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  1. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume VI S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (VI), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4997 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  2. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume V S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    Velocity measurements in shallow sediments from ground surface to approximately 370 to 400 feet bgs were collected by Redpath Geophysics using impulsive S- and P-wave seismic sources (Redpath 2007). Measurements below this depth within basalt and sedimentary interbeds were made by UTA between October and December 2006 using the T-Rex vibratory seismic source in each of the three boreholes. Results of these measurements including seismic records, wave-arrival identifications and interpreted velocity profiles are presented in the following six volumes: I. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 II. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 III. P-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 IV. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 V. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4996 VI. S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4997 In this volume (V), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4996 at the WTP with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver.

  3. Infrared and millimeter waves v.15 millimeter components and techniques, pt.VI

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth J

    1986-01-01

    Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Volume 15: Millimeter Components and Techniques, Part VI is concerned with millimeter-wave guided propagation and integrated circuits. This book covers low-noise receiver technology for near-millimeter wavelengths; dielectric image-line antennas; EHF satellite communications (SATCOM) terminal antennas; and semiconductor antennas for millimeter-wave integrated circuits. A scanning airborne radiometer for 30 and 90 GHz and a self-oscillating mixer are also described. This monograph is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the design of low-n

  4. Strain/size analysis in ternary compounds AgIn{sub 5} VI{sub 8} (Vi = S, Se, Te) by X-ray diffraction; Analisis de tension/tamano en compuestos ternarios AgIn{sub 5} VI{sub 8} (VI = S, Se, Te) mediante difraccion de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermin, J. R.; Salcedo, D. Y.; Durante R, C.; Castro, J. A. [Universidad del Zulia, Facultad Experimental de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Maracaibo, Zulia (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we have study the microstructural properties of the ternary compounds AgIn{sub 5} VI{sub 8} (Vi = S, Se, Te) by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The linewidth of the XRD profile is measured as function of the diffraction angle. Structural parameters such as, average grain size, micro strains, and crystalline dislocation density, are obtained on the framework of a strain/size analysis based on the modified Scherrer equation for Gaussian profiles. The crystalline dislocation arrange according to a Gaussian distribution function, indicating that these dislocations are randomly distributed within the grains. (Author)

  5. Determination of elastic anisotropy of rocks from P- and S-wave velocities: numerical modelling and lab measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitek, Tomáš; Vavryčuk, Václav; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Petružálek, Matěj

    2014-12-01

    The most common type of waves used for probing anisotropy of rocks in laboratory is the direct P wave. Information potential of the measured P-wave velocity, however, is limited. In rocks displaying weak triclinic anisotropy, the P-wave velocity depends just on 15 linear combinations of 21 elastic parameters, called the weak-anisotropy parameters. In strong triclinic anisotropy, the P-wave velocity depends on the whole set of 21 elastic parameters, but inversion for six of them is ill-conditioned and these parameters are retrieved with a low accuracy. Therefore, in order to retrieve the complete elastic tensor accurately, velocities of S waves must also be measured and inverted. For this purpose, we developed a lab facility which allows the P- and S-wave ultrasonic sounding of spherical rock samples in 132 directions distributed regularly over the sphere. The velocities are measured using a pair of P-wave sensors with the transmitter and receiver polarized along the radial direction and using two pairs of S-wave sensors with the transmitter and receiver polarized tangentially to the spherical sample in mutually perpendicular directions. We present inversion methods of phase and ray velocities for elastic parameters describing general triclinic anisotropy. We demonstrate on synthetic tests that the inversion becomes more robust and stable if the S-wave velocities are included. This applies even to the case when the velocity of the S waves is measured in a limited number of directions and with a significantly lower accuracy than that of the P wave. Finally, we analyse velocities measured on a rock sample from the Outokumpu deep drill hole, Finland. We present complete sets of elastic parameters of the sample including the error analysis for several levels of confining pressure ranging from 0.1 to 70 MPa.

  6. High frequency measurement of P- and S-wave velocities on crystalline rock massif surface - methodology of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelm, Jan; Slavík, Lubomír

    2014-05-01

    For the purpose of non-destructive monitoring of rock properties in the underground excavation it is possible to perform repeated high-accuracy P- and S-wave velocity measurements. This contribution deals with preliminary results gained during the preparation of micro-seismic long-term monitoring system. The field velocity measurements were made by pulse-transmission technique directly on the rock outcrop (granite) in Bedrichov gallery (northern Bohemia). The gallery at the experimental site was excavated using TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) and it is used for drinking water supply, which is conveyed in a pipe. The stable measuring system and its automatic operation lead to the use of piezoceramic transducers both as a seismic source and as a receiver. The length of measuring base at gallery wall was from 0.5 to 3 meters. Different transducer coupling possibilities were tested namely with regard of repeatability of velocity determination. The arrangement of measuring system on the surface of the rock massif causes better sensitivity of S-transducers for P-wave measurement compared with the P-transducers. Similarly P-transducers were found more suitable for S-wave velocity determination then P-transducers. The frequency dependent attenuation of fresh rock massif results in limited frequency content of registered seismic signals. It was found that at the distance between the seismic source and receiver from 0.5 m the frequency components above 40 kHz are significantly attenuated. Therefore for the excitation of seismic wave 100 kHz transducers are most suitable. The limited frequency range should be also taken into account for the shape of electric impulse used for exciting of piezoceramic transducer. The spike pulse generates broad-band seismic signal, short in the time domain. However its energy after low-pass filtration in the rock is significantly lower than the energy of seismic signal generated by square wave pulse. Acknowledgments: This work was partially

  7. Titanium dioxide-based DGT for measuring dissolved As(V), V(V), Sb(V), Mo(VI) and W(VI) in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panther, Jared G.; Stewart, Ryan R.; Teasdale, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    A titanium dioxide-based DGT method (Metsorb-DGT) was evaluated for the measurement of As(V), V(V), Sb(V), Mo(VI), W(VI) and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in synthetic waters. Mass vs. time DGT deployments at pH 6.06 (0.01 mol L-1 NaNO3) demonstrated linear uptake of all analytes (R2...... for deployment times >4 h (CDGT=0.27-0.72). For ferrihydrite-DGT, CDGT/CSol values in the range 0.92-1.16 were obtained for As(V), V(V) and DRP, however, Mo(VI), Sb(V) and W(VI) could not be measured to within 15% of the solution concentration (C DGT/CSol 0.02-0.83)....

  8. A simple Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system for rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidative degradation of organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Yanan; Yang, Shaojie [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China); Zhou, Danna, E-mail: zdncug@163.com [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Feng [Department of Environmental Science, Hubei Key Lab of Biomass Resource Chemistry and Environmental Biotechnology, School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, 430079 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Rapid and simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) and degradation of organic pollutants occur. • Oxysulfur radicals generated in Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system oxidize the organic pollutants. • Acidic pH facilitates the reactions from both directions of reduction and oxidation. • Degradation potential of aromatic amines depends on the substituted groups. • Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system is promising for “waste control by waste”. - Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a heavy-metal contaminant, can be easily reduced to less toxic trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by sulfite ions (S(IV)). However, S(IV) has not drawn as much attention as the ferrous ion has. We report herein a novel Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system containing sulfite ions that rapidly and simultaneously reduces Cr(VI) and oxidize organic pollutants in the presence of oxygen in aqueous solutions. This Cr(VI)–S(IV)-O{sub 2} system contains the initiator Cr(VI), the reductant S(IV), and the oxidant O{sub 2}, which produce oxysulfur radicals (mainly SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and SO{sub 5}·{sup −}) and hydroxyl radicals (OH·). The Cr(VI)/S(IV) molar ratio, pH, and oxygen content play important roles in the entire reaction system. Acidic conditions (pH 3.0) facilitated degradation of organic compounds and reduction of Cr(VI) as well. In addition, experiments of rapid degradation of several kinds of organic pollutants such as azo dye (acid orange 7, AO7), aniline, phenol, bisphenol A etc were also conducted. Preliminary results show that the removal rates of the analogs of phenols or aromatic amines in this Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system have a relationship with the electronic parameters (Hammett constant, σ) of the substituted groups. Thus, the Cr(VI)–S(IV)–O{sub 2} system, provides an excellent strategy of “waste control by waste” for removing multiple industrial contaminants.

  9. Structural transformations of sVI tert-butylamine hydrates to sII binary hydrates with methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Pinnelli S R; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-10-22

    Binary clathrate hydrates with methane (CH(4), 4.36 A) and tert-butylamine (t-BuNH(2), 6.72 A) as guest molecules were synthesized at different molar concentrations of t-BuNH(2) (1.00-9.31 mol %) with methane at 7.0 MPa and 250 K, and were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Raman microscopy. A structural transformation from sVI to sII of t-BuNH(2) hydrate was clearly observed on pressurizing with methane. The PXRD showed sII signatures and the remnant sVI signatures were insignificant, implying the metastable nature of sVI binary hydrates. Raman spectroscopic data on these binary hydrates suggest that the methane molecules occupy the small cages and vacant large cages. The methane storage capacity in this system was nearly doubled to approximately 6.86 wt % for 5.56 mol % > t-BuNH(2) > 1.0 mol %.

  10. The transitions 4p-5s in Y VI, Zr VII, Nb VIII and Mo IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Rahimullah, K.; Khatoon, S.

    1976-01-01

    With the help of the spectra recorded in the Physics Department of Lund University, Y VI, Zr VII, Nb VIII and Mo IX are freshly analysed. The five 4s 2 4p 4 ground levels and the ten 4s 2 4p 3 5s levels of previous analyses are confirmed in the first three spectra, except for revising in Y VI the 4p 4 1 S 0 and 4p 3 5s( 4 Ssub(3/2)) 2 levels and interchanging 5s( 2 Dsub(3/2)) 1 with 5s( 2 Dsub(3/2)) 2 . All level values are improved due to the new measurements. A new analysis of Mo IX establishing all the 4p 4 and 4p 3 5s levels is being reported. (Auth.)

  11. Relative level populations in S VI after beam-foil excitation, obtained from ANDC analyses of measured decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the relative population of the levels 3p, 3d, 4d, 5d, 4f, 5g, 6g, 6h, 7h, 7i, 8i and 8k in Na-like sulfur, S VI, after beam-foil excitation at an energy of 3 MeV. For the first time the ANDC technique has been used to obtain the relative efficiency calibration of the detection system at discrete points in the wavelength interval 400-5000 A, from the analyses of measured decay curves. The advantages and limitations of this method are discussed. The populations obtained with this new technique are compared to previous measurements in multiply ionized atoms. The preferential population of the 3p and 3d levels observed in other Na-like ions is now accurately established. For the higher lying levels an almost constant population is observed. (Auth.)

  12. Structural and elastic properties of AIBIIIC 2 VI semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Singh, Bhanu P.

    2018-01-01

    The plane wave pseudo-potential method within density functional theory has been used to calculate the structural and elastic properties of AIBIIIC 2 VI semiconductors. The electronic band structure, density of states, lattice constants (a and c), internal parameter (u), tetragonal distortion (η), energy gap (Eg), and bond lengths of the A-C (dAC) and B-C (dBC) bonds in AIBIIIC 2 VI semiconductors have been calculated. The values of elastic constants (Cij), bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Young's modulus (Y), Poisson's ratio (υ), Zener anisotropy factor (A), Debye temperature (ϴD) and G/B ratio have also been calculated. The values of all 15 parameters of CuTlS2 and CuTlSe2 compounds, and 8 parameters of 20 compounds of AIBIIIC 2 VI family, except AgInS2 and AgInSe2, have been calculated for the first time. Reasonably good agreement has been obtained between the calculated, reported and available experimental values.

  13. S-Wave Velocity Structure of the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) Site Using Microtremor Array Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Feng; Huang, Huey-Chu

    2015-10-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled a 2-km-deep hole 2.4 km east of the surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake ( M w 7.6), near the town of Dakeng. Geophysical well logs at the TCDP site were run over depths ranging from 500 to 1,900 m to obtain the physical properties of the fault zones and adjacent damage zones. These data provide good reference material for examining the validity of velocity structures using microtremor array measurement; therefore, we conduct array measurements for a total of four arrays at two sites near the TCDP drilling sites. The phase velocities at frequencies of 0.2-5 Hz are calculated using the frequency-wavenumber ( f- k) spectrum method. Then the S-wave velocity structures are estimated by employing surface wave inversion techniques. The S-wave velocity from the differential inversion technique gradually increases from 1.52 to 2.22 km/s at depths between 585 and 1,710 m. This result is similar to those from the velocity logs, which range from 1.4 km/s at a depth of 597 m to 2.98 km/s at a depth of 1,705 m. The stochastic inversion results are similar to those from the seismic reflection methods and the lithostratigraphy of TCDP-A borehole, comparatively. These results show that microtremor array measurement provides a good tool for estimating deep S-wave velocity structure.

  14. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for the U.S. Coastal States based on the 2010 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) 2006-10 measures the social vulnerability of U.S. counties to environmental hazards. The index is a comparative metric that...

  15. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing at the Waste Treatment Plant Site, Hanford, WA. Volume IV S-Wave Measurements in Borehole C4993 Seismic Records, Wave-Arrival Identifications and Interpreted S-Wave Velocity Profile.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh

    2007-06-06

    In this volume (IV), all S-wave measurements are presented that were performed in Borehole C4993 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) with T-Rex as the seismic source and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) 3-D wireline geophone as the at-depth borehole receiver. S-wave measurements were performed over the depth range of 370 to 1300 ft, typically in 10-ft intervals. However, in some interbeds, 5-ft depth intervals were used, while below about 1200 ft, depth intervals of 20 ft were used. Shear (S) waves were generated by moving the base plate of T-Rex for a given number of cycles at a fixed frequency as discussed in Section 2. This process was repeated so that signal averaging in the time domain was performed using 3 to about 15 averages, with 5 averages typically used. In addition, a second average shear wave record was recorded by reversing the polarity of the motion of the T-Rex base plate. In this sense, all the signals recorded in the field were averaged signals. In all cases, the base plate was moving perpendicular to a radial line between the base plate and the borehole which is in and out of the plane of the figure shown in Figure 1.1. The definition of “in-line”, “cross-line”, “forward”, and “reversed” directions in items 2 and 3 of Section 2 was based on the moving direction of the base plate. In addition to the LBNL 3-D geophone, called the lower receiver herein, a 3-D geophone from Redpath Geophysics was fixed at a depth of 22 ft in Borehole C4993, and a 3-D geophone from the University of Texas (UT) was embedded near the borehole at about 1.5 ft below the ground surface. The Redpath geophone and the UT geophone were properly aligned so that one of the horizontal components in each geophone was aligned with the direction of horizontal shaking of the T-Rex base plate. This volume is organized into 12 sections as follows. Section 1: Introduction, Section 2: Explanation of Terminology, Section 3: Vs Profile at Borehole C4993

  16. A Green Microbial Fuel Cell-Based Biosensor for In Situ Chromium (VI) Measurement in Electroplating Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Liu, Man-Hai; Kuo, Jui-Ling; Chang, Yung-Chu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2017-10-27

    The extensive use of Cr(VI) in many industries and the disposal of Cr(VI)-containing wastes have resulted in Cr(VI)-induced environmental contamination. Cr(VI) compounds are associated with increased cancer risks; hence, the detection of toxic Cr(VI) compounds is crucial. Various methods have been developed for Cr(VI) measurement, but they are often conducted offsite and cannot provide real-time toxicity monitoring. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an eco-friendly and self-sustaining device that has great potential as a biosensor for in situ Cr(VI) measurement, especially for wastewater generated from different electroplating units. In this study, Exiguobacterium aestuarii YC211, a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, salt-tolerant, and exoelectrogenic bacterium, was isolated and inoculated into an MFC to evaluate its feasibility as a Cr(VI) biosensor. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency of E. aestuarii YC211 was not affected by the surrounding environment (pH 5-9, 20-35 °C, coexisting ions, and salinity of 0-15 g/L). The maximum power density of the MFC biosensor was 98.3 ± 1.5 mW/m² at 1500 Ω. A good linear relationship ( r ² = 0.997) was observed between the Cr(VI) concentration (2.5-60 mg/L) and the voltage output. The developed MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in the actual electroplating wastewater that is generated from different electroplating units within 30 min with low deviations (-6.1% to 2.2%). After treating the actual electroplating wastewater with the MFC, the predominant family in the biofilm was found to be Bacillaceae (95.3%) and was further identified as the originally inoculated E. aestuarii YC211 by next generation sequencing (NGS). Thus, the MFC biosensor can measure Cr(VI) concentrations in situ in the effluents from different electroplating units, and it can potentially help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations.

  17. Microbial Fuel Cell Inoculated with Ochrobactrum Tritici KCC210 for Chromium (VI) Measurement in Electroplating Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jongtar; Kuo, Juiling; Cheng, Chiuyu; Chung, Yingchien

    2018-01-01

    Many methods/techniques have been developed for Cr(VI) measurement, but they are often conducted offsite or/and cannot provide real-time for Cr(VI) monitoring. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a self-sustaining device and has great potential as a biosensor for in situ Cr(VI) measurement, especially for wastewater generated from different electroplating units. In this study, Ochrobactrum tritici KCC210, a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI)-reducing, and exoelectrogenic bacterium, was isolated and inoculated into the MFC to evaluate its feasibility as a Cr(VI) biosensor. The results indicated that O. tritici KCC210 exhibited high adaptability to pH, and temperature under anaerobic conditions. The maximum power density of the MFC biosensor was 17.5±0.9 mW/m2 at 2,000 Ω. A good linear relationship was observed between the Cr(VI) concentration (10-80 mg/L) and voltage output. The stable performance of the MFC biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. Moreover, the developed MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI) concentrations in the actual electroplating wastewater generated from different electroplating units within 15 min with low deviations (-1.8% to 7.8%) in comparison with the values determined using standard method. Thus, the MFC biosensor can measure Cr(VI) concentrations in situ in the effluents and has potential as an early warning detection device.

  18. Temporal change in shallow subsurface P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy inferred from coda wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M.; Nishida, K.; Takeda, T.

    2012-12-01

    Recent progresses in theoretical and observational researches on seismic interferometry reveal the possibility to detect subtle change in subsurface seismic structure. This high sensitivity of seismic interferometry to the medium properties may thus one of the most important ways to directly observe the time-lapse behavior of shallow crustal structure. Here, using the coda wave interferometry, we show the co-seismic and post-seismic changes in P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0). In this study, we use the acceleration data recorded at KiK-net stations operated by NIED, Japan. Each KiK-net station has a borehole whose typical depth is about 100m, and two three-component accelerometers are installed at the top and bottom of the borehole. To estimate the shallow subsurface P- and S-wave velocities and S-wave anisotropy between two sensors and their temporal change, we select about 1000 earthquakes that occurred between 2004 and 2012, and extract body waves propagating between borehole sensors by computing the cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of 3 x 3 component pairs. We use frequency bands of 2-4, 4-8, 8-16 Hz in our analysis. Each averaged CCF shows clear wave packets traveling between borehole sensors, and their travel times are almost consistent with those of P- and S-waves calculated from the borehole log data. Until the occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the estimated travel time at each station is rather stable with time except for weak seasonal/annual variation. On the other hand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its aftershocks cause sudden decrease in the S-wave velocity at most of the KiK-net stations in eastern Japan. The typical value of S-wave velocity changes, which are measured by the time-stretching method, is about 5-15%. After this co-seismic change, the S-wave velocity gradually recovers with time, and the recovery continues for over one year following the

  19. Characterization of U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes on hematite: EXAFS and electrophoretic mobility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, John R.; Reitmeyer, Rebecca; Lenhart, John J.; Davis, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured U(VI) adsorption on hematite using EXAFS spectroscopy and electrophoresis under conditions relevant to surface waters and aquifers (0.01 to 10 μM dissolved uranium concentrations, in equilibrium with air, pH 4.5 to 8.5). Both techniques suggest the existence of anionic U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. Fits to EXAFS spectra indicate that U(VI) is simultaneously coordinated to surface FeO6 octahedra and carbonate (or bicarbonate) ligands in bidentate fashions, leading to the conclusion that the ternary complexes have an inner-sphere metal bridging (hematite-U(VI)-carbonato) structure. Greater than or equal to 50% of adsorbed U(VI) was comprised of monomeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes, even at pH 4.5. Multimeric U(VI) species were observed at pH ≥ 6.5 and aqueous U(VI) concentrations approximately an order of magnitude more dilute than the solubility of crystalline β-UO2(OH)2. Based on structural constraints, these complexes were interpreted as dimeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. These results suggest that Fe-oxide-U(VI)-carbonato complexes are likely to be important transport-limiting species in oxic aquifers throughout a wide range of pH values.

  20. An electrochemical study of U(VI) and Cr(VI) in molten borates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau, M.; Gregori de Pinochet, I. de

    1977-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of U(VI) and Cr(VI), in molten Na 2 B 4 O 7 at 800 deg C was studied by means of linear sweep voltammetry, and chronopotentiometry. The reduction of U(VI) to U(V) proceeded reversibly at a platinum electrode. The diffusion coefficient for the U(VI) species at 800 deg C was 4.10 -7 cm 2 .s -1 . The activation energy of diffusion was (34,8 +- 0,8) kcal. mole -1 . Electrochemical studies of Cr(VI) at 800 0 C reveal a two-step reduction process at a platinum electrode. Only the voltammogram for the first step charge transfer process was studied. Analysis indicated that Cr(VI) is reversibly reduced to Cr(III) at a platinum electrode. The diffusion coefficient for Cr(VI) at 800 0 C is 1,9.10 -7 cm 2 .s -1 [fr

  1. Reduction of ferrate(VI) and oxidation of cyanate in a Fe(VI)-TiO2-UV-NCO- system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Sharma, Virender K; Lin, Yekaterina; Shreve, Katherine A; Winkelmann, Catherine; Hoisington, Laura J; Yngard, Ria A

    2008-08-01

    The aqueous photocatalytic degradation of cyanate (NCO(-)), which is a long-lived neurotoxin formed during the remediation of cyanide in industrial waste streams, was studied in the ferrate(VI)-UV-TiO2-NCO(-) system. Kinetics measurements of the photocatalytic reduction of ferrate(VI) were carried out as a function of [NCO(-)], [ferrate(VI)], [O(2)], light intensity (I(o)), and amount of TiO2 in suspensions at pH 9.0. The photocatalytic reduction rate of ferrate(VI) in the studied system can be expressed as -d[Fe(VI)]/dt=kI(o)(0.5) [NCO(-)] [TiO2]. The rate of photocatalytic oxidation of cyanate with ferrate(VI) was greater than the rate in the analogous system without ferrate(VI). The possibility of involvement of reactive ferrate(V) species for this enhancement was determined by studying the reactivity of ferrate(V) with NCO(-) in a homogeneous solution using a premix pulse radiolysis technique. The rate constant for the reaction of ferrate(V) and NCO(-) in alkaline medium was estimated to be (9.60+/-0.07) x 10(2) M(-1) s(-1), which is much slower than the ferrate(VI) self-decomposition reaction (k approximately 10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). An analysis of the kinetic data in the Fe(VI)-UV-TiO2-NCO(-) system suggests that ferrate(V) is not directly participating in the oxidation of cyanate. Possible reactions in the system are presented to explain results of ferrate(VI) reduction and oxidation of cyanate.

  2. Magnitude and directional measures of water and Cr(VI) fluxes by passive flux meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy J; Hatfield, Kirk; Klammler, Harald; Annable, Michael D; Rao, P S C

    2006-10-15

    A new configuration of the passive fluxmeter (PFM) is presented that provides for simultaneous measurements of both the magnitude and the direction of ambient groundwater specific discharge qo and Cr(VI) mass flux J(Cr). The PFM is configured as a cylindrical unit with an interior divided into a center section and three outer sectors, each packed with a granular anion exchange resin having high sorption capacity for the Cr(VI) oxyanions CrO4(2-) and HCrO4-. The sorbent in the center section is preloaded with benzoate as the "resident" tracer. Laboratory experiments were conducted in which PFMs were placed in porous packed bed columns, through which was passed a measured volume of synthetic groundwater containing Cr(VI). During the deployment period, some of the resident tracer is depleted while the Cr(VI) is sorbed. The resin was then removed from the four sectors separately and extracted to determine the "captured" mass of Cr(VI) and the residual mass of the resident tracer in each. Cumulative specific discharge, q0t, values were assessed using the residual mass of benzoate retained in the center section. The direction of this discharge theta was ascertained from the mass distribution of benzoate intercepted and retained in the outer three sections of the PFM. Cumulative chromium fluxes, J(Cr)t, were quantified using the total Cr(VI) mass intercepted and retained on the PFM. Experiments produced an average measurement error for direction theta of 3 degrees +/- 14 degrees, while the average measurement errors for q0 and J(Cr) were, respectively, -8% +/- 15% and -12% +/- 23%. Results demonstrate the potential utility of the new PFM configuration for characterizing groundwater and contaminant fluxes.

  3. National Youth Survey US: Wave VI (NYS-1983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Youth data for the sixth wave of the National Youth Survey are contained in this collection. This research project, which was designed to gain a better understanding...

  4. S-wave velocity measurements along levees in New Orleans using passive surface wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Craig, M. S.; Gostic, A.

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop non-invasive methods for levee inspection, geophysical investigations were carried out at four sites along levees in the New Orleans area: 17th Street Canal, London Avenue Canal, Marrero Levee, and Industrial Canal. Three of the four sites sustained damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and have since been rebuilt. The geophysical methods used include active and passive surface wave methods, and capacitively coupled resistivity. This paper summarizes the acquisition and analysis of the 1D and 2D passive surface wave data. Twelve wireless seismic data acquisition units with 2 Hz vertical component geophones were used to record data. Each unit includes a GPS receiver so that all units can be synchronized over any distance without cables. The 1D passive method used L shaped arrays of three different sizes with geophone spacing ranging from 5 to 340 m. Ten minutes to one hour of ambient noise was recorded with each array, and total data acquisition took approximately two hours at each site. The 2D method used a linear array with a geophone spacing of 5m. Four geophones were moved forward every 10 minutes along 400 1000 m length lines. Data acquisition took several hours for each line. Recorded ambient noise was processed using the spatial autocorrelation method and clear dispersion curves were obtained at all sites (Figure 1a). Minimum frequencies ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 Hz and maximum frequencies ranged from 10 to 30 Hz depending on the site. Non-linear inversion was performed and 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models were obtained. The 1D method penetrated to depths ranging from 200 to 500 m depending on the site (Figure 1b). The 2D method penetrated to a depth of 40 60 m and provided 400 1000 m cross sections along the levees (Figure 2). The interpretation focused on identifying zones beneath the levees or canal walls having low S-wave velocities corresponding to saturated, unconsolidated sands, or low-rigidity clays. Resultant S-wave velocity profiles

  5. A combined wet chemistry and EXAFS study of U(VI) uptake by cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, E.; Harfouche, M.; Tits, J.; Kunz, D.; Daehn, R.; Fujita, T.; Tsukamoto, M.

    2006-01-01

    The sorption behaviour and speciation of U(VI) in cementitious systems was investigated by a combination of wet chemistry experiments and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. Radiotracer studies using 233 U were carried out on hardened cement paste (HCP) and calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), which are the major constituents of HCP, to determine the uptake kinetics and sorption isotherms. C-S-H phases were synthesized using different methods for solid phase preparation, which enabled us to study the U(VI) uptake by different types of C-S-H phases and a wide range of Ca/Si compositions, and to distinguish U(VI) sorption on the surface of C-S-H from U(VI) incorporation into the structure. XAS measurements were performed using U(VI) loaded HCP and C-S-H materials (sorption and co-precipitation samples) to gain structural information on the U(VI) speciation in these systems, i.e., the type and number of neighbouring atoms, and bond distances. Examples of studies that have utilized XAS to characterize U(VI) speciation in cementitious systems are still rare, and to the best of our knowledge, detailed XAS investigations of the U(VI)/C-S-H system are lacking. The results obtained from the combined use of wet chemical and spectroscopic techniques allow mechanistic models of the immobilization process to be proposed for cementitious waste forms containing low and high U(VI) inventories. In the latter case U(VI) immobilization is controlled by a solubility-limiting process with the U(VI) mineral predominantly formed under the conditions prevailing in cementitious systems. At low U(VI) concentrations, however, U(VI) appears to be predominantly bound onto C-S-H phases. The coordination environment of U(VI) taken up by C-S-H was found to resemble that of U(VI) in uranophane. A mechanistic understanding of the U(VI) binding by cementitious materials will allow more detailed and scientifically well founded predictions of the retention of

  6. Nanoscale measurement of Nernst effect in two-dimensional charge density wave material 1T-TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Luican-Mayer, Adina; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2017-11-01

    Advances in nanoscale material characterization on two-dimensional van der Waals layered materials primarily involve their optical and electronic properties. The thermal properties of these materials are harder to access due to the difficulty of thermal measurements at the nanoscale. In this work, we create a nanoscale magnetothermal device platform to access the basic out-of-plane magnetothermal transport properties of ultrathin van der Waals materials. Specifically, the Nernst effect in the charge density wave transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-TaS2 is examined on nano-thin flakes in a patterned device structure. It is revealed that near the commensurate charge density wave (CCDW) to nearly commensurate charge density wave (NCCDW) phase transition, the polarity of the Nernst effect changes. Since the Nernst effect is especially sensitive to changes in the Fermi surface, this suggests that large changes are occurring in the out-of-plane electronic structure of 1T-TaS2, which are otherwise unresolved in just in-plane electronic transport measurements. This may signal a coherent evolution of out-of-plane stacking in the CCDW → NCCDW transition.

  7. Measurement of Rayleigh wave Z/H ratio and joint inversion for a high-resolution S wave velocity model beneath the Gulf of Mexico passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, W.; Li, G.; Niu, F.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge on the 3D sediment structure beneath the Gulf of Mexico passive margin is not only important to explore the oil and gas resources in the area, but also essential to decipher the deep crust and mantle structure beneath the margin with teleseismic data. In this study, we conduct a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave ellipticity and phase velocity at 6-40 s to construct a 3-D S wave velocity model in a rectangular area of 100°-87° west and 28°-37° north. We use ambient noise data from a total of 215 stations of the Transportable Array deployed under the Earthscope project. Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave Z/H (vertical to horizontal) amplitude ratio is mostly sensitive to shallow sediment structure, while the dispersion data are expected to have reasonably good resolution to uppermost mantle depths. The Z/H ratios measured from stations inside the Gulf Coastal Plain are distinctly lower in comparison with those measured from the inland stations. We also measured the phase velocity dispersion from the same ambient noise dataset. Our preliminary 3-D model is featured by strong low-velocity anomalies at shallow depth, which are spatially well correlated with Gulf Cost, East Texas, and the Lower Mississippi basins. We will discuss other features of the 3-D models once the model is finalized.

  8. Spectral analysis of 5s25p2(6p+6d+7s) configurations of Ba VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.K.; Tauheed, A.; Rahimullah, K.

    2014-01-01

    The sixth spectrum of barium (Ba VI) has been investigated with the aid of experimental recordings made on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph of Antigonish laboratory (Canada) in the wavelength region 300–2080 Å using triggered spark as an excitation source. The spectral analysis has been extended considerably to include new configuration the 5s 2 5p 2 6p in odd parity matrix and the 5s 2 5p 2 6d and 5s 2 5p 2 7s configurations in even parity matrix. Previously reported levels of the ground configuration (5s 2 5p 3 ) and three lowest excited configurations the 5s5p 4 , 5s 2 5p 2 5d and 5s 2 5p 2 6s have been confirmed and the two unknown levels of the 5s 2 5p 2 5d configuration with J=9/2, have now been established through the identification of transitions from the 5s 2 5p 2 6p levels. All twenty one levels of the 5s 2 5p 2 6p configuration and twenty nine levels out of thirty six of the 5s 2 5p 2 6d and 5s 2 5p 2 7s configurations have now been established. Hartree–Fock calculations involving configuration interactions support the analyses. The accuracy of our wavelength measurement is ±0.005 Å for sharp lines. - Highlights: • The spectrum of Ba was recorded on a 3-m spectrograph with triggered spark source. • Atomic transitions for Ba VI were identified to established new energy levels. • CI calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Weighted oscillator strength (gf) and transition probabilities (gA) were calculated

  9. Strong Measurements Give a Better Direct Measurement of the Quantum Wave Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Dequal, Daniele

    2016-01-29

    Weak measurements have thus far been considered instrumental in the so-called direct measurement of the quantum wave function [4J. S. Lundeen, Nature (London) 474, 188 (2011).]. Here we show that a direct measurement of the wave function can be obtained by using measurements of arbitrary strength. In particular, in the case of strong measurements, i.e., those in which the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus is maximum, we compared the precision and the accuracy of the two methods, by showing that strong measurements outperform weak measurements in both for arbitrary quantum states in most cases. We also give the exact expression of the difference between the original and reconstructed wave function obtained by the weak measurement approach; this will allow one to define the range of applicability of such a method.

  10. Contribution to the study of the redox couple Np(VI)/Np(V) in the presence of uranium(VI) in solutions of nitric acid and nitrous acid; Contribution a l'etude du comportement redox du couple Np(VI)/Np(V) en presence d'uranium VI dans les solutions constituees d'acide nitrique et d'acide nitreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpigny, S. [CEA Marcoule, Dept. de Radiochimie et Procedes, DRP, 30 (France)

    2001-07-01

    The redox behavior of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple was the subject of a spectrometric study of the Np(VI) reduction reaction in nitric acid solutions (4 to 5 M) containing variable concentrations (1.5 to 3.5 x 10{sup -3} M) of nitrous acid. A low nitrous acid concentration and a high nitric acid concentration were found to favor the stabilization of Np(VI). The stoichiometric coefficients of nitrous acid and nitric acid in the Np(VI) reduction reaction were determined thermodynamically, although only the reaction order with respect to HNO{sub 2} could be calculated from a kinetic analysis. Adding nitrate ions to a HNO{sub 3}/HNO{sub 2} solution enhanced the stability of neptunium at oxidation state +VI, but also increased the reduction rate. When uranium(VI) was added to the HNO{sub 3}/HNO{sub 2} solutions, the total quantity of neptunium at oxidation state +V (either free or as a Np(V)-U(VI) complex) remained practically unchanged, as did the Np(VI) reduction rate. The electrochemical behavior of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple was investigated in a weak acidic medium by voltammetry with an ultra-micro-electrode (UME). The oxidation wave limiting current variation was a linear function of the Np(V) concentration when a gold UME was used, but not with a platinum UME; the reduction wave limiting current variation versus the Np(V) concentration was linear with either gold or platinum UMEs. The presence of the Np(V)-U(VI) complex in the neptunium solutions was characterized by a shift in the normal apparent potential of the Np(VI)/Np(V) couple toward anodic potentials consistent with the previously determined values of the complexation constants. (author)

  11. Polarography of uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, El-Maraghy B.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system has been studied polarographically in perchloric acid medium. Varying concentrations of HClO 4 and salicylic acid have been used. The nature of the polarographic waves is irreversible. (author)

  12. Polarography of uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salah, E M.B. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Education

    1980-08-01

    Uranium(VI)-salicylic acid system has been studied polarographically in perchloric acid medium. Varying concentrations of HClO/sub 4/ and salicylic acid have been used. The nature of the polarographic waves is irreversible.

  13. Coherent Wave Measurement Buoy Arrays to Support Wave Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, F.; Chang, G.; Jones, C.; Janssen, T. T.; Barney, P.; Roberts, J.

    2016-02-01

    Wave energy is the most abundant form of hydrokinetic energy in the United States and wave energy converters (WECs) are being developed to extract the maximum possible power from the prevailing wave climate. However, maximum wave energy capture is currently limited by the narrow banded frequency response of WECs as well as extended protective shutdown requirements during periods of large waves. These limitations must be overcome in order to maximize energy extraction, thus significantly decreasing the cost of wave energy and making it a viable energy source. Techno-economic studies of several WEC devices have shown significant potential to improve wave energy capture efficiency through operational control strategies that incorporate real-time information about local surface wave motions. Integral Consulting Inc., with ARPA-E support, is partnering with Sandia National Laboratories and Spoondrift LLC to develop a coherent array of wave-measuring devices to relay and enable the prediction of wave-resolved surface dynamics at a WEC location ahead of real time. This capability will provide necessary information to optimize power production of WECs through control strategies, thereby allowing for a single WEC design to perform more effectively across a wide range of wave environments. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000514.

  14. Earthquake early warning using P-waves that appear after initial S-waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Y.

