conically scanning imagers and sounders onboard the DMSP satellites beginning...

  2. Evaluation of the AN/SAY-1 Thermal Imaging Sensor System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, John G; Middlebrook, Christopher T

    2002-01-01

    The AN/SAY-1 Thermal Imaging Sensor System "TISS" was developed to provide surface ships with a day/night imaging capability to detect low radar reflective, small cross-sectional area targets such as floating mines...

  3. SNAPSHOT SPECTRAL AND COLOR IMAGING USING A REGULAR DIGITAL CAMERA WITH A MONOCHROMATIC IMAGE SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hauser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectral imaging (SI refers to the acquisition of the three-dimensional (3D spectral cube of spatial and spectral data of a source object at a limited number of wavelengths in a given wavelength range. Snapshot spectral imaging (SSI refers to the instantaneous acquisition (in a single shot of the spectral cube, a process suitable for fast changing objects. Known SSI devices exhibit large total track length (TTL, weight and production costs and relatively low optical throughput. We present a simple SSI camera based on a regular digital camera with (i an added diffusing and dispersing phase-only static optical element at the entrance pupil (diffuser and (ii tailored compressed sensing (CS methods for digital processing of the diffused and dispersed (DD image recorded on the image sensor. The diffuser is designed to mix the spectral cube data spectrally and spatially and thus to enable convergence in its reconstruction by CS-based algorithms. In addition to performing SSI, this SSI camera is capable to perform color imaging using a monochromatic or gray-scale image sensor without color filter arrays.

  4. Recce NG: from Recce sensor to image intelligence (IMINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroque, Serge

    2001-12-01

    Recce NG (Reconnaissance New Generation) is presented as a complete and optimized Tactical Reconnaissance System. Based on a new generation Pod integrating high resolution Dual Band sensors, the system has been designed with the operational lessons learnt from the last Peace Keeping Operations in Bosnia and Kosovo. The technical solutions retained as component modules of a full IMINT acquisition system, take benefit of the state of art in the following key technologies: Advanced Mission Planning System for long range stand-off Manned Recce, Aircraft and/or Pod tasking, operating sophisticated back-up software tools, high resolution 3D geo data and improved/combat proven MMI to reduce planning delays, Mature Dual Band sensors technology to achieve the Day and Night Recce Mission, including advanced automatic operational functions, as azimuth and roll tracking capabilities, low risk in Pod integration and in carrier avionics, controls and displays upgrades, to save time in operational turn over and maintenance, High rate Imagery Down Link, for Real Time or Near Real Time transmission, fully compatible with STANAG 7085 requirements, Advanced IMINT Exploitation Ground Segment, combat proven, NATO interoperable (STANAG 7023), integrating high value software tools for accurate location, improved radiometric image processing and open link to the C4ISR systems. The choice of an industrial Prime contractor mastering across the full system, all the prior listed key products and technologies, is mandatory to a successful delivery in terms of low Cost, Risk and Time Schedule.

  5. A Single-Transistor Active Pixel CMOS Image Sensor Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guo-An; He Jin; Zhang Dong-Wei; Su Yan-Mei; Wang Cheng; Chen Qin; Liang Hai-Lang; Ye Yun

    2012-01-01

    A single-transistor CMOS active pixel image sensor (1 T CMOS APS) architecture is proposed. By switching the photosensing pinned diode, resetting and selecting can be achieved by diode pull-up and capacitive coupling pull-down of the source follower. Thus, the reset and selected transistors can be removed. In addition, the reset and selected signal lines can be shared to reduce the metal signal line, leading to a very high fill factor. The pixel design and operation principles are discussed in detail. The functionality of the proposed 1T CMOS APS architecture has been experimentally verified using a fabricated chip in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS AMIS technology

  6. Polymer Optical Fibre Sensors for Endoscopic Opto-Acoustic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broadway, Christian; Gallego, Daniel; Woyessa, Getinet

    2015-01-01

    in existing publications. A great advantage can be obtained for endoscopy due to a small size and array potential to provide discrete imaging speed improvements. Optical fibre exhibits numerous advantages over conventional piezo-electric transducers, such as immunity from electromagnetic interference...... is the physical size of the device, allowing compatibility with current technology, while governing flexibility of the distal end of the endoscope based on the needs of the sensor. Polymer optical fibre (POF) presents a novel approach for endoscopic applications and has been positively discussed and compared...... and a higher resolution at small sizes. Furthermore, micro structured polymer optical fibres offer over 12 times the sensitivity of silica fibre. We present a polymer fibre Bragg grating ultrasound detector with a core diameter of 125 microns. We discuss the ultrasonic signals received and draw conclusions...

  7. 77 FR 74513 - Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Investigations: Terminations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-846] Certain CMOS Image Sensors and Products Containing Same; Investigations: Terminations, Modifications and Rulings AGENCY: U.S... United States after importation of certain CMOS image sensors and products containing the same based on...

  8. A widefield fluorescence microscope with a linear image sensor for image cytometry of biospecimens: Considerations for image quality optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutcheson, Joshua A.; Majid, Aneeka A.; Powless, Amy J.; Muldoon, Timothy J., E-mail: tmuldoon@uark.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arkansas, 120 Engineering Hall, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Linear image sensors have been widely used in numerous research and industry applications to provide continuous imaging of moving objects. Here, we present a widefield fluorescence microscope with a linear image sensor used to image translating objects for image cytometry. First, a calibration curve was characterized for a custom microfluidic chamber over a span of volumetric pump rates. Image data were also acquired using 15 μm fluorescent polystyrene spheres on a slide with a motorized translation stage in order to match linear translation speed with line exposure periods to preserve the image aspect ratio. Aspect ratios were then calculated after imaging to ensure quality control of image data. Fluorescent beads were imaged in suspension flowing through the microfluidics chamber being pumped by a mechanical syringe pump at 16 μl min{sup −1} with a line exposure period of 150 μs. The line period was selected to acquire images of fluorescent beads with a 40 dB signal-to-background ratio. A motorized translation stage was then used to transport conventional glass slides of stained cellular biospecimens. Whole blood collected from healthy volunteers was stained with 0.02% (w/v) proflavine hemisulfate was imaged to highlight leukocyte morphology with a 1.56 mm × 1.28 mm field of view (1540 ms total acquisition time). Oral squamous cells were also collected from healthy volunteers and stained with 0.01% (w/v) proflavine hemisulfate to demonstrate quantifiable subcellular features and an average nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio of 0.03 (n = 75), with a resolution of 0.31 μm pixels{sup −1}.

  9. Transition-edge sensor imaging arrays for astrophysics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Jennifer Anne

    Many interesting objects in our universe currently elude observation in the optical band: they are too faint or they vary rapidly and thus any structure in their radiation is lost over the period of an exposure. Conventional photon detectors cannot simultaneously provide energy resolution and time-stamping of individual photons at fast rates. Superconducting detectors have recently made the possibility of simultaneous photon counting, imaging, and energy resolution a reality. Our research group has pioneered the use of one such detector, the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES). TES physics is simple and elegant. A thin superconducting film, biased at its critical temperature, can act as a particle detector: an incident particle deposits energy and drives the film into its superconducting-normal transition. By inductively coupling the detector to a SQUID amplifier circuit, this resistance change can be read out as a current pulse, and its energy deduced by integrating over the pulse. TESs can be used to accurately time-stamp (to 0.1 [mu]s) and energy-resolve (0.15 eV at 1.6 eV) near-IR/visible/near-UV photons at rates of 30~kHz. The first astronomical observations using fiber-coupled detectors were made at the Stanford Student Observatory 0.6~m telescope in 1999. Further observations of the Crab Pulsar from the 107" telescope at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory showed rapid phase variations over the near-IR/visible/near-UV band. These preliminary observations provided a glimpse into a new realm of observations of pulsars, binary systems, and accreting black holes promised by TES arrays. This thesis describes the development, characterization, and preliminary use of the first camera system based on Transition-Edge Sensors. While single-device operation is relatively well-understood, the operation of a full imaging array poses significant challenges. This thesis addresses all aspects related to the creation and characterization of this cryogenic imaging

  10. Wireless image-data transmission from an implanted image sensor through a living mouse brain by intra body communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Hajime; Takehara, Hiroaki; Nagata, Kengo; Haruta, Makito; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Intra body communication technology allows the fabrication of compact implantable biomedical sensors compared with RF wireless technology. In this paper, we report the fabrication of an implantable image sensor of 625 µm width and 830 µm length and the demonstration of wireless image-data transmission through a brain tissue of a living mouse. The sensor was designed to transmit output signals of pixel values by pulse width modulation (PWM). The PWM signals from the sensor transmitted through a brain tissue were detected by a receiver electrode. Wireless data transmission of a two-dimensional image was successfully demonstrated in a living mouse brain. The technique reported here is expected to provide useful methods of data transmission using micro sized implantable biomedical sensors.

  11. Comparison of the performance of intraoral X-ray sensors using objective image quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellén-Halme, Kristina; Johansson, Curt; Nilsson, Mats

    2016-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of 10 individual sensors of the same make, using objective measures of key image quality parameters. A further aim was to compare 8 brands of sensors. Ten new sensors of 8 different models from 6 manufacturers (i.e., 80 sensors) were included in the study. All sensors were exposed in a standardized way using an X-ray tube voltage of 60 kVp and different exposure times. Sensor response, noise, low-contrast resolution, spatial resolution and uniformity were measured. Individual differences between sensors of the same brand were surprisingly large in some cases. There were clear differences in the characteristics of the different brands of sensors. The largest variations were found for individual sensor response for some of the brands studied. Also, noise level and low contrast resolution showed large variations between brands. Sensors, even of the same brand, vary significantly in their quality. It is thus valuable to establish action levels for the acceptance of newly delivered sensors and to use objective image quality control for commissioning purposes and periodic checks to ensure high performance of individual digital sensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Wireless Sensor Network for Vineyard Monitoring That Uses Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Bosch, Ignacio; Sendra, Sandra; Serrano, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The first step to detect when a vineyard has any type of deficiency, pest or disease is to observe its stems, its grapes and/or its leaves. To place a sensor in each leaf of every vineyard is obviously not feasible in terms of cost and deployment. We should thus look for new methods to detect these symptoms precisely and economically. In this paper, we present a wireless sensor network where each sensor node takes images from the field and internally uses image processing techniques to detect any unusual status in the leaves. This symptom could be caused by a deficiency, pest, disease or other harmful agent. When it is detected, the sensor node sends a message to a sink node through the wireless sensor network in order to notify the problem to the farmer. The wireless sensor uses the IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n standard, which allows connections from large distances in open air. This paper describes the wireless sensor network design, the wireless sensor deployment, how the node processes the images in order to monitor the vineyard, and the sensor network traffic obtained from a test bed performed in a flat vineyard in Spain. Although the system is not able to distinguish between deficiency, pest, disease or other harmful agents, a symptoms image database and a neuronal network could be added in order learn from the experience and provide an accurate problem diagnosis. PMID:22163948

  13. A wireless sensor network for vineyard monitoring that uses image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Bosch, Ignacio; Sendra, Sandra; Serrano, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The first step to detect when a vineyard has any type of deficiency, pest or disease is to observe its stems, its grapes and/or its leaves. To place a sensor in each leaf of every vineyard is obviously not feasible in terms of cost and deployment. We should thus look for new methods to detect these symptoms precisely and economically. In this paper, we present a wireless sensor network where each sensor node takes images from the field and internally uses image processing techniques to detect any unusual status in the leaves. This symptom could be caused by a deficiency, pest, disease or other harmful agent. When it is detected, the sensor node sends a message to a sink node through the wireless sensor network in order to notify the problem to the farmer. The wireless sensor uses the IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n standard, which allows connections from large distances in open air. This paper describes the wireless sensor network design, the wireless sensor deployment, how the node processes the images in order to monitor the vineyard, and the sensor network traffic obtained from a test bed performed in a flat vineyard in Spain. Although the system is not able to distinguish between deficiency, pest, disease or other harmful agents, a symptoms image database and a neuronal network could be added in order learn from the experience and provide an accurate problem diagnosis.

  14. CMOS Imaging of Temperature Effects on Pin-Printed Xerogel Sensor Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei Yao; Ka Yi Yung; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of temperature on the operation and performance of a xerogel-based sensor microarrays coupled to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC) that images the photoluminescence response from the sensor microarray. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. A correlated double sampling circuit and pixel address/digital control/signal integration circuit are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data are read out as a serial coded signal. The sensor system uses a light-emitting diode to excite target analyte responsive organometallic luminophores doped within discrete xerogel-based sensor elements. As a proto type, we developed a 3 × 3 (9 elements) array of oxygen (O2) sensors. Each group of three sensor elements in the array (arranged in a column) is designed to provide a different and specific sensitivity to the target gaseous O2 concentration. This property of multiple sensitivities is achieved by using a mix of two O2 sensitive luminophores in each pin-printed xerogel sensor element. The CMOS imager is designed to be low noise and consumes a static power of 320.4 μW and an average dynamic power of 624.6 μW when operating at 100-Hz sampling frequency and 1.8-V dc power supply.

  15. Camera sensor arrangement for crop/weed detection accuracy in agronomic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Juan; Guerrero, José Miguel; Montalvo, Martín; Emmi, Luis; Guijarro, María; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-04-02

    In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a) camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b) design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects.

  16. Optical and Electric Multifunctional CMOS Image Sensors for On-Chip Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Sasagawa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the concept, design, performance, and a functional demonstration of multifunctional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS image sensors dedicated to on-chip biosensing applications are described. We developed a sensor architecture that allows flexible configuration of a sensing pixel array consisting of optical and electric sensing pixels, and designed multifunctional CMOS image sensors that can sense light intensity and electric potential or apply a voltage to an on-chip measurement target. We describe the sensors’ architecture on the basis of the type of electric measurement or imaging functionalities.

  17. CMOS Imaging of Pin-Printed Xerogel-Based Luminescent Sensor Microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Yung, Ka Yi; Khan, Rifat; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2010-12-01

    We present the design and implementation of a luminescence-based miniaturized multisensor system using pin-printed xerogel materials which act as host media for chemical recognition elements. We developed a CMOS imager integrated circuit (IC) to image the luminescence response of the xerogel-based sensor array. The imager IC uses a 26 × 20 (520 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each active pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. The imager includes a correlated double sampling circuit and pixel address/digital control circuit; the image data is read-out as coded serial signal. The sensor system uses a light-emitting diode (LED) to excite the target analyte responsive luminophores doped within discrete xerogel-based sensor elements. As a prototype, we developed a 4 × 4 (16 elements) array of oxygen (O 2 ) sensors. Each group of 4 sensor elements in the array (arranged in a row) is designed to provide a different and specific sensitivity to the target gaseous O 2 concentration. This property of multiple sensitivities is achieved by using a strategic mix of two oxygen sensitive luminophores ([Ru(dpp) 3 ] 2+ and ([Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ ) in each pin-printed xerogel sensor element. The CMOS imager consumes an average power of 8 mW operating at 1 kHz sampling frequency driven at 5 V. The developed prototype system demonstrates a low cost and miniaturized luminescence multisensor system.

  18. Implementation of large area CMOS image sensor module using the precision align inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Wook; Kim, Toung Ju; Ryu, Cheol Woo; Lee, Kyung Yong; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Myung Soo; Cho, Gyu Seong

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a large area CMOS image sensor module Implementation using the precision align inspection program. This work is needed because wafer cutting system does not always have high precision. The program check more than 8 point of sensor edges and align sensors with moving table. The size of a 2×1 butted CMOS image sensor module which except for the size of PCB is 170 mm×170 mm. And the pixel size is 55 μm×55 μm and the number of pixels is 3,072×3,072. The gap between the two CMOS image sensor module was arranged in less than one pixel size

  19. Implementation of large area CMOS image sensor module using the precision align inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Wook; Kim, Toung Ju; Ryu, Cheol Woo [Radiation Imaging Technology Center, JBTP, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Yong; Kim, Jin Soo [Nano Sol-Tech INC., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Soo; Cho, Gyu Seong [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper describes a large area CMOS image sensor module Implementation using the precision align inspection program. This work is needed because wafer cutting system does not always have high precision. The program check more than 8 point of sensor edges and align sensors with moving table. The size of a 2×1 butted CMOS image sensor module which except for the size of PCB is 170 mm×170 mm. And the pixel size is 55 μm×55 μm and the number of pixels is 3,072×3,072. The gap between the two CMOS image sensor module was arranged in less than one pixel size.

  20. Increasing Linear Dynamic Range of a CMOS Image Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2007-01-01

    A generic design and a corresponding operating sequence have been developed for increasing the linear-response dynamic range of a complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. The design provides for linear calibrated dual-gain pixels that operate at high gain at a low signal level and at low gain at a signal level above a preset threshold. Unlike most prior designs for increasing dynamic range of an image sensor, this design does not entail any increase in noise (including fixed-pattern noise), decrease in responsivity or linearity, or degradation of photometric calibration. The figure is a simplified schematic diagram showing the circuit of one pixel and pertinent parts of its column readout circuitry. The conventional part of the pixel circuit includes a photodiode having a small capacitance, CD. The unconventional part includes an additional larger capacitance, CL, that can be connected to the photodiode via a transfer gate controlled in part by a latch. In the high-gain mode, the signal labeled TSR in the figure is held low through the latch, which also helps to adapt the gain on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Light must be coupled to the pixel through a microlens or by back illumination in order to obtain a high effective fill factor; this is necessary to ensure high quantum efficiency, a loss of which would minimize the efficacy of the dynamic- range-enhancement scheme. Once the level of illumination of the pixel exceeds the threshold, TSR is turned on, causing the transfer gate to conduct, thereby adding CL to the pixel capacitance. The added capacitance reduces the conversion gain, and increases the pixel electron-handling capacity, thereby providing an extension of the dynamic range. By use of an array of comparators also at the bottom of the column, photocharge voltages on sampling capacitors in each column are compared with a reference voltage to determine whether it is necessary to switch from the high-gain to the low-gain mode. Depending upon

  1. Technical guidance for the development of a solid state image sensor for human low vision image warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderspiegel, Jan

    1994-01-01

    This report surveys different technologies and approaches to realize sensors for image warping. The goal is to study the feasibility, technical aspects, and limitations of making an electronic camera with special geometries which implements certain transformations for image warping. This work was inspired by the research done by Dr. Juday at NASA Johnson Space Center on image warping. The study has looked into different solid-state technologies to fabricate image sensors. It is found that among the available technologies, CMOS is preferred over CCD technology. CMOS provides more flexibility to design different functions into the sensor, is more widely available, and is a lower cost solution. By using an architecture with row and column decoders one has the added flexibility of addressing the pixels at random, or read out only part of the image.

  2. The assessment of multi-sensor image fusion using wavelet transforms for mapping the Brazilian Savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar Acerbi, F.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-sensor image fusion using the wavelet approach provides a conceptual framework for the improvement of the spatial resolution with minimal distortion of the spectral content of the source image. This paper assesses whether images with a large ratio of spatial resolution can be fused, and

  3. Two-Level Evaluation on Sensor Interoperability of Features in Fingerprint Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Shuo Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Features used in fingerprint segmentation significantly affect the segmentation performance. Various features exhibit different discriminating abilities on fingerprint images derived from different sensors. One feature which has better discriminating ability on images derived from a certain sensor may not adapt to segment images derived from other sensors. This degrades the segmentation performance. This paper empirically analyzes the sensor interoperability problem of segmentation feature, which refers to the feature’s ability to adapt to the raw fingerprints captured by different sensors. To address this issue, this paper presents a two-level feature evaluation method, including the first level feature evaluation based on segmentation error rate and the second level feature evaluation based on decision tree. The proposed method is performed on a number of fingerprint databases which are obtained from various sensors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively evaluate the sensor interoperability of features, and the features with good evaluation results acquire better segmentation accuracies of images originating from different sensors.

  4. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)_Thermal Infared Sensor (TIRS) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract:The Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) are instruments onboard the Landsat 8 satellite, which was launched in February of...

  5. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Sensor Data Record (SDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sensor Data Records (SDRs), or Level 1b data, from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) are the calibrated and geolocated radiance and reflectance...

  6. Researchers develop CCD image sensor with 20ns per row parallel readout time

    CERN Multimedia

    Bush, S

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in Oxfordshire have developed what they claim is the fastest CCD (charge-coupled device) image sensor, with a readout time which is 20ns per row" (1/2 page)

  7. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the...

  8. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Provisional Science Data Vp0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) datasets were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the distribution and...

  9. Extended Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) Temperature Data Record (TDR) in netCDF

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) is a seven-channel linearly polarized passive microwave radiometer that operates at frequencies of 19.36 (vertically and...

  10. Study of CMOS Image Sensors for the Alignment System of the CMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virto, A. L.; Vila, I.; Rodrigo, T.; Matorras, F.; Figueroa, C. F.; Calvo, E.; Calderon, A.; Arce, P.; Oller, J. C.; Molinero, A.; Josa, M. I.; Fuentes, J.; Ferrando, A.; Fernandez, M. G.; Barcala, J. M.

    2002-07-01

    We report on an in-depth study made on commercial CMOS image sensors in order to determine their feasibility for beam light position detection in the CMS multipoint alignment scheme. (Author) 21 refs.

  11. Gimbal Integration to Small Format, Airborne, MWIR and LWIR Imaging Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is for enhanced sensor performance and high resolution imaging for Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) and Medium Wave IR (MWIR) camera systems used in...

  12. High-content analysis of single cells directly assembled on CMOS sensor based on color imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Saeki, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-12-15

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor was applied to high-content analysis of single cells which were assembled closely or directly onto the CMOS sensor surface. The direct assembling of cell groups on CMOS sensor surface allows large-field (6.66 mm×5.32 mm in entire active area of CMOS sensor) imaging within a second. Trypan blue-stained and non-stained cells in the same field area on the CMOS sensor were successfully distinguished as white- and blue-colored images under white LED light irradiation. Furthermore, the chemiluminescent signals of each cell were successfully visualized as blue-colored images on CMOS sensor only when HeLa cells were placed directly on the micro-lens array of the CMOS sensor. Our proposed approach will be a promising technique for real-time and high-content analysis of single cells in a large-field area based on color imaging. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The lucky image-motion prediction for simple scene observation based soft-sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Su, Yun; Hu, Bin

    2015-08-01

    High resolution is important to earth remote sensors, while the vibration of the platforms of the remote sensors is a major factor restricting high resolution imaging. The image-motion prediction and real-time compensation are key technologies to solve this problem. For the reason that the traditional autocorrelation image algorithm cannot meet the demand for the simple scene image stabilization, this paper proposes to utilize soft-sensor technology in image-motion prediction, and focus on the research of algorithm optimization in imaging image-motion prediction. Simulations results indicate that the improving lucky image-motion stabilization algorithm combining the Back Propagation Network (BP NN) and support vector machine (SVM) is the most suitable for the simple scene image stabilization. The relative error of the image-motion prediction based the soft-sensor technology is below 5%, the training computing speed of the mathematical predication model is as fast as the real-time image stabilization in aerial photography.

  14. Evaluation of a HDR image sensor with logarithmic response for mobile video-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidis, Marco; Pietrzak, Mateusz; Monnin, David

    2017-10-01

    The performance of mobile video-based applications using conventional LDR (Low Dynamic Range) image sensors highly depends on the illumination conditions. As an alternative, HDR (High Dynamic Range) image sensors with logarithmic response are capable to acquire illumination-invariant HDR images in a single shot. We have implemented a complete image processing framework for a HDR sensor, including preprocessing methods (nonuniformity correction (NUC), cross-talk correction (CTC), and demosaicing) as well as tone mapping (TM). We have evaluated the HDR sensor for video-based applications w.r.t. the display of images and w.r.t. image analysis techniques. Regarding the display we have investigated the image intensity statistics over time, and regarding image analysis we assessed the number of feature correspondences between consecutive frames of temporal image sequences. For the evaluation we used HDR image data recorded from a vehicle on outdoor or combined outdoor/indoor itineraries, and we performed a comparison with corresponding conventional LDR image data.

  15. Novel Hall sensors developed for magnetic field imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, Vladimir; Karapetrov, Goran; Novosad, Valentyn; Bartolome, Elena; Gregusova, Dagmar; Fedor, Jan; Kudela, Robert; Soltys, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We report here on the fabrication and application of novel planar Hall sensors based on shallow InGaP/AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure with a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) as an active layer. The sensors are developed for two kinds of experiments. In the first one, magnetic samples are placed directly on the Hall sensor. Room temperature experiments of permalloy objects evaporated onto the sensor are presented. In the second experiment, the sensor scans close over a multigranular superconducting sample prepared on a YBCO thin film. Large-area and high-resolution scanning experiments were performed at 4.2 K with the Hall probe scanning system in a liquid helium flow cryostat

  16. Soybean varieties discrimination using non-imaging hyperspectral sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, Carlos Antonio; Nanni, Marcos Rafael; Shakir, Muhammad; Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Cezar, Everson; de Gois, Givanildo; Lima, Mendelson; Wojciechowski, Julio Cesar; Shiratsuchi, Luciano Shozo

    2018-03-01

    Infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum has remarkable applications in crop studies. Infrared along with Red band has been used to develop certain vegetation indices. These indices like NDVI, EVI provide important information on any crop physiological stages. The main objective of this research was to discriminate 4 different soybean varieties (BMX Potência, NA5909, FT Campo Mourão and Don Mario) using non-imaging hyperspectral sensor. The study was conducted in four agricultural areas in the municipality of Deodápolis (MS), Brazil. For spectral analysis, 2400 field samples were taken from soybean leaves by means of FieldSpec 3 JR spectroradiometer in the range from 350 to 2500 nm. The data were evaluated through multivariate analysis with the whole set of spectral curves isolated by blue, green, red and near infrared wavelengths along with the addition of vegetation indices like (Enhanced Vegetation Index - EVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - NDVI, Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index - GNDVI, Soil-adjusted Vegetation Index - SAVI, Transformed Vegetation Index - TVI and Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index - OSAVI). A number of the analysis performed where, discriminant (60 and 80% of the data), simulated discriminant (40 and 20% of data), principal component (PC) and cluster analysis (CA). Discriminant and simulated discriminant analyze presented satisfactory results, with average global hit rates of 99.28 and 98.77%, respectively. The results obtained by PC and CA revealed considerable associations between the evaluated variables and the varieties, which indicated that each variety has a variable that discriminates it more effectively in relation to the others. There was great variation in the sample size (number of leaves) for estimating the mean of variables. However, it was possible to observe that 200 leaves allow to obtain a maximum error of 2% in relation to the mean.

  17. Single-event transient imaging with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Futa; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Okihara, Shin-ichiro; Seo, Min-Woong; Zhang, Bo; Takasawa, Taishi; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2016-02-22

    In the work described in this paper, an image reproduction scheme with an ultra-high-speed temporally compressive multi-aperture CMOS image sensor was demonstrated. The sensor captures an object by compressing a sequence of images with focal-plane temporally random-coded shutters, followed by reconstruction of time-resolved images. Because signals are modulated pixel-by-pixel during capturing, the maximum frame rate is defined only by the charge transfer speed and can thus be higher than those of conventional ultra-high-speed cameras. The frame rate and optical efficiency of the multi-aperture scheme are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed imaging method, a 5×3 multi-aperture image sensor was fabricated. The average rising and falling times of the shutters were 1.53 ns and 1.69 ns, respectively. The maximum skew among the shutters was 3 ns. The sensor observed plasma emission by compressing it to 15 frames, and a series of 32 images at 200 Mfps was reconstructed. In the experiment, by correcting disparities and considering temporal pixel responses, artifacts in the reconstructed images were reduced. An improvement in PSNR from 25.8 dB to 30.8 dB was confirmed in simulations.

  18. Median filters as a tool to determine dark noise thresholds in high resolution smartphone image sensors for scientific imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, Damien P.; Parisi, Alfio V.; Amar, Abdurazaq; Rummenie, Katherine J.

    2018-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of median filters in the reduction of dark noise in smartphone high resolution image sensors is presented. The Sony Xperia Z1 employed has a maximum image sensor resolution of 20.7 Mpixels, with each pixel having a side length of just over 1 μm. Due to the large number of photosites, this provides an image sensor with very high sensitivity but also makes them prone to noise effects such as hot-pixels. Similar to earlier research with older models of smartphone, no appreciable temperature effects were observed in the overall average pixel values for images taken in ambient temperatures between 5 °C and 25 °C. In this research, hot-pixels are defined as pixels with intensities above a specific threshold. The threshold is determined using the distribution of pixel values of a set of images with uniform statistical properties associated with the application of median-filters of increasing size. An image with uniform statistics was employed as a training set from 124 dark images, and the threshold was determined to be 9 digital numbers (DN). The threshold remained constant for multiple resolutions and did not appreciably change even after a year of extensive field use and exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. Although the temperature effects' uniformity masked an increase in hot-pixel occurrences, the total number of occurrences represented less than 0.1% of the total image. Hot-pixels were removed by applying a median filter, with an optimum filter size of 7 × 7; similar trends were observed for four additional smartphone image sensors used for validation. Hot-pixels were also reduced by decreasing image resolution. The method outlined in this research provides a methodology to characterise the dark noise behavior of high resolution image sensors for use in scientific investigations, especially as pixel sizes decrease.

  19. Space-based infrared sensors of space target imaging effect analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huayu; Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun; Zhao, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Target identification problem is one of the core problem of ballistic missile defense system, infrared imaging simulation is an important means of target detection and recognition. This paper first established the space-based infrared sensors ballistic target imaging model of point source on the planet's atmosphere; then from two aspects of space-based sensors camera parameters and target characteristics simulated atmosphere ballistic target of infrared imaging effect, analyzed the camera line of sight jitter, camera system noise and different imaging effects of wave on the target.

  20. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback dye laser sensor for real-time imaging of small molecule diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Label-free imaging is a promising tool for the study of biological processes such as cell adhesion and small molecule signaling processes. In order to image in two dimensions of space current solutions require motorized stages which results in low imaging frame rates. Here, a highly sensitive...... distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser sensor for real-time label-free imaging without any moving parts enabling a frame rate of 12 Hz is presented. The presence of molecules on the laser surface results in a wavelength shift which is used as sensor signal. The unique DFB laser structure comprises several areas...

  1. Particle detection and classification using commercial off the shelf CMOS image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Martín [Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche, 8400 (Argentina); Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Lipovetzky, Jose, E-mail: lipo@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche, 8400 (Argentina); Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Sofo Haro, Miguel; Sidelnik, Iván; Blostein, Juan Jerónimo; Alcalde Bessia, Fabricio; Berisso, Mariano Gómez [Instituto Balseiro, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche, 8400 (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2016-08-11

    In this paper we analyse the response of two different Commercial Off The shelf CMOS image sensors as particle detectors. Sensors were irradiated using X-ray photons, gamma photons, beta particles and alpha particles from diverse sources. The amount of charge produced by different particles, and the size of the spot registered on the sensor are compared, and analysed by an algorithm to classify them. For a known incident energy spectrum, the employed sensors provide a dose resolution lower than microGray, showing their potentials in radioprotection, area monitoring, or medical applications.

  2. Crop status sensing system by multi-spectral imaging sensor, 1: Image processing and paddy field sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Sugiura, R.; Fukagawa, T.; Noguchi, N.; Shibata, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study is to construct a sensing system for precision farming. A Multi-Spectral Imaging Sensor (MSIS), which can obtain three images (G. R and NIR) simultaneously, was used for detecting growth status of plants. The sensor was mounted on an unmanned helicopter. An image processing method for acquiring information of crop status with high accuracy was developed. Crop parameters that were measured include SPAD, leaf height, and stems number. Both direct seeding variety and transplant variety of paddy rice were adopted in the research. The result of a field test showed that crop status of both varieties could be detected with sufficient accuracy to apply to precision farming

  3. New amorphous-silicon image sensor for x-ray diagnostic medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfield, Richard L.; Hartney, Mark A.; Street, Robert A.; Apte, Raj B.

    1998-07-01

    This paper introduces new high-resolution amorphous Silicon (a-Si) image sensors specifically configured for demonstrating film-quality medical x-ray imaging capabilities. The devices utilizes an x-ray phosphor screen coupled to an array of a-Si photodiodes for detecting visible light, and a-Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) for connecting the photodiodes to external readout electronics. We have developed imagers based on a pixel size of 127 micrometer X 127 micrometer with an approximately page-size imaging area of 244 mm X 195 mm, and array size of 1,536 data lines by 1,920 gate lines, for a total of 2.95 million pixels. More recently, we have developed a much larger imager based on the same pixel pattern, which covers an area of approximately 406 mm X 293 mm, with 2,304 data lines by 3,200 gate lines, for a total of nearly 7.4 million pixels. This is very likely to be the largest image sensor array and highest pixel count detector fabricated on a single substrate. Both imagers connect to a standard PC and are capable of taking an image in a few seconds. Through design rule optimization we have achieved a light sensitive area of 57% and optimized quantum efficiency for x-ray phosphor output in the green part of the spectrum, yielding an average quantum efficiency between 500 and 600 nm of approximately 70%. At the same time, we have managed to reduce extraneous leakage currents on these devices to a few fA per pixel, which allows for very high dynamic range to be achieved. We have characterized leakage currents as a function of photodiode bias, time and temperature to demonstrate high stability over these large sized arrays. At the electronics level, we have adopted a new generation of low noise, charge- sensitive amplifiers coupled to 12-bit A/D converters. Considerable attention was given to reducing electronic noise in order to demonstrate a large dynamic range (over 4,000:1) for medical imaging applications. Through a combination of low data lines capacitance

  4. A Solar Position Sensor Based on Image Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas, Adolfo; Velázquez, Nicolás; Villa-Angulo, Carlos; Acuña, Alexis; Rosales, Pedro; Suastegui, José

    2017-07-29

    Solar collector technologies operate with better performance when the Sun beam direction is normal to the capturing surface, and for that to happen despite the relative movement of the Sun, solar tracking systems are used, therefore, there are rules and standards that need minimum accuracy for these tracking systems to be used in solar collectors' evaluation. Obtaining accuracy is not an easy job, hence in this document the design, construction and characterization of a sensor based on a visual system that finds the relative azimuth error and height of the solar surface of interest, is presented. With these characteristics, the sensor can be used as a reference in control systems and their evaluation. The proposed sensor is based on a microcontroller with a real-time clock, inertial measurement sensors, geolocation and a vision sensor, that obtains the angle of incidence from the sunrays' direction as well as the tilt and sensor position. The sensor's characterization proved how a measurement of a focus error or a Sun position can be made, with an accuracy of 0.0426° and an uncertainty of 0.986%, which can be modified to reach an accuracy under 0.01°. The validation of this sensor was determined showing the focus error on one of the best commercial solar tracking systems, a Kipp & Zonen SOLYS 2. To conclude, the solar tracking sensor based on a vision system meets the Sun detection requirements and components that meet the accuracy conditions to be used in solar tracking systems and their evaluation or, as a tracking and orientation tool, on photovoltaic installations and solar collectors.

  5. Methods and apparatuses for detection of radiation with semiconductor image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2018-04-10

    A semiconductor image sensor is repeatedly exposed to high-energy photons while a visible light obstructer is in place to block visible light from impinging on the sensor to generate a set of images from the exposures. A composite image is generated from the set of images with common noise substantially removed so the composite image includes image information corresponding to radiated pixels that absorbed at least some energy from the high-energy photons. The composite image is processed to determine a set of bright points in the composite image, each bright point being above a first threshold. The set of bright points is processed to identify lines with two or more bright points that include pixels therebetween that are above a second threshold and identify a presence of the high-energy particles responsive to a number of lines.

  6. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Infrared and Electro-Optic Signals for High Resolution Night Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lawrence

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic (EO image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level at daytime, but they do not work in dark environments. Infrared (IR image sensors exhibit poor resolution and cannot separate objects with similar temperature. Therefore, we propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge from EO images, which improves the resolution of IR images and helps us distinguish objects at night. Our framework superimposing/blending the edges of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image improves their resolution. In this framework, we adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF proposed by Hardie et al. for the IR image, which has the modulation transfer function (MTF of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we design an inverse filter for the proposed PSF and use it for the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps: (1 inverse filter-based IR image transformation; (2 EO image edge detection; (3 registration; and (4 blending/superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results show both blended and superimposed IR images, and demonstrate that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images. Additionally, based on the same steps, simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available.

  7. CMOS-sensors for energy-resolved X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, D.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Deveaux, M.; Linnik, B.; Müntz, C.; Stroth, Joachim; Baudot, J.; Dulinski, W.; Kachel, M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their low noise, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors are suited to sense X-rays with a few keV quantum energy, which is of interest for high resolution X-ray imaging. Moreover, the good energy resolution of the silicon sensors might be used to measure this quantum energy. Combining both features with the good spatial resolution of CMOS sensors opens the potential to build ''color sensitive' X-ray cameras. Taking such colored images is hampered by the need to operate the CMOS sensors in a single photon counting mode, which restricts the photon flux capability of the sensors. More importantly, the charge sharing between the pixels smears the potentially good energy resolution of the sensors. Based on our experience with CMOS sensors for charged particle tracking, we studied techniques to overcome the latter by means of an offline processing of the data obtained from a CMOS sensor prototype. We found that the energy resolution of the pixels can be recovered at the expense of reduced quantum efficiency. We will introduce the results of our study and discuss the feasibility of taking colored X-ray pictures with CMOS sensors

  8. Cloud Classification in Wide-Swath Passive Sensor Images Aided by Narrow-Swath Active Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenge to distinguish between different cloud types because of the complexity and diversity of cloud coverage, which is a significant clutter source that impacts on target detection and identification from the images of space-based infrared sensors. In this paper, a novel strategy for cloud classification in wide-swath passive sensor images is developed, which is aided by narrow-swath active sensor data. The strategy consists of three steps, that is, the orbit registration, most matching donor pixel selection, and cloud type assignment for each recipient pixel. A new criterion for orbit registration is proposed so as to improve the matching accuracy. The most matching donor pixel is selected via the Euclidean distance and the square sum of the radiance relative differences between the recipient and the potential donor pixels. Each recipient pixel is then assigned a cloud type that corresponds to the most matching donor. The cloud classification of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS images is performed with the aid of the data from Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR. The results are compared with the CloudSat product 2B-CLDCLASS, as well as those that are obtained using the method of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP, which demonstrates the superior classification performance of the proposed strategy.

  9. The challenge of sCMOS image sensor technology to EMCCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weijing; Dai, Fang; Na, Qiyue

    2018-02-01

    In the field of low illumination image sensor, the noise of the latest scientific-grade CMOS image sensor is close to EMCCD, and the industry thinks it has the potential to compete and even replace EMCCD. Therefore we selected several typical sCMOS and EMCCD image sensors and cameras to compare their performance parameters. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratio of sCMOS is close to EMCCD, and the other parameters are superior. But signal-to-noise ratio is very important for low illumination imaging, and the actual imaging results of sCMOS is not ideal. EMCCD is still the first choice in the high-performance application field.

  10. Near-IR Two-Photon Fluorescent Sensor for K(+) Imaging in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Binglin; Yue, Xiling; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D

    2015-08-19

    A new two-photon excited fluorescent K(+) sensor is reported. The sensor comprises three moieties, a highly selective K(+) chelator as the K(+) recognition unit, a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivative modified with phenylethynyl groups as the fluorophore, and two polyethylene glycol chains to afford water solubility. The sensor displays very high selectivity (>52-fold) in detecting K(+) over other physiological metal cations. Upon binding K(+), the sensor switches from nonfluorescent to highly fluorescent, emitting red to near-IR (NIR) fluorescence. The sensor exhibited a good two-photon absorption cross section, 500 GM at 940 nm. Moreover, it is not sensitive to pH in the physiological pH range. Time-dependent cell imaging studies via both one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the sensor is suitable for dynamic K(+) sensing in living cells.

  11. A GRAPH READER USING A CCD IMAGE SENSOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... using a stepper motor controlled by a software program in a ... Keywords: CCD sensor, microcontrollen stepper motor and microcomputer. 1. ... commercial applications (Awcock and ... on-chip amplifier, one pixel at a tirtjie.

  12. A Faraday effect position sensor for interventional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, M; Umathum, R; Sikora, J; Brenner, S; Aguor, E N; Semmler, W

    2006-02-21

    An optical sensor is presented which determines the position and one degree of orientation within a magnetic resonance tomograph. The sensor utilizes the Faraday effect to measure the local magnetic field, which is modulated by switching additional linear magnetic fields, the gradients. Existing methods for instrument localization during an interventional MR procedure often use electrically conducting structures at the instruments that can heat up excessively during MRI and are thus a significant danger for the patient. The proposed optical Faraday effect position sensor consists of non-magnetic and electrically non-conducting components only so that heating is avoided and the sensor could be applied safely even within the human body. With a non-magnetic prototype set-up, experiments were performed to demonstrate the possibility of measuring both the localization and the orientation in a magnetic resonance tomograph. In a 30 mT m(-1) gradient field, a localization uncertainty of 1.5 cm could be achieved.

  13. An improved triangulation laser rangefinder using a custom CMOS HDR linear image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscombe, Michael

    3-D triangulation laser rangefinders are used in many modern applications, from terrain mapping to biometric identification. Although a wide variety of designs have been proposed, laser speckle noise still provides a fundamental limitation on range accuracy. These works propose a new triangulation laser rangefinder designed specifically to mitigate the effects of laser speckle noise. The proposed rangefinder uses a precision linear translator to laterally reposition the imaging system (e.g., image sensor and imaging lens). For a given spatial location of the laser spot, capturing N spatially uncorrelated laser spot profiles is shown to improve range accuracy by a factor of N . This technique has many advantages over past speckle-reduction technologies, such as a fixed system cost and form factor, and the ability to virtually eliminate laser speckle noise. These advantages are made possible through spatial diversity and come at the cost of increased acquisition time. The rangefinder makes use of the ICFYKWG1 linear image sensor, a custom CMOS sensor developed at the Vision Sensor Laboratory (York University). Tests are performed on the image sensor's innovative high dynamic range technology to determine its effects on range accuracy. As expected, experimental results have shown that the sensor provides a trade-off between dynamic range and range accuracy.