    2017-12-01

    As measures for underprediction for large earthquakes with finite faults and overprediction for multiple simultaneous earthquakes, Hoshiba (2013), Hoshiba and Aoki (2015), and Kodera et al. (2016) proposed earthquake early warning (EEW) methods that directly predict ground motion by computing the wave propagation of observed ground motion. These methods are expected to predict ground motion with a high accuracy even for complicated scenarios because these methods do not need source parameter estimation. On the other hand, there is room for improvement in their rapidity because they predict strong motion prediction mainly based on the observation of S-waves and do not explicitly use P-wave information available before the S-waves. In this research, we propose a real-time P-wave detector to incorporate P-wave information into these wavefield-estimation approaches. P-waves within a few seconds from the P-onsets are commonly used in many existing EEW methods. In addition, we focus on P-waves that may appear in the later part of seismic waves. Kurahashi and Irikura (2013) mentioned that P-waves radiated from strong motion generation areas (SMGAs) were recognizable after S-waves of the initial rupture point in the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) (the Tohoku-oki earthquake). Detecting these P-waves would enhance the rapidity of prediction for the peak ground motion generated by SMGAs. We constructed a real-time P-wave detector that uses a polarity analysis. Using acceleration records in boreholes of KiK-net (band-pass filtered around 0.5-10 Hz with site amplification correction), the P-wave detector performed the principal component analysis with a sliding window of 4 s and calculated P-filter values (e.g. Ross and Ben-Zion, 2014). The application to the Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) showed that (1) peaks of P-filter that corresponded to SMGAs appeared in several stations located near SMGAs and (2) real-time seismic intensities (Kunugi et al

  15. Comparison of decay and yield data between JNDC2 and ENDF/B-VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamatsu, K.; Sagosaka, M.; Miyazono, T. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This work is intended to be our first step to solve disagreements of the decay heat powers between measurements and summation calculations. We examine differences between nuclear data libraries to complement our uncertainty evaluation of the decay heat summation calculations only with ENDF/B-VI. The comparison is made mainly between JNDC2 and ENDF/B-VI while JEF2.2 decay data is also discussed. In this study, we propose and use a simple method which is an analogue of the overlap integral of two wave functions in quantum mechanics. As the first step, we compare the whole input nuclear data for the summation calculations as a whole. We find a slight difference of the fission yields especially for high-energy neutron induced fissions between JNDC2 and ENDF/B-VI. As for the decay energies, JNDC2, ENDF/B-VI are quite similar while JEF2.2 is found significantly different from these two libraries. We find substantial differences in the decay constant values among the three libraries. As the second step, we calculate the decay heat powers with FPGS90 using JNDC2 and ENDF/B-VI. The total decay heat powers with the two libraries differ by more than 10% at short cooling times while they agree well on the average at cooling times longer that 100 (s). We also point out nuclides whose contributions are significantly different between the two libraries even though the total decay heats agree well. These nuclides may cause some problems in predicting aggregate spectra of {beta} and {gamma} rays as well as delayed neutrons, and are to be reviewed in the future revision of decay and yield data. (author)

  16. Wigner functions of s waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, J. P.; Varro, S.; Wolf, A.; Schleich, W. P.

    2007-01-01

    We derive explicit expressions for the Wigner function of wave functions in D dimensions which depend on the hyperradius--that is, of s waves. They are based either on the position or the momentum representation of the s wave. The corresponding Wigner function depends on three variables: the absolute value of the D-dimensional position and momentum vectors and the angle between them. We illustrate these expressions by calculating and discussing the Wigner functions of an elementary s wave and the energy eigenfunction of a free particle

  17. Wigner functions of s waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Varro, S.; Wolf, A.

    2007-01-01

    We derive explicit expressions for the Wigner function of wave functions in D dimensions which depend on the hyperradius-that is, of s waves. They are based either on the position or the momentum representation of the s wave. The corresponding Wigner function depends on three variables......: the absolute value of the D-dimensional position and momentum vectors and the angle between them. We illustrate these expressions by calculating and discussing the Wigner functions of an elementary s wave and the energy eigenfunction of a free particle....

  18. SAM-VI RNAs selectively bind S-adenosylmethionine and exhibit similarities to SAM-III riboswitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirihana Arachchilage, Gayan; Sherlock, Madeline E; Weinberg, Zasha; Breaker, Ronald R

    2018-03-04

    Five distinct riboswitch classes that regulate gene expression in response to the cofactor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or its metabolic breakdown product S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) have been reported previously. Collectively, these SAM- or SAH-sensing RNAs constitute the most abundant collection of riboswitches, and are found in nearly every major bacterial lineage. Here, we report a potential sixth member of this pervasive riboswitch family, called SAM-VI, which is predominantly found in Bifidobacterium species. SAM-VI aptamers selectively bind the cofactor SAM and strongly discriminate against SAH. The consensus sequence and structural model for SAM-VI share some features with the consensus model for the SAM-III riboswitch class, whose members are mainly found in lactic acid bacteria. However, there are sufficient differences between the two classes such that current bioinformatics methods separately cluster representatives of the two motifs. These findings highlight the abundance of RNA structures that can form to selectively recognize SAM, and showcase the ability of RNA to utilize diverse strategies to perform similar biological functions.

  19. Real time wave measurements and wave hindcasting in deep waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.

    Deep water waves off Karwar (lat. 14~'45.1'N, long. 73~'34.8'E) at 75 m water depth pertaining to peak monsoon period have been measured using a Datawell waverider buoy. Measured wave data show that the significant wave height (Hs) predominantly...

  20. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Monica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio; Santos, Erika; Costa, Maria Clara

    2010-01-01

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L -1 U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L -1 Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  1. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Erika [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L{sup -1} U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  2. Vi har intet lært - hvornår lærer vi det?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2016-01-01

    WHO anså fra i går ikke længere ebola for at være en trussel mod global folkesundhed, så fra i dag er kameraerne slukket i Vestafrika og vi er tilbage hvor vi startede. SDG målene skal have et dansk udtryk, men hvad er de danske kompetencer på globalt plan når sundhed ikke længere er en kerneakti......WHO anså fra i går ikke længere ebola for at være en trussel mod global folkesundhed, så fra i dag er kameraerne slukket i Vestafrika og vi er tilbage hvor vi startede. SDG målene skal have et dansk udtryk, men hvad er de danske kompetencer på globalt plan når sundhed ikke længere er en...

  3. A nonlocal potential form for s-wave α-α scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Bennett, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Low energy s-wave α-α phase shifts that agree well with the measured set, have been extracted using a nonlocal interaction formed by folding (local real) nucleon -α particle interactions with density matrix elements of the (projectile) α particle. The resultant nonlocal s-wave α-α interaction is energy dependent and has a nonlocality range of about 2 fm

  4. Nanoscale measurement of Nernst effect in two-dimensional charge density wave material 1T-TaS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Stephen M. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA; Luican-Mayer, Adina [Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada; Bhattacharya, Anand [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Nanoscience and Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2017-11-27

    Advances in nanoscale material characterization on two-dimensional van der Waals layered materials primarily involve their optical and electronic properties. The thermal properties of these materials are harder to access due to the difficulty of thermal measurements at the nanoscale. In this work, we create a nanoscale magnetothermal device platform to access the basic out-of-plane magnetothermal transport properties of ultrathin van der Waals materials. Specifically, the Nernst effect in the charge density wave transition metal dichalcogenide 1T-TaS2 is examined on nano-thin flakes in a patterned device structure. It is revealed that near the commensurate charge density wave (CCDW) to nearly commensurate charge density wave (NCCDW) phase transition, the polarity of the Nernst effect changes. Since the Nernst effect is especially sensitive to changes in the Fermi surface, this suggests that large changes are occurring in the out-of-plane electronic structure of 1T-TaS2, which are otherwise unresolved in just in-plane electronic transport measurements. This may signal a coherent evolution of out-of-plane stacking in the CCDW! NCCDW transition.

  5. Estimation of S-wave Velocity Structures by Using Microtremor Array Measurements for Subsurface Modeling in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ridwan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta is located on a thick sedimentary layer that potentially has a very high seismic wave amplification. However, the available information concerning the subsurface model and bedrock depth is insufficient for a seismic hazard analysis. In this study, a microtremor array method was applied to estimate the geometry and S-wave velocity of the sedimentary layer. The spatial autocorrelation (SPAC method was applied to estimate the dispersion curve, while the S-wave velocity was estimated using a genetic algorithm approach. The analysis of the 1D and 2D S-wave velocity profiles shows that along a north-south line, the sedimentary layer is thicker towards the north. It has a positive correlation with a geological cross section derived from a borehole down to a depth of about 300 m. The SPT data from the BMKG site were used to verify the 1D S-wave velocity profile. They show a good agreement. The microtremor analysis reached the engineering bedrock in a range from 359 to 608 m as depicted by a cross section in the north-south direction. The site class was also estimated at each site, based on the average S-wave velocity until 30 m depth. The sites UI to ISTN belong to class D (medium soil, while BMKG and ANCL belong to class E (soft soil.

  6. Windowing UWB microwave, mm-wave multi-port S-parameter measurements using open-ended excess electrical length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Askari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-port measurements are a big challenge in circuits' verification, especially when the frequency increases. This study presents a new technique for measuring S-parameters of multi-port ultra-wideband (UWB microwave and mm-wave circuits. The concepts are based on direct or indirect applying modulated UWB impulse radio in desired bandwidth to the one port of the modified multi-port circuit and gathering the reflected signal in the same port and the output signal in the second port in time domain, and the other ports are left opened with a special designed added electrical length. Then by applying intelligent windowing in time domain to the gathering data, and using fast Fourier transform, the desired S-parameters are extracted. Validation of this technique is verified by design and fabrication of a three-port UWB Wilkinson power divider in 22–30 GHz. The simulation and measurement results of the reflection and transmission S-parameters by using this new technique are very close to those are extracted with the conventional vector network analysers S-parameters measurements and show the ability and the accuracy of this technique.

  7. Statistical analysis of s-wave neutron reduced widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandita Anita; Agrawal, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    The fluctuations of the s-wave neutron reduced widths for many nuclei have been analyzed with emphasis on recent measurements by a statistical procedure which is based on the method of maximum likelihood. It is shown that the s-wave neutron reduced widths of nuclei follow single channel Porter Thomas distribution (x 2 -distribution with degree of freedom ν = 1) for most of the cases. However there are apparent deviations from ν = 1 and possible explanation and significance of this deviation is given. These considerations are likely to modify the evaluation of neutron cross section. (author)

  8. An overview of the numerical and neural network accosts of ocean wave prediction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Prabaharan, N.

    .8 1.2 1.6 Avg. Measured wave height (m) 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Fo re ca ste d a vg . w av e h eig ht (m ) COPEDEC VI, 2003, Colombo, Sri Lanka 8 5. CONCLUSIONS The use of neural network for wave prediction will have future application...

  9. Elemental sulfur amendment decreases bio-available Cr-VI in soils impacted by leather tanneries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Chen, Hualin; Arocena, Joselito M; Whitcombe, Todd; Thring, Ronald W; Memiaghe, Jeff Nze

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the potential use of elemental S (S(0)) to convert Cr-VI to Cr-III which should decrease the bio-availability hence, toxicity of Cr-VI in soils. The bio-available fraction of Cr in soil was measured by phosphate buffer extraction (PBE) and the results showed that the fraction is about 10% of the total Cr-VI and varied from 12.8 to 42.5 mg kg(-1). The addition of 4.0 mg g(-1) S(0) decreased PBE Cr-VI to soils. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and micro-XRD revealed that Cr-III was the dominant species (99% of total Cr) and Cr was retained by hematite and goethite in soil. Fe-containing minerals may have provided sufficient protection to render the dominant Cr-III species biochemically inert to redox processes in soils. It is concluded that S(0)amendment is a promising approach to remediate Cr-VI contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory measurements of P- and S-wave anisotropy in synthetic rocks by 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L.; Ostadhassan, M.; Tamimi, N.; Li, C.; Alexeyev, A.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic rocks have been widely used to realize the models with controlled factors in rock physics and geomechanics experiments. Additive manufacturing technology, known as 3D printing, is becoming a popular method to produce the synthetic rocks as the advantages of timesaving, economics, and control. In terms of mechanical properties, the duplicability of 3D printed rock towards a natural rock has been studied whereas the seismic anisotropy still remains unknown as being the key factor in conducting rock physics experiments. This study utilized a 3D printer with gypsum as the ink to manufacture a series of synthetic rocks that have the shapes of octagonal prisms, with half of them printed from lateral and another half from the bottom. An ultrasonic investigation system was set up to measure the P- and S- wave velocities at different frequencies while samples were under dry conditions. The results show the impact of layered property on the P- and S- wave velocities. The measurement results were compared with the predicted results of Hudson model, demonstrating that the synthetic rock from 3D printing is a transverse isotropic model. The seismic anisotropy indicates that the availability of using 3D printed rocks to duplicate natural rocks for the purpose of recreating the experiments of rock physics. Future experiments will be performed on the dependence of seismic anisotropy on fracture geometry and density in 3D printed synthetic rocks.

  11. UnoViS: the MedIT public unobtrusive vital signs database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartzek, Tobias; Czaplik, Michael; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Eilebrecht, Benjamin; Walocha, Rafael; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    While PhysioNet is a large database for standard clinical vital signs measurements, such a database does not exist for unobtrusively measured signals. This inhibits progress in the vital area of signal processing for unobtrusive medical monitoring as not everybody owns the specific measurement systems to acquire signals. Furthermore, if no common database exists, a comparison between different signal processing approaches is not possible. This gap will be closed by our UnoViS database. It contains different recordings in various scenarios ranging from a clinical study to measurements obtained while driving a car. Currently, 145 records with a total of 16.2 h of measurement data is available, which are provided as MATLAB files or in the PhysioNet WFDB file format. In its initial state, only (multichannel) capacitive ECG and unobtrusive PPG signals are, together with a reference ECG, included. All ECG signals contain annotations by a peak detector and by a medical expert. A dataset from a clinical study contains further clinical annotations. Additionally, supplementary functions are provided, which simplify the usage of the database and thus the development and evaluation of new algorithms. The development of urgently needed methods for very robust parameter extraction or robust signal fusion in view of frequent severe motion artifacts in unobtrusive monitoring is now possible with the database.

  12. P-S & S-P Elastic Wave Conversions from Linear Arrays of Oriented Microcracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Modiriasari, A.; Bobet, A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Natural and induced processes can produce oriented mechanical discontinuities such as en echelon cracks, fractures and faults. Previous research has shown that compressional to shear (P-S) wave conversions occur at normal incidence to a fracture because of cross-coupling fracture compliances (Nakagawa et al., 2000). Here, experiments and computer simulation are presented to demonstrate the link among cross-coupling stiffness, microcrack orientation and energy partitioning among P, S, and P-S/S-P waves. A FormLabs 2 3D printer was used to fabricate 7 samples (50 mm x 50 mm x 100 mm) with linear arrays of microcracks oriented at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 900 with a print resolution of 0.025 mm. The microcracks were elliptical in cross-sections (2 mm long by 1 mm wide), through the 50 mm thickness of sample, and spaced 3 mm (center-to-center for adjacent cracks). A 25 mm length of each sample contained no microcracks to act as a reference material. Broadband transducers (0.2-1.5 MHz) were used to transmit and receive P and polarized S wave signals that were propagated at normal incidence to the linear array of microcracks. P-wave amplitude increased, while S-wave amplitude remained relatively constant, as the microcrack orientation increased from 0o to 90o. At normal incidence, P-S and S-P wave conversions emerged and increased in amplitude as the crack inclination increased from 00 to 450. From 450 to 900, the amplitude of these converted modes decreased. Between negative and positive crack angles, the P-to-S and S-to-P waves were 1800 phase reversed. The observed energy partitioning matched the computed compliances obtained from numerical simulations with ABAQUS. The cross-coupling compliance for cracks inclined at 450 was found to be the smallest magnitude. 3D printing enabled the study of microstructural effects on macro-scale wave measurements. Information on the orientation of microcracks or even en echelon fractures and faults is contained in P-S conversions

  13. Derivative spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of Tungsten(VI) in real water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanatha, C.; Ramakrishna Reddy, K.; Devanna, N.; Praveen Kumar, M.D.

    2012-01-01

    2,4-Dimethoxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (DMBHIH) has been synthesized and characterized with IR, NMR and Mass Spectroscopic methods. A simple and derivative spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of trace amounts of W(VI). The reagent forms a yellow coloured water soluble complex with W(VI) in basic medium (pH 8.0). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of coloured species are 3.43 x 10 4 L.mol -1 cm -1 and 0.0049 μg/cm 2 respectively. Beer's law is obeyed in the range 0.4113-6.2138 μg/ml of W(VI) at λ max 394 nm. W(VI) forms 1:1 complex with DMBHIH and stability constant of the complex was 5.22x10 6 . The first and second derivative amplitude was measured at 453 nm and 468 nm. The developed method applied for the determination of W(VI) in alloys and biological samples. (author)

  14. Sediment movement along the U.S. east coast continental shelf-I. Estimates of bottom stress using the Grant-Madsen model and near-bottom wave and current measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, V.D.; Butman, B.; Grant, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Bottom stress is calculated for several long-term time-series observations, made on the U.S. east coast continental shelf during winter, using the wave-current interaction and moveable bed models of Grant and Madsen (1979, Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 1797-1808; 1982, Journal of Geophysical Research, 87, 469-482). The wave and current measurements were obtained by means of a bottom tripod system which measured current using a Savonius rotor and vane and waves by means of a pressure sensor. The variables were burst sampled about 10% of the time. Wave energy was reasonably resolved, although aliased by wave groupiness, and wave period was accurate to 1-2 s during large storms. Errors in current speed and direction depend on the speed of the mean current relative to the wave current. In general, errors in bottom stress caused by uncertainties in measured current speed and wave characteristics were 10-20%. During storms, the bottom stress calculated using the Grant-Madsen models exceeded stress computed from conventional drag laws by a factor of about 1.5 on average and 3 or more during storm peaks. Thus, even in water as deep as 80 m, oscillatory near-bottom currents associated with surface gravity waves of period 12 s or longer will contribute substantially to bottom stress. Given that the Grant-Madsen model is correct, parameterizations of bottom stress that do not incorporate wave effects will substantially underestimate stress and sediment transport in this region of the continental shelf.

  15. Quantifying Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Environment Using Measurements From A Small Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A SMALL BUOY by Andrew E. Sweeney June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Qing Wang...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE QUANTIFYING ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION ENVIRONMENT USING MEASUREMENTS FROM A...the Coupled Air Sea Processes and Electromagnetic (EM) ducting Research (CASPER), to understand air-sea interaction processes and their representation

  16. Kiintoainehäviöselvitys

    OpenAIRE

    Ylimys, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Teoriaosassa käydään läpi yleisesti pyörrepuhdistuslaitoksen toimintaa sekä kiintoainehäviöitä paperi- ja kartonkitehtailla. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli tutkia Metsä Boardin Kyröskosken tehtaan kiintoainehäviötä. Työssä selvitettiin, minkälaista kiintoainetta jätevesilaitokselle päätyy ja miksi. Selvityksen kohteena oli myös, missä kohteissa kiintoainehäviöt tarkalleen syntyvät ja kuinka paljon häviötä tapahtuu. Kahden edellä mainitun tiedon perusteella selvitettiin, kuinka palj...

  17. Face, content, and construct validity of the EndoViS training system for objective assessment of psychomotor skills of laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Flores, Ricardo Manuel Ordorica; García, Ignacio Oropesa; Vidal, Cristian Rubén Zalles; Martínez, Arturo Minor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to present face, content, and constructs validity of the endoscopic orthogonal video system (EndoViS) training system and determines its efficiency as a training and objective assessment tool of the surgeons' psychomotor skills. Thirty-five surgeons and medical students participated in this study: 11 medical students, 19 residents, and 5 experts. All participants performed four basic skill tasks using conventional laparoscopic instruments and EndoViS training system. Subsequently, participants filled out a questionnaire regarding the design, realism, overall functionality, and its capabilities to train hand-eye coordination and depth perception, rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Motion data of the instruments were obtained by means of two webcams built into a laparoscopic physical trainer. To identify the surgical instruments in the images, colored markers were placed in each instrument. Thirteen motion-related metrics were used to assess laparoscopic performance of the participants. Statistical analysis of performance was made between novice, intermediate, and expert groups. Internal consistency of all metrics was analyzed with Cronbach's α test. Overall scores about features of the EndoViS system were positives. Participants agreed with the usefulness of tasks and the training capacities of EndoViS system (score >4). Results presented significant differences in the execution of three skill tasks performed by participants. Seven metrics showed construct validity for assessment of performance with high consistency levels. EndoViS training system has been successfully validated. Results showed that EndoViS was able to differentiate between participants of varying laparoscopic experience. This simulator is a useful and effective tool to objectively assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills of the surgeons.

  18. s- and p-wave neutron spectroscopy. Xc. Intermediate structure: 88Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malan, J.G.; Pineo, W.F.E.; Divadeenam, M.; Choi, B.H.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Newson, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron total cross section measurements of natural Sr were made from 50-875 keV using a high resolution proton beam and the 7 Li(p,n) reaction as a neutron source. These data were analyzed with the help of an R-Matrix code to extract resonance (energies and other) parameters up to about 850 keV. 2p-1h and particle-vibration doorway interpretation of the s-,p- and d-wave resonances is attempted in terms of the sum rule Σγ/subn/ 2 =γ/subd/ 2 . Predictions based on both of these models agree with the experimental results. As expected the p-wave resonances are stronger than either s- and d-wave structure. Theory accounts for the p-wave strength remarkably well. Possible location of the p-wave s.p. resonance is reproduced with a real potential and its damping due to the imaginary potential is calculated. More fragmentation of the strong p-wave doorways is observed than was expected for a compound nucleus so near 90 Zr, but a larger strength function is observed, apparently due to the p-wave giant resonance. (U.S.)

  19. Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

    2007-12-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr(VI

  20. TE Wave Measurement and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, John P; Sonnad, Kiran G; Alesini, David; De Santis, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In the TE wave method, microwaves are coupled into the beam-pipe and the effect of the electron cloud on these microwaves is measured. An electron cloud (EC) density can then be calculated from this measurement. There are two analysis methods currently in use. The first treats the microwaves as being transmitted from one point to another in the accelerator. The second more recent method, treats the beam-pipe as a resonant cavity. This paper will summarize the reasons for adopting the resonant TE wave analysis as well as give examples from CESRTA and DA{\\Phi}NE of resonant beam-pipe. The results of bead-pull bench measurements will show some possible standing wave patterns, including a cutoff mode (evanescent) where the field decreases exponentially with distance from the drive point. We will outline other recent developments in the TE wave method including VORPAL simulations of microwave resonances, as well as the simulation of transmission in the presence of both an electron cloud and magnetic fields.

  1. Binding of dioxouranium(VI) and platinum(II) to ribonuclease-S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzotto, A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi

    1976-12-01

    The preferred binding sites of RNase-S to dioxouranium(VI) and platinum(II) has been determined by Wyckoff et al., (J.Biol.Chem., v242, 1967, p.3749; ibid p.3984; ibid v245, 1970, p.305) elaborating protein and of heavy-atom derivatives reported by Wyckoff and coworkers. The major sites are exposed at the surface of the protein molecule and are not directly involved in the biological properties; the coordination geometry of the groups bound to the metal ions have been examined in comparison with model compounds.

  2. Shock Induced Melting in Aluminum: Wave Profile Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Furnish, Michael D.; Reinhart, William D.

    1999-06-23

    We have developed launch capabilities that can propel macroscopic plates to hypervelocities (8 to 16 km/s). This capability has been used to determine the first time-resolved wave profile measurements using velocity interferometry techniques at impact velocities of 10 km/s. These measurements show that alu- minum continues to exhibit normal release behavior to 161 GPa with complete loss of strength in the shocked state. Results of these experiments are discussed and compared with the results of lower pressure experi- ments conducted at lower impact velocities.

  3. S/WAVES: The Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation on the STEREO Mission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bougeret, J. L.; Goetz, K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bale, S. D.; Kellogg, P. J.; Maksimovic, M.; Monge, N.; Monson, S. J.; Astier, P. L.; Davy, S.; Dekkali, M.; Hinze, J. J.; Manning, R. E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Bonnin, X.; Briand, C.; Cairns, I. H.; Cattell, C. A.; Cecconi, B.; Eastwood, J.; Ergun, R. E.; Fainberg, J.; Hoang, S.; Huttunen, K. E. J.; Krucker, S.; Lecacheux, A.; MacDowall, R. J.; Macher, W.; Mangeney, A.; Meetre, C. A.; Moussas, X.; Nguyen, Q. N.; Oswald, T. H.; Pulupa, M.; Reiner, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Rucker, H.; Salem, c.; Santolík, Ondřej; Silvis, J. M.; Ullrich, R.; Zarka, P.; Zouganelis, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 136, 1-4 (2008), s. 487-528 ISSN 0038-6308 Grant - others: NASA (US) NAS5-03076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : S/WAVES * STEREO * plasma waves * radio waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2008

  4. Gain measurements at 182 /angstrom/ in C VI generated by a Nd/glass laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Skinner, C.H.; Umesh, G.; Suckewer, S.

    1988-11-01

    We present recent gain measurements in C VI at 182 A for a soft x-ray amplifier produced by a line-focused glass laser(1.053 μm) on a solid carbon target. The maximum gain measured was 8 +- 1 cm/sup /minus/1/ in the recombining plasma column with additional radiation cooling by iron impurities. 10 refs., 3 figs

  5. Modelling Cr(VI) removal by a combined carbon-activated sludge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, A. Micaela Ferro; Contreras, Edgardo M.; Zaritzky, Noemi E.

    2008-01-01

    The combined carbon-activated sludge process has been proposed as an alternative to protect the biomass against toxic substances in wastewaters; however, the information about the effect of powdered-activated carbon (PAC) addition in activated sludge reactors for the treatment of wastewaters containing Cr(VI) is limited. The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the removal of hexavalent chromium by (i) activated sludge microorganisms in aerobic batch reactors, (ii) powdered-activated carbon, and (iii) the combined action of powdered-activated carbon and biomass; (b) to propose mathematical models that interpret the experimental results. Different Cr(VI) removal systems were tested: (S1) biomass (activated sludge), (S2) PAC, and (S3) the combined activated carbon-biomass system. A Monod-based mathematical model was used to describe the kinetics of Cr(VI) removal in the system S1. A first-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI) and PAC respectively, was proposed to model the removal of Cr(VI) in the system S2. Cr(VI) removal in the combined carbon-biomass system (S3) was faster than both Cr(VI) removal using PAC or activated sludge individually. Results showed that the removal of Cr(VI) using the activated carbon-biomass system (S3) was adequately described by combining the kinetic equations proposed for the systems S1 and S2

  6. Wave measurement in severe ocean currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.

    The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...

  7. Measurement of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity With a Connected Bathroom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, David; Khettab, Hakim; Yu, Roger; Genain, Nicolas; Edouard, Paul; Buard, Nadine; Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of arterial stiffness should be more available. Our aim was to show that aortic pulse wave velocity can be reliably measured with a bathroom scale combining the principles of ballistocardiography (BCG) and impedance plethysmography on a single foot. The calibration of the bathroom scale was conducted on a group of 106 individuals. The aortic pulse wave velocity was measured with the SphygmoCor in the supine position. Three consecutive measurements were then performed on the Withings scale in the standing position. This aorta-leg pulse transit time (alPTT) was then converted into a velocity with the additional input of the height of the person. Agreement between the SphygmoCor and the bathroom scale so calibrated is assessed on a separate group of 86 individuals, following the same protocol. The bias is 0.25 m·s-1 and the SE 1.39 m·s-1. This agreement with Sphygmocor is "acceptable" according to the ARTERY classification. The alPTT correlated well with cfPTT with (Spearman) R = 0.73 in pooled population (cal 0.79, val 0.66). The aorta-leg pulse wave velocity correlated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity with R = 0.76 (cal 0.80, val 0.70). Estimation of the aortic pulse wave velocity is feasible with a bathroom scale. Further investigations are needed to improve the repeatability of measurements and to test their accuracy in different populations and conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of American Journal of Hypertension.

  8. Benefits of up-wave measurements in linear short-term wave forecasting for wave energy applications

    OpenAIRE

    Paparella, Francesco; Monk, Kieran; Winands, Victor; Lopes, Miguel; Conley, Daniel; Ringwood, John

    2014-01-01

    The real-time control of wave energy converters requires the prediction of the wave elevation at the location of the device in order to maximize the power extracted from the waves. One possibility is to predict the future wave elevation by combining its past history with the spatial information coming from a sensor which measures the free surface elevation upwave of the wave energy converter. As an application example, the paper focuses on the prediction of the wave eleva...

  9. Development of S-wave portable vibrator; S ha potable vibrator shingen no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaida, Y; Matsubara, Y [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nijhof, V; Brouwer, J

    1996-05-01

    An S-wave portable vibrator to serve as a seismic source has been developed for the purpose of applying the shallow-layer reflection method to the study of the soil ground. The author, et al., who previously developed a P-wave portable vibrator has now developed an S-wave version, considering the advantage of the S-wave over the P-wave in that, for example, the S-wave velocity may be directly compared with the N-value representing ground strength and that the S-wave travels more slowly than the P-wave through sticky soil promising a higher-resolution exploration. The experimentally constructed S-wave vibrator consists of a conventional P-wave vibrator and an L-type wooden base plate combined therewith. Serving as the monitor for vibration is a conventional accelerometer without any modification. The applicability test was carried out at a location where a plank hammering test was once conducted for reflection aided exploration, and the result was compared with that of the plank hammering test. As the result, it was found that after some preliminary treatment the results of the two tests were roughly the same but that both reflected waves were a little sharper in the S-wave vibrator test than in the plank hammering test. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. GENERAL P, TYPE-I S, AND TYPE-II S WAVES IN ANELASTIC SOLIDS; INHOMOGENEOUS WAVE FIELDS IN LOW-LOSS SOLIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Wennerberg, Leif

    1985-01-01

    The physical characteristics for general plane-wave radiation fields in an arbitrary linear viscoelastic solid are derived. Expressions for the characteristics of inhomogeneous wave fields, derived in terms of those for homogeneous fields, are utilized to specify the characteristics and a set of reference curves for general P and S wave fields in arbitrary viscoelastic solids as a function of wave inhomogeneity and intrinsic material absorption. The expressions show that an increase in inhomogeneity of the wave fields cause the velocity to decrease, the fractional-energy loss (Q** minus **1) to increase, the deviation of maximum energy flow with respect to phase propagation to increase, and the elliptical particle motions for P and type-I S waves to approach circularity. Q** minus **1 for inhomogeneous type-I S waves is shown to be greater than that for type-II S waves, with the deviation first increasing then decreasing with inhomogeneity. The mean energy densities (kinetic, potential, and total), the mean rate of energy dissipation, the mean energy flux, and Q** minus **1 for inhomogeneous waves are shown to be greater than corresponding characteristics for homogeneous waves, with the deviations increasing as the inhomogeneity is increased for waves of fixed maximum displacement amplitude.

  11. Nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within ambient rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Erickson, Brittany A.

    2014-04-01

    obtain scaling relationships for nonlinear attenuation of S-waves and Love waves within sedimentary basins to assist numerical modeling. These relationships constrain the past peak ground velocity (PGV) of strong 3-4 s Love waves from San Andreas events within Greater Los Angeles, as well as the maximum PGV of future waves that can propagate without strong nonlinear attenuation. During each event, the shaking episode cracks the stiff, shallow rock. Over multiple events, this repeated damage in the upper few hundred meters leads to self-organization of the shear modulus. Dynamic strain is PGV divided by phase velocity, and dynamic stress is strain times the shear modulus. The frictional yield stress is proportional to depth times the effective coefficient of friction. At the eventual quasi-steady self-organized state, the shear modulus increases linearly with depth allowing inference of past typical PGV where rock over the damaged depth range barely reaches frictional failure. Still greater future PGV would cause frictional failure throughout the damaged zone, nonlinearly attenuating the wave. Assuming self-organization has taken place, estimated maximum past PGV within Greater Los Angeles Basins is 0.4-2.6 m s-1. The upper part of this range includes regions of accumulating sediments with low S-wave velocity that may have not yet compacted, rather than having been damaged by strong shaking. Published numerical models indicate that strong Love waves from the San Andreas Fault pass through Whittier Narrows. Within this corridor, deep drawdown of the water table from its currently shallow and preindustrial levels would nearly double PGV of Love waves reaching Downtown Los Angeles.

  12. Gas treatment of Cr(VI)-contaminated sediment samples from the North 60's pits of the chemical waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, E.C.; Amonette, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    Twenty sediment samples were collected at depths ranging from 5 to 100 ft (1.5 to 30 m) beneath a metal-contaminated plating-waste site and extensively characterized for Cr(VI) content and environmental availability. Three samples were selected for treatment with diluted gas mixtures with the objective of converting Cr(VI) to Cr(III), which is relatively nontoxic and immobile. These tests were designed to provide information needed to evaluate the potential application of gas injection as an in situ remediation technique. Gas treatment was performed in small columns (4.9-cm ID, 6.4- to 13.9-cm long) using 100 ppm (μL L -1 ) H 2 S or ethylene mixtures in N 2 . Treatment progress during the tests involving H 2 S was assessed by monitoring the breakthrough of H 2 S. Evaluation of H 2 S treatment efficacy included (1) water-leaching of treated and untreated columns for ten days, (2) repetitive extraction of treated and untreated subsamples by water, 0.01 M phosphate (pH 7) or 6 M HCl solutions, and (3) Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of treated and untreated subsamples. Results of the water-leaching studies showed that the H 2 S treatment decreased Cr(VI) levels in the column effluent by 90% to nearly 100%. Repetitive extractions by water and phosphate solutions echoed these results, and the extraction by HCl released only 35-40% as much Cr in the treated as in the untreated samples. Analysis by XANES spectroscopy showed that a substantial portion of the Cr in the samples remained as Cr(VI) after treatment, even though it was not available to the water and phosphate extracting solutions. These results suggest that this residual Cr(VI) is present in low solubility phases such as PbCrO 4 or sequestered in unreacted grain interiors under impermeable coatings formed during H 2 S treatment. However, this fraction is essentially immobile and thus unavailable to the environment

  13. Experiment for 3-component S-wave reflection survey. Part 3; Sanseibun S ha hanshaho no kiso jikken. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, N; Yamaguchi, K; Yokota, T; Kiguchi, T [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Anisotropy has been investigated using S-wave as a technique for detecting fractures. In this study, fundamental experiments were carried out with slightly changing the measuring conditions at a place where anisotropy was expected. This paper describes the fundamental data acquisition of anisotropy analysis using S-wave, and a part of the results. The experiments were conducted on the agricultural road in Yamadera district, Matsuyama-machi, Yamagata Prefecture. Two flat unpaved roads meeting at right angles were used as traverse lines. In this place, several reflection surfaces were certainly detected by P-wave, and anisotropy of S-wave was confirmed from the velocity of refracted wave of S-wave. Data were processed for individual traverse lines meeting at right angles. Firstly, signal sweeping, correlation, and vertical superposition were made. Six kinds of data were prepared, i.e., three-component receiving records of data at 0{degree} of generating direction and three-component receiving records of data at 90{degree} of generating direction. Records of T-component at 0{degree} and R-component at 90{degree} were used for processing of the seismic reflection method. These records would be considered to be data of SH-wave and SV-wave, respectively. 4 figs.

  14. Spectrophotometric Microdetermination of Thorium(IV and Uranium(VI with Chrome Azurol-S in Presence of Cationic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Upase

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cationic surfactant, cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide (CDMEAB, sensitize the color reactions of Th(IV and U(VI with chrome azurol-S(CRAS. Formation of water soluble deeply colored ternary complexes of metal ions show large bathochromic shift. Same stoichiometric composition of ternary complexes with 1:2:4 molar ratio (M-CRAS-CDMEAB have been observed for both the metal ions and are responsible for enhancement in molar absorptivities and sensitivities at shifted wavelength. The ternary complexes of thorium(IV and uranium(VI exhibit absorption maxima at 640 and 620 nm with molar absorptivities 85500 and 69600 L.mol-1.cm-2 respectively. Beer’s law were obeyed in concentration range 0.12-0.185 ppm for Th(IV and 0.13-0.162 ppm for U(VI in presence of CDMEAB. Conditional formation constants and various analytical parameters have been evaluated and compared the results of binary and ternary complexes. Enhancement in the molar absorptivities in presence of CDMEAB clearly indicated the usefulness of these colored reactions for microdetermination.