  14. An Approach for Unsupervised Change Detection in Multitemporal VHR Images Acquired by Different Multispectral Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yady Tatiana Solano-Correa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for the detection of changes in multitemporal Very High Resolution (VHR optical images acquired by different multispectral sensors. The proposed approach, which is inspired by a recent framework developed to support the design of change-detection systems for single-sensor VHR remote sensing images, addresses and integrates in the general approach a strategy to effectively deal with multisensor information, i.e., to perform change detection between VHR images acquired by different multispectral sensors on two dates. This is achieved by the definition of procedures for the homogenization of radiometric, spectral and geometric image properties. These procedures map images into a common feature space where the information acquired by different multispectral sensors becomes comparable across time. Although the approach is general, here we optimize it for the detection of changes in vegetation and urban areas by employing features based on linear transformations (Tasseled Caps and Orthogonal Equations, which are shown to be effective for representing the multisensor information in a homogeneous physical way irrespectively of the considered sensor. Experiments on multitemporal images acquired by different VHR satellite systems (i.e., QuickBird, WorldView-2 and GeoEye-1 confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Pesticide residue quantification analysis by hyperspectral imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan-Hsun; Lo, Wei-Sheng; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Kao, Ching-Hua; Chou, Tau-Meu; Chen, Junne-Jih; Wen, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chinsu; Chen, Hsian-Min; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh; Wu, Chao-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Yu; Chang, Chein-I.

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide residue detection in agriculture crops is a challenging issue and is even more difficult to quantify pesticide residue resident in agriculture produces and fruits. This paper conducts a series of base-line experiments which are particularly designed for three specific pesticides commonly used in Taiwan. The materials used for experiments are single leaves of vegetable produces which are being contaminated by various amount of concentration of pesticides. Two sensors are used to collected data. One is Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The other is a hyperspectral sensor, called Geophysical and Environmental Research (GER) 2600 spectroradiometer which is a batteryoperated field portable spectroradiometer with full real-time data acquisition from 350 nm to 2500 nm. In order to quantify data with different levels of pesticide residue concentration, several measures for spectral discrimination are developed. Mores specifically, new measures for calculating relative power between two sensors are particularly designed to be able to evaluate effectiveness of each of sensors in quantifying the used pesticide residues. The experimental results show that the GER is a better sensor than FTIR in the sense of pesticide residue quantification.

  16. RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF LARGE AIRBORNE IMAGE DATA SETS ACQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SENSOR TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gehrke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage. We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor’s properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling – with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images – allows for adaptation to each sensor’s geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image’s histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in

  17. Object-Oriented Hierarchy Radiation Consistency for Different Temporal and Different Sensor Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we propose a novel object-oriented hierarchy radiation consistency method for dense matching of different temporal and different sensor data in the 3D reconstruction. For different temporal images, our illumination consistency method is proposed to solve both the illumination uniformity for a single image and the relative illumination normalization for image pairs. Especially in the relative illumination normalization step, singular value equalization and linear relationship of the invariant pixels is combined used for the initial global illumination normalization and the object-oriented refined illumination normalization in detail, respectively. For different sensor images, we propose the union group sparse method, which is based on improving the original group sparse model. The different sensor images are set to a similar smoothness level by the same threshold of singular value from the union group matrix. Our method comprehensively considered the influence factors on the dense matching of the different temporal and different sensor stereoscopic image pairs to simultaneously improve the illumination consistency and the smoothness consistency. The radiation consistency experimental results verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method by comparing two other methods. Moreover, in the dense matching experiment of the mixed stereoscopic image pairs, our method has more advantages for objects in the urban area.

  18. Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a coherent wound fibre image bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jessica R.; Goodwin, Michael; Lawrence, Jon

    2018-03-01

    Shack-Hartmannwavefront sensors using wound fibre image bundles are desired for multi-object adaptive optical systems to provide large multiplex positioned by Starbugs. The use of a large-sized wound fibre image bundle provides the flexibility to use more sub-apertures wavefront sensor for ELTs. These compact wavefront sensors take advantage of large focal surfaces such as the Giant Magellan Telescope. The focus of this paper is to study the wound fibre image bundle structure defects effect on the centroid measurement accuracy of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We use the first moment centroid method to estimate the centroid of a focused Gaussian beam sampled by a simulated bundle. Spot estimation accuracy with wound fibre image bundle and its structure impact on wavefront measurement accuracy statistics are addressed. Our results show that when the measurement signal-to-noise ratio is high, the centroid measurement accuracy is dominated by the wound fibre image bundle structure, e.g. tile angle and gap spacing. For the measurement with low signal-to-noise ratio, its accuracy is influenced by the read noise of the detector instead of the wound fibre image bundle structure defects. We demonstrate this both with simulation and experimentally. We provide a statistical model of the centroid and wavefront error of a wound fibre image bundle found through experiment.

  19. Image interpolation and denoising for division of focal plane sensors using Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Elad; Cunningham, John P; Nehorai, Arye; Gruev, Viktor

    2014-06-16

    Image interpolation and denoising are important techniques in image processing. These methods are inherent to digital image acquisition as most digital cameras are composed of a 2D grid of heterogeneous imaging sensors. Current polarization imaging employ four different pixelated polarization filters, commonly referred to as division of focal plane polarization sensors. The sensors capture only partial information of the true scene, leading to a loss of spatial resolution as well as inaccuracy of the captured polarization information. Interpolation is a standard technique to recover the missing information and increase the accuracy of the captured polarization information. Here we focus specifically on Gaussian process regression as a way to perform a statistical image interpolation, where estimates of sensor noise are used to improve the accuracy of the estimated pixel information. We further exploit the inherent grid structure of this data to create a fast exact algorithm that operates in ����(N(3/2)) (vs. the naive ���� (N³)), thus making the Gaussian process method computationally tractable for image data. This modeling advance and the enabling computational advance combine to produce significant improvements over previously published interpolation methods for polarimeters, which is most pronounced in cases of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We provide the comprehensive mathematical model as well as experimental results of the GP interpolation performance for division of focal plane polarimeter.

  20. A bio-image sensor for simultaneous detection of multi-neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You-Na; Okumura, Koichi; Horio, Tomoko; Iwata, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Toshiaki; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2018-03-01

    We report here a new bio-image sensor for simultaneous detection of spatial and temporal distribution of multi-neurotransmitters. It consists of multiple enzyme-immobilized membranes on a 128 × 128 pixel array with read-out circuit. Apyrase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as selective elements, are used to recognize adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. To enhance the spatial resolution, hydrogen ion (H + ) diffusion barrier layers are deposited on top of the bio-image sensor and demonstrated their prevention capability. The results are used to design the space among enzyme-immobilized pixels and the null H + sensor to minimize the undesired signal overlap by H + diffusion. Using this bio-image sensor, we can obtain H + diffusion-independent imaging of concentration gradients of ATP and ACh in real-time. The sensing characteristics, such as sensitivity and detection of limit, are determined experimentally. With the proposed bio-image sensor the possibility exists for customizable monitoring of the activities of various neurochemicals by using different kinds of proton-consuming or generating enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Soft sensor design by multivariate fusion of image features and process measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a multivariate data fusion procedure for design of dynamic soft sensors where suitably selected image features are combined with traditional process measurements to enhance the performance of data-driven soft sensors. A key issue of fusing multiple sensor data, i.e. to determine...... with a multivariate analysis technique from RGB pictures. The color information is also transformed to hue, saturation and intensity components. Both sets of image features are combined with traditional process measurements to obtain an inferential model by partial least squares (PLS) regression. A dynamic PLS model...... oxides (NOx) emission of cement kilns. On-site tests demonstrate improved performance over soft sensors based on conventional process measurements only....

  2. Advanced data visualization and sensor fusion: Conversion of techniques from medical imaging to Earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Richard C.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Pelizzari, Charles; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    1993-01-01

    Hughes Aircraft Company and the University of Chicago propose to transfer existing medical imaging registration algorithms to the area of multi-sensor data fusion. The University of Chicago's algorithms have been successfully demonstrated to provide pixel by pixel comparison capability for medical sensors with different characteristics. The research will attempt to fuse GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite), AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer), and SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager) sensor data which will benefit a wide range of researchers. The algorithms will utilize data visualization and algorithm development tools created by Hughes in its EOSDIS (Earth Observation SystemData/Information System) prototyping. This will maximize the work on the fusion algorithms since support software (e.g. input/output routines) will already exist. The research will produce a portable software library with documentation for use by other researchers.

  3. Image sensors for radiometric measurements in the ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Desa, B.A.E.

    the sensors at a stabilised moderately cool temperature of 15 deg. C and to intelligently control the exposure time of the device, so as to reliably measure flux levels in the range 1 W/m super(2)/nm to 10/6 W/m super(2)/nm commonly encountered in the ocean...

  4. Active Sensor for Microwave Tissue Imaging with Bias-Switched Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Farzad; Nikolova, Natalia K

    2018-05-06

    A prototype of a bias-switched active sensor was developed and measured to establish the achievable dynamic range in a new generation of active arrays for microwave tissue imaging. The sensor integrates a printed slot antenna, a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and an active mixer in a single unit, which is sufficiently small to enable inter-sensor separation distance as small as 12 mm. The sensor’s input covers the bandwidth from 3 GHz to 7.5 GHz. Its output intermediate frequency (IF) is 30 MHz. The sensor is controlled by a simple bias-switching circuit, which switches ON and OFF the bias of the LNA and the mixer simultaneously. It was demonstrated experimentally that the dynamic range of the sensor, as determined by its ON and OFF states, is 109 dB and 118 dB at resolution bandwidths of 1 kHz and 100 Hz, respectively.

  5. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  6. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  7. Development of High Resolution Eddy Current Imaging Using an Electro-Mechanical Sensor (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Fluxgate Magnetometer ,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., Vol. 12: 241-253. 13. A. Abedi, J. J. Fellenstein, A. J. Lucas, and J. P. Wikswo, Jr., “A...206 (2006). 11. Ripka, P., 1992, Review of Fluxgate Sensors, Sensors and Actuators, A. 33, Elsevier Sequoia: 129-141. 12. Primdahl, F., 1979...superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer system for quantitative analysis and imaging of hidden corrosion activity in aircraft aluminum

  8. Development of High Resolution Eddy Current Imaging Using an Electro-Mechanical Sensor (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Primdahl, F., 1979, “The Fluxgate Magnetometer ,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., Vol. 12: 241-253. 13. A. Abedi, J. J. Fellenstein, A. J. Lucas, and J. P...Issues 1-2, Pages 203-206 (2006). 11. Ripka, P., 1992, Review of Fluxgate Sensors, Sensors and Actuators, A. 33, Elsevier Sequoia: 129-141. 12...Wikswo, Jr., “A superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer system for quantitative analysis and imaging of hidden corrosion activity in

  9. Highly curved image sensors: a practical approach for improved optical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenter, Brian; Joshi, Neel; Stoakley, Richard; Keefe, Andrew; Geary, Kevin; Freeman, Ryan; Hundley, Jake; Patterson, Pamela; Hammon, David; Herrera, Guillermo; Sherman, Elena; Nowak, Andrew; Schubert, Randall; Brewer, Peter; Yang, Louis; Mott, Russell; McKnight, Geoff

    2017-06-12

    The significant optical and size benefits of using a curved focal surface for imaging systems have been well studied yet never brought to market for lack of a high-quality, mass-producible, curved image sensor. In this work we demonstrate that commercial silicon CMOS image sensors can be thinned and formed into accurate, highly curved optical surfaces with undiminished functionality. Our key development is a pneumatic forming process that avoids rigid mechanical constraints and suppresses wrinkling instabilities. A combination of forming-mold design, pressure membrane elastic properties, and controlled friction forces enables us to gradually contact the die at the corners and smoothly press the sensor into a spherical shape. Allowing the die to slide into the concave target shape enables a threefold increase in the spherical curvature over prior approaches having mechanical constraints that resist deformation, and create a high-stress, stretch-dominated state. Our process creates a bridge between the high precision and low-cost but planar CMOS process, and ideal non-planar component shapes such as spherical imagers for improved optical systems. We demonstrate these curved sensors in prototype cameras with custom lenses, measuring exceptional resolution of 3220 line-widths per picture height at an aperture of f/1.2 and nearly 100% relative illumination across the field. Though we use a 1/2.3" format image sensor in this report, we also show this process is generally compatible with many state of the art imaging sensor formats. By example, we report photogrammetry test data for an APS-C sized silicon die formed to a 30° subtended spherical angle. These gains in sharpness and relative illumination enable a new generation of ultra-high performance, manufacturable, digital imaging systems for scientific, industrial, and artistic use.

  10. A back-illuminated megapixel CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Cunningham, Thomas; Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael; Jones, Todd; Wrigley, Chris; Hancock, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the test and characterization results for a back-illuminated megapixel CMOS imager. The imager pixel consists of a standard junction photodiode coupled to a three transistor-per-pixel switched source-follower readout [1]. The imager also consists of integrated timing and control and bias generation circuits, and provides analog output. The analog column-scan circuits were implemented in such a way that the imager could be configured to run in off-chip correlated double-sampling (CDS) mode. The imager was originally designed for normal front-illuminated operation, and was fabricated in a commercially available 0.5 pn triple-metal CMOS-imager compatible process. For backside illumination, the imager was thinned by etching away the substrate was etched away in a post-fabrication processing step.

  11. Simulation and measurement of total ionizing dose radiation induced image lag increase in pinned photodiode CMOS image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Chen, Wei, E-mail: chenwei@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Xue, Yuanyuan; Yao, Zhibin; He, Baoping; Ma, Wuying; Jin, Junshan; Sheng, Jiangkun; Dong, Guantao [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China)

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an investigation of total ionizing dose (TID) induced image lag sources in pinned photodiodes (PPD) CMOS image sensors based on radiation experiments and TCAD simulation. The radiation experiments have been carried out at the Cobalt −60 gamma-ray source. The experimental results show the image lag degradation is more and more serious with increasing TID. Combining with the TCAD simulation results, we can confirm that the junction of PPD and transfer gate (TG) is an important region forming image lag during irradiation. These simulations demonstrate that TID can generate a potential pocket leading to incomplete transfer.

  12. X-ray imaging characterization of active edge silicon pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponchut, C; Ruat, M; Kalliopuska, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the experimental characterization of edge effects in active-edge silicon pixel sensors, in the frame of X-ray pixel detectors developments for synchrotron experiments. We produced a set of active edge pixel sensors with 300 to 500 μm thickness, edge widths ranging from 100 μm to 150 μm, and n or p pixel contact types. The sensors with 256 × 256 pixels and 55 × 55 μm 2 pixel pitch were then bump-bonded to Timepix readout chips for X-ray imaging measurements. The reduced edge widths makes the edge pixels more sensitive to the electrical field distribution at the sensor boundaries. We characterized this effect by mapping the spatial response of the sensor edges with a finely focused X-ray synchrotron beam. One of the samples showed a distortion-free response on all four edges, whereas others showed variable degrees of distortions extending at maximum to 300 micron from the sensor edge. An application of active edge pixel sensors to coherent diffraction imaging with synchrotron beams is described

  13. Decoding mobile-phone image sensor rolling shutter effect for visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Optical wireless communication (OWC) using visible lights, also known as visible light communication (VLC), has attracted significant attention recently. As the traditional OWC and VLC receivers (Rxs) are based on PIN photo-diode or avalanche photo-diode, deploying the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor as the VLC Rx is attractive since nowadays nearly every person has a smart phone with embedded CMOS image sensor. However, deploying the CMOS image sensor as the VLC Rx is challenging. In this work, we propose and demonstrate two simple contrast ratio (CR) enhancement schemes to improve the contrast of the rolling shutter pattern. Then we describe their processing algorithms one by one. The experimental results show that both the proposed CR enhancement schemes can significantly mitigate the high-intensity fluctuations of the rolling shutter pattern and improve the bit-error-rate performance.

  14. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  15. A multimodal image sensor system for identifying water stress in grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Qin; Li, Minzan; Shao, Yongni; Zhou, Jianfeng; Sun, Hong

    2012-11-01

    Water stress is one of the most common limitations of fruit growth. Water is the most limiting resource for crop growth. In grapevines, as well as in other fruit crops, fruit quality benefits from a certain level of water deficit which facilitates to balance vegetative and reproductive growth and the flow of carbohydrates to reproductive structures. A multi-modal sensor system was designed to measure the reflectance signature of grape plant surfaces and identify different water stress levels in this paper. The multi-modal sensor system was equipped with one 3CCD camera (three channels in R, G, and IR). The multi-modal sensor can capture and analyze grape canopy from its reflectance features, and identify the different water stress levels. This research aims at solving the aforementioned problems. The core technology of this multi-modal sensor system could further be used as a decision support system that combines multi-modal sensory data to improve plant stress detection and identify the causes of stress. The images were taken by multi-modal sensor which could output images in spectral bands of near-infrared, green and red channel. Based on the analysis of the acquired images, color features based on color space and reflectance features based on image process method were calculated. The results showed that these parameters had the potential as water stress indicators. More experiments and analysis are needed to validate the conclusion.

  16. CMOS image sensor-based immunodetection by refractive-index change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine P; Kim, Sanghyo

    2012-01-01

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is an intriguing technology for the development of a novel biosensor. Indeed, the CMOS image sensor mechanism concerning the detection of the antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) interaction at the nanoscale has been ambiguous so far. To understand the mechanism, more extensive research has been necessary to achieve point-of-care diagnostic devices. This research has demonstrated a CMOS image sensor-based analysis of cardiovascular disease markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and troponin I, Ag-Ab interactions on indium nanoparticle (InNP) substrates by simple photon count variation. The developed sensor is feasible to detect proteins even at a fg/mL concentration under ordinary room light. Possible mechanisms, such as dielectric constant and refractive-index changes, have been studied and proposed. A dramatic change in the refractive index after protein adsorption on an InNP substrate was observed to be a predominant factor involved in CMOS image sensor-based immunoassay.

  17. Coded aperture detector: an image sensor with sub 20-nm pixel resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Ryan; Mayer, Rafael; Wojdyla, Antoine; Vannier, Nicolas; Lesser, Ian; Aron-Dine, Shifrah; Naulleau, Patrick

    2014-08-11

    We describe the coded aperture detector, a novel image sensor based on uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) with customizable pixel size, resolution, and operating photon energy regime. In this sensor, a coded aperture is scanned laterally at the image plane of an optical system, and the transmitted intensity is measured by a photodiode. The image intensity is then digitally reconstructed using a simple convolution. We present results from a proof-of-principle optical prototype, demonstrating high-fidelity image sensing comparable to a CCD. A 20-nm half-pitch URA fabricated by the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) nano-fabrication laboratory is presented that is suitable for high-resolution image sensing at EUV and soft X-ray wavelengths.

  18. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keunyeol Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel is 2.84 mm2 with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  19. The Design of a Single-Bit CMOS Image Sensor for Iris Recognition Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunyeol; Song, Minkyu; Kim, Soo Youn

    2018-02-24

    This paper presents a single-bit CMOS image sensor (CIS) that uses a data processing technique with an edge detection block for simple iris segmentation. In order to recognize the iris image, the image sensor conventionally captures high-resolution image data in digital code, extracts the iris data, and then compares it with a reference image through a recognition algorithm. However, in this case, the frame rate decreases by the time required for digital signal conversion of multi-bit digital data through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the CIS. In order to reduce the overall processing time as well as the power consumption, we propose a data processing technique with an exclusive OR (XOR) logic gate to obtain single-bit and edge detection image data instead of multi-bit image data through the ADC. In addition, we propose a logarithmic counter to efficiently measure single-bit image data that can be applied to the iris recognition algorithm. The effective area of the proposed single-bit image sensor (174 × 144 pixel) is 2.84 mm² with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS image sensor process. The power consumption of the proposed single-bit CIS is 2.8 mW with a 3.3 V of supply voltage and 520 frame/s of the maximum frame rates. The error rate of the ADC is 0.24 least significant bit (LSB) on an 8-bit ADC basis at a 50 MHz sampling frequency.

  20. Column-Parallel Single Slope ADC with Digital Correlated Multiple Sampling for Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.; Chae, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a low noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) using 10/12 bit configurable column-parallel single slope ADCs (SS-ADCs) and digital correlated multiple sampling (CMS). The sensor used is a conventional 4T active pixel with a pinned-photodiode as photon detector. The test sensor was

  1. A CMOS Image Sensor With In-Pixel Buried-Channel Source Follower and Optimized Row Selector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, X.; Mierop, A.J.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS imager sensor with pinned-photodiode 4T active pixels which use in-pixel buried-channel source followers (SFs) and optimized row selectors. The test sensor has been fabricated in a 0.18-mum CMOS process. The sensor characterization was carried out successfully, and the

  2. CMOS active pixel sensor type imaging system on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A single chip camera which includes an .[.intergrated.]. .Iadd.integrated .Iaddend.image acquisition portion and control portion and which has double sampling/noise reduction capabilities thereon. Part of the .[.intergrated.]. .Iadd.integrated .Iaddend.structure reduces the noise that is picked up during imaging.

  3. Synthetic SAR Image Generation using Sensor, Terrain and Target Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Anders; Abulaitijiang, Adili; Dall, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    A tool to generate synthetic SAR images of objects set on a clutter background is described. The purpose is to generate images for training Automatic Target Recognition and Identification algorithms. The tool employs a commercial electromagnetic simulation program to calculate radar cross section...

  4. Development of a 750x750 pixels CMOS imager sensor for tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnaudie, Franck; Guardiola, Nicolas; Saint-Pé, Olivier; Vignon, Bruno; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Estribeau, Magali

    2017-11-01

    Solid-state optical sensors are now commonly used in space applications (navigation cameras, astronomy imagers, tracking sensors...). Although the charge-coupled devices are still widely used, the CMOS image sensor (CIS), which performances are continuously improving, is a strong challenger for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) systems. This paper describes a 750x750 pixels CMOS image sensor that has been specially designed and developed for star tracker and tracking sensor applications. Such detector, that is featuring smart architecture enabling very simple and powerful operations, is built using the AMIS 0.5μm CMOS technology. It contains 750x750 rectangular pixels with 20μm pitch. The geometry of the pixel sensitive zone is optimized for applications based on centroiding measurements. The main feature of this device is the on-chip control and timing function that makes the device operation easier by drastically reducing the number of clocks to be applied. This powerful function allows the user to operate the sensor with high flexibility: measurement of dark level from masked lines, direct access to the windows of interest… A temperature probe is also integrated within the CMOS chip allowing a very precise measurement through the video stream. A complete electro-optical characterization of the sensor has been performed. The major parameters have been evaluated: dark current and its uniformity, read-out noise, conversion gain, Fixed Pattern Noise, Photo Response Non Uniformity, quantum efficiency, Modulation Transfer Function, intra-pixel scanning. The characterization tests are detailed in the paper. Co60 and protons irradiation tests have been also carried out on the image sensor and the results are presented. The specific features of the 750x750 image sensor such as low power CMOS design (3.3V, power consumption<100mW), natural windowing (that allows efficient and robust tracking algorithms), simple proximity electronics (because of the on

  5. Intelligent Luminance Control of Lighting Systems Based on Imaging Sensor Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoting Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An imaging sensor-based intelligent Light Emitting Diode (LED lighting system for desk use is proposed. In contrast to the traditional intelligent lighting system, such as the photosensitive resistance sensor-based or the infrared sensor-based system, the imaging sensor can realize a finer perception of the environmental light; thus it can guide a more precise lighting control. Before this system works, first lots of typical imaging lighting data of the desk application are accumulated. Second, a series of subjective and objective Lighting Effect Evaluation Metrics (LEEMs are defined and assessed for these datasets above. Then the cluster benchmarks of these objective LEEMs can be obtained. Third, both a single LEEM-based control and a multiple LEEMs-based control are developed to realize a kind of optimal luminance tuning. When this system works, first it captures the lighting image using a wearable camera. Then it computes the objective LEEMs of the captured image and compares them with the cluster benchmarks of the objective LEEMs. Finally, the single LEEM-based or the multiple LEEMs-based control can be implemented to get a kind of optimal lighting effect. Many experiment results have shown the proposed system can tune the LED lamp automatically according to environment luminance changes.

  6. Displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zujun; Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo; Xiao, Zhigang; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Sheng, Jiangkun

    2014-01-01

    The experiments of displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor are presented. The CMOS APS image sensors are manufactured in the standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The flux of neutron beams was about 1.33 × 10 8 n/cm 2 s. The three samples were exposed by 1 MeV neutron equivalent-fluence of 1 × 10 11 , 5 × 10 11 , and 1 × 10 12 n/cm 2 , respectively. The mean dark signal (K D ), dark signal spike, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), noise (V N ), saturation output signal voltage (V S ), and dynamic range (DR) versus neutron fluence are investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors are analyzed. The mean dark signal increase due to neutron displacement damage appears to be proportional to displacement damage dose. The dark images from CMOS APS image sensors irradiated by neutrons are presented to investigate the generation of dark signal spike

  7. Multi-image acquisition-based distance sensor using agile laser spot beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Amin, M Junaid

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel laser-based distance measurement technique that uses multiple-image-based spatial processing to enable distance measurements. Compared with the first-generation distance sensor using spatial processing, the modified sensor is no longer hindered by the classic Rayleigh axial resolution limit for the propagating laser beam at its minimum beam waist location. The proposed high-resolution distance sensor design uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) in combination with an optical imaging device, such as a charged-coupled device (CCD), to produce and capture different laser spot size images on a target with these beam spot sizes different from the minimal spot size possible at this target distance. By exploiting the unique relationship of the target located spot sizes with the varying ECVFL focal length for each target distance, the proposed distance sensor can compute the target distance with a distance measurement resolution better than the axial resolution via the Rayleigh resolution criterion. Using a 30 mW 633 nm He-Ne laser coupled with an electromagnetically actuated liquid ECVFL, along with a 20 cm focal length bias lens, and using five spot images captured per target position by a CCD-based Nikon camera, a proof-of-concept proposed distance sensor is successfully implemented in the laboratory over target ranges from 10 to 100 cm with a demonstrated sub-cm axial resolution, which is better than the axial Rayleigh resolution limit at these target distances. Applications for the proposed potentially cost-effective distance sensor are diverse and include industrial inspection and measurement and 3D object shape mapping and imaging.

  8. PCA-based spatially adaptive denoising of CFA images for single-sensor digital cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Lukac, Rastislav; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, David

    2009-04-01

    Single-sensor digital color cameras use a process called color demosiacking to produce full color images from the data captured by a color filter array (CAF). The quality of demosiacked images is degraded due to the sensor noise introduced during the image acquisition process. The conventional solution to combating CFA sensor noise is demosiacking first, followed by a separate denoising processing. This strategy will generate many noise-caused color artifacts in the demosiacking process, which are hard to remove in the denoising process. Few denoising schemes that work directly on the CFA images have been presented because of the difficulties arisen from the red, green and blue interlaced mosaic pattern, yet a well-designed "denoising first and demosiacking later" scheme can have advantages such as less noise-caused color artifacts and cost-effective implementation. This paper presents a principle component analysis (PCA)-based spatially-adaptive denoising algorithm, which works directly on the CFA data using a supporting window to analyze the local image statistics. By exploiting the spatial and spectral correlations existing in the CFA image, the proposed method can effectively suppress noise while preserving color edges and details. Experiments using both simulated and real CFA images indicate that the proposed scheme outperforms many existing approaches, including those sophisticated demosiacking and denoising schemes, in terms of both objective measurement and visual evaluation.

  9. Evaluation of onboard hyperspectral-image compression techniques for a parallel push-broom sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briles, S.

    1996-04-01

    A single hyperspectral imaging sensor can produce frames with spatially-continuous rows of differing, but adjacent, spectral wavelength. If the frame sample-rate of the sensor is such that subsequent hyperspectral frames are spatially shifted by one row, then the sensor can be thought of as a parallel (in wavelength) push-broom sensor. An examination of data compression techniques for such a sensor is presented. The compression techniques are intended to be implemented onboard a space-based platform and to have implementation speeds that match the date rate of the sensor. Data partitions examined extend from individually operating on a single hyperspectral frame to operating on a data cube comprising the two spatial axes and the spectral axis. Compression algorithms investigated utilize JPEG-based image compression, wavelet-based compression and differential pulse code modulation. Algorithm performance is quantitatively presented in terms of root-mean-squared error and root-mean-squared correlation coefficient error. Implementation issues are considered in algorithm development.

  10. High frame rate multi-resonance imaging refractometry with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    imaging refractometry without moving parts is presented. DFB dye lasers are low-cost and highly sensitive refractive index sensors. The unique multi-wavelength DFB laser structure presented here comprises several areas with different grating periods. Imaging in two dimensions of space is enabled...... by analyzing laser light from all areas in parallel with an imaging spectrometer. With this multi-resonance imaging refractometry method, the spatial position in one direction is identified from the horizontal, i.e., spectral position of the multiple laser lines which is obtained from the spectrometer charged...

  11. White-light full-field OCT resolution improvement by image sensor colour balance adjustment: numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyanov, A L; Lychagov, V V; Ryabukho, V P; Smirnov, I V

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of improving white-light full-field optical coherence tomography (OCT) resolution by image sensor colour balance tuning is shown numerically. We calculated the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of a coherence pulse registered by a silicon colour image sensor under various colour balance settings. The calculations were made for both a halogen lamp and white LED sources. The results show that the interference pulse width can be reduced by the proper choice of colour balance coefficients. The reduction is up to 18%, as compared with a colour image sensor with regular settings, and up to 20%, as compared with a monochrome sensor. (paper)

  12. Optical Inspection In Hostile Industrial Environments: Single-Sensor VS. Imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielo, P.; Dufour, M.; Sokalski, A.

    1988-11-01

    On-line and unsupervised industrial inspection for quality control and process monitoring is increasingly required in the modern automated factory. Optical techniques are particularly well suited to industrial inspection in hostile environments because of their noncontact nature, fast response time and imaging capabilities. Optical sensors can be used for remote inspection of high temperature products or otherwise inaccessible parts, provided they are in a line-of-sight relation with the sensor. Moreover, optical sensors are much easier to adapt to a variety of part shapes, position or orientation and conveyor speeds as compared to contact-based sensors. This is an important requirement in a flexible automation environment. A number of choices are possible in the design of optical inspection systems. General-purpose two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) imaging techniques have advanced very rapidly in the last years thanks to a substantial research effort as well as to the availability of increasingly powerful and affordable hardware and software. Imaging can be realized using 2-D arrays or simpler one-dimensional (1-D) line-array detectors. Alternatively, dedicated single-spot sensors require a smaller amount of data processing and often lead to robust sensors which are particularly appropriate to on-line operation in hostile industrial environments. Many specialists now feel that dedicated sensors or clusters of sensors are often more effective for specific industrial automation and control tasks, at least in the short run. This paper will discuss optomechanical and electro-optical choices with reference to the design of a number of on-line inspection sensors which have been recently developed at our institute. Case studies will include real-time surface roughness evaluation on polymer cables extruded at high speed, surface characterization of hot-rolled or galvanized-steel sheets, temperature evaluation and pinhole detection in aluminum foil, multi

  13. Change Detection with GRASS GIS – Comparison of images taken by different sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fuchs

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Images of American military reconnaissance satellites of the Sixties (CORONA in combination with modern sensors (SPOT, QuickBird were used for detection of changes in land use. The pilot area was located about 40 km northwest of Yemen’s capital Sana’a and covered approximately 100 km2 . To produce comparable layers from images of distinctly different sources, the moving window technique was applied, using the diversity parameter. The resulting difference layers reveal plausible and interpretable change patterns, particularly in areas where urban sprawl occurs.The comparison of CORONA images with images taken by modern sensors proved to be an additional tool to visualize and quantify major changes in land use. The results should serve as additional basic data eg. in regional planning.The computation sequence was executed in GRASS GIS.

  14. Image sensor system with bio-inspired efficient coding and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Hirotsugu; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2012-08-01

    We designed and implemented an image sensor system equipped with three bio-inspired coding and adaptation strategies: logarithmic transform, local average subtraction, and feedback gain control. The system comprises a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), a resistive network, and active pixel sensors (APS), whose light intensity-voltage characteristics are controllable. The system employs multiple time-varying reset voltage signals for APS in order to realize multiple logarithmic intensity-voltage characteristics, which are controlled so that the entropy of the output image is maximized. The system also employs local average subtraction and gain control in order to obtain images with an appropriate contrast. The local average is calculated by the resistive network instantaneously. The designed system was successfully used to obtain appropriate images of objects that were subjected to large changes in illumination.

  15. Class Energy Image Analysis for Video Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuowen Lv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait is a unique perceptible biometric feature at larger distances, and the gait representation approach plays a key role in a video sensor-based gait recognition system. Class Energy Image is one of the most important gait representation methods based on appearance, which has received lots of attentions. In this paper, we reviewed the expressions and meanings of various Class Energy Image approaches, and analyzed the information in the Class Energy Images. Furthermore, the effectiveness and robustness of these approaches were compared on the benchmark gait databases. We outlined the research challenges and provided promising future directions for the field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review that focuses on Class Energy Image. It can provide a useful reference in the literature of video sensor-based gait representation approach.

  16. Measuring the Contractile Response of Isolated Tissue Using an Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz-Martín

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Isometric or isotonic transducers have traditionally been used to study the contractile/relaxation effects of drugs on isolated tissues. However, these mechanical sensors are expensive and delicate, and they are associated with certain disadvantages when performing experiments in the laboratory. In this paper, a method that uses an image sensor to measure the contractile effect of drugs on blood vessel rings and other luminal organs is presented. The new method is based on an image-processing algorithm, and it provides a fast, easy and non-expensive way to analyze the effects of such drugs. In our tests, we have obtained dose-response curves from rat aorta rings that are equivalent to those achieved with classical mechanic sensors.

  17. Low-Power Smart Imagers for Vision-Enabled Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Berni, Jorge; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive, systematic approach to the development of vision system architectures that employ sensory-processing concurrency and parallel processing to meet the autonomy challenges posed by a variety of safety and surveillance applications.  Coverage includes a thorough analysis of resistive diffusion networks embedded within an image sensor array. This analysis supports a systematic approach to the design of spatial image filters and their implementation as vision chips in CMOS technology. The book also addresses system-level considerations pertaining to the embedding of these vision chips into vision-enabled wireless sensor networks.  Describes a system-level approach for designing of vision devices and  embedding them into vision-enabled, wireless sensor networks; Surveys state-of-the-art, vision-enabled WSN nodes; Includes details of specifications and challenges of vision-enabled WSNs; Explains architectures for low-energy CMOS vision chips with embedded, programmable spatial f...

  18. Real-time biochemical sensor based on Raman scattering with CMOS contact imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyun Cao; Yuhua Li; Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a biochemical sensor based on Raman scattering with Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) contact imaging. This biochemical optical sensor is designed for detecting the concentration of solutions. The system is built with a laser diode, an optical filter, a sample holder and a commercial CMOS sensor. The output of the system is analyzed by an image processing program. The system provides instant measurements with a resolution of 0.2 to 0.4 Mol. This low cost and easy-operated small scale system is useful in chemical, biomedical and environmental labs for quantitative bio-chemical concentration detection with results reported comparable to a highly cost commercial spectrometer.

  19. Area-efficient readout with 14-bit SAR-ADC for CMOS image sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sassi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a readout design for CMOS image sensors. It has been squeezed into a 7.5um pitch under a 0.28um 1P3M technology. The ADC performs one 14-bit conversion in only 1.5us and targets a theoretical DNL feature about +1.3/-1 at 14-bit accuracy. Correlated Double Sampling (CDS is performed both in the analog and digital domains to preserve the image quality.

  20. Planoconcave optical microresonator sensors for photoacoustic imaging: pushing the limits of sensitivity (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, James A.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Beard, Paul C.

    2016-03-01

    Most photoacoustic scanners use piezoelectric detectors but these have two key limitations. Firstly, they are optically opaque, inhibiting backward mode operation. Secondly, it is difficult to achieve adequate detection sensitivity with the small element sizes needed to provide near-omnidirectional response as required for tomographic imaging. Planar Fabry-Perot (FP) ultrasound sensing etalons can overcome both of these limitations and have proved extremely effective for superficial (beam. However, this has the disadvantage that beam walk-off due to the divergence of the beam fundamentally limits the etalon finesse and thus sensitivity - in essence, the problem is one of insufficient optical confinement. To overcome this, novel planoconcave micro-resonator sensors have been fabricated using precision ink-jet printed polymer domes with curvatures matching that of the laser wavefront. By providing near-perfect beam confinement, we show that it is possible to approach the maximum theoretical limit for finesse (f) imposed by the etalon mirror reflectivities (e.g. f=400 for R=99.2% in contrast to a typical planar sensor value of fbeam walk-off, viable sensors can be made with significantly greater thickness than planar FP sensors. This provides an additional sensitivity gain for deep tissue imaging applications such as breast imaging where detection bandwidths in the low MHz can be tolerated. For example, for a 250 μm thick planoconcave sensor with a -3dB bandwidth of 5MHz, the measured NEP was 4 Pa. This NEP is comparable to that provided by mm scale piezoelectric detectors used for breast imaging applications but with more uniform frequency response characteristics and an order-of-magnitude smaller element size. Following previous proof-of-concept work, several important advances towards practical application have been made. A family of sensors with bandwidths ranging from 3MHz to 20MHz have been fabricated and characterised. A novel interrogation scheme based on

  1. Photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a double-ring sensor featuring a narrow angular aperture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Hondebrink, Erwin; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    A photoacoustic double-ring sensor, featuring a narrow angular aperture, is developed for laser-induced photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels. An integrated optical fiber enables reflection-mode detection of ultrasonic waves. By using the cross-correlation between the signals detected by the two

  2. A Portable Colloidal Gold Strip Sensor for Clenbuterol and Ractopamine Using Image Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable colloidal golden strip sensor for detecting clenbuterol and ractopamine has been developed using image processing technology, as well as a novel strip reader has achieved innovatively with this imaging sensor. Colloidal gold strips for clenbuterol and ractopamine is used as first sensor with given biomedical immunication reaction. After three minutes the target sample dropped on, the color showing in the T line is relative to the content of objects as clenbuterol, this reader can finish many functions like automatic acquit ion of colored strip image, quantatively analysis of the color lines including the control line and test line, and data storage and transfer to computer. The system is integrated image collection, pattern recognition and real-time colloidal gold quantitative measurement. In experiment, clenbuterol and ractopamine standard substance with concentration from 0 ppb to 10 ppb is prepared and tested, the result reveals that standard solutions of clenbuterol and ractopamine have a good secondary fitting character with color degree (R2 is up to 0.99 and 0.98. Besides, through standard sample addition to the object negative substance, good recovery results are obtained up to 98 %. Above all, an optical sensor for colloidal strip measure is capable of determining the content of clenbuterol and ractopamine, it is likely to apply to quantatively identifying of similar reaction of colloidal golden strips.

  3. A 10-bit column-parallel cyclic ADC for high-speed CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Ye; Li Quanliang; Shi Cong; Wu Nanjian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a high-speed column-parallel cyclic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for a CMOS image sensor. A correlated double sampling (CDS) circuit is integrated in the ADC, which avoids a stand-alone CDS circuit block. An offset cancellation technique is also introduced, which reduces the column fixed-pattern noise (FPN) effectively. One single channel ADC with an area less than 0.02 mm 2 was implemented in a 0.13 μm CMOS image sensor process. The resolution of the proposed ADC is 10-bit, and the conversion rate is 1.6 MS/s. The measured differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity are 0.89 LSB and 6.2 LSB together with CDS, respectively. The power consumption from 3.3 V supply is only 0.66 mW. An array of 48 10-bit column-parallel cyclic ADCs was integrated into an array of CMOS image sensor pixels. The measured results indicated that the ADC circuit is suitable for high-speed CMOS image sensors. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. High-resolution dynamic pressure sensor array based on piezo-phototronic effect tuned photoluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mingzeng; Li, Zhou; Liu, Caihong; Zheng, Qiang; Shi, Xieqing; Song, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Du, Shiyu; Zhai, Junyi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    A high-resolution dynamic tactile/pressure display is indispensable to the comprehensive perception of force/mechanical stimulations such as electronic skin, biomechanical imaging/analysis, or personalized signatures. Here, we present a dynamic pressure sensor array based on pressure/strain tuned photoluminescence imaging without the need for electricity. Each sensor is a nanopillar that consists of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells. Its photoluminescence intensity can be modulated dramatically and linearly by small strain (0-0.15%) owing to the piezo-phototronic effect. The sensor array has a high pixel density of 6350 dpi and exceptional small standard deviation of photoluminescence. High-quality tactile/pressure sensing distribution can be real-time recorded by parallel photoluminescence imaging without any cross-talk. The sensor array can be inexpensively fabricated over large areas by semiconductor product lines. The proposed dynamic all-optical pressure imaging with excellent resolution, high sensitivity, good uniformity, and ultrafast response time offers a suitable way for smart sensing, micro/nano-opto-electromechanical systems.

  5. VLC-based indoor location awareness using LED light and image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Ju; Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, indoor LED lighting can be considered for constructing green infra with energy saving and additionally providing LED-IT convergence services such as visible light communication (VLC) based location awareness and navigation services. For example, in case of large complex shopping mall, location awareness to navigate the destination is very important issue. However, the conventional navigation using GPS is not working indoors. Alternative location service based on WLAN has a problem that the position accuracy is low. For example, it is difficult to estimate the height exactly. If the position error of the height is greater than the height between floors, it may cause big problem. Therefore, conventional navigation is inappropriate for indoor navigation. Alternative possible solution for indoor navigation is VLC based location awareness scheme. Because indoor LED infra will be definitely equipped for providing lighting functionality, indoor LED lighting has a possibility to provide relatively high accuracy of position estimation combined with VLC technology. In this paper, we provide a new VLC based positioning system using visible LED lights and image sensors. Our system uses location of image sensor lens and location of reception plane. By using more than two image sensor, we can determine transmitter position less than 1m position error. Through simulation, we verify the validity of the proposed VLC based new positioning system using visible LED light and image sensors.

  6. A simple and low-cost biofilm quantification method using LED and CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Junhee; Lee, Junghoon; Kwak, Soo Hwan; Oh, Sangwoo; Paek, Se-Hwan; Ha, Un-Hwan; Seo, Sungkyu

    2014-12-01

    A novel biofilm detection platform, which consists of a cost-effective red, green, and blue light-emitting diode (RGB LED) as a light source and a lens-free CMOS image sensor as a detector, is designed. This system can measure the diffraction patterns of cells from their shadow images, and gather light absorbance information according to the concentration of biofilms through a simple image processing procedure. Compared to a bulky and expensive commercial spectrophotometer, this platform can provide accurate and reproducible biofilm concentration detection and is simple, compact, and inexpensive. Biofilms originating from various bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), were tested to demonstrate the efficacy of this new biofilm detection approach. The results were compared with the results obtained from a commercial spectrophotometer. To utilize a cost-effective light source (i.e., an LED) for biofilm detection, the illumination conditions were optimized. For accurate and reproducible biofilm detection, a simple, custom-coded image processing algorithm was developed and applied to a five-megapixel CMOS image sensor, which is a cost-effective detector. The concentration of biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa was detected and quantified by varying the indole concentration, and the results were compared with the results obtained from a commercial spectrophotometer. The correlation value of the results from those two systems was 0.981 (N = 9, P CMOS image-sensor platform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Single photon imaging and timing array sensor apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Clayton

    2003-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating a three-dimension image of an object or target. The apparatus is comprised of a photon source for emitting a photon at a target. The emitted photons are received by a photon receiver for receiving the photon when reflected from the target. The photon receiver determines a reflection time of the photon and further determines an arrival position of the photon on the photon receiver. An analyzer is communicatively coupled to the photon receiver, wherein the analyzer generates a three-dimensional image of the object based upon the reflection time and the arrival position.

  8. Detection in Urban Scenario Using Combined Airborne Imaging Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renhorn, I.; Axelsson, M.; Benoist, K.W.; Bourghys, D.; Boucher, Y.; Xavier Briottet, X.; Sergio De CeglieD, S. De; Dekker, R.J.; Dimmeler, A.; Dost, R.; Friman, O.; Kåsen, I.; Maerker, J.; Persie, M. van; Resta, S.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Shimoni, M.; Vegard Haavardsholm, T.

    2012-01-01

    The EDA project “Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors” (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The

  9. Detection in Urban Scenario using Combined Airborne Imaging Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renhorn, I.; Axelsson, M.; Benoist, K.W.; Bourghys, D.; Boucher, Y.; Xavier Briottet, X.; Sergio De CeglieD, S. De; Dekker, R.J.; Dimmeler, A.; Dost, R.; Friman, O.; Kåsen, I.; Maerker, J.; Persie, M. van; Resta, S.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Shimoni, M.; Vegard Haavardsholm, T.

    2012-01-01

    The EDA project “Detection in Urban scenario using Combined Airborne imaging Sensors” (DUCAS) is in progress. The aim of the project is to investigate the potential benefit of combined high spatial and spectral resolution airborne imagery for several defense applications in the urban area. The

  10. Maintained functionality of an implantable radiotelemetric blood pressure and heart rate sensor after magnetic resonance imaging in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nölte, I; Boll, H; Figueiredo, G; Groden, C; Brockmann, M A; Gorbey, S; Lemmer, B

    2011-01-01

    Radiotelemetric sensors for in vivo assessment of blood pressure and heart rate are widely used in animal research. MRI with implanted sensors is regarded as contraindicated as transmitter malfunction and injury of the animal may be caused. Moreover, artefacts are expected to compromise image evaluation. In vitro, the function of a radiotelemetric sensor (TA11PA-C10, Data Sciences International) after exposure to MRI up to 9.4 T was assessed. The magnetic force of the electromagnetic field on the sensor as well as radiofrequency (RF)-induced sensor heating was analysed. Finally, MRI with an implanted sensor was performed in a rat. Imaging artefacts were analysed at 3.0 and 9.4 T ex vivo and in vivo. Transmitted 24 h blood pressure and heart rate were compared before and after MRI to verify the integrity of the telemetric sensor. The function of the sensor was not altered by MRI up to 9.4 T. The maximum force exerted on the sensor was 273 ± 50 mN. RF-induced heating was ruled out. Artefacts impeded the assessment of the abdomen and thorax in a dead rat, but not of the head and neck. MRI with implanted radiotelemetric sensors is feasible in principal. The tested sensor maintains functionality up to 9.4 T. Artefacts hampered abdominal and throacic imaging in rats, while assessment of the head and neck is possible

  11. A generalized logarithmic image processing model based on the gigavision sensor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guang

    2012-03-01

    The logarithmic image processing (LIP) model is a mathematical theory providing generalized linear operations for image processing. The gigavision sensor (GVS) is a new imaging device that can be described by a statistical model. In this paper, by studying these two seemingly unrelated models, we develop a generalized LIP (GLIP) model. With the LIP model being its special case, the GLIP model not only provides new insights into the LIP model but also defines new image representations and operations for solving general image processing problems that are not necessarily related to the GVS. A new parametric LIP model is also developed. To illustrate the application of the new scalar multiplication operation, we propose an energy-preserving algorithm for tone mapping, which is a necessary step in image dehazing. By comparing with results using two state-of-the-art algorithms, we show that the new scalar multiplication operation is an effective tool for tone mapping.

  12. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Fu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC or Digital Signal Processor (DSP, the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 x 2,389.8 mm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP. The pixel cell size is 18.45 x 21.8 mm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 x 9.6 mm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  13. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  14. Modeling of Potential Distribution of Electrical Capacitance Tomography Sensor for Multiphase Flow Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sathiyamoorthy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT was used to develop image of various multi phase flow of gas-liquid-solid in a closed pipe. The principal difficulties to obtained real time image from ECT sensor are permittivity distribution across the plate and capacitance is nonlinear; the electric field is distorted by the material present and is also sensitive to measurement errors and noise. This work present a detailed description is given on method employed for image reconstruction from the capacitance measurements. The discretization and iterative algorithm is developed for improving the predictions with minimum error. The author analyzed eight electrodes square sensor ECT system with two-phase water-gas and solid-gas.

  15. Automatic Welding System of Aluminum Pipe by Monitoring Backside Image of Molten Pool Using Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskoro, Ario Sunar; Kabutomori, Masashi; Suga, Yasuo

    An automatic welding system using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding with vision sensor for welding of aluminum pipe was constructed. This research studies the intelligent welding process of aluminum alloy pipe 6063S-T5 in fixed position and moving welding torch with the AC welding machine. The monitoring system consists of a vision sensor using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to monitor backside image of molten pool. The captured image was processed to recognize the edge of molten pool by image processing algorithm. Neural network model for welding speed control were constructed to perform the process automatically. From the experimental results it shows the effectiveness of the control system confirmed by good detection of molten pool and sound weld of experimental result.

  16. A Passive Learning Sensor Architecture for Multimodal Image Labeling: An Application for Social Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Gutiérrez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Object detection and classification have countless applications in human–robot interacting systems. It is a necessary skill for autonomous robots that perform tasks in household scenarios. Despite the great advances in deep learning and computer vision, social robots performing non-trivial tasks usually spend most of their time finding and modeling objects. Working in real scenarios means dealing with constant environment changes and relatively low-quality sensor data due to the distance at which objects are often found. Ambient intelligence systems equipped with different sensors can also benefit from the ability to find objects, enabling them to inform humans about their location. For these applications to succeed, systems need to detect the objects that may potentially contain other objects, working with relatively low-resolution sensor data. A passive learning architecture for sensors has been designed in order to take advantage of multimodal information, obtained using an RGB-D camera and trained semantic language models. The main contribution of the architecture lies in the improvement of the performance of the sensor under conditions of low resolution and high light variations using a combination of image labeling and word semantics. The tests performed on each of the stages of the architecture compare this solution with current research labeling techniques for the application of an autonomous social robot working in an apartment. The results obtained demonstrate that the proposed sensor architecture outperforms state-of-the-art approaches.

  17. Imaging intracellular pH in live cells with a genetically encoded red fluorescent protein sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantama, Mathew; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2011-07-06

    Intracellular pH affects protein structure and function, and proton gradients underlie the function of organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria. We engineered a genetically encoded pH sensor by mutagenesis of the red fluorescent protein mKeima, providing a new tool to image intracellular pH in live cells. This sensor, named pHRed, is the first ratiometric, single-protein red fluorescent sensor of pH. Fluorescence emission of pHRed peaks at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at 440 and 585 nm that can be used for ratiometric imaging. The intensity ratio responds with an apparent pK(a) of 6.6 and a >10-fold dynamic range. Furthermore, pHRed has a pH-responsive fluorescence lifetime that changes by ~0.4 ns over physiological pH values and can be monitored with single-wavelength two-photon excitation. After characterizing the sensor, we tested pHRed's ability to monitor intracellular pH by imaging energy-dependent changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial pH.

  18. Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color image sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan O Isikman

    Full Text Available We report Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color sensor-arrays such as CMOS imagers that exhibit Bayer color filter patterns. Without physically removing these color filters coated on the sensor chip, we synthesize pixel super-resolved lensfree holograms, which are then reconstructed to achieve ~350 nm lateral resolution, corresponding to a numerical aperture of ~0.8, across a field-of-view of ~20.5 mm(2. This constitutes a digital image with ~0.7 Billion effective pixels in both amplitude and phase channels (i.e., ~1.4 Giga-pixels total. Furthermore, by changing the illumination angle (e.g., ± 50° and scanning a partially-coherent light source across two orthogonal axes, super-resolved images of the same specimen from different viewing angles are created, which are then digitally combined to synthesize tomographic images of the object. Using this dual-axis lensfree tomographic imager running on a color sensor-chip, we achieve a 3D spatial resolution of ~0.35 µm × 0.35 µm × ~2 µm, in x, y and z, respectively, creating an effective voxel size of ~0.03 µm(3 across a sample volume of ~5 mm(3, which is equivalent to >150 Billion voxels. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept of this lensfree optical tomographic microscopy platform on a color CMOS image sensor by creating tomograms of micro-particles as well as a wild-type C. elegans nematode.

  19. Indoor and Outdoor Depth Imaging of Leaves With Time-of-Flight and Stereo Vision Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Foix, Sergi; Alenya, Guilliem

    2014-01-01

    In this article we analyze the response of Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras (active sensors) for close range imaging under three different illumination conditions and compare the results with stereo vision (passive) sensors. ToF cameras are sensitive to ambient light and have low resolution but deliver...... poorly under sunlight. Stereo vision is comparatively more robust to ambient illumination and provides high resolution depth data but is constrained by texture of the object along with computational efficiency. Graph cut based stereo correspondence algorithm can better retrieve the shape of the leaves...

  20. Reduction of CMOS Image Sensor Read Noise to Enable Photon Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidash, Michael; Ma, Jiaju; Vogelsang, Thomas; Endsley, Jay

    2016-04-09

    Recent activity in photon counting CMOS image sensors (CIS) has been directed to reduction of read noise. Many approaches and methods have been reported. This work is focused on providing sub 1 e(-) read noise by design and operation of the binary and small signal readout of photon counting CIS. Compensation of transfer gate feed-through was used to provide substantially reduced CDS time and source follower (SF) bandwidth. SF read noise was reduced by a factor of 3 with this method. This method can be applied broadly to CIS devices to reduce the read noise for small signals to enable use as a photon counting sensor.

  1. The Dynamic Photometric Stereo Method Using a Multi-Tap CMOS Image Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Takuya; Nagahara, Hajime; Taniguchi, Rin-ichiro; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2018-01-01

    The photometric stereo method enables estimation of surface normals from images that have been captured using different but known lighting directions. The classical photometric stereo method requires at least three images to determine the normals in a given scene. However, this method cannot be applied to dynamic scenes because it is assumed that the scene remains static while the required images are captured. In this work, we present a dynamic photometric stereo method for estimation of the surface normals in a dynamic scene. We use a multi-tap complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor to capture the input images required for the proposed photometric stereo method. This image sensor can divide the electrons from the photodiode from a single pixel into the different taps of the exposures and can thus capture multiple images under different lighting conditions with almost identical timing. We implemented a camera lighting system and created a software application to enable estimation of the normal map in real time. We also evaluated the accuracy of the estimated surface normals and demonstrated that our proposed method can estimate the surface normals of dynamic scenes. PMID:29510599

  2. The Dynamic Photometric Stereo Method Using a Multi-Tap CMOS Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Takuya; Nagahara, Hajime; Taniguchi, Rin-Ichiro; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2018-03-05

    The photometric stereo method enables estimation of surface normals from images that have been captured using different but known lighting directions. The classical photometric stereo method requires at least three images to determine the normals in a given scene. However, this method cannot be applied to dynamic scenes because it is assumed that the scene remains static while the required images are captured. In this work, we present a dynamic photometric stereo method for estimation of the surface normals in a dynamic scene. We use a multi-tap complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor to capture the input images required for the proposed photometric stereo method. This image sensor can divide the electrons from the photodiode from a single pixel into the different taps of the exposures and can thus capture multiple images under different lighting conditions with almost identical timing. We implemented a camera lighting system and created a software application to enable estimation of the normal map in real time. We also evaluated the accuracy of the estimated surface normals and demonstrated that our proposed method can estimate the surface normals of dynamic scenes.

  3. Computed Tomography Image Origin Identification Based on Original Sensor Pattern Noise and 3-D Image Reconstruction Algorithm Footprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yuping; Bouslimi, Dalel; Yang, Guanyu; Shu, Huazhong; Coatrieux, Gouenou

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we focus on the "blind" identification of the computed tomography (CT) scanner that has produced a CT image. To do so, we propose a set of noise features derived from the image chain acquisition and which can be used as CT-scanner footprint. Basically, we propose two approaches. The first one aims at identifying a CT scanner based on an original sensor pattern noise (OSPN) that is intrinsic to the X-ray detectors. The second one identifies an acquisition system based on the way this noise is modified by its three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction algorithm. As these reconstruction algorithms are manufacturer dependent and kept secret, our features are used as input to train a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier to discriminate acquisition systems. Experiments conducted on images issued from 15 different CT-scanner models of 4 distinct manufacturers demonstrate that our system identifies the origin of one CT image with a detection rate of at least 94% and that it achieves better performance than sensor pattern noise (SPN) based strategy proposed for general public camera devices.

  4. Multi-sensor radiation detection, imaging, and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Kai [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Glenn Knoll was one of the leaders in the field of radiation detection and measurements and shaped this field through his outstanding scientific and technical contributions, as a teacher, his personality, and his textbook. His Radiation Detection and Measurement book guided me in my studies and is now the textbook in my classes in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley. In the spirit of Glenn, I will provide an overview of our activities at the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program reflecting some of the breadth of radiation detection technologies and their applications ranging from fundamental studies in physics to biomedical imaging and to nuclear security. I will conclude with a discussion of our Berkeley Radwatch and Resilient Communities activities as a result of the events at the Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan more than 4 years ago. - Highlights: • .Electron-tracking based gamma-ray momentum reconstruction. • .3D volumetric and 3D scene fusion gamma-ray imaging. • .Nuclear Street View integrates and associates nuclear radiation features with specific objects in the environment. • Institute for Resilient Communities combines science, education, and communities to minimize impact of disastrous events.

  5. A Full Parallel Event Driven Readout Technique for Area Array SPAD FLIM Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiming Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a full parallel event driven readout method which is implemented in an area array single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD image sensor for high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. The sensor only records and reads out effective time and position information by adopting full parallel event driven readout method, aiming at reducing the amount of data. The image sensor includes four 8 × 8 pixel arrays. In each array, four time-to-digital converters (TDCs are used to quantize the time of photons’ arrival, and two address record modules are used to record the column and row information. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed in Matlab in terms of the pile-up effect induced by the readout method. The sensor’s resolution is 16 × 16. The time resolution of TDCs is 97.6 ps and the quantization range is 100 ns. The readout frame rate is 10 Mfps, and the maximum imaging frame rate is 100 fps. The chip’s output bandwidth is 720 MHz with an average power of 15 mW. The lifetime resolvability range is 5–20 ns, and the average error of estimated fluorescence lifetimes is below 1% by employing CMM to estimate lifetimes.

  6. A sprayable luminescent pH sensor and its use for wound imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreml, Stephan; Meier, Robert J; Weiß, Katharina T; Cattani, Julia; Flittner, Dagmar; Gehmert, Sebastian; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Landthaler, Michael; Babilas, Philipp

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive luminescence imaging is of great interest for studying biological parameters in wound healing, tumors and other biomedical fields. Recently, we developed the first method for 2D luminescence imaging of pH in vivo on humans, and a novel method for one-stop-shop visualization of oxygen and pH using the RGB read-out of digital cameras. Both methods make use of semitransparent sensor foils. Here, we describe a sprayable ratiometric luminescent pH sensor, which combines properties of both these methods. Additionally, a major advantage is that the sensor spray is applicable to very uneven tissue surfaces due to its consistency. A digital RGB image of the spray on tissue is taken. The signal of the pH indicator (fluorescein isothiocyanate) is stored in the green channel (G), while that of the reference dye [ruthenium(II)-tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)] is stored in the red channel (R). Images are processed by rationing luminescence intensities (G/R) to result in pseudocolor pH maps of tissues, e.g. wounds. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Finite Element Analysis of Film Stack Architecture for Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuo-Tsai; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lee, Huei-Huang

    2017-05-02

    Image sensors are the core components of computer, communication, and consumer electronic products. Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors have become the mainstay of image-sensing developments, but are prone to leakage current. In this study, we simulate the CMOS image sensor (CIS) film stacking process by finite element analysis. To elucidate the relationship between the leakage current and stack architecture, we compare the simulated and measured leakage currents in the elements. Based on the analysis results, we further improve the performance by optimizing the architecture of the film stacks or changing the thin-film material. The material parameters are then corrected to improve the accuracy of the simulation results. The simulated and experimental results confirm a positive correlation between measured leakage current and stress. This trend is attributed to the structural defects induced by high stress, which generate leakage. Using this relationship, we can change the structure of the thin-film stack to reduce the leakage current and thereby improve the component life and reliability of the CIS components.

  8. Indonesia sea surface temperature from TRMM Microwave Imaging (TMI) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Y.; Setiawan, K. T.

    2018-05-01

    We analysis the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) data to monitor the sea surface temperature (SST) of Indonesia waters for a decade of 2005-2014. The TMI SST data shows the seasonal and interannual SST in Indonesian waters. In general, the SST average was highest in March-May period with SST average was 29.4°C, and the lowest was in June – August period with the SST average was 28.5°C. The monthly SST average fluctuation of Indonesian waters for 10 years tends to increase. The lowest SST average of Indonesia occurred in August 2006 with the SST average was 27.6° C, while the maximum occurred in May 2014 with the monthly SST average temperature was 29.9 ° C.

  9. Photoresponse analysis of the CMOS photodiodes for CMOS x-ray image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soo; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo; Yeo, Sun Mok

    2012-01-01

    Although in the short term CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) cannot compete with the conventionally used charge coupled devices (CCDs) for high quality scientific imaging, recent development in CMOS APSs indicate that CMOS performance level of CCDs in several domains. CMOS APSs possess thereby a number of advantages such as simpler driving requirements and low power operation. CMOS image sensors can be processed in standard CMOS technologies and the potential of on-chip integration of analog and digital circuitry makes them more suitable for several vision systems where system cost is of importance. Moreover, CMOS imagers can directly benefit from on-going technological progress in the field of CMOS technologies. Due to these advantages, the CMOS APSs are currently being investigated actively for various applications such as star tracker, navigation camera and X-ray imaging etc. In most detection systems, it is thought that the sensor is most important, since this decides the signal and noise level. So, in CMOS APSs, the pixel is very important compared to other functional blocks. In order to predict the performance of such image sensor, a detailed understanding of the photocurrent generation in the photodiodes that comprise the CMOS APS is required. In this work, we developed the analytical model that can calculate the photocurrent generated in CMOS photodiode comprising CMOS APSs. The photocurrent calculations and photo response simulations with respect to the wavelength of the incident photon were performed using this model for four types of photodiodes that can be fabricated in standard CMOS process. n + /p - sub and n + /p - epi/p - sub photodiode show better performance compared to n - well/p - sub and n - well/p - epi/p - sub due to the wider depletion width. Comparing n + /p - sub and n + /p - epi/p - sub photodiode, n + /p - sub has higher photo-responsivity in longer wavelength because of the higher electron diffusion current

  10. Radiometric inter-sensor cross-calibration uncertainty using a traceable high accuracy reference hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorroño, Javier; Banks, Andrew C.; Fox, Nigel P.; Underwood, Craig

    2017-08-01

    Optical earth observation (EO) satellite sensors generally suffer from drifts and biases relative to their pre-launch calibration, caused by launch and/or time in the space environment. This places a severe limitation on the fundamental reliability and accuracy that can be assigned to satellite derived information, and is particularly critical for long time base studies for climate change and enabling interoperability and Analysis Ready Data. The proposed TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio-Studies) mission is explicitly designed to address this issue through re-calibrating itself directly to a primary standard of the international system of units (SI) in-orbit and then through the extension of this SI-traceability to other sensors through in-flight cross-calibration using a selection of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) recommended test sites. Where the characteristics of the sensor under test allows, this will result in a significant improvement in accuracy. This paper describes a set of tools, algorithms and methodologies that have been developed and used in order to estimate the radiometric uncertainty achievable for an indicative target sensor through in-flight cross-calibration using a well-calibrated hyperspectral SI-traceable reference sensor with observational characteristics such as TRUTHS. In this study, Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is evaluated as an example, however the analysis is readily translatable to larger-footprint sensors such as Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). This study considers the criticality of the instrumental and observational characteristics on pixel level reflectance factors, within a defined spatial region of interest (ROI) within the target site. It quantifies the main uncertainty contributors in the spectral, spatial, and temporal domains. The resultant tool

  11. State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Trebeschi, Marco; Docchio, Franco

    2009-01-01

    3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D) shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a "sensor fusion" approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications.

  12. Light-Addressable Potentiometric Sensors for Quantitative Spatial Imaging of Chemical Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinobu, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Ko-Ichiro; Werner, Carl Frederik; Poghossian, Arshak; Wagner, Torsten; Schöning, Michael J

    2017-06-12

    A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) is a semiconductor-based chemical sensor, in which a measurement site on the sensing surface is defined by illumination. This light addressability can be applied to visualize the spatial distribution of pH or the concentration of a specific chemical species, with potential applications in the fields of chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. In this review, the features of this chemical imaging sensor technology are compared with those of other technologies. Instrumentation, principles of operation, and various measurement modes of chemical imaging sensor systems are described. The review discusses and summarizes state-of-the-art technologies, especially with regard to the spatial resolution and measurement speed; for example, a high spatial resolution in a submicron range and a readout speed in the range of several tens of thousands of pixels per second have been achieved with the LAPS. The possibility of combining this technology with microfluidic devices and other potential future developments are discussed.

  13. Analysis on the Effect of Sensor Views in Image Reconstruction Produced by Optical Tomography System Using Charge-Coupled Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Juliza; Rahim, Ruzairi Abdul; Fazul Rahiman, Mohd Hafiz; Mohd Rohani, Jemmy

    2018-04-01

    Optical tomography (OPT) is a method to capture a cross-sectional image based on the data obtained by sensors, distributed around the periphery of the analyzed system. This system is based on the measurement of the final light attenuation or absorption of radiation after crossing the measured objects. The number of sensor views will affect the results of image reconstruction, where the high number of sensor views per projection will give a high image quality. This research presents an application of charge-coupled device linear sensor and laser diode in an OPT system. Experiments in detecting solid and transparent objects in crystal clear water were conducted. Two numbers of sensors views, 160 and 320 views are evaluated in this research in reconstructing the images. The image reconstruction algorithms used were filtered images of linear back projection algorithms. Analysis on comparing the simulation and experiments image results shows that, with 320 image views giving less area error than 160 views. This suggests that high image view resulted in the high resolution of image reconstruction.

  14. New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite, airborne and terrestrial imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Börner, Anko; Lehmann, Frank

    2007-10-01

    The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 25 years experience with high-resolution imaging technology. The technology changes in the development of detectors, as well as the significant change of the manufacturing accuracy in combination with the engineering research define the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. The combination of large TDI lines, intelligent synchronization control, fast-readable sensors and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing instruments. This class of instruments is feasible for high-resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedicated tasks. The system theory of the instrument inside a simulated environment is the beginning of the optimization process for the optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Suitable procedures must be defined on component, module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware-in-the-loop design. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at DLR in the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes.

  15. CMOS image sensor for detection of interferon gamma protein interaction as a point-of-care approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Mohana; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Ahn, Chang Geun; Sung, Gun Yong; Kim, Min-Gon; Kim, Sanghyo

    2011-09-01

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based image sensors have received increased attention owing to the possibility of incorporating them into portable diagnostic devices. The present research examined the efficiency and sensitivity of a CMOS image sensor for the detection of antigen-antibody interactions involving interferon gamma protein without the aid of expensive instruments. The highest detection sensitivity of about 1 fg/ml primary antibody was achieved simply by a transmission mechanism. When photons are prevented from hitting the sensor surface, a reduction in digital output occurs in which the number of photons hitting the sensor surface is approximately proportional to the digital number. Nanoscale variation in substrate thickness after protein binding can be detected with high sensitivity by the CMOS image sensor. Therefore, this technique can be easily applied to smartphones or any clinical diagnostic devices for the detection of several biological entities, with high impact on the development of point-of-care applications.

  16. Concept Study of Multi Sensor Detection Imaging and Explosive Confirmation of Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-20

    surface feature removal can be achieved in LMR images. Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Solicitation Topic 97T006 Mufi -Sensor Detection...divided by the applied voltage. This is mathematically given by: 00 Y-I-G+jB = 1o+2E’. COS m4; m1l 1-1 = j120 72(+a) where G = the input conductance...of detector operation that are incorporated into a mathematical algorithm to convert detector impedance characteristics into recognizable indicators

  17. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Shin, Jungsoon; Kim, Seung-Chan; Park, Joonah

    2015-01-01

    Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR) line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maxi...

  18. MULTI-TEMPORAL AND MULTI-SENSOR IMAGE MATCHING BASED ON LOCAL FREQUENCY INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Image Matching is often one of the first tasks in many Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing applications. This paper presents an efficient approach to automated multi-temporal and multi-sensor image matching based on local frequency information. Two new independent image representations, Local Average Phase (LAP and Local Weighted Amplitude (LWA, are presented to emphasize the common scene information, while suppressing the non-common illumination and sensor-dependent information. In order to get the two representations, local frequency information is firstly obtained from Log-Gabor wavelet transformation, which is similar to that of the human visual system; then the outputs of odd and even symmetric filters are used to construct the LAP and LWA. The LAP and LWA emphasize on the phase and amplitude information respectively. As these two representations are both derivative-free and threshold-free, they are robust to noise and can keep as much of the image details as possible. A new Compositional Similarity Measure (CSM is also presented to combine the LAP and LWA with the same weight for measuring the similarity of multi-temporal and multi-sensor images. The CSM can make the LAP and LWA compensate for each other and can make full use of the amplitude and phase of local frequency information. In many image matching applications, the template is usually selected without consideration of its matching robustness and accuracy. In order to overcome this problem, a local best matching point detection is presented to detect the best matching template. In the detection method, we employ self-similarity analysis to identify the template with the highest matching robustness and accuracy. Experimental results using some real images and simulation images demonstrate that the presented approach is effective for matching image pairs with significant scene and illumination changes and that it has advantages over other state-of-the-art approaches, which include: the

  19. Imaging properties of small-pixel spectroscopic x-ray detectors based on cadmium telluride sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Thomas; Schulze, Julia; Zuber, Marcus; Rink, Kristian; Oelfke, Uwe; Butzer, Jochen; Hamann, Elias; Cecilia, Angelica; Zwerger, Andreas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic x-ray imaging by means of photon counting detectors has received growing interest during the past years. Critical to the image quality of such devices is their pixel pitch and the sensor material employed. This paper describes the imaging properties of Medipix2 MXR multi-chip assemblies bump bonded to 1 mm thick CdTe sensors. Two systems were investigated with pixel pitches of 110 and 165 μm, which are in the order of the mean free path lengths of the characteristic x-rays produced in their sensors. Peak widths were found to be almost constant across the energy range of 10 to 60 keV, with values of 2.3 and 2.2 keV (FWHM) for the two pixel pitches. The average number of pixels responding to a single incoming photon are about 1.85 and 1.45 at 60 keV, amounting to detective quantum efficiencies of 0.77 and 0.84 at a spatial frequency of zero. Energy selective CT acquisitions are presented, and the two pixel pitches' abilities to discriminate between iodine and gadolinium contrast agents are examined. It is shown that the choice of the pixel pitch translates into a minimum contrast agent concentration for which material discrimination is still possible. We finally investigate saturation effects at high x-ray fluxes and conclude with the finding that higher maximum count rates come at the cost of a reduced energy resolution. (paper)

  20. Overview of CMOS process and design options for image sensor dedicated to space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gonthier, P.; Magnan, P.; Corbiere, F.

    2005-10-01

    With the growth of huge volume markets (mobile phones, digital cameras...) CMOS technologies for image sensor improve significantly. New process flows appear in order to optimize some parameters such as quantum efficiency, dark current, and conversion gain. Space applications can of course benefit from these improvements. To illustrate this evolution, this paper reports results from three technologies that have been evaluated with test vehicles composed of several sub arrays designed with some space applications as target. These three technologies are CMOS standard, improved and sensor optimized process in 0.35μm generation. Measurements are focussed on quantum efficiency, dark current, conversion gain and noise. Other measurements such as Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and crosstalk are depicted in [1]. A comparison between results has been done and three categories of CMOS process for image sensors have been listed. Radiation tolerance has been also studied for the CMOS improved process in the way of hardening the imager by design. Results at 4, 15, 25 and 50 krad prove a good ionizing dose radiation tolerance applying specific techniques.

  1. Low Computational-Cost Footprint Deformities Diagnosis Sensor through Angles, Dimensions Analysis and Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodolfo Maestre-Rendon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Manual measurements of foot anthropometry can lead to errors since this task involves the experience of the specialist who performs them, resulting in different subjective measures from the same footprint. Moreover, some of the diagnoses that are given to classify a footprint deformity are based on a qualitative interpretation by the physician; there is no quantitative interpretation of the footprint. The importance of providing a correct and accurate diagnosis lies in the need to ensure that an appropriate treatment is provided for the improvement of the patient without risking his or her health. Therefore, this article presents a smart sensor that integrates the capture of the footprint, a low computational-cost analysis of the image and the interpretation of the results through a quantitative evaluation. The smart sensor implemented required the use of a camera (Logitech C920 connected to a Raspberry Pi 3, where a graphical interface was made for the capture and processing of the image, and it was adapted to a podoscope conventionally used by specialists such as orthopedist, physiotherapists and podiatrists. The footprint diagnosis smart sensor (FPDSS has proven to be robust to different types of deformity, precise, sensitive and correlated in 0.99 with the measurements from the digitalized image of the ink mat.

  2. Time-of-flight camera via a single-pixel correlation image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Tianyi; Chen, Qian; He, Weiji; Dai, Huidong; Ye, Ling; Gu, Guohua

    2018-04-01

    A time-of-flight imager based on single-pixel correlation image sensors is proposed for noise-free depth map acquisition in presence of ambient light. Digital micro-mirror device and time-modulated IR-laser provide spatial and temporal illumination on the unknown object. Compressed sensing and ‘four bucket principle’ method are combined to reconstruct the depth map from a sequence of measurements at a low sampling rate. Second-order correlation transform is also introduced to reduce the noise from the detector itself and direct ambient light. Computer simulations are presented to validate the computational models and improvement of reconstructions.

  3. The Performance Evaluation of Multi-Image 3d Reconstruction Software with Different Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, V.; Khosravi, M.; Ahmadi, M.; Noori, N.; Naveh, A. Hosseini; Varshosaz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Today, multi-image 3D reconstruction is an active research field and generating three dimensional model of the objects is one the most discussed issues in Photogrammetry and Computer Vision that can be accomplished using range-based or image-based methods. Very accurate and dense point clouds generated by range-based methods such as structured light systems and laser scanners has introduced them as reliable tools in the industry. Image-based 3D digitization methodologies offer the option of reconstructing an object by a set of unordered images that depict it from different viewpoints. As their hardware requirements are narrowed down to a digital camera and a computer system, they compose an attractive 3D digitization approach, consequently, although range-based methods are generally very accurate, image-based methods are low-cost and can be easily used by non-professional users. One of the factors affecting the accuracy of the obtained model in image-based methods is the software and algorithm used to generate three dimensional model. These algorithms are provided in the form of commercial software, open source and web-based services. Another important factor in the accuracy of the obtained model is the type of sensor used. Due to availability of mobile sensors to the public, popularity of professional sensors and the advent of stereo sensors, a comparison of these three sensors plays an effective role in evaluating and finding the optimized method to generate three-dimensional models. Lots of research has been accomplished to identify a suitable software and algorithm to achieve an accurate and complete model, however little attention is paid to the type of sensors used and its effects on the quality of the final model. The purpose of this paper is deliberation and the introduction of an appropriate combination of a sensor and software to provide a complete model with the highest accuracy. To do this, different software, used in previous studies, were compared and

  4. Integration of computer imaging and sensor data for structural health monitoring of bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaurin, R; Catbas, F N

    2010-01-01

    The condition of civil infrastructure systems (CIS) changes over their life cycle for different reasons such as damage, overloading, severe environmental inputs, and ageing due normal continued use. The structural performance often decreases as a result of the change in condition. Objective condition assessment and performance evaluation are challenging activities since they require some type of monitoring to track the response over a period of time. In this paper, integrated use of video images and sensor data in the context of structural health monitoring is demonstrated as promising technologies for the safety of civil structures in general and bridges in particular. First, the challenges and possible solutions to using video images and computer vision techniques for structural health monitoring are presented. Then, the synchronized image and sensing data are analyzed to obtain unit influence line (UIL) as an index for monitoring bridge behavior under identified loading conditions. Subsequently, the UCF 4-span bridge model is used to demonstrate the integration and implementation of imaging devices and traditional sensing technology with UIL for evaluating and tracking the bridge behavior. It is shown that video images and computer vision techniques can be used to detect, classify and track different vehicles with synchronized sensor measurements to establish an input–output relationship to determine the normalized response of the bridge

  5. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Jim; Pai, Tun-Wen; Cheng, Mox

    2015-01-01

    A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS), successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM), based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates. PMID:25835186

  6. A Support Vector Machine Approach for Truncated Fingerprint Image Detection from Sweeping Fingerprint Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Jim Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A sweeping fingerprint sensor converts fingerprints on a row by row basis through image reconstruction techniques. However, a built fingerprint image might appear to be truncated and distorted when the finger was swept across a fingerprint sensor at a non-linear speed. If the truncated fingerprint images were enrolled as reference targets and collected by any automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS, successful prediction rates for fingerprint matching applications would be decreased significantly. In this paper, a novel and effective methodology with low time computational complexity was developed for detecting truncated fingerprints in a real time manner. Several filtering rules were implemented to validate existences of truncated fingerprints. In addition, a machine learning method of supported vector machine (SVM, based on the principle of structural risk minimization, was applied to reject pseudo truncated fingerprints containing similar characteristics of truncated ones. The experimental result has shown that an accuracy rate of 90.7% was achieved by successfully identifying truncated fingerprint images from testing images before AFIS enrollment procedures. The proposed effective and efficient methodology can be extensively applied to all existing fingerprint matching systems as a preliminary quality control prior to construction of fingerprint templates.

  7. Using polynomials to simplify fixed pattern noise and photometric correction of logarithmic CMOS image sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Mahmoodi, Alireza; Joseph, Dileepan

    2015-10-16

    An important class of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are those where pixel responses are monotonic nonlinear functions of light stimuli. This class includes various logarithmic architectures, which are easily capable of wide dynamic range imaging, at video rates, but which are vulnerable to image quality issues. To minimize fixed pattern noise (FPN) and maximize photometric accuracy, pixel responses must be calibrated and corrected due to mismatch and process variation during fabrication. Unlike literature approaches, which employ circuit-based models of varying complexity, this paper introduces a novel approach based on low-degree polynomials. Although each pixel may have a highly nonlinear response, an approximately-linear FPN calibration is possible by exploiting the monotonic nature of imaging. Moreover, FPN correction requires only arithmetic, and an optimal fixed-point implementation is readily derived, subject to a user-specified number of bits per pixel. Using a monotonic spline, involving cubic polynomials, photometric calibration is also possible without a circuit-based model, and fixed-point photometric correction requires only a look-up table. The approach is experimentally validated with a logarithmic CMOS image sensor and is compared to a leading approach from the literature. The novel approach proves effective and efficient.

  8. Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  9. An automatic analyzer of solid state nuclear track detectors using an optic RAM as image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staderini, E.M.; Castellano, A.

    1986-01-01

    An optic RAM is a conventional digital random access read/write dynamic memory device featuring a quartz windowed package and memory cells regularly ordered on the chip. Such a device is used as an image sensor because each cell retains data stored in it for a time depending on the intensity of the light incident on the cell itself. The authors have developed a system which uses an optic RAM to acquire and digitize images from electrochemically etched CR39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the track count rate up to 5000 cm -2 . On the digital image so obtained, a microprocessor, with appropriate software, performs image analysis, filtering, tracks counting and evaluation. (orig.)

  10. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to...

  11. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Provisional Science Data Vp0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) datasets were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the distribution and...

  12. Image accuracy and representational enhancement through low-level, multi-sensor integration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    Multi-Sensor Integration (MSI) is the combining of data and information from more than one source in order to generate a more reliable and consistent representation of the environment. The need for MSI derives largely from basic ambiguities inherent in our current sensor imaging technologies. These ambiguities exist as long as the mapping from reality to image is not 1-to-1. That is, if different 44 realities'' lead to identical images, a single image cannot reveal the particular reality which was the truth. MSI techniques can be divided into three categories based on the relative information content of the original images with that of the desired representation: (1) ''detail enhancement,'' wherein the relative information content of the original images is less rich than the desired representation; (2) ''data enhancement,'' wherein the MSI techniques axe concerned with improving the accuracy of the data rather than either increasing or decreasing the level of detail; and (3) ''conceptual enhancement,'' wherein the image contains more detail than is desired, making it difficult to easily recognize objects of interest. In conceptual enhancement one must group pixels corresponding to the same conceptual object and thereby reduce the level of extraneous detail. This research focuses on data and conceptual enhancement algorithms. To be useful in many real-world applications, e.g., autonomous or teleoperated robotics, real-time feedback is critical. But, many MSI/image processing algorithms require significant processing time. This is especially true of feature extraction, object isolation, and object recognition algorithms due to their typical reliance on global or large neighborhood information. This research attempts to exploit the speed currently available in state-of-the-art digitizers and highly parallel processing systems by developing MSI algorithms based on pixel rather than global-level features

  13. Visual Sensor Based Image Segmentation by Fuzzy Classification and Subregion Merge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huidong He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction and tracking of targets in an image shot by visual sensors have been studied extensively. The technology of image segmentation plays an important role in such tracking systems. This paper presents a new approach to color image segmentation based on fuzzy color extractor (FCE. Different from many existing methods, the proposed approach provides a new classification of pixels in a source color image which usually classifies an individual pixel into several subimages by fuzzy sets. This approach shows two unique features: the spatial proximity and color similarity, and it mainly consists of two algorithms: CreateSubImage and MergeSubImage. We apply the FCE to segment colors of the test images from the database at UC Berkeley in the RGB, HSV, and YUV, the three different color spaces. The comparative studies show that the FCE applied in the RGB space is superior to the HSV and YUV spaces. Finally, we compare the segmentation effect with Canny edge detection and Log edge detection algorithms. The results show that the FCE-based approach performs best in the color image segmentation.

  14. An Image Compression Scheme in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Based on NMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikang Kong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the goal of addressing the issue of image compression in wireless multimedia sensor networks with high recovered quality and low energy consumption, an image compression and transmission scheme based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF is proposed in this paper. First, the NMF algorithm theory is studied. Then, a collaborative mechanism of image capture, block, compression and transmission is completed. Camera nodes capture images and send them to ordinary nodes which use an NMF algorithm for image compression. Compressed images are transmitted to the station by the cluster head node and received from ordinary nodes. The station takes on the image restoration. Simulation results show that, compared with the JPEG2000 and singular value decomposition (SVD compression schemes, the proposed scheme has a higher quality of recovered images and lower total node energy consumption. It is beneficial to reduce the burden of energy consumption and prolong the life of the whole network system, which has great significance for practical applications of WMSNs.

  15. A Sensitive Dynamic and Active Pixel Vision Sensor for Color or Neural Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeys, Diederik Paul; Corradi, Federico; Li, Chenghan; Bamford, Simeon A; Longinotti, Luca; Voigt, Fabian F; Berry, Stewart; Taverni, Gemma; Helmchen, Fritjof; Delbruck, Tobi

    2018-02-01

    Applications requiring detection of small visual contrast require high sensitivity. Event cameras can provide higher dynamic range (DR) and reduce data rate and latency, but most existing event cameras have limited sensitivity. This paper presents the results of a 180-nm Towerjazz CIS process vision sensor called SDAVIS192. It outputs temporal contrast dynamic vision sensor (DVS) events and conventional active pixel sensor frames. The SDAVIS192 improves on previous DAVIS sensors with higher sensitivity for temporal contrast. The temporal contrast thresholds can be set down to 1% for negative changes in logarithmic intensity (OFF events) and down to 3.5% for positive changes (ON events). The achievement is possible through the adoption of an in-pixel preamplification stage. This preamplifier reduces the effective intrascene DR of the sensor (70 dB for OFF and 50 dB for ON), but an automated operating region control allows up to at least 110-dB DR for OFF events. A second contribution of this paper is the development of characterization methodology for measuring DVS event detection thresholds by incorporating a measure of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). At average SNR of 30 dB, the DVS temporal contrast threshold fixed pattern noise is measured to be 0.3%-0.8% temporal contrast. Results comparing monochrome and RGBW color filter array DVS events are presented. The higher sensitivity of SDAVIS192 make this sensor potentially useful for calcium imaging, as shown in a recording from cultured neurons expressing calcium sensitive green fluorescent protein GCaMP6f.