  15. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory

  16. Power output from Tage Basse's Wave Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, E.A.; Mikkelsen, R.

    2000-10-01

    Tage Basse's Wave Turbine is a floating, slack moored device, placed in deep water. Via a long vertical shaft a Wells turbine is connected to a circular horizontal plate, below the turbine. The plate is in still water, preventing the device from moving up and down in the waves. At the top end of the shaft there is a float containing the power take off. The efficiency was measured to 5.1 % as an average over the year. This is measured with a rigid suspension of the turbine. If the bottom plate, in the floating version, is designed properly the result is still applicable. One reason for the large increase in efficiency shown could be that when the vertical kinetic energy in the wave is tapped by the turbine, part of the potential energy in the wave is transformed into vertical kinetic energy and is then accessible to the turbine. Turbine efficiency might increase in a full-scale device due to more favorable Reynolds number. Reynolds number in the model tests is approx. 80,000. (EHS)

  17. Low power RF measurements of travelling wave type linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Sivananda; Wanmode, Yashwant; Bhisikar, A.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    RRCAT is engaged in the development of travelling wave (TW) type linear accelerator for irradiation of industrial and agricultural products. TW accelerator designed for 2π/3 mode to operate at frequency of 2856 MHz. It consists of input coupler, buncher cells, regular cells and output coupler. Low power measurement of this structure includes measurement of resonant frequency of the cells for different resonant modes and quality factor, tuning of input-output coupler and measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Steele's non-resonant perturbation technique has been used for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field in the structure. Kyhl's method has been used for the tuning of input-output coupler. Computer based automated bead pull set-up has been developed for measurement of phase advance per cell and electric field profile in the structure. All the codes are written in Python for interfacing of Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) , stepper motor with computer. These codes also automate the measurement process. This paper describes the test set- up for measurement and results of measurement of travelling wave type linear accelerating structure. (author)

  18. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hart

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  19. Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter J; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Siggins, Matthew K; Bobat, Saeeda; Kingsley, Robert A; Goulding, David A; Crump, John A; Reyburn, Hugh; Micoli, Francesca; Dougan, Gordon; Cunningham, Adam F; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. Vaccines based on Vi polysaccharide have efficacy against typhoid fever, indicating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. Vi expression confers increased resistance to both complement- and phagocyte-mediated modalities of antibody-dependent killing in human blood. The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. However, purified human anti-Vi antibodies in the presence of complement are able to kill Vi-expressing Salmonella, while killing by anti-O:9 antibodies is inversely related to Vi expression. Human serum depleted of antibodies to antigens other than Vi retains the ability to kill Vi-expressing bacteria. Our findings support a protective role for Vi capsule in preventing complement and phagocyte killing of Salmonella that can be overcome by specific anti-Vi antibodies, but only to a limited extent by anti-O:9 antibodies.

  20. Near-surface current meter array measurements of internal gravity waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    We have developed various processing algorithms used to estimate the wave forms produced by hydrodynamic Internal Waves. Furthermore, the estimated Internal Waves are used to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) which relates the current and strain rate subsurface fields to surface scattering phenomenon imaged by radar. Following a brief discussion of LLNL`s measurement platform (a 10 sensor current meter array) we described the generation of representative current and strain rate space-time images from measured or simulated data. Then, we present how our simulation capability highlighted limitations in estimating strain rate. These limitations spurred the application of beamforming techniques to enhance our estimates, albeit at the expense of collapsing our space-time images to 1-D estimates. Finally, we discuss progress with regard to processing the current meter array data captured during the recent Loch Linnhe field trials.

  1. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen; Gu, Jia-Li; Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-04-30

    A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3-12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10(-3) to 1 molL(-1). DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L(-1), 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L(-1) and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L(-1), respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of elastic anisotropy of rocks from P- and S-wave velocities: numerical modelling and lab measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svitek, Tomáš; Vavryčuk, Václav; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Petružálek, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 199, č. 3 (2014), s. 1682-1697 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13102; GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/12/0915; GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/12/1491; GA ČR GA13-13967S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomechanics * microstructures * body waves * seismic anisotropy * wave propagation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2013

  3. Physical measurements of breaking wave impact on a floating wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Martyn R.; Greaves, Deborah M.; Raby, Alison

    2013-04-01

    Marine energy converter must both efficiently extract energy in small to moderate seas and also successfully survive storms and potential collisions. Extreme loads on devices are therefore an important consideration in their design process. X-MED is a SuperGen UKCMER project and is a collaboration between the Universities of Manchester, Edinburgh and Plymouth and the Scottish Association for Marine Sciences. Its objective is to extend the knowledge of extreme loads due to waves, currents, flotsam and mammal impacts. Plymouth Universities contribution to the X-MED project involves measuring the loading and response of a taut moored floating body due to steep and breaking wave impacts, in both long crested and directional sea states. These measurements are then to be reproduced in STAR-CCM+, a commercial volume of fluid CFD solver, so as to develop techniques to predict the wave loading on wave energy converters. The measurements presented here were conducted in Plymouth Universities newly opened COAST laboratories 35m long, 15.5m wide and 3m deep ocean basin. A 0.5m diameter taut moored hemispherical buoy was used to represent a floating wave energy device or support structure. The changes in the buoys 6 degree of freedom motion and mooring loads are presented due to focused breaking wave impacts, with the breaking point of the wave changed relative to the buoy.

  4. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong, E-mail: redastar@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Gu, Jia-Li [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Li, Jian-Rong, E-mail: lijianrong@zjgsu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Food Safety, Bohai University (China); Research Institute of Food Science, Bohai University (China); Food Safety Key Lab of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou 121013 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We develop a new DGT device for in situ sampling Cr (VI) in water. • Polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) was used as binding agent of DGT device. • Cr (VI) can be accumulated in the PQAS binding phase whereas Cr (III) cannot. • The DGT performance was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength 1 × 10{sup −3}–1 mol L{sup −1}. - Abstract: A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10{sup −3} to 1 mol L{sup −1}. DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L{sup −1}, 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L{sup −1} and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method.

  5. Selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water with polyquaternary ammonium salt as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Zhong, Ke-Li; Guo, Lian-Wen; Gu, Jia-Li; Bo, Le; Zhang, Meng-Han; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We develop a new DGT device for in situ sampling Cr (VI) in water. • Polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) was used as binding agent of DGT device. • Cr (VI) can be accumulated in the PQAS binding phase whereas Cr (III) cannot. • The DGT performance was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength 1 × 10 −3 –1 mol L −1 . - Abstract: A diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) device with polyquaternary ammonium salt (PQAS) as a novel binding agent (PQAS DGT) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed for the selective sampling and measurement of Cr (VI) in water. The performance of PQAS DGT was independent of pH 3–12 and ionic strength from 1 × 10 −3 to 1 mol L −1 . DGT validation experiments showed that Cr (VI) was measured accurately as well as selectively by PQAS DGT, whereas Cr (III) was not determined quantitatively. Compared with diphenylcarbazide spectrophotometric method (DPC), the measurement of Cr (VI) with PQAS DGT was agreement with that of DPC method in the industrial wastewater. PQAS-DGT device had been successfully deployed in local freshwater. The concentrations of Cr (VI) determined by PQAS DGT coupled with GFAAS in Nuer River, Ling River and North Lake were 0.73 ± 0.09 μg L −1 , 0.50 ± 0.07 μg L −1 and 0.61 ± 0.07 μg L −1 , respectively. The results indicate that PQAS DGT device can be used for the selective sampling and measurement Cr (VI) in water and its detection limit is lower than that of DPC method

  6. Development of a Shipboard Remote Control and Telemetry Experimental System for Large-Scale Model’s Motions and Loads Measurement in Realistic Sea Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wave-induced motion and load responses are important criteria for ship performance evaluation. Physical experiments have long been an indispensable tool in the predictions of ship’s navigation state, speed, motions, accelerations, sectional loads and wave impact pressure. Currently, majority of the experiments are conducted in laboratory tank environment, where the wave environments are different from the realistic sea waves. In this paper, a laboratory tank testing system for ship motions and loads measurement is reviewed and reported first. Then, a novel large-scale model measurement technique is developed based on the laboratory testing foundations to obtain accurate motion and load responses of ships in realistic sea conditions. For this purpose, a suite of advanced remote control and telemetry experimental system was developed in-house to allow for the implementation of large-scale model seakeeping measurement at sea. The experimental system includes a series of technique sensors, e.g., the Global Position System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS module, course top, optical fiber sensors, strain gauges, pressure sensors and accelerometers. The developed measurement system was tested by field experiments in coastal seas, which indicates that the proposed large-scale model testing scheme is capable and feasible. Meaningful data including ocean environment parameters, ship navigation state, motions and loads were obtained through the sea trial campaign.

  7. Hvad skriver vi om - topik på sætningsniveau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchmann, Simon

    2007-01-01

    umiddelbart både forekommer intuitivt rigtige og generaliserbare. Afsøger man imidlertid sprogbrugen mere bredt, viser det sig at referentkriteriet divergerer med realiseringen af aboutnessrelationen som et pragmatisk universale. Det er det problem der behandles med denne artikel.                       I...... afsnit 1 analyserer jeg hvordan termen topik bruges i sprog- og sprogbrugsbeskrivelsen, og opstiller i forlængelse heraf en overordnet definition af topik. I afsnit 2 præsenterer jeg en oversigt over sprogvidenskabelige redegørelser for topik på sætningsniveau og godtgør at disse redegørelser generelt...... for beskrivelsen af realiseringen af topik på sætningsniveau. Resultatet er følgende: Hvis vi antager at sætningens emne angiver det der gives information om med sætningen, så kan emnet ikke - som man hidtil har antaget - realiseres af et refererende udtryk; det fordrer en langt større del af sætningens sproglige...

  8. Plasma scattering measurement using a submillimeter wave gyrotron as a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, I.; Idehara, T.; Itakura, Y.; Myodo, M.; Hori, T.; Hatae, T.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma scattering measurement is an effective technique to observe low frequency density fluctuations excited in plasma. The spatial and wave number resolutions and the S/N ratio of measurement depend on the wavelength range, the size and the intensity of a probe beam. A well-collimated, submillimeter wave beam is suitable for improving the spatial and wave number resolutions. Application of high frequency gyrotron is effective in improving the S/N ratio of the measurement because of its capacity to deliver high power. Unlike the molecular vapor lasers, the gyrotrons generate diverging beam of radiation with TE mn mode structure. It is therefore necessary to convert the output radiation into a Gaussian beam. A quasi-optical antenna is a suitable element for the conversion system under consideration since it is applicable to several TE 0n and TE 1n modes. In order to apply the gyrotron to plasma scattering measurement, we have stabilized the output (P = 110 W, f = 354 GHz) of gyrotron up to the level (ΔP/P < 1 %, Δf< 10 kHz). The gyrotron output can be stabilized by decreasing the fluctuation of the cathode potential. (authors)

  9. Sensitivity analysis of P-waves and S-waves to gas hydrate in the Shenhu area using OBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Liu, Xueqin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Huaishan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zizheng; Wang, Jianhua

    2018-02-01

    Compared to towed streamers, ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) obtain both S-wave data and richer wavefield information. In this paper, the induced polarization method is used to conduct wavefield separation on OBS data obtained from the Shenhu area in the South China Sea. A comparison of the changes in P- and S-waves, and a comprehensive analysis of geological factors within the area, enable analysis and description of the occurrence of natural gas hydrate in the study area. Results show an increase in P-wave velocity when natural gas hydrate exists in the formation, whereas the S-wave velocity remains almost constant, as S-waves can only propagate through the rock skeleton. Therefore, the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) response of the P-wave is better than that of the S-wave in the frequency analysis profile. In a wide-angle section, the refractive wave of the hydrate layer is evident when using P-wave components but identification is difficult with S-wave components. This velocity model illustrates the sensitivity of P- and S-wave components to gas hydrate. The use of this polarization method and results of analysis provide technical and theoretical support for research on hydrate deposits and other geological features in the Shenhu area.

  10. The 2s2p 4P0sub(5/2) - 2p24Psup(e)sub(5/2)-transition in O VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, R.; Pihl, J.; Hallin, R.; Lindskog, J.; Marelius, A.

    1976-03-01

    The Li-like doubly excited transitions 2s2p 4 P 0 sub(5/2) - 2p 2 4 Psup(e)sub(5/2) in O VI has been studied with the beam-foil technique. Oxygen ion beams with energies between 4.5 to 9 MeV were used. The wavelength of the transition was measured to 944.0+-0.5 A and the lifetime for the upper level 2p 2 4 Psup(e) was measured to be 0.51+-0.04 ns. (Auth.)

  11. CARS Measurement of Vibrational/Rotational Temperatures with Total Radiation Visualization behind Strong Shock Waves of 5-7 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, K.; Bindu, V. Hima; Niinomi, S.; Ota, M.; Maeno, K.

    2011-05-01

    In the development of aerospace technology the design of space vehicles is important in phase of reentry flight. The space vehicles reenter into the atmosphere with range of 6-8 km/s. The non-equilibrium flow with radiative heating from strongly shocked air ahead of the vehicles plays an important role on the heat flux to the wall surface structure as well as convective heating. The experimental data for re-entry analyses, however, have remained in classical level. Recent development of optical instruments enables us to have novel approach of diagnostics to the re-entry problems. We employ the CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy) method for measurement of real gas temperatures of N2 with radiation of the strong shock wave. The CARS signal can be acquired even in the strong radiation area behind the strong shock waves. In addition, we try to use the CCD camera to obtain 2D images of total radiation simultaneously. The strong shock wave in front of the reentering space vehicles is experimentally realigned by free-piston, double-diaphragm shock tube with low density test gas.

  12. Spectroscopic Studies on Complex Formation of U(VI)-thiosalicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wan Sik; Cho, Hye Ryun; Park, Kyoung Kyun; Jung, Euo Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The dynamic interaction between radionuclides and organic ligands is largely dependent on the composition of functional groups in a ligand chemical structure. Therefore, the structural mimics of natural ligands possessing specific functional groups, such as hydroxy, phenol, carboxyl, thiol and amine groups, have been studied to understand their influence on the migration of radionuclides including actinide species under geological groundwater conditions. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the fraction of hydrolyzed U(VI) species occurring in weak acidic solutions (pH {approx}4.5) is significantly influenced by the presence of salicylate (Sal) ligand due to the simultaneous participation of both phenol and carboxyl groups in the formation of U(VI)-complexes. Thiosalicylic acid (TSalH{sub 2}) is a good model compound for studying the effects of both carboxyl and thiol (-SH) groups. The fraction of di-anionic ligand form (TSal{sup 2-}) is higher at near neutral pH due to the lower pKa ({approx} 8) of the thiol group than the case of salicylic acid (pKa, {approx}13 for salicylic -OH), despite the structural similarity. In addition, the redox capability of the thiol group is expected to influence the reducible radiouclides and the chemical structures of natural ligands by creating cross-linkage (-S-S-) upon oxidation. The goal of the present study is to investigate aqueous U(VI)-TSal complexation equilibrium via laser-based spectroscopic techniques including time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). In this preliminary work, we report the results of spectroscopic studies using conventional UVVis absorbance and fluorescence (FL) measurement methods. The photo-stability of U(VI)-TSal complex or ligand itself upon exposure to a series of laser pulses is estimated by monitoring the change in their absorption bands. Additionally, TSal FL-quenching effect by U(VI) ions is discussed in comparison with that of Sal FL-quenching

  13. What is the difference in the p-wave and s-wave photodetachment in an electric field?

    OpenAIRE

    Du, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    By applying closed-orbit theory to an existing model, a simple formula is derived for the modulation function of s-wave photo-detachment in the presence of a static electric field. We then compare the s-wave modulation function with the p-wave modulation function. We show the maximums (minimums) in the s-wave modulation function correspond to the minimums (maximums) in the p-wave modulation function because of a phase difference of $\\pi$ in their oscillations. The oscillation amplitude in the...

  14. Measuring sea surface height with a GNSS-Wave Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Maqueda, Miguel Angel; Penna, Nigel T.; Foden, Peter R.; Martin, Ian; Cipollini, Paolo; Williams, Simon D.; Pugh, Jeff P.

    2017-04-01

    A GNSS-Wave Glider is a novel technique to measure sea surface height autonomously using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It consists of an unmanned surface vehicle manufactured by Liquid Robotics, a Wave Glider, and a geodetic-grade GNSS antenna-receiver system, with the antenna installed on a mast on the vehicle's deck. The Wave Glider uses the differential wave motion through the water column for propulsion, thus guaranteeing an, in principle, indefinite autonomy. Solar energy is collected to power all on-board instrumentation, including the GNSS system. The GNSS-Wave Glider was first tested in Loch Ness in 2013, demonstrating that the technology is capable of mapping geoid heights within the loch with an accuracy of a few centimetres. The trial in Loch Ness did not conclusively confirm the reliability of the technique because, during the tests, the state of the water surface was much more benign than would normally be expect in the open ocean. We now report on a first deployment of a GNSS-Wave Glider in the North Sea. The deployment took place in August 2016 and lasted thirteen days, during which the vehicle covered a distance of about 350 nautical miles in the north western North Sea off Great Britain. During the experiment, the GNSS-Wave Glider experienced sea states between 1 (0-0.1 m wave heights) and 5 (2.5-4 m wave heights). The GNSS-Wave Glider data, recorded at 5 Hz frequency, were analysed using a post-processed kinematic GPS-GLONASS precise point positioning (PPP) approach, which were quality controlled using double difference GPS kinematic processing with respect to onshore reference stations. Filtered with a 900 s moving-average window, the PPP heights reveal geoid patterns in the survey area that are very similar to the EGM2008 geoid model, thus demonstrating the potential use of a GNSS-Wave Glider for marine geoid determination. The residual of subtracting the modelled or measured marine geoid from the PPP signal combines information

  15. Tunable thermoelectricity in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M

    2014-10-31

    We study the thermoelectric properties of monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides under circularly polarized off-resonant light. Analytical expressions are derived for the Berry phase mediated magnetic moment, orbital magnetization, as well as thermal and Nernst conductivities. Tuning of the band gap by off-resonant light enhances the spin splitting in both the valence and conduction bands and, thus, leads to a dramatic improvement of the spin and valley thermoelectric properties.

  16. Tunable thermoelectricity in monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermoelectric properties of monolayers of MoS2 and other group-VI dichalcogenides under circularly polarized off-resonant light. Analytical expressions are derived for the Berry phase mediated magnetic moment, orbital magnetization, as well as thermal and Nernst conductivities. Tuning of the band gap by off-resonant light enhances the spin splitting in both the valence and conduction bands and, thus, leads to a dramatic improvement of the spin and valley thermoelectric properties.

  17. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?......Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?...

  18. ESTIMA, Neutron Width Level Spacing, Neutron Strength Function of S- Wave, P-Wave Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ESTIMA calculates level spacing and neutron strength function of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances given a set of neutron widths as input parameters. Three algorithms are used, two of which calculate s-wave average parameters and assume that the reduced widths obey a Porter-Thomas distribution truncated by a minimum detection threshold. The third performs a maximum likelihood fit to a truncated chi-squared distribution of any specified number of degrees of freedom, i.e. it can be used for calculating s-wave or p-wave average parameters. Resonances of undeclared angular orbital momentum are divided into groups of probable s-wave and probable p-wave by a simple application of Bayes' Theorem. 2 - Method of solution: Three algorithms are used: i) GAMN method, based on simple moments properties of a Porter-Thomas distribution. ii) Missing Level Estimator, a simplified version of the algorithm used by the program BAYESZ. iii) ESTIMA, a maximum likelihood fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum of 400 resonances is allowed in the version available from NEADB, however this restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  19. Video imaging measurement of interfacial wave velocity in air-water flow through a horizontal elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazzan, Amir; Than, Cheok F.; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Yew, Chia W.

    2001-10-01

    Two-phase flow in pipelines containing elbows represents a common situation in the oil and gas industries. This study deals with the stratified flow regime between the gas and liquid phase through an elbow. It is of interest to study the change in wave characteristics by measuring the wave velocity and wavelength at the inlet and outlet of the elbow. The experiments were performed under concurrent air-water stratified flow in a horizontal transparent polycarbonate pipe of 0.05m diameter and superficial air and water velocities up to 8.97 and 0.0778 m/s respectively. A non-intrusive video imaging technique was applied to capture the waves. For image analysis, a frame by frame direct overlapping method was used to detect for pulsating flow and a pixel shifting method based on the detection of minimum values in the overlap function was used to determine wave velocity and wavelength. Under superficial gas velocity of less than 4.44 m/s, the results suggest a regular pulsating outflow produced by the elbow. At higher gas velocities, more random pulsation was found and the emergence of localized interfacial waves was detected. Wave velocities measured by this technique were found to produce satisfactory agreement with direct measurements.

  20. Higher Collagen VI Formation Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Daniel G K; Hansen, Tine W; von Scholten, Bernt J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes is a common risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Enhanced de novo collagen type VI (COL VI) formation has been associated with renal fibrosis and CKD. We investigated the hypothesis that PRO-C6, a product specifically generated during COL VI...... formation, is prognostic for adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a prospective, observational study, we measured PRO-C6 in serum (S-PRO-C6) and urine (U-PRO-C6) of 198 patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria without symptoms...... = 0.004). U-PRO-C6 was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: S-PRO-C6 generated during COL VI formation predicts cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria....

  1. Evasion of HSR in S-wave charmonium decaying to P-wave light hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang [Qufu Normal University, Department of Physics, Qufu (China); Liu, Xiao-Hai [Peking University, Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Zhao, Qiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); CAS, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)

    2013-09-15

    The S-wave charmonium decaying to a P-wave and S-wave light hadron pairs are supposed to be suppressed by the helicity selection rule in the perturbative QCD framework. With an effective Lagrangian method, we show that the intermediate charmed meson loops can provide a possible mechanism for the evasion of the helicity selection rule, and result in sizeable decay branching ratios in some of those channels. The theoretical predictions can be examined by the forthcoming BES-III data in the near future. (orig.)

  2. Power performance measurements on Wave Star in Nissum Bredning. Final report; Wave energy converter; Effektmaalinger paa Wave Star i Nissum Bredning. Afsluttende rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigaard, P.; Lykke Andersen, T.

    2009-04-15

    The Wave Star test machine in Nissum Bredning was put in continuous operation on 24 July 2006. Over the past 2 1/2 years the produced power was measured continuously and with only minor interruptions. The measurements cover operation for all seasons in a very changeable climate. There is thus gaining operational experience under different wave conditions. In the period the machine has been running with a simple form of control and Power Take Off system (PTO), which form the background for effect measurements with the existing control strategy. Calculations have shown that the use of more advanced forms of control can increase the efficiency of Wave Star significantly. New control systems are therefore still under development with the primary objective to increase performance from the wave energy plant. To test and develop the methods, a new mini-hydraulic station with associated second generation PTO was developed and constructed for testing in Nissum Bredning. The mini-hydraulic station is coupled to a single float, while the other machine's 39 floats are still connected to the existing PTO system. As the existing PTO system can be applied to the 39 floats simultaneously with the new PTO used on 1 float, effect can be measured on the two systems simultaneously. The first tentative experiments with the new second generation PTO seem very promising. During the first measurements made in March 2009 the new system achieved an average yield of 3.1 times the average output from a float on the existing machine. In the coming period more experiments will be performed with the mini-hydraulic station to test the new PTO in various sea conditions. Since the mini-hydraulic station can simulate various forms of control, they also will be tested under real wave conditions in Nissum Bredning. The effect optimization should continue to be subject to a greater targeted effort, as improvements in this area can increase energy production and thus reduce the kWh cost of energy

  3. Fast photoelectro-reduction of Cr{sup VI} over MoS{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} nanotubes on Ti wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lixia; Zheng, Xutong; Liu, Ming [High Level Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control, Recycle and Reuse, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian, E-mail: sllou@hnu.edu.cn [High Level Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control, Recycle and Reuse, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Yan [High Level Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control, Recycle and Reuse, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Li, Guifa [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • Few-layer MoS{sub 2} nanosheets decorated on the TiO{sub 2} NTAs via a facile hydrothermal method. • The composites possess a stable construction benefiting to the utilization of sunlight and electron transfer. • High concentration Cr{sup VI} can be fast reduced over MoS{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} in the presence of appropriate LOAs and applied voltage. • Effect of LOAs, applied voltages and initial concentrations were performed. - Abstract: A stable MoS{sub 2} nanosheets@TiO{sub 2} NTAs composite was prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. Few-layer MoS{sub 2} nanosheets distributed on the TiO{sub 2} nanotube top surface and the inner walls rather than filling in the tubes, allowing abundant tubular channels open to environment and benefiting for efficient mass transport. Photocatalytic (PE) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) performance of the composite were evaluated on Cr{sup VI} reduction, with variable low molecule weight organic acids (LOAs) added as sacrificial electron donor to form a charge-transfer-complex (CTC) between LOAs and TiO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2}, which is sensitive to the visible light illumination and could induce the photo-reduction of Cr{sup VI} and photo-oxidation of LOAs. The overall trend of Cr{sup VI} PEC rates are in the order as: L(+)-Tartaric acid > oxalic acid > citric acid > malic acid > amber acid, which is 103.9 > 62.5 > 31.2 > 21.6 > 2.5 mg/L min{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The improved catalytic performance and excellent stability of the composite can be attributed to the abundant active adsorption and reaction sites on MoS{sub 2} nanosheets and the formation of a heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}. Moreover, the appropriate application of LOAs and voltage also have a great contribution to the utilization of sunlight and efficient separation of photogenerated carriers.

  4. Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured

  5. Three-dimensional S-wave tomography under Axial Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillard, C.; Wilcock, W. S. D.; Arnulf, A. F.; Tolstoy, M.; Waldhauser, F.

    2017-12-01

    Axial Seamount is a submarine volcano located at the intersection of the Juande Fuca Ridge and the Cobb-Eickelberg hotspot 500 km off the coast of thenorthwestern United States. The seamount, which rises 1 km above the seafloor, ischaracterized by a shallow caldera that is elongated in the N-S direction, measure 8km by 3 km and sits on top of a 14 km by 3 km magma reservoir. Two eruptive eventsin 1998 and 2011 motivated the deployment in 2014 of a real time cabled observatorywithin the Axial caldera, as part of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI).Theobservatory includes a network of seven seismometers that span the southern half ofthe caldera. Five months after the observatory came on-line in November 2014, thevolcano erupted on April 24, 2015. Well over 100,000 events were located in thevicinity of the caldera, delineating an outward dipping ring fault that extends fromnear the surface to the magma body at 2 km depth and which accommodatesinflation and deflation of the volcano.The initial earthquake locations have beenobtained with a one-dimensional velocity model but the travel time residuals suggeststrong heterogeneities. A three-dimensional P-wave velocity model, obtained bycombining multichannel and ocean bottom seismometer refraction data, is being usedto refine locations but the three-dimensional S-wave structure is presently unknown.In most mid-ocean ridge settings, the distribution of earthquakes is not conducive forjoint inversions for S-wave velocity and hypocentral parameters because there are fewcrossing ray paths but at Axial the presence of a ring fault that is seismically active atall depths on both the east and west side of the caldera, provides a reasonablegeometry for such efforts. We will present the results of joint inversions that assumethe existing three-dimensional P wave velocity model and solve for VP/VS structure andhypocentral parameters using LOTOS, an algorithm that solves the forward problemusing ray bending.The resulting model

  6. Measurement and modeling of wind waves at the northern coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique G. M. Alves

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Directional measurements of wind-wave spectra made during the year of 1996 are used in a preliminary investigation of the wind-wave climate and its transformation at the São Francisco do Sul island, northern coast of the Santa Catarina state. Four major sea states and associated meteorological conditions are identified through analyses of joint distributions of observed wave parameters. Transformations of these main sea-state patterns due to refraction and shoaling are investigated through a numerical modeling approach that allows the reconstruction of the wave field within extensive coastal areas, using single point measurements of the wave spectrum in shallow waters. Cross-validation of measured and reconstructed spectra at the study site yield consistent results, suggesting that the proposed methodology works well for the São Francisco do Sul coast.Medições do espectro direcional de ondas geradas pelo vento realizadas em 1996 são utilizadas em uma investigação preliminar do clima de ondas no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Quatro estados de mar predominantes são identificados, em conjunto com os padrões meteorológicos associados a sua ocorrência, através de análises estatísticas. As transformações desses quatro estados de mar devido a refraçâo e empinamento são investigadas através de modelos numéricos, que permitem obter estimativas do campo de ondas em áreas extensas a partir de medições pontuais feitas em águas rasas. Comparações entre espectros medidos e modelados produzem resultados consistentes, sugerindo que a metodologia proposta é válida para a costa de São Francisco do Sul.

  7. A combined model based on spleen stiffness measurement and Baveno VI criteria to rule out high risk varices in advanced chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colecchia, Antonio; Ravaioli, Federico; Marasco, Giovanni; Colli, Agostino; Dajti, Elton; Biase, Annarita Di; Reggiani, Maria Letizia Bacchi; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Pinzani, Massimo; Festi, Davide

    2018-05-02

    Recently, Baveno VI guidelines suggested that esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) can be avoided in patients with cACLD who have a liver stiffness measurement (LSM) 150,000/mm 3 . We aimed to: assess the performance of spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) in ruling out patients with high-risk varices (HRV); validate Baveno VI criteria in a large population and assess how the sequential use of Baveno VI criteria and SSM could safely avoid the need for endoscopy. We retrospectively analysed 498 cACLD patients who had undergone LSM/SSM by transient elastography (TE) (Fibroscan®), platelet count and EGDs from 2012 to 2016 referred to our tertiary centre. The new combined model was validated internally by a split-validation method, and externally in a prospective multicentre cohort of 115 patients. SSM, LSM, platelet count and Child-Pugh-B were independent predictors of HRV. Applying the newly identified SSM cut-off (≤46 kPa) or Baveno VI criteria, 35.8% and 21.7% of patients in the internal validation cohort could have avoided EGD, with HRV being missed in only 2% in both cases. The combination of SSM with Baveno VI criteria would have led to additionally avoiding 22.5% of EGDs, reaching a final value of 43.8% spared EGDs, with <5% missed HRV. Results were confirmed in the prospective external validation cohort, as the combined Baveno VI/SSM≤46 Model would have safely spared (0 HRV missed) 37.4% of EGDs, compared to 16.5% avoiding Baveno VI Criteria only. A non-invasive prediction model combining SSM with Baveno VI criteria may be useful to rule out HRV and could make it possible to avoid a significantly larger number of unnecessary EGDs compared to Baveno VI criteria only. Spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) assessed by TE, the most widely used electrographic technique, is a non-invasive technique that can help the physician to better stratify the degree of portal hypertension and the risk of oesophageal varices in patients with cACLD. Performing SSM together with LSM

  8. Transdimensional inversion of scattered body waves for 1D S-wave velocity structure - Application to the Tengchong volcanic area, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengkui; Zhang, Shuangxi; Bodin, Thomas; Lin, Xu; Wu, Tengfei

    2018-06-01

    Inversion of receiver functions is commonly used to recover the S-wave velocity structure beneath seismic stations. Traditional approaches are based on deconvolved waveforms, where the horizontal component of P-wave seismograms is deconvolved by the vertical component. Deconvolution of noisy seismograms is a numerically unstable process that needs to be stabilized by regularization parameters. This biases noise statistics, making it difficult to estimate uncertainties in observed receiver functions for Bayesian inference. This study proposes a method to directly invert observed radial waveforms and to better account for data noise in a Bayesian formulation. We illustrate its feasibility with two synthetic tests having different types of noises added to seismograms. Then, a real site application is performed to obtain the 1-D S-wave velocity structure beneath a seismic station located in the Tengchong volcanic area, Southwestern China. Surface wave dispersion measurements spanning periods from 8 to 65 s are jointly inverted with P waveforms. The results show a complex S-wave velocity structure, as two low velocity zones are observed in the crust and uppermost mantle, suggesting the existence of magma chambers, or zones of partial melt. The upper magma chambers may be the heart source that cause the thermal activity on the surface.

  9. Invariant measures for stochastic nonlinear beam and wave equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brzezniak, Z.; Ondreját, Martin; Seidler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 260, č. 5 (2016), s. 4157-4179 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/0752 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic partial differential equation * stochastic beam equation * stochastic wave equation * invariant measure Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/SI/ondrejat-0453412.pdf

  10. 78 FR 23489 - Safety Zone; V.I. Carnival Finale, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S.V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands during the V.I. Carnival Finale, a... through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this... event. The event will be held on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor, St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands...

  11. Covariant trace formalism for heavy meson s-wave to p-wave transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balk, S.; Koerner, J.G.; Thompson, G.; Hussain, F.

    1992-06-01

    Heavy meson, s- to p-wave, weak transitions are studied in the context of the Heavy Quark Effective Theory using covariant meson wave functions. We use the trace formalism to evaluate the weak transitions. As expected from heavy quark symmetry, the eight transitions between s- and p-wave states are described in terms of only two universal form factors which are given in terms of explicit wave function overlap integrals. We present our results in terms of both invariant and helicity amplitudes. Using our helicity amplitude expressions we discuss rate formulae, helicity structure functions and joint angular decay distributions in the decays B-bar→D**(→(D,D*)+π)+W - (→l - ν l ). The heavy quark symmetry predictions for the one-pion transitions D**→(D,D*)+π are similarly worked out by using trace techniques. (author). 35 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Addition to the analysis of the Sr VI and Sr VII spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyart, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-six lines of multicharged strontium are measured with an improved wavelength accuracy, or interpreted for the first time. They are 4p-4s, 4p-5s and 4p-4d transitions in Sr VII and 4p-5s transitions in Sr VI. The revision of the singlet-triplet connection in Sr VII is supported by theoretical survey of the ground configuration in Ge-like ions. (orig.)

  13. Estimation of waves and ship responses using onboard measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh

    This thesis focuses on estimation of waves and ship responses using ship-board measurements. This is useful for development of operational safety and performance efficiency in connection with the broader concept of onboard decision support systems. Estimation of sea state is studied using a set...... of measured ship responses, a parametric description of directional wave spectra (a generalised JONSWAP model) and the transfer functions of the ship responses. The difference between the spectral moments of the measured ship responses and the corresponding theoretically calculated moments formulates a cost...... information. The model is tested on simulated data based on known unimodal and bimodal wave scenarios. The wave parameters in the output are then compared with the true wave parameters. In addition to the numerical experiments, two sets of full-scale measurements from container ships are analysed. Herein...

  14. Evaluation of wave power by integrating numerical models and measures at the Port of Civitavecchia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Marcelli, Marco; Danelli, Andrea; Peviani, Maximo Aurelio; Burgio, Calogero

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the available wave power at regional and local scale was carried out. Two hot spots of higher wave power level were identified and characterized along the coastline of northern Latium Region, near the 'Torre Valdaliga' power plant and in proximity of Civitavecchia’s breakwater, where the presence of a harbour and an electric power plant allows wave energy exploitation. The evaluation process was implemented through measurements, and numerical model assessment and validation. The integration of wave gauges measurements with numerical simulations made it possible to estimate the wave power on the extended area near shore. A down scaling process allowed to proceed from regional to local scale providing increased resolution thanks to highly detailed bathymetry.

  15. Detection and monitoring of shear crack growth using S-P conversion of seismic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiriasari, A.; Bobet, A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    A diagnostic method for monitoring shear crack initiation, propagation, and coalescence in rock is key for the detection of major rupture events, such as slip along a fault. Active ultrasonic monitoring was used in this study to determine the precursory signatures to shear crack initiation in pre-cracked rock. Prismatic specimens of Indiana limestone (203x2101x638x1 mm) with two pre-existing parallel flaws were subjected to uniaxial compression. The flaws were cut through the thickness of the specimen using a scroll saw. The length of the flaws was 19.05 mm and had an inclination angle with respect to the loading direction of 30o. Shear wave transducers were placed on each side of the specimen, with polarization parallel to the loading direction. The shear waves, given the geometry of the flaws, were normally incident to the shear crack forming between the two flaws during loading. Shear crack initiation and propagation was detected on the specimen surface using digital image correlation (DIC), while initiation inside the rock was monitored by measuring full waveforms of the transmitted and reflected shear (S) waves across the specimen. Prior to the detection of a shear crack on the specimen surface using DIC, transmitted S waves were converted to compressional (P) waves. The emergence of converted S-P wave occurs because of the presence of oriented microcracks inside the rock. The microcracks coalesce and form the shear crack observed on the specimen surface. Up to crack coalescence, the amplitude of the converted waves increased with shear crack propagation. However, the amplitude of the transmitted shear waves between the two flaws did not change with shear crack initiation and propagation. This is in agreement with the conversion of elastic waves (P- to S-wave or S- to P-wave) observed by Nakagawa et al., (2000) for normal incident waves. Elastic wave conversions are attributed to the formation of an array of oriented microcracks that dilate under shear stress

  16. Three-wave electron vortex lattices for measuring nanofields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C; Boothroyd, C B; Chang, S L Y; Dunin-Borkowski, R E

    2015-01-01

    It is demonstrated how an electron-optical arrangement consisting of two electron biprisms can be used to generate three-wave vortex lattices with effective lattice spacings between 0.1 and 1 nm. The presence of vortices in these lattices was verified by using a third biprism to perform direct phase measurements via off-axis electron holography. The use of three-wave lattices for nanoscale electromagnetic field measurements via vortex interferometry is discussed, including the accuracy of vortex position measurements and the interpretation of three-wave vortex lattices in the presence of partial spatial coherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiment for 3-component S-wave reflection survey. Part 3; Sanseibun S ha hanshaho no kiso jikken. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, N; Kiguchi, T; Yamaguchi, K [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yokota, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1997-10-22

    Investigations and discussions were given by using P-S logging on anisotropy of refracted waves in the fundamental experiments conducted in the Matsuyama town, Yamagata Prefecture. In the investigations, S-wave was transmitted into two to three directions at four locations in total: one at the opening of a well with a depth of 100 m and three locations having offset of 50 m from the well opening, and anisotropy of direct waves in the depth direction was investigated. Data were recorded on the ground at the same time by using a 3-component receiver. As a result of the experiment, detection of the anisotropy by means of measurement inside the well was found more difficult than anticipated due to anomaly in the refracted waves, hence no clear velocity anisotropy has been observed. It appears that no azimuth anisotropy exists at depths shallower than at least 24 m. No anisotropy due to incident angles was made clear in the present experiment. Offset recording experienced poor S/N ratio, having made the data analysis difficult. The data for zero offset do not harmonize with the refracted wave analysis on the data derived by using the reflection method, whose cause requires further discussions. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. New energy level identifications in Kr VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauheed, A.; Pinnington, E.H.; Ansbacher, W.; Kernahan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Beam-foil delayed spectra from 89.0 to 101.0 nm are used to identify the intercombination lines connecting the 4s4p 2 4 P and 4s 2 4p 2 P levels in Kr VI. The existing analysis is extended to include the 4s 2 5s 2 S 1/2 , 4f 2 F 5/2 , 2 F 7/2 , 4p 3 2 D 3/2 , 2 D 5/2 , 2 P 3/2 , 4 S 3/2 and 4s4p 2 4 P 1/2 , 4 P 3/2 , 4 P 5/2 levels. Lifetime measurements for the 4s4p 2 4 P 1/2 , 4 P 5/2 , 4p 3 2 D 3/2 and 2 D 5/2 levels are also discussed in support of these assignments. (orig.)