  16. Surgical neuro navigator guided by preoperative magnetic resonance images, based on a magnetic position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Ana Paula; Siqueira, Rogerio Bulha; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Oliveira, Lucas Ferrari de; Machado, Helio Rubens

    2009-01-01

    Image guided neurosurgery enables the neurosurgeon to navigate inside the patient's brain using pre-operative images as a guide and a tracking system, during a surgery. Following a calibration procedure, three-dimensional position and orientation of surgical instruments may be transmitted to computer. The spatial information is used to access a region of interest, in the pre-operative images, displaying them to the neurosurgeon during the surgical procedure. However, when a craniotomy is involved and the lesion is removed, movements of brain tissue can be a significant source of error in these conventional navigation systems. The architecture implemented in this work intends the development of a system to surgical planning and orientation guided by ultrasound image. For surgical orientation, the software developed allows the extraction of slices from the volume of the magnetic resonance images (MRI) with orientation supplied by a magnetic position sensor (Polhemus R ). The slices extracted with this software are important because they show the cerebral area that the neurosurgeon is observing during the surgery, and besides they can be correlated with the intra-operative ultrasound images to detect and to correct the deformation of brain tissue during the surgery. Also, a tool for per-operative navigation was developed, providing three orthogonal planes through the image volume. In the methodology used for the software implementation, the Python tm programming language and the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) graphics library were used. The program to extract slices of the MRI volume allowed the application of transformations in the volume, using coordinates supplied by the position sensor. (author)

  17. Ultrahigh sensitivity endoscopic camera using a new CMOS image sensor: providing with clear images under low illumination in addition to fluorescent images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hisae; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Mori, Toshiyuki; Fukuyo, Tsuneo; Chiba, Toshio

    2014-11-01

    We developed a new ultrahigh-sensitive CMOS camera using a specific sensor that has a wide range of spectral sensitivity characteristics. The objective of this study is to present our updated endoscopic technology that has successfully integrated two innovative functions; ultrasensitive imaging as well as advanced fluorescent viewing. Two different experiments were conducted. One was carried out to evaluate the function of the ultrahigh-sensitive camera. The other was to test the availability of the newly developed sensor and its performance as a fluorescence endoscope. In both studies, the distance from the endoscopic tip to the target was varied and those endoscopic images in each setting were taken for further comparison. In the first experiment, the 3-CCD camera failed to display the clear images under low illumination, and the target was hardly seen. In contrast, the CMOS camera was able to display the targets regardless of the camera-target distance under low illumination. Under high illumination, imaging quality given by both cameras was quite alike. In the second experiment as a fluorescence endoscope, the CMOS camera was capable of clearly showing the fluorescent-activated organs. The ultrahigh sensitivity CMOS HD endoscopic camera is expected to provide us with clear images under low illumination in addition to the fluorescent images under high illumination in the field of laparoscopic surgery.

  18. Design of a Solar Tracking System Using the Brightest Region in the Sky Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ching-Chuan; Song, Yu-Chang; Chang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Chuan-Bi

    2016-11-25

    Solar energy is certainly an energy source worth exploring and utilizing because of the environmental protection it offers. However, the conversion efficiency of solar energy is still low. If the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly tracks the sun, the solar energy conversion efficiency will be improved. In this article, we propose an innovative method to track the sun using an image sensor. In our method, it is logical to assume the points of the brightest region in the sky image representing the location of the sun. Then, the center of the brightest region is assumed to be the solar-center, and is mathematically calculated using an embedded processor (Raspberry Pi). Finally, the location information on the sun center is sent to the embedded processor to control two servo motors that are capable of moving both horizontally and vertically to track the sun. In comparison with the existing sun tracking methods using image sensors, such as the Hough transform method, our method based on the brightest region in the sky image remains accurate under conditions such as a sunny day and building shelter. The practical sun tracking system using our method was implemented and tested. The results reveal that the system successfully captured the real sun center in most weather conditions, and the servo motor system was able to direct the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly to the sun center. In addition, our system can be easily and practically integrated, and can operate in real-time.

  19. Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Serrano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement. The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc..

  20. Monitoring Pest Insect Traps by Means of Low-Power Image Sensor Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Otoniel; Rach, Miguel Martinez; Migallon, Hector; Malumbres, Manuel P.; Bonastre, Alberto; Serrano, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring pest insect populations is currently a key issue in agriculture and forestry protection. At the farm level, human operators typically must perform periodical surveys of the traps disseminated through the field. This is a labor-, time- and cost-consuming activity, in particular for large plantations or large forestry areas, so it would be of great advantage to have an affordable system capable of doing this task automatically in an accurate and a more efficient way. This paper proposes an autonomous monitoring system based on a low-cost image sensor that it is able to capture and send images of the trap contents to a remote control station with the periodicity demanded by the trapping application. Our autonomous monitoring system will be able to cover large areas with very low energy consumption. This issue would be the main key point in our study; since the operational live of the overall monitoring system should be extended to months of continuous operation without any kind of maintenance (i.e., battery replacement). The images delivered by image sensors would be time-stamped and processed in the control station to get the number of individuals found at each trap. All the information would be conveniently stored at the control station, and accessible via Internet by means of available network services at control station (WiFi, WiMax, 3G/4G, etc.). PMID:23202232

  1. The effect of split pixel HDR image sensor technology on MTF measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Brian M.

    2014-03-01

    Split-pixel HDR sensor technology is particularly advantageous in automotive applications, because the images are captured simultaneously rather than sequentially, thereby reducing motion blur. However, split pixel technology introduces artifacts in MTF measurement. To achieve a HDR image, raw images are captured from both large and small sub-pixels, and combined to make the HDR output. In some cases, a large sub-pixel is used for long exposure captures, and a small sub-pixel for short exposures, to extend the dynamic range. The relative size of the photosensitive area of the pixel (fill factor) plays a very significant role in the output MTF measurement. Given an identical scene, the MTF will be significantly different, depending on whether you use the large or small sub-pixels i.e. a smaller fill factor (e.g. in the short exposure sub-pixel) will result in higher MTF scores, but significantly greater aliasing. Simulations of split-pixel sensors revealed that, when raw images from both sub-pixels are combined, there is a significant difference in rising edge (i.e. black-to-white transition) and falling edge (white-to-black) reproduction. Experimental results showed a difference of ~50% in measured MTF50 between the falling and rising edges of a slanted edge test chart.

  2. Design of a Solar Tracking System Using the Brightest Region in the Sky Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chuan Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is certainly an energy source worth exploring and utilizing because of the environmental protection it offers. However, the conversion efficiency of solar energy is still low. If the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly tracks the sun, the solar energy conversion efficiency will be improved. In this article, we propose an innovative method to track the sun using an image sensor. In our method, it is logical to assume the points of the brightest region in the sky image representing the location of the sun. Then, the center of the brightest region is assumed to be the solar-center, and is mathematically calculated using an embedded processor (Raspberry Pi. Finally, the location information on the sun center is sent to the embedded processor to control two servo motors that are capable of moving both horizontally and vertically to track the sun. In comparison with the existing sun tracking methods using image sensors, such as the Hough transform method, our method based on the brightest region in the sky image remains accurate under conditions such as a sunny day and building shelter. The practical sun tracking system using our method was implemented and tested. The results reveal that the system successfully captured the real sun center in most weather conditions, and the servo motor system was able to direct the photovoltaic panel perpendicularly to the sun center. In addition, our system can be easily and practically integrated, and can operate in real-time.

  3. A radiographic imaging system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Papanestis, A; Corrin, E; Raymond, M; Hall, G; Triantis, F A; Manthos, N; Evagelou, I; Van den Stelt, P; Tarrant, T; Speller, R D; Royle, G F

    2000-01-01

    A high resolution, direct-digital detector system based upon a 2-D silicon microstrip sensor has been designed, built and is undergoing evaluation for applications in dentistry and mammography. The sensor parameters and image requirements were selected using Monte Carlo simulations. Sensors selected for evaluation have a strip pitch of 50mum on the p-side and 80mum on the n-side. Front-end electronics and data acquisition are based on the APV6 chip and were adapted from systems used at CERN for high-energy physics experiments. The APV6 chip is not self-triggering so data acquisition is done at a fixed trigger rate. This paper describes the mammographic evaluation of the double sided microstrip sensor. Raw data correction procedures were implemented to remove the effects of dead strips and non-uniform response. Standard test objects (TORMAX) were used to determine limiting spatial resolution and detectability. MTFs were determined using the edge response. The results indicate that the spatial resolution of the...

  4. Edgeless silicon sensors for Medipix-based large-area X-ray imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, M J; Visser, J; Koffeman, E N; Evrard, O; De Moor, P; De Munck, K; Tezcan, D Sabuncuoglu

    2011-01-01

    Some X-ray imaging applications demand sensitive areas exceeding the active area of a single sensor. This requires a seamless tessellation of multiple detector modules with edgeless sensors. Our research is aimed at minimising the insensitive periphery that isolates the active area from the edge. Reduction of the edge-defect induced charge injection, caused by the deleterious effects of dicing, is an important step. We report on the electrical characterisation of 300 μm thick edgeless silicon p + -ν-n + diodes, diced using deep reactive ion etching. Sensors with both n-type and p-type stop rings were fabricated in various edge topologies. Leakage currents in the active area are compared with those of sensors with a conventional design. As expected, we observe an inverse correlation between leakage-current density and both the edge distance and stop-ring width. From this correlation we determine a minimum acceptable edge distance of 50 μm. We also conclude that structures with a p-type stop ring show lower leakage currents and higher breakdown voltages than the ones with an n-type stop ring.

  5. X-ray CCD image sensor with a thick depletion region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Hirobumi; Watabe, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    To develop a solid-state image sensor for high energy X-ray above 1 -- 2 keV, basic studies have been made on the CCD (charge coupled device) with a thick depletion region. A method of super-imposing a high DC bias voltage on low voltage signal pulses was newly proposed. The characteristics of both SCCD and BCCD were investigated, and their ability as X-ray sensors was compared. It was found that a depletion region of 60 μm thick was able to be obtained with ordinary doping density of 10 20 /m 3 , and that even thicker over 1 mm depletion region was able to be obtained with doping density of about 10 18 /m 3 , and a high bias voltage above 1 kV was able to be applied. It is suggested that the CCD image sensors for 8 keV or 24 keV X-ray can be realized since the absorption length of these X-ray in Si is about 60 μm and 1 mm, respectively. As for the characteristics other than the depletion thickness, the BCCD is preferable to SCCD for the present purpose because of lower noise and dark current. As for the transfer method, the frame-transfer method is recommended. (Aoki, K.)

  6. Characterisation of a novel reverse-biased PPD CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, K. D.; Clarke, A. S.; Ivory, J.; Holland, A. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensor (CIS) has been developed and characterised. The sensor can be fully depleted by means of reverse bias applied to the substrate, and the principle of operation is applicable to very thick sensitive volumes. Additional n-type implants under the pixel p-wells, called Deep Depletion Extension (DDE), have been added in order to eliminate the large parasitic substrate current that would otherwise be present in a normal device. The first prototype has been manufactured on a 18 μm thick, 1000 Ω .cm epitaxial silicon wafers using 180 nm PPD image sensor process at TowerJazz Semiconductor. The chip contains arrays of 10 μm and 5.4 μm pixels, with variations of the shape, size and the depth of the DDE implant. Back-side illuminated (BSI) devices were manufactured in collaboration with Teledyne e2v, and characterised together with the front-side illuminated (FSI) variants. The presented results show that the devices could be reverse-biased without parasitic leakage currents, in good agreement with simulations. The new 10 μm pixels in both BSI and FSI variants exhibit nearly identical photo response to the reference non-modified pixels, as characterised with the photon transfer curve. Different techniques were used to measure the depletion depth in FSI and BSI chips, and the results are consistent with the expected full depletion.

  7. FDTD-based optical simulations methodology for CMOS image sensors pixels architecture and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirigoyen, Flavien; Crocherie, Axel; Vaillant, Jérôme M.; Cazaux, Yvon

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a new FDTD-based optical simulation model dedicated to describe the optical performances of CMOS image sensors taking into account diffraction effects. Following market trend and industrialization constraints, CMOS image sensors must be easily embedded into even smaller packages, which are now equipped with auto-focus and short-term coming zoom system. Due to miniaturization, the ray-tracing models used to evaluate pixels optical performances are not accurate anymore to describe the light propagation inside the sensor, because of diffraction effects. Thus we adopt a more fundamental description to take into account these diffraction effects: we chose to use Maxwell-Boltzmann based modeling to compute the propagation of light, and to use a software with an FDTD-based (Finite Difference Time Domain) engine to solve this propagation. We present in this article the complete methodology of this modeling: on one hand incoherent plane waves are propagated to approximate a product-use diffuse-like source, on the other hand we use periodic conditions to limit the size of the simulated model and both memory and computation time. After having presented the correlation of the model with measurements we will illustrate its use in the case of the optimization of a 1.75μm pixel.

  8. Design and Performance of a Pinned Photodiode CMOS Image Sensor Using Reverse Substrate Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Konstantin D; Clarke, Andrew S; Ivory, James; Holland, Andrew D

    2018-01-03

    A new pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensor with reverse biased p-type substrate has been developed and characterized. The sensor uses traditional PPDs with one additional deep implantation step to suppress the parasitic reverse currents, and can be fully depleted. The first prototypes have been manufactured on an 18 µm thick, 1000 Ω·cm epitaxial silicon wafers using 180 nm PPD image sensor process. Both front-side illuminated (FSI) and back-side illuminated (BSI) devices were manufactured in collaboration with Teledyne e2v. The characterization results from a number of arrays of 10 µm and 5.4 µm PPD pixels, with different shape, the size and the depth of the new implant are in good agreement with device simulations. The new pixels could be reverse-biased without parasitic leakage currents well beyond full depletion, and demonstrate nearly identical optical response to the reference non-modified pixels. The observed excessive charge sharing in some pixel variants is shown to not be a limiting factor in operation. This development promises to realize monolithic PPD CIS with large depleted thickness and correspondingly high quantum efficiency at near-infrared and soft X-ray wavelengths.

  9. Real-time DNA Amplification and Detection System Based on a CMOS Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Lee, Do Young; Kim, Sanghyo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed a polypropylene well-integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) platform to perform the loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for real-time DNA amplification and detection simultaneously. An amplification-coupled detection system directly measures the photon number changes based on the generation of magnesium pyrophosphate and color changes. The photon number decreases during the amplification process. The CMOS image sensor observes the photons and converts into digital units with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). In addition, UV-spectral studies, optical color intensity detection, pH analysis, and electrophoresis detection were carried out to prove the efficiency of the CMOS sensor based the LAMP system. Moreover, Clostridium perfringens was utilized as proof-of-concept detection for the new system. We anticipate that this CMOS image sensor-based LAMP method will enable the creation of cost-effective, label-free, optical, real-time and portable molecular diagnostic devices.

  10. Imaging Voltage in Genetically Defined Neuronal Subpopulations with a Cre Recombinase-Targeted Hybrid Voltage Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayguinov, Peter O; Ma, Yihe; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Xinyu; Jackson, Meyer B

    2017-09-20

    Genetically encoded voltage indicators create an opportunity to monitor electrical activity in defined sets of neurons as they participate in the complex patterns of coordinated electrical activity that underlie nervous system function. Taking full advantage of genetically encoded voltage indicators requires a generalized strategy for targeting the probe to genetically defined populations of cells. To this end, we have generated a mouse line with an optimized hybrid voltage sensor (hVOS) probe within a locus designed for efficient Cre recombinase-dependent expression. Crossing this mouse with Cre drivers generated double transgenics expressing hVOS probe in GABAergic, parvalbumin, and calretinin interneurons, as well as hilar mossy cells, new adult-born neurons, and recently active neurons. In each case, imaging in brain slices from male or female animals revealed electrically evoked optical signals from multiple individual neurons in single trials. These imaging experiments revealed action potentials, dynamic aspects of dendritic integration, and trial-to-trial fluctuations in response latency. The rapid time response of hVOS imaging revealed action potentials with high temporal fidelity, and enabled accurate measurements of spike half-widths characteristic of each cell type. Simultaneous recording of rapid voltage changes in multiple neurons with a common genetic signature offers a powerful approach to the study of neural circuit function and the investigation of how neural networks encode, process, and store information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Genetically encoded voltage indicators hold great promise in the study of neural circuitry, but realizing their full potential depends on targeting the sensor to distinct cell types. Here we present a new mouse line that expresses a hybrid optical voltage sensor under the control of Cre recombinase. Crossing this line with Cre drivers generated double-transgenic mice, which express this sensor in targeted cell types. In

  11. Convolutional neural network-based classification system design with compressed wireless sensor network images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jungmo; Park, JaeYeon; Park, Donghwan; Paek, Jeongyeup; Ko, JeongGil

    2018-01-01

    With the introduction of various advanced deep learning algorithms, initiatives for image classification systems have transitioned over from traditional machine learning algorithms (e.g., SVM) to Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) using deep learning software tools. A prerequisite in applying CNN to real world applications is a system that collects meaningful and useful data. For such purposes, Wireless Image Sensor Networks (WISNs), that are capable of monitoring natural environment phenomena using tiny and low-power cameras on resource-limited embedded devices, can be considered as an effective means of data collection. However, with limited battery resources, sending high-resolution raw images to the backend server is a burdensome task that has direct impact on network lifetime. To address this problem, we propose an energy-efficient pre- and post- processing mechanism using image resizing and color quantization that can significantly reduce the amount of data transferred while maintaining the classification accuracy in the CNN at the backend server. We show that, if well designed, an image in its highly compressed form can be well-classified with a CNN model trained in advance using adequately compressed data. Our evaluation using a real image dataset shows that an embedded device can reduce the amount of transmitted data by ∼71% while maintaining a classification accuracy of ∼98%. Under the same conditions, this process naturally reduces energy consumption by ∼71% compared to a WISN that sends the original uncompressed images.

  12. Distinguishing Computer-Generated Graphics from Natural Images Based on Sensor Pattern Noise and Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer-generated graphics (CGs are images generated by computer software. The rapid development of computer graphics technologies has made it easier to generate photorealistic computer graphics, and these graphics are quite difficult to distinguish from natural images (NIs with the naked eye. In this paper, we propose a method based on sensor pattern noise (SPN and deep learning to distinguish CGs from NIs. Before being fed into our convolutional neural network (CNN-based model, these images—CGs and NIs—are clipped into image patches. Furthermore, three high-pass filters (HPFs are used to remove low-frequency signals, which represent the image content. These filters are also used to reveal the residual signal as well as SPN introduced by the digital camera device. Different from the traditional methods of distinguishing CGs from NIs, the proposed method utilizes a five-layer CNN to classify the input image patches. Based on the classification results of the image patches, we deploy a majority vote scheme to obtain the classification results for the full-size images. The experiments have demonstrated that (1 the proposed method with three HPFs can achieve better results than that with only one HPF or no HPF and that (2 the proposed method with three HPFs achieves 100% accuracy, although the NIs undergo a JPEG compression with a quality factor of 75.

  13. Imaging Sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASE. /. VIDEO SIGNAL. L SILICON ceD "UX. ---HEADER. ICc) bee's head is more than fifty times smaller than the human head! ... For a particular radius, the bee can increase the resolution of its .... For example, for 10 J..l m radiation and.

  14. Image-Based Airborne Sensors: A Combined Approach for Spectral Signatures Classification through Deterministic Simulated Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro, María; Pajares, Gonzalo; Herrera, P. Javier

    2009-01-01

    The increasing technology of high-resolution image airborne sensors, including those on board Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, demands automatic solutions for processing, either on-line or off-line, the huge amountds of image data sensed during the flights. The classification of natural spectral signatures in images is one potential application. The actual tendency in classification is oriented towards the combination of simple classifiers. In this paper we propose a combined strategy based on the Deterministic Simulated Annealing (DSA) framework. The simple classifiers used are the well tested supervised parametric Bayesian estimator and the Fuzzy Clustering. The DSA is an optimization approach, which minimizes an energy function. The main contribution of DSA is its ability to avoid local minima during the optimization process thanks to the annealing scheme. It outperforms simple classifiers used for the combination and some combined strategies, including a scheme based on the fuzzy cognitive maps and an optimization approach based on the Hopfield neural network paradigm. PMID:22399989

  15. Digital CDS for image sensors with dominant white and 1/f noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, K.D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of digital correlated double sampling (DCDS) for processing of image sensor signals in the presence of white and 1/f noise. The DCDS is compared with the dual slope integrator, which is the optimal analogue processing technique when only white noise is present. Based on the concept of matched filters, the paper derives and explores the optimal signal processing algorithms for signals with dominant 1/f noise, resulting in the highest achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Experimental results based on optimal DCDS on artificially generated 1/f noise signals are presented and discussed, together with the limitations of the method for more realistic sensor signals. It is shown that the noise level of the optimal DCDS can get close to the theoretical minimum

  16. Operational calibration and validation of landsat data continuity mission (LDCM) sensors using the image assessment system (IAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micijevic, Esad; Morfitt, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Systematic characterization and calibration of the Landsat sensors and the assessment of image data quality are performed using the Image Assessment System (IAS). The IAS was first introduced as an element of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) ground segment and recently extended to Landsat 4 (L4) and 5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TM) and Multispectral Sensors (MSS) on-board the Landsat 1-5 satellites. In preparation for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), the IAS was developed for the Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) with a capability to assess pushbroom sensors. This paper describes the LDCM version of the IAS and how it relates to unique calibration and validation attributes of its on-board imaging sensors. The LDCM IAS system will have to handle a significantly larger number of detectors and the associated database than the previous IAS versions. An additional challenge is that the LDCM IAS must handle data from two sensors, as the LDCM products will combine the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) spectral bands.

  17. Photoresponse analysis of the CMOS photodiodes for CMOS x-ray image sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Soo; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo; Yeo, Sun Mok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Although in the short term CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) cannot compete with the conventionally used charge coupled devices (CCDs) for high quality scientific imaging, recent development in CMOS APSs indicate that CMOS performance level of CCDs in several domains. CMOS APSs possess thereby a number of advantages such as simpler driving requirements and low power operation. CMOS image sensors can be processed in standard CMOS technologies and the potential of on-chip integration of analog and digital circuitry makes them more suitable for several vision systems where system cost is of importance. Moreover, CMOS imagers can directly benefit from on-going technological progress in the field of CMOS technologies. Due to these advantages, the CMOS APSs are currently being investigated actively for various applications such as star tracker, navigation camera and X-ray imaging etc. In most detection systems, it is thought that the sensor is most important, since this decides the signal and noise level. So, in CMOS APSs, the pixel is very important compared to other functional blocks. In order to predict the performance of such image sensor, a detailed understanding of the photocurrent generation in the photodiodes that comprise the CMOS APS is required. In this work, we developed the analytical model that can calculate the photocurrent generated in CMOS photodiode comprising CMOS APSs. The photocurrent calculations and photo response simulations with respect to the wavelength of the incident photon were performed using this model for four types of photodiodes that can be fabricated in standard CMOS process. n{sup +}/p{sup -}sub and n{sup +}/p{sup -}epi/p{sup -}sub photodiode show better performance compared to n{sup -}well/p{sup -}sub and n{sup -}well/p{sup -}epi/p{sup -}sub due to the wider depletion width. Comparing n{sup +}/p{sup -}sub and n{sup +}/p{sup -}epi/p{sup -}sub photodiode, n{sup +}/p{sup -}sub has higher photo-responsivity in longer wavelength because of

  18. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, M; Evans, P M; Wells, K; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Allinson, N M

    2014-01-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  19. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-07

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  20. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  1. Dark current spectroscopy of space and nuclear environment induced displacement damage defects in pinned photodiode based CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloir, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    CMOS image sensors are envisioned for an increasing number of high-end scientific imaging applications such as space imaging or nuclear experiments. Indeed, the performance of high-end CMOS image sensors has dramatically increased in the past years thanks to the unceasing improvements of microelectronics, and these image sensors have substantial advantages over CCDs which make them great candidates to replace CCDs in future space missions. However, in space and nuclear environments, CMOS image sensors must face harsh radiation which can rapidly degrade their electro-optical performances. In particular, the protons, electrons and ions travelling in space or the fusion neutrons from nuclear experiments can displace silicon atoms in the pixels and break the crystalline structure. These displacement damage effects lead to the formation of stable defects and to the introduction of states in the forbidden bandgap of silicon, which can allow the thermal generation of electron-hole pairs. Consequently, non ionizing radiation leads to a permanent increase of the dark current of the pixels and thus a decrease of the image sensor sensitivity and dynamic range. The aim of the present work is to extend the understanding of the effect of displacement damage on the dark current increase of CMOS image sensors. In particular, this work focuses on the shape of the dark current distribution depending on the particle type, energy and fluence but also on the image sensor physical parameters. Thanks to the many conditions tested, an empirical model for the prediction of the dark current distribution induced by displacement damage in nuclear or space environments is experimentally validated and physically justified. Another central part of this work consists in using the dark current spectroscopy technique for the first time on irradiated CMOS image sensors to detect and characterize radiation-induced silicon bulk defects. Many types of defects are detected and two of them are identified

  2. Simultaneous live cell imaging using dual FRET sensors with a single excitation light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Niino

    Full Text Available Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET between fluorescent proteins is a powerful tool for visualization of signal transduction in living cells, and recently, some strategies for imaging of dual FRET pairs in a single cell have been reported. However, these necessitate alteration of excitation light between two different wavelengths to avoid the spectral overlap, resulting in sequential detection with a lag time. Thus, to follow fast signal dynamics or signal changes in highly motile cells, a single-excitation dual-FRET method should be required. Here we reported this by using four-color imaging with a single excitation light and subsequent linear unmixing to distinguish fluorescent proteins. We constructed new FRET sensors with Sapphire/RFP to combine with CFP/YFP, and accomplished simultaneous imaging of cAMP and cGMP in single cells. We confirmed that signal amplitude of our dual FRET measurement is comparable to of conventional single FRET measurement. Finally, we demonstrated to monitor both intracellular Ca(2+ and cAMP in highly motile cardiac myocytes. To cancel out artifacts caused by the movement of the cell, this method expands the applicability of the combined use of dual FRET sensors for cell samples with high motility.

  3. Low-complex energy-aware image communication in visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamila, Yesudhas Asnath Victy; Amutha, Ramachandran

    2013-10-01

    A low-complex, low bit rate, energy-efficient image compression algorithm explicitly designed for resource-constrained visual sensor networks applied for surveillance, battle field, habitat monitoring, etc. is presented, where voluminous amount of image data has to be communicated over a bandwidth-limited wireless medium. The proposed method overcomes the energy limitation of individual nodes and is investigated in terms of image quality, entropy, processing time, overall energy consumption, and system lifetime. This algorithm is highly energy efficient and extremely fast since it applies energy-aware zonal binary discrete cosine transform (DCT) that computes only the few required significant coefficients and codes them using enhanced complementary Golomb Rice code without using any floating point operations. Experiments are performed using the Atmel Atmega128 and MSP430 processors to measure the resultant energy savings. Simulation results show that the proposed energy-aware fast zonal transform consumes only 0.3% of energy needed by conventional DCT. This algorithm consumes only 6% of energy needed by Independent JPEG Group (fast) version, and it suits for embedded systems requiring low power consumption. The proposed scheme is unique since it significantly enhances the lifetime of the camera sensor node and the network without any need for distributed processing as was traditionally required in existing algorithms.

  4. A 256×256 low-light-level CMOS imaging sensor with digital CDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Mei; Chen, Nan; Zhong, Shengyou; Li, Zhengfen; Zhang, Jicun; Yao, Li-bin

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve high sensitivity for low-light-level CMOS image sensors (CIS), a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) pixel circuit with a small integration capacitor is used. As the pixel and the column area are highly constrained, it is difficult to achieve analog correlated double sampling (CDS) to remove the noise for low-light-level CIS. So a digital CDS is adopted, which realizes the subtraction algorithm between the reset signal and pixel signal off-chip. The pixel reset noise and part of the column fixed-pattern noise (FPN) can be greatly reduced. A 256×256 CIS with CTIA array and digital CDS is implemented in the 0.35μm CMOS technology. The chip size is 7.7mm×6.75mm, and the pixel size is 15μm×15μm with a fill factor of 20.6%. The measured pixel noise is 24LSB with digital CDS in RMS value at dark condition, which shows 7.8× reduction compared to the image sensor without digital CDS. Running at 7fps, this low-light-level CIS can capture recognizable images with the illumination down to 0.1lux.

  5. IR sensitivity enhancement of CMOS Image Sensor with diffractive light trapping pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, Sozo; Oshiyama, Itaru; Ikeda, Harumi; Ebiko, Yoshiki; Hirano, Tomoyuki; Saito, Suguru; Oinoue, Takashi; Hagimoto, Yoshiya; Iwamoto, Hayato

    2017-06-19

    We report on the IR sensitivity enhancement of back-illuminated CMOS Image Sensor (BI-CIS) with 2-dimensional diffractive inverted pyramid array structure (IPA) on crystalline silicon (c-Si) and deep trench isolation (DTI). FDTD simulations of semi-infinite thick c-Si having 2D IPAs on its surface whose pitches over 400 nm shows more than 30% improvement of light absorption at λ = 850 nm and the maximum enhancement of 43% with the 540 nm pitch at the wavelength is confirmed. A prototype BI-CIS sample with pixel size of 1.2 μm square containing 400 nm pitch IPAs shows 80% sensitivity enhancement at λ = 850 nm compared to the reference sample with flat surface. This is due to diffraction with the IPA and total reflection at the pixel boundary. The NIR images taken by the demo camera equip with a C-mount lens show 75% sensitivity enhancement in the λ = 700-1200 nm wavelength range with negligible spatial resolution degradation. Light trapping CIS pixel technology promises to improve NIR sensitivity and appears to be applicable to many different image sensor applications including security camera, personal authentication, and range finding Time-of-Flight camera with IR illuminations.

  6. A Low Power Digital Accumulation Technique for Digital-Domain CMOS TDI Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changwei; Nie, Kaiming; Xu, Jiangtao; Gao, Jing

    2016-09-23

    In this paper, an accumulation technique suitable for digital domain CMOS time delay integration (TDI) image sensors is proposed to reduce power consumption without degrading the rate of imaging. In terms of the slight variations of quantization codes among different pixel exposures towards the same object, the pixel array is divided into two groups: one is for coarse quantization of high bits only, and the other one is for fine quantization of low bits. Then, the complete quantization codes are composed of both results from the coarse-and-fine quantization. The equivalent operation comparably reduces the total required bit numbers of the quantization. In the 0.18 µm CMOS process, two versions of 16-stage digital domain CMOS TDI image sensor chains based on a 10-bit successive approximate register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), with and without the proposed technique, are designed. The simulation results show that the average power consumption of slices of the two versions are 6 . 47 × 10 - 8 J/line and 7 . 4 × 10 - 8 J/line, respectively. Meanwhile, the linearity of the two versions are 99.74% and 99.99%, respectively.

  7. First tests of CHERWELL, a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor: A CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) using 180 nm technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylroie-Smith, James, E-mail: j.mylroie-smith@qmul.ac.uk [Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Kolya, Scott; Velthuis, Jaap [University of Bristol (United Kingdom); Bevan, Adrian; Inguglia, Gianluca [Queen Mary, University of London (United Kingdom); Headspith, Jon; Lazarus, Ian; Lemon, Roy [Daresbury Laboratory, STFC (United Kingdom); Crooks, Jamie; Turchetta, Renato; Wilson, Fergus [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-11

    The Cherwell is a 4T CMOS sensor in 180 nm technology developed for the detection of charged particles. Here, the different test structures on the sensor will be described and first results from tests on the reference pixel variant are shown. The sensors were shown to have a noise of 12 e{sup −} and a signal to noise up to 150 in {sup 55}Fe.

  8. Origin of high photoconductive gain in fully transparent heterojunction nanocrystalline oxide image sensors and interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sanghun; Song, Ihun; Lee, Sungsik; Ryu, Byungki; Ahn, Seung-Eon; Lee, Eunha; Kim, Young; Nathan, Arokia; Robertson, John; Chung, U-In

    2014-11-05

    A technique for invisible image capture using a photosensor array based on transparent conducting oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors and transparent interconnection technologies is presented. A transparent conducting layer is employed for the sensor electrodes as well as interconnection in the array, providing about 80% transmittance at visible-light wavelengths. The phototransistor is a Hf-In-Zn-O/In-Zn-O heterostructure yielding a high quantum-efficiency in the visible range. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Modelling the influence of noise of the image sensor for blood cells recognition in computer microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitaev, V. G.; Nagornov, O. V.; Pronichev, A. N.; Polyakov, E. V.; Dmitrieva, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    The first stage of diagnostics of blood cancer is the analysis of blood smears. The application of decision-making support systems would reduce the subjectivity of the diagnostic process and avoid errors, resulting in often irreversible changes in the patient's condition. In this regard, the solution of this problem requires the use of modern technology. One of the tools of the program classification of blood cells are texture features, and the task of finding informative among them is promising. The paper investigates the effect of noise of the image sensor to informative texture features with application of methods of mathematical modelling.

  10. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaud-Ramos, K. O.; Freeman, M. S.; Wei, W.; Guardincerri, E.; Bacon, J. D.; Cowan, J.; Durham, J. M.; Huang, D.; Gao, J.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Poulson, D. C.; Wang, Zhehui, E-mail: zwang@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a {sup 90}Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  11. Adaptive Gain and Analog Wavelet Transform for Low-Power Infrared Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Villard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A decorrelation and analog-to-digital conversion scheme aiming to reduce the power consumption of infrared image sensors is presented in this paper. To exploit both intraframe redundancy and inherent photon shot noise characteristics, a column based 1D Haar analog wavelet transform combined with variable gain amplification prior to A/D conversion is used. This allows to use only an 11-bit ADC, instead of a 13-bit one, and to save 15% of data transfer. An 8×16 pixels test circuit demonstrates this functionality.

  12. 1T Pixel Using Floating-Body MOSFET for CMOS Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guo-Neng; Tournier, Arnaud; Roy, François; Deschamps, Benoît

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-transistor pixel for CMOS image sensors (CIS). It is a floating-body MOSFET structure, which is used as photo-sensing device and source-follower transistor, and can be controlled to store and evacuate charges. Our investigation into this 1T pixel structure includes modeling to obtain analytical description of conversion gain. Model validation has been done by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental results. On the other hand, the 1T pixel structure has been implemented in different configurations, including rectangular-gate and ring-gate designs, and variations of oxidation parameters for the fabrication process. The pixel characteristics are presented and discussed.

  13. Visible Wavelength Color Filters Using Dielectric Subwavelength Gratings for Backside-Illuminated CMOS Image Sensor Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Yu; Han, Seunghoon; Lee, Jeong-Yub; Kim, Jaekwan; Kim, Yongsung; Arbabi, Amir; Shin, Changgyun; Shi, Lilong; Arbabi, Ehsan; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Lee, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Sungwoo; Faraon, Andrei

    2017-05-10

    We report transmissive color filters based on subwavelength dielectric gratings that can replace conventional dye-based color filters used in backside-illuminated CMOS image sensor (BSI CIS) technologies. The filters are patterned in an 80 nm-thick poly silicon film on a 115 nm-thick SiO 2 spacer layer. They are optimized for operating at the primary RGB colors, exhibit peak transmittance of 60-80%, and have an almost insensitive response over a ± 20° angular range. This technology enables shrinking of the pixel sizes down to near a micrometer.

  14. Time-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Techniques Suitable for Solid-State Imaging Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Henderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and hardware implementations. The theoretical error equations are derived and their performances are demonstrated on the data obtained from 0.13 μm CMOS SPAD arrays and the multiple-decay data obtained from scanning PMT systems. In vivo two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging data of FITC-albumin labeled vasculature of a P22 rat carcinosarcoma (BD9 rat window chamber are used to test how different algorithms perform on bi-decay data. The proposed techniques are capable of producing lifetime images with enough contrast.

  15. The enhanced cyan fluorescent protein: a sensitive pH sensor for fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poëa-Guyon, Sandrine; Pasquier, Hélène; Mérola, Fabienne; Morel, Nicolas; Erard, Marie

    2013-05-01

    pH is an important parameter that affects many functions of live cells, from protein structure or function to several crucial steps of their metabolism. Genetically encoded pH sensors based on pH-sensitive fluorescent proteins have been developed and used to monitor the pH of intracellular compartments. The quantitative analysis of pH variations can be performed either by ratiometric or fluorescence lifetime detection. However, most available genetically encoded pH sensors are based on green and yellow fluorescent proteins and are not compatible with multicolor approaches. Taking advantage of the strong pH sensitivity of enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), we demonstrate here its suitability as a sensitive pH sensor using fluorescence lifetime imaging. The intracellular ECFP lifetime undergoes large changes (32 %) in the pH 5 to pH 7 range, which allows accurate pH measurements to better than 0.2 pH units. By fusion of ECFP with the granular chromogranin A, we successfully measured the pH in secretory granules of PC12 cells, and we performed a kinetic analysis of intragranular pH variations in living cells exposed to ammonium chloride.

  16. Data Retrieval Algorithms for Validating the Optical Transient Detector and the Lightning Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from an Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing, and arrival time of lightning radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no earth curvature) are provided that implement all of these measurements. The accuracy of the retrieval method is tested using computer-simulated datasets, and the relative influence of bearing and arrival time data an the outcome of the final solution is formally demonstrated. The algorithm is sufficiently accurate to validate NASA:s Optical Transient Detector and Lightning Imaging Sensor. A quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available is also introduced. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in sc)iirce location, Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. For arbitrary noncollinear network geometries and in the absence of measurement errors, it is shown that the two quadratic roots are equivalent (no source location ambiguity) on the outer sensor baselines. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer-generated datasets, and the results are generally better than those obtained from the three-station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg.

  17. Atomic-Scale Nuclear Spin Imaging Using Quantum-Assisted Sensors in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ajoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear spin imaging at the atomic level is essential for the understanding of fundamental biological phenomena and for applications such as drug discovery. The advent of novel nanoscale sensors promises to achieve the long-standing goal of single-protein, high spatial-resolution structure determination under ambient conditions. In particular, quantum sensors based on the spin-dependent photoluminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV centers in diamond have recently been used to detect nanoscale ensembles of external nuclear spins. While NV sensitivity is approaching single-spin levels, extracting relevant information from a very complex structure is a further challenge since it requires not only the ability to sense the magnetic field of an isolated nuclear spin but also to achieve atomic-scale spatial resolution. Here, we propose a method that, by exploiting the coupling of the NV center to an intrinsic quantum memory associated with the nitrogen nuclear spin, can reach a tenfold improvement in spatial resolution, down to atomic scales. The spatial resolution enhancement is achieved through coherent control of the sensor spin, which creates a dynamic frequency filter selecting only a few nuclear spins at a time. We propose and analyze a protocol that would allow not only sensing individual spins in a complex biomolecule, but also unraveling couplings among them, thus elucidating local characteristics of the molecule structure.

  18. Study on polarized optical flow algorithm for imaging bionic polarization navigation micro sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Le; Liu, Sheng; Li, Shi-qi; Lin, Wei; Zhai, Li-yuan; Chu, Jin-kui

    2018-05-01

    At present, both the point source and the imaging polarization navigation devices only can output the angle information, which means that the velocity information of the carrier cannot be extracted from the polarization field pattern directly. Optical flow is an image-based method for calculating the velocity of pixel point movement in an image. However, for ordinary optical flow, the difference in pixel value as well as the calculation accuracy can be reduced in weak light. Polarization imaging technology has the ability to improve both the detection accuracy and the recognition probability of the target because it can acquire the extra polarization multi-dimensional information of target radiation or reflection. In this paper, combining the polarization imaging technique with the traditional optical flow algorithm, a polarization optical flow algorithm is proposed, and it is verified that the polarized optical flow algorithm has good adaptation in weak light and can improve the application range of polarization navigation sensors. This research lays the foundation for day and night all-weather polarization navigation applications in future.

  19. Single Photon Counting Large Format Imaging Sensors with High Spatial and Temporal Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Ertley, C.; Vallerga, J. V.; Cremer, T.; Craven, C. A.; Lyashenko, A.; Minot, M. J.

    High time resolution astronomical and remote sensing applications have been addressed with microchannel plate based imaging, photon time tagging detector sealed tube schemes. These are being realized with the advent of cross strip readout techniques with high performance encoding electronics and atomic layer deposited (ALD) microchannel plate technologies. Sealed tube devices up to 20 cm square have now been successfully implemented with sub nanosecond timing and imaging. The objective is to provide sensors with large areas (25 cm2 to 400 cm2) with spatial resolutions of 5 MHz and event timing accuracy of 100 ps. High-performance ASIC versions of these electronics are in development with better event rate, power and mass suitable for spaceflight instruments.

  20. Wide dynamic logarithmic InGaAs sensor suitable for eye-safe active imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yang; Bouvier, Christian; Arion, Bogdan; Noguier, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a simple method to analyze the injection efficiency of the photodiode interface circuit under fast shuttering conditions for active Imaging applications. This simple model has been inspired from the companion model for reactive elements largely used in CAD. In this paper, we demonstrate that traditional CTIA photodiode interface is not adequate for active imaging where fast and precise shuttering operation is necessary. Afterwards we present a direct amplification based photodiode interface which can provide an accurate and fast shuttering operation on photodiode. These considerations have been used in NIT's newly developed ROIC and corresponding SWIR sensors both in VGA 15um pitch (NSC1201) and also in QVGA 25um pitch (NSC1401).

  1. Adaptive Sensor Optimization and Cognitive Image Processing Using Autonomous Optical Neuroprocessors; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMERON, STEWART M.

    2001-01-01

    Measurement and signal intelligence demands has created new requirements for information management and interoperability as they affect surveillance and situational awareness. Integration of on-board autonomous learning and adaptive control structures within a remote sensing platform architecture would substantially improve the utility of intelligence collection by facilitating real-time optimization of measurement parameters for variable field conditions. A problem faced by conventional digital implementations of intelligent systems is the conflict between a distributed parallel structure on a sequential serial interface functionally degrading bandwidth and response time. In contrast, optically designed networks exhibit the massive parallelism and interconnect density needed to perform complex cognitive functions within a dynamic asynchronous environment. Recently, all-optical self-organizing neural networks exhibiting emergent collective behavior which mimic perception, recognition, association, and contemplative learning have been realized using photorefractive holography in combination with sensory systems for feature maps, threshold decomposition, image enhancement, and nonlinear matched filters. Such hybrid information processors depart from the classical computational paradigm based on analytic rules-based algorithms and instead utilize unsupervised generalization and perceptron-like exploratory or improvisational behaviors to evolve toward optimized solutions. These systems are robust to instrumental systematics or corrupting noise and can enrich knowledge structures by allowing competition between multiple hypotheses. This property enables them to rapidly adapt or self-compensate for dynamic or imprecise conditions which would be unstable using conventional linear control models. By incorporating an intelligent optical neuroprocessor in the back plane of an imaging sensor, a broad class of high-level cognitive image analysis problems including geometric

  2. Toward High Altitude Airship Ground-Based Boresight Calibration of Hyperspectral Pushbroom Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwu Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the single linear hyperspectral pushbroom imaging based on a high altitude airship (HAA without a three-axis stabilized platform is much more than that based on the spaceborne and airborne. Due to the effects of air pressure, temperature and airflow, the large pitch and roll angles tend to appear frequently that create pushbroom images highly characterized with severe geometric distortions. Thus, the in-flight calibration procedure is not appropriate to apply to the single linear pushbroom sensors on HAA having no three-axis stabilized platform. In order to address this problem, a new ground-based boresight calibration method is proposed. Firstly, a coordinate’s transformation model is developed for direct georeferencing (DG of the linear imaging sensor, and then the linear error equation is derived from it by using the Taylor expansion formula. Secondly, the boresight misalignments are worked out by using iterative least squares method with few ground control points (GCPs and ground-based side-scanning experiments. The proposed method is demonstrated by three sets of experiments: (i the stability and reliability of the method is verified through simulation-based experiments; (ii the boresight calibration is performed using ground-based experiments; and (iii the validation is done by applying on the orthorectification of the real hyperspectral pushbroom images from a HAA Earth observation payload system developed by our research team—“LanTianHao”. The test results show that the proposed boresight calibration approach significantly improves the quality of georeferencing by reducing the geometric distortions caused by boresight misalignments to the minimum level.