  19. BAYESZ, S-Wave, P-Wave Resonance Level Spacing and Strength Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A - Description of problem or function: BAYESZ calculates average s- and p-wave level spacings, strength functions, and average radiation widths of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances whose parameters are supplied as input. The code is based on two physical assumptions: 1) The neutron reduced width distribution for each open channel is a chi-squared distribution with one degree of freedom, i.e. Porter-Thomas. 2) The spacing distribution follows the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. This property is used, however, only to fix the s- to p-wave level density ratio as proportional to (2J+1) with a spin cut-off correction. B - Method of solution: The method used is an extension of that described by Moore et al. in reference (1), and is based on the method of moments of a truncated Porter-Thomas distribution. C - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Parameters for a maximum of 500 individual resonances can be specified. This restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  20. Contribution from S and P waves in pp annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Bendiscioli, G; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Salvini, P; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Capponi, M; De Castro, S; Donà, R; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Cesari, N S; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vagnoni, V M; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Bianconi, A; Bonomi, G; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; De Falco, A; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Usai, G L; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Petrascu, C; Kudryavtsev, A E; Balestra, F; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Cerello, P G; Denisov, O Yu; Ferrero, L; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Panzarasa, A; Panzieri, D; Tosello, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Calvo, D; Costa, S; D'Isep, D; Feliciello, A; Filippi, A; Marcello, S; Mirfakhraee, N; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Tessaro, S

    2001-01-01

    The annihilation frequencies of 19 pp annihilation reactions at rest obtained in different target densities are analysed in order to determine the values of the P-wave annihilation percentage at each target density and the average hadronic branching ratios from P- and S-states. Both the assumptions of linear dependence of the annihilation frequencies on the P-wave annihilation percentage of the protonium state and the approach with the enhancement factors of Batty (1989) are considered. Furthermore the cases of incompatible measurements are discussed. (55 refs).

  1. Analysis of Measured and Simulated Supraglottal Acoustic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraile, Rubén; Evdokimova, Vera V; Evgrafova, Karina V; Godino-Llorente, Juan I; Skrelin, Pavel A

    2016-09-01

    To date, although much attention has been paid to the estimation and modeling of the voice source (ie, the glottal airflow volume velocity), the measurement and characterization of the supraglottal pressure wave have been much less studied. Some previous results have unveiled that the supraglottal pressure wave has some spectral resonances similar to those of the voice pressure wave. This makes the supraglottal wave partially intelligible. Although the explanation for such effect seems to be clearly related to the reflected pressure wave traveling upstream along the vocal tract, the influence that nonlinear source-filter interaction has on it is not as clear. This article provides an insight into this issue by comparing the acoustic analyses of measured and simulated supraglottal and voice waves. Simulations have been performed using a high-dimensional discrete vocal fold model. Results of such comparative analysis indicate that spectral resonances in the supraglottal wave are mainly caused by the regressive pressure wave that travels upstream along the vocal tract and not by source-tract interaction. On the contrary and according to simulation results, source-tract interaction has a role in the loss of intelligibility that happens in the supraglottal wave with respect to the voice wave. This loss of intelligibility mainly corresponds to spectral differences for frequencies above 1500 Hz. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. BETWEEN NATURE AND CULTURE: LÉVI- STRAUSS’S STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF MYTH IN THE LIGHT OF SEMIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Jankowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the influence of Claude Lévi-Strauss’s research in the field of cultural antro­pology on the guidelines and concepts of semiotics. Much empirical research in semiotics, connected with different systems of signs and revealing their functions in archaic human cultures, has been con­ducted on the ground of structural analysis. They are connected, among other things, with different cultures and societies, diversified both spatially and temporally. Thus, the integrating role of myth, as well as its uniting functions in the case of the organization of an individual consciousness, have a primeval modeling impact on the semiotic systems. According to Lévi-Strauss, there is a certain regu­larity of behaviors that stand for the mechanism of human symbolic communication. This regularity exists as an extention of the theory of signs that was previously worked out in the fields of structural linguistics and semiology. Lévi-Strauss’s theory concerns the collective unconscious of “the human mind” and is devoted to the unconscious nature of cultural phenomena, with a focus on searching for universal rules of thinking that are appropriate to all human minds. The subject of semiotics is a group of sign systems developed in different cultures. A cultural text presents a certain model of the world that we read using codes. The system of mythologi­cal signs reveals the cosmological concept of reality with relation to the mythopoetic view of the world.

  3. A Salmonella Typhimurium-Typhi genomic chimera: a model to study Vi polysaccharide capsule function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Jansen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Vi capsular polysaccharide is a virulence-associated factor expressed by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi but absent from virtually all other Salmonella serotypes. In order to study this determinant in vivo, we characterised a Vi-positive S. Typhimurium (C5.507 Vi(+, harbouring the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-7, which encodes the Vi locus. S. Typhimurium C5.507 Vi(+ colonised and persisted in mice at similar levels compared to the parent strain, S. Typhimurium C5. However, the innate immune response to infection with C5.507 Vi(+ and SGB1, an isogenic derivative not expressing Vi, differed markedly. Infection with C5.507 Vi(+ resulted in a significant reduction in cellular trafficking of innate immune cells, including PMN and NK cells, compared to SGB1 Vi(- infected animals. C5.507 Vi(+ infection stimulated reduced numbers of TNF-α, MIP-2 and perforin producing cells compared to SGB1 Vi(-. The modulating effect associated with Vi was not observed in MyD88(-/- and was reduced in TLR4(-/- mice. The presence of the Vi capsule also correlated with induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo, a factor that impacted on chemotaxis and the activation of immune cells in vitro.

  4. Vi, de civiliserede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?......Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?...

  5. Exploring AdS waves via nonminimal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaiene, Mokhtar

    2006-01-01

    We consider nonminimally coupled scalar fields to explore the Siklos spacetimes in three dimensions. Their interpretation as exact gravitational waves propagating on AdS space restrict the source to behave as a pure radiation field. We show that the related pure radiation constraints single out a unique self-interaction potential depending on one coupling constant. For a vanishing coupling constant, this potential reduces to a mass term with a mass fixed in terms of the nonminimal-coupling parameter. This mass dependence allows the existence of several free cases including massless and tachyonic sources. There even exists a particular value of the nonminimal-coupling parameter for which the corresponding mass exactly compensates the contribution generated by the negative scalar curvature, producing a genuinely massless field in this curved background. The self-interacting case is studied in detail for the conformal coupling. The resulting gravitational wave is formed by the superposition of the free and the self-interaction contributions, except for a critical value of the coupling constant where a nonperturbative effect relating the strong and weak regimes of the source appears. We establish a correspondence between the scalar source supporting an AdS wave and a pp wave by showing that their respective pure radiation constraints are conformally related, while their involved backgrounds are not. Finally, we consider the AdS waves for topologically massive gravity and its limit to conformal gravity

  6. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used.

  7. Overtopping Measurements on the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the methods used to estimate (calculated from some indirect measurements) the overtopping of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon placed in a real sea environment. The wave energy converter in quistion is the 237-tonne heavy Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype. Comparisons...

  8. Elastic Wave Velocity Measurements on Mantle Peridotite at High Pressure and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistler, G. W.; Ishikawa, M.; Li, B.

    2002-12-01

    With the success of conducting ultrasonic measurements at high pressure and high temperature in large volume high pressure apparatus with in-situ measurement of the sample length by X-ray imaging, it is now possible to measure elastic wave velocities on aggregate samples with candidate compositions of the mantle to the conditions of the Earth's transition zone in the laboratory. These data can be directly compared with seismic data to distinguish the compositional models in debate. In this work, we carried out velocity measurements on natural peridotite KLB-1 at the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle. Fine powered sample of natural KLB-1 was used as starting material. Specimens for ultrasonic measurements were hot-pressed and equilibrated at various pressure and temperature conditions along geotherm up to the transition zone. The recovered samples were characterized with density measurement, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis. Bench top P and S wave velocities of KLB-1 sample sintered at 3-4 GPa and 1400 degree centigrade showed a very good agreement with the VRH average of pyrolite. High pressure and high temperature measurements was conducted up to 7 GPa and 800 degree centigrade using ultrasonic interferometric method in a DIA-type high pressure apparatus in conjunction with X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging. The utilization of X-ray imaging technique provides direct measurements of sample lengths at high pressure and high temperature, ensuring a precise determination of velocities. The results of P and S wave velocities at high pressure and high temperature as well as their comparison with calculated pyrolite model will be presented.

  9. Excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized electromagnetic wave incident upon a boundary of a dense magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragila, R.; Vukovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of surfave waves that are associated with a boundary between a rare plasma and a dense magnetoactive plasma and that propagate along a dc magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the presence of the magnetic field introduces symmetry in terms of the polarization of the incident electromagnetic wave that excites the surface waves. A surface wave excited by an incident p-polarized (s-polarized) electromagnetic wave leaks in the form of an s-polarized (p-polarized) electromagnetic wave. The rate of rotation of polarization is independent of the polarization of the incident wave. Because a surface wave can leak in the form of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave, it can also be pumped by such a wave, and conditions were found for excitation of a surface wave by an s-polarized incident electromagnetic wave

  10. Measurement of light-cone wave functions by diffractive dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asheri, D. [Tel Aviv Univ., School of Physics and Astronomy, Sackler Faculty of Exact Science (Israel)

    2005-07-01

    The measurement of the pion light-cone wave function is revisited and results for the Gegenbauer coefficients are presented. Measurements of the photon electromagnetic and hadronic wave functions are described and results are presented. (authors)

  11. Chiral dynamics, S-wave contributions and angular analysis in D → ππl anti ν

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yu-Ji; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Shuai [Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China)

    2017-07-15

    We present a theoretical analysis of the D{sup -} → π{sup +}π{sup -}l anti ν and anti D{sup 0} → π{sup +}π{sup 0}l anti ν decays. We construct a general angular distribution which can include arbitrary partial waves of ππ. Retaining the S-wave and P-wave contributions we study the branching ratios, forward-backward asymmetries and a few other observables. The P-wave contribution is dominated by ρ{sup 0} resonance, and the S-wave contribution is analyzed using the unitarized chiral perturbation theory. The obtained branching fraction for D → ρlν, at the order 10{sup -3}, is consistent with the available experimental data. The S-wave contribution has a branching ratio at the order of 10{sup -4}, and this prediction can be tested by experiments like BESIII and LHCb. Future measurements can also be used to examine the π-π scattering phase shift. (orig.)

  12. Poisson's ratio model derived from P- and S-wave reflection seismic data at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilecke, Thies; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Tanner, David C.; Ziesch, Jennifer; Research Group Protect

    2014-05-01

    Compressional wave (P-wave) reflection seismic field measurements are a standard tool for subsurface exploration. 2-D seismic measurements are often used for overview measurements, but also as near-surface supplement to fill gaps that often exist in 3-D seismic data sets. Such supplementing 2-D measurements are typically simple with respect to field layout. This is an opportunity for the use of shear waves (S-waves). Within the last years, S-waves have become more and more important. One reason is that P- and S-waves are differently sensitive to fluids and pore fill so that the additional S-wave information can be used to enhance lithological studies. Another reason is that S-waves have the advantage of higher spatial resolution. Within the same signal bandwidth they typically have about half the wavelength of P-waves. In near-surface unconsolidated sediments they can even enhance the structural resolution by one order of magnitude. We make use of these capabilities within the PROTECT project. In addition to already existing 2-D P-wave data, we carried out a near surface 2-D S-wave field survey at the CO2CRC Otway Project pilot site, close to Warrnambool, Australia in November 2013. The combined analysis of P-wave and S-wave data is used to construct a Poisson's Ratio 2-D model down to roughly 600 m depth. The Poisson's ratio values along a 1 km long profile at the site are surprisingly high, ranging from 0.47 in the carbonate-dominated near surface to 0.4 at depth. In the literature, average lab measurements of 0.22 for unfissured carbonates and 0.37 for fissured examples have been reported. The high values that we found may indicate areas of rather unconsolidated or fractured material, or enhanced fluid contents, and will be subject of further studies. This work is integrated in a larger workflow towards prediction of CO2 leakage and monitoring strategies for subsurface storage in general. Acknowledgement: This work was sponsored in part by the Australian

  13. s -wave scattering length of a Gaussian potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszki, Peter; Cherny, Alexander Yu.; Brand, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    We provide accurate expressions for the s -wave scattering length for a Gaussian potential well in one, two, and three spatial dimensions. The Gaussian potential is widely used as a pseudopotential in the theoretical description of ultracold-atomic gases, where the s -wave scattering length is a physically relevant parameter. We first describe a numerical procedure to compute the value of the s -wave scattering length from the parameters of the Gaussian, but find that its accuracy is limited in the vicinity of singularities that result from the formation of new bound states. We then derive simple analytical expressions that capture the correct asymptotic behavior of the s -wave scattering length near the bound states. Expressions that are increasingly accurate in wide parameter regimes are found by a hierarchy of approximations that capture an increasing number of bound states. The small number of numerical coefficients that enter these expressions is determined from accurate numerical calculations. The approximate formulas combine the advantages of the numerical and approximate expressions, yielding an accurate and simple description from the weakly to the strongly interacting limit.

  14. First-principles calculations of the II-VI semiconductor β-HgS: Metal or semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delin, A.

    2002-06-01

    Relativistic all-electron full-potential first-principles calculations have been performed in order to study the symmetry of the energy levels around the valence band maximum in the zinc blende II-VI semiconductors β-HgS, HgSe, and HgTe. It is demonstrated that in general, an inverted band-structure does not necessarily lead to a zero fundamental energy gap for systems with zinc blende symmetry. Specifically, β-HgS is found to have at the same time an inverted band structure, and a small, slightly indirect, fundamental energy gap. Possibly, the energy levels around the valence band maximum order differently in each of these systems. (author)

  15. Plutonium(VI) accumulation and reduction by lichen biomass: correlation with U(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aoyagi, Hisao; Kitatsuji, Yoshihiro; Samadfam, Mohammad; Kimura, Yasuhiko; William Purvis, O.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of plutonium(VI) and uranium(VI) by lichen biomass was studied in the foliose lichen Parmotrema tinctorum to elucidate the migration behavior of Pu and U in the terrestrial environment. Pu and U uptake by P. tinctorum averaged 0.040±0.010 and 0.055±0.015 g g dry -1 , respectively, after 96 h incubation with 4.0x10 -4 mol l -1 Pu solutions of pH 3, 4 and 5. SEM observations showed that the accumulated Pu is evenly distributed on the upper and lower surfaces of P. tinctorum, in contrast to U(VI), which accumulated in both cortical and medullary layers. UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that a fraction of Pu(VI) in the solution is reduced to Pu(V) by the organic substances released from P. tinctorum, and the accumulated Pu on the surface is reduced to Pu(IV), while U(VI) keeps the oxidation state of VI. Since the solubility of Pu(IV) hydroxides is very low, reduced Pu(VI) does not penetrate to the medullary layers, but is probably precipitated as Pu(IV) hydroxides on the cortical lichen surface. It is concluded that the uptake and reduction of Pu(VI) by lichens is important to determine the mobilization and oxidation states of Pu in the terrestrial environment

  16. The roles of polycarboxylates in Cr(VI)/sulfite reaction system: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and intramolecular electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bo, E-mail: bjiang86upc@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wang, Xianli; Liu, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wang, Zhaohui [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Southern Cross GeoScience, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Zheng, Jingtang, E-mail: jtzheng03@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wu, Mingbo, E-mail: wumb@upc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • The formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, involve in Cr(VI) reduction induced by S(IV). • Affinity of polycarboxylate to Cr(VI) accelerates Cr(VI) reduction rate. • Polycarboxylates can act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction retrenching S(IV). • Only oxalate can enhance the formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH· in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of polycarboxylates on both Cr(VI) reduction and S(IV) consumption in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system was investigated in acidic solution. Under aerobic condition, the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, have been confirmed in S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process by using electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectrum techniques, leading to the excess consumption of S(IV). However, when polycarboxylates (oxalic, citric, malic and tartaric acid) were present in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system, the affinity of polycarboxylates to CrSO{sub 6}{sup 2−} can greatly promote the reduction of Cr(VI) via expanding the coordination of Cr(VI) species from tetrahedron to hexahedron. Besides, as alternatives to S(IV), these polycarboxylates can also act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction via intramolecular electron transfer reaction, which is dependent on the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital of these polycarboxylates. Notably, the variant electron donating capacity of these polycarboxylates resulted in different yield of ROS and therefore the oxidation efficiencies of other pollutants, e.g., rhodamine B and As(III). Generally, this study does not only shed light on the mechanism of S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process mediated by polycarboxylates, but also provides an escalated, cost-effective and green strategy for the remediation of Cr(VI) using sulfite as a reductant.

  17. A direct measurement of g-factors in II-VI and III-V core-shell nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, L.; Langof, L.; Lifshitz, E.; Gaponik, N.; Rogach, A.; Eychmüller, A.; Weller, H.; Micic, O. I.; Nozik, A. J.

    2005-02-01

    This study describes a direct measurement of spectroscopic g-factors of photo-generated carriers in InP/ZnS and HgTe/Hg xCd 1-xTe(S) core-shell nanocrystals. The g-factor of trapped electrons and their spin-lattice versus radiative relaxation ratio ( T1/ τ) were measured by the use of continuous-wave and time-resolved optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) spectroscopy. The g-factors of excitons and donor-hole pairs were derived by the use of field-induced circular-polarized photoluminescence (CP-PL) spectroscopy. The combined information enabled to determine the g-factors of the individual band-edge electrons and holes. The results suggested an increase of the g-factor of the exciton and conduction electron with a decrease of the nanocrystal size.

  18. Microbial Precipitation of Cr(III)-Hydroxide and Se(0) Nanoparticles During Anoxic Bioreduction of Cr(VI)- and Se(VI)-Contaminated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yumi; Oh, Jong-Min; Roh, Yul

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the microbial precipitations of Cr(III)-hydroxide and Se(0) nanoparticles during anoxic bioreductions of Cr(VI) and Se(VI) using metal-reducing bacteria enriched from groundwater. Metal-reducing bacteria enriched from groundwater at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) Underground Research Tunnel (KURT), Daejeon, S. Korea were used. Metal reduction and precipitation experiments with the metal-reducing bacteria were conducted using Cr(VI)- and Se(VI)-contaminated water and glucose as a carbon source under an anaerobic environment at room temperature. XRD, SEM-EDX, and TEM-EDX analyses were used to characterize the mineralogy, crystal structure, chemistry, shape, and size distribution of the precipitates. The metal-reducing bacteria reduced Cr(VI) of potassium chromate (K₂CrO₄) to Cr(III) of chromium hydroxide [Cr(OH)3], and Se(VI) of sodium selenate (Na₂SeO₄) to selenium Se(0), with changes of color and turbidity. XRD, SEM-EDX, and TEM-EDX analyses revealed that the chromium hydroxide [Cr(OH)₃] was formed extracellularly with nanoparticles of 20–30 nm in size, and elemental selenium Se(0) nanoparticles had a sphere shape of 50–250 nm in size. These results show that metal-reducing bacteria in groundwater can aid or accelerate precipitation of heavy metals such as Cr(VI) and Se(VI) via bioreduction processes under anoxic environments. These results may also be useful for the recovery of Cr and Se nanoparticles in natural environments.

  19. Ryger troværdigheden ned, når vi taler læreruddannelsen op?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Nu er vi ved at få talt læreruddannelsen op af sin lavstatus. Resultatet er, at flere søger uddannelsen. Så må vi håbe, at talen er troværdig, for ellers vil frafaldet stige.......Nu er vi ved at få talt læreruddannelsen op af sin lavstatus. Resultatet er, at flere søger uddannelsen. Så må vi håbe, at talen er troværdig, for ellers vil frafaldet stige....

  20. Lagrangian modelling of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar wave measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouques, Sebastien

    2005-07-01

    The present thesis is concerned with the estimation of the ocean wave spectrum from synthetic aperture radar imaging and the modelling of ocean surface waves using the Lagrangian formalism. The first part gives a short overview of the theories of ocean surface waves and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) whereas the second part consists of five independent publications. The first two articles investigate the influence of the radar backscatter model on the SAR imaging of ocean waves. In Article I, Monte Carlo simulations of SAR images of the ocean surface are carried out using a nonlinear backscatter model that include both specular reflection and Bragg scattering and the results are compared to simulations from the classical Hasselmann integral transform (Hasselmann and Hasselmann, 1991). It is shown that nonlinearities in the backscatter model strongly influence the imaging of range-travelling waves and that the former can suppress the range-splitting effect (Bruning et al., 1988). Furthermore, in Article II a database of Envisat-ASAR Wave Mode products co-located with directional wave spectra from the numerical model WAM and which contains range-travelling wave cases only, is set up. The WAM spectra are used as input to several ocean-to-SAR integral transforms, with various real aperture radar (RAR) models and the obtained SAR image cross-spectra are compared to the Envisat-ASAR observations. A first result is that the use of a linear backscatter model leads to a high proportion of non-physical negative backscatter values in the RAR image, as suggested by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2001). Then, a comparison between the observed SAR cross-spectra and the ones simulated through Hasselmann's integral transform reveals that only twenty percents of the observations show a range-splitting effect as strong as in the simulations. A much better agreement is obtained when using the integral transform by Schulz-Stellenfleth (2003), which is based on a nonlinear hackscatter model

  1. Directional wave measurements and modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Nayak, B.U.; Bhat, S.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    Some of the results obtained from analysis of the monsoon directional wave data measured over 4 years in shallow waters off the west coast of India are presented. The directional spectrum computed from the time series data seems to indicate...

  2. Influence of welded boundaries in anelastic media on energy flow, and characteristics of P, S-I, and S-II waves: Observational evidence for inhomogeneous body waves in low-loss solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Glassmoyer, Gary; Wennerberg, Leif

    1986-10-01

    A general computer code, developed to calculate anelastic reflection-refraction coefficients, energy flow, and the physical characteristics for general P, S-I, and S-II waves, quantitatively describes physical characteristics for wave fields in anelastic media that do not exist in elastic media. Consideration of wave fields incident on boundaries between anelastic media shows that scattered wave fields experience reductions in phase and energy speeds, increases in maximum attenuation and Q-1, and directions of maximum energy flow distinct from phase propagation. Each of these changes in physical characteristics are shown to vary with angle of incidence. Finite relaxation times for anelastic media result in energy flow due to interaction of superimposed radiation fields and contribute to energy flow across anelastic boundaries for all angles of incidence. Agreement of theoretical and numerical results with laboratory measurements argues for the validity of the theoretical and numerical formulations incorporating inhomogeneous wave fields. The agreement attests to the applicability of the model and helps confirm the existence of inhomogeneous body waves and their associated set of distinct physical characteristics in the earth. The existence of such body waves in layered, low-loss anelastic solids implies the need to reformulate some seismological models of the earth. The exact anelastic formulation for a liquid-solid interface with no low-loss approximations predicts the existence of a range of angles of incidence or an anelastic Rayleigh window, through which significant amounts of energy are transmitted across the boundary. The window accounts for the discrepancy apparent between measured reflection data presented in early textbooks and predictions based on classical elasticity theory. Characteristics of the anelastic Rayleigh window are expected to be evident in certain sets of wide-angle, ocean-bottom reflection data and to be useful in estimating Q-1 for some

  3. Coupled channel analysis of s-wave ππ and K anti-K photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueng-Ryong Ji; Szczepaniak, A.; Kaminski, R.; Lesniak, L.; Williams, R.

    1997-10-01

    We present a coupled channel partial wave analysis of non-diffractive S-wave π + π - and K + K - photoproduction focusing on the K anti-K threshold. Final state interactions are included. We calculate total cross sections, angular and effective mass distributions in both ππ and K anti-K channels. Our results indicate that these processes are experimentally measurable and valuable information on the f 0 (980) resonance structure can be obtained. (author)

  4. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  5. strong>Hvad skal vi med en hjerne?strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2009-01-01

    neurologen Antonio Damasio, at sikre vores overlevelse og velbefindende (i nævnte rækkefølge). Vi ved, at der findes såkaldte belønningsstrukturer i hjernen på både dyr og mennesker, som aktiverer følelser af velbehag, når vi gør "det rigtige", dvs. noget der er godt for os. Men hvordan de mere konkret...

  6. An experimental study on the sorption of U(VI) onto granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of U(VI) on a domestic granite is studied as a function of experimental conditions such as contact time, solution-solid ratio, ionic strength, and pH using a batch procedure. The distribution coefficients, K d 's, of U(VI) are about 1-100mL/g depending on the experimental conditions. The sorption of U(VI) onto granite particles is greatly dependent upon the contact time, solution-solid ratio, and pH, but very little is dependent on the ionic strength. It is noticed that an U(VI)-carbonato ternary surface complex can be formed in the neutral range of pH. In the alkaline range of pH above 7, U(VI) sorption onto granite particles is greatly decreased due to the formation of anionic U(VI)-carbonato aqueous complexes

  7. Estudio de inmunogenicidad de la vacuna antitifoídica cubana de polisacárido Vi vax-TyVi® en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Ramírez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi es un microorganismo que provoca más de 16 millones de casos de fiebre tifoidea con aproximadamente 600 000 muertes al año en todo el mundo. Dentro de las vacunas antitifoídicas la de polisacárido capsular Vi ha encontrado, gracias a sus incuestionables ventajas, una gran aceptación entre productores y consumidores. El presente trabajo aborda el estudio de inmunogenicidad de la vacuna antitifoídica cubana de polisacárido Vi vax-TyViâ en ratones. El estudio estuvo conformado por un grupo control no inoculado y un segundo grupo que recibió 0,05 mL de la vacuna por vía intramuscular. Se tomaron muestras de sangre a los -3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56 y 84 días. La actividad de anticuerpos IgG antipolisacárido Vi de los sueros individuales fue determinada por ELISA. Los datos fueron analizados por grupo y por sexo y se calculó el porcentaje de seroconversión, considerándose respondedor aquel animal que al menos aumentara en cuatro veces su título inicial. La respuesta de anticuerpos inducida por la vacuna mostró un aumento notable de los títulos de IgG antipolisacárido Vi en el grupo vacunado (100% de seroconversión, mientras que el grupo control no incrementó sus niveles mínimos iniciales (0% de respondedores. Aunque más dispersa, la respuesta de anticuerpos antiVi fue significativamente mayor en las hembras que en los machos.

  8. Application of one-sided stress wave velocity measurement technique to evaluate freeze-thaw damage in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Park, Won Su

    1998-01-01

    It is well recognized that damage resulting from freeze-thaw cycles is a serious problems causing deterioration and degradation of concrete. In general, freeze-thaw cycles change the microstructure of the concrete ultimately leading to internal stresses and cracking. In this study, a new method for one-sided stress wave velocity measurement has been applied to evaluate freeze-thaw damage in concrete by monitoring the velocity change of longitudinal and surface waves. The freeze-thaw damage was induced in a 400 x 150 x 100 mm concrete specimen in accordance with ASTM C666 using s commercial testing apparatus. A cycle consisted of a variation of the temperature from -14 to 4 degrees Celsius. A cycle takes 4-5 hours with approximately equal times devoted to freezing-thawing. Measurement of longitudinal and surface wave velocities based on one-sided stress wave velocity measurement technique was made every 5 freeze-thaw cycle. The variation of longitudinal and surface wave velocities due to increasing freeze-thaw damage is demonstrated and compared to determine which one is more effective to monitor freeze-thaw cyclic damage progress. The variation in longitudinal wave velocity measured by one-sided technique is also compared with that measured by the conventional through transmission technique.

  9. Vi-CRM 197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoli, F; Rondini, S; Pisoni, I; Proietti, D; Berti, F; Costantino, P; Rappuoli, R; Szu, S; Saul, A; Martin, L B

    2011-01-17

    An efficacious, low cost vaccine against typhoid fever, especially for young children, would make a major impact on disease burden in developing countries. The virulence capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi (Vi) coupled to recombinant mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A (Vi-rEPA) has been shown to be highly efficacious. We investigated the use of carrier proteins included in infant vaccines, standardized the conjugation process and developed key assays required for routine lot release at production scale. Vi from a BSL1 organism, Citrobacter freundii, strain WR7011, was used as an alternative to Vi from S. Typhi. We showed that Vi conjugated to CRM(197), a non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin, widely used in commercial vaccines, was produced at high yield. Vi-CRM(197) proved immunogenic in animal studies, even without adjuvant. Thus, Vi-CRM(197) appears to be a suitable candidate for the development of a commercially viable, effective typhoid vaccine for developing countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing of ENDF/B-VI data for shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    Version VI of the U.S. Evaluated Nuclear Data File (END/B-VI) was released for open distribution in 1990 after an extensive multiyear, multilaboratory evaluation effort coordinated by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG). More than 75 of the 320 evaluations contained in the library are new for Version VI, including many relatively important nuclides and many with substantial changes to the cross-section data. Also, several important changes were made to the basic data formats for Version VI to permit better representation of the data and to allow additional types of data. Although these format changes yielded improved evaluations, they hindered processing of the data for use in applications codes and delayed the timely integral testing of the data. It has been only during the past year that significant integral testing of END/B-VI data has been achieved. The results and conclusions from some of these efforts are summarized in the following paragraphs

  11. Cinética e equilíbrio de adsorção dos oxiânions Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI pelo sal de amônio quaternário de quitosana Kinetics and equilibrium of adsorption of oxyanions Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI by quaternary ammonium chitosan salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Spinelli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O sal quaternário de quitosana foi sintetizado com cloreto de glicidil trimetil amônio. A modificação química foi caracterizada por espectrometria no IV, RMN de 13C e ¹H, e mmol/g de grupos quaternários presentes na matriz polimérica por condutimetria. A remoção de Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI, em meio aquoso, foi investigada em processo de batelada. A adsorção mostrou ser dependente do pH para o Cr (VI e Se (VI, com um pH ótimo de adsorção, entre 4,0 a 6,0. Para o Mo (VI a adsorção manteve-se quase constante no intervalo de pH entre 4,0 e 11,5. O modelo de isoterma de Langmuir descreveu melhor os dados de equilíbrio na faixa de concentração investigada. No presente estudo, um grama do sal quaternário de quitosana reticulado com glutaraldeído adsorveu 68,3 mg de Cr, 63,4 mg de Mo e 90,0 mg de Se. A velocidade de adsorção, no processo, segue a equação cinética de pseudo segunda-ordem, sendo que o equilíbrio para os três íons foi alcançado próximo aos 200 minutos. A análise dispersiva de raios-X para o Cr (VI mostrou que o principal mecanismo de adsorção é a troca iônica entre os íons Cl- da superfície do polímero pelos oxiânions. O trocador aniônico apresentou a seguinte ordem de seletividade: Cr (VI > Mo (VI > Se (VI.Quaternary chitosan salt was synthesized in the presence of glycidyl trimetyl ammonium chloride. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: infrared, 13C and ¹H NMR, while the amount of quaternary ammonium groups was obtained by condutimetry. The removal of Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI from aqueous solutions was carried out in batch adsorption processes. The process seemed to be pH dependent for Cr (VI and Se (VI with an optimum pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.0; while for Mo (VI the adsorption remained almost constant within the range between 4.0 and 11.5. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit of the equilibrium data over the whole concentration investigated. In the experiment

  12. U(VI) sorption on kaolinite. Effects of pH, U(VI) concentration and oxyanions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Gao; Ziqian Yang; Keliang Shi; Xuefeng Wang; Zhijun Guo; Wangsuo Wu

    2010-01-01

    U(VI) sorption on kaolinite was studied as functions of contact time, pH, U(VI) concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio (m/V) by using a batch experimental method. The effects of sulfate and phosphate on U(VI) sorption were also investigated. It was found that the sorption kinetics of U(VI) can be described by a pseudo-second-order model. Potentiometric titrations at variable ionic strengths indicated that the titration curves of kaolinite were not sensitive to ionic strength, and that the pH of the zero net proton charge (pH PZNPC ) was at 6.9. The sorption of U(VI) on kaolinite increased with pH up to 6.5 and reached a plateau at pH >6.5. The presence of phosphate strongly increased U(VI) sorption especially at pH <5.5, which may be due to formation of ternary surface complexes involving phosphate. In contrast, the presence of sulfate did not cause any apparent effect on U(VI) sorption. A double layer model was used to interpret both results of potentiometric titrations and U(VI) sorption on kaolinite. (author)

  13. Time-resolved measurement of global synchronization in the dust acoustic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. D.

    2014-10-01

    A spatially and temporally resolved measurement of the synchronization of the naturally occurring dust acoustic wave to an external drive and the relaxation from the driven wave mode back to the naturally occuring wave mode is presented. This measurement provides a time-resolved measurement of the synchronization of the self-excited dust acoustic wave with an external drive and the return to the self-excited mode. It is observed that the wave synchronizes to the external drive in a distinct time-dependent fashion, while there is an immediate loss of synchronization when the external modulation is discontinued.

  14. Holographic s-wave and p-wave Josephson junction with backreaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Shuai [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000, People’s Republic of (China)

    2016-11-22

    In this paper, we study the holographic models of s-wave and p-wave Josephoson junction away from probe limit in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime, respectively. With the backreaction of the matter, we obtained the anisotropic black hole solution with the condensation of matter fields. We observe that the critical temperature of Josephoson junction decreases with increasing backreaction. In addition to this, the tunneling current and condenstion of Josephoson junction become smaller as backreaction grows larger, but the relationship between current and phase difference still holds for sine function. Moreover, condenstion of Josephoson junction deceases with increasing width of junction exponentially.

  15. Inhibition of bacterial U(VI) reduction by calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Scott C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Carroll, S. L.; Kennedy, David W.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Kelly, S. D.; Kemner, K. M.; Fendorf, S.

    2003-01-01

    The rapid kinetics of bacterial U(VI) reduction and low solubility of uraninite (UO2,cr) make this process an attractive option for removing uranium from groundwater. Nevertheless, conditions that may promote or inhibit U(VI) reduction are not well-defined. Recent descriptions of Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes indicate that these species may dominate the aqueous speciation of U(VI) in many environments. We monitored the bacterial reduction of U(VI) in bicarbonate-buffered solution in the presence and absence of Ca. XAFS measurements confirmed the presence of a Ca-U(VI)-CO3 complex in the initial solutions containing calcium. Calcium, at millimolar concentrations (0.45-5 mM), caused a significant decrease in the rate and extent of bacterial U(VI) reduction. Both facultative (Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32) and obligate (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Geobacter sulfurreducens) anaerobic bacteria were affected by the presence of calcium. Reduction of U(VI) ceased when the calculated system Eh re ached -0.046+/- 0.001 V, based on the Ca2UO2(CO3)(3) -- > UO2,cr couple. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that U is a less energetically favorable electron acceptor when the Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes are present. The results do not support Ca inhibition caused by direct interactions with the cells or with the electron donor as the reduction of fumarate or Tc(VII)O-4(-) under identical conditions was unaffected by the presence of Ca

  16. Sheet flow measurements on a surf-zone sandbar under shoaling and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieras, R.; Puleo, J. A.; Cox, D. T.; Anderson, D. L.; Kim, Y.; Hsu, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    A large-scale experiment to quantify sheet flow processes over a sandbar under varying levels of wave steepness was conducted in the wave flume at Oregon State University's O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory. A fixed profile was constructed with concrete slabs anchored to the flume side walls, with the exception of the sandbar crest, where a steel pit was installed and filled with well-sorted sediment (d50 0.17 mm). This hybrid approach allowed for the isolation of small-scale bed response to large-scale wave forcing over the sandbar, where an array of sensors was positioned to measure hydrodynamic forcing and sediment response. Near-bed ( 0.08 m3/m3) were approximated using Conductivity Concentration Profilers. Test conditions consisted of a regular wave train with incident wave heights for individual runs ranging from 0.4 m to 0.6 m and incident wave periods from 5 s to 9 s, encompassing a variety of skewed and asymmetric wave shapes across the shoaling and breaking regimes. Ensemble-averaged sediment concentration profiles exhibit considerable variation across the different conditions. The largest variation in sheet layer thickness occurs beneath the wave crest, ranging from 30 grain diameters for 5 sec, 0.4 m waves, up to 80 grain diameters for 7 sec, 0.6 m waves. Furthermore, the initiation and duration of sheet flow relative to the wave period differs for each condition set. It is likely that more than one mechanism plays a role in determining the aforementioned sheet layer characteristics. In the present work, we focus on the relative magnitude and phase of the near-bed flow acceleration and shear stress in determining the characteristics of the sheet layer.