  3. High Dynamic Range Imaging at the Quantum Limit with Single Photon Avalanche Diode-Based Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli Della Rocca, Francescopaolo

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines methods to best exploit the High Dynamic Range (HDR) of the single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) in a high fill-factor HDR photon counting pixel that is scalable to megapixel arrays. The proposed method combines multi-exposure HDR with temporal oversampling in-pixel. We present a silicon demonstration IC with 96 × 40 array of 8.25 µm pitch 66% fill-factor SPAD-based pixels achieving >100 dB dynamic range with 3 back-to-back exposures (short, mid, long). Each pixel sums 15 bit-planes or binary field images internally to constitute one frame providing 3.75× data compression, hence the 1k frames per second (FPS) output off-chip represents 45,000 individual field images per second on chip. Two future projections of this work are described: scaling SPAD-based image sensors to HDR 1 MPixel formats and shrinking the pixel pitch to 1–3 µm. PMID:29641479

  4. Exploiting the speckle-correlation scattering matrix for a compact reference-free holographic image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, KyeoReh; Park, YongKeun

    2016-10-31

    The word 'holography' means a drawing that contains all of the information for light-both amplitude and wavefront. However, because of the insufficient bandwidth of current electronics, the direct measurement of the wavefront of light has not yet been achieved. Though reference-field-assisted interferometric methods have been utilized in numerous applications, introducing a reference field raises several fundamental and practical issues. Here we demonstrate a reference-free holographic image sensor. To achieve this, we propose a speckle-correlation scattering matrix approach; light-field information passing through a thin disordered layer is recorded and retrieved from a single-shot recording of speckle intensity patterns. Self-interference via diffusive scattering enables access to impinging light-field information, when light transport in the diffusive layer is precisely calibrated. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate direct holographic measurements of three-dimensional optical fields using a compact device consisting of a regular image sensor and a diffusor.

  5. Self-amplified CMOS image sensor using a current-mode readout circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrick M.; de Lima Monteiro, Davies W.; Pittet, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The feature size of the CMOS processes decreased during the past few years and problems such as reduced dynamic range have become more significant in voltage-mode pixels, even though the integration of more functionality inside the pixel has become easier. This work makes a contribution on both sides: the possibility of a high signal excursion range using current-mode circuits together with functionality addition by making signal amplification inside the pixel. The classic 3T pixel architecture was rebuild with small modifications to integrate a transconductance amplifier providing a current as an output. The matrix with these new pixels will operate as a whole large transistor outsourcing an amplified current that will be used for signal processing. This current is controlled by the intensity of the light received by the matrix, modulated pixel by pixel. The output current can be controlled by the biasing circuits to achieve a very large range of output signal levels. It can also be controlled with the matrix size and this permits a very high degree of freedom on the signal level, observing the current densities inside the integrated circuit. In addition, the matrix can operate at very small integration times. Its applications would be those in which fast imaging processing, high signal amplification are required and low resolution is not a major problem, such as UV image sensors. Simulation results will be presented to support: operation, control, design, signal excursion levels and linearity for a matrix of pixels that was conceived using this new concept of sensor.

  6. Image-receptor performance: a comparison of Trophy RVG UI sensor and Kodak Ektaspeed Plus film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, J; Mol, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective. This study compares the physical characteristics of the RVG UI sensor (RVG) with Ektaspeed Plus film. Dose-response curves were generated for film and for each of 6 available RVG modes. An aluminum step-wedge was used to evaluate exposure latitude. Spatial resolution was assessed by using a line-pair test tool. Latitude and resolution were assessed by observers for both modalities. The RVG was further characterized by its modulation transfer function. Exposure latitude was equal for film and RVG in the periodontal mode. Other gray scale modes demonstrated much lower latitude. The average maximum resolution was 15.3 line-pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) for RVG in high-resolution mode, 10.5 lp/mm for RVG in low-resolution mode, and 20 lp/mm for film (P <.0001). Modulation transfer function measurements supported the subjective assessments. In periodontal mode, the RVG UI sensor demonstrates exposure latitude similar to that of Ektaspeed Plus film. Film images exhibit significantly higher spatial resolution than the RVG images acquired in high-resolution mode.

  7. Spatial filtering self-velocimeter for vehicle application using a CMOS linear image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Zhou, Jian; Nie, Xiaoming; Long, Xingwu

    2015-03-01

    The idea of using a spatial filtering velocimeter (SFV) to measure the velocity of a vehicle for an inertial navigation system is put forward. The presented SFV is based on a CMOS linear image sensor with a high-speed data rate, large pixel size, and built-in timing generator. These advantages make the image sensor suitable to measure vehicle velocity. The power spectrum of the output signal is obtained by fast Fourier transform and is corrected by a frequency spectrum correction algorithm. This velocimeter was used to measure the velocity of a conveyor belt driven by a rotary table and the measurement uncertainty is ˜0.54%. Furthermore, it was also installed on a vehicle together with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) to measure self-velocity. The measurement result of the designed SFV is compared with that of the LDV. It is shown that the measurement result of the SFV is coincident with that of the LDV. Therefore, the designed SFV is suitable for a vehicle self-contained inertial navigation system.

  8. Recognizing Banknote Fitness with a Visible Light One Dimensional Line Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyen Danh Pham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, dirty banknotes that have creases or soiled surfaces should be replaced by new banknotes, whereas clean banknotes should be recirculated. Therefore, the accurate classification of banknote fitness when sorting paper currency is an important and challenging task. Most previous research has focused on sensors that used visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light. Furthermore, there was little previous research on the fitness classification for Indian paper currency. Therefore, we propose a new method for classifying the fitness of Indian banknotes, with a one-dimensional line image sensor that uses only visible light. The fitness of banknotes is usually determined by various factors such as soiling, creases, and tears, etc. although we just consider banknote soiling in our research. This research is novel in the following four ways: first, there has been little research conducted on fitness classification for the Indian Rupee using visible-light images. Second, the classification is conducted based on the features extracted from the regions of interest (ROIs, which contain little texture. Third, 1-level discrete wavelet transformation (DWT is used to extract the features for discriminating between fit and unfit banknotes. Fourth, the optimal DWT features that represent the fitness and unfitness of banknotes are selected based on linear regression analysis with ground-truth data measured by densitometer. In addition, the selected features are used as the inputs to a support vector machine (SVM for the final classification of banknote fitness. Experimental results showed that our method outperforms other methods.

  9. Recognizing Banknote Fitness with a Visible Light One Dimensional Line Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Young Ho; Kwon, Seung Yong; Nguyen, Dat Tien; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung; Jeong, Dae Sik; Yoon, Sungsoo

    2015-08-27

    In general, dirty banknotes that have creases or soiled surfaces should be replaced by new banknotes, whereas clean banknotes should be recirculated. Therefore, the accurate classification of banknote fitness when sorting paper currency is an important and challenging task. Most previous research has focused on sensors that used visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light. Furthermore, there was little previous research on the fitness classification for Indian paper currency. Therefore, we propose a new method for classifying the fitness of Indian banknotes, with a one-dimensional line image sensor that uses only visible light. The fitness of banknotes is usually determined by various factors such as soiling, creases, and tears, etc. although we just consider banknote soiling in our research. This research is novel in the following four ways: first, there has been little research conducted on fitness classification for the Indian Rupee using visible-light images. Second, the classification is conducted based on the features extracted from the regions of interest (ROIs), which contain little texture. Third, 1-level discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used to extract the features for discriminating between fit and unfit banknotes. Fourth, the optimal DWT features that represent the fitness and unfitness of banknotes are selected based on linear regression analysis with ground-truth data measured by densitometer. In addition, the selected features are used as the inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for the final classification of banknote fitness. Experimental results showed that our method outperforms other methods.

  10. Degradation of CMOS image sensors in deep-submicron technology due to γ-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Padmakumar R.; Wang, Xinyang; Theuwissen, Albert J. P.

    2008-09-01

    In this work, radiation induced damage mechanisms in deep submicron technology is resolved using finger gated-diodes (FGDs) as a radiation sensitive tool. It is found that these structures are simple yet efficient structures to resolve radiation induced damage in advanced CMOS processes. The degradation of the CMOS image sensors in deep-submicron technology due to γ-ray irradiation is studied by developing a model for the spectral response of the sensor and also by the dark-signal degradation as a function of STI (shallow-trench isolation) parameters. It is found that threshold shifts in the gate-oxide/silicon interface as well as minority carrier life-time variations in the silicon bulk are minimal. The top-layer material properties and the photodiode Si-SiO2 interface quality are degraded due to γ-ray irradiation. Results further suggest that p-well passivated structures are inevitable for radiation-hard designs. It was found that high electrical fields in submicron technologies pose a threat to high quality imaging in harsh environments.

  11. Temporal Noise Analysis of Charge-Domain Sampling Readout Circuits for CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Ge

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a temporal noise analysis of charge-domain sampling readout circuits for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS image sensors. In order to address the trade-off between the low input-referred noise and high dynamic range, a Gm-cell-based pixel together with a charge-domain correlated-double sampling (CDS technique has been proposed to provide a way to efficiently embed a tunable conversion gain along the read-out path. Such readout topology, however, operates in a non-stationery large-signal behavior, and the statistical properties of its temporal noise are a function of time. Conventional noise analysis methods for CMOS image sensors are based on steady-state signal models, and therefore cannot be readily applied for Gm-cell-based pixels. In this paper, we develop analysis models for both thermal noise and flicker noise in Gm-cell-based pixels by employing the time-domain linear analysis approach and the non-stationary noise analysis theory, which help to quantitatively evaluate the temporal noise characteristic of Gm-cell-based pixels. Both models were numerically computed in MATLAB using design parameters of a prototype chip, and compared with both simulation and experimental results. The good agreement between the theoretical and measurement results verifies the effectiveness of the proposed noise analysis models.

  12. Two-Step Single Slope/SAR ADC with Error Correction for CMOS Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional two-step ADC for CMOS image sensor requires full resolution noise performance in the first stage single slope ADC, leading to high power consumption and large chip area. This paper presents an 11-bit two-step single slope/successive approximation register (SAR ADC scheme for CMOS image sensor applications. The first stage single slope ADC generates a 3-bit data and 1 redundant bit. The redundant bit is combined with the following 8-bit SAR ADC output code using a proposed error correction algorithm. Instead of requiring full resolution noise performance, the first stage single slope circuit of the proposed ADC can tolerate up to 3.125% quantization noise. With the proposed error correction mechanism, the power consumption and chip area of the single slope ADC are significantly reduced. The prototype ADC is fabricated using 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The chip area of the proposed ADC is 7 μm × 500 μm. The measurement results show that the energy efficiency figure-of-merit (FOM of the proposed ADC core is only 125 pJ/sample under 1.4 V power supply and the chip area efficiency is 84 k μm2·cycles/sample.

  13. Vapor transport deposition of large-area polycrystalline CdTe for radiation image sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Keedong; Cha, Bokyung; Heo, Duchang; Jeon, Sungchae [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 111 Hanggaul-ro, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-170 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Vapor transport deposition (VTD) process delivers saturated vapor to substrate, resulting in high-throughput and scalable process. In addition, VTD can maintain lower substrate temperature than close-spaced sublimation (CSS). The motivation of this work is to adopt several advantages of VTD for radiation image sensor application. Polycrystalline CdTe films were obtained on 300 mm x 300 mm indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The polycrystalline CdTe film has columnar structure with average grain size of 3 μm ∝ 9 μm, which can be controlled by changing the substrate temperature. In order to analyze electrical and X-ray characteristics, ITO-CdTe-Al sandwich structured device was fabricated. Effective resistivity of the polycrystalline CdTe film was ∝1.4 x 10{sup 9}Ωcm. The device was operated under hole-collection mode. The responsivity and the μτ product estimated to be 6.8 μC/cm{sup 2}R and 5.5 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/V. The VTD can be a process of choice for monolithic integration of CdTe thick film for radiation image sensor and CMOS/TFT circuitry. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. A 75-ps Gated CMOS Image Sensor with Low Parasitic Light Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Niu, Hanben

    2016-06-29

    In this study, a 40 × 48 pixel global shutter complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor with an adjustable shutter time as low as 75 ps was implemented using a 0.5-μm mixed-signal CMOS process. The implementation consisted of a continuous contact ring around each p+/n-well photodiode in the pixel array in order to apply sufficient light shielding. The parasitic light sensitivity of the in-pixel storage node was measured to be 1/8.5 × 10⁷ when illuminated by a 405-nm diode laser and 1/1.4 × 10⁴ when illuminated by a 650-nm diode laser. The pixel pitch was 24 μm, the size of the square p+/n-well photodiode in each pixel was 7 μm per side, the measured random readout noise was 217 e(-) rms, and the measured dynamic range of the pixel of the designed chip was 5500:1. The type of gated CMOS image sensor (CIS) that is proposed here can be used in ultra-fast framing cameras to observe non-repeatable fast-evolving phenomena.

  15. Two-step single slope/SAR ADC with error correction for CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fang; Bermak, Amine; Amira, Abbes; Amor Benammar, Mohieddine; He, Debiao; Zhao, Xiaojin

    2014-01-01

    Conventional two-step ADC for CMOS image sensor requires full resolution noise performance in the first stage single slope ADC, leading to high power consumption and large chip area. This paper presents an 11-bit two-step single slope/successive approximation register (SAR) ADC scheme for CMOS image sensor applications. The first stage single slope ADC generates a 3-bit data and 1 redundant bit. The redundant bit is combined with the following 8-bit SAR ADC output code using a proposed error correction algorithm. Instead of requiring full resolution noise performance, the first stage single slope circuit of the proposed ADC can tolerate up to 3.125% quantization noise. With the proposed error correction mechanism, the power consumption and chip area of the single slope ADC are significantly reduced. The prototype ADC is fabricated using 0.18 μ m CMOS technology. The chip area of the proposed ADC is 7 μ m × 500 μ m. The measurement results show that the energy efficiency figure-of-merit (FOM) of the proposed ADC core is only 125 pJ/sample under 1.4 V power supply and the chip area efficiency is 84 k  μ m(2) · cycles/sample.

  16. Thin-Film Quantum Dot Photodiode for Monolithic Infrared Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Pawel E; Georgitzikis, Epimitheas; Maes, Jorick; Vamvaka, Ioanna; Frazzica, Fortunato; Van Olmen, Jan; De Moor, Piet; Heremans, Paul; Hens, Zeger; Cheyns, David

    2017-12-10

    Imaging in the infrared wavelength range has been fundamental in scientific, military and surveillance applications. Currently, it is a crucial enabler of new industries such as autonomous mobility (for obstacle detection), augmented reality (for eye tracking) and biometrics. Ubiquitous deployment of infrared cameras (on a scale similar to visible cameras) is however prevented by high manufacturing cost and low resolution related to the need of using image sensors based on flip-chip hybridization. One way to enable monolithic integration is by replacing expensive, small-scale III-V-based detector chips with narrow bandgap thin-films compatible with 8- and 12-inch full-wafer processing. This work describes a CMOS-compatible pixel stack based on lead sulfide quantum dots (PbS QD) with tunable absorption peak. Photodiode with a 150-nm thick absorber in an inverted architecture shows dark current of 10 -6 A/cm² at -2 V reverse bias and EQE above 20% at 1440 nm wavelength. Optical modeling for top illumination architecture can improve the contact transparency to 70%. Additional cooling (193 K) can improve the sensitivity to 60 dB. This stack can be integrated on a CMOS ROIC, enabling order-of-magnitude cost reduction for infrared sensors.

  17. Contactless respiratory monitoring system for magnetic resonance imaging applications using a laser range sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krug Johannes W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI exam, a respiratory signal can be required for different purposes, e.g. for patient monitoring, motion compensation or for research studies such as in functional MRI. In addition, respiratory information can be used as a biofeedback for the patient in order to control breath holds or shallow breathing. To reduce patient preparation time or distortions of the MR imaging system, we propose the use of a contactless approach for gathering information about the respiratory activity. An experimental setup based on a commercially available laser range sensor was used to detect respiratory induced motion of the chest or abdomen. This setup was tested using a motion phantom and different human subjects in an MRI scanner. A nasal airflow sensor served as a reference. For both, the phantom as well as the different human subjects, the motion frequency was precisely measured. These results show that a low cost, contactless, laser-based approach can be used to obtain information about the respiratory motion during an MRI exam.

  18. Novel 2D-sequential color code system employing Image Sensor Communications for Optical Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.7r1 Optical Wireless Communications Task Group (TG7r1, also known as the revision of the IEEE 802.15.7 Visible Light Communication standard targeting the commercial usage of visible light communication systems, is of interest in this paper. The paper is mainly concerned with Image Sensor Communications (ISC of TG7r1; however, the major challenge facing ISC, as addressed in the Technical Consideration Document (TCD of TG7r1, is Image Sensor Compatibility among the variety of different commercial cameras on the market. One of the most challenging but interesting compatibility requirements is the need to support the verified presence of frame rate variation. This paper proposes a novel design for 2D-sequential color code. Compared to a QR-code-based sequential transmission, the proposed design of 2D-sequential code can overcome the above challenge that it is compatible with different frame rate variations and different shutter operations, and has the ability to mitigate the rolling effect as well as the rotating effect while effectively minimizing transmission overhead. Practical implementations are demonstrated and a performance comparison is presented.

  19. Cost-Efficient Wafer-Level Capping for MEMS and Imaging Sensors by Adhesive Wafer Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Bleiker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Device encapsulation and packaging often constitutes a substantial part of the fabrication cost of micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS transducers and imaging sensor devices. In this paper, we propose a simple and cost-effective wafer-level capping method that utilizes a limited number of highly standardized process steps as well as low-cost materials. The proposed capping process is based on low-temperature adhesive wafer bonding, which ensures full complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS compatibility. All necessary fabrication steps for the wafer bonding, such as cavity formation and deposition of the adhesive, are performed on the capping substrate. The polymer adhesive is deposited by spray-coating on the capping wafer containing the cavities. Thus, no lithographic patterning of the polymer adhesive is needed, and material waste is minimized. Furthermore, this process does not require any additional fabrication steps on the device wafer, which lowers the process complexity and fabrication costs. We demonstrate the proposed capping method by packaging two different MEMS devices. The two MEMS devices include a vibration sensor and an acceleration switch, which employ two different electrical interconnection schemes. The experimental results show wafer-level capping with excellent bond quality due to the re-flow behavior of the polymer adhesive. No impediment to the functionality of the MEMS devices was observed, which indicates that the encapsulation does not introduce significant tensile nor compressive stresses. Thus, we present a highly versatile, robust, and cost-efficient capping method for components such as MEMS and imaging sensors.

  20. A dual pH and temperature responsive polymeric fluorescent sensor and its imaging application in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liyan; He, Chunsheng; Huang, Chusen; Zhu, Weiping; Wang, Xin; Xu, Yufang; Qian, Xuhong

    2012-05-11

    A polymeric fluorescent sensor PNME, consisting of A4 and N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) units, was synthesized. PNME exhibited dual responses to pH and temperature, and could be used as an intracellular pH sensor for lysosomes imaging. Moreover, it also could sense different temperature change in living cells at 25 and 37 °C, respectively. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  1. CMOS Image Sensor and System for Imaging Hemodynamic Changes in Response to Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Noor, Muhammad S; McCracken, Clinton B; Kiss, Zelma H T; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Murari, Kartikeya

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a therapeutic intervention used for a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but its mechanism of action is not well understood. It is known that DBS modulates neural activity which changes metabolic demands and thus the cerebral circulation state. However, it is unclear whether there are correlations between electrophysiological, hemodynamic and behavioral changes and whether they have any implications for clinical benefits. In order to investigate these questions, we present a miniaturized system for spectroscopic imaging of brain hemodynamics. The system consists of a 144 ×144, [Formula: see text] pixel pitch, high-sensitivity, analog-output CMOS imager fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, along with a miniaturized imaging system comprising illumination, focusing, analog-to-digital conversion and μSD card based data storage. This enables stand alone operation without a computer, nor electrical or fiberoptic tethers. To achieve high sensitivity, the pixel uses a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA). The nMOS transistors are in the pixel while pMOS transistors are column-parallel, resulting in a fill factor (FF) of 26%. Running at 60 fps and exposed to 470 nm light, the CMOS imager has a minimum detectable intensity of 2.3 nW/cm(2) , a maximum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 49 dB at 2.45 μW/cm(2) leading to a dynamic range (DR) of 61 dB while consuming 167 μA from a 3.3 V supply. In anesthetized rats, the system was able to detect temporal, spatial and spectral hemodynamic changes in response to DBS.

  2. Imaging Intracellular pH in Live Cells with a Genetically-Encoded Red Fluorescent Protein Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Tantama, Mathew; Hung, Yin Pun; Yellen, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular pH affects protein structure and function, and proton gradients underlie the function of organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria. We engineered a genetically-encoded pH sensor by mutagenesis of the red fluorescent protein mKeima, providing a new tool to image intracellular pH in live cells. This sensor, named pHRed, is the first ratiometric, single-protein red fluorescent sensor of pH. Fluorescence emission of pHRed peaks at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at...

  3. Amorphous and Polycrystalline Photoconductors for Direct Conversion Flat Panel X-Ray Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim S. Karim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten to fifteen years there has been much research in using amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors as x-ray photoconductors in various x-ray image sensor applications, most notably in flat panel x-ray imagers (FPXIs. We first outline the essential requirements for an ideal large area photoconductor for use in a FPXI, and discuss how some of the current amorphous and polycrystalline semiconductors fulfill these requirements. At present, only stabilized amorphous selenium (doped and alloyed a-Se has been commercialized, and FPXIs based on a-Se are particularly suitable for mammography, operating at the ideal limit of high detective quantum efficiency (DQE. Further, these FPXIs can also be used in real-time, and have already been used in such applications as tomosynthesis. We discuss some of the important attributes of amorphous and polycrystalline x-ray photoconductors such as their large area deposition ability, charge collection efficiency, x-ray sensitivity, DQE, modulation transfer function (MTF and the importance of the dark current. We show the importance of charge trapping in limiting not only the sensitivity but also the resolution of these detectors. Limitations on the maximum acceptable dark current and the corresponding charge collection efficiency jointly impose a practical constraint that many photoconductors fail to satisfy. We discuss the case of a-Se in which the dark current was brought down by three orders of magnitude by the use of special blocking layers to satisfy the dark current constraint. There are also a number of polycrystalline photoconductors, HgI2 and PbO being good examples, that show potential for commercialization in the same way that multilayer stabilized a-Se x-ray photoconductors were developed for commercial applications. We highlight the unique nature of avalanche multiplication in a-Se and how it has led to the development of the commercial HARP video-tube. An all solid state version of the

  4. Real time three-dimensional space video rate sensors for millimeter waves imaging based very inexpensive plasma LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S.; Rozban, Daniel; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop inexpensive but sensitive Millimeter Wave (MMW) detectors that can be used in focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to implement real time MMW imaging. Real time MMW imaging systems are required for many varied applications in many fields as homeland security, medicine, communications, military products and space technology. It is mainly because this radiation has high penetration and good navigability through dust storm, fog, heavy rain, dielectric materials, biological tissue, and diverse materials. Moreover, the atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low and the scattering is also low compared to NIR and VIS. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. In last few years we advanced in research and development of sensors using very inexpensive (30-50 cents) Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) plasma indicator lamps as MMW detectors. This paper presents three kinds of GDD sensor based lamp Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). Those three kinds of cameras are different in the number of detectors, scanning operation, and detection method. The 1st and 2nd generations are 8 × 8 pixel array and an 18 × 2 mono-rail scanner array respectively, both of them for direct detection and limited to fixed imaging. The last designed sensor is a multiplexing frame rate of 16x16 GDD FPA. It permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames/ sec and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. The principle of detection in this sensor is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system while each of the 16 GDD pixel lines is sampled simultaneously. Direct detection is also possible and can be done with a friendly user interface. This FPA sensor is built over 256 commercial GDD lamps with 3 mm diameter International Light, Inc., Peabody, MA model 527 Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. All three sensors are fully supported

  5. High-speed particle tracking in microscopy using SPAD image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongy, Istvan; Davies, Amy; Miguelez Crespo, Allende; Green, Andrew; Dutton, Neale A. W.; Duncan, Rory R.; Rickman, Colin; Henderson, Robert K.; Dalgarno, Paul A.

    2018-02-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are used in a wide range of applications, from fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to time-of-flight (ToF) 3D imaging. SPAD arrays are becoming increasingly established, combining the unique properties of SPADs with widefield camera configurations. Traditionally, the photosensitive area (fill factor) of SPAD arrays has been limited by the in-pixel digital electronics. However, recent designs have demonstrated that by replacing the complex digital pixel logic with simple binary pixels and external frame summation, the fill factor can be increased considerably. A significant advantage of such binary SPAD arrays is the high frame rates offered by the sensors (>100kFPS), which opens up new possibilities for capturing ultra-fast temporal dynamics in, for example, life science cellular imaging. In this work we consider the use of novel binary SPAD arrays in high-speed particle tracking in microscopy. We demonstrate the tracking of fluorescent microspheres undergoing Brownian motion, and in intra-cellular vesicle dynamics, at high frame rates. We thereby show how binary SPAD arrays can offer an important advance in live cell imaging in such fields as intercellular communication, cell trafficking and cell signaling.

  6. High-Resolution Spin-on-Patterning of Perovskite Thin Films for a Multiplexed Image Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woongchan; Lee, Jongha; Yun, Huiwon; Kim, Joonsoo; Park, Jinhong; Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Dong Chan; Seo, Hyunseon; Lee, Hakyong; Yu, Ji Woong; Lee, Won Bo; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-10-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid perovskite thin films have attracted significant attention as an alternative to silicon in photon-absorbing devices mainly because of their superb optoelectronic properties. However, high-definition patterning of perovskite thin films, which is important for fabrication of the image sensor array, is hardly accomplished owing to their extreme instability in general photolithographic solvents. Here, a novel patterning process for perovskite thin films is described: the high-resolution spin-on-patterning (SoP) process. This fast and facile process is compatible with a variety of spin-coated perovskite materials and perovskite deposition techniques. The SoP process is successfully applied to develop a high-performance, ultrathin, and deformable perovskite-on-silicon multiplexed image sensor array, paving the road toward next-generation image sensor arrays. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An Ultra-Low Power CMOS Image Sensor with On-Chip Energy Harvesting and Power Management Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Cevik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-low power CMOS image sensor with on-chip energy harvesting and power management capability is introduced in this paper. The photodiode pixel array can not only capture images but also harvest solar energy. As such, the CMOS image sensor chip is able to switch between imaging and harvesting modes towards self-power operation. Moreover, an on-chip maximum power point tracking (MPPT-based power management system (PMS is designed for the dual-mode image sensor to further improve the energy efficiency. A new isolated P-well energy harvesting and imaging (EHI pixel with very high fill factor is introduced. Several ultra-low power design techniques such as reset and select boosting techniques have been utilized to maintain a wide pixel dynamic range. The chip was designed and fabricated in a 1.8 V, 1P6M 0.18 µm CMOS process. Total power consumption of the imager is 6.53 µW for a 96 × 96 pixel array with 1 V supply and 5 fps frame rate. Up to 30 μW of power could be generated by the new EHI pixels. The PMS is capable of providing 3× the power required during imaging mode with 50% efficiency allowing energy autonomous operation with a 72.5% duty cycle.

  8. An ultra-low power CMOS image sensor with on-chip energy harvesting and power management capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Ismail; Huang, Xiwei; Yu, Hao; Yan, Mei; Ay, Suat U

    2015-03-06

    An ultra-low power CMOS image sensor with on-chip energy harvesting and power management capability is introduced in this paper. The photodiode pixel array can not only capture images but also harvest solar energy. As such, the CMOS image sensor chip is able to switch between imaging and harvesting modes towards self-power operation. Moreover, an on-chip maximum power point tracking (MPPT)-based power management system (PMS) is designed for the dual-mode image sensor to further improve the energy efficiency. A new isolated P-well energy harvesting and imaging (EHI) pixel with very high fill factor is introduced. Several ultra-low power design techniques such as reset and select boosting techniques have been utilized to maintain a wide pixel dynamic range. The chip was designed and fabricated in a 1.8 V, 1P6M 0.18 µm CMOS process. Total power consumption of the imager is 6.53 µW for a 96 × 96 pixel array with 1 V supply and 5 fps frame rate. Up to 30 μW of power could be generated by the new EHI pixels. The PMS is capable of providing 3× the power required during imaging mode with 50% efficiency allowing energy autonomous operation with a 72.5% duty cycle.

  9. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, D

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of {approx}1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/{mu}Gy mm{sup 2}, for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  10. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, D.

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of ∼1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/μGy mm 2 , for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  11. Optical fiber sensors for image formation in radiodiagnostic - preliminary essays; Sensores a fibra optica para formacao de imagens em radiodiagnostico - ensaios preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Cesar C. de; Werneck, Marcelo M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Biomedica

    1998-07-01

    This work describes preliminary experiments that will bring subsidies to analyze the capability to implement a system able to capture radiological images with new sensor system, comprised by FOs scanning process and I-CCD camera. These experiments have the main objective to analyze the optical response from FOs bundle, with several typos of scintillators associated with them, when it is submitted to medical x-rays exposition. (author)

  12. Image sensor pixel with on-chip high extinction ratio polarizer based on 65-nm standard CMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Shishido, Sanshiro; Ando, Keisuke; Matsuoka, Hitoshi; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Kiyomi; Ohta, Jun

    2013-05-06

    In this study, we demonstrate a polarization sensitive pixel for a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor based on 65-nm standard CMOS technology. Using such a deep-submicron CMOS technology, it is possible to design fine metal patterns smaller than the wavelengths of visible light by using a metal wire layer. We designed and fabricated a metal wire grid polarizer on a 20 × 20 μm(2) pixel for image sensor. An extinction ratio of 19.7 dB was observed at a wavelength 750 nm.

  13. Selection of bi-level image compression method for reduction of communication energy in wireless visual sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khursheed, Khursheed; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Naeem; O'Nils, Mattias

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Visual Sensor Network (WVSN) is an emerging field which combines image sensor, on board computation unit, communication component and energy source. Compared to the traditional wireless sensor network, which operates on one dimensional data, such as temperature, pressure values etc., WVSN operates on two dimensional data (images) which requires higher processing power and communication bandwidth. Normally, WVSNs are deployed in areas where installation of wired solutions is not feasible. The energy budget in these networks is limited to the batteries, because of the wireless nature of the application. Due to the limited availability of energy, the processing at Visual Sensor Nodes (VSN) and communication from VSN to server should consume as low energy as possible. Transmission of raw images wirelessly consumes a lot of energy and requires higher communication bandwidth. Data compression methods reduce data efficiently and hence will be effective in reducing communication cost in WVSN. In this paper, we have compared the compression efficiency and complexity of six well known bi-level image compression methods. The focus is to determine the compression algorithms which can efficiently compress bi-level images and their computational complexity is suitable for computational platform used in WVSNs. These results can be used as a road map for selection of compression methods for different sets of constraints in WVSN.

  14. Extracellular Bio-imaging of Acetylcholine-stimulated PC12 Cells Using a Calcium and Potassium Multi-ion Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Sota; Kato, Ryo; Okumura, Koichi; Sawada, Kazuaki; Hattori, Toshiaki

    2018-01-01

    In biochemistry, Ca 2+ and K + play essential roles to control signal transduction. Much interest has been focused on ion-imaging, which facilitates understanding of their ion flux dynamics. In this paper, we report a calcium and potassium multi-ion image sensor and its application to living cells (PC12). The multi-ion sensor had two selective plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes containing ionophores. Each region on the sensor responded to only the corresponding ion. The multi-ion sensor has many advantages including not only label-free and real-time measurement but also simultaneous detection of Ca 2+ and K + . Cultured PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor were prepared, and a practical observation for the cells was conducted with the sensor. After the PC12 cells were stimulated by acetylcholine, only the extracellular Ca 2+ concentration increased while there was no increase in the extracellular K + concentration. Through the practical observation, we demonstrated that the sensor was helpful for analyzing the cell events with changing Ca 2+ and/or K + concentration.

  15. State-of-The-Art and Applications of 3D Imaging Sensors in Industry, Cultural Heritage, Medicine, and Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Sansoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D imaging sensors for the acquisition of three dimensional (3D shapes have created, in recent years, a considerable degree of interest for a number of applications. The miniaturization and integration of the optical and electronic components used to build them have played a crucial role in the achievement of compactness, robustness and flexibility of the sensors. Today, several 3D sensors are available on the market, even in combination with other sensors in a “sensor fusion” approach. An importance equal to that of physical miniaturization has the portability of the measurements, via suitable interfaces, into software environments designed for their elaboration, e.g., CAD-CAM systems, virtual renders, and rapid prototyping tools. In this paper, following an overview of the state-of-art of 3D imaging sensors, a number of significant examples of their use are presented, with particular reference to industry, heritage, medicine, and criminal investigation applications.

  16. Advanced microlens and color filter process technology for the high-efficiency CMOS and CCD image sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Tung; Peng, Chiou-Shian; Chu, Cheng-Yu

    2000-12-01

    New markets are emerging for digital electronic image device, especially in visual communications, PC camera, mobile/cell phone, security system, toys, vehicle image system and computer peripherals for document capture. To enable one-chip image system that image sensor is with a full digital interface, can make image capture devices in our daily lives. Adding a color filter to such image sensor in a pattern of mosaics pixel or wide stripes can make image more real and colorful. We can say 'color filter makes the life more colorful color filter is? Color filter means can filter image light source except the color with specific wavelength and transmittance that is same as color filter itself. Color filter process is coating and patterning green, red and blue (or cyan, magenta and yellow) mosaic resists onto matched pixel in image sensing array pixels. According to the signal caught from each pixel, we can figure out the environment image picture. Widely use of digital electronic camera and multimedia applications today makes the feature of color filter becoming bright. Although it has challenge but it is very worthy to develop the process of color filter. We provide the best service on shorter cycle time, excellent color quality, high and stable yield. The key issues of advanced color process have to be solved and implemented are planarization and micro-lens technology. Lost of key points of color filter process technology have to consider will also be described in this paper.

  17. Creation of 3D Multi-Body Orthodontic Models by Using Independent Imaging Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Viviano Razionale

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the field of dental health care, plaster models combined with 2D radiographs are widely used in clinical practice for orthodontic diagnoses. However, complex malocclusions can be better analyzed by exploiting 3D digital dental models, which allow virtual simulations and treatment planning processes. In this paper, dental data captured by independent imaging sensors are fused to create multi-body orthodontic models composed of teeth, oral soft tissues and alveolar bone structures. The methodology is based on integrating Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and surface structured light scanning. The optical scanner is used to reconstruct tooth crowns and soft tissues (visible surfaces through the digitalization of both patients’ mouth impressions and plaster casts. These data are also used to guide the segmentation of internal dental tissues by processing CBCT data sets. The 3D individual dental tissues obtained by the optical scanner and the CBCT sensor are fused within multi-body orthodontic models without human supervisions to identify target anatomical structures. The final multi-body models represent valuable virtual platforms to clinical diagnostic and treatment planning.

  18. A Detailed Look at the Performance Characteristics of the Lightning Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daile; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Bitzer, Phillip; Koshak, William J.

    2018-01-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) effectively reached its end of life on April 15, 2015 after 17+ years of observation. Given the wealth of information in the archived LIS lightning data, and growing use of optical observations of lightning from space throughout the world, it is still of importance to better understand LIS calibration and performance characteristics. In this work, we continue our efforts to quantify the optical characteristics of the LIS pixel array, and to further characterize the detection efficiency and location accuracy of LIS. The LIS pixel array was partitioned into four quadrants, each having its own signal amplifier and digital conversion hardware. In addition, the sensor optics resulted in a decreasing sensitivity with increasing displacement from the center of the array. These engineering limitations resulted in differences in the optical emissions detected across the pixel array. Our work to date has shown a 20% increase in the count of the lightning events detected in one of the LIS quadrants, because of a lower detection threshold. In this study, we will discuss our work in progress on these limitations, and their potential impact on the group- and flash-level parameters.

  19. High-Performance Motion Estimation for Image Sensors with Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhi Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is important to reduce the time cost of video compression for image sensors in video sensor network. Motion estimation (ME is the most time-consuming part in video compression. Previous work on ME exploited intra-frame data reuse in a reference frame to improve the time efficiency but neglected inter-frame data reuse. We propose a novel inter-frame data reuse scheme which can exploit both intra-frame and inter-frame data reuse for ME in video compression (VC-ME. Pixels of reconstructed frames are kept on-chip until they are used by the next current frame to avoid off-chip memory access. On-chip buffers with smart schedules of data access are designed to perform the new data reuse scheme. Three levels of the proposed inter-frame data reuse scheme are presented and analyzed. They give different choices with tradeoff between off-chip bandwidth requirement and on-chip memory size. All three levels have better data reuse efficiency than their intra-frame counterparts, so off-chip memory traffic is reduced effectively. Comparing the new inter-frame data reuse scheme with the traditional intra-frame data reuse scheme, the memory traffic can be reduced by 50% for VC-ME.

  20. Fabrication of CMOS-compatible nanopillars for smart bio-mimetic CMOS image sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, nanopillars with heights of 1μm to 5μm and widths of 250nm to 500nm have been fabricated with a near room temperature etching process. The nanopillars were achieved with a continuous deep reactive ion etching technique and utilizing PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) and Chromium as masking layers. As opposed to the conventional Bosch process, the usage of the unswitched deep reactive ion etching technique resulted in nanopillars with smooth sidewalls with a measured surface roughness of less than 40nm. Moreover, undercut was nonexistent in the nanopillars. The proposed fabrication method achieves etch rates four times faster when compared to the state-of-the-art, leading to higher throughput and more vertical side walls. The fabrication of the nanopillars was carried out keeping the CMOS process in mind to ultimately obtain a CMOS-compatible process. This work serves as an initial step in the ultimate objective of integrating photo-sensors based on these nanopillars seamlessly along with the controlling transistors to build a complete bio-inspired smart CMOS image sensor on the same wafer. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Integration of piezo-capacitive and piezo-electric nanoweb based pressure sensors for imaging of static and dynamic pressure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y J; Oh, T I; Woo, E J; Kim, K J

    2017-07-01

    Recently, highly flexible and soft pressure distribution imaging sensor is in great demand for tactile sensing, gait analysis, ubiquitous life-care based on activity recognition, and therapeutics. In this study, we integrate the piezo-capacitive and piezo-electric nanowebs with the conductive fabric sheets for detecting static and dynamic pressure distributions on a large sensing area. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and electric source imaging are applied for reconstructing pressure distribution images from measured current-voltage data on the boundary of the hybrid fabric sensor. We evaluated the piezo-capacitive nanoweb sensor, piezo-electric nanoweb sensor, and hybrid fabric sensor. The results show the feasibility of static and dynamic pressure distribution imaging from the boundary measurements of the fabric sensors.

  2. A Container Horizontal Positioning Method with Image Sensors for Cranes in Automated Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Yonghua

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Automation is a trend for large container terminals nowadays, and container positioning techniques are key factor in the automating process. Vision based positioning techniques are inexpensive and rather accurate in nature, while the effect with insufficient illumination is left in question. This paper proposed a vision-based procedure with image sensors to determine the position of one container in the horizontal plane. The points found by the edge detection operator are clustered, and only the peak points in the parameter space of the Hough transformation is selected, in order that the effect of noises could be much decreased. The effectiveness of our procedure is verified in experiments, in which the efficiency of the procedure is also investigated.

  3. Identification of radiation induced dark current sources in pinned photodiode CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiffon, V.; Virmontois, C.; Magnan, P.; Cervantes, P.; Place, S.; Estribeau, M.; Martin-Gonthier, P.; Gaillardin, M.; Girard, S.; Paillet, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of Total Ionizing Dose (TID) induced dark current sources in Pinned Photodiodes (PPD) CMOS Image Sensors based on pixel design variations. The influence of several layout parameters is studied. Only one parameter is changed at a time enabling the direct evaluation of its contribution to the observed device degradation. By this approach, the origin of radiation induced dark current in PPD is localized on the pixel layout. The PPD peripheral shallow trench isolation does not seem to play a role in the degradation. The PPD area and a transfer gate contribution independent of the pixel dimensions appear to be the main sources of the TID induced dark current increase. This study also demonstrates that applying a negative voltage on the transfer gate during integration strongly reduces the radiation induced dark current. (authors)

  4. Characterization of total ionizing dose damage in COTS pinned photodiode CMOS image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn; Ma, Wuying; Huang, Shaoyan; Yao, Zhibin; Liu, Minbo; He, Baoping; Sheng, Jiangkun; Xue, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The characterization of total ionizing dose (TID) damage in COTS pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs) is investigated. The radiation experiments are carried out at a {sup 60}Co γ-ray source. The CISs are produced by 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the pixel architecture is 8T global shutter pixel with correlated double sampling (CDS) based on a 4T PPD front end. The parameters of CISs such as temporal domain, spatial domain, and spectral domain are measured at the CIS test system as the EMVA 1288 standard before and after irradiation. The dark current, random noise, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), photo response non-uniformity (PRNU), overall system gain, saturation output, dynamic range (DR), signal to noise ratio (SNR), quantum efficiency (QE), and responsivity versus the TID are reported. The behaviors of the tested CISs show remarkable degradations after radiation. The degradation mechanisms of CISs induced by TID damage are also analyzed.

  5. Evaluation of a single-pixel one-transistor active pixel sensor for fingerprint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun; Wang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Since it first appeared in iPhone 5S in 2013, fingerprint identification (ID) has rapidly gained popularity among consumers. Current fingerprint-enabled smartphones unanimously consists of a discrete sensor to perform fingerprint ID. This architecture not only incurs higher material and manufacturing cost, but also provides only static identification and limited authentication. Hence as the demand for a thinner, lighter, and more secure handset grows, we propose a novel pixel architecture that is a photosensitive device embedded in a display pixel and detects the reflected light from the finger touch for high resolution, high fidelity and dynamic biometrics. To this purpose, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) dual-gate photo TFT working in both fingerprint-imaging mode and display-driving mode will be developed.

  6. A pixel design for X-ray imaging with CdTe sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, C.P.; Zervakis, E.G. [Technological Educational Institute of Halkis, Psahna - Evia (Greece); Loukas, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Agia Paraskevi - Attiki (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    A readout architecture appropriate for X-ray Imaging using charge integration has been designed. Each pixel consists of a capacitive transimpedance amplifier, a sample and hold circuit a comparator and an 8 bit DRAM. Pixel level A/D conversion and local storage of the digitized signal is performed. The target sensors are 100{mu}m x 100 {mu}m CdTe pixel detectors and integration time of 1ms or less can be achieved. Special measures have been taken to minimize the gain fixed pattern noise and the reset noise, while purely digital correlation double sampling can be performed. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. A pixel design for X-ray imaging with CdTe sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambropoulos, C.P.; Zervakis, E.G.; Loukas, D.

    2008-01-01

    A readout architecture appropriate for X-ray Imaging using charge integration has been designed. Each pixel consists of a capacitive transimpedance amplifier, a sample and hold circuit a comparator and an 8 bit DRAM. Pixel level A/D conversion and local storage of the digitized signal is performed. The target sensors are 100μm x 100 μm CdTe pixel detectors and integration time of 1ms or less can be achieved. Special measures have been taken to minimize the gain fixed pattern noise and the reset noise, while purely digital correlation double sampling can be performed. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS—A Platform Technology for Multiplexed Diagnostics and Digital Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Avci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the growing need in disease diagnostics has stimulated rapid development of new technologies with unprecedented capabilities. Recent emerging infectious diseases and epidemics have revealed the shortcomings of existing diagnostics tools, and the necessity for further improvements. Optical biosensors can lay the foundations for future generation diagnostics by providing means to detect biomarkers in a highly sensitive, specific, quantitative and multiplexed fashion. Here, we review an optical sensing technology, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS, and the relevant features of this multifunctional platform for quantitative, label-free and dynamic detection. We discuss two distinct modalities for IRIS: (i low-magnification (ensemble biomolecular mass measurements and (ii high-magnification (digital detection of individual nanoparticles along with their applications, including label-free detection of multiplexed protein chips, measurement of single nucleotide polymorphism, quantification of transcription factor DNA binding, and high sensitivity digital sensing and characterization of nanoparticles and viruses.

  9. 1T Pixel Using Floating-Body MOSFET for CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Neng Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a single-transistor pixel for CMOS image sensors (CIS. It is a floating-body MOSFET structure, which is used as photo-sensing device and source-follower transistor, and can be controlled to store and evacuate charges. Our investigation into this 1T pixel structure includes modeling to obtain analytical description of conversion gain. Model validation has been done by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental results. On the other hand, the 1T pixel structure has been implemented in different configurations, including rectangular-gate and ring-gate designs, and variations of oxidation parameters for the fabrication process. The pixel characteristics are presented and discussed.

  10. Monitoring of Freeze-Thaw Cycles in Concrete Using Embedded Sensors and Ultrasonic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranz, Javier; Aparicio, Sofía; Romero, Héctor; Casati, María Jesús; Molero, Miguel; González, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of damage produced during freeze-thaw (F-T) cycles using two non-destructive measurement approaches—the first approach devoted to continuous monitoring using embedded sensors during the cycles, and the second one, performing ultrasonic imaging before and after the cycles. Both methodologies have been tested in two different types of concrete specimens, with and without air-entraining agents. Using the first measurement approach, the size and distribution of pores were estimated using a thermoporometrical model and continuous measurements of temperature and ultrasonic velocity along cycles. These estimates have been compared with the results obtained using mercury porosimetry testing. In the second approach, the damage due to F-T cycles has been evaluated by automated ultrasonic transmission and pulse-echo inspections made before and after the cycles. With these inspections the variations in the dimensions, velocity and attenuation caused by the accelerated F-T cycles were determined. PMID:24481231

  11. A model for atmospheric brightness temperatures observed by the special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Grant W.; Katsaros, Kristina B.

    1989-01-01

    A closed-form mathematical model for the atmospheric contribution to microwave the absorption and emission at the SSM/I frequencies is developed in order to improve quantitative interpretation of microwave imagery from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The model is intended to accurately predict upwelling and downwelling atmospheric brightness temperatures at SSM/I frequencies, as functions of eight input parameters: the zenith (nadir) angle, the integrated water vapor and vapor scale height, the integrated cloud water and cloud height, the effective surface temperature, atmospheric lapse rate, and surface pressure. It is shown that the model accurately reproduces clear-sky brightness temperatures computed by explicit integration of a large number of radiosonde soundings representing all maritime climate zones and seasons.

  12. A 45 nm Stacked CMOS Image Sensor Process Technology for Submicron Pixel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Seiji; Huang, Yi-Min; Sze, Jhy-Jyi; Wu, Tung-Ting; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Hsu, Wei-Cheng; Tseng, Tung-Hsiung; Liao, King; Kuo, Chin-Chia; Chen, Tzu-Hsiang; Chiang, Wei-Chieh; Chuang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Keng-Yu; Chung, Chi-Hsien; Chou, Kuo-Yu; Tseng, Chien-Hsien; Wang, Chuan-Joung; Yaung, Dun-Nien

    2017-12-05

    A submicron pixel's light and dark performance were studied by experiment and simulation. An advanced node technology incorporated with a stacked CMOS image sensor (CIS) is promising in that it may enhance performance. In this work, we demonstrated a low dark current of 3.2 e - /s at 60 °C, an ultra-low read noise of 0.90 e - ·rms, a high full well capacity (FWC) of 4100 e - , and blooming of 0.5% in 0.9 μm pixels with a pixel supply voltage of 2.8 V. In addition, the simulation study result of 0.8 μm pixels is discussed.

  13. Backthinned TDI CCD image sensor design and performance for the Pleiades high resolution Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materne, A.; Bardoux, A.; Geoffray, H.; Tournier, T.; Kubik, P.; Morris, D.; Wallace, I.; Renard, C.

    2017-11-01

    The PLEIADES-HR Earth observing satellites, under CNES development, combine a 0.7m resolution panchromatic channel, and a multispectral channel allowing a 2.8 m resolution, in 4 spectral bands. The 2 satellites will be placed on a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 695 km. The camera operates in push broom mode, providing images across a 20 km swath. This paper focuses on the specifications, design and performance of the TDI detectors developed by e2v technologies under CNES contract for the panchromatic channel. Design drivers, derived from the mission and satellite requirements, architecture of the sensor and measurement results for key performances of the first prototypes are presented.

  14. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiemann, Dora K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Choi, Junoh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  15. Use of LST images from MODIS/AQUA sensor as an indication of frost occurrence in RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de S. Simões

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlthough frost occurrence causes severe losses in agriculture, especially in the south of Brazil, the data of minimum air temperature (Tmin currently available for monitoring and predicting frosts show insufficient spatial distribution. This study aimed to evaluate the MDY11A1 (LST – Land Surface Temperature product, from the MODIS sensor on board the AQUA satellite as an estimator of frost occurrence in the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. LST images from the nighttime overpass of the MODIS/AQUA sensor for the months of June, July and August from 2006 to 2012, and data from three conventional weather stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET were used. Consistency was observed between Tmin data measured in weather stations and LST data obtained from the MODIS sensor. According to the results, LSTs below 3 ºC recorded by the MODIS/AQUA sensor are an indication of a favorable scenario to frost occurrence.

  16. Development of a thinned back-illuminated CMOS active pixel sensor for extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging in space science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltham, N.R.; Prydderch, M.; Mapson-Menard, H.; Pool, P.; Harris, A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe our programme to develop a large-format, science-grade, monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor for future space science missions, and in particular an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrograph for solar physics studies on ESA's Solar Orbiter. Our route to EUV sensitivity relies on adapting the back-thinning and rear-illumination techniques first developed for CCD sensors. Our first large-format sensor consists of 4kx3k 5 μm pixels fabricated on a 0.25 μm CMOS imager process. Wafer samples of these sensors have been thinned by e2v technologies with the aim of obtaining good sensitivity at EUV wavelengths. We present results from both front- and back-illuminated versions of this sensor. We also present our plans to develop a new sensor of 2kx2k 10 μm pixels, which will be fabricated on a 0.35 μm CMOS process. In progress towards this goal, we have designed a test-structure consisting of six arrays of 512x512 10 μm pixels. Each of the arrays has been given a different pixel design to allow verification of our models, and our progress towards optimizing a design for minimal system readout noise and maximum dynamic range. These sensors will also be back-thinned for characterization at EUV wavelengths

  17. Non supervised classification of vegetable covers on digital images of remote sensors: Landsat - ETM+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arango Gutierrez, Mauricio; Branch Bedoya, John William; Botero Fernandez, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The plant species diversity in Colombia and the lack of inventory of them suggests the need for a process that facilitates the work of investigators in these disciplines. Remote satellite sensors such as landsat ETM+ and non-supervised artificial intelligence techniques, such as self-organizing maps - SOM, could provide viable alternatives for advancing in the rapid obtaining of information related to zones with different vegetative covers in the national geography. The zone proposed for the study case was classified in a supervised form by the method of maximum likelihood by another investigation in forest sciences and eight types of vegetative covers were discriminated. This information served as a base line to evaluate the performance of the non-supervised sort keys isodata and SOM. However, the information that the images provided had to first be purified according to the criteria of use and data quality, so that adequate information for these non-supervised methods were used. For this, several concepts were used; such as, image statistics, spectral behavior of the vegetative communities, sensor characteristics and the average divergence that allowed to define the best bands and their combinations. Principal component analysis was applied to these to reduce to the number of data while conserving a large percentage of the information. The non-supervised techniques were applied to these purified data, modifying some parameters that could yield a better convergence of the methods. The results obtained were compared with the supervised classification via confusion matrices and it was concluded that there was not a good convergence of non-supervised classification methods with this process for the case of vegetative covers

  18. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, D; Gaydecki, P; Quek, S; Torres, V

    2007-01-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research

  19. Coseismic displacements from SAR image offsets between different satellite sensors: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng; Wei, Shengji; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-01-01

    preearthquake ERS and postearthquake Envisat images. The rupture model estimated from these cross-sensor offsets and teleseismic waveforms shows a compact fault slip pattern with fairly short rise times (<3 s) and a large stress drop (20 MPa), explaining

  20. Development of a solid-state multi-sensor array camera for real time imaging of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, D.; Gaydecki, P.; Quek, S.; Torres, V.

    2007-07-01

    The development of a real-time magnetic field imaging camera based on solid-state sensors is described. The final laboratory comprises a 2D array of 33 x 33 solid state, tri-axial magneto-inductive sensors, and is located within a large current-carrying coil. This may be excited to produce either a steady or time-varying magnetic field. Outputs from several rows of sensors are routed to a sub-master controller and all sub-masters route to a master-controller responsible for data coordination and signal pre-processing. The data are finally streamed to a host computer via a USB interface and the image generated and displayed at a rate of several frames per second. Accurate image generation is predicated on a knowledge of the sensor response, magnetic field perturbations and the nature of the target respecting permeability and conductivity. To this end, the development of the instrumentation has been complemented by extensive numerical modelling of field distribution patterns using boundary element methods. Although it was originally intended for deployment in the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of reinforced concrete, it was soon realised during the course of the work that the magnetic field imaging system had many potential applications, for example, in medicine, security screening, quality assurance (such as the food industry), other areas of nondestructive evaluation (NDE), designs associated with magnetic fields, teaching and research.

  1. Hybrid surface platform for the simultaneous detection of proteins and DNA using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homola, Jiří; Piliarik, Marek; Ladd, J.; Taylor, A.; Shaoyi, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 11 (2008), s. 4231-4236 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Surface plasmon resonance imaging * DNA-directed immobilization * protein array Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 5.712, year: 2008

  2. Estimating Single and Multiple Target Locations Using K-Means Clustering with Radio Tomographic Imaging in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    clustering is an algorithm that has been used in data mining applications such as machine learning applications , pattern recognition, hyper-spectral imagery...42 3.7.2 Application of K-means Clustering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 3.8 Experiment Design...Tomographic Imaging WLAN Wireless Local Area Networks WSN Wireless Sensor Network xx ESTIMATING SINGLE AND MULTIPLE TARGET LOCATIONS USING K-MEANS CLUSTERING

  3. Test of the Practicality and Feasibility of EDoF-Empowered Image Sensors for Long-Range Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2016-11-25

    For many practical applications of image sensors, how to extend the depth-of-field (DoF) is an important research topic; if successfully implemented, it could be beneficial in various applications, from photography to biometrics. In this work, we want to examine the feasibility and practicability of a well-known "extended DoF" (EDoF) technique, or "wavefront coding," by building real-time long-range iris recognition and performing large-scale iris recognition. The key to the success of long-range iris recognition includes long DoF and image quality invariance toward various object distance, which is strict and harsh enough to test the practicality and feasibility of EDoF-empowered image sensors. Besides image sensor modification, we also explored the possibility of varying enrollment/testing pairs. With 512 iris images from 32 Asian people as the database, 400-mm focal length and F/6.3 optics over 3 m working distance, our results prove that a sophisticated coding design scheme plus homogeneous enrollment/testing setups can effectively overcome the blurring caused by phase modulation and omit Wiener-based restoration. In our experiments, which are based on 3328 iris images in total, the EDoF factor can achieve a result 3.71 times better than the original system without a loss of recognition accuracy.

  4. Test of the Practicality and Feasibility of EDoF-Empowered Image Sensors for Long-Range Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsun Hsieh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For many practical applications of image sensors, how to extend the depth-of-field (DoF is an important research topic; if successfully implemented, it could be beneficial in various applications, from photography to biometrics. In this work, we want to examine the feasibility and practicability of a well-known “extended DoF” (EDoF technique, or “wavefront coding,” by building real-time long-range iris recognition and performing large-scale iris recognition. The key to the success of long-range iris recognition includes long DoF and image quality invariance toward various object distance, which is strict and harsh enough to test the practicality and feasibility of EDoF-empowered image sensors. Besides image sensor modification, we also explored the possibility of varying enrollment/testing pairs. With 512 iris images from 32 Asian people as the database, 400-mm focal length and F/6.3 optics over 3 m working distance, our results prove that a sophisticated coding design scheme plus homogeneous enrollment/testing setups can effectively overcome the blurring caused by phase modulation and omit Wiener-based restoration. In our experiments, which are based on 3328 iris images in total, the EDoF factor can achieve a result 3.71 times better than the original system without a loss of recognition accuracy.

  5. Preoperative implant selection for unilateral breast reconstruction using 3D imaging with the Microsoft Kinect sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, Stefanie T L; Harkness, Elaine; Taylor, Christopher J; Gandhi, Ashu; Astley, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether breast volume measured preoperatively using a Kinect 3D sensor could be used to determine the most appropriate implant size for reconstruction. Ten patients underwent 3D imaging before and after unilateral implant-based reconstruction. Imaging used seven configurations, varying patient pose and Kinect location, which were compared regarding suitability for volume measurement. Four methods of defining the breast boundary for automated volume calculation were compared, and repeatability assessed over five repetitions. The most repeatable breast boundary annotation used an ellipse to track the inframammary fold and a plane describing the chest wall (coefficient of repeatability: 70 ml). The most reproducible imaging position comparing pre- and postoperative volume measurement of the healthy breast was achieved for the sitting patient with elevated arms and Kinect centrally positioned (coefficient of repeatability: 141 ml). Optimal implant volume was calculated by correcting used implant volume by the observed postoperative asymmetry. It was possible to predict implant size using a linear model derived from preoperative volume measurement of the healthy breast (coefficient of determination R 2  = 0.78, standard error of prediction 120 ml). Mastectomy specimen weight and experienced surgeons' choice showed similar predictive ability (both: R 2  = 0.74, standard error: 141/142 ml). A leave one-out validation showed that in 61% of cases, 3D imaging could predict implant volume to within 10%; however for 17% of cases it was >30%. This technology has the potential to facilitate reconstruction surgery planning and implant procurement to maximise symmetry after unilateral reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and Implementation of a Novel Compatible Encoding Scheme in the Time Domain for Image Sensor Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Nguyen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modulation scheme in the time domain based on On-Off-Keying and proposes various compatible supports for different types of image sensors. The content of this article is a sub-proposal to the IEEE 802.15.7r1 Task Group (TG7r1 aimed at Optical Wireless Communication (OWC using an image sensor as the receiver. The compatibility support is indispensable for Image Sensor Communications (ISC because the rolling shutter image sensors currently available have different frame rates, shutter speeds, sampling rates, and resolutions. However, focusing on unidirectional communications (i.e., data broadcasting, beacons, an asynchronous communication prototype is also discussed in the paper. Due to the physical limitations associated with typical image sensors (including low and varying frame rates, long exposures, and low shutter speeds, the link speed performance is critically considered. Based on the practical measurement of camera response to modulated light, an operating frequency range is suggested along with the similar system architecture, decoding procedure, and algorithms. A significant feature of our novel data frame structure is that it can support both typical frame rate cameras (in the oversampling mode as well as very low frame rate cameras (in the error detection mode for a camera whose frame rate is lower than the transmission packet rate. A high frame rate camera, i.e., no less than 20 fps, is supported in an oversampling mode in which a majority voting scheme for decoding data is applied. A low frame rate camera, i.e., when the frame rate drops to less than 20 fps at some certain time, is supported by an error detection mode in which any missing data sub-packet is detected in decoding and later corrected by external code. Numerical results and valuable analysis are also included to indicate the capability of the proposed schemes.

  7. Process techniques of charge transfer time reduction for high speed CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhongxiang; Li Quanliang; Han Ye; Qin Qi; Feng Peng; Liu Liyuan; Wu Nanjian

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes pixel process techniques to reduce the charge transfer time in high speed CMOS image sensors. These techniques increase the lateral conductivity of the photo-generated carriers in a pinned photodiode (PPD) and the voltage difference between the PPD and the floating diffusion (FD) node by controlling and optimizing the N doping concentration in the PPD and the threshold voltage of the reset transistor, respectively. The techniques shorten the charge transfer time from the PPD diode to the FD node effectively. The proposed process techniques do not need extra masks and do not cause harm to the fill factor. A sub array of 32 × 64 pixels was designed and implemented in the 0.18 μm CIS process with five implantation conditions splitting the N region in the PPD. The simulation and measured results demonstrate that the charge transfer time can be decreased by using the proposed techniques. Comparing the charge transfer time of the pixel with the different implantation conditions of the N region, the charge transfer time of 0.32 μs is achieved and 31% of image lag was reduced by using the proposed process techniques. (semiconductor devices)

  8. The Integration of the Image Sensor with a 3-DOF Pneumatic Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Ting Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to integrate the image sensor for a three-axial pneumatic parallel manipulator which can pick and place objects automatically by the feature information of the image processed through the SURF algorithm. The SURF algorithm is adopted for defining and matching the features of a target object and an object database. In order to accurately mark the center of target and strengthen the feature matching results, the random sample and consensus method (RANSAC is utilized. The ASUS Xtion Pro Live depth camera which can directly estimate the 3-D location of the target point is used in this study. A set of coordinate estimation calibrations is developed for enhancing the accuracy of target location estimation. This study also presents hand gesture recognition exploiting skin detection and noise elimination to determine the active finger count for input signals of the parallel manipulator. The end-effector of the parallel manipulator can be manipulated to the desired poses according to the measured finger count. Finally, the proposed methods are successfully to achieve the feature recognition and pick and place of the target object.

  9. Calibration of Binocular Vision Sensors Based on Unknown-Sized Elliptical Stripe Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensor (BSVS depend on a high-accuracy target with feature points that are difficult and costly to manufacture and. In complex light conditions, optical filters are used for BSVS, but they affect imaging quality. Hence, the use of a high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points for calibration is not feasible under such complex conditions. To solve these problems, a calibration method based on unknown-sized elliptical stripe images is proposed. With known intrinsic parameters, the proposed method adopts the elliptical stripes located on the parallel planes as a medium to calibrate BSVS online. In comparison with the common calibration methods, the proposed method avoids utilizing high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points. Therefore, the proposed method is not only easy to implement but is a realistic method for the calibration of BSVS with optical filter. Changing the size of elliptical curves projected on the target solves the difficulty of applying the proposed method in different fields of view and distances. Simulative and physical experiments are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. When the field of view is approximately 400 mm × 300 mm, the proposed method can reach a calibration accuracy of 0.03 mm, which is comparable with that of Zhang’s method.

  10. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Moraes, Elisabete C.; Bertani, Gabriel; dos Santos, Thiago V.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.

    2016-01-01

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001–December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance. PMID:27347957

  11. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Moraes, Elisabete C; Bertani, Gabriel; Dos Santos, Thiago V; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2016-06-24

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001-December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance.

  12. Thermoreflectance temperature imaging of integrated circuits: calibration technique and quantitative comparison with integrated sensors and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessier, G; Polignano, M-L; Pavageau, S; Filloy, C; Fournier, D; Cerutti, F; Mica, I

    2006-01-01

    Camera-based thermoreflectance microscopy is a unique tool for high spatial resolution thermal imaging of working integrated circuits. However, a calibration is necessary to obtain quantitative temperatures on the complex surface of integrated circuits. The spatial and temperature resolutions reached by thermoreflectance are excellent (360 nm and 2.5 x 10 -2 K in 1 min here), but the precision is more difficult to assess, notably due to the lack of comparable thermal techniques at submicron scales. We propose here a Peltier element control of the whole package temperature in order to obtain calibration coefficients simultaneously on several materials visible on the surface of the circuit. Under high magnifications, movements associated with thermal expansion are corrected using a piezo electric displacement and a software image shift. This calibration method has been validated by comparison with temperatures measured using integrated thermistors and diodes and by a finite volume simulation. We show that thermoreflectance measurements agree within a precision of ±2.3% with the on-chip sensors measurements. The diode temperature is found to underestimate the actual temperature of the active area by almost 70% due to the thermal contact of the diode with the substrate, acting as a heat sink

  13. Application Of FA Sensor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seon Ho

    1993-03-01

    This book introduces FA sensor from basic to making system, which includes light sensor like photo diode and photo transistor, photo electricity sensor, CCD type image sensor, MOS type image sensor, color sensor, cds cell, and optical fiber scope. It also deals with direct election position sensor such as proximity switch, differential motion, linear scale of photo electricity type, and magnet scale, rotary sensor with summary of rotary encoder, rotary encoder types and applications, flow sensor, and sensing technology.

  14. Comparison of Three Non-Imaging Angle-Diversity Receivers as Input Sensors of Nodes for Indoor Infrared Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R. Mendoza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, the use of angle-diversity receivers makes it possible to reduce the impact of ambient light noise, path loss and multipath distortion, in part by exploiting the fact that they often receive the desired signal from different directions. Angle-diversity detection can be performed using a composite receiver with multiple detector elements looking in different directions. These are called non-imaging angle-diversity receivers. In this paper, a comparison of three non-imaging angle-diversity receivers as input sensors of nodes for an indoor infrared (IR wireless sensor network is presented. The receivers considered are the conventional angle-diversity receiver (CDR, the sectored angle-diversity receiver (SDR, and the self-orienting receiver (SOR, which have been proposed or studied by research groups in Spain. To this end, the effective signal-collection area of the three receivers is modelled and a Monte-Carlo-based ray-tracing algorithm is implemented which allows us to investigate the effect on the signal to noise ratio and main IR channel parameters, such as path loss and rms delay spread, of using the three receivers in conjunction with different combination techniques in IR links operating at low bit rates. Based on the results of the simulations, we show that the use of a conventional angle-diversity receiver in conjunction with the equal-gain combining technique provides the solution with the best signal to noise ratio, the lowest computational capacity and the lowest transmitted power requirements, which comprise the main limitations for sensor nodes in an indoor infrared wireless sensor network.

  15. System and method for three-dimensional image reconstruction using an absolute orientation sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio; Ghanem, Bernard; Schneider, Jens; Wonka, Peter

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction system includes an image capture device, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and an image processor. The image capture device captures image data. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) is affixed to the image

  16. A New Sensor for Surface Process Quantification in the Geosciences - Image-Assisted Tacheometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicovac, Tanja; Reiterer, Alexander; Rieke-Zapp, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    The quantification of earth surface processes in the geosciences requires precise measurement tools. Typical applications for precise measurement systems involve deformation monitoring for geo-risk management, detection of erosion rates, etc. Often employed for such applications are laser scanners, photogrammetric sensors and image-assisted tacheometers. Image-assisted tacheometers offer the user (metrology expert) an image capturing system (CCD/CMOS camera) in addition to 3D point measurements. The images of the telescope's visual field are projected onto the camera's chip. The camera is capable of capturing panoramic image mosaics through camera rotation if the axes of the measurement system are driven by computer controlled motors. With appropriate calibration, these images are accurately geo-referenced and oriented since the horizontal and vertical angles of rotation are continuously measured and fed into the computer. The oriented images can then directly be used for direction measurements with no need for control points in object space or further photogrammetric orientation processes. In such a system, viewing angles must be addressed to chip pixels inside the optical field of view. Hence dedicated calibration methods have to be applied, an autofocus unit has to be added to the optical path, and special digital image processing procedures have to be used to detect the points of interest on the objects to be measured. We present such a new optical measurement system for measuring and describing 3D surfaces for geosciences. Besides the technique and methods some practical examples will be shown. The system was developed at the Vienna University of Technology (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics) - two interdisciplinary research project, i-MeaS and SedyMONT, have been launched with the purpose of measuring and interpreting 3D surfaces and surface processes. For the in situ measurement of bed rock erosion the level of surveying accuracy required for recurring sub

  17. Noise analysis of a novel hybrid active-passive pixel sensor for medical X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safavian, N.; Izadi, M.H.; Sultana, A.; Wu, D.; Karim, K.S.; Nathan, A.; Rowlands, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Passive pixel sensor (PPS) is one of the most widely used architectures in large area amorphous silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers. It consists of a detector and a thin film transistor (TFT) acting as a readout switch. While the PPS is advantageous in terms of providing a simple and small architecture suitable for high-resolution imaging, it directly exposes the signal to the noise of data line and external readout electronics, causing significant increase in the minimum readable sensor input signal. In this work we present the operation and noise performance of a hybrid 3-TFT current programmed, current output active pixel sensor (APS) suitable for real-time X-ray imaging. The pixel circuit extends the application of a-Si TFT from conventional switching element to on-pixel amplifier for enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and higher imager dynamic range. The capability of operation in both passive and active modes as well as being able to compensate for inherent instabilities of the TFTs makes the architecture a good candidate for X-ray imaging modalities with a wide range of incoming X-ray intensities. Measurement and theoretical calculations reveal a value for input refferd noise below the 1000 electron noise limit for real-time fluoroscopy. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. A contest of sensors in close range 3D imaging: performance evaluation with a new metric test object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hess

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An independent means of 3D image quality assessment is introduced, addressing non-professional users of sensors and freeware, which is largely characterized as closed-sourced and by the absence of quality metrics for processing steps, such as alignment. A performance evaluation of commercially available, state-of-the-art close range 3D imaging technologies is demonstrated with the help of a newly developed Portable Metric Test Artefact. The use of this test object provides quality control by a quantitative assessment of 3D imaging sensors. It will enable users to give precise specifications which spatial resolution and geometry recording they expect as outcome from their 3D digitizing process. This will lead to the creation of high-quality 3D digital surrogates and 3D digital assets. The paper is presented in the form of a competition of teams, and a possible winner will emerge.

  19. Fast responsive fluorescence turn-on sensor for Cu2+ and its application in live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaoliang; Li Hao; Long Liping; Xiao Guqing; Xie Dan

    2012-01-01

    A new effective fluorescent sensor based on rhodamine was synthesized, which was induced by Cu 2+ in aqueous media to produce turn-on fluorescence. The new sensor 1 exhibited good selectivity for Cu 2+ over other heavy and transition metal (HTM) ions in H 2 O/CH 3 CN(7:3, v/v). Upon addition of Cu 2+ , a remarkable color change from colorless to pink was easily observed by the naked eye, and the dramatic fluorescence turn-on was corroborated. Furthermore, kinetic assay indicates that sensor 1 could be used for real-time tracking of Cu 2+ in cells and organisms. In addition, the turn-on fluorescent change upon the addition of Cu 2+ was also applied in bioimaging. - Highlights: ► A new effective fluorescent sensor based on rhodamine was developed to detect Cu 2+ . ► The sensor exhibited fast response, good selectivity at physiological pH condition. ► The sensor was an effective intracellular Cu 2+ ion imaging agent.

  20. Fast responsive fluorescence turn-on sensor for Cu{sup 2+} and its application in live cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiaoliang, E-mail: wangjiaoliang@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, Hunan City University, Yiyang 413000 (China); Li Hao; Long Liping; Xiao Guqing; Xie Dan [College of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, Hunan City University, Yiyang 413000 (China)

    2012-09-15

    A new effective fluorescent sensor based on rhodamine was synthesized, which was induced by Cu{sup 2+} in aqueous media to produce turn-on fluorescence. The new sensor 1 exhibited good selectivity for Cu{sup 2+} over other heavy and transition metal (HTM) ions in H{sub 2}O/CH{sub 3}CN(7:3, v/v). Upon addition of Cu{sup 2+}, a remarkable color change from colorless to pink was easily observed by the naked eye, and the dramatic fluorescence turn-on was corroborated. Furthermore, kinetic assay indicates that sensor 1 could be used for real-time tracking of Cu{sup 2+} in cells and organisms. In addition, the turn-on fluorescent change upon the addition of Cu{sup 2+} was also applied in bioimaging. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new effective fluorescent sensor based on rhodamine was developed to detect Cu{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor exhibited fast response, good selectivity at physiological pH condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensor was an effective intracellular Cu{sup 2+} ion imaging agent.

  1. Real-time, wide-area hyperspectral imaging sensors for standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Tazik, Shawna; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the detection and analysis of targets located within complex backgrounds. HSI can detect threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have size, weight, and power limitations that prohibit their use for field-portable and/or real-time applications. Current generation systems commonly provide an inefficient area search rate, require close proximity to the target for screening, and/or are not capable of making real-time measurements. ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of real-time, wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems that utilize shortwave infrared (SWIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopy. SWIR HSI sensors provide wide-area imagery with at or near real time detection speeds. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focusing on sensor design and detection results.

  2. Nuclear Radiation Degradation Study on HD Camera Based on CMOS Image Sensor at Different Dose Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congzheng Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we irradiated a high-definition (HD industrial camera based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS CMOS image sensor (CIS with Cobalt-60 gamma-rays. All components of the camera under test were fabricated without radiation hardening, except for the lens. The irradiation experiments of the HD camera under biased conditions were carried out at 1.0, 10.0, 20.0, 50.0 and 100.0 Gy/h. During the experiment, we found that the tested camera showed a remarkable degradation after irradiation and differed in the dose rates. With the increase of dose rate, the same target images become brighter. Under the same dose rate, the radiation effect in bright area is lower than that in dark area. Under different dose rates, the higher the dose rate is, the worse the radiation effect will be in both bright and dark areas. And the standard deviations of bright and dark areas become greater. Furthermore, through the progressive degradation analysis of the captured image, experimental results demonstrate that the attenuation of signal to noise ratio (SNR versus radiation time is not obvious at the same dose rate, and the degradation is more and more serious with increasing dose rate. Additionally, the decrease rate of SNR at 20.0, 50.0 and 100.0 Gy/h is far greater than that at 1.0 and 10.0 Gy/h. Even so, we confirm that the HD industrial camera is still working at 10.0 Gy/h during the 8 h of measurements, with a moderate decrease of the SNR (5 dB. The work is valuable and can provide suggestion for camera users in the radiation field.

  3. Nuclear Radiation Degradation Study on HD Camera Based on CMOS Image Sensor at Different Dose Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzheng; Hu, Song; Gao, Chunming; Feng, Chang

    2018-02-08

    In this work, we irradiated a high-definition (HD) industrial camera based on a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) CMOS image sensor (CIS) with Cobalt-60 gamma-rays. All components of the camera under test were fabricated without radiation hardening, except for the lens. The irradiation experiments of the HD camera under biased conditions were carried out at 1.0, 10.0, 20.0, 50.0 and 100.0 Gy/h. During the experiment, we found that the tested camera showed a remarkable degradation after irradiation and differed in the dose rates. With the increase of dose rate, the same target images become brighter. Under the same dose rate, the radiation effect in bright area is lower than that in dark area. Under different dose rates, the higher the dose rate is, the worse the radiation effect will be in both bright and dark areas. And the standard deviations of bright and dark areas become greater. Furthermore, through the progressive degradation analysis of the captured image, experimental results demonstrate that the attenuation of signal to noise ratio (SNR) versus radiation time is not obvious at the same dose rate, and the degradation is more and more serious with increasing dose rate. Additionally, the decrease rate of SNR at 20.0, 50.0 and 100.0 Gy/h is far greater than that at 1.0 and 10.0 Gy/h. Even so, we confirm that the HD industrial camera is still working at 10.0 Gy/h during the 8 h of measurements, with a moderate decrease of the SNR (5 dB). The work is valuable and can provide suggestion for camera users in the radiation field.

  4. Image synchronization for 3D application using the NanEye sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ricardo M.; Wäny, Martin; Santos, Pedro; Dias, Morgado

    2015-03-01

    Based on Awaiba's NanEye CMOS image sensor family and a FPGA platform with USB3 interface, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate a novel technique to perfectly synchronize up to 8 individual self-timed cameras. Minimal form factor self-timed camera modules of 1 mm x 1 mm or smaller do not generally allow external synchronization. However, for stereo vision or 3D reconstruction with multiple cameras as well as for applications requiring pulsed illumination it is required to synchronize multiple cameras. In this work, the challenge to synchronize multiple self-timed cameras with only 4 wire interface has been solved by adaptively regulating the power supply for each of the cameras to synchronize their frame rate and frame phase. To that effect, a control core was created to constantly monitor the operating frequency of each camera by measuring the line period in each frame based on a well-defined sampling signal. The frequency is adjusted by varying the voltage level applied to the sensor based on the error between the measured line period and the desired line period. To ensure phase synchronization between frames of multiple cameras, a Master-Slave interface was implemented. A single camera is defined as the Master entity, with its operating frequency being controlled directly through a PC based interface. The remaining cameras are setup in Slave mode and are interfaced directly with the Master camera control module. This enables the remaining cameras to monitor its line and frame period and adjust their own to achieve phase and frequency synchronization. The result of this work will allow the realization of smaller than 3mm diameter 3D stereo vision equipment in medical endoscopic context, such as endoscopic surgical robotic or micro invasive surgery.

  5. An ultrasensitive method of real time pH monitoring with complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2015-02-09

    CMOS sensors are becoming a powerful tool in the biological and chemical field. In this work, we introduce a new approach on quantifying various pH solutions with a CMOS image sensor. The CMOS image sensor based pH measurement produces high-accuracy analysis, making it a truly portable and user friendly system. pH indicator blended hydrogel matrix was fabricated as a thin film to the accurate color development. A distinct color change of red, green and blue (RGB) develops in the hydrogel film by applying various pH solutions (pH 1-14). The semi-quantitative pH evolution was acquired by visual read out. Further, CMOS image sensor absorbs the RGB color intensity of the film and hue value converted into digital numbers with the aid of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to determine the pH ranges of solutions. Chromaticity diagram and Euclidean distance represent the RGB color space and differentiation of pH ranges, respectively. This technique is applicable to sense the various toxic chemicals and chemical vapors by situ sensing. Ultimately, the entire approach can be integrated into smartphone and operable with the user friendly manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel CMOS image sensor system for quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays to detect food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Kim, Sanghyo; An, Jeong Ho

    2017-02-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is considered as one of the alternatives to the conventional PCR and it is an inexpensive portable diagnostic system with minimal power consumption. The present work describes the application of LAMP in real-time photon detection and quantitative analysis of nucleic acids integrated with a disposable complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor. This novel system works as an amplification-coupled detection platform, relying on a CMOS image sensor, with the aid of a computerized circuitry controller for the temperature and light sources. The CMOS image sensor captures the light which is passing through the sensor surface and converts into digital units using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This new system monitors the real-time photon variation, caused by the color changes during amplification. Escherichia coli O157 was used as a proof-of-concept target for quantitative analysis, and compared with the results for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica to confirm the efficiency of the system. The system detected various DNA concentrations of E. coli O157 in a short time (45min), with a detection limit of 10fg/μL. The low-cost, simple, and compact design, with low power consumption, represents a significant advance in the development of a portable, sensitive, user-friendly, real-time, and quantitative analytic tools for point-of-care diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Control Design and Digital Implementation of a Fast 2-Degree-of-Freedom Translational Optical Image Stabilizer for Image Sensors in Mobile Camera Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeremy H-S; Qiu, Kang-Fu; Chao, Paul C-P

    2017-10-13

    This study presents design, digital implementation and performance validation of a lead-lag controller for a 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) translational optical image stabilizer (OIS) installed with a digital image sensor in mobile camera phones. Nowadays, OIS is an important feature of modern commercial mobile camera phones, which aims to mechanically reduce the image blur caused by hand shaking while shooting photos. The OIS developed in this study is able to move the imaging lens by actuating its voice coil motors (VCMs) at the required speed to the position that significantly compensates for imaging blurs by hand shaking. The compensation proposed is made possible by first establishing the exact, nonlinear equations of motion (EOMs) for the OIS, which is followed by designing a simple lead-lag controller based on established nonlinear EOMs for simple digital computation via a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board in order to achieve fast response. Finally, experimental validation is conducted to show the favorable performance of the designed OIS; i.e., it is able to stabilize the lens holder to the desired position within 0.02 s, which is much less than previously reported times of around 0.1 s. Also, the resulting residual vibration is less than 2.2-2.5 μm, which is commensurate to the very small pixel size found in most of commercial image sensors; thus, significantly minimizing image blur caused by hand shaking.

  8. The Design and Evaluation of the Lighting Imaging Sensor Data Applications Display (LISDAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldi, B.; Hodanish, S.; Sharp, D.; Williams, E.; Goodman, Steven; Raghavan, R.; Matlin, A.; Weber, M.

    1998-01-01

    The design and evaluation of the Lightning Imaging Sensor Data Applications Display (LISDAD). The ultimate goal of the LISDAD system is to quantify the utility of total lightning information in short-term, severe-weather forecasting operations. To this end, scientists from NASA, NWS, and MIT organized an effort to study the relationship of lightning and severe-weather on a storm-by-storm, and even cell-by-cell basis for as many storms as possible near Melbourne, Florida. Melbourne was chosen as it offers a unique combination of high probability of severe weather and proximity to major relevant sensors - specifically: NASA's total lightning mapping system at Kennedy Space Center (the LDAR system at KSC); a NWS/NEXRAD radar (at Melbourne); and a prototype Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS, at Orlando), which obtains cloud-to-ground lightning Information from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and also uses NSSL's Severe Storm Algorithm (NSSL/SSAP) to obtain information about various storm-cell parameters. To assist in realizing this project's goal, an interactive, real-time data processing system (the LISDAD system) has been developed that supports both operational short-term weather forecasting and post facto severe-storm research. Suggestions have been drawn from the operational users (NWS/Melbourne) in the design of the data display and its salient behavior. The initial concept for the users Graphical Situation Display (GSD) was simply to overlay radar data with lightning data, but as the association between rapid upward trends in the total lightning rate and severe weather became evident, the display was significantly redesigned. The focus changed to support the display of time series of storm-parameter data and the automatic recognition of cells that display rapid changes in the total-lightning flash rate. The latter is calculated by grouping discrete LDAR radiation sources into lightning flashes using a time-space association algorithm

  9. Simplified wide dynamic range CMOS image sensor with 3t APS reset-drain actuation

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Augusto de Moraes Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Um sensor de imagem é uma matriz de pequenas células fotossensíveis chamadas sensores de pixeis. Um pixel, elemento el fotográfico (picture) pix, é a menor porção de uma imagem. Assim o sensor de pixel é a menor célula de um sensor de imagem, capaz de detectar um ponto singular da imagem. Este ponto é então usado para reconstruir um quadro completo de imagem. Sensores de imagem CMOS são atualmente largamente utilizados tanto em câmeras profissionais como em aparelhos moveis em geral como celu...