  17. KENO-VI Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO-VI Using GeeWiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO-VI three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is one of the primary criticality safety analysis tools in SCALE. The KENO-VI primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO-VI Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO-VI in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO-VI that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 6, which includes the Graphically Enhanced Editing Wizard (GeeWiz) Windows user interface. Each example uses GeeWiz to provide the framework for preparing input data and viewing output results. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO-VI input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO-VI. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO-VI features that are covered in detail in the sample problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using GeeWiz to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO-VI. The primer provides a starting point for the criticality safety analyst who uses SCALE/KENO-VI. Complete descriptions are provided in the SCALE/KENO-VI manual. Although the primer is self-contained, it is intended as a companion volume to the SCALE/KENO-VI documentation. (The SCALE manual is provided on the SCALE installation DVD.) The primer provides specific examples of

  18. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ) in the laboratory and on an operational rail track (with S-4 60-SAR profile) and example results are presented in this section. The measurements 5 were performed using a Polytec PSV-400-M2-20 high frequency scanning vibrometer 6 equipped with the VD-09 velocity...Hz on operational rail track and to identify the modes that are capable of 16 propagating large distances. 17 18 KEYWORDS: Semi-analytical finite element method; modes of guided wave 19 propagation; laser vibrometer measurement; rail track 20 PACs...

  19. CATALYTIC WAVE OF CHLORATE IONS IN THE PREZENCE OF THE MOLYBDENUM (VI - 2,3-DIHYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Kiriyak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The polarographic catalytic current in acid solutions of Mo(VI, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,3-DHBA and chlorate ions has been investigated. The scheme of reactions taking place in the solutions and on the electrode has been elaborated. The increase of the catalytic current is explained by the formation of the active intermediate complex [Mo(V×2,3-DHBA (ClO3-]. The rate constant of formation for the active intermediate complex K = 2.5 × 106 mol-1 × dm3 × s-1, the activation energy of reaction Ea=14.0 kcal×mol-1 and the activation entropy ∆Sa¹= -28.3 e.u. have also been determined.

  20. Fast Wave Transmission Measurements on Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, J.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Takase, Y.; Wukitch, S. J.

    1997-11-01

    Data are presented from an array of single-turn loop probes newly installed on the inner wall of C-Mod, directly opposite one of the two fast-wave antennas. The 8-loop array extends 32^circ in the toroidal direction at the midplane and can distinguish electromagnetic from electrostatic modes. Data are acquired by 1GHz digitizer, spectrum analyzer, and RF detector circuit. Phase measurements during different heating scenarios show evidence of both standing and travelling waves. The measurement of toroidal mode number N_tor (conserved under the assumption of axisymmetry) is used to guide the toroidal full-wave code TORIC(Brambilla, M., IPP Report 5/66, February 1996). Amplitude measurements show modulation both by Type III ELMs and sawteeth; the observed sawtooth modulation may be interpreted as due to changes in central absorption. The amplitude of tildeB_tor measured at the inner wall is compared to the prediction of TORIC.

  1. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  2. Thermophysical Properties of Selected II-VI Semiconducting Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Thermophysical properties are essential for the accurate predication of the crystal growth process by computational modeling. Currently, the temperature dependent thermophysical property data for the II-VI semiconductor melts are scarce. This paper reports the results of the temperature dependence of melt density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of selected II-VI compounds, including HgTe, HgCdTe and HgZnTe. The melt density was measured using a pycnometric method, and the viscosity and electrical conductivity were measured by a transient torque method. The results were compared with and showed good agreement with the existing data in the literature.

  3. Using Ultrasonic Lamb Waves To Measure Moduli Of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of broad-band ultrasonic Lamb waves in plate specimens of ceramic-matrix/fiber and metal-matrix/fiber composite materials used to determine moduli of elasticity of materials. In one class of potential applications of concept, Lamb-wave responses of specimens measured and analyzed at various stages of thermal and/or mechanical processing to determine effects of processing, without having to dissect specimens. In another class, structural components having shapes supporting propagation of Lamb waves monitored ultrasonically to identify signs of deterioration and impending failure.

  4. Spectral analysis of the UFBG-based acousto—optical modulator in V-I transmission matrix formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang-Ying; Pei, Li; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yi-Qun; Weng, Si-Jun; Wang, Jian-Shuai

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the V-I transmission matrix formalism (V-I method) is proposed to analyze the spectrum characteristics of the uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based acousto—optic modulators (UFBG-AOM). The simulation results demonstrate that both the amplitude of the acoustically induced strain and the frequency of the acoustic wave (AW) have an effect on the spectrum. Additionally, the wavelength spacing between the primary reflectivity peak and the secondary reflectivity peak is proportional to the acoustic frequency with the ratio 0.1425 nm/MHz. Meanwhile, we compare the amount of calculation. For the FBG whose period is M, the calculation of the V-I method is 4 × (2M-1) in addition/subtraction, 8 × (2M - 1) in multiply/division and 2M in exponent arithmetic, which is almost a quarter of the multi-film method and transfer matrix (TM) method. The detailed analysis indicates that, compared with the conventional multi-film method and transfer matrix (TM) method, the V-I method is faster and less complex.

  5. Shock wave collisions and thermalization in AdS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-01

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS 5 . We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS 5 , which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling. (author)

  6. Comparison of X-band radar backscatter measurements with area extended wave slope measurements made in a large wind wave tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, D. van; Jaehne, B.; Oost, W.A.; Calkoen, C.J.; Snoeij, P.

    1989-01-01

    Combined measurements of microwave backscatter, wind, waves, and gas exchange have been carried out in the large Delft Hydraulics wind/wave tank. This experiment was the first of a series of experiments in the VIERS-1 project. In this project, a number of Dutch and one German laboratory cooperate to

  7. Spectroscopic studies on U(VI)-salicylate complex formation with multiple equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, W.; Cho, H.R.; Jung, E.C.; Park, K.K.; Kim, W.H.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Chemistry Research Div.

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates multiple equilibria related to the formation of the U(VI)-salicylate complex in a pH range of 3.0-5.5 using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence measurement techniques. The absorbance changes at the characteristic charge-transfer bands of the complex were monitored, and the results indicated the presence of multiple equilibria and the formation of both 1:1 and 1:2 (U(VI):salicylate) complexes possessing bi-dentate chelate structures. The determined step-wise formation constants (log K{sub 1:1} and log K{sub 1:2}) are as follows: 12.5 {+-} 0.1 and 11.4 {+-} 0.2 for salicylate, 11.2 {+-} 0.1 and 10.1 {+-} 0.2 for 5-sulfosalicylate, and 12.4 {+-} 0.1 and 11.4 {+-} 0.1 for 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, respectively. The molar absorptivities of the complexes are also provided. Furthermore, time-resolved laser-induced luminescence spectra of U(VI) species demonstrate the presence of both a dynamic and static quenching process upon the addition of a salicylate ligand. Particularly for the luminescent hydroxouranyl species, a strong static quenching effect is observed. The results suggest that both the UO{sub 2}(HSal){sup +} and the U(VI)-Sal chelate complexes serve as ground-state complexes that induce static quenching. The Stern-Volmer parameters were derived based on the measured luminescent intensity and lifetime data. The static quenching constants (log K{sub S}) obtained are 3.3 {+-} 0.1, 4.9 {+-} 0.1, and 4.4 {+-} 0.1 for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}{sup 2+} and (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup +}, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Spectroscopic studies on U(VI)-salicylate complex formation with multiple equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, W.; Cho, H.R.; Jung, E.C.; Park, K.K.; Kim, W.H.; Song, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates multiple equilibria related to the formation of the U(VI)-salicylate complex in a pH range of 3.0-5.5 using UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence measurement techniques. The absorbance changes at the characteristic charge-transfer bands of the complex were monitored, and the results indicated the presence of multiple equilibria and the formation of both 1:1 and 1:2 (U(VI):salicylate) complexes possessing bi-dentate chelate structures. The determined step-wise formation constants (log K 1:1 and log K 1:2 ) are as follows: 12.5 ± 0.1 and 11.4 ± 0.2 for salicylate, 11.2 ± 0.1 and 10.1 ± 0.2 for 5-sulfosalicylate, and 12.4 ± 0.1 and 11.4 ± 0.1 for 2,6-dihydroxybenzoate, respectively. The molar absorptivities of the complexes are also provided. Furthermore, time-resolved laser-induced luminescence spectra of U(VI) species demonstrate the presence of both a dynamic and static quenching process upon the addition of a salicylate ligand. Particularly for the luminescent hydroxouranyl species, a strong static quenching effect is observed. The results suggest that both the UO 2 (HSal) + and the U(VI)-Sal chelate complexes serve as ground-state complexes that induce static quenching. The Stern-Volmer parameters were derived based on the measured luminescent intensity and lifetime data. The static quenching constants (log K S ) obtained are 3.3 ± 0.1, 4.9 ± 0.1, and 4.4 ± 0.1 for UO 2 2+ , (UO 2 ) 2 (OH) 2 2+ and (UO 2 ) 3 (OH) 5 + , respectively. (orig.)

  9. CARS measurement of vibrational and rotational temperature with high power laser and high speed visualization of total radiation behind hypervelocity shock waves of 5-7km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Bindu, Venigalla Hima; Niinomi, Shota; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2010-09-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) method is commonly used for measuring molecular structure or condition. In the aerospace technology, this method is applies to measure the temperature in thermic fluid with relatively long time duration of millisecond or sub millisecond. On the other hand, vibrational/rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity shock wave are important for heat-shield design in phase of reentry flight. The non-equilibrium flow with radiative heating from strongly shocked air ahead of the vehicles plays an important role on the heat flux to the wall surface structure as well as convective heating. In this paper CARS method is applied to measure the vibrational/rotational temperature of N2 behind hypervelocity shock wave. The strong shock wave in front of the reentering space vehicles can be experimentally realigned by free-piston, double-diaphragm shock tube with low density test gas. However CARS measurement is difficult for our experiment. Our measurement needs very short pulse which order of nanosecond and high power laser for CARS method. It is due to our measurement object is the momentary phenomena which velocity is 7km/s. In addition the observation section is low density test gas, and there is the strong background light behind the shock wave. So we employ the CARS method with high power, order of 1J/pulse, and very short pulse (10ns) laser. By using this laser the CARS signal can be acquired even in the strong radiation area. Also we simultaneously try to use the CCD camera to obtain total radiation with CARS method.

  10. Immobilization of Cr(Vi) as a contaminant from soil by iron compounds; Inmovilizacion de Cr(VI) como contaminante del suelo por compuestos de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin A, M. de J.; Romero G, E. T. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Reyes G, L. R. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencias de la Tierra, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, Pachuca 42184, Hidalgo (Mexico)], e-mail: elizabeth.romero@inin.gob.mx

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the physicochemical and surface properties of Fe{sup 0} and FeS to select the appropriate radioactive material for use in the design of artificial barriers or walls and remove Cr (Vi). The physicochemical characterization was carried out of iron: Fe{sup 0} and FeS, using scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum, X-ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis techniques. As for the characterization of the surface, was used to determine the surface area, point of zero charge, density of active sites and kinetics of moisture. We obtained a solution of Cr (Vi) by elution of deionized water on the pollution land of Buenavista, Guanajuato. The concentration of Cr (Vi) from a stock solution was 55.56 mg / L determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Stripping or maximum immobilization of Cr (Vi) with Fe{sup 0} (material chosen by their physicochemical and surface properties) was 68.25% using Fe{sup 0}, at a concentration less than 0.1, ph equal to 3 and a contact time of 24 hours. (Author)

  11. Temperature and ionic strength influences on actinide(VI)/(V) redox potentials for carbonate limiting complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, H.; Vitorge, P.

    1998-01-01

    Actinide behaviour was studied in two limiting aqueous solutions: acidic and carbonate. Cyclic voltametry was validated with well-known U redox system. SIT was used to account for I influence. Taylor's series expansions to the second order were used to account for T influence. Redox potentials of actinide couples had previously been measured in non complexing media. The above data treatments give standard values for redox potential E 0 , for the corresponding entropy ΔS 0 , enthalpy ΔH 0 and heat capacity ΔC p 0 changes, and also for the corresponding excess values (i.e. the variation of these thermodynamic constants with ionic strength). This methodology was here used in carbonate media to measure the potential of the redox couple PuO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- /PuO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 5- from 5 to 70 degC and from I = 0.5 to 4.5 M in Na 2 CO 3 , NaClO 4 media. Experimental details and full results are given for Pu. Only final results are given for Np. Previous and/or published data for U and Am are discussed. E and ΔS variations with T or I were enough to be measured. The values obtained for the fitted SIT coefficients Δε, and for ΔS and ΔCp are similar for U, Np and Pu redox reactions. Using this analogy for Am missing data is discussed. β 3 V /β 3 VI formation constant ratio of the carbonate limiting complexes were deduced from the potential shift from complexing to non complexing media for the Actinide(VI)/Actinide(V) redox couples. β 3 V (U and Pu) and β 3 VI (Np) were finally proposed using published β3 VI (U and Pu) and β 3 V (Np). For Am, this data treatment was used to discuss the AmO 2 2+ / AmO 2 + redox potential

  12. Enzymatic reduction of U(VI) in groundwaters; Reduction enzymatique de U(VI) dans des eaux souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addelouas, A.; Gong, W. [Center for Radioactive Waste Management, Advanced Materials Laboratory, 1001 University, Albuquerque (United States); Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Fritz, B.; Crovisier, J.L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 67 - Strasbourg (France). Centre de Sedimentologie et Geochimie de la Surface

    1999-03-01

    The use of enzymatic reduction of U(VI) in remediation of groundwater contaminated with U(VI) is receiving considerable attention. Certain strains of bacteria can combine the oxidation of an organic compound to the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV), which precipitates as uraninite. In the present study, we tested the reduction of U(VI) in groundwaters with various origins and compositions. In all groundwaters u(VI) was reduced by sulfate reducing bacteria that had been activated by ethanol and tri-metaphosphate. The reduction rate of U(VI) depends on sulfate concentration in water and the abundance of bacteria in the system. This work shows that bacteria capable of U(VI) reduction are ubiquitous in nature, and suggests the possibility of a large application of the enzymatic reduction of U(VI) for in situ clean up of groundwaters contaminated with uranium. (authors) 12 refs.

  13. Estimations of On-site Directional Wave Spectra from Measured Ship Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2006-01-01

    include an quivalence of energy in the governing equations and, as regards the parametric concept, a frequency dependent spreading of the waves is introduced. The paper includes an extensive analysis of full-scale measurements for which the directional wave spectra are estimated by the two ship response......In general, two main concepts can be applied to estimate the on-site directional wave spectrum on the basis of ship response measurements: 1) a parametric method which assumes the wave spectrum to be composed by parameterised wave spectra, or 2) a non-parametric method where the directional wave...

  14. Grain size measurements by ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanichamy, P.; Jayakumar, T.

    1996-01-01

    The use of Rayleigh surface waves to determine average grain size nondestructively in an austenitic stainless steel AISI type 316 stainless is discussed. Two commercial type 4MHz frequency surface wave transducers, one as transmitter and the other as receiver were employed for the measurement of surface wave amplitudes. Relative amplitudes of the Rayleigh surface waves were correlated with the metallographically obtained grain sizes. Results indicate that surface/sub-surface average grain sizes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel can be estimated with a confidence level of more than 80% in the grain size range 30-170 μm. (author)

  15. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...

  16. Superficial ultrasound shear wave speed measurements in soft and hard elasticity phantoms: repeatability and reproducibility using two ultrasound systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L

    2015-03-01

    There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three imaging methods, two US systems and multiple operators. Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution No. 1 used an Acuson S3000 US system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Malvern, PA) and three shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution No. 2 used an Aixplorer US system (SuperSonic Imagine, Bothell, WA) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0 cm, 2.5 cm and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student's t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single-measure intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (P = 0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (P > 0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5-6.8%), and interoperator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥ 0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth significantly affected measured SWS (P

  17. Visible light-responded C, N and S co-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, X.F., E-mail: leixuefei69@163.com [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Institute of Metallurgical Resource and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Metallurgical Resource Recycling Science, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Engineering and Technology Research Center of Boron Resource, Comprehensive, Utilization, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Provincial Universities Key Laboratory of Boron Resource Ecological, Utilization, Technology and Boron Materials, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xue, X.X.; Yang, H. [Institute of Metallurgical Resource and Environmental Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Metallurgical Resource Recycling Science, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Engineering and Technology Research Center of Boron Resource, Comprehensive, Utilization, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liaoning Provincial Universities Key Laboratory of Boron Resource Ecological, Utilization, Technology and Boron Materials, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chen, C.; Li, X.; Pei, J.X.; Niu, M.C.; Yang, Y.T.; Gao, X.Y. [School of Resources and Materials, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The (C, N and S) co-doped TiO{sub 2} (TH-TiO{sub 2}) samples were synthesized by a sol-gel method calcined at 500 °C, employing butyl titanate as the titanium source and thiourea as the dopant. The structures of TH-TiO{sub 2} samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Thermo gravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities were checked through the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) as a model compound under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the thiourea content played an important role on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the samples. According to XPS results, (C, N and S) atoms were successfully co-doped into the nanostructures of TH-TiO{sub 2} samples. TH-TiO{sub 2} samples with thiourea: Ti molar ratio of 1.5 exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than that of the other samples under visible light irradiation, which can be attributed to the synergic effect of the pure anatase structure, the higher light absorption characteristics in visible regions, separation efficiency of electron–hole pairs, the specific surface area and the optimum (C, N and S) content. - Graphical abstract: (C, N and S) co-doped TiO{sub 2} samples show good photocatalytic activity for Cr (VI) reduction under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • (C, N and S) co-doping in TH-TiO{sub 2} samples can promote the formation of the pure anatase structure. • (C, N and S) atoms were successfully co-doped into the nanostructures of TH-TiO{sub 2} samples. • The band gap energy of TH-TiO{sub 2} samples reduced after (C, N and S) co-doping. • (C, N and S) co-doped TiO{sub 2} samples were effective for the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) under visible light

  18. Measurements of radiated elastic wave energy from dynamic tensile cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of fracture-velocity, microstructure, and fracture-energy barriers in elastic wave radiation during a dynamic fracture was investigated in experiments in which dynamic tensile cracks of two fracture cofigurations of double cantilever beam geometry were propagating in glass samples. The first, referred to as primary fracture, consisted of fractures of intact glass specimens; the second configuration, referred to as secondary fracture, consisted of a refracture of primary fracture specimens which were rebonded with an intermittent pattern of adhesive to produce variations in fracture surface energy along the crack path. For primary fracture cases, measurable elastic waves were generated in 31 percent of the 16 fracture events observed; the condition for radiation of measurable waves appears to be a local abrupt change in the fracture path direction, such as occurs when the fracture intersects a surface flaw. For secondary fractures, 100 percent of events showed measurable elastic waves; in these fractures, the ratio of radiated elastic wave energy in the measured component to fracture surface energy was 10 times greater than for primary fracture.

  19. Reduction of trace quantities of chromium(VI by strong acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzin Sérgio H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical behavior of Cr(VI at low concentrations (10-4 to 10-7 mol L-1 in several strong acids was studied using high specific activity 51Cr(VI as a tracer. The speciation of the products from these systems was carried out by ion exchange chromatography with stepwise elution. The results show that trace quantities of Cr(VI, monitored by means of radiochromium (51Cr, are reduced in the presence of mineral acids such as perchloric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, nitric and trifluoromethanesulfonic acids, even in the absence of conventional reducing agents, producing different measureable Cr(III species, depending on the acid anion. Detailed studies of the reduction of low concentrations of Cr(VI with nitric acid have shown that the relative rate of reduction increases as the concentration of the acid increases or as the concentration of the Cr(VI decreases.

  20. Influence of U(VI) on the metabolism of plant cells studied by microcalorimetry and TRLFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Susanne; Geipel, Gerhard [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Fahmy, Karim; Oertel, Jana [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Bok, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes

    2017-06-01

    Uranium(VI) shows a concentration-dependent influence on the metabolic activity of plant cells. With increasing U(VI) concentration, the predominant U(VI) species in medium R{sub red} changes from UO{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}(s) to (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup +}, which may affect the bioavailability of U(VI).

  1. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan L. Danilishin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

  2. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilishin, Stefan L; Khalili, Farid Ya

    2012-01-01

    The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

  3. Direct measurement of the plasma response to electrostatic ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfaty, M.; DeSouza-Machado, S.; Skiff, F.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma wave-wave and wave-particle interactions are studied in a linear magnetized plasma. The relatively quiet plasma is produced by an argon gas-discharge. The plasma density is n e ≅ 10 9 cm -3 and the electron/ion temperatures are T e ≅ 5eV and T i = 0.05eV. A grid and a four ring antenna, both mounted on a scanning carriage, are used to launch electrostatic ion waves in the plasma. Laser Induced Fluorescence measurements of both the linear and the nonlinear plasma response to the wave fields are presented. The Vlasov-Poisson equations are used to explain the measured zero, first and second order terms of the ion distribution function in the presence of wave fields. In addition to the broadening (heating) of the ion distribution as the authors increase the wave amplitudes, induced plasma flows are observed both along and across the magnetic field

  4. Spectroscopic properties and antimicrobial activity of dioxomolybdenum(VI complexes with heterocyclic S,S’-ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Sofija P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new dioxomolybdenum(VI complexes of the general formula[MoO2(Rdtc2], 1-5, where Rdtc-refer to piperidine- (Pipdtc, 4-morpholine-(Morphdtc, 4-thiomorpholine-(Timdtc, piperazine- (Pzdtc or Nmethylpiperazine- (N-Mepzdtc dithiocarbamates, respectively, have been prepared. Elemental analysis, conductometric measurements, electronic, IR and NMR spectroscopy have been employed to characterize them. Complexes 1-5 contain a cis-MoO2 group and are of an octahedral geometry. Two dithiocarbamato ions join as bidentates with both the sulphur atoms to the molybdenum atom. The presence of different heteroatom in the piperidinо moiety influences the v(C----N and v(C----S vibrations, which decrease in the order of the complexes with: Pipdtc > N-Mepipdtc > Morphdtc > Pzdtc > Timdtc ligands. On the basis of spectral data, molecular structures of complexes 1-5 were optimized on semiempirical molecular-orbital level, and the geometries, as obtained from calculations, described. Antimicrobial activity was tested against nine different laboratory control strains of bacteria and two strains of yeast Candida albicans. All tested strains were sensitive. Complexes bearing heteroatom in position 4 of piperidine moiety are significantly more potent against bacteria tested comparing to corresponding ligands.

  5. Residual stress measurement with focused acoustic waves and direct comparison with X-ray diffraction stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish, Shamachary; Moran, Thomas J.; Martin, Richard W.; Reibel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The technique of measuring small changes in acoustic wave velocity due to external or internal stress has been used for quantitative determination of residual stress in materials during the last decade. Application of similar methodology with focused acoustic waves leads to residual stress measurement with spatial resolution of a few millimeters to a few microns. The high spatial resolution residual stress measurement required development of new methodologies in both the design of acoustic lenses and the instrumentation for acoustic wave velocity determination. This paper presents two new methodologies developed for the measurement of residual stress with spatial resolution of a few millimeters. The design of new type of acoustic lens for achieving higher spatial resolution in residual stress measurement is introduced. Development of instrumentation for high precision local surface wave velocity measurement will be presented. Residual stresses measured around a crack tip in a sample of Ti-6A1-4V using a focused beam will be compared with X-ray diffraction measurements performed on the same region of the sample. Results of residual stress measurements along a direction perpendicular to the electron beam weld in a sample of Ti-6A1-4V, determined using focused acoustic waves and X-ray diffraction technique, are also presented. The spatial resolution and penetration depth of X-rays and focused acoustic beams with reference to residual stress measurements are discussed

  6. Reaction kinetics and oxidation products formation in the degradation of ciprofloxacin and ibuprofen by ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengwei; Jiang, Jia-Qian

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and ibuprofen (IBU) in test solutions by ferrate(VI) was investigated in this study. A series of jar test was performed in bench-scale at pH 6-9 and ferrate(VI) dose of 1-5 mg L(-1). Results demonstrated that ferrate(VI) removed CIP from test solutions efficiently, with above 70% of reduction under study conditions. In contrary, the removal rates of IBU were very low, less than 25% in all conditions. Raising ferrate(VI) dose improved the treatment performance, while the influence of solution pH was not significant at pH 6-9 compared with that of ferrate(VI) dose. In addition, kinetic studies of ferrate(VI) with both compounds were carried out at pH 8 and pH 9 (20 °C). Ferrate(VI) had a much higher reactivity with CIP than IBU at pH 8 and pH 9, with CIP's apparent second-order rate constants of 113.7±6.3 M(-1) s(-1) and 64.1±1.0 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The rate constants of ferrate(VI) with IBU were less than 0.2 M(-1) s(-1) at pH 8 and pH 9. Furthermore, seven oxidation products (OPs) were formed during CIP degradation by ferrate(VI). The attack on the piperazinyl ring of the CIP by ferrate(VI) appeared to lead to the cleavage or hydroxylation of the rings, and the attack on the quinolone moiety by ferrate(VI) might lead to the cleavage of the double bond at the six-member heterocyclic ring. No OPs of IBU were detected during ferrate(VI) oxidation due to very small part of IBU was degraded by ferrate(VI). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distributions of freak wave heights measured in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansell, P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of some of the largest waves occurring during 793 h of surface elevation measurements collected during 14 severe storms in the North Sea. This data contains 104 freak waves. It is found that the probability of occurrence of freak waves is only weekly dependent on the significant wave height, significant wave steepness and spectral bandwidth. The probability does show a slightly stronger dependency on the skew and kurtosis of the surface elevation data, but on removing the contribution to these measures from the presence of the freakwaves themselves, this dependency largely disappears. Distributions of extreme waves are modelled by fitting Generalised Pareto distributions, and extreme value distributions and return periods are given for freak waves in terms of the empirical fitted parameters. It is shown by comparison with these fits that both the Rayleigh distribution and the fit of Nerzic and Prevosto severely under-predict the probability of occurrence of extreme waves. For the most extreme freak wave in our data, the Rayleigh distribution over-predicts the return period by about 300 times when compared to the fitted model. (author)

  8. Measurements of the S-wave fraction in B-0 -> K+ pi(-) mu(+) mu(-) decays and the B-0 -> K*(892)(0) mu(+) mu(-) differential branching fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Dufour, L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    2016-01-01

    A measurement of the differential branching fraction of the decay B-0 -> K* (892)(0) mu(+)mu(-) is presented together with a determination of the S-wave fraction of the K+ pi(-) system in the decay B-0 -> K+ pi-mu(+)mu(-). The analysis is based on pp-collision data corresponding to an integrated

  9. Effect of Salicylic and Picolinic Acids on the Adsorption of U(VI) onto Oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Kyun; Jung, Euo Chang; Cho, Hye Ryun; Song, Kyu Seok

    2009-01-01

    The effect of organic acids on the adsorption of U(VI) onto oxide surfaces (TiO 2 (anatase), SiO 2 (amorphous) and Al 2 O-3(amorphous)) has been investigated. Two different organic acids, salicylic and picolinic acids, were used. Changes of adsorption ratio of U(VI), which depend on the existence of organic acids in a sample, were measured as a function of pH. Quantities of adsorbed organic acids, which depend on the existence of U(VI) in a sample, were also measured as a function of pH. It is confirmed that the soluble complex formation of U(VI) with organic acids can deteriorate the adsorption of U(VI) onto TiO 2 surface. It is noteworthy that salicylic acid does not affect the adsorption of U(VI) onto SiO 2 surface, however, picolinic acid enhances the adsorption of U(VI) onto SiO 2 surface. The latter effect can be understood by considering the formation of a ternary surface complex on SiO 2 surface, which was confirmed by the co-adsorption of picolinic acid with U(VI) and the change in a fluorescence spectra of U(VI) on surface, In the case of Al 2 O-3, organic acids themselves were largely adsorbed onto a surface without deteriorating the adsorption of U(VI). This would support the possibility of a ternary surface complex formation on the Al 2 O-3 surface, and an additional spectroscopic study is required.

  10. Measurements of electromagnetic waves in Phaedrus-B: Bench-mark test of ANTENA wave field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrator, T.; Meassick, S.; Browning, J.; Majeski, R.; Ferron, J.R.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the predictions of a numerical code (ANTENA) and the data of wave field measurements in the Phaedrus-B tandem mirror are consistent (±25%) for right-handed (B-vector - ) wave fields and less so (±40%) for left-handed (B-vector + ) wave fields in the plasma core, and that they disagree for B-vector + fields near the column edge. Shorting out or reduction of the wave azimuthal electric fields by limiters is the probable cause of this discrepancy. The ICRF fluctuating wave B-vector fields are shown as |B-vector| contour maps in the r-z plane, where the B-vector + data peak at a smaller radius than predicted. The waves are characterized by different dominant axial wave numbers for the left- and right-handed circularly polarized fields. (author). 28 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab

  11. Apparent splitting of S waves propagating through an isotropic lowermost mantle

    KAUST Repository

    Parisi, Laura

    2018-03-24

    Observations of shear‐wave anisotropy are key for understanding the mineralogical structure and flow in the mantle. Several researchers have reported the presence of seismic anisotropy in the lowermost 150–250 km of the mantle (i.e., D” layer), based on differences in the arrival times of vertically (SV) and horizontally (SH) polarized shear waves. By computing waveforms at period > 6 s for a wide range of 1‐D and 3‐D Earth structures we illustrate that a time shift (i.e., apparent splitting) between SV and SH may appear in purely isotropic simulations. This may be misinterpreted as shear wave anisotropy. For near‐surface earthquakes, apparent shear wave splitting can result from the interference of S with the surface reflection sS. For deep earthquakes, apparent splitting can be due to the S‐wave triplication in D”, reflections off discontinuities in the upper mantle and 3‐D heterogeneity. The wave effects due to anomalous isotropic structure may not be easily distinguished from purely anisotropic effects if the analysis does not involve full waveform simulations.

  12. Apparent splitting of S waves propagating through an isotropic lowermost mantle

    KAUST Repository

    Parisi, Laura; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Ritsema, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    Observations of shear‐wave anisotropy are key for understanding the mineralogical structure and flow in the mantle. Several researchers have reported the presence of seismic anisotropy in the lowermost 150–250 km of the mantle (i.e., D” layer), based on differences in the arrival times of vertically (SV) and horizontally (SH) polarized shear waves. By computing waveforms at period > 6 s for a wide range of 1‐D and 3‐D Earth structures we illustrate that a time shift (i.e., apparent splitting) between SV and SH may appear in purely isotropic simulations. This may be misinterpreted as shear wave anisotropy. For near‐surface earthquakes, apparent shear wave splitting can result from the interference of S with the surface reflection sS. For deep earthquakes, apparent splitting can be due to the S‐wave triplication in D”, reflections off discontinuities in the upper mantle and 3‐D heterogeneity. The wave effects due to anomalous isotropic structure may not be easily distinguished from purely anisotropic effects if the analysis does not involve full waveform simulations.

  13. Measurements of Overtopping Flow Time Series on the Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2009-01-01

    A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow the character......A study of overtopping flow series on the Wave Dragon prototype, a low crested device designed to maximise flow, in a real sea, is presented. This study aims to fill the gap in the literature on time series of flow overtopping low crested structures. By comparing to a simulated flow...... the characteristics of the overtopping flow are discussed and the simulation algorithm is tested. Measured data is shown from a storm build up in October 2006, from theWave Dragon prototype situated in an inland sea in Northern Denmark. This wave energy converter extracts energy from the waves, by funnelling them...

  14. Tüür, Erkki-Sven: Architectonics VI. Passion. Illusion / Guy S. Rickards

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rickards, Guy S.

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tüür, Erkki-Sven: Architectonics VI. Passion. Illusion. Crystallisatio. Requiem. Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Tallinn Chamber Orchestra, Tõnu Kaljuste. ECM New Series 449 459-2 (64 minutes: DDD)

  15. Anomalous Fluctuations of s-Wave Reduced Neutron Widths of 192,194Pt Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P. E.; Harvey, J. A.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Guber, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    We obtained an unprecedentedly large number of s-wave neutron widths through R-matrix analysis of neutron cross-section measurements on enriched Pt samples. Careful analysis of these data rejects the validity of the Porter-Thomas distribution with a statistical significance of at least 99.997%.

  16. Administratīvi teritoriālās reformas ietekme uz bāriņtiesu darbības efektivitāti socioloģiskās sistēmteorijas diskursā

    OpenAIRE

    Elksne, Dace

    2011-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēmu „Administratīvi teritoriālās reformas ietekme uz bāriņtiesu darbības efektivitāti socioloģiskās sistēmteorijas diskursā” autore ir izvēlējusies, jo administratīvi teritoriālā reforma, kas noslēdzās 2009.gadā, ir ieviesusi būtiskas korekcijas pašvaldību teritoriju kontūrās Latvijas kartē, vienlaikus atstājot lielu ietekmi arī uz pašvaldību sniegto pakalpojumu kvalitāti un pieejamību. Viena no valsts nozīmīgākajām funkcijām – aizsargāt nepilngadīgo un citu rīcībnespējīgo tie...

  17. Fluorescent silver nanoclusters for ultrasensitive determination of chromium(VI) in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jian Rong; Zeng, Ai Lian; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fluorescent Ag nanoclusters were first applied to Cr(VI) detection. • The proposed method is simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly. • The sensor shows a wide linear range, low detection limit, and good selectivity. • The system can also be used for the indirect assay of total chromium and Cr(III). • The analyses in real water samples are satisfactory. - Abstract: In this work, a simple and sensitive Cr(VI) sensor is proposed based on fluorescent polyethyleneimine-stabilized Ag nanoclusters, which allows the determination over a wide concentration range of 0.1 nM–3.0 μM and with a detection limit as low as 0.04 nΜ and a good selectivity. The quenching mechanism was discussed in terms of the absorption and fluorescence spectra, suggesting that Cr(VI) is connected to Ag nanoclusters by hydrogen bond between the oxygen atom at the vertex of tetrahedron structure of Cr(VI) and the amino nitrogen of polyethyleneimine that surrounded Ag nanoclusters and electron transfer from Ag nanoclusters to highly electron-deficient Cr(VI) results in fluorescence quenching. Despite the failure to quench the fluorescence efficiently, Cr(III) can also be measured using the proposed Ag nanoclusters by being oxidized to Cr(VI) in alkaline solution (pH ∼9) containing H 2 O 2 . Therefore, our approach could be used to detect Cr(VI), Cr(III) and the total chromium level in aqueous solution. In addition, Cr(VI) analysis in real water samples were satisfactory, indicating this method could be practically promising for chromium measurements.

  18. Summary of the planning, management, and evaluation process for the Geothermal Program Review VI conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an overview of the planning, facilitation, and evaluation process used to conduct the Geothermal Program Review VI (PR VI) conference. This document was also prepared to highlight lessons learned from PR VI and, by utilizing the evaluation summaries and recommendations, be used as a planning tool for PR VII. The conference, entitled Beyond Goals and Objectives,'' was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Division (GTD), PR VI was held in San Francisco, California on April 19--21, 1988 and was attended by 127 participants. PR VI was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's (NGA) Industry Round Table. This document presents a brief summary of the activities, responsibilities, and resources for implementing the PR VI meeting and provides recommendations, checklists, and a proposed schedule for assisting in planning PR VII.

  19. An inexpensive instrument for measuring wave exposure and water velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figurski, J.D.; Malone, D.; Lacy, J.R.; Denny, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ocean waves drive a wide variety of nearshore physical processes, structuring entire ecosystems through their direct and indirect effects on the settlement, behavior, and survivorship of marine organisms. However, wave exposure remains difficult and expensive to measure. Here, we report on an inexpensive and easily constructed instrument for measuring wave-induced water velocities. The underwater relative swell kinetics instrument (URSKI) is a subsurface float tethered by a short (<1 m) line to the seafloor. Contained within the float is an accelerometer that records the tilt of the float in response to passing waves. During two field trials totaling 358 h, we confirmed the accuracy and precision of URSKI measurements through comparison to velocities measured by an in situ acoustic Doppler velocimeter and those predicted by a standard swell model, and we evaluated how the dimensions of the devices, its buoyancy, and sampling frequency can be modified for use in a variety of environments.

  20. Wave kinematics and response of slender offshore structures. Vol 4: Wave kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riber, H.J.

    1999-08-01

    The kinematics of large surface waves has been measured by means of sonar's placed on the sea floor at the Tyra field. Measurements from the most severe storm are analysed and extreme wave velocity profiles are compared to Stoke wave velocity profiles. Statistical distributions of crest velocity and wave celerity are presented. The analysis shows how the deviation from the Stokes prediction varies with wave heights and steepness. Analyses of the directional wave field leads to the conclusion that the extreme waves are three-dimensional. It is shown that the peculiar kinematics of extreme waves is of great relevance to the design of jacket type structures. (au)

  1. Treatment of selected pharmaceuticals by ferrate(VI): performance, kinetic studies and identification of oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengwei; Jiang, Jia-Qian

    2015-03-15

    The performance of ferrate(VI) in treating sulfamethoxazole (SMX), diclofenac (DCF), carbamazepine (CBZ) and bezafibrate (BZF) in test solutions containing the four compounds was investigated. A series of jar-test experiments was performed on a bench-scale at pH 6-9 and at a ferrate(VI) dose of 1-5 mg Fe/L. The results suggested that ferrate(VI) can effectively remove SMX, DCF and CBZ from the test solutions, with greater than 80% removal under optimum conditions. However, the removal efficiency of BZF was very low, less than 25% under the studied conditions. Increasing the dose of ferrate(VI) improved the treatment performance, while the influence of solution pH on ferrate(VI) performance varied among the different target compounds. Ferrate(VI) demonstrated the highest reactivity with SMX at pH 8 and pH 9 (20 °C), with apparent second-order rate constants of 360±17 M(-1) s(-1) and 1.26±0.02 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. However, BZF showed the lowest removal by ferrate(VI) with the smallest rate constants (less than 0.5 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH 8 and pH 9. Furthermore, a number of oxidation products (OPs) of SMX, DCF and CBZ during ferrate(VI) oxidation were detected by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and their degradation pathways were tentatively proposed. No OPs of BZF were detected during ferrate(VI) oxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetism in the p-type Monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrS and SrSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Heng-Fu; Lau, Woon-Ming; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we study the electronic and magnetic properties of the p-type monolayer II-VI semiconductors SrX (X = S,Se). The pristine SrS and SrSe monolayers are large band gap semiconductor with a very flat band in the top valence band. Upon injecting hole uniformly, ferromagnetism emerges in those system in a large range of hole density. By varying hole density, the systems also show complicated phases transition among nonmagnetic semiconductor, half metal, magnetic semiconductor, and nonmagnetic metal. Furthermore, after introducing p-type dopants in SrS and SrSe via substitutionary inserting P (or As) dopants at the S (or Se) sites, local magnetic moments are formed around the substitutional sites. The local magnetic moments are stable with the ferromagnetic order with appreciable Curie temperature. The ferromagnetism originates from the instability of the electronic states in SrS and SrSe with the large density of states at the valence band edge, which demonstrates a useful strategy for realizing the ferromagnetism in the two dimensional semiconductors. PMID:28378761

  3. THE SURPRISINGLY CONSTANT STRENGTH OF O VI ABSORBERS OVER COSMIC TIME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    O VI absorption is observed in a wide range of astrophysical environments, including the local interstellar medium, the disk and halo of the Milky Way, high-velocity clouds, the Magellanic Clouds, starburst galaxies, the intergalactic medium (IGM), damped Lyα systems, and gamma-ray-burst host galaxies. Here, a new compilation of 775 O VI absorbers drawn from the literature is presented, all observed at high resolution (instrumental FWHM ≤ 20 km s -1 ) and covering the redshift range z = 0-3. In galactic environments [log N(H I) ∼> 20], the mean O VI column density is shown to be insensitive to metallicity, taking a value log N(O VI) ∼ 14.5 for galaxies covering the range -1.6 ∼ 4 K) clouds and hot (∼10 6 K) plasma, although many such layers would have to be intersected by a typical galaxy-halo sight line to build up the characteristic galactic N(O VI). The alternative, widely used model of single-phase photoionization for intergalactic O VI is ruled out by kinematic evidence in the majority of IGM O VI components at low and high redshift.

  4. Viète's Formula and an Error Bound without Taylor's Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This note presents a derivation of Viète's classic product approximation of pi that relies on only the Pythagorean Theorem. We also give a simple error bound for the approximation that, while not optimal, still reveals the exponential convergence of the approximation and whose derivation does not require Taylor's Theorem.

  5. Subwavelength position measurements with running-wave driving fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evers, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Qamar, Sajid [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-08-15

    Subwavelength position measurement of quantum particles is discussed. Our setup is based on a closed-loop driving-field configuration, which enforces a sensitivity of the particle dynamics to the phases of the applied fields. Thus, running wave fields are sufficient, avoiding limitations associated with standing-wave-based localization schemes. Reversing the directions of the driving laser fields switches between different magnification levels for the position determination. This allows us to optimize the localization, and at the same time eliminates the need for additional classical measurements common to all previous localization schemes based on spatial periodicity.

  6. Uranium(VI) speciation by spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrath, G.

    1997-01-01

    The application of UV-Vis and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLF) spectroscopies to direct of uranium(VI) in environmental samples offers various prospects that have, however, serious limitations. While UV-Vis spectroscopy is probably not sensitive enough to detect uranium(VI) species in the majority of environmental samples, TRLFS is principially able to speciate uranium(VI) at very low concentration levels in the nanomol range. Speciation by TRLFS can be based on three parameters: excitation spectrum, emission spectrum and lifetime of the fluorescence emission process. Due to quenching effects, the lifetime may not be expected to be as characteristics as, e.g., the emission spectrum. Quenching of U(VI) fluorescence by reaction with organic substances, inorganic ions and formation of carbonate radicals is one important limiting factor in the application of U(VI) fluorescence spectroscopy. Fundamental photophysical criteria are illustrated using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra of U(VI) hydrolysis and carbonato species as examples. (author)

  7. Monolayer II-VI semiconductors: A first-principles prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Chen, Nian-Ke; Zhang, S. B.; Li, Xian-Bin

    A systematic study of 32 honeycomb monolayer II-VI semiconductors is carried out by first-principles methods. It appears that BeO, MgO, CaO, ZnO, CdO, CaS, SrS, SrSe, BaTe, and HgTe honeycomb monolayers have a good dynamic stability which is revealed by phonon calculations. In addition, from the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of other unstable candidates, we also find two extra monolayers dynamically stable, which are tetragonal BaS and orthorhombic HgS. The honeycomb monolayers exist in form of either a planar perfect honeycomb or a low-buckled 2D layer, all of which possess a band gap and most of them are in the ultraviolet region. Interestingly, the dynamically stable SrSe has a gap near visible light, and displays exotic electronic properties with a flat top of the valence band, and hence has a strong spin polarization upon hole doping. The honeycomb HgTe has been reported to achieve a topological nontrivial phase under appropriate in-plane tensile strain and spin-orbital coupling (SOC). Some II-VI partners with less than 5% lattice mismatch may be used to design novel 2D heterojunction devices. If synthesized, potential applications of these 2D II-VI families could include optoelectronics, spintronics, and strong correlated electronics. Distinguished Student (DS) Program of APS FIP travel funds.

  8. Intervening O vi Quasar Absorption Systems at Low Redshift: A Significant Baryon Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp; Savage; Jenkins

    2000-05-01

    Far-UV echelle spectroscopy of the radio-quiet QSO H1821+643 (zem=0.297), obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) at approximately 7 km s-1 resolution, reveals four definite O vi absorption-line systems and one probable O vi absorber at 0.15quasar in redshift; these are likely intervening systems unrelated to the background QSO. In the case of the strong O vi system at zabs=0.22497, multiple components are detected in Si iii and O vi as well as H i Lyman series lines, and the differing component velocity centroids and b-values firmly establish that this is a multiphase absorption system. A weak O vi absorber is detected at zabs=0.22637, i.e., offset by approximately 340 km s-1 from the zabs=0.22497 system. Lyalpha absorption is detected at zabs=0.22613, but no Lyalpha absorption is significantly detected at 0.22637. Other weak O vi absorbers at zabs=0.24531 and 0.26659 and the probable O vi system at 0.21326 have widely diverse O vi/H i column density ratios with N(O vi)/N(H i) ranging from vi absorbers with rest equivalent width greater than 30 mÅ in the H1821+643 spectrum is remarkably high, dN&solm0;dz approximately 48, which implies with a high (90%) confidence that it is greater than 17 in the low-redshift intergalactic medium. We conservatively estimate that the cosmological mass density of the O vi systems is Omegab(Ovi&parr0; greater, similar0.0008 h-175. With an assumed metallicity of 1/10 solar and a conservative assumption that the fraction of oxygen in the O vi ionization stage is 0.2, we obtain Omegab(Ovi&parr0; greater, similar0.004 h-175. This is comparable to the combined cosmological mass density of stars and cool gas in galaxies and X-ray-emitting gas in galaxy clusters at low redshift.

  9. Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen

  10. A new optical sensor for spectrophotometric determination of uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) in acidic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhefnawy, O.A. [Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Safeguards and Physical Protection Dept.

    2017-07-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed for U(VI) and Th(IV) determination in acidic medium by using proposed optical sensor. This sensor is base on the complexation reaction of the ionophore midodrine hydrochloride (L) with U(VI)/Th(IV) in plasticized (o-NPOE) high molecular weight (PVC). Several parameters such as effect of acidic medium, response time and sensor compositions were studied. The determination of the complexes stoichiometry was also studied using Job's method. The complexes stoichiometry were measured at the absorbance spectra 302 nm and the results were found to be 1:1 for both complexes U(VI)-L and Th(IV)-L. The complexation reaction was extremely rapid at room temperature; it takes 5, 10 min to complete the complexation reaction in U(VI) and Th(IV), respectively. Under the optimum conditions the calibration curves of U(VI)/Th(IV) determination, have good linearity at different acidic medium nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids with low detection and quantification limits. The accuracy and precision studies proved that the proposed optical sensor is valid and qualified for U(VI)/Th(IV) spectrophotometric determination in different acidic medium. The selectivity of the proposed optical sensor was studied. The proposed optical sensor was applied successfully for U(VI)/Th(IV) determination in research and development (R and D) nuclear waste samples with satisfactory results. A comparative study of the proposed optical sensor with other previous spectrophotometric sensors for U(VI)/Th(IV) determination, proved the high efficiency of the proposed optical sensor, that it presents wide linear range and low detection limit. The proposed optical sensor could be applied for a quantitative determination of U(VI)/Th(IV) in acidic waste samples.

  11. A new optical sensor for spectrophotometric determination of uranium (VI) and thorium (IV) in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhefnawy, O.A.

    2017-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed for U(VI) and Th(IV) determination in acidic medium by using proposed optical sensor. This sensor is base on the complexation reaction of the ionophore midodrine hydrochloride (L) with U(VI)/Th(IV) in plasticized (o-NPOE) high molecular weight (PVC). Several parameters such as effect of acidic medium, response time and sensor compositions were studied. The determination of the complexes stoichiometry was also studied using Job's method. The complexes stoichiometry were measured at the absorbance spectra 302 nm and the results were found to be 1:1 for both complexes U(VI)-L and Th(IV)-L. The complexation reaction was extremely rapid at room temperature; it takes 5, 10 min to complete the complexation reaction in U(VI) and Th(IV), respectively. Under the optimum conditions the calibration curves of U(VI)/Th(IV) determination, have good linearity at different acidic medium nitric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acids with low detection and quantification limits. The accuracy and precision studies proved that the proposed optical sensor is valid and qualified for U(VI)/Th(IV) spectrophotometric determination in different acidic medium. The selectivity of the proposed optical sensor was studied. The proposed optical sensor was applied successfully for U(VI)/Th(IV) determination in research and development (R and D) nuclear waste samples with satisfactory results. A comparative study of the proposed optical sensor with other previous spectrophotometric sensors for U(VI)/Th(IV) determination, proved the high efficiency of the proposed optical sensor, that it presents wide linear range and low detection limit. The proposed optical sensor could be applied for a quantitative determination of U(VI)/Th(IV) in acidic waste samples.

  12. Chromium resistance characteristics of Cr(VI) resistance genes ChrA and ChrB in Serratia sp. S2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Dong, Lanlan; Zhou, Simin; Jia, Yan; Gu, Ruijia; Bai, Qunhua; Gao, Jieying; Li, Yingli; Xiao, Hong

    2018-08-15

    To find an efficient chromium (VI) resistance system, with a highly efficient, economical, safe, and environmentally friendly chromium-removing strain, ChrA, ChrB, and ChrAB fragments of the chromium (VI) resistance gene in Serratia sp. S2 were cloned, and their prokaryotic expression vectors were constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21. The anti-chromium (VI) capacity and characteristics of engineered bacteria, role of ChrA and ChrB genes in the anti-chromium (VI) processes, and the mechanism of chromium metabolism, were explored. The PCR technique was used to amplify ChrA, ChrB, and ChrAB genes from the Serratia sp. S2 genome. ChrA, ChrB, and ChrAB genes were connected to the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a and transferred into E. coli BL21 for prokaryotic expression. Cr-absorption and Cr-efflux ability of the engineered strains were determined. The effects of respiratory inhibitors and oxygenated anions on Cr-efflux of ChrA and ChrB engineered strains were explored. ChrA, ChrB, and ChrAB engineered strains were constructed successfully; there was no significant difference between the control strain and the ChrB engineered strain for Cr-metabolism (P > 0.05). Cr-absorption and Cr-efflux of ChrA and ChrAB engineered strains were significantly stronger than the control strain (P < 0.05). Oxyanions (sulfate and molybdate) and inhibitors (valinomycin and CN - ) could significantly inhibit the Cr-efflux capacities of ChrA and ChrAB engineered strains (P < 0.05), while NADPH could significantly promote such capacities (P < 0.05). The Cr-transporter, encoded by ChrA gene, confer the ability to pump out intracellular Cr on ChrA and ChrAB engineered strains. The ChrB gene plays a positive regulatory role in ChrA gene regulation. The Cr-metabolism ability of the ChrAB engineered strain is stronger than the ChrA engineered strain. ChrA and ChrAB genes in the Cr-resistance system may involve a variety of mechanisms, such as sulfate ion channel and

  13. Convergence of repeated quantum nondemolition measurements and wave-function collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on quantum trapped fields, we give a rigorous proof that repeated indirect quantum nondemolition (QND) measurements converge to the collapse of the wave function as predicted by the postulates of quantum mechanics for direct measurements. We also relate the rate of convergence toward the collapsed wave function to the relative entropy of each indirect measurement, a result which makes contact with information theory.

  14. Wave-particle interaction in the Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M

    2015-10-01

    Wave motion in disordered Faraday waves is analysed in terms of oscillons or quasi-particles. The motion of these oscillons is measured using particle tracking tools and it is compared with the motion of fluid particles on the water surface. Both the real floating particles and the oscillons, representing the collective fluid motion, show Brownian-type dispersion exhibiting ballistic and diffusive mean squared displacement at short and long times, respectively. While the floating particles motion has been previously explained in the context of two-dimensional turbulence driven by Faraday waves, no theoretical description exists for the random walk type motion of oscillons. It is found that the r.m.s velocity ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) of oscillons is directly related to the turbulent r.m.s. velocity ⟨μ̃⟩(rms) of the fluid particles in a broad range of vertical accelerations. The measured ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) accurately explains the broadening of the frequency spectra of the surface elevation observed in disordered Faraday waves. These results suggest that 2D turbulence is the driving force behind both the randomization of the oscillons motion and the resulting broadening of the wave frequency spectra. The coupling between wave motion and hydrodynamic turbulence demonstrated here offers new perspectives for predicting complex fluid transport from the knowledge of wave field spectra and vice versa.

  15. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  16. Superficial Ultrasound Shear Wave Speed Measurements in Soft and Hard Elasticity Phantoms: Repeatability and Reproducibility Using Two Different Ultrasound Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Jonathan R.; Chen, Shigao; Davenport, Matthew S.; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W.; Song, Pengfei; Watcharotone, Kuanwong; Carson, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data available regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements at imaging depths relevant to the pediatric population. Purpose To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of superficial shear wave speed (SWS) measurements acquired from elasticity phantoms at varying imaging depths using three different imaging methods, two different ultrasound systems, and multiple operators. Methods and Materials Soft and hard elasticity phantoms manufactured by Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Inc. (Norfolk, VA) were utilized for our investigation. Institution #1 used an Acuson S3000 ultrasound system (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.) and three different shear wave imaging method/transducer combinations, while institution #2 used an Aixplorer ultrasound system (Supersonic Imagine) and two different transducers. Ten stiffness measurements were acquired from each phantom at three depths (1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 cm) by four operators at each institution. Student’s t-test was used to compare SWS measurements between imaging techniques, while SWS measurement agreement was assessed with two-way random effects single measure intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of variation. Mixed model regression analysis determined the effect of predictor variables on SWS measurements. Results For the soft phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 0.84 ± 0.04 m/s (mean ± standard deviation) for the Acuson S3000 system and 0.90 ± 0.02 m/s for the Aixplorer system (p=0.003). For the hard phantom, the average of mean SWS measurements across the various imaging methods and depths was 2.14 ± 0.08 m/s for the Acuson S3000 system and 2.07 ± 0.03 m/s Aixplorer system (p>0.05). The coefficients of variation were low (0.5–6.8%), and inter-operator agreement was near-perfect (ICCs ≥0.99). Shear wave imaging method and imaging depth

  17. [De-noising and measurement of pulse wave velocity of the wavelet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohua; Zhu, Honglian; Ren, Xiaohua

    2011-02-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a vital index of the cardiovascular pathology, so that the accurate measurement of PWV can be of benefit for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The noise in the measure system of pulse wave signal, rounding error and selection of the recording site all cause errors in the measure result. In this paper, with wavelet transformation to eliminate the noise and to raise the precision, and with the choice of the point whose slope was maximum as the recording site of the reconstructing pulse wave, the measuring system accuracy was improved.

  18. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berins, J.; Berins, J.; Kalnacs, A.

    2017-08-01

    The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  19. Bulk solubility and speciation of plutonium(VI) in phosphate-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weger, H.T.; Okajima, S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Reed, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    The solubility and speciation of Pu(VI) with phosphate as a function of pH was investigated to determine the ability of phosphate to act as an actinide getter. The general properties were first investigated and are reported here with the goal of performing more quantitative experiments in the future. Solubility was approached from oversaturation at initial pH = 4, 10 and 13.4. Absorption spectra were recorded, the solution filtered and the filtrate counted. Absorption spectra were obtained at varying phosphate concentrations and at pH of 2.7 to 11.9. The effect of complexation on the 833 mn Pu(VI) band was characterized. Evidence for three phosphate complexes was obtained for pH -5 to 10 -6 M Pu(VI) was measured in the filtrate at pH ≤ 10 that were passed through a 50 mn filter. Pu(VI) complexes with phosphate over hydroxide at pH ≤ 11.6, but at pH ≥ 11.9, only hydrolyzed Pu(VI) was detected. At pH = 12, the concentration of Pu(VI) was as high as 10 -4 M

  20. Raman spectrometric determination of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) in nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantner, E.; Freudenberger, M.; Steinert, D.; Ache, H.J.

    1987-03-01

    The determination of Pu(VI) in nitric acid solutions by spontaneous Laser Raman Spectrometry (LRS) was investigated and a calibration curve was established using U(VI) as internal standard. In addition, the concentrations of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) as a function of time were measured by this method in Pu(VI) solutions of different acidity containing H 2 O 2 as the reducing agent. In solutions which are intensely coloured by the presence of Ru(NO) complexes Pu(VI) can also be determined by LRS using a Kr + laser as excitation source. In future experiments, the study of the Pu(IV)-interaction with Ru using LRS and spectrophotometry as analytical techniques is therefore intended. (orig.) [de

  1. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Ana M. Rosa da [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica do Algarve, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, DQF, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Matos, Antonio Pedro [Servico de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Curry Cabral, Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  2. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Monica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Costa, Ana M. Rosa da; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio; Matos, Antonio Pedro; Costa, Maria Clara

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  3. Measurements of the vertical correlation in turbulence under broken waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Deigaard, Rolf; Sutherland, James

    1998-01-01

    Turbulence measurements have been carried out in the surf zone of a wave flume. The purpose of the measurements is to determine the length scale of the turbulence generated by the wave breaking. The length scale of the turbulence is estimated on basis of the correlation between simultaneous measu...... measurements of the vertical turbulent fluctuations, taken at different levels above the bed, (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Semileptonic decays of B_c meson to S-wave charmonium states in the perturbative QCD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui, Zhou; Li, Hong; Wang, Guang-xin; Xiao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the recent measurement of the ratio of B_c branching fractions to J/ψπ"+ and J/ψμ"+ν_μ final states at the LHCb detector, we study the semileptonic decays of B_c meson to the S-wave ground and radially excited 2S and 3S charmonium states with the perturbative QCD approach. After evaluating the form factors for the transitions B_c → P,V, where P and V denote pseudoscalar and vector S-wave charmonia, respectively, we calculate the branching ratios for all these semileptonic decays. The theoretical uncertainty of hadronic input parameters are reduced by utilizing the light-cone wave function for the B_c meson. It is found that the predicted branching ratios range from 10"-"7 up to 10"-"2 and could be measured by the future LHCb experiment. Our prediction for the ratio of branching fractions (BR(B_c"+→J/Ψπ"+))/(BR(B_c"+→J/Ψμ"+ν_μ)) is in good agreement with the data. For B_c → Vlν_l decays, the relative contributions of the longitudinal and transverse polarization are discussed in different momentum transfer squared regions. These predictions will be tested on the ongoing and forthcoming experiments. (orig.)

  5. Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddinika, M. K.; Ito, D.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.

    2009-02-01

    Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.

  6. Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddinika, M K; Ito, D; Takahashi, H; Kikura, H; Aritomi, M

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.

  7. Osmium(VI) complexes as a new class of potential anti-cancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wen-Xiu; Man, Wai-Lun; Cheung, Myra Ting-Wai; Sun, Raymond Wai-Yin; Shu, Yuan-Lan; Lam, Yun-Wah; Che, Chi-Ming; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2011-02-21

    A nitridoosmium(VI) complex [Os(VI)(N)(sap)(OH(2))Cl] (H(2)sap = N-salicylidene-2-aminophenol) displays prominent in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer properties, induces S- and G2/M-phase arrest and forms a stable adduct with dianionic 5'-guanosine monophosphate.

  8. Removal of Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions using peanut shell as adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyas, M.; Ahmad, A.; Saeed, M.

    2013-01-01

    The biosorption of Cr (VI) ions from aqueous solution by peanut shell (PNS) biosorbent was studied in a batch mode system. Factors affecting Cr (VI) biosorption such as pH (2-7), initial chromium ion concentrations (20-60 mg/l), contact time (6 h), adsorbent dosage (0.2-1.0 g) and temperature (293-313 K) were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 360 minutes. A comparison of the kinetic models has showed that pseudo-second order equation best described adsorption kinetics. Maximum adsorption was achieved at pH 2.0 and 3.0. The adsorption equilibrium data was fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm as compared to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The values of separation factor, R/sub L/ was found between 0.0235 and 0.0633 (0 < R/sub L/ < 1) which pointed out favorable adsorption of Cr (VI) on PNS adsorbent. The adsorption capacity was measured in terms of monolayer adsorption and was found to be 4.32 mg/g at 313 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) values indicated the endothermic, non spontaneous and entropy driven system of the adsorption process. (author)

  9. GPU-based Green’s function simulations of shear waves generated by an applied acoustic radiation force in elastic and viscoelastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun; Urban, Matthew W.; McGough, Robert J.

    2018-05-01

    Shear wave calculations induced by an acoustic radiation force are very time-consuming on desktop computers, and high-performance graphics processing units (GPUs) achieve dramatic reductions in the computation time for these simulations. The acoustic radiation force is calculated using the fast near field method and the angular spectrum approach, and then the shear waves are calculated in parallel with Green’s functions on a GPU. This combination enables rapid evaluation of shear waves for push beams with different spatial samplings and for apertures with different f/#. Relative to shear wave simulations that evaluate the same algorithm on an Intel i7 desktop computer, a high performance nVidia GPU reduces the time required for these calculations by a factor of 45 and 700 when applied to elastic and viscoelastic shear wave simulation models, respectively. These GPU-accelerated simulations also compared to measurements in different viscoelastic phantoms, and the results are similar. For parametric evaluations and for comparisons with measured shear wave data, shear wave simulations with the Green’s function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs.

  10. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSORPTION, EMISSIVITY REDUCTION, AND LOCAL SUPPRESSION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.-Y.; Liang, Z.-C.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-01-01

    The power of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions is lower relative to the quiet Sun. Absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of acoustic waves contribute to the observed power reduction in magnetic regions. We propose a model for the energy budget of acoustic waves propagating through a sunspot in terms of the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of the sunspot. Using the property that the waves emitted along the wave path between two points have no correlation with the signal at the starting point, we can separate the effects of these three mechanisms. Applying this method to helioseismic data filtered with direction and phase-velocity filters, we measure the fraction of the contribution of each mechanism to the power deficit in the umbra of the leading sunspot of NOAA 9057. The contribution from absorption is 23.3 ± 1.3%, emissivity reduction 8.2 ± 1.4%, and local suppression 68.5 ± 1.5%, for a wave packet corresponding to a phase velocity of 6.98 x 10 -5 rad s -1 .

  11. Studies of Gravity Waves Using Michelson Interferometer Measurements of OH (3-1) Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Young-In; Cho, Young-Min; Lee, Bang Yong; Kim, J.

    2001-06-01

    As part of a long-term program for polar upper atmospheric studies, temperatures and intensities of the OH (3-1) bands were derived from spectrometric observations of airglow emissions over King Sejong station (62.22o S, 301.25o E). These measurements were made with a Michelson interferometer to cover wavelength regions between 1000 nm and 2000 nm. A spectral analysis was performed to individual nights of data to acquire information on the waves in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. It is assumed that the measured fluctuations in the intensity and temperature of the OH (3-1) airglow were caused by gravity waves propagating through the emission layer. Correlation of intensity and temperature variation revealed oscillations with periods ranging from 2 to 9 hours. We also calculated Krassovsky's parameter and compared with published values.

  12. THE ATM-SMC1 PATHWAY IS ESSENTIAL FOR ACTIVATION OF THE CHROMIUM[VI]-INDUCED S-PHASE CHECKPOINT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI] is a common industrial waste product, an environmental pollutant, and a recognized human carcinogen. Following cellular uptake, Cr[VI] can cause DNA damage, however, the mechanisims by which mammalian cells respond to Cr-induced DNA damage remain to b...

  13. Investigation of Seepage Meter Measurements in Steady Flow and Wave Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russoniello, Christopher J; Michael, Holly A

    2015-01-01

    Water exchange between surface water and groundwater can modulate or generate ecologically important fluxes of solutes across the sediment-water interface. Seepage meters can directly measure fluid flux, but mechanical resistance and surface water dynamics may lead to inaccurate measurements. Tank experiments were conducted to determine effects of mechanical resistance on measurement efficiency and occurrence of directional asymmetry that could lead to erroneous net flux measurements. Seepage meter efficiency was high (average of 93%) and consistent for inflow and outflow under steady flow conditions. Wave effects on seepage meter measurements were investigated in a wave flume. Seepage meter net flux measurements averaged 0.08 cm/h-greater than the expected net-zero flux, but significantly less than theoretical wave-driven unidirectional discharge or recharge. Calculations of unidirectional flux from pressure measurements (Darcy flux) and theory matched well for a ratio of wave length to water depth less than 5, but not when this ratio was greater. Both were higher than seepage meter measurements of unidirectional flux made with one-way valves. Discharge averaged 23% greater than recharge in both seepage meter measurements and Darcy calculations of unidirectional flux. Removal of the collection bag reduced this net discharge. The presence of a seepage meter reduced the amplitude of pressure signals at the bed and resulted in a nearly uniform pressure distribution beneath the seepage meter. These results show that seepage meters may provide accurate measurements of both discharge and recharge under steady flow conditions and illustrate the potential measurement errors associated with dynamic wave environments. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Quantifying Cr(VI) Production and Export from Serpentine Soil of the California Coast Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Cynthia N; Fendorf, Scott; Webb, Samuel M; Maher, Kate

    2017-01-03

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is generated in serpentine soils and exported to surface and groundwaters at levels above health-based drinking water standards. Although Cr(VI) concentrations are elevated in serpentine soil pore water, few studies have reported field evidence documenting Cr(VI) production rates and fluxes that govern Cr(VI) transport from soil to water sources. We report Cr speciation (i) in four serpentine soil depth profiles derived from the California Coast Range serpentinite belt and (ii) in local surface waters. Within soils, we detected Cr(VI) in the same horizons where Cr(III)-minerals are colocated with biogenic Mn(III/IV)-oxides, suggesting Cr(VI) generation through oxidation by Mn-oxides. Water-extractable Cr(VI) concentrations increase with depth constituting a 7.8 to 12 kg/km 2 reservoir of Cr(VI) in soil. Here, Cr(VI) is produced at a rate of 0.3 to 4.8 kg Cr(VI)/km 2 /yr and subsequently flushed from soil during water infiltration, exporting 0.01 to 3.9 kg Cr(VI)/km 2 /yr at concentrations ranging from 25 to 172 μg/L. Although soil-derived Cr(VI) is leached from soil at concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L, due to reduction and dilution during transport to streams, Cr(VI) levels measured in local surface waters largely remain below California's drinking water limit.

  15. Doppler Frequency Shift in Ocean Wave Measurements: Frequency Downshift of a Fixed Spectral Wave Number Component by Advection of Wave Orbital Velocity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwang, Paul

    2006-01-01

    ... at he expected intrinsic frequency in the frequency spectrum measured by a stationary probe. The advection of the wave number component by the orbital current of background waves produces a net downshift in the encounter frequency...

  16. Measurements of Wave Power in Wave Energy Converter Effectiveness Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berins J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the technical solution of alternative budget measuring equipment of the water surface gravity wave oscillation and the theoretical justification of the calculated oscillation power. This solution combines technologies such as lasers, WEB-camera image digital processing, interpolation of defined function at irregular intervals, volatility of discrete Fourier transformation for calculating the spectrum.

  17. S-wave scattering of fermion revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Anisur

    2011-01-01

    A model where a Dirac fermion is coupled to background dilaton field is considered to study s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilaton black hole. It is found that an uncomfortable situation towards information loss scenario arises when one loop correction gets involved during bosonization.

  18. Measuring neutron-star properties via gravitational waves from neutron-star mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

    2012-01-06

    We demonstrate by a large set of merger simulations for symmetric binary neutron stars (NSs) that there is a tight correlation between the frequency peak of the postmerger gravitational-wave (GW) emission and the physical properties of the nuclear equation of state (EoS), e.g., expressed by the radius of the maximum-mass Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhoff configuration. Therefore, a single measurement of the peak frequency of the postmerger GW signal will constrain the NS EoS significantly. For optimistic merger-rate estimates a corresponding detection with Advanced LIGO is expected to happen within an operation time of roughly a year.

  19. Enzymatic reduction of U(VI) in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addelouas, A.; Gong, W.; Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E.; Fritz, B.; Crovisier, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The use of enzymatic reduction of U(VI) in remediation of groundwater contaminated with U(VI) is receiving considerable attention. Certain strains of bacteria can combine the oxidation of an organic compound to the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV), which precipitates as uraninite. In the present study, we tested the reduction of U(VI) in groundwaters with various origins and compositions. In all groundwaters u(VI) was reduced by sulfate reducing bacteria that had been activated by ethanol and tri-metaphosphate. The reduction rate of U(VI) depends on sulfate concentration in water and the abundance of bacteria in the system. This work shows that bacteria capable of U(VI) reduction are ubiquitous in nature, and suggests the possibility of a large application of the enzymatic reduction of U(VI) for in situ clean up of groundwaters contaminated with uranium. (authors)

  20. Thermodynamic parameters and sorption of U(VI) on ACSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donat, R.; Cilgi, G.K.; Cetisli, H.; Aytas, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the sorption properties for U(VI) by alginate coated CaSO 4 x 2H 2 O sepiolite and calcined diatomite earth (Kieselguhr) (ACSD). The removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution by sorption onto ACSF in a single component system with various contact times, pH, temperatures, and initial concentrations of U(VI) was investigated. The sorption patterns of uranium on the composite adsorbent followed the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkhevic (D-R) isotherms. The Freundlich, Langmuir, and D-R models have been applied and the data correlated well with Freundlich model and that the sorption was physical in nature (sorption energy, E a = 17.05 kJ/mol). The thermodynamic parameters such as variation of enthalpy ΔH, variation of entropy ΔS and variation of Gibbs free energy ΔG were calculated from the slope and intercept of lnK 0 vs. 1/T plots. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH ads = 31.83 kJ/mol, ΔS ads = 167 J/mol x K, ΔGdeg ads (293.15 K) = -17.94 kJ/mol) showed the endothermic heat of sorption and the feasibility of the process. The thermodynamics of U(VI) ion/ACSD system indicates the spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. It was noted that an increase in temperature resulted in a higher uranium loading per unit weight of the adsorbent. (author)

  1. Thermodynamics of U(VI) and Eu(III) complexation by unsaturated carboxylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawat, Neetika; Bhattacharyya, A. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Tomar, B.S., E-mail: bstomar@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghanty, T.K. [Theoretical Chemistry Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-05-10

    Highlights: {yields} {Delta}H and log K determined for U(VI) and Eu(III) complexes with maleate and fumarate. {yields} log K and coordination environment of Eu(III) complexes has been studied by TRFS. {yields} Higher log K of U(VI) complexes than Eu(III) complexes is due to higher entropy. {yields} Plot of log K vs log K{sub P} suggest charge polarization in fumarate complexes. {yields} Ab initio calculations support charge polarization in fumarate complexes. - Abstract: The thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}G, {Delta}H and {Delta}S) of complexation of U(VI) and Eu(III) by unsaturated dicarboxylic acids, namely, maleic and fumaric acid, has been determined by potentiometric and microcalorimetric titrations at fixed ionic strength (I = 1.0 M) and temperature (298 K). The results show formation of 1:1 complexes by both the ligands with Eu(III). In the case of U(VI), maleate forms both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, while only 1:1 complex was formed with fumarate. The fluorescence emission spectra of Eu(III)-dicarboxylate solutions at varying ligand to metal ratio were also used to obtain their stability constants. In addition, the fluorescence lifetimes reveal higher dehydration of Eu(III)-maleate compared to Eu(III)-fumarate which corroborates the {Delta}S values. The thermodynamic quantities suggest charge polarization effects in the case of U(VI) and Eu(III) complexes of fumarate, which is further corroborated by theoretical calculations. For the same ligand, U(VI) complexes were found to be more stable which was mainly due to higher entropy term.

  2. Higher-order structure in the 3'-terminal domain VI of the 23 S ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett, R A; Christensen, A; Douthwaite, S

    1984-01-01

    An experimental approach was used to determine, and compare, the higher-order structure within domain VI of the 23 S ribosomal RNAs from Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus. This domain, which encompasses approximately 300 nucleotides at the 3' end of the RNAs, consists of two large ...