  10. Proximity gettering technology for advanced CMOS image sensors using carbon cluster ion-implantation technique. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, Kazunari; Kadono, Takeshi; Okuyama, Ryousuke; Shigemastu, Satoshi; Hirose, Ryo; Onaka-Masada, Ayumi; Koga, Yoshihiro; Okuda, Hidehiko [SUMCO Corporation, Saga (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    A new technique is described for manufacturing advanced silicon wafers with the highest capability yet reported for gettering transition metallic, oxygen, and hydrogen impurities in CMOS image sensor fabrication processes. Carbon and hydrogen elements are localized in the projection range of the silicon wafer by implantation of ion clusters from a hydrocarbon molecular gas source. Furthermore, these wafers can getter oxygen impurities out-diffused to device active regions from a Czochralski grown silicon wafer substrate to the carbon cluster ion projection range during heat treatment. Therefore, they can reduce the formation of transition metals and oxygen-related defects in the device active regions and improve electrical performance characteristics, such as the dark current, white spot defects, pn-junction leakage current, and image lag characteristics. The new technique enables the formation of high-gettering-capability sinks for transition metals, oxygen, and hydrogen impurities under device active regions of CMOS image sensors. The wafers formed by this technique have the potential to significantly improve electrical devices performance characteristics in advanced CMOS image sensors. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Towards UV imaging sensors based on single-crystal diamond chips for spectroscopic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sio, A. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, 50125 Florence (Italy)], E-mail: desio@arcetri.astro.it; Bocci, A. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, 50125 Florence (Italy); Bruno, P.; Di Benedetto, R.; Greco, V.; Gullotta, G. [INAF-Astrophysical Observatory of Catania (Italy); Marinelli, M. [INFN-Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' (Italy); Pace, E. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, 50125 Florence (Italy); Rubulotta, D.; Scuderi, S. [INAF-Astrophysical Observatory of Catania (Italy); Verona-Rinati, G. [INFN-Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' (Italy)

    2007-12-11

    The recent improvements achieved in the Homoepitaxial Chemical Vapour Deposition technique have led to the production of high-quality detector-grade single-crystal diamonds. Diamond-based detectors have shown excellent performances in UV and X-ray detection, paving the way for applications of diamond technology to the fields of space astronomy and high-energy photon detection in harsh environments or against strong visible light emission. These applications are possible due to diamond's unique properties such as its chemical inertness and visible blindness, respectively. Actually, the development of linear array detectors represents the main issue for a full exploitation of diamond detectors. Linear arrays are a first step to study bi-dimensional sensors. Such devices allow one to face the problems related to pixel miniaturisation and of signal read-out from many channels. Immediate applications would be in spectroscopy, where such arrays are preferred. This paper reports on the development of imaging detectors made by our groups, starting from the material growth and characterisation, through the design, fabrication and packaging of 2xn pixel arrays, to their electro-optical characterisation in terms of UV sensitivity, uniformity of the response and to the development of an electronic circuit suitable to read-out very low photocurrent signals. The detector and its electronic read-out were then tested using a 2x5 pixel array based on a single-crystal diamond. The results will be discussed in the framework of the development of an imager device for X-UV astronomy applications in space missions.

  12. Microwave Imaging Sensor Using Compact Metamaterial UWB Antenna with a High Correlation Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a compact metamaterial ultra-wideband (UWB antenna with a goal towards application in microwave imaging systems for detecting unwanted cells in human tissue, such as in cases of breast cancer, heart failure and brain stroke detection is proposed. This proposed UWB antenna is made of four metamaterial unit cells, where each cell is an integration of a modified split ring resonator (SRR, capacitive loaded strip (CLS and wire, to attain a design layout that simultaneously exhibits both a negative magnetic permeability and a negative electrical permittivity. This design results in an astonishing negative refractive index that enables amplification of the radiated power of this reported antenna, and therefore, high antenna performance. A low-cost FR4 substrate material is used to design and print this reported antenna, and has the following characteristics: thickness of 1.6 mm, relative permeability of one, relative permittivity of 4.60 and loss tangent of 0.02. The overall antenna size is 19.36 mm × 27.72 mm × 1.6 mm where the electrical dimension is 0.20 λ × 0.28 λ × 0.016 λ at the 3.05 GHz lower frequency band. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR measurements have illustrated that this antenna exhibits an impedance bandwidth from 3.05 GHz to more than 15 GHz for VSWR < 2 with an average gain of 4.38 dBi throughout the operating frequency band. The simulations (both HFSS and computer simulation technology (CST and the measurements are in high agreement. A high correlation factor and the capability of detecting tumour simulants confirm that this reported UWB antenna can be used as an imaging sensor.

  13. Denoising Algorithm for CFA Image Sensors Considering Inter-Channel Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Seok; Park, Sang Wook; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-05-28

    In this paper, a spatio-spectral-temporal filter considering an inter-channel correlation is proposed for the denoising of a color filter array (CFA) sequence acquired by CCD/CMOS image sensors. Owing to the alternating under-sampled grid of the CFA pattern, the inter-channel correlation must be considered in the direct denoising process. The proposed filter is applied in the spatial, spectral, and temporal domain, considering the spatio-tempo-spectral correlation. First, nonlocal means (NLM) spatial filtering with patch-based difference (PBD) refinement is performed by considering both the intra-channel correlation and inter-channel correlation to overcome the spatial resolution degradation occurring with the alternating under-sampled pattern. Second, a motion-compensated temporal filter that employs inter-channel correlated motion estimation and compensation is proposed to remove the noise in the temporal domain. Then, a motion adaptive detection value controls the ratio of the spatial filter and the temporal filter. The denoised CFA sequence can thus be obtained without motion artifacts. Experimental results for both simulated and real CFA sequences are presented with visual and numerical comparisons to several state-of-the-art denoising methods combined with a demosaicing method. Experimental results confirmed that the proposed frameworks outperformed the other techniques in terms of the objective criteria and subjective visual perception in CFA sequences.

  14. Modeling random telegraph signal noise in CMOS image sensor under low light based on binomial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yu; Wang Guangyi; Lu Xinmiao; Hu Yongcai; Xu Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    The random telegraph signal noise in the pixel source follower MOSFET is the principle component of the noise in the CMOS image sensor under low light. In this paper, the physical and statistical model of the random telegraph signal noise in the pixel source follower based on the binomial distribution is set up. The number of electrons captured or released by the oxide traps in the unit time is described as the random variables which obey the binomial distribution. As a result, the output states and the corresponding probabilities of the first and the second samples of the correlated double sampling circuit are acquired. The standard deviation of the output states after the correlated double sampling circuit can be obtained accordingly. In the simulation section, one hundred thousand samples of the source follower MOSFET have been simulated, and the simulation results show that the proposed model has the similar statistical characteristics with the existing models under the effect of the channel length and the density of the oxide trap. Moreover, the noise histogram of the proposed model has been evaluated at different environmental temperatures. (paper)

  15. Novel Noninvasive Brain Disease Detection System Using a Facial Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain disease including any conditions or disabilities that affect the brain is fast becoming a leading cause of death. The traditional diagnostic methods of brain disease are time-consuming, inconvenient and non-patient friendly. As more and more individuals undergo examinations to determine if they suffer from any form of brain disease, developing noninvasive, efficient, and patient friendly detection systems will be beneficial. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel noninvasive brain disease detection system based on the analysis of facial colors. The system consists of four components. A facial image is first captured through a specialized sensor, where four facial key blocks are next located automatically from the various facial regions. Color features are extracted from each block to form a feature vector for classification via the Probabilistic Collaborative based Classifier. To thoroughly test the system and its performance, seven facial key block combinations were experimented. The best result was achieved using the second facial key block, where it showed that the Probabilistic Collaborative based Classifier is the most suitable. The overall performance of the proposed system achieves an accuracy −95%, a sensitivity −94.33%, a specificity −95.67%, and an average processing time (for one sample of <1 min at brain disease detection.

  16. Vertically integrated monolithic pixel sensors for charged particle tracking and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Gaioni, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic pixel sensors have been designed following the same approach that was exploited for the development of the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous layers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. One of the two tiers, which are face-to-face bonded, has to be thinned down to about 12μm to expose the through silicon vias connecting the circuits to the back-metal bond pads. As a consequence of the way the two parts of each single chip are designed and fabricated, the prototypes of the 3D monolithic detector will include both samples with a thick substrate underneath the collecting DNW electrode, suitable for charged particle tracking, and samples with a very thin (about 6μm) sensitive volume, which may be used to detect low energy particles in biomedical imaging applications. Device physics simulations have been performed to evaluate the collection properties and detection efficiency of the proposed vertically integrated structures.

  17. Vertically integrated monolithic pixel sensors for charged particle tracking and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, L., E-mail: lodovico.ratti@unipv.it [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Gaioni, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Traversi, G. [Universita di Bergamo, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Via Marconi 5, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional monolithic pixel sensors have been designed following the same approach that was exploited for the development of the so-called deep N-well (DNW) MAPS in planar CMOS process. The new 3D design relies upon stacking two homogeneous layers fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology. One of the two tiers, which are face-to-face bonded, has to be thinned down to about 12{mu}m to expose the through silicon vias connecting the circuits to the back-metal bond pads. As a consequence of the way the two parts of each single chip are designed and fabricated, the prototypes of the 3D monolithic detector will include both samples with a thick substrate underneath the collecting DNW electrode, suitable for charged particle tracking, and samples with a very thin (about 6{mu}m) sensitive volume, which may be used to detect low energy particles in biomedical imaging applications. Device physics simulations have been performed to evaluate the collection properties and detection efficiency of the proposed vertically integrated structures.

  18. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Chul Lim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces.

  19. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Shin, Jungsoon; Kim, Seung-Chan; Park, Joonah

    2015-07-09

    Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user's hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR) line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces.

  20. Expansion of Smartwatch Touch Interface from Touchscreen to Around Device Interface Using Infrared Line Image Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo-Chul; Shin, Jungsoon; Kim, Seung-Chan; Park, Joonah

    2015-01-01

    Touchscreen interaction has become a fundamental means of controlling mobile phones and smartwatches. However, the small form factor of a smartwatch limits the available interactive surface area. To overcome this limitation, we propose the expansion of the touch region of the screen to the back of the user’s hand. We developed a touch module for sensing the touched finger position on the back of the hand using infrared (IR) line image sensors, based on the calibrated IR intensity and the maximum intensity region of an IR array. For complete touch-sensing solution, a gyroscope installed in the smartwatch is used to read the wrist gestures. The gyroscope incorporates a dynamic time warping gesture recognition algorithm for eliminating unintended touch inputs during the free motion of the wrist while wearing the smartwatch. The prototype of the developed sensing module was implemented in a commercial smartwatch, and it was confirmed that the sensed positional information of the finger when it was used to touch the back of the hand could be used to control the smartwatch graphical user interface. Our system not only affords a novel experience for smartwatch users, but also provides a basis for developing other useful interfaces. PMID:26184202

  1. Coseismic displacements from SAR image offsets between different satellite sensors: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng

    2015-09-05

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image offset tracking is increasingly being used for measuring ground displacements, e.g., due to earthquakes and landslide movement. However, this technique has been applied only to images acquired by the same or identical satellites. Here we propose a novel approach for determining offsets between images acquired by different satellite sensors, extending the usability of existing SAR image archives. The offsets are measured between two multiimage reflectivity maps obtained from different SAR data sets, which provide significantly better results than with single preevent and postevent images. Application to the 2001 Mw7.6 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field deformation using multiple preearthquake ERS and postearthquake Envisat images. The rupture model estimated from these cross-sensor offsets and teleseismic waveforms shows a compact fault slip pattern with fairly short rise times (<3 s) and a large stress drop (20 MPa), explaining the intense shaking observed in the earthquake.

  2. The Continuous Plankton Imaging and Classification Sensor (CPICS): A Sensor for Quantifying Mesoplankton Biodiversity and Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallager, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Marine ecosystems are changing at a variety of time scales as a function of a diverse suite of forcing functions both natural and anthropogenic. Establishing a continuous plankton time series consisting of scales from rapid (seconds) to long-term (decades), provides a sentinel for ecosystem change. The key is to measure plankton biodiversity at sufficiently fast time scales that allow disentanglement of physical (transport) and biological (growth) properties of an ecosystem. CPICS is a plankton and particle imaging microscope system that is designed to produce crisp darkfield images of light scattering material in aquatic environments. The open flow design is non-invasive and non-restrictive providing images of very fragile plankton in their natural orientation. Several magnifications are possible from 0.5 to 5x forming a field of view of 10cm to 1mm, respectively. CPICS has been installed on several cabled observing systems called OceanCubes off the coast of Okinawa and Tokyo, Japan providing a continuous stream of plankton images to a machine vision image classifier located at WHOI. Image features include custom algorithms for texture, color pattern, morphology and shape, which are extracted from in-focus target. The features are then used to train a classifier (e.g., Random Forest) resulting in classifications that are tested using cross-validation, confusion matrices and ROC curves. High (>90%) classification accuracies are possible depending on the number of training categories and target complexity. A web-based utility allows access to raw images, training sets, classifiers and classification results. Combined with chemical and physical data from the observatories, an ecologically meaningful plankton index of biodiversity and its variance is developed using a combination of species and taxon groups, which provides an approach for understanding ecosystem change without the need to identify all targets to species. http://oceancubes.whoi.edu/instruments/CPICS

  3. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  4. AROSICS: An Automated and Robust Open-Source Image Co-Registration Software for Multi-Sensor Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scheffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial co-registration is a mandatory prerequisite when dealing with remote sensing data. Inter- or intra-sensoral misregistration will negatively affect any subsequent image analysis, specifically when processing multi-sensoral or multi-temporal data. In recent decades, many algorithms have been developed to enable manual, semi- or fully automatic displacement correction. Especially in the context of big data processing and the development of automated processing chains that aim to be applicable to different remote sensing systems, there is a strong need for efficient, accurate and generally usable co-registration. Here, we present AROSICS (Automated and Robust Open-Source Image Co-Registration Software, a Python-based open-source software including an easy-to-use user interface for automatic detection and correction of sub-pixel misalignments between various remote sensing datasets. It is independent of spatial or spectral characteristics and robust against high degrees of cloud coverage and spectral and temporal land cover dynamics. The co-registration is based on phase correlation for sub-pixel shift estimation in the frequency domain utilizing the Fourier shift theorem in a moving-window manner. A dense grid of spatial shift vectors can be created and automatically filtered by combining various validation and quality estimation metrics. Additionally, the software supports the masking of, e.g., clouds and cloud shadows to exclude such areas from spatial shift detection. The software has been tested on more than 9000 satellite images acquired by different sensors. The results are evaluated exemplarily for two inter-sensoral and two intra-sensoral use cases and show registration results in the sub-pixel range with root mean square error fits around 0.3 pixels and better.

  5. Laser beam welding quality monitoring system based in high-speed (10 kHz) uncooled MWIR imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rodrigo; Vergara, German; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Fernández, Carlos; Villamayor, Víctor; Gómez, Luis; González-Camino, Maria; Baldasano, Arturo; Castro, G.; Arias, R.; Lapido, Y.; Rodríguez, J.; Romero, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    The combination of flexibility, productivity, precision and zero-defect manufacturing in future laser-based equipment are a major challenge that faces this enabling technology. New sensors for online monitoring and real-time control of laserbased processes are necessary for improving products quality and increasing manufacture yields. New approaches to fully automate processes towards zero-defect manufacturing demand smarter heads where lasers, optics, actuators, sensors and electronics will be integrated in a unique compact and affordable device. Many defects arising in laser-based manufacturing processes come from instabilities in the dynamics of the laser process. Temperature and heat dynamics are key parameters to be monitored. Low cost infrared imagers with high-speed of response will constitute the next generation of sensors to be implemented in future monitoring and control systems for laser-based processes, capable to provide simultaneous information about heat dynamics and spatial distribution. This work describes the result of using an innovative low-cost high-speed infrared imager based on the first quantum infrared imager monolithically integrated with Si-CMOS ROIC of the market. The sensor is able to provide low resolution images at frame rates up to 10 KHz in uncooled operation at the same cost as traditional infrared spot detectors. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the new sensor technology, a low-cost camera was assembled on a standard production laser welding head, allowing to register melting pool images at frame rates of 10 kHz. In addition, a specific software was developed for defect detection and classification. Multiple laser welding processes were recorded with the aim to study the performance of the system and its application to the real-time monitoring of laser welding processes. During the experiments, different types of defects were produced and monitored. The classifier was fed with the experimental images obtained. Self

  6. Low-Power Radio and Image-Sensor Package, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most effective sensor modalities for situational awareness is imagery. While typically high bandwidth and relegated to analog wireless communications,...

  7. Low Dose X-Ray Sources and High Quantum Efficiency Sensors: The Next Challenge in Dental Digital Imaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnav R. Mistry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s. The major challenge encountered to decrease the milliamperes (mA level in X-ray imaging systems is the quantum noise phenomena. This investigation evaluated dose exposure and image resolution of a low dose X-ray imaging (LDXI prototype comprising a low mA X-ray source and a novel microlens-based sensor relative to current imaging technologies. Study Design. A LDXI in static (group 1 and dynamic (group 2 modes was compared to medical fluoroscopy (group 3, digital intraoral radiography (group 4, and CBCT scan (group 5 using a dental phantom. Results. The Mann-Whitney test showed no statistical significance (α=0.01 in dose exposure between groups 1 and 3 and 1 and 4 and timing exposure (seconds between groups 1 and 5 and 2 and 3. Image resolution test showed group 1 > group 4 > group 2 > group 3 > group 5. Conclusions. The LDXI proved the concept for obtaining a high definition image resolution for static and dynamic radiography at lower or similar dose exposure and smaller pixel size, respectively, when compared to current imaging technologies. Lower mA at the X-ray source and high QE at the detector level principles with microlens could be applied to current imaging technologies to considerably reduce dose exposure without compromising image resolution in the near future.

  8. Low-Voltage 96 dB Snapshot CMOS Image Sensor with 4.5 nW Power Dissipation per Pixel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly Yadid-Pecht

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern “smart” CMOS sensors have penetrated into various applications, such as surveillance systems, bio-medical applications, digital cameras, cellular phones and many others. Reducing the power of these sensors continuously challenges designers. In this paper, a low power global shutter CMOS image sensor with Wide Dynamic Range (WDR ability is presented. This sensor features several power reduction techniques, including a dual voltage supply, a selective power down, transistors with different threshold voltages, a non-rationed logic, and a low voltage static memory. A combination of all these approaches has enabled the design of the low voltage “smart” image sensor, which is capable of reaching a remarkable dynamic range, while consuming very low power. The proposed power-saving solutions have allowed the maintenance of the standard architecture of the sensor, reducing both the time and the cost of the design. In order to maintain the image quality, a relation between the sensor performance and power has been analyzed and a mathematical model, describing the sensor Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and Dynamic Range (DR as a function of the power supplies, is proposed. The described sensor was implemented in a 0.18 um CMOS process and successfully tested in the laboratory. An SNR of 48 dB and DR of 96 dB were achieved with a power dissipation of 4.5 nW per pixel.

  9. Low-voltage 96 dB snapshot CMOS image sensor with 4.5 nW power dissipation per pixel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Arthur; Teman, Adam; Belenky, Alexander; Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Fish, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Modern "smart" CMOS sensors have penetrated into various applications, such as surveillance systems, bio-medical applications, digital cameras, cellular phones and many others. Reducing the power of these sensors continuously challenges designers. In this paper, a low power global shutter CMOS image sensor with Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) ability is presented. This sensor features several power reduction techniques, including a dual voltage supply, a selective power down, transistors with different threshold voltages, a non-rationed logic, and a low voltage static memory. A combination of all these approaches has enabled the design of the low voltage "smart" image sensor, which is capable of reaching a remarkable dynamic range, while consuming very low power. The proposed power-saving solutions have allowed the maintenance of the standard architecture of the sensor, reducing both the time and the cost of the design. In order to maintain the image quality, a relation between the sensor performance and power has been analyzed and a mathematical model, describing the sensor Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Dynamic Range (DR) as a function of the power supplies, is proposed. The described sensor was implemented in a 0.18 um CMOS process and successfully tested in the laboratory. An SNR of 48 dB and DR of 96 dB were achieved with a power dissipation of 4.5 nW per pixel.

  10. Chip-scale fluorescence microscope based on a silo-filter complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah Lee, Seung; Ou, Xiaoze; Lee, J Eugene; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate a silo-filter (SF) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor for a chip-scale fluorescence microscope. The extruded pixel design with metal walls between neighboring pixels guides fluorescence emission through the thick absorptive filter to the photodiode of a pixel. Our prototype device achieves 13 μm resolution over a wide field of view (4.8 mm × 4.4 mm). We demonstrate bright-field and fluorescence longitudinal imaging of living cells in a compact, low-cost configuration.

  11. Continued development of a portable widefield hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensor for standoff detection of explosive, chemical, and narcotic residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew P.; Gardner, Charles W.; Klueva, Oksana; Tomas, David

    2014-05-01

    Passive, standoff detection of chemical, explosive and narcotic threats employing widefield, shortwave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging (HSI) continues to gain acceptance in defense and security fields. A robust and user-friendly portable platform with such capabilities increases the effectiveness of locating and identifying threats while reducing risks to personnel. In 2013 ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) introduced Aperio, a handheld sensor, using real-time SWIR HSI for wide area surveillance and standoff detection of explosives, chemical threats, and narcotics. That SWIR HSI system employed a liquid-crystal tunable filter for real-time automated detection and display of threats. In these proceedings, we report on a next generation device called VeroVision™, which incorporates an improved optical design that enhances detection performance at greater standoff distances with increased sensitivity and detection speed. A tripod mounted sensor head unit (SHU) with an optional motorized pan-tilt unit (PTU) is available for precision pointing and sensor stabilization. This option supports longer standoff range applications which are often seen at checkpoint vehicle inspection where speed and precision is necessary. Basic software has been extended to include advanced algorithms providing multi-target display functionality, automatic threshold determination, and an automated detection recipe capability for expanding the library as new threats emerge. In these proceedings, we report on the improvements associated with the next generation portable widefield SWIR HSI sensor, VeroVision™. Test data collected during development are presented in this report which supports the targeted applications for use of VeroVision™ for screening residue and bulk levels of explosive and drugs on vehicles and personnel at checkpoints as well as various applications for other secure areas. Additionally, we highlight a forensic application of the technology for assisting forensic

  12. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the International Space Station (ISS): Mission Description and Science Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners have developed and demonstrated space-based lightning observations as an effective remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) continues to acquire global observations of total (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning after 17 years on-orbit. However, TRMM is now low on fuel, so this mission will soon be completed. As a follow on to this mission, a space-qualified LIS built as the flight spare for TRMM has been selected for flight as a science mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS LIS will be flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) H5 mission, which has a January 2016 baseline launch date aboard a SpaceX launch vehicle for a 2-4 year or longer mission. The LIS measures the amount, rate, and radiant energy of total lightning over the Earth. More specifically, it measures lightning during both day and night, with storm scale resolution (approx. 4 km), millisecond timing, and high, uniform detection efficiency, without any land-ocean bias. Lightning is a direct and most impressive response to intense atmospheric convection. It has been found that lightning measured by LIS can be quantitatively related to thunderstorm and other geophysical processes. Therefore, the ISS LIS lightning observations will continue to provide important gap-filling inputs to pressing Earth system science issues across a broad range of disciplines, including weather, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and lightning physics. A unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational applications over data sparse regions such as the oceans. The ISS platform will also uniquely enable LIS to provide simultaneous and complementary observations

  13. Redox sensor proteins for highly sensitive direct imaging of intracellular redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Kazunori; Nagai, Takeharu; Nakano, Masahiro; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Hisabori, Toru

    2015-02-13

    Intracellular redox state is a critical factor for fundamental cellular functions, including regulation of the activities of various metabolic enzymes as well as ROS production and elimination. Genetically-encoded fluorescent redox sensors, such as roGFP (Hanson, G. T., et al. (2004)) and Redoxfluor (Yano, T., et al. (2010)), have been developed to investigate the redox state of living cells. However, these sensors are not useful in cells that contain, for example, other colored pigments. We therefore intended to obtain simpler redox sensor proteins, and have developed oxidation-sensitive fluorescent proteins called Oba-Q (oxidation balance sensed quenching) proteins. Our sensor proteins derived from CFP and Sirius can be used to monitor the intracellular redox state as their fluorescence is drastically quenched upon oxidation. These blue-shifted spectra of the Oba-Q proteins enable us to monitor various redox states in conjunction with other sensor proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid immuno-analytical system physically integrated with lens-free CMOS image sensor for food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Mook; Lee, Won-Ho; Lee, Do-Young; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2014-02-15

    To realize an inexpensive, pocket-sized immunosensor system, a rapid test devise based on cross-flow immuno-chromatography was physically combined with a lens-free CMOS image sensor (CIS), which was then applied to the detection of the food-borne pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). Two CISs, each retaining 1.3 mega pixel array, were mounted on a printed circuit board to fabricate a disposable sensing module, being connectable with a signal detection system. For the bacterial analysis, a cellulose membrane-based immunosensing platform, ELISA-on-a-chip (EOC), was employed, being integrated with the CIS module, and the antigen-antibody reaction sites were aligned with the respective sensor. In such sensor construction, the chemiluminescent signals produced from the EOC are transferred directly into the sensors and are converted to electric signals on the detector. The EOC-CIS integrated sensor was capable of detecting a traceable amount of the bacterium (4.22 × 10(3)CFU/mL), nearly comparable to that adopting a sophisticated detector such as cooled-charge-coupled device, while having greatly reduced dimensions and cost. Upon coupling with immuno-magnetic separation, the sensor showed an additional 67-fold enhancement in the detection limit. Furthermore, a real sample test was carried out for fish muscles inoculated with a sample of 3.3CFU S. typhimurium per 10 g, which was able to be detected earlier than 6h after the onset of pre-enrichment by culture. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The implementation of CMOS sensors within a real time digital mammography intelligent imaging system: The I-ImaS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrand, C.; Royle, G.; Griffiths, J.; Speller, R.

    2009-07-01

    The integration of technology with healthcare has undoubtedly propelled the medical imaging sector well into the twenty first century. The concept of digital imaging introduced during the 1970s has since paved the way for established imaging techniques where digital mammography, phase contrast imaging and CT imaging are just a few examples. This paper presents a prototype intelligent digital mammography system designed and developed by a European consortium. The final system, the I-ImaS system, utilises CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) technology promoting on-chip data processing, enabling the acts of data processing and image acquisition to be achieved simultaneously; consequently, statistical analysis of tissue is achievable in real-time for the purpose of x-ray beam modulation via a feedback mechanism during the image acquisition procedure. The imager implements a dual array of twenty 520 pixel × 40 pixel CMOS MAPS sensing devices with a 32μm pixel size, each individually coupled to a 100μm thick thallium doped structured CsI scintillator. This paper presents the first intelligent images of real breast tissue obtained from the prototype system of real excised breast tissue where the x-ray exposure was modulated via the statistical information extracted from the breast tissue itself. Conventional images were experimentally acquired where the statistical analysis of the data was done off-line, resulting in the production of simulated real-time intelligently optimised images. The results obtained indicate real-time image optimisation using the statistical information extracted from the breast as a means of a feedback mechanisms is beneficial and foreseeable in the near future.

  16. System and method for three-dimensional image reconstruction using an absolute orientation sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giancola, Silvio

    2018-01-18

    A three-dimensional image reconstruction system includes an image capture device, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), and an image processor. The image capture device captures image data. The inertial measurement unit (IMU) is affixed to the image capture device and records IMU data associated with the image data. The image processor includes one or more processing units and memory for storing instructions that are executed by the one or more processing units, wherein the image processor receives the image data and the IMU data as inputs and utilizes the IMU data to pre-align the first image and the second image, and wherein the image processor utilizes a registration algorithm to register the pre-aligned first and second images.

  17. Noise Reduction Effect of Multiple-Sampling-Based Signal-Readout Circuits for Ultra-Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kawahito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the noise reduction effect of multiple-sampling-based signal readout circuits for implementing ultra-low-noise image sensors. The correlated multiple sampling (CMS technique has recently become an important technology for high-gain column readout circuits in low-noise CMOS image sensors (CISs. This paper reveals how the column CMS circuits, together with a pixel having a high-conversion-gain charge detector and low-noise transistor, realizes deep sub-electron read noise levels based on the analysis of noise components in the signal readout chain from a pixel to the column analog-to-digital converter (ADC. The noise measurement results of experimental CISs are compared with the noise analysis and the effect of noise reduction to the sampling number is discussed at the deep sub-electron level. Images taken with three CMS gains of two, 16, and 128 show distinct advantage of image contrast for the gain of 128 (noise(median: 0.29 e−rms when compared with the CMS gain of two (2.4 e−rms, or 16 (1.1 e−rms.

  18. Combining Deep and Handcrafted Image Features for Presentation Attack Detection in Face Recognition Systems Using Visible-Light Camera Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although face recognition systems have wide application, they are vulnerable to presentation attack samples (fake samples. Therefore, a presentation attack detection (PAD method is required to enhance the security level of face recognition systems. Most of the previously proposed PAD methods for face recognition systems have focused on using handcrafted image features, which are designed by expert knowledge of designers, such as Gabor filter, local binary pattern (LBP, local ternary pattern (LTP, and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG. As a result, the extracted features reflect limited aspects of the problem, yielding a detection accuracy that is low and varies with the characteristics of presentation attack face images. The deep learning method has been developed in the computer vision research community, which is proven to be suitable for automatically training a feature extractor that can be used to enhance the ability of handcrafted features. To overcome the limitations of previously proposed PAD methods, we propose a new PAD method that uses a combination of deep and handcrafted features extracted from the images by visible-light camera sensor. Our proposed method uses the convolutional neural network (CNN method to extract deep image features and the multi-level local binary pattern (MLBP method to extract skin detail features from face images to discriminate the real and presentation attack face images. By combining the two types of image features, we form a new type of image features, called hybrid features, which has stronger discrimination ability than single image features. Finally, we use the support vector machine (SVM method to classify the image features into real or presentation attack class. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed method outperforms previous PAD methods by yielding the smallest error rates on the same image databases.

  19. Combining Deep and Handcrafted Image Features for Presentation Attack Detection in Face Recognition Systems Using Visible-Light Camera Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Baek, Na Rae; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-02-26

    Although face recognition systems have wide application, they are vulnerable to presentation attack samples (fake samples). Therefore, a presentation attack detection (PAD) method is required to enhance the security level of face recognition systems. Most of the previously proposed PAD methods for face recognition systems have focused on using handcrafted image features, which are designed by expert knowledge of designers, such as Gabor filter, local binary pattern (LBP), local ternary pattern (LTP), and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). As a result, the extracted features reflect limited aspects of the problem, yielding a detection accuracy that is low and varies with the characteristics of presentation attack face images. The deep learning method has been developed in the computer vision research community, which is proven to be suitable for automatically training a feature extractor that can be used to enhance the ability of handcrafted features. To overcome the limitations of previously proposed PAD methods, we propose a new PAD method that uses a combination of deep and handcrafted features extracted from the images by visible-light camera sensor. Our proposed method uses the convolutional neural network (CNN) method to extract deep image features and the multi-level local binary pattern (MLBP) method to extract skin detail features from face images to discriminate the real and presentation attack face images. By combining the two types of image features, we form a new type of image features, called hybrid features, which has stronger discrimination ability than single image features. Finally, we use the support vector machine (SVM) method to classify the image features into real or presentation attack class. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed method outperforms previous PAD methods by yielding the smallest error rates on the same image databases.

  20. Combining Deep and Handcrafted Image Features for Presentation Attack Detection in Face Recognition Systems Using Visible-Light Camera Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Baek, Na Rae; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-01-01

    Although face recognition systems have wide application, they are vulnerable to presentation attack samples (fake samples). Therefore, a presentation attack detection (PAD) method is required to enhance the security level of face recognition systems. Most of the previously proposed PAD methods for face recognition systems have focused on using handcrafted image features, which are designed by expert knowledge of designers, such as Gabor filter, local binary pattern (LBP), local ternary pattern (LTP), and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). As a result, the extracted features reflect limited aspects of the problem, yielding a detection accuracy that is low and varies with the characteristics of presentation attack face images. The deep learning method has been developed in the computer vision research community, which is proven to be suitable for automatically training a feature extractor that can be used to enhance the ability of handcrafted features. To overcome the limitations of previously proposed PAD methods, we propose a new PAD method that uses a combination of deep and handcrafted features extracted from the images by visible-light camera sensor. Our proposed method uses the convolutional neural network (CNN) method to extract deep image features and the multi-level local binary pattern (MLBP) method to extract skin detail features from face images to discriminate the real and presentation attack face images. By combining the two types of image features, we form a new type of image features, called hybrid features, which has stronger discrimination ability than single image features. Finally, we use the support vector machine (SVM) method to classify the image features into real or presentation attack class. Our experimental results indicate that our proposed method outperforms previous PAD methods by yielding the smallest error rates on the same image databases. PMID:29495417

  1. MHz rate X-Ray imaging with GaAs:Cr sensors using the LPD detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, M. C.; Booker, P.; Cline, B.; Coughlan, J.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K.; Lozinskaya, A. D.; Novikov, V. A.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A.; Zarubin, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (U.K.) and Tomsk State University (Russia) have been working together to develop and characterise detector systems based on chromium-compensated gallium arsenide (GaAs:Cr) semiconductor material for high frame rate X-ray imaging. Previous work has demonstrated the spectroscopic performance of the material and its resistance to damage induced by high fluxes of X-rays. In this paper, recent results from experiments at the Diamond Light Source Synchrotron have demonstrated X-ray imaging with GaAs:Cr sensors at a frame rate of 3.7 MHz using the Large Pixel Detector (LPD) ASIC, developed by STFC for the European XFEL. Measurements have been made using a monochromatic 20 keV X-ray beam delivered in a single hybrid pulse with an instantenous flux of up to ~ 1 × 1010 photons s-1 mm-2. The response of 500 μm GaAs:Cr sensors is compared to that of the standard 500 μm thick LPD Si sensors.

  2. Long-term fluorescence lifetime imaging of a genetically encoded sensor for caspase-3 activity in mouse tumor xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zherdeva, Victoria; Kazachkina, Natalia I.; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2018-03-01

    Caspase-3 is known for its role in apoptosis and programmed cell death regulation. We detected caspase-3 activation in vivo in tumor xenografts via shift of mean fluorescence lifetimes of a caspase-3 sensor. We used the genetically encoded sensor TR23K based on the red fluorescent protein TagRFP and chromoprotein KFP linked by 23 amino acid residues (TagRFP-23-KFP) containing a specific caspase cleavage DEVD motif to monitor the activity of caspase-3 in tumor xenografts by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging-Forster resonance energy transfer. Apoptosis was induced by injection of paclitaxel for A549 lung adenocarcinoma and etoposide and cisplatin for HEp-2 pharynx adenocarcinoma. We observed a shift in lifetime distribution from 1.6 to 1.9 ns to 2.1 to 2.4 ns, which indicated the activation of caspase-3. Even within the same tumor, the lifetime varied presumably due to the tumor heterogeneity and the different depth of tumor invasion. Thus, processing time-resolved fluorescence images allows detection of both the cleaved and noncleaved states of the TR23K sensor in real-time mode during the course of several weeks noninvasively. This approach can be used in drug screening, facilitating the development of new anticancer agents as well as improvement of chemotherapy efficiency and its adaptation for personal treatment.

  3. Active pixel image sensor with a winner-take-all mode of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly (Inventor); Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mead, Carver (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An integrated CMOS semiconductor imaging device having two modes of operation that can be performed simultaneously to produce an output image and provide information of a brightest or darkest pixel in the image.

  4. Interferometric microstructured polymer optical fiber ultrasound sensor for optoacoustic endoscopic imaging in biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Daniel; Sáez-Rodríguez, David; Webb, David

    2014-01-01

    to conventional piezoelectric transducers. These kind of sensors, made of biocompatible polymers, are good candidates for the sensing element in an optoacoustic endoscope because of its high sensitivity, its shape and its non-brittle and non-electric nature. The acoustic sensitivity of the intrinsic fiber optic......We report a characterization of the acoustic sensitivity of microstructured polymer optical fiber interferometric sensors at ultrasonic frequencies from 100kHz to 10MHz. The use of wide-band ultrasonic fiber optic sensors in biomedical ultrasonic and optoacoustic applications is an open alternative...... interferometric sensors depends strongly of the material which is composed of. In this work we compare experimentally the intrinsic ultrasonic sensitivities of a PMMA mPOF with other three optical fibers: a singlemode silica optical fiber, a single-mode polymer optical fiber and a multimode graded...

  5. A NIR sensor for cyanide detection and its application in cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Na; Wu, Hao; Wang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Xu, Zhou-Qing; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Fan, Yun-Chang

    2018-06-15

    A novel 'D-π-A' sensor 1 has been designed and prepared via the condensation reaction of 3‑ethyl‑2‑methyl‑1,3‑benzothiazol‑3‑ium iodide and 5‑nitro‑o‑vanillin. Upon treatment with cyanide, sensor 1 exhibited a significant near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence quenching at 663nm. The MS, IR, 1 H NMR and DFT methods confirmed that the response of 1 to cyanide is due to the nucleophilic addition reaction, which results in the inhibition of the Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) process in the sensor. Furthermore, sensor 1 was used for the determination of CN - in HeLa cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radarometer Sensor - Simultaneous Active and Passive Imaging Usin a Common Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huddleston, Darryl

    1999-01-01

    ... ̂ frequency band at a nominal pixel scanning rate of 1,000 per second. The radarometer sensor is capable of operating in both the passive and active modes either individually, in time sequence, or simultaneously...

  7. Biologically inspired autonomous agent navigation using an integrated polarization analyzing CMOS image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkaer, M.; San Segundo Bello, D.; Van Hoof, C.; Theuwissen, A.

    2010-01-01

    The navigational strategies of insects using skylight polarization are interesting for applications in autonomous agent navigation because they rely on very little information for navigation. A polarization navigation sensor using the Stokes parameters to determine the orientation is presented. The

  8. Covariance estimation in Terms of Stokes Parameters with Application to Vector Sensor Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    surements. A vector sensor (example shown in Figure 1) measures the electromagnetic field at a single point using three orthogonal dipole elements and...Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering . Figure 1. Atom antenna [1], an electromagnetic vector sensor. The antenna is composed of three...orthogonal loop and dipole elements with a common phase center, measuring the complete electromagnetic field in a six-element vector . rounding sphere as

  9. Ultraviolet Imaging with Low Cost Smartphone Sensors: Development and Application of a Raspberry Pi-Based UV Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Wilkes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report, for what we believe to be the first time, on the modification of a low cost sensor, designed for the smartphone camera market, to develop an ultraviolet (UV camera system. This was achieved via adaptation of Raspberry Pi cameras, which are based on back-illuminated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensors, and we demonstrated the utility of these devices for applications at wavelengths as low as 310 nm, by remotely sensing power station smokestack emissions in this spectral region. Given the very low cost of these units, ≈ USD 25, they are suitable for widespread proliferation in a variety of UV imaging applications, e.g., in atmospheric science, volcanology, forensics and surface smoothness measurements.

  10. Contributed Review: Camera-limits for wide-field magnetic resonance imaging with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Adam M.; Karadas, Mürsel; Huck, Alexander; Osterkamp, Christian; Jankuhn, Steffen; Meijer, Jan; Jelezko, Fedor; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2018-03-01

    Sensitive, real-time optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond relies on accurate imaging of small (≪10-2), fractional fluorescence changes across the diamond sample. We discuss the limitations on magnetic field sensitivity resulting from the limited number of photoelectrons that a camera can record in a given time. Several types of camera sensors are analyzed, and the smallest measurable magnetic field change is estimated for each type. We show that most common sensors are of a limited use in such applications, while certain highly specific cameras allow achieving nanotesla-level sensitivity in 1 s of a combined exposure. Finally, we demonstrate the results obtained with a lock-in camera that paves the way for real-time, wide-field magnetometry at the nanotesla level and with a micrometer resolution.

  11. Laboratory validation of MEMS-based sensors for post-earthquake damage assessment image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Matteo; Zonta, Daniele; Santana, Juan; Colin, Mikael; Saillen, Nicolas; Torfs, Tom; Amditis, Angelos; Bimpas, Matthaios; Stratakos, Yorgos; Ulieru, Dumitru; Bairaktaris, Dimitirs; Frondistou-Yannas, Stamatia; Kalidromitis, Vasilis

    2011-04-01

    The evaluation of seismic damage is today almost exclusively based on visual inspection, as building owners are generally reluctant to install permanent sensing systems, due to their high installation, management and maintenance costs. To overcome this limitation, the EU-funded MEMSCON project aims to produce small size sensing nodes for measurement of strain and acceleration, integrating Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags in a single package that will be attached to reinforced concrete buildings. To reduce the impact of installation and management, data will be transmitted to a remote base station using a wireless interface. During the project, sensor prototypes were produced by assembling pre-existing components and by developing ex-novo miniature devices with ultra-low power consumption and sensing performance beyond that offered by sensors available on the market. The paper outlines the device operating principles, production scheme and working at both unit and network levels. It also reports on validation campaigns conducted in the laboratory to assess system performance. Accelerometer sensors were tested on a reduced scale metal frame mounted on a shaking table, back to back with reference devices, while strain sensors were embedded in both reduced and full-scale reinforced concrete specimens undergoing increasing deformation cycles up to extensive damage and collapse. The paper assesses the economical sustainability and performance of the sensors developed for the project and discusses their applicability to long-term seismic monitoring.

  12. Forecasting Global Horizontal Irradiance Using the LETKF and a Combination of Advected Satellite Images and Sparse Ground Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, T. M.; Lorenzo, A.; Holmgren, W.; Morzfeld, M.

    2017-12-01

    The irradiance incident on a solar panel is the main factor in determining the power output of that panel. For this reason, accurate global horizontal irradiance (GHI) estimates and forecasts are critical when determining the optimal location for a solar power plant, forecasting utility scale solar power production, or forecasting distributed, behind the meter rooftop solar power production. Satellite images provide a basis for producing the GHI estimates needed to undertake these objectives. The focus of this work is to combine satellite derived GHI estimates with ground sensor measurements and an advection model. The idea is to use accurate but sparsely distributed ground sensors to improve satellite derived GHI estimates which can cover large areas (the size of a city or a region of the United States). We use a Bayesian framework to perform the data assimilation, which enables us to produce irradiance forecasts and associated uncertainties which incorporate both satellite and ground sensor data. Within this framework, we utilize satellite images taken from the GOES-15 geostationary satellite (available every 15-30 minutes) as well as ground data taken from irradiance sensors and rooftop solar arrays (available every 5 minutes). The advection model, driven by wind forecasts from a numerical weather model, simulates cloud motion between measurements. We use the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) to perform the data assimilation. We present preliminary results towards making such a system useful in an operational context. We explain how localization and inflation in the LETKF, perturbations of wind-fields, and random perturbations of the advection model, affect the accuracy of our estimates and forecasts. We present experiments showing the accuracy of our forecasted GHI over forecast-horizons of 15 mins to 1 hr. The limitations of our approach and future improvements are also discussed.

  13. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Wharton, N. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Ellett, W. T.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Over two decades, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) provided global observations of tropical lightning for an impressive 17 years before that mission came to a close in April 2015. Now a space-qualified LIS, built as the flight spare for TRMM, has been installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum two year mission following its SpaceX launch on February 19, 2017. The LIS, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission, was robotically installed in an Earth-viewing position on the outside of the ISS, providing a great opportunity to not only extend the 17-year TRMM LIS record of tropical lightning measurements but also to expand that coverage to higher latitudes missed by the TRMM mission. Since its activation, LIS has continuously observed the amount, rate, and radiant energy lightning within its field-of-view as it orbits the Earth. A major focus of this mission is to better understand the processes which cause lightning, as well as the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events. This understanding is a key to improving weather predictions and saving lives and property here in the United States and around the world. The LIS measurements will also help cross-validate observations from the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) operating on NOAA's newest weather satellite GOES-16. An especially unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational forecasting and warning applications over data sparse regions such

  14. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and its Optical Transient Detector (OTD) predecessor that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) spanning a period from May 1995 through April 2015. As an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The STP-H5 payload containing LIS is scheduled launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center to the ISS in November 2016, aboard the SpaceX Cargo Resupply Services-10 (SpaceX-10) mission, installed in the unpressurized "trunk" of the Dragon spacecraft. After the Dragon is berth to ISS Node 2, the payload will be removed from the trunk and robotically installed in a nadir-viewing location on the external truss of the ISS. Following installation on the ISS, the LIS Operations Team will work with the STP-H5 and ISS Operations Teams to power-on LIS and begin instrument checkout and commissioning. Following successful activation, LIS orbital operations will commence, managed from the newly established LIS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the National Space Science Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. The well-established and robust processing, archival, and distribution infrastructure used for TRMM was easily adapted to the ISS mission, assuring that lightning

  15. Regional rainfall climatologies derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Nelkin, Eric J.; Huffman, George J.

    1994-01-01

    Climatologies of convective precipitation were derived from passive microwave observations from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager using a scattering-based algorithm of Adler et al. Data were aggregated over periods of 3-5 months using data from 4 to 5 years. Data were also stratified by satellite overpass times (primarily 06 00 and 18 00 local time). Four regions (Mexico, Amazonia, western Africa, and the western equatorial Pacific Ocean (TOGA COARE area) were chosen for their meteorological interest and relative paucity of conventional observations. The strong diurnal variation over Mexico and the southern United States was the most striking aspect of the climatologies. Pronounced morning maxima occured offshore, often in concativities in the coastline, the result of the increased convergence caused by the coastline shape. The major feature of the evening rain field was a linear-shaped maximum along the western slope of the Sierra Madre Occidental. Topography exerted a strong control on the rainfall in other areas, particularly near the Nicaragua/Honduras border and in Guatemala, where maxima in excess of 700 mm/month were located adjacent to local maxima in terrain. The correlation between the estimates and monthly gage data over the southern United States was low (0.45), due mainly to poor temporal sampling in any month and an inadequate sampling of the diurnal cycle. Over the Amazon Basin the differences in morning versus evening rainfall were complex, with an alternating series of morning/evening maxima aligned southwest to northeast from the Andes to the northeast Brazilian coast. A real extent of rainfall in Amazonia was slightly higher in the evening, but a maximum in morning precipitation was found on the Amazon River just east of Manaus. Precipitation over the water in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) north of Brazil was more pronounced in the morning, and a pronounced land-/sea-breeze circulation was found along the northeast coast of Brazil

  16. Fixed-pattern noise correction method based on improved moment matching for a TDI CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiangtao; Nie, Huafeng; Nie, Kaiming; Jin, Weimin

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an improved moment matching method based on a spatial correlation filter (SCF) and bilateral filter (BF) is proposed to correct the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) of a time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS). First, the values of row FPN (RFPN) and column FPN (CFPN) are estimated and added to the original image through SCF and BF, respectively. Then the filtered image will be processed by an improved moment matching method with a moving window. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination, the standard deviation of row mean vector (SDRMV) decreases from 5.6761 LSB to 0.1948 LSB, while the standard deviation of the column mean vector (SDCMV) decreases from 15.2005 LSB to 13.1949LSB. In addition, for different images captured by different TDI-CISs, the average decrease of SDRMV and SDCMV is 5.4922/2.0357 LSB, respectively. Comparative experimental results indicate that the proposed method can effectively correct the FPNs of different TDI-CISs while maintaining image details without any auxiliary equipment.

  17. A Fixed-Pattern Noise Correction Method Based on Gray Value Compensation for TDI CMOS Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenwang; Xu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xinlei; Nie, Kaiming; Jin, Weimin

    2015-09-16

    In order to eliminate the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in the output image of time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS), a FPN correction method based on gray value compensation is proposed. One hundred images are first captured under uniform illumination. Then, row FPN (RFPN) and column FPN (CFPN) are estimated based on the row-mean vector and column-mean vector of all collected images, respectively. Finally, RFPN are corrected by adding the estimated RFPN gray value to the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding row, and CFPN are corrected by subtracting the estimated CFPN gray value from the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding column. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination with the proposed method, the standard-deviation of row-mean vector decreases from 5.6798 to 0.4214 LSB, and the standard-deviation of column-mean vector decreases from 15.2080 to 13.4623 LSB. Both kinds of FPN in the real images captured by TDI-CIS are eliminated effectively with the proposed method.

  18. Applications of the Integrated High-Performance CMOS Image Sensor to Range Finders — from Optical Triangulation to the Automotive Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe-Air Jiang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available With their significant features, the applications of complementary metal-oxidesemiconductor (CMOS image sensors covers a very extensive range, from industrialautomation to traffic applications such as aiming systems, blind guidance, active/passiverange finders, etc. In this paper CMOS image sensor-based active and passive rangefinders are presented. The measurement scheme of the proposed active/passive rangefinders is based on a simple triangulation method. The designed range finders chieflyconsist of a CMOS image sensor and some light sources such as lasers or LEDs. Theimplementation cost of our range finders is quite low. Image processing software to adjustthe exposure time (ET of the CMOS image sensor to enhance the performance oftriangulation-based range finders was also developed. An extensive series of experimentswere conducted to evaluate the performance of the designed range finders. From theexperimental results, the distance measurement resolutions achieved by the active rangefinder and the passive range finder can be better than 0.6% and 0.25% within themeasurement ranges of 1 to 8 m and 5 to 45 m, respectively. Feasibility tests onapplications of the developed CMOS image sensor-based range finders to the automotivefield were also conducted. The experimental results demonstrated that our range finders arewell-suited for distance measurements in this field.

  19. Modeling the dark current histogram induced by gold contamination in complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domengie, F., E-mail: florian.domengie@st.com; Morin, P. [STMicroelectronics Crolles 2 (SAS), 850 Rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Bauza, D. [CNRS, IMEP-LAHC - Grenoble INP, Minatec: 3, rue Parvis Louis Néel, CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France)

    2015-07-14

    We propose a model for dark current induced by metallic contamination in a CMOS image sensor. Based on Shockley-Read-Hall kinetics, the expression of dark current proposed accounts for the electric field enhanced emission factor due to the Poole-Frenkel barrier lowering and phonon-assisted tunneling mechanisms. To that aim, we considered the distribution of the electric field magnitude and metal atoms in the depth of the pixel. Poisson statistics were used to estimate the random distribution of metal atoms in each pixel for a given contamination dose. Then, we performed a Monte-Carlo-based simulation for each pixel to set the number of metal atoms the pixel contained and the enhancement factor each atom underwent, and obtained a histogram of the number of pixels versus dark current for the full sensor. Excellent agreement with the dark current histogram measured on an ion-implanted gold-contaminated imager has been achieved, in particular, for the description of the distribution tails due to the pixel regions in which the contaminant atoms undergo a large electric field. The agreement remains very good when increasing the temperature by 15 °C. We demonstrated that the amplification of the dark current generated for the typical electric fields encountered in the CMOS image sensors, which depends on the nature of the metal contaminant, may become very large at high electric field. The electron and hole emissions and the resulting enhancement factor are described as a function of the trap characteristics, electric field, and temperature.

  20. Multiocular image sensor with on-chip beam-splitter and inner meta-micro-lens for single-main-lens stereo camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinzo; Onozawa, Kazutoshi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Saito, Shigeru; Kourkouss, Sahim Mohamed; Kato, Yoshihisa

    2016-08-08

    We developed multiocular 1/3-inch 2.75-μm-pixel-size 2.1M- pixel image sensors by co-design of both on-chip beam-splitter and 100-nm-width 800-nm-depth patterned inner meta-micro-lens for single-main-lens stereo camera systems. A camera with the multiocular image sensor can capture horizontally one-dimensional light filed by both the on-chip beam-splitter horizontally dividing ray according to incident angle, and the inner meta-micro-lens collecting the divided ray into pixel with small optical loss. Cross-talks between adjacent light field images of a fabricated binocular image sensor and of a quad-ocular image sensor are as low as 6% and 7% respectively. With the selection of two images from one-dimensional light filed images, a selective baseline for stereo vision is realized to view close objects with single-main-lens. In addition, by adding multiple light field images with different ratios, baseline distance can be tuned within an aperture of a main lens. We suggest the electrically selective or tunable baseline stereo vision to reduce 3D fatigue of viewers.

  1. Characterisation of a smartphone image sensor response to direct solar 305nm irradiation at high air masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, D P; Amar, A; Parisi, A V; Turner, J

    2017-06-01

    This research reports the first time the sensitivity, properties and response of a smartphone image sensor that has been used to characterise the photobiologically important direct UVB solar irradiances at 305nm in clear sky conditions at high air masses. Solar images taken from Autumn to Spring were analysed using a custom Python script, written to develop and apply an adaptive threshold to mitigate the effects of both noise and hot-pixel aberrations in the images. The images were taken in an unobstructed area, observing from a solar zenith angle as high as 84° (air mass=9.6) to local solar maximum (up to a solar zenith angle of 23°) to fully develop the calibration model in temperatures that varied from 2°C to 24°C. The mean ozone thickness throughout all observations was 281±18 DU (to 2 standard deviations). A Langley Plot was used to confirm that there were constant atmospheric conditions throughout the observations. The quadratic calibration model developed has a strong correlation between the red colour channel from the smartphone with the Microtops measurements of the direct sun 305nm UV, with a coefficient of determination of 0.998 and very low standard errors. Validation of the model verified the robustness of the method and the model, with an average discrepancy of only 5% between smartphone derived and Microtops observed direct solar irradiances at 305nm. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using the smartphone image sensor as a means to measure photobiologically important solar UVB radiation. The use of ubiquitous portable technologies, such as smartphones and laptop computers to perform data collection and analysis of solar UVB observations is an example of how scientific investigations can be performed by citizen science based individuals and groups, communities and schools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using advertisement light-panel and CMOS image sensor with frequency-shift-keying for visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chi-Wai; Shiu, Ruei-Jie; Liu, Yen-Chun; Liao, Xin-Lan; Lin, Kun-Hsien; Wang, Yi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Yuan

    2018-05-14

    A frequency-shift-keying (FSK) visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed and demonstrated using advertisement light-panel as transmitter and mobile-phone image sensor as receiver. The developed application program (APP) in mobile-phone can retrieve the rolling shutter effect (RSE) pattern produced by the FSK VLC signal effectively. Here, we also define noise-ratio value (NRV) to evaluate the contrast of different advertisements displayed on the light-panel. Both mobile-phones under test can achieve success rate > 96% even when the transmission distance is up to 200 cm and the NRVs are low.

  3. A new and efficient transient noise analysis technique for simulation of CCD image sensors or particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolcato, P.; Jarron, P.; Poujois, R.

    1993-01-01

    CCD image sensors or switched capacitor circuits used for particle detectors have a certain noise level affecting the resolution of the detector. A new noise simulation technique for these devices is presented that has been implemented in the circuit simulator ELDO. The approach is particularly useful for noise simulation in analog sampling circuits. Comparison between simulations and experimental results has been made and is shown for a 1.5 μ CMOS current mode amplifier designed for high-rate particle detectors. (R.P.) 5 refs., 7 figs

  4. A Method for Application of Classification Tree Models to Map Aquatic Vegetation Using Remotely Sensed Images from Different Sensors and Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Cai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In previous attempts to identify aquatic vegetation from remotely-sensed images using classification trees (CT, the images used to apply CT models to different times or locations necessarily originated from the same satellite sensor as that from which the original images used in model development came, greatly limiting the application of CT. We have developed an effective normalization method to improve the robustness of CT models when applied to images originating from different sensors and dates. A total of 965 ground-truth samples of aquatic vegetation types were obtained in 2009 and 2010 in Taihu Lake, China. Using relevant spectral indices (SI as classifiers, we manually developed a stable CT model structure and then applied a standard CT algorithm to obtain quantitative (optimal thresholds from 2009 ground-truth data and images from Landsat7-ETM+, HJ-1B-CCD, Landsat5-TM and ALOS-AVNIR-2 sensors. Optimal CT thresholds produced average classification accuracies of 78.1%, 84.7% and 74.0% for emergent vegetation, floating-leaf vegetation and submerged vegetation, respectively. However, the optimal CT thresholds for different sensor images differed from each other, with an average relative variation (RV of 6.40%. We developed and evaluated three new approaches to normalizing the images. The best-performing method (Method of 0.1% index scaling normalized the SI images using tailored percentages of extreme pixel values. Using the images normalized by Method of 0.1% index scaling, CT models for a particular sensor in which thresholds were replaced by those from the models developed for images originating from other sensors provided average classification accuracies of 76.0%, 82.8% and 68.9% for emergent vegetation, floating-leaf vegetation and submerged vegetation, respectively. Applying the CT models developed for normalized 2009 images to 2010 images resulted in high classification (78.0%–93.3% and overall (92.0%–93.1% accuracies. Our

  5. Chemical bond imaging using higher eigenmodes of tuning fork sensors in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Daniel; Zhong, Qigang; Ahles, Sebastian; Chi, Lifeng; Wegner, Hermann A.; Schirmeisen, André

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate the ability of resolving the chemical structure of single organic molecules using non-contact atomic force microscopy with higher normal eigenmodes of quartz tuning fork sensors. In order to achieve submolecular resolution, CO-functionalized tips at low temperatures are used. The tuning fork sensors are operated in ultrahigh vacuum in the frequency modulation mode by exciting either their first or second eigenmode. Despite the high effective spring constant of the second eigenmode (on the order of several tens of kN/m), the force sensitivity is sufficiently high to achieve atomic resolution above the organic molecules. This is observed for two different tuning fork sensors with different tip geometries (small tip vs. large tip). These results represent an important step towards resolving the chemical structure of single molecules with multifrequency atomic force microscopy techniques where two or more eigenmodes are driven simultaneously.

  6. High-Frequency Fiber-Optic Ultrasonic Sensor Using Air Micro-Bubble for Imaging of Seismic Physical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Tingting; Hu, Manli; Rong, Qiangzhou; Qiao, Xueguang; Liang, Lei; Liu, Nan; Tong, Rongxin; Liu, Xiaobo; Bian, Ce

    2016-12-14

    A micro-fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally for ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models. The device consists of a micro-bubble followed by the end of a single-mode fiber (SMF). The micro-structure is formed by the discharging operation on a short segment of hollow-core fiber (HCF) that is spliced to the SMF. This micro FPI is sensitive to ultrasonic waves (UWs), especially to the high-frequency (up to 10 MHz) UW, thanks to its ultra-thin cavity wall and micro-diameter. A side-band filter technology is employed for the UW interrogation, and then the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) UW signal is achieved. Eventually the sensor is used for lateral imaging of the physical model by scanning UW detection and two-dimensional signal reconstruction.

  7. Infrared detectors, focal plane arrays, and imaging sensors; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.; Sampson, Robert T.

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on advancements in IR detectors, Schottky-barrier focal plane arrays, CCD image analysis, and HgCdTe materials gives attention to a 256 x 256 PtSi array for IR astronomy, proposals for a second-generation meteosat's advanced optical payload, cryogenic bipolar technology for on-focal-plane signal processing, a parallel cellular processing system for fast generation of perspective plots, and ultrahigh-speed CCD image sensors for scanning applications. Also discussed are MBE GaAs rib waveguide experiments at 10.6 microns, an interferometric thermal detector, the development status of superconducting IR detector research, the absorption coefficients of n-type Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te samples, and the influence of the surface channel on crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic arrays.

  8. Fabrication of CMOS-compatible nanopillars for smart bio-mimetic CMOS image sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal; Elshurafa, Amro M.; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathan E.; Evoy, S.

    2012-01-01

    . The fabrication of the nanopillars was carried out keeping the CMOS process in mind to ultimately obtain a CMOS-compatible process. This work serves as an initial step in the ultimate objective of integrating photo-sensors based on these nanopillars seamlessly

  9. CCD linear image sensor ILX511 arrangment for a technical spectrometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoněk, L.; Keprt, Jiří; Vlček, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 33, 2-3 (2003), s. 548-553 ISSN 0078-5466 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : CCD linear sensor ILX511 * enhanced parallel port (EPP able IEEE1284) * A/D converter AD9280 Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.221, year: 2003

  10. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors for Low Power, Highly Miniaturized Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1996-01-01

    The complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology has been developed over the past three years by NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and has reached a level of performance comparable to CCDs with greatly increased functionality but at a very reduced power level.

  11. Real time polarization sensor image processing on an embedded FPGA/multi-core DSP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednara, Marcus; Chuchacz-Kowalczyk, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Most embedded image processing SoCs available on the market are highly optimized for typical consumer applications like video encoding/decoding, motion estimation or several image enhancement processes as used in DSLR or digital video cameras. For non-consumer applications, on the other hand, optimized embedded hardware is rarely available, so often PC based image processing systems are used. We show how a real time capable image processing system for a non-consumer application - namely polarization image data processing - can be efficiently implemented on an FPGA and multi-core DSP based embedded hardware platform.

  12. Sensor Fusion of a Mobile Device to Control and Acquire Videos or Images of Coffee Branches and for Georeferencing Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jimena Ramos Giraldo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones show potential for controlling and monitoring variables in agriculture. Their processing capacity, instrumentation, connectivity, low cost, and accessibility allow farmers (among other users in rural areas to operate them easily with applications adjusted to their specific needs. In this investigation, the integration of inertial sensors, a GPS, and a camera are presented for the monitoring of a coffee crop. An Android-based application was developed with two operating modes: (i Navigation: for georeferencing trees, which can be as close as 0.5 m from each other; and (ii Acquisition: control of video acquisition, based on the movement of the mobile device over a branch, and measurement of image quality, using clarity indexes to select the most appropriate frames for application in future processes. The integration of inertial sensors in navigation mode, shows a mean relative error of ±0.15 m, and total error ±5.15 m. In acquisition mode, the system correctly identifies the beginning and end of mobile phone movement in 99% of cases, and image quality is determined by means of a sharpness factor which measures blurriness. With the developed system, it will be possible to obtain georeferenced information about coffee trees, such as their production, nutritional state, and presence of plagues or diseases.

  13. A Dynamic Range Enhanced Readout Technique with a Two-Step TDC for High Speed Linear CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic range (DR enhanced readout technique with a two-step time-to-digital converter (TDC for high speed linear CMOS image sensors. A multi-capacitor and self-regulated capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA structure is employed to extend the dynamic range. The gain of the CTIA is auto adjusted by switching different capacitors to the integration node asynchronously according to the output voltage. A column-parallel ADC based on a two-step TDC is utilized to improve the conversion rate. The conversion is divided into coarse phase and fine phase. An error calibration scheme is also proposed to correct quantization errors caused by propagation delay skew within −Tclk~+Tclk. A linear CMOS image sensor pixel array is designed in the 0.13 μm CMOS process to verify this DR-enhanced high speed readout technique. The post simulation results indicate that the dynamic range of readout circuit is 99.02 dB and the ADC achieves 60.22 dB SNDR and 9.71 bit ENOB at a conversion rate of 2 MS/s after calibration, with 14.04 dB and 2.4 bit improvement, compared with SNDR and ENOB of that without calibration.

  14. Sensor Fusion of a Mobile Device to Control and Acquire Videos or Images of Coffee Branches and for Georeferencing Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Paula Jimena Ramos; Aguirre, Álvaro Guerrero; Muñoz, Carlos Mario; Prieto, Flavio Augusto; Oliveros, Carlos Eugenio

    2017-04-06

    Smartphones show potential for controlling and monitoring variables in agriculture. Their processing capacity, instrumentation, connectivity, low cost, and accessibility allow farmers (among other users in rural areas) to operate them easily with applications adjusted to their specific needs. In this investigation, the integration of inertial sensors, a GPS, and a camera are presented for the monitoring of a coffee crop. An Android-based application was developed with two operating modes: ( i ) Navigation: for georeferencing trees, which can be as close as 0.5 m from each other; and ( ii ) Acquisition: control of video acquisition, based on the movement of the mobile device over a branch, and measurement of image quality, using clarity indexes to select the most appropriate frames for application in future processes. The integration of inertial sensors in navigation mode, shows a mean relative error of ±0.15 m, and total error ±5.15 m. In acquisition mode, the system correctly identifies the beginning and end of mobile phone movement in 99% of cases, and image quality is determined by means of a sharpness factor which measures blurriness. With the developed system, it will be possible to obtain georeferenced information about coffee trees, such as their production, nutritional state, and presence of plagues or diseases.

  15. The EO-1 hyperion and advanced land imager sensors for use in tundra classification studies within the Upper Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Brown, Mary

    The heterogeneity of Arctic vegetation can make land cover classification vey difficult when using medium to small resolution imagery (Schneider et al., 2009; Muller et al., 1999). Using high radiometric and spatial resolution imagery, such as the SPOT 5 and IKONOS satellites, have helped arctic land cover classification accuracies rise into the 80 and 90 percentiles (Allard, 2003; Stine et al., 2010; Muller et al., 1999). However, those increases usually come at a high price. High resolution imagery is very expensive and can often add tens of thousands of dollars onto the cost of the research. The EO-1 satellite launched in 2002 carries two sensors that have high specral and/or high spatial resolutions and can be an acceptable compromise between the resolution versus cost issues. The Hyperion is a hyperspectral sensor with the capability of collecting 242 spectral bands of information. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is an advanced multispectral sensor whose spatial resolution can be sharpened to 10 meters. This dissertation compares the accuracies of arctic land cover classifications produced by the Hyperion and ALI sensors to the classification accuracies produced by the Systeme Pour l' Observation de le Terre (SPOT), the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors. Hyperion and ALI images from August 2004 were collected over the Upper Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska. Image processing included the stepwise discriminant analysis of pixels that were positively classified from coinciding ground control points, geometric and radiometric correction, and principle component analysis. Finally, stratified random sampling was used to perform accuracy assessments on satellite derived land cover classifications. Accuracy was estimated from an error matrix (confusion matrix) that provided the overall, producer's and user's accuracies. This research found that while the Hyperion sensor produced classfication accuracies that were

  16. Deep Learning-Based Banknote Fitness Classification Using the Reflection Images by a Visible-Light One-Dimensional Line Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuyen Danh Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In automatic paper currency sorting, fitness classification is a technique that assesses the quality of banknotes to determine whether a banknote is suitable for recirculation or should be replaced. Studies on using visible-light reflection images of banknotes for evaluating their usability have been reported. However, most of them were conducted under the assumption that the denomination and input direction of the banknote are predetermined. In other words, a pre-classification of the type of input banknote is required. To address this problem, we proposed a deep learning-based fitness-classification method that recognizes the fitness level of a banknote regardless of the denomination and input direction of the banknote to the system, using the reflection images of banknotes by visible-light one-dimensional line image sensor and a convolutional neural network (CNN. Experimental results on the banknote image databases of the Korean won (KRW and the Indian rupee (INR with three fitness levels, and the Unites States dollar (USD with two fitness levels, showed that our method gives better classification accuracy than other methods.

  17. Deep Learning-Based Banknote Fitness Classification Using the Reflection Images by a Visible-Light One-Dimensional Line Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Nguyen, Dat Tien; Kim, Wan; Park, Sung Ho; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-02-06

    In automatic paper currency sorting, fitness classification is a technique that assesses the quality of banknotes to determine whether a banknote is suitable for recirculation or should be replaced. Studies on using visible-light reflection images of banknotes for evaluating their usability have been reported. However, most of them were conducted under the assumption that the denomination and input direction of the banknote are predetermined. In other words, a pre-classification of the type of input banknote is required. To address this problem, we proposed a deep learning-based fitness-classification method that recognizes the fitness level of a banknote regardless of the denomination and input direction of the banknote to the system, using the reflection images of banknotes by visible-light one-dimensional line image sensor and a convolutional neural network (CNN). Experimental results on the banknote image databases of the Korean won (KRW) and the Indian rupee (INR) with three fitness levels, and the Unites States dollar (USD) with two fitness levels, showed that our method gives better classification accuracy than other methods.

  18. The Application of Virtex-II Pro FPGA in High-Speed Image Processing Technology of Robot Vision Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y J; Zhu, J G; Yang, X Y; Ye, S H

    2006-01-01

    The Virtex-II Pro FPGA is applied to the vision sensor tracking system of IRB2400 robot. The hardware platform, which undertakes the task of improving SNR and compressing data, is constructed by using the high-speed image processing of FPGA. The lower level image-processing algorithm is realized by combining the FPGA frame and the embedded CPU. The velocity of image processing is accelerated due to the introduction of FPGA and CPU. The usage of the embedded CPU makes it easily to realize the logic design of interface. Some key techniques are presented in the text, such as read-write process, template matching, convolution, and some modules are simulated too. In the end, the compare among the modules using this design, using the PC computer and using the DSP, is carried out. Because the high-speed image processing system core is a chip of FPGA, the function of which can renew conveniently, therefore, to a degree, the measure system is intelligent

  19. Synchrotron based planar imaging and digital tomosynthesis of breast and biopsy phantoms using a CMOS active pixel sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafraniec, Magdalena B; Konstantinidis, Anastasios C; Tromba, Giuliana; Dreossi, Diego; Vecchio, Sara; Rigon, Luigi; Sodini, Nicola; Naday, Steve; Gunn, Spencer; McArthur, Alan; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    The SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at Elettra is performing the first mammography study on human patients using free-space propagation phase contrast imaging. The stricter spatial resolution requirements of this method currently force the use of conventional films or specialized computed radiography (CR) systems. This also prevents the implementation of three-dimensional (3D) approaches. This paper explores the use of an X-ray detector based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology as a possible alternative, for acquisitions both in planar and tomosynthesis geometry. Results indicate higher quality of the images acquired with the synchrotron set-up in both geometries. This improvement can be partly ascribed to the use of parallel, collimated and monochromatic synchrotron radiation (resulting in scatter rejection, no penumbra-induced blurring and optimized X-ray energy), and partly to phase contrast effects. Even though the pixel size of the used detector is still too large - and thus suboptimal - for free-space propagation phase contrast imaging, a degree of phase-induced edge enhancement can clearly be observed in the images. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pixel pitch and particle energy influence on the dark current distribution of neutron irradiated CMOS image sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, Jean-Marc; Goiffon, Vincent; Virmontois, Cédric; Raine, Mélanie; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Molina, Romain; Magnan, Pierre; Gilard, Olivier

    2016-02-22

    The dark current produced by neutron irradiation in CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) is investigated. Several CIS with different photodiode types and pixel pitches are irradiated with various neutron energies and fluences to study the influence of each of these optical detector and irradiation parameters on the dark current distribution. An empirical model is tested on the experimental data and validated on all the irradiated optical imagers. This model is able to describe all the presented dark current distributions with no parameter variation for neutron energies of 14 MeV or higher, regardless of the optical detector and irradiation characteristics. For energies below 1 MeV, it is shown that a single parameter has to be adjusted because of the lower mean damage energy per nuclear interaction. This model and these conclusions can be transposed to any silicon based solid-state optical imagers such as CIS or Charged Coupled Devices (CCD). This work can also be used when designing an optical imager instrument, to anticipate the dark current increase or to choose a mitigation technique.

  1. The Application of Virtex-II Pro FPGA in High-Speed Image Processing Technology of Robot Vision Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y. J.; Zhu, J. G.; Yang, X. Y.; Ye, S. H.

    2006-10-01

    The Virtex-II Pro FPGA is applied to the vision sensor tracking system of IRB2400 robot. The hardware platform, which undertakes the task of improving SNR and compressing data, is constructed by using the high-speed image processing of FPGA. The lower level image-processing algorithm is realized by combining the FPGA frame and the embedded CPU. The velocity of image processing is accelerated due to the introduction of FPGA and CPU. The usage of the embedded CPU makes it easily to realize the logic design of interface. Some key techniques are presented in the text, such as read-write process, template matching, convolution, and some modules are simulated too. In the end, the compare among the modules using this design, using the PC computer and using the DSP, is carried out. Because the high-speed image processing system core is a chip of FPGA, the function of which can renew conveniently, therefore, to a degree, the measure system is intelligent.

  2. Features Extraction of Flotation Froth Images and BP Neural Network Soft-Sensor Model of Concentrate Grade Optimized by Shuffled Cuckoo Searching Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For meeting the forecasting target of key technology indicators in the flotation process, a BP neural network soft-sensor model based on features extraction of flotation froth images and optimized by shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is proposed. Based on the digital image processing technique, the color features in HSI color space, the visual features based on the gray level cooccurrence matrix, and the shape characteristics based on the geometric theory of flotation froth images are extracted, respectively, as the input variables of the proposed soft-sensor model. Then the isometric mapping method is used to reduce the input dimension, the network size, and learning time of BP neural network. Finally, a shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is adopted to optimize the BP neural network soft-sensor model. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization results and prediction accuracy.

  3. Innovative biomagnetic imaging sensors for breast cancer: A model-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Y.; Golkowski, M.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious potential health problem for all women and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The current screening procedures and imaging techniques, including x-ray mammography, clinical biopsy, ultrasound imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging, provide only 73% accuracy in detecting breast cancer. This gives the impetus to explore alternate techniques for imaging the breast and detecting early stage tumors. Among the complementary methods, the noninvasive biomagnetic breast imaging is attractive and promising, because both ionizing radiation and breast compressions that the prevalent x-ray mammography suffers from are avoided. It furthermore offers very high contrast because of the significant electromagnetic properties' differences between the cancerous, benign, and normal breast tissues. In this paper, a hybrid and accurate modeling tool for biomagnetic breast imaging is developed, which couples the electromagnetic and ultrasonic energies, and initial validations between the model predication and experimental findings are conducted.

  4. Fiber optic spectroscopic digital imaging sensor and method for flame properties monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei A [Hoffman Estates, IL; Rue, David M [Chicago, IL; Saveliev, Alexei V [Chicago, IL

    2011-03-15

    A system for real-time monitoring of flame properties in combustors and gasifiers which includes an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end and a spectroscopic imaging system operably connected with the light output end of the imaging fiber optic bundle. Focusing of the light received by the light receiving end of the imaging fiber optic bundle by a wall disposed between the light receiving end of the fiber optic bundle and a light source, which wall forms a pinhole opening aligned with the light receiving end.

  5. Integrated semiconductor optical sensors for chronic, minimally-invasive imaging of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas T; Levi, Ofer; Cang, Jianhua; Kaneko, Megumi; Stryker, Michael P; Smith, Stephen J; Shenoy, Krishna V; Harris, James S

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic optical signal (IOS) imaging is a widely accepted technique for imaging brain activity. We propose an integrated device consisting of interleaved arrays of gallium arsenide (GaAs) based semiconductor light sources and detectors operating at telecommunications wavelengths in the near-infrared. Such a device will allow for long-term, minimally invasive monitoring of neural activity in freely behaving subjects, and will enable the use of structured illumination patterns to improve system performance. In this work we describe the proposed system and show that near-infrared IOS imaging at wavelengths compatible with semiconductor devices can produce physiologically significant images in mice, even through skull.

  6. Multiresolution, Geometric, and Learning Methods in Statistical Image Processing, Object Recognition, and Sensor Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willsky, Alan

    2004-01-01

    .... Our research blends methods from several fields-statistics and probability, signal and image processing, mathematical physics, scientific computing, statistical learning theory, and differential...

  7. Image deblurring in smartphone devices using built-in inertial measurement sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelář, O.; Šroubek, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), 011003-1-011003-8 ISSN 1017-9909 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100751201 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : deconvolution * motion sensors * smartphone s Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/sroubek-0389233.pdf

  8. Image deblurring in smartphone devices using built-in inertial measurement sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šindelář, O.; Šroubek, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), 011003-1-011003-8 ISSN 1017-9909 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100751201 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : deconvolution * motion sensors * smartphones Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/sroubek-0389233.pdf

  9. Colour constancy in natural images through colour naming and sensor sharpening

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Corral, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Advisors: Maria Vanrell, Graham Finlayson. Date and location of PhD thesis defense: 28 February 2011, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Colour is derived from three physical properties: incident light, object reflectance and sensor sensitivities. Incident light varies under natural conditions; hence, recovering scene illuminant is an important issue in computational colour. One way to deal with this problem under calibrated conditions is by following three steps, 1) building a narrow-band ...

  10. An investigation of medical radiation detection using CMOS image sensors in smartphones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Gyu [Department of Senior Healthcare, Graduate School of Eulji University, Daejeon 301-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae-Jun [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Korea University, Guro Hospital,148, Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul 152-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwonhee [Graduate Program in Bio-medical Science, Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong City 339-770 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ki Chang [Department of Medical Engineering, College of Medicine, Dongguk University, 32 Dongguk-ro, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-820 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seong Jong; Kim, Ho Chul [Department of Radiological Science, Eulji University, 553 Yangji-dong, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 431-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    Medical radiation exposure to patients has increased with the development of diagnostic X-ray devices and multi-channel computed tomography (CT). Despite the fact that the low-dose CT technique can significantly reduce medical radiation exposure to patients, the increasing number of CT examinations has increased the total medical radiation exposure to patients. Therefore, medical radiation exposure to patients should be monitored to prevent cancers caused by diagnostic radiation. However, without using thermoluminescence or glass dosimeters, it is hardly measure doses received by patients during medical examinations accurately. Hence, it is necessary to develop radiation monitoring devices and algorithms that are reasonably priced and have superior radiation detection efficiencies. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of medical dose measurement using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in smartphone cameras with an algorithm to extract the X-ray interacted pixels. We characterized the responses of the CMOS sensors in a smartphone with respect to the X-rays generated by a general diagnostic X-ray system. The characteristics of the CMOS sensors in a smartphone camera, such as dose response linearity, dose rate dependence, energy dependence, angular dependence, and minimum detectable activity were evaluated. The high energy gamma-ray of 662 keV from Cs-137 can be detected using the smartphone camera. The smartphone cameras which employ the developed algorithm can detect medical radiations.

  11. An investigation of medical radiation detection using CMOS image sensors in smartphones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han Gyu; Song, Jae-Jun; Lee, Kwonhee; Nam, Ki Chang; Hong, Seong Jong; Kim, Ho Chul

    2016-01-01

    Medical radiation exposure to patients has increased with the development of diagnostic X-ray devices and multi-channel computed tomography (CT). Despite the fact that the low-dose CT technique can significantly reduce medical radiation exposure to patients, the increasing number of CT examinations has increased the total medical radiation exposure to patients. Therefore, medical radiation exposure to patients should be monitored to prevent cancers caused by diagnostic radiation. However, without using thermoluminescence or glass dosimeters, it is hardly measure doses received by patients during medical examinations accurately. Hence, it is necessary to develop radiation monitoring devices and algorithms that are reasonably priced and have superior radiation detection efficiencies. The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of medical dose measurement using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in smartphone cameras with an algorithm to extract the X-ray interacted pixels. We characterized the responses of the CMOS sensors in a smartphone with respect to the X-rays generated by a general diagnostic X-ray system. The characteristics of the CMOS sensors in a smartphone camera, such as dose response linearity, dose rate dependence, energy dependence, angular dependence, and minimum detectable activity were evaluated. The high energy gamma-ray of 662 keV from Cs-137 can be detected using the smartphone camera. The smartphone cameras which employ the developed algorithm can detect medical radiations.

  12. New definitions of pointing stability - ac and dc effects. [constant and time-dependent pointing error effects on image sensor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Robert L.; Sirlin, Samuel W.; San Martin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    For most imaging sensors, a constant (dc) pointing error is unimportant (unless large), but time-dependent (ac) errors degrade performance by either distorting or smearing the image. When properly quantified, the separation of the root-mean-square effects of random line-of-sight motions into dc and ac components can be used to obtain the minimum necessary line-of-sight stability specifications. The relation between stability requirements and sensor resolution is discussed, with a view to improving communication between the data analyst and the control systems engineer.

  13. High frame-rate TCSPC-FLIM using a novel SPAD-based image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersbach, M.; Trimananda, R.; Maruyama, Y.; Fishburn, M.; Cahrbon, E. et al

    2010-01-01

    Imaging techniques based on time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), such as fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), rely on fast single-photon detectors as well as timing electronics in the form of time-to-digital or time-to-analog converters. Conventional systems rely on

  14. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and MERIS Sensors: Case Study for the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Blake A. Schaeffer; Thomas S. Bianchi; Eurico J. D'Sa; Christopher L. Osburn; Nazanin Chaichi Tehrani

    2013-01-01

    Empirical band ratio algorithms for the estimation of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and MERIS ocean color sensors were assessed and developed for the northern Gulf of Mexico. Match-ups between in situ measurements of CDOM absorption coefficients at 412 nm (aCDOM(412)) with that derived from SeaWiFS were examined using two previously reported r...

  15. Thumb-size ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imager for in-situ glucose monitoring as optional sensor of conventional dialyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogo, Kosuke; Mori, Keita; Qi, Wei; Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    We proposed the ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imaging for the realization of blood-glucose-level monitoring during dialytic therapy. Optical scattering and absorption caused by blood cells deteriorate the detection accuracy of glucose dissolved in plasma. Ultrasonic standing waves can agglomerate blood cells at nodes. In contrast, around anti-node regions, the amount of transmitted light increases because relatively clear plasma appears due to decline the number of blood cells. Proposed method can disperse the transmitted light of plasma without time-consuming pretreatment such as centrifugation. To realize the thumb-size glucose sensor which can be easily attached to dialysis tubes, an ultrasonic standing wave generator and a spectroscopic imager are required to be small. Ultrasonic oscillators are ∅30[mm]. A drive circuit of oscillators, which now size is 41×55×45[mm], is expected to become small. The trial apparatus of proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imager, whose size is 30×30×48[mm], also can be little-finger size in principal. In the experiment, we separated the suspension mixed water and micro spheres (Θ10[mm) into particles and liquid regions with the ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]). Furthermore, the spectrum of transmitted light through the suspension could be obtained in visible light regions with a white LED.

  16. Image deblurring in smartphone devices using built-in inertial measurement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šindelář, Ondřej; Šroubek, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Long-exposure handheld photography is degraded with blur, which is difficult to remove without prior information about the camera motion. In this work, we utilize inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyroscopes) in modern smartphones to detect exact motion trajectory of the smartphone camera during exposure and remove blur from the resulting photography based on the recorded motion data. The whole system is implemented on the Android platform and embedded in the smartphone device, resulting in a close-to-real-time deblurring algorithm. The performance of the proposed system is demonstrated in real-life scenarios.

  17. Decontamination of digital image sensors and assessment of electron microscope performance in a BSL-3 containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Sherman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A unique biological safety level (BSL-3 cryo-electron microscopy facility with a 200 keV high-end cryo-electron microscope has been commissioned at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB to study the structure of viruses and bacteria classified as select agents. We developed a microscope decontamination protocol based on chlorine dioxide gas with a continuous flow system. In this paper we report on testing digital camera sensors (both CCD and CMOS direct detector in a BSL-3 environment, and microscope performance after chlorine dioxide (ClO2 decontamination cycles.

  18. A Two-Step A/D Conversion and Column Self-Calibration Technique for Low Noise CMOS Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeyoung Bae

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a 120 frames per second (fps low noise CMOS Image Sensor (CIS based on a Two-Step Single Slope ADC (TS SS ADC and column self-calibration technique is proposed. The TS SS ADC is suitable for high speed video systems because its conversion speed is much faster (by more than 10 times than that of the Single Slope ADC (SS ADC. However, there exist some mismatching errors between the coarse block and the fine block due to the 2-step operation of the TS SS ADC. In general, this makes it difficult to implement the TS SS ADC beyond a 10-bit resolution. In order to improve such errors, a new 4-input comparator is discussed and a high resolution TS SS ADC is proposed. Further, a feedback circuit that enables column self-calibration to reduce the Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN is also described. The proposed chip has been fabricated with 0.13 μm Samsung CIS technology and the chip satisfies the VGA resolution. The pixel is based on the 4-TR Active Pixel Sensor (APS. The high frame rate of 120 fps is achieved at the VGA resolution. The measured FPN is 0.38 LSB, and measured dynamic range is about 64.6 dB.

  19. A highly sensitive, single selective, fluorescent sensor for Al3+ detection and its application in living cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xing-Pei; Sun, Shao-bo; Li, Ying-dong; Zhi, Li-hua; Wu, Wei-na; Wang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    A new o-aminophenol-based fluorogenic chemosensor methyl 3,5-bis((E)-(2-hydroxyphenylimino)methyl)-4-hydroxybenzoate 1 have been synthesized by Schiff base condensation of methyl 3,5-diformyl-4-hydroxybenzoate with o-aminophenol, which exhibits high selectivity and sensitivity toward Al 3+ . Fluorescence titration studies of receptors 1 with different metal cations in CH 3 OH medium showed highly selective and sensitive towards Al 3+ ions even in the presence of other commonly coexisting metal ions. The detection limit of Al 3+ ions is at the parts per billion level. Interestingly, the Al(III) complex of 1 offered a large Stokes shift (>120 nm), which can miximize the selfquenching effect. In addition, possible utilization of this receptor as bio-imaging fluorescent probe to detect Al 3+ in human cervical HeLa cancer cell lines was also investigated by confocal fluorescence microscopy. - Highlights: • A new Schiff base chemosensor is reported. • The sensor for Al 3+ offers large Stokes shift. • The detection limit of Al 3+ in CH 3 OH solution is at the parts per billion level. • The utilization of sensor for the monitoring of Al 3+ levels in living cells was examined

  20. ALDF Data Retrieval Algorithms for Validating the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of lightning ground strikes from in Advanced Lightning Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing, and arrival time of lightning radio emissions and solutions for the plane (i.e.. no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of these measurements. The accuracy of the retrieval method is tested using computer-simulated data sets and the relative influence of bearing and arrival time data on the outcome of the final solution is formally demonstrated. The algorithm is sufficiently accurate to validate NASA's Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging System (LIS). We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the lightning source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. For arbitrary noncollinear network geometries and in the absence of measurement errors, it is shown that the two quadratic roots are equivalent (no source location ambiguity) on the outer sensor baselines. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer-generated data sets and the results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 degrees.