  3. Comparative EXAFS study of uranium(VI) and neptunium(V) sorption onto kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, T.; Amayri, S.; Reich, Ta.; Jermolajev, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: We investigated the surface sorption process of U(VI) and Np(V) on kaolinite by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy in the 10 μM concentration range. Batch experiments with kaolinite in CO 2 -equilibrated systems showed that the adsorption edge of U(VI) occurs at pH 5.5, i.e., near the pH PZC of kaolinite. The adsorption edge of Np(V) occurs well above the pH PZC value at pH 8.5. This may indicate that the bonds between Np(V) and the surface functional groups of kaolinite are not as strong as in the case of U(VI). U(VI) and Np(V) have in common that the amount which is adsorbed decreases when the pH is increased beyond the absorption maximum. This behavior can be attributed to the formation of U(VI) and Np(V) carbonato complexes in the aqueous solutions. The aim of this comparative EXAFS study was to investigate the reason for the different affinities of U(VI) and Np(V) for kaolinite by measuring their local environments at the clay surface. Samples were prepared from 4 g/L kaolinite, 0.1 M NaClO 4 , pH 3.0 - 10.5, presence and absence of ambient CO 2 . The U L 3 - and Np L 2 -edge EXAFS spectra of the wet paste samples were measured at room temperature in fluorescence mode at the Rossendorf Beamline (ROBL) at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured U-O and U-Al/Si distances indicate inner-sphere sorption of U(VI) on kaolinite. There was no evidence of uranium neighbors in the EXAFS spectra, suggesting that the adsorbed U(VI) complexes were predominantly monomeric. The average distance between uranium and its equatorial oxygen atoms, O eq , increased from 2.32 to 2.38 Angstrom in the presence of atmospheric CO 2 when the pH was increased from 5.0 to 8.5. In the CO 2 -free system, the U-O eq distance was independent from pH and equal to 2.32 Angstrom. The lengthening of the average U-O eq distance in the presence of carbonate (or bicarbonate) suggests the formation of ternary U(VI

  4. Reactivity enhancement of iron sulfide nanoparticles stabilized by sodium alginate: Taking Cr (VI) removal as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Xian-Bin; Zeng, Raymond J., E-mail: rzeng@ustc.edu.cn

    2017-07-05

    Highlights: • Sodium alginate can be used to stabilize FeS nanoparticles. • FeS-SA enhances Cr(VI) removal efficiency from 65% to 100% compared to naked FeS. • Reduction and adsorption respectively account for 82% and 18% of Cr removal by FeS-SA. • Analysis of reaction products reveals the co-existence of α-FeOOH, S{sub 8}, and Cr(OH){sub 3.} - Abstract: The widespread distribution of chromium(VI) in the environment leads to groundwater contamination. The use of iron sulfide (FeS) to remove Cr(VI) has therefore been proposed. However, aggregation is one of the main problems associated with the use of FeS nanoparticles prepared by traditional methods In this study, we used sodium alginate (SA) to stabilize FeS nanoparticles (FeS-SA). SA could prevent aggregation of FeS by the concurrent electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance. Homogeneously dispersed FeS-SA nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter were observed. FeS-SA showed high efficiency in Cr(VI) removal, corresponding to an enhancement of efficiency from 65% (7.50 mmol Cr(VI) per g FeS) to 100% (11.54 mmol Cr per g FeS) relative to that achieved with naked FeS. Analysis of reaction products by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the co-existence of α-FeOOH, S{sub 8}, and Cr(OH){sub 3} that apparently were introduced by Fe(II), S(−II), and Cr(VI), respectively. In-depth analysis of the removal mechanism revealed that reduction and adsorption respectively account for 82% and 18% of the Cr removal. In addition, higher pH and CaCl{sub 2} concentration resulted in lower removal efficiency. This study provides a promising application of SA in enhancing FeS reactivity for the remediation of groundwater pollution.

  5. The Measurement and Interpretation of Surface Wave Group Arrival Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, G.; Kane, D.; Morrow, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have recently developed an efficient technique for measuring the relative group arrival times of surface waves by using cross-correlation and cluster analysis of waveform envelope functions. Applying the analysis to minor arc Love and Rayleigh waves in the frequency band 7 to 35 mHz for all events over magnitude 5.5 results in a dataset of over 200,000 measurements at each frequency for long period Rayleigh waves (frequency less than 25 mHz) and about 100,000 measurements at the shorter periods. Analysis of transverse components results in about half as many Love wave measurements. Simple ray theory inversions of the relative arrival times for apparent group velocity produce maps which are accurate representations of the data (often over 90% variance reduction of the relative arrival times) and which show features strongly correlated with tectonics and crustal thickness. The apparent group velocity variations can be extremely large: 30% velocity variations for 20 mHz Rayleigh waves and 40% variations for 30 mHz Rayleigh waves and can have abrupt lateral changes. This raises the concern that non-ray theory effects could be important. Indeed, a recent analysis by Dahlen and Zhou (personal communication) suggests that the group arrival times should be a functions of both the group velocity AND the phase velocity. The simplest way to test the interpretation of the measurements is to perform the analysis on synthetic seismograms computed for a realistic model of the Earth. Here, we use the SEM with a model which incorporates realistic crust and mantle structure. We are currently computing synthetics for a suite of roughly 1000 events recorded globally that extend to a period of 18 seconds. We shall present the results of applying both ray-based and finite frequency inversions to the synthetic data as well as evaluating the effects of off path propagation at short periods using surface wave ray tracing.

  6. Online wave estimation using vessel motion measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Brodtkorb, Astrid; Nielsen, Ulrik D.; J. Sørensen, Asgeir

    2018-01-01

    parameters and motion transfer functions are required as input. Apart from this the method is signal-based, with no assumptions on the wave spectrum shape, and as a result it is computationally efficient. The algorithm is implemented in a dynamic positioning (DP)control system, and tested through simulations......In this paper, a computationally efficient online sea state estimation algorithm isproposed for estimation of the on site sea state. The algorithm finds the wave spectrum estimate from motion measurements in heave, roll and pitch by iteratively solving a set of linear equations. The main vessel...

  7. Measurement of longitudinal and rayleigh wave velocities by advanced one-sided technique in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Song, Won Joon; Popovics, J. S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    A new procedure for the advanced one-sided measurement of longitudinal wave and surface wave velocities in concrete is presented in this paper. Stress waves are generated in a consistent fashion with a DC solenoid. Two piezoelectric accelerometers are mounted on the surface of a specimen as receivers. Stress waves propagate along the surface of the specimen and are detected by the receivers. In order to reduce the large incoherent noise levels of the signals, signals are collected and manipulated by a computer program for each velocity measurement. For a known distance between the two receivers and using the measured flight times, the velocities of the longitudinal wave and the surface wave are measured. The velocities of the longitudinal wave determined by this method are compared with those measured by conventional methods on concrete, PMMA and steel.

  8. O viés ideológico das traduções de livros no Brasil: o caso do terrorismo e do fundamentalismo islâmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques A. Wainberg

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O estudo avalia empiricamente o viés ideológico das traduções de livros para o português e editados no Brasil que tratam de temas relacionados ao terrorismo islâmico e correlatos. O levantamento do acervo de oito bibliotecas universitárias e quatro livrarias comerciais mostrou que, de setembro de 2001 a junho de 2008, foram publicadas 95 obras sobre o tema. O viés ideológico ocidentalista superou o seu concorrente, o viés orientalista. Mas a maioria das obras traduzidas e publicadas em português por editoras brasileiras apresentou um viés balanceado. Palavras-chave: Tradução; livros; ocidentalismo; orientalismo; fundamentalismo islâmico. Resumen El estudio evalúa empíricamente la tendencia ideológica de las traducciones de libros al portugués y editados en Brasil que tratan de la temática relacionada con el terrorismo islámico y con temas correlativos. El levantamiento del acervo de ocho bibliotecas universitarias y cuatro librerías comerciales mostró que, de septiembre de 2001 a junio de 2008, fueron publicadas 95 obras sobre este tema. La tendencia ideológica occidentalista superó su concurrente, la tendencia orientalista. Pero la mayoría de las obras traducidas y publicadas en portugués por editoras brasileñas presentó una tendencia balanceada. Palabras-clave: Traducción; libros; occidentalismo; orientalismo; fundamentalismo islámico. Abstract The subject of this study is the ideological bias of book translation into Portuguese on themes such as Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism. According to data collected in eight academic libraries and four bookstores, 95 books on these topics were published in Brazil. Written by foreign authors, these books were translated between September 2001 and June 2008. We observed stronger Eastern bias than Western one, but most of these books were included in the “Balanced” category. Keywords: Translation; books; Westernism; Easternism; Islamic fundamentalism.

  9. Wave-induced current considering wave-tide interaction in Haeundae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hak Soo

    2017-04-01

    The Haeundae, located at the south eastern end of the Korean Peninsula, is a famous beach, which has an approximately 1.6 km long and 70 m wide coastline. The beach has been repeatedly eroded by the swell waves caused by typhoons in summer and high waves originating in the East Sea in winter. The Korean government conducted beach restoration projects including beach nourishment (620,000 m3) and construction of two submerged breakwaters near both ends of the beach. To prevent the beach erosion and to support the beach restoration project, the Korean government initiated a R&D project, the development of coastal erosion control technology since 2013. As a part of the project, we have been measuring waves and currents at a water depth of 22 m, 1.8 km away from the beach using an acoustic wave and current meter (AWAC) continuously for more than three years; we have also measured waves and currents intensively near the surf-zone in summer and winter. In this study, a numerical simulation using a wave and current coupled model (ROMS-SWAN) was conducted for determining the wave-induced current considering seasonal swell waves (Hs : 2.5 m, Tp: 12 s) and for better understanding of the coastal process near the surf-zone in Haeundae. By comparing the measured and simulated results, we found that cross-shore current during summer is mainly caused by the eddy produced by the wave-induced current near the beach, which in turn, is generated by the strong waves coming from the SSW and S directions. During other seasons, longshore wave-induced current is produced by the swell waves coming from the E and ESE directions. The longshore current heading west toward Dong-Back Island, west end of the beach, during all the seasons and eddy current toward Mipo-Port, east end of the beach, in summer which is well matched with the observed residual current. The wave-induced current with long-term measurement data is incorporated in simulation of sediment transport modeling for developing

  10. Enzymatic U(VI) reduction by Desulfosporosinus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kelly, S.D.; Kemner, K.M.; Banfield, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Here we tested U(VI) reduction by a Desulfosporosinus species (sp.) isolate and type strain (DSM 765) in cell suspensions (pH 7) containing 1 mM U(VI) and lactate, under an atmosphere containing N 2 -CO 2 -H 2 (90: 5: 5). Although neither Desulfosporosinus species (spp.) reduced U(VI) in cell suspensions with 0.25% Na-bicarbonate or 0.85% NaCl, U(VI) was reduced in these solutions by a control strain, desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 642). However, both Desulfosporosinus strains reduced U(VI) in cell suspensions depleted in bicarbonate and NaCl. No U(VI) reduction was observed without lactate and H 2 electron donors or with heat-killed cells, indicating enzymatic U(VI) reduction. Uranium(VI) reduction by both strains was inhibited when 1 mM CuCl 2 was added to the cell suspensions. Because the Desulfosporosinus DSM 765 does not contain cytochrome c 3 used by Desulfovibrio spp. to reduce U(VI), Desulfosporosinus species reduce uranium via a different enzymatic pathway. (orig.)

  11. Cr (VI) remediation by indigenous bacteria in soils contaminated by chromium-containing slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Liyuan; Huang Shunhong; Yang Zhihui; Peng Bing; Huang Yan; Chen Yuehui

    2009-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr) is a toxic element causing serious environmental threat. Recently, more and more attention is paid to the bio-remediation of Cr (VI) in the contaminated soils. Cr (VI) remediation by indigenous bacteria in soils contaminated by chromium-containing slag at a steel-alloy factory in Hunan Province, China, was investigated in the present study. The results showed that when sufficient nutrients were amended into the contaminated soils, total Cr (VI) concentration declined from the initial value of 462.8 to 10 mg kg -1 at 10 days and the removal rate was 97.8%. Water soluble Cr (VI) decreased from the initial concentration of 383.8 to 1.7 mg kg -1 . Exchangeable Cr (VI) and carbonates-bound Cr (VI) were removed by 92.6% and 82.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, four Cr (VI) resistant bacterial strains were isolated from the soil under the chromium-containing slag. Only one strain showed a high ability for Cr (VI) reduction in liquid culture. This strain was identified as Pannonibacter phragmitetus sp. by gene sequencing of 16S rRNA. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analysis indicated that Cr (VI) was reduced into trivalent chromium. The results suggest that indigenous bacterial strains have potential application for Cr (VI) remediation in the soils contaminated by chromium-containing slag.

  12. Impact of water quality parameters on the sorption of U(VI) onto hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Donglin; Wang Xianbiao; Yang Shitong; Guo Zhiqiang; Sheng Guodong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the sorption of U(VI) from aqueous solution on hematite was studied as a function of various water quality parameters such as contact time, pH, ionic strength, soil humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA), solid content and temperature by using a batch technique. The results demonstrated that the sorption of U(VI) was strongly dependent on ionic strength at pH 6.0 and the sorption was mainly dominated by inner-sphere surface complexation. The presence of HA/FA increases U(VI) sorption at low pH, whereas decreases U(VI) sorption at high pH. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 , and ΔG 0 ) were calculated from the temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results suggested that U(VI) sorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results might be important for the application of hematite in U(VI) pollution management. Highlights: ► The sorption of U(VI) was strongly dependent on ionic strength at pH 6.0. ► A positive effect of HA/FA on U(VI) sorption was found at low pH, whereas a negative effect was observed at high pH. ► U(VI) sorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. ► The results are quite important for the application of hematite in U(VI) pollution management.

  13. Recovery of Stokes waves from velocity measurements on an axis of symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2015-01-01

    We provide a new method to recover the profile of Stokes waves, and more generally of waves with smooth vorticity, from measurements of the horizontal velocity component on a vertical axis of symmetry of the wave surface. Although we consider periodic waves only, the extension to solitary waves is straightforward. (paper)

  14. Microwave tomography enhanced GPR surveys in Centaur’s Domus, Regio VI of Pompeii, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catapano, I; Crocco, L; Napoli, R Di; Soldovieri, F; Brancaccio, A; Pesando, F; Aiello, A

    2012-01-01

    The archaeological area of Pompeii (Naples, Italy) is known worldwide as one of the most remarkable examples of a Roman Empire town, but its origins are prior to the Roman age and there is a huge archeological interest in discovering the history of the forma urbis. With respect to this framework, the paper presents results from microwave tomography enhanced ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys carried out in the Centaur’s Domus, Regio VI, one of the most ancient housing areas of Pompeii. The GPR prospections aimed at addressing and driving the archeological excavation campaign performed in this area in October 2010. The results of stratigraphic assays are used to assess the reliability of the tomographic images obtained. (paper)

  15. Broadband Mm-Wave OFDM Communications in Doubly Selective Channel: Performance Evaluation Using Measured Mm-Wave Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the performance of the broadband millimeter-wave (mm-wave) OFDM system in the presence of phase noise (PN) of phase-locked loop based oscillator and delay spread of measured mm-wave channel. It is shown, using Akaike's information criterion, that the channel tap...... coefficients of the broadband mm-wave channel do not follow Gaussian distribution due to the broad bandwidth. It is also shown that, given a cyclic prefix (CP) length for a certain delay spread, an effective PN mitigation scheme enables a PN corrupted OFDM system to function with small subcarrier spacing and...

  16. Peroxo complexes of molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI), uranium(VI), zirconium(IV) and thorium(IV) ions containing tridentate Schiff bases derived from salicylaldehyde and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafder, M.T.H.; Khan, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of peroxo complexes of molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI), uranium(VI), zirconium(IV), thorium(IV) and their possible oxygen transfer reactions is presented. An attempt has also been made to study the size of the metal ions and the electronic effect derived from the tridentate Schiff bases on the v 1 (O-O) mode of the complexes in their IR spectra

  17. Topography Estimation of the Core Mantle Boundary with ScS Reverberations and Diffraction Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, B. E.; Nakata, N.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we use the propagation of global seismic waves to study the Core Mantle Boundary (CMB). We focus on the use of S-wave reflections at the CMB (ScS reverberations) and outer-core diffracted waves. It is difficult imaging the CMB with the ScS wave because the complexity of the structure in the near surface ( 50 km); the complex structure degrades the signal-to-noise ratio of of the ScS. To avoid estimating the structure in the crust, we rely on the concept of seismic interferometry to extract wave propagation through mantle, but not through the crust. Our approach is compute the deconvolution between the ScS (and its reverberation) and direct S waves generated by intermediate to deep earthquakes (>50 km depth). Through this deconvolution, we have the ability to filter out the direct S wave and retrieve the wave field propagating from only the hypocenter to the outer core, but not between the hypocenter to the receiver. After the deconvolution, we can isolate the CMB reflected waves from the complicated wave phenomena because of the near-surface structure. Utilizing intermediate and deep earthquakes is key since we can suppress the near-surface effect from the surface to the hypocenter of the earthquakes. The variation of such waves (e.g., travel-time perturbation and/or wavefield decorrelation) at different receivers and earthquakes provides the information of the topography of the CMB. In order to get a more detailed image of the topography of the CMB we use diffracted seismic waves such as Pdiff , Sdiff, and P'P'. By using two intermediate to deep earthquakes on a great circle path with a station we can extract the wave propagation between the two earthquakes to simplify the waveform, similar to how it is preformed using the ScS wave. We generate more illumination of the CMB by using diffracted waves rather than only using ScS reverberations. The accurate topography of CMB obtained by these deconvolution analyses may provide new insight of the

  18. Nonlinear whistler wave model for lion roars in the Earth’s magnetosheath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dwivedi, N. K.; Singh, S.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we construct a nonlinear whistler wave model to explain the magnetic field spectra observed for lion roars in the Earth’s magnetosheath region. We use two-fluid theory and semi-analytical approach to derive the dynamical equation of whistler wave propagating along the ambient...... magnetic field. We examine the magnetic field localization of parallel propagating whistler wave in the intermediate beta plasma applicable to the Earth’s magnetosheath. In addition, we investigate spectral features of the magnetic field fluctuations and the spectral slope value. The magnetic field...... semi-analytical model provides exposure to the whistler wave turbulence in the Earth’s magnetosheath....

  19. Determination of Cr(VI) in wood specimen: A XANES study at the Cr K edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, E.; Plarre, R.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Schoknecht, U.; Urban, K.; Juengel, P.

    2008-01-01

    The content of chromium in different oxidation states in chromium-treated wood was studied with XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) measurements at the Cr K absorption edge. It could be shown that wood samples treated with Cr(VI) (pine and beech) did still contain a measurable content of Cr(VI) after four weeks conditioning. If such wood samples were heat exposed for 2 h with 135 deg. C prior conditioning, Cr(VI) was no longer detected by XANES, indicating a complete reduction to chromium (III)

  20. Studies of Gravity Waves Using Michelson Interferometer Measurements of OH (3-1 Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-In Won

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of a long-term program for polar upper atmospheric studies, temperatures and intensities of the OH (3-1 bands were derived from spectrometric observations of airglow emissions over King Sejong station (62.22o S, 301.25o E. These measurements were made with a Michelson interferometer to cover wavelength regions between 1000 nm and 2000 nm. A spectral analysis was performed to individual nights of data to acquire information on the waves in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. It is assumed that the measured fluctuations in the intensity and temperature of the OH (3-1 airglow were caused by gravity waves propagating through the emission layer. Correlation of intensity and temperature variation revealed oscillations with periods ranging from 2 to 9 hours. We also calculated Krassovsky's parameter and compared with published values.

  1. ENDF-201, ENDF/B-VI summary documentation supplement 1, ENDF/HE-VI summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    1996-12-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) provides coordination for and serves as the secretariat to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSWEG). CSEWG is responsible for the oversight of the ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data File. All data are checked and reviewed by CSEWG, and the file is maintained at the NNDC. For a description of the ENDF/B-VI file, see the ENDF-102 Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF-6. The purpose of this addendum to the ENDF/B-VI Summary Documentation is to provide documentation of Releases 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/HE-VI evaluated nuclear data libraries. These releases contain many new and revised evaluations for the neutron, photo-atomic interaction, radioactive decay data, spontaneous fission product yield, neutron-induced fission product yield, thermal neutron scattering, proton, deuteron, and triton sublibraries. The summaries have been extracted mainly from the ENDF/B-VI File 1 comments (MT = 451), which have been checked, edited, and may also include supplementary information. Some summaries have been provided by the evaluators in electronic format, while others are extracted from reports on the evaluations. All references have been checked and corrected, or updated where appropriate. A list of the laboratories which have contributed evaluations used in ENDF/B-VI is given

  2. ENDF-201, ENDF/B-VI summary documentation supplement 1, ENDF/HE-VI summary documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, V.

    1996-12-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) provides coordination for and serves as the secretariat to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSWEG). CSEWG is responsible for the oversight of the ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data File. All data are checked and reviewed by CSEWG, and the file is maintained at the NNDC. For a description of the ENDF/B-VI file, see the ENDF-102 Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF-6. The purpose of this addendum to the ENDF/B-VI Summary Documentation is to provide documentation of Releases 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/HE-VI evaluated nuclear data libraries. These releases contain many new and revised evaluations for the neutron, photo-atomic interaction, radioactive decay data, spontaneous fission product yield, neutron-induced fission product yield, thermal neutron scattering, proton, deuteron, and triton sublibraries. The summaries have been extracted mainly from the ENDF/B-VI File 1 comments (MT = 451), which have been checked, edited, and may also include supplementary information. Some summaries have been provided by the evaluators in electronic format, while others are extracted from reports on the evaluations. All references have been checked and corrected, or updated where appropriate. A list of the laboratories which have contributed evaluations used in ENDF/B-VI is given.

  3. 24 CFR 971.11 - HOPE VI developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HOPE VI developments. 971.11... § 971.11 HOPE VI developments. Developments with HOPE VI implementation grants that have approved HOPE... with reasonable revitalization plans. Future HUD actions to approve or deny proposed HOPE VI...

  4. Spectrum and energy levels of Y VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, W.; Reader, J.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of the five-times-ionized yttrium atom (Y VI), excited in a sliding-spark discharge, was studied in the 160--2500 A-circle range. About 900 Y VI lines were classified as transitions between 101 odd and 69 even energy levels.The energy-level system established includes almost all levels of the 4s 2 4p 4 , 4s4p 5 , 4s 2 4p 3 4d, 5d, 5s, 6s, and 5p configurations and a number of levels of the 7s, 4f, and 4s4p 4 4d configurations. The observed level system has been theoretically interpreted by means of Hartree--Fock calculations and least-squares parametric fits. Strong configuration mixings are found between the 4s4p 5 and 4s 2 4p 3 4d configurations, between the 4s 2 4p 3 5p and 4s4p 4 4d configurations, and between the 4s 2 4p 3 4f and 4s4p 4 4d configurations. From the optimized energy-level values, a system of Ritz-type wavelength standards with accuracies varying from 0.0003 to 0.003 A-circle in the range 179--500 A-circle has been determined. The ionization energy as determined from 4s 2 4p 3 ns levels (n = 5-7) is 737 110 +- 200 cm/sup -1/ (91.390 +- 0.025 eV)

  5. Oxidation of suspected N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors by ferrate (VI): kinetics and effect on the NDMA formation potential of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changha; Lee, Yunho; Schmidt, Carsten; Yoon, Jeyong; Von Gunten, Urs

    2008-01-01

    The potential of ferrate (Fe(VI)) oxidation to remove N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors during water treatment was assessed. Apparent second-order rate constants (k(app)) for the reactions of NDMA and its suspected precursors (dimethylamine (DMA) and 7 tertiary amines with DMA functional group) with Fe(VI) were determined in the range of pH 6-12. Four model NDMA precursors (dimethyldithiocarbamate, dimethylaminobenzene, 3-(dimethylaminomethyl)indole and 4-dimethylaminoantipyrine) showed high reactivity toward Fe(VI) with k(app) values at pH 7 between 2.6 x 10(2) and 3.2 x 10(5)M(-1)s(-1). The other NDMA precursors (DMA, trimethylamine, dimethylethanolamine, dimethylformamide) and NDMA had k(app) values ranging from 0.55 to 9.1M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7. In the second part of the study, the NDMA formation potentials (NDMA-FP) of the model NDMA precursors and natural waters were measured with and without pre-oxidation by Fe(VI). For most of the NDMA precursors with the exception of DMA, a significant reduction of the NDMA-FP (>95%) was observed after complete transformation of the NDMA precursor. This result was supported by low yields of DMA from the Fe(VI) oxidation of tertiary amine NDMA precursors. Pre-oxidation of several natural waters (rivers Rhine, Neckar and Pfinz) with a high dose of Fe(VI) (0.38 mM = 21 mg L(-1) as Fe) led to removals of the NDMA-FP of 46-84%. This indicates that the NDMA precursors in these waters have a low reactivity toward Fe(VI) because it has been shown that for fast-reacting NDMA precursors Fe(VI) doses of 20 microM (1.1 mg L(-1) as Fe) are sufficient to completely oxidize the precursors.

  6. Alfven waves in the auroral ionosphere: A numerical model compared with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, D.J.; Kelley, M.C.; Vickrey, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The authors solve a linear numerical model of Alfven waves reflecting from the high-latitude ionosphere, both to better understanding the role of the ionosphere in the magnetosphere/ionosphere coupling process and to compare model results with in situ measurements. They use the model to compute the frequency-dependent amplitude and phase relations between the meridional electric and the zonal magnetic fields due to Alfven waves. These relations are compared with measurements taken by an auroral sounding rocket flow in the morningside oval and by the HILAT satellite traversing the oval at local noon. The sounding rocket's trajectory was mostly parallel to the auroral oval, and is measured enhanced fluctuating field energy in regions of electron precipitation. The rocket-measured phase data are in excellent agreement with the Alfven wave model, and the relation between the modeled and the measured by HILAT are related by the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity Σ p , indicating that the measured field fluctuations were due mainly to structured field-aligned current systems. A reason for the relative lack of Alfven wave energy in the HILAT measurements could be the fact that the satellite traveled mostly perpendicular to the oval and therefore quickly traversed narrow regions of electron precipitation and associated wave activity

  7. The new geographic information system in ETVA VI.PE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xagoraris, Zafiris; Soulis, George

    2016-08-01

    ETVA VI.PE. S.A. is a member of the Piraeus Bank Group of Companies and its activities include designing, developing, exploiting and managing Industrial Areas throughout Greece. Inside ETVA VI.PE.'s thirty-one Industrial Parks there are currently 2,500 manufacturing companies established, with 40,000 employees and € 2.5 billion of invested funds. In each one of the industrial areas ETVA VI.PE guarantees the companies industrial lots of land (sites) with propitious building codes and complete infrastructure networks of water supply, sewerage, paved roads, power supply, communications, cleansing services, etc. The development of Geographical Information System for ETVA VI.PE.'s Industrial Parks started at the beginning of 1992 and consists of three subsystems: Cadastre, that manages the information for the land acquisition of Industrial Areas; Street Layout - Sites, that manages the sites sold to manufacturing companies; Networks, that manages the infrastructure networks (roads, water supply, sewerage etc). The mapping of each Industrial Park is made incorporating state-of-the-art photogrammetric, cartographic and surveying methods and techniques. Passing through the phases of initial design (hybrid GIS) and system upgrade (integrated Gis solution with spatial database), the system is currently operating on a new upgrade (integrated gIS solution with spatial database) that includes redesigning and merging the system's database schemas, along with the creation of central security policies, and the development of a new web GIS application for advanced data entry, highly customisable and standard reports, and dynamic interactive maps. The new GIS bring the company to advanced levels of productivity and introduce the new era for decision making and business management.

  8. Immobilization of Cr(Vi) as a contaminant from soil by iron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin A, M. de J.; Romero G, E. T.; Reyes G, L. R.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the physicochemical and surface properties of Fe 0 and FeS to select the appropriate radioactive material for use in the design of artificial barriers or walls and remove Cr (Vi). The physicochemical characterization was carried out of iron: Fe 0 and FeS, using scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum, X-ray diffraction and thermal gravimetric analysis techniques. As for the characterization of the surface, was used to determine the surface area, point of zero charge, density of active sites and kinetics of moisture. We obtained a solution of Cr (Vi) by elution of deionized water on the pollution land of Buenavista, Guanajuato. The concentration of Cr (Vi) from a stock solution was 55.56 mg / L determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Stripping or maximum immobilization of Cr (Vi) with Fe 0 (material chosen by their physicochemical and surface properties) was 68.25% using Fe 0 , at a concentration less than 0.1, ph equal to 3 and a contact time of 24 hours. (Author)

  9. Technology-derived storage solutions for stabilizing insulin in extreme weather conditions I: the ViViCap-1 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Pesach, Gidi; Nagar, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures 30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy. Combined chemical and engineering solutions for heat protection are employed in ViViCap-1 for disposable insulin pens. The device works based on vacuum insulation and heat consumption by phase-change material. Laboratory studies with exposure of ViViCap-1 to hot outside conditions were performed to evaluate the device performance. ViViCap-1 keeps insulin at an internal temperature phase-change process and 'recharges' the device for further use. ViViCap-1 performed within its specifications. The small and convenient device maintains the efficacy and safety of using insulin even when carried under hot weather conditions.

  10. Technique for measurements of plane waves of uniaxial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The measurement of plane waves in uniaxial strain, in which large surface areas are loaded and the measurements are restricted to a central region that is not influenced by lateral boundaries, is discussed. Measuring techniques are covered and instruments are discussed

  11. Apmierinātības ar dzīvi saistība ar laika perspektīvu

    OpenAIRE

    Selga, Toms

    2013-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot vai pastāv saistības starp apmierinātību ar dzīvi un laika perspektīvu. Tika sagaidīts, ka indivīdiem, kam izteiktākas pozitīvās pagātnes un tagadnes hedoniskā laika uztvere, apmierinātības ar dzīvi rezultāti būs augstāki, bet indivīdiem ar negatīvās pagātnes uztveri apmierinātības ar dzīvi rādītāji būs zemāki (Zhang & Howell, 2011). Lai to noskaidrotu, tika izmantota apmierinātības ar dzīvi aptauja (Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS, Diener, Emmons, Larsen,...

  12. An Analysis of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Amplitude Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardong, L.; Ferreira, A. M.; van Heijst, H. J.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a powerful tool to decipher the Earth's interior structure at various scales. Traveltimes of seismic waves are widely used to build velocity models, whereas amplitudes are still only seldomly accounted for. This mainly results from our limited ability to separate the various physical effects responsible for observed amplitude variations, such as focussing/defocussing, scattering and source effects. We present new measurements from 50 global earthquakes of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude anomalies measured in the period range 35-275 seconds using two different schemes: (i) a standard time-domain amplitude power ratio technique; and (ii) a mode-branch stripping scheme. For minor-arc data, we observe amplitude anomalies with respect to PREM in the range of 0-4, for which the two measurement techniques show a very good overall agreement. We present here a statistical analysis and comparison of these datasets, as well as comparisons with theoretical calculations for a variety of 3-D Earth models. We assess the geographical coherency of the measurements, and investigate the impact of source, path and receiver effects on surface wave amplitudes, as well as their variations with frequency in a wider range than previously studied.

  13. Measurements of the S-wave fraction in $B^{0}\\rightarrow K^{+}\\pi^{-}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decays and the $B^{0}\\rightarrow K^{\\ast}(892)^{0}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ differential branching fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, V.V.; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-11-08

    A measurement of the differential branching fraction of the decay ${B^{0}\\rightarrow K^{\\ast}(892)^{0}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}}$ is presented together with a determination of the S-wave fraction of the $K^+\\pi^-$ system in the decay $B^{0}\\rightarrow K^{+}\\pi^{-}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$. The analysis is based on $pp$-collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3\\,fb$^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb experiment. The measurements are made in bins of the invariant mass squared of the dimuon system, $q^2$. Precise theoretical predictions for the differential branching fraction of $B^{0}\\rightarrow K^{\\ast}(892)^{0}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decays are available for the $q^2$ region $1.1S-wave fraction of the $K^+\\pi^-$ system in $B^{0}\\rightarrow K^{+}\\pi^{-}\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ decays is found to be \\begin{equation*} F_{\\rm S} = 0.101\\pm0.017({\\rm stat})\\pm0.009 ({\\rm syst}), \\end{equation*}...

  14. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zboril, Radek; Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek; Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek; Sharma, Virender K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. ► Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). ► Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3′-imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants (∼10 −2 s −1 ) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10 −8 –10 −6 s −1 ). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  15. αs Measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZEUS Collaboration [7] has studied inclusive jet production by reconstructing jets using .... higher orders in QCD calculations; (vi) non-perturbative corrections; (vii) .... where the factor cf depends on the shape variable f and И is supposed to ...

  16. Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

    2015-01-01

    A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSAT chemistry laboratories, CRAMIF laboratory, and INRS over the 2010-2013 period. The survey included 99 companies involved in various activity sectors. The inhalable fraction of airborne particles was sampled, and exposure levels were determined using ion chromatography analysis combined with post-column derivatization and UV detection. The quality of the measurement results was guaranteed by an inter-laboratory comparison system involving all the laboratories participating in this study. Exposure levels frequently exceeded the French occupational exposure limit value (OELV) of 1 µg m(-3), in activities such as thermal metallization and manufacturing and application of paint in the aeronautics sector. The results also reveal a general trend for a greater proportion of soluble Chromium VI (Cr VI) compounds compared with insoluble compounds. Qualitative and quantitative information relating to the presence of other metallic compounds in the air of workplaces is also provided, for example for Cr III, Ni, Fe, etc. The sampling strategy used and the measurement method are easy to implement, making it possible to check occupational exposure with a view to comparing it to an 8 h-OELV of 1 µg m(-3). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  17. Mechanical Strain Measurement from Coda Wave Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzola, J.; Schmittbuhl, J.; Zigone, D.; Masson, F.; Magnenet, V.

    2017-12-01

    Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) aims at tracking small changes in solid materials like rocks where elastic waves are diffusing. They are intensively sampling the medium, making the technique much more sensitive than those relying on direct wave arrivals. Application of CWI to ambient seismic noise has found a large range of applications over the past years like for multiscale imaging but also for monitoring complex structures such as regional faults or reservoirs (Lehujeur et al., 2015). Physically, observed changes are typically interpreted as small variations of seismic velocities. However, this interpretation remains questionable. Here, a specific focus is put on the influence of the elastic deformation of the medium on CWI measurements. The goal of the present work is to show from a direct numerical and experimental modeling that deformation signal also exists in CWI measurements which might provide new outcomes for the technique.For this purpose, we model seismic wave propagation within a diffusive medium using a spectral element approach (SPECFEM2D) during an elastic deformation of the medium. The mechanical behavior is obtained from a finite element approach (Code ASTER) keeping the mesh grid of the sample constant during the whole procedure to limit numerical artifacts. The CWI of the late wave arrivals in the synthetic seismograms is performed using both a stretching technique in the time domain and a frequency cross-correlation method. Both show that the elastic deformation of the scatters is fully correlated with time shifts of the CWI differently from an acoustoelastic effect. As an illustration, the modeled sample is chosen as an effective medium aiming to mechanically and acoustically reproduce a typical granitic reservoir rock.Our numerical approach is compared to experimental results where multi-scattering of an acoustic wave through a perforated loaded Au4G (Dural) plate is performed at laboratory scale. Experimental and numerical results of the

  18. Dynamics of nanoparticules detected at 1 AU by S/WAVES onboard STEREO spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belheouane, Soraya; Issautier, Karine; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Le Chat, Gaétan; Czechowski, Andrzej; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Zouganelis, Yannis; Mann, Ingrid

    Frequency Receiver. Solar Physics, 286(2):549-559. Meyer-Vernet, N., Maksimovic, M., Czechowski, A., Mann, I., Zouganelis, I., Goetz, K., Kaiser, M., Cyr, O. S., Bougeret, J.-L., and Bale, S. (2009). Dust Detection by the Wave Instrument on STEREO : Nanoparticles Picked up by the Solar Wind? Solar Phys, 256:463-474. Pantellini, F., Le Chat, G., Belheouane, S., Meyer-Vernet, N., and Zaslavsky, A. (2013). On the detection of nano dust using spacecraft based boom antennas. Solar Wind 13: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Solar Wind Conference, 1539:414-417. Zaslavsky, A., Meyer-Vernet, N., Mann, I., Czechowski, A., Issautier, K., Le Chat, G., Pantellini, F., Goetz, K., Maksimovic, M., Bale, S. D., and Kasper, J. K. (2012). Interplanetary dust detection by radio antennas: Mass calibration and fluxes measured by STEREO/WAVES. J. Geophys. Res., 117.

  19. Experimental Monitoring of Cr(VI) Bio-reduction Using Electrochemical Geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsen Canan; Gary R. Olhoeft; William A. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Many Department of Energy (DOE) sites are contaminated with highly carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). In this research, we explore the feasibility of applying complex resistivity to the detection and monitoring of microbially-induced reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) to a less toxic form (Cr(III)). We hope to measure the change in ionic concentration that occurs during this reduction reaction. This form of reduction promises to be an attractive alternative to more expensive remedial treatment methods. The specific goal of this research is to define the minimum and maximum concentration of the chemical and biological compounds in contaminated samples for which the Cr(VI) - Cr(III) reduction processes could be detected via complex resistivity. There are three sets of experiments, each comprised of three sample columns. The first experiment compares three concentrations of Cr(VI) at the same bacterial cell concentration. The second experiment establishes background samples with, and without, Cr(VI) and bacterial cells. The third experiment examines the influence of three different bacterial cell counts on the same concentration of Cr(VI). A polarization relaxation mechanism was observed between 10 and 50 Hz. The polarization mechanism, unfortunately, was not unique to bio-chemically active samples. Spectral analysis of complex resistivity data, however, showed that the frequency where the phase minimum occurred was not constant for bio-chemically active samples throughout the experiment. A significant shifts in phase minima occurred between 10 to 20 Hz from the initiation to completion of Cr(VI) reduction. This phenomena was quantified using the Cole-Cole model and the Marquardt-Levenberg nonlinear least square minimization method. The data suggests that the relaxation time and the time constant of this relaxation are the Cole-Cole parameters most sensitive to changes in biologically-induced reduction of Cr(VI)

  20. Applicability of coda wave interferometry technique for measurement of acoustoelastic effect of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Woo [Dept. of Safety Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this study, we examined the applicability of coda wave interferometry (CWI) technique, which was developed to characterize seismic waves, to detect and evaluate change in the velocity of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to acoustoelastic effect. Ultrasonic wave measurements and compressive loading tests were conducted on a concrete specimen. The measured wave signals were processed with CWI to detect and evaluate the relative velocity change with respect to the stress state of the specimen. A phase change due to the acoustoelastic effect of concrete was clearly detected in the late-arriving coda wave. This shows that the relative velocity change of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to the acoustoelastic effect can be evaluated successfully and precisely using CWI.

  1. Applicability of coda wave interferometry technique for measurement of acoustoelastic effect of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung Woo [Dept. of of Safety Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In this study, we examined the applicability of coda wave interferometry (CWI) technique, which was developed to characterize seismic waves, to detect and evaluate change in the velocity of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to acoustoelastic effect. Ultrasonic wave measurements and compressive loading tests were conducted on a concrete specimen. The measured wave signals were processed with CWI to detect and evaluate the relative velocity change with respect to the stress state of the specimen. A phase change due to the acoustoelastic effect of concrete was clearly detected in the late-arriving coda wave. This shows that the relative velocity change of ultrasonic waves in concrete due to the acoustoelastic effect can be evaluated successfully and precisely using CWI.

  2. Properties of TEM standing waves with E||B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, H.; Buckmaster, H. A.

    This paper summarizes the known properties of E∥B TEM standing waves and shows that for such waves (i) E and B cannot be linearly polarized, (ii) E ≠ αB where α is a constant (iii) it is impossible to find a Lorentz frame where E>B, (iv) direction of the propagation vector cannot be inferred from the fields at one point of the space, (v) their behaviour under Lorentz, parity, time-reversal and gauge transformations is proper, (vi) both Lorentz invariants E2 - B2 and E·B are nonzero, (vii) the magnetic helicity may be nonzero, (viii) the magnetic field may be force-free, and (ix) kμFμv ≠ 0. It also shows how electromagnetic waves can be classified using Lorentz invariants. Cet article résume les qualités connues des ondes stationnaires E∥B TEM et montre que pour des ondes parallèles (i) E et B ne peuvent pas être polarisées linéairement, (ii) E ≠ αB où a est une constante, (iii) il est impossible de trouver une construction de Lorentz où E>B, (iv) la direction de propagation d'un vecteur ne peut pas être déduite des opérations à un point d'intervalle, (v) leur conduite sous Lorentz, parité, temps inverse et transformations de jauge est propre, (vi) les deux invariants de Lorentz E2 - B2 et E·B sont non nulles (vii) l'hélice magnétique peut être non nulle (viii) l'opération magnétique peut être de force libre et (ix) KμFμ v ≠ 0. Ceci montre aussi comment les ondes électromagnétiques peuvent être classifiées, en employant les invariants de Lorentz.

  3. Geological structure analysis in Central Java using travel time tomography technique of S waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palupi, I. R.; Raharjo, W.; Nurdian, S. W.; Giamboro, W. S.; Santoso, A.

    2016-01-01

    Java is one of the islands in Indonesia that is prone to the earthquakes, in south of Java, there is the Australian Plate move to the Java island and press with perpendicular direction. This plate movement formed subduction zone and cause earthquakes. The earthquake is the release of energy due to the sudden movement of the plates. When an earthquake occurs, the energy is released and record by seismometers in the waveform. The first wave recorded is called the P waves (primary) and the next wave is called S waves (secondary). Both of these waves have different characteristics in terms of propagation and direction of movement. S wave is composed of waves of Rayleigh and Love waves, with each direction of movement of the vertical and horizontal, subsurface imaging by using S wave tomography technique can describe the type of the S wave through the medium. The variation of wave velocity under Central Java (esearch area) is ranging from -10% to 10% at the depth of 20, 30 and 40 km, the velocity decrease with the depth increase. Moho discontinuity is lies in the depth of 32 km under the crust, it is indicates there is strong heterogenity in Moho. (paper)

  4. Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Pechal, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Title: Analysis of multidimensional measurements of electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere Author: Radim Pechal Department: Department of Surface and Plasma Science Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Lubomír Přech, Dr. Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: The thesis introduces into basic knowledge of waves in plasma, especially waves in the Earth's magnetosphere. There are mentioned some space projects focused on chorus waves. The second part of this thesis is a la...

  5. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: a potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization’s maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L−1) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L−1. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ~1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42 μg kg−1, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a

  6. Lamb wave propagation in monocrystalline silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Paul; Pizzolato, Marco; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Masserey, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Monocrystalline silicon wafers are widely used in the photovoltaic industry for solar panels with high conversion efficiency. Guided ultrasonic waves offer the potential to efficiently detect micro-cracks in the thin wafers. Previous studies of ultrasonic wave propagation in silicon focused on effects of material anisotropy on bulk ultrasonic waves, but the dependence of the wave propagation characteristics on the material anisotropy is not well understood for Lamb waves. The phase slowness and beam skewing of the two fundamental Lamb wave modes A 0 and S 0 were investigated. Experimental measurements using contact wedge transducer excitation and laser measurement were conducted. Good agreement was found between the theoretically calculated angular dependency of the phase slowness and measurements for different propagation directions relative to the crystal orientation. Significant wave skew and beam widening was observed experimentally due to the anisotropy, especially for the S 0 mode. Explicit finite element simulations were conducted to visualize and quantify the guided wave beam skew. Good agreement was found for the A 0 mode, but a systematic discrepancy was observed for the S 0 mode. These effects need to be considered for the non-destructive testing of wafers using guided waves.

  7. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: A potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Christopher T., E-mail: cmills@usgs.gov [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Federal Center, MS 964D, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J. [United States Geological Survey, Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Federal Center, MS 964D, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Southern Sacramento Valley soil and sediment has abundant naturally-occurring Cr(III). > Cr(III) resides mainly in chromite but some is associated with clays and Fe oxides. > Cr(VI) is mostly absent in surface soil but ubiquitous in deeper soil and sediment. > Cr(VI) increased linearly with time during lab soil incubations with no additions. > Cation exchange processes resulted in greater Cr(VI) generation rates. - Abstract: Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization's maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 {mu}g L{sup -1}) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to {approx}1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged

  8. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  9. Extracting Earth's Elastic Wave Response from Noise Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Larose, Eric

    2013-05-01

    Recent research has shown that noise can be turned from a nuisance into a useful seismic source. In seismology and other fields in science and engineering, the estimation of the system response from noise measurements has proven to be a powerful technique. To convey the essence of the method, we first treat the simplest case of a homogeneous medium to show how noise measurements can be used to estimate waves that propagate between sensors. We provide an overview of physics research—dating back more than 100 years—showing that random field fluctuations contain information about the system response. This principle has found extensive use in surface-wave seismology but can also be applied to the estimation of body waves. Because noise provides continuous illumination of the subsurface, the extracted response is ideally suited for time-lapse monitoring. We present examples of time-lapse monitoring as applied to the softening of soil after the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the detection of a precursor to a landslide, and temporal changes in the lunar soil.

  10. Studies on extraction of uranium (VI) with petroleum sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanzhao; Sun Sixiu; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) with petroleum sulfoxides(PSO) in different diluents is studied. The extraction ability of U(VI) decreases in the following order: benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, heptane, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The influence of the concentrations of nitric acid, PSO, salting out agent, complexing anion and temperature on the extraction equilibrium is also investigated, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction is obtained. The relationship between the extraction equilibrium constants K ex and the physical parameters of diluents is derived. The extraction mechanism and equilibrium are examined by measurement of IR spectrophotometry

  11. Noncontact measurement of guided ultrasonic wave scattering for fatigue crack characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, P.

    2013-04-01

    Fatigue cracks can develop in aerospace structures at locations of stress concentration such as fasteners. For the safe operation of the aircraft fatigue cracks need to be detected before reaching a critical length. Guided ultrasonic waves offer an efficient method for the detection and characterization of fatigue cracks in large aerospace structures. Noncontact excitation of guided waves was achieved using electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMAT). The transducers were developed for the specific excitation of the A0 Lamb mode. Based on the induced eddy currents in the plate a simple theoretical model was developed and reasonably good agreement with the measurements was achieved. However, the detection sensitivity for fatigue cracks depends on the location and orientation of the crack relative to the measurement locations. Crack-like defects have a directionality pattern of the scattered field depending on the angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and on the ratio of the characteristic defect size to wavelength. The detailed angular dependency of the guided wave field scattered at crack-like defects in plate structures has been measured using a noncontact laser interferometer. Good agreement with 3D Finite Element simulation predictions was achieved for machined part-through and through-thickness notches. The amplitude of the scattered wave was quantified for a variation of angle of the incident wave relative to the defect orientation and the defect depth. These results provide the basis for the defect characterization in aerospace structures using guided wave sensors.

  12. The Adsorption of Cr(VI Using Chitosan-Alumina Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjito Darjito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan as adsorbent has been used widely, however it was not effective yet for metal ions adsorption in industrial scale. In acidic condition, chitosan’s active site tends to decrease. This drawback can was solved by coating of chitosan active site on alumina. This paper discloses to overcome that limitation. The charateristic of the active side was analysed by FTIR spectrometry toward vibration N-H group at 1679.15 cm-1, C=O group of oxalate at 1703.30 cm-1, and Al-O group of alumina at 924.07 cm-1. The adsorption capacity of the developed adsorbent was tester to adsorb Cr(VI ions under various of pH value such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. The contact time affect toward the adsorption was also reported in 20, 30, 40 50, 60, 70, and 80 minute. In addition, the concentration effects (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ppm was also studied. Chromium (VI was measured using spectronic-20. Adsorption capacity was obtained at 66.90 mg/g under optimum conditions pH 2, and contact time 60 minute, respectively.

  13. Measurements on wave propagation characteristics of spiraling electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Getty, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Dispersion characteristics of cyclotron-harmonic waves propagating on a neutralized spiraling electron beam immersed in a uniform axial magnetic field are studied experimentally. The experimental setup consisted of a vacuum system, an electron-gun corkscrew assembly which produces a 110-eV beam with the desired delta-function velocity distribution, a measurement region where a microwave signal is injected onto the beam to measure wavelengths, and a velocity analyzer for measuring the axial electron velocity. Results of wavelength measurements made at beam currents of 0.15, 1.0, and 2.0 mA are compared with calculated values, and undesirable effects produced by increasing the beam current are discussed. It is concluded that a suitable electron beam for studies of cyclotron-harmonic waves can be generated by the corkscrew device.

  14. Development of SMM wave laser scattering apparatus for the measurements of waves and turbulences in the tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Hamada, Y.; Yamashita, T.; Ikeda, M.; Nakamura, M.

    1980-01-01

    The SMM wave laser scattering apparatus has been developed for the measurement of the waves and turbulences in the plasma. This apparatus will help greatly to clarify the physics of RF heating of the tokamak plasma. The present status of main parts of the apparatus, the SMM wave laser and the Schottky barrier diode mixer for the heterodyne receiver, are described. (author)

  15. Broadband Mm-Wave OFDM Communications in Doubly Selective Channel: Performance Evaluation Using Measured Mm-Wave Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2018-01-01

    coefficients of the broadband mm-wave channel do not follow Gaussian distribution due to the broad bandwidth. It is also shown that, given a cyclic prefix (CP) length for a certain delay spread, an effective PN mitigation scheme enables a PN corrupted OFDM system to function with small subcarrier spacing and......In this work, we evaluate the performance of the broadband millimeter-wave (mm-wave) OFDM system in the presence of phase noise (PN) of phase-locked loop based oscillator and delay spread of measured mm-wave channel. It is shown, using Akaike's information criterion, that the channel tap......, therefore, small CP overhead, with only slight degradation of the error rate performance....

  16. Walkie-Talkie Measurements for the Speed of Radio Waves in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombi, Andra; Tunyagi, Arthur; Neda, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    A handheld emitter-receiver device suitable for the direct estimation of the velocity of radio waves in air is presented. The velocity of radio waves is measured using the direct time-of-flight method, without the need for any tedious and precise settings. The results for two measurement series are reported. Both sets of results give an estimate…

  17. Carbon-13 NMR characterization of actinyl(VI) carbonate complexes in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.L.; Hobart, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Sullivan, J.C.; Stout, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    The uranyl(VI) carbonate system has been re-examined using 13 C NMR of 99.9% 13 C-enriched U VI O 2 ( 13 CO 3 ) 3 4- in millimolar concentrations. By careful control of carbonate ion concentration, we have confirmed the existence of the trimer, and observed dynamic equilibrium between the monomer and the timer. In addition, the ligand exchange reaction between free and coordinated carbonate on Pu VI O 2 ( 13 CO 3 ) 3 4- and Am VI O 2 ( 13 CO 3 ) 3 4- systems has been examined by variable temperature 13 C NMR line-broadening techniques 13 C NMR line-broadening techniques. A modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill NMR pulse sequence was written to allow for experimental determination of ligand exchange parameters for paramagnetic actinide complexes. Preliminary Eyring analysis has provided activation parameters of ΔG double-dagger 295 = 56 kJ/M, ΔH double-dagger = 38 kJ/M, and ΔS double-dagger = -60 J/M-K for the plutonyl triscarbonate system, suggesting an associative transition state for the plutonyl (VI) carbonate complex self-exchange reaction. Experiments for determination of the activation parameters for the americium (VI) carbonate system are in progress

  18. Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O’Boyle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave energy converters (WECs inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An experimental campaign to map, at high resolution, the wave field variation around arrays of 5 oscillating water column WECs and a methodology for extracting scattered and radiated waves is presented. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the full extent of the WEC behavior when assessing impacts on the wave field. The effect of radiated waves on the wave field is not immediately apparent when considering changes to the entire wave spectrum, nor when observing changes in wave climate due to scattered and radiated waves superimposed together. The results show that radiated waves may account for up to 50% of the effects on wave climate in the near field in particular operating conditions.

  19. A ideia, a série e a forma: Desafios da imagem no pensamento de Claude Lévi-Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Severi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, parte-se da abordagem teórica da arte por Lévi-Strauss para aplicá-la a um objeto não explorado pelo próprio autor: a arte abstrata no Ocidente. O texto inicia com uma polêmica entre Lévi-Strauss e o teórico do surrealismo, André Breton, em torno da magia da arte. A polêmica põe a nu a originalidade de Lévi-Strauss enquanto teórico da arte, em diálogo permanente com os Modernistas de sua época, assim como a centralidade da arte na sua teoria estruturalista. Se para Breton a magia da arte é universal porque apela para processos de apreensão intuitivas, opostos à razão, para Lévi-Strauss o desafio da universalidade da arte consiste no fato de este ser um dos lugares privilegiados de exploração do pensamento formal. Lévi-Strauss propõe interpretar paralelamente, no interior de cada universo cultural, as coordenadas constitutivas da imagem e as operações mentais que essas coordenadas implicam. Se Lévi-Strauss seguiu este caminho para dar sentido aos arabescos kadiwéu, propõe-se aqui seguir esta trilha na exploração da arte abstrata.

  20. High-speed measurement of firearm primer blast waves

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Daviscourt, Joshua; Eng, Jonathan; Courtney, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method and results for direct high-speed measurements of firearm primer blast waves employing a high-speed pressure transducer located at the muzzle to record the blast pressure wave produced by primer ignition. Key findings are: 1) Most of the lead styphnate based primer models tested show 5.2-11.3% standard deviation in the magnitudes of their peak pressure. 2) In contrast, lead-free diazodinitrophenol (DDNP) based primers had standard deviations of the peak blast p...

  1. Wireless guided wave and impedance measurement using laser and piezoelectric transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun-Jun; Sohn, Hoon; Yun, Chung-Bang; Chung, Joseph; Lee, Michael M S

    2012-01-01

    Guided-wave- and impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have gained much attention due to their high sensitivity to small defects. One of the popular devices commonly used for guided wave and impedance measurements is a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer. This study proposes a new wireless scheme where the power and data required for PZT excitation and sensing are transmitted via laser. First, a modulated laser beam is wirelessly transmitted to the photodiode connected to a PZT on a structure. Then, the photodiode converts the laser light into an electric signal, and it is applied to the PZT for excitation. The corresponding responses, impedance at the same PZT or guided waves at another PZT, are measured, re-converted into laser light, and wirelessly transmitted back to the other photodiode located in the data interrogator for signal processing. The feasibility of the proposed wireless guided wave and impedance measurement schemes has been examined through circuit analyses and experimentally investigated in a laboratory setup. (paper)

  2. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haitao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-17

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience andnanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis andapplication of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based onhigh temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has becomeone of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidalnanocrystals. This methodis first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkersin 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and laterextended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well asanisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod.This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystalsynthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied bycharacterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and productsand following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on theseresults, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction betweenthe precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth ofnanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theorycalculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursordecomposition and monomerformation pathway. Based on the proposedreaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses wateras a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSeand CdS nanorods.

  3. Construção e validação de tarefa de Stroop Emocional para avaliação de viés de atenção em mulheres com Transtorno de Ansiedade Generalizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Fava

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O viés de atenção para estímulos percebidos como ameaçadores pode estar envolvido na causa ou manutenção de transtornos de ansiedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi construir e testar uma tarefa de Stroop Emocional para avaliar a existência de um viés para palavras ameaçadoras em mulheres com Transtorno de Ansiedade Generalizada (TAG. Participaram 22 mulheres, sendo 12 diagnosticadas com TAG e 10 controles emparelhados. Palavras ansiogênicas e palavras-controle foram selecionadas do banco de palavras ANEW, a lista final foi selecionada por 6 psicoterapeutas experientes. Os participantes demonstraram viés de atenção para palavras ansiogênicas, sem haver diferença entre os dois grupos. A tarefa de Stroop desenvolvida foi suficientemente sensível para detectar o viés de atenção para estímulos percebidos como ameaçadores e pode ser útil para avaliar intervenções clínicas no futuro.

  4. Low-lying S-wave and P-wave dibaryons in a nodal structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxin; Li Jingsheng; Bao Chengguang

    2003-01-01

    The inherent nodal surface structure analysis approach is proposed for six-quark clusters with u, d, and s quarks. The wave functions of the six-quark clusters are classified, and the contribution of the hidden-color channels are discussed. The quantum numbers and configurations of the wave functions of the low-lying dibaryons are obtained. The states [ΩΩ] (0,0 + ) , [ΩΩ] (0,2 - ) , [Ξ * Ω] (1/2,0 + ) , and [Σ * Σ * ] (0,4 - ) and the hidden-color channel states with the same quantum numbers are proposed to be the candidates of experimentally observable dibaryons

  5. Ground penetrating radar antenna measurements based on plane-wave expansions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The plane-wave transmitting spectrum of the system consisting of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna and the air-soil interface is measured using a loop buried in the soil. The plane-wave spectrum is used to determine various parameters characterizing the radiation of the GPR antenna...

  6. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneou......The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra...

  7. Effect of uranium (VI) on the growth of yeast and influence of metabolism of yeast on adsorption of U (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozai, Naofumi; Wakai, Eiichi; Francis, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out the growth experiments of 3 strains of yeast in a medium containing uranium (VI) to elucidate the effect of U (VI) on the growth of microorganisms. Hansenula fabianii J640 grew in the liquid medium containing 0.1 mM U (VI) at lower rate than the control, but Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not grow under this condition. The H. fabianii J640 pre-cultured for 21 h in the liquid medium without U (VI) grew even after the exposure to 1 mM U (VI), but did not grow without pre-cultivation. For the pre-cultured H. fabianii J640, radioactivity of U in the medium was the same as the initial one for 110 h, and then gradually decreased. TEM-EDS analysis of H. fabianii J640 exposed to 1 mM U (VI) for 165 h showed accumulation of U (VI) on the cells. When H. fabianii J640 was not pre-cultured, radioactivity of U in the medium was lower than the initial one. These results indicated that U (VI) inhibits the growth of yeast, and that the adsorption of U (VI) by the cells depends on the metabolism of yeast. (author)

  8. Brillouin spectroscopy with surface acoustic waves on intermediate valent, doped SmS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, U.; Jung, A.; Wachter, P.

    1998-01-01

    Brillouin scattering on surface acoustic waves is a very powerful tool to determine the elastic constants of intermediate valent crystals, since the method is non-destructive and no mechanical contact is needed. A strong evidence for intermediate valence is a negative value of Poisson's ratio, which describes the behavior of the volume under uniaxial pressure. SmS by itself makes a semiconductor-metal transition at a pressure of more than 6.5 kbar. When substituting the divalent Sm by a trivalent cation, like Y, La or Tm, SmS can become - depending on the doping concentration - intermediate valent without any applied, external pressure. In this work, we will present measurements of the velocities of the surface acoustic waves and the calculation of the elastic constants of La- and Tm-doped SmS compounds. We found a clear dependence of Poisson's ratio on the doping concentration and on the valence of the materials. Furthermore, we will discuss the mechanism leading to intermediate valence when substituting Sm. Besides the internal, chemical pressure, which is produced by the built in trivalent cations with their smaller ionic radii, we have clear evidence, that the free electrons in the 5d band, induced by the substituting atoms, also play an important role in making doped SmS intermediate valent. (orig.)

  9. Heat waves in the United States: mortality risk during heat waves and effect modification by heat wave characteristics in 43 U.S. communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L

    2011-02-01

    Devastating health effects from recent heat waves, and projected increases in frequency, duration, and severity of heat waves from climate change, highlight the importance of understanding health consequences of heat waves. We analyzed mortality risk for heat waves in 43 U.S. cities (1987-2005) and investigated how effects relate to heat waves' intensity, duration, or timing in season. Heat waves were defined as ≥ 2 days with temperature ≥ 95th percentile for the community for 1 May through 30 September. Heat waves were characterized by their intensity, duration, and timing in season. Within each community, we estimated mortality risk during each heat wave compared with non-heat wave days, controlling for potential confounders. We combined individual heat wave effect estimates using Bayesian hierarchical modeling to generate overall effects at the community, regional, and national levels. We estimated how heat wave mortality effects were modified by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, timing in season). Nationally, mortality increased 3.74% [95% posterior interval (PI), 2.29-5.22%] during heat waves compared with non-heat wave days. Heat wave mortality risk increased 2.49% for every 1°F increase in heat wave intensity and 0.38% for every 1-day increase in heat wave duration. Mortality increased 5.04% (95% PI, 3.06-7.06%) during the first heat wave of the summer versus 2.65% (95% PI, 1.14-4.18%) during later heat waves, compared with non-heat wave days. Heat wave mortality impacts and effect modification by heat wave characteristics were more pronounced in the Northeast and Midwest compared with the South. We found higher mortality risk from heat waves that were more intense or longer, or those occurring earlier in summer. These findings have implications for decision makers and researchers estimating health effects from climate change.

  10. Treatment of chemical warfare agents by zero-valent iron nanoparticles and ferrate(VI)/(III) composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zboril, Radek, E-mail: zboril@prfnw.upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Andrle, Marek; Oplustil, Frantisek [Military Institute VOP-026 Sternberk, Division in Brno, Rybkova 8, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Machala, Libor; Tucek, Jiri; Filip, Jan; Marusak, Zdenek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Physical Chemistry and Experimental Physics, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Sharma, Virender K., E-mail: vsharma@fit.edu [Chemistry Department, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Center of Ferrate Excellence, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferrate(VI) has been found to be highly efficient to decontaminate chemical warfare agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast degradation of sulfur mustard, soman and compound VX by ferrate(VI). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles are considerably less efficient in degradation of studied warfare agents compared to ferrate(VI). - Abstract: Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles and a composite containing a mixture of ferrate(VI) and ferrate(III) were prepared by thermal procedures. The phase compositions, valence states of iron, and particle sizes of iron-bearing compounds were determined by combination of X-ray powder diffraction, Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The applicability of these environmentally friendly iron based materials in treatment of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has been tested with three representative compounds, sulfur mustard (bis(2-chlorethyl) sulfide, HD), soman ((3,3 Prime -imethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate, GD), and O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothiolate (VX). Zero-valent iron, even in the nanodimensional state, had a sluggish reactivity with CWAs, which was also observed in low degrees of CWAs degradation. On the contrary, ferrate(VI)/(III) composite exhibited a high reactivity and complete degradations of CWAs were accomplished. Under the studied conditions, the estimated first-order rate constants ({approx}10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) with the ferrate(VI)/(III) composite were several orders of magnitude higher than those of spontaneous hydrolysis of CWAs (10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} s{sup -1}). The results demonstrated that the oxidative technology based on application of ferrate(VI) is very promising to decontaminate CWAs.

  11. Study on the DNA-protein crosslinks induced by chromium (VI) in SPC-A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqun; Ding, Jianjun; Lu, Xiongbing; You, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of chromium (VI) on DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) of SPC-A1 cells. Methods: We exposed SPC-A1 cells were cultured in 1640 medium and treated with the SPC-A1 cells in vitro to different concentrations of Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) for 2h, the KC1-SDS precipitation assay were used to measure the DNA-protein cross-linking effect. Results: All the different concentrations of Cr(VI) could cause the increase of DPC coefficient in SPC-A1 cells. But this effect was not significant (P>0.05) at low concentrations; while in high concentration Cr(VI) induced SPC-A1 cells could produce DNA-protein cross-linking effect significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: chromium (VI) could induce DNA-protein crosslink.

  12. A PROFILE ANALYSIS OF RAMAN-SCATTERED O VI BANDS AT 6825 Å AND 7082 Å IN SANDULEAK’S STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Hee-Won [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Angeloni, Rodolfo [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mille, Francesco Di [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Palma, Tali, E-mail: jeung6145@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Fernández Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-12-20

    We present a detailed modeling of the two broad bands observed at 6825 and 7082 Å in Sanduleak’s star, a controversial object in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These bands are known to originate from Raman scattering of O vi  λ λ 1032 and 1038 photons with atomic hydrogen and are only observed in bona fide symbiotic stars. Our high-resolution spectrum obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph at the Magellan-Clay Telescope reveals, quite surprisingly, that the profiles of the two bands look very different: while the Raman 6825 Å band shows a single broad profile with a redward extended bump, the Raman 7082 Å band exhibits a distinct triple-peak profile. Our model suggests that the O vi emission nebula can be decomposed into a red, blue, and central emission region from an accretion disk, a bipolar outflow, and a further compact, optically thick region. We also perform Monte Carlo simulations with the aim of fitting the observed flux ratio F (6825)/ F (7082) ∼ 4.5, which indicates that the neutral region in Sanduleak’s star is characterized by the column density N{sub Hi} ∼ 1 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}.

  13. Preparation and properties of N-Phenylbutyrohydroxamic acid and N-p-Chlorophenylbutyrohydroxamic acid and their uses as extracting agents for Chromium (VI), Molybdenum (VI), Titanium (IV) and Uranium (VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu Elnour, Sawsan Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1993-05-01

    Two lignads, N-phenylbutyrohydroxamic acid (1), N-p-chlorophenylbutyryl chloride with {beta} phenyl-hydroylamine and N-p-chlorophenylhydroxylamine, respectively. The acids prepared were identified and characterised through their reactions with Vanadiun (V) and iron (III), their melting points, infra-red spectra and nitrogen content. The extractive properties of these acids towards the metals Cr (VI), Mo (VI), Ti (IV) and U (VI) were examined at different PH values. The percentage of maximum extraction with the two acids was found to be as follows : for Cr (VI) at PH 1, (100%) for both acids, Mo (VI) at PH 2 (33.34%) with acid (I) and (16.67%) with acid (II) and U (VI) at PH 6 (72%) with acid (I) and (76%) with acid (II). The metal: Ligand complexes ratios were determined by using the continuous variation method, the ratio of the two ligands with four metals was found to be 1:2. Finally the suitability of the two acids for spectrophotometric determination of four metals was examined.(Author) 90 refs. , 24 tabs. , 24 figs

  14. Preparation and properties of N-Phenylbutyrohydroxamic acid and N-p-Chlorophenylbutyrohydroxamic acid and their uses as extracting agents for Chromium (VI), Molybdenum (VI), Titanium (IV) and Uranium (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Elnour, Sawsan Hassan

    1993-05-01

    Two lignads, N-phenylbutyrohydroxamic acid (1), N-p-chlorophenylbutyryl chloride with β phenyl-hydroylamine and N-p-chlorophenylhydroxylamine, respectively. The acids prepared were identified and characterised through their reactions with Vanadiun (V) and iron (III), their melting points, infra-red spectra and nitrogen content. The extractive properties of these acids towards the metals Cr (VI), Mo (VI), Ti (IV) and U (VI) were examined at different PH values. The percentage of maximum extraction with the two acids was found to be as follows : for Cr (VI) at PH 1, (100%) for both acids, Mo (VI) at PH 2 (33.34%) with acid (I) and (16.67%) with acid (II) and U (VI) at PH 6 (72%) with acid (I) and (76%) with acid (II). The metal: Ligand complexes ratios were determined by using the continuous variation method, the ratio of the two ligands with four metals was found to be 1:2. Finally the suitability of the two acids for spectrophotometric determination of four metals was examined.(Author)

  15. Propagation of Shock on NREL Phase VI Wind Turbine Airfoil under Compressible Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on numeric analysis of compressible flow around National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL phase VI wind turbine blade airfoil S809. Although wind turbine airfoils are low Reynolds number airfoils, a reasonable investigation of compressible flow under extreme condition might be helpful. A subsonic flow (mach no. M=0.8 has been considered for this analysis and the impacts of this flow under seven different angles of attack have been determined. The results show that shock takes place just after the mid span at the top surface and just before the mid span at the bottom surface at zero angle of attack. Slowly the shock waves translate their positions as angle of attack increases. A relative translation of the shock waves in upper and lower face of the airfoil are presented. Variation of Turbulent viscosity ratio and surface Y+ have also been determined. A k-ω SST turbulent model is considered and the commercial CFD code ANSYS FLUENT is used to find the pressure coefficient (Cp as well as the lift (CL and drag coefficients (CD. A graphical comparison of shock propagation has been shown with different angle of attack. Flow separation and stream function are also determined.

  16. Criticality experiment for No.2 core of DF-VI fast neutron criticality facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lijun; Liu Zhenhua; Yan Fengwen; Luo Zhiwen; Chu Chun; Liang Shuhong

    2007-01-01

    At the completion of the DF-VI fast neutron criticality facility, its core changed, and it was restarted and a series of experiments and measurements were made. According to the data from 29 criticality experiments, the criticality element number and mass were calculated, the control rod reactivity worth were measured by period method and rod compensate method, reactivity worth of safety rod and safety block were measured using reactivity instrument; the reactivity worth of outer elements and radial distribution of elements were measured too. Based on all the measurements mentioned above, safety operation parameters for core 2 in DF-VI fast neutron criticality facility were conformed. (authors)

  17. Magellan radio occultation measurements of atmospheric waves on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, David P.; Jenkins, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radio occultation experiments were conducted at Venus on three consecutive orbits of the Magellan spacecraft in October 1991. Each occultation occurred over the same topography (67 deg N, 127 deg E) and at the same local time (22 hr 5 min), but the data are sensitive to zonal variations because the atmosphere rotates significantly during one orbit. Through comparisons between observations and predictions of standard wave theory, we have demonstrated that small-scale oscillations in retrieved temperature profiles as well as scintillations in received signal intensity are caused by a spectrum of vertically propagating internal gravity waves. There is a strong similarity between the intensity scintillations observed here and previous measurements, which pertain to a wide range of locations and experiment dates. This implies that the same basic phenomenon underlies all the observations and hence that gravity waves are a persistent, global feature of Venus' atmosphere. We obtained a fairly complete characterization of a gravity wave that appears above the middle cloud in temperature measurements on all three orbits. The amplitude and vertical wavelength are about 4 K and 2.5 km respectively, at 65 km. A model for radiative damping implies that the wave intrinsic frequency is approximately 2 x 10(exp 4) rad/sec, the corresponding ratio between horizontal and vertical wavelengths is approximately 100. The wave is nearly stationary relative to the surface or the Sun. Radiative attenuation limits the wave amplitude at altitudes above approximately 65 km, leading to wave drag on the mean zonal winds of about +0.4 m/sec per day (eastward). The sign, magnitude, and location of this forcing suggest a possible role in explaining the decrease with height in the zonal wind speed that is believed to occur above the cloud tops. Temperature oscillations with larger vertical wavelengths (5-10 km) were also observed on all three orbits, but we are able unable to interpret these

  18. Short range correlations in the pion s-wave self-energy of pionic atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo, L. L.; Holinde, K.; Oset, E.; Schütz, C.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of second order terms to the pion-nucleus s-wave optical potential of pionic atoms generated by short range nuclear correlation. The corrections are sizeable because they involve the isoscalar s-wave $\\pi N$ amplitude for half off-shell situations where the amplitude is considerably larger than the on-shell one. In addition, the s-wave optical potential is reanalyzed by looking at all the different conventional contributions together lowest order, Pauli corrected ...

  19. Delineation and Diagnostic Criteria of Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poretti Andrea

    2012-01-01

    VI are significantly worse, suggesting a correlation with the more severe neuroimaging findings. Based on the literature and this study we suggest as diagnostic criteria for OFD VI: MTS and one or more of the following: 1 tongue hamartoma(s and/or additional frenula and/or upper lip notch; 2 mesoaxial polydactyly of one or more hands or feet; 3 hypothalamic hamartoma.

  20. Semileptonic decays of B{sub c} meson to S-wave charmonium states in the perturbative QCD approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui, Zhou; Li, Hong; Wang, Guang-xin [North China University of Science and Technology, College of Sciences, Tangshan (China); Xiao, Ying [North China University of Science and Technology, College of Information Engineering, Tangshan (China)

    2016-10-15

    Inspired by the recent measurement of the ratio of B{sub c} branching fractions to J/ψπ{sup +} and J/ψμ{sup +}ν{sub μ} final states at the LHCb detector, we study the semileptonic decays of B{sub c} meson to the S-wave ground and radially excited 2S and 3S charmonium states with the perturbative QCD approach. After evaluating the form factors for the transitions B{sub c} → P,V, where P and V denote pseudoscalar and vector S-wave charmonia, respectively, we calculate the branching ratios for all these semileptonic decays. The theoretical uncertainty of hadronic input parameters are reduced by utilizing the light-cone wave function for the B{sub c} meson. It is found that the predicted branching ratios range from 10{sup -7} up to 10{sup -2} and could be measured by the future LHCb experiment. Our prediction for the ratio of branching fractions (BR(B{sub c}{sup +}→J/Ψπ{sup +}))/(BR(B{sub c}{sup +}→J/Ψμ{sup +}ν{sub μ})) is in good agreement with the data. For B{sub c} → Vlν{sub l} decays, the relative contributions of the longitudinal and transverse polarization are discussed in different momentum transfer squared regions. These predictions will be tested on the ongoing and forthcoming experiments. (orig.)

  1. Kinetic study of time-dependent fixation of U{sup VI} on biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashry, A. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Bailey, E.H., E-mail: liz.bailey@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R.N. [British Geological Survey, Nicker Hill, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Young, S.D. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    Biochar, a by-product from the production of biofuel and syngas by gasification, was tested as a material for adsorption and fixation of U{sup VI} from aqueous solutions. A batch experiment was conducted to study the factors that influence the adsorption and time-dependent fixation on biochar at 20 °C, including pH, initial concentration of U{sup VI} and contact time. Uranium (U{sup VI}) adsorption was highly dependent on pH but adsorption on biochar was high over a wide range of pH values, from 4.5 to 9.0, and adsorption strength was time-dependent over several days. The experimental data for pH > 7 were most effectively modelled using a Freundlich adsorption isotherm coupled to a reversible first order kinetic equation to describe the time-dependent fixation of U{sup VI} within the biochar structure. Desorption experiments showed that U{sup VI} was only sparingly desorbable from the biochar with time and isotopic dilution with {sup 233}U{sup VI} confirmed the low, or time-dependent, lability of adsorbed {sup 238}U{sup VI}. Below pH 7 the adsorption isotherm trend suggested precipitation, rather than true adsorption, may occur. However, across all pH values (4.5-9) measured saturation indices suggested precipitation was possible: autunite below pH 6.5 and either swartzite, liebigite or bayleyite above pH 6.5.

  2. Third-order non-Coulomb correction to the S-wave quarkonium wave functions at the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Kiyo, Y.; Schuller, K.

    2008-01-01

    We compute the third-order correction to the S-wave quarkonium wave functions |ψ n (0)| 2 at the origin from non-Coulomb potentials in the effective non-relativistic Lagrangian. Together with previous results on the Coulomb correction and the ultrasoft correction computed in a companion paper, this completes the third-order calculation up to a few unknown matching coefficients. Numerical estimates of the new correction for bottomonium and toponium are given

  3. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth’s radiation belts uncovers a missing energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.

    2015-01-01

    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth’s magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth’s magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth’s radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  4. Short Wavelength Electrostatic Waves in the Earth’s Magnetosheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    to an antenna effect. Emissions likely to be ion-acoustic mode waves have been found up- stream of the bow shock ( foreshock ) in the solar wind...particles apparently reflected at the bow shock and associated with ion- acoustic mode waves in the Earth’s foreshock are also observed [Eastman et al...Res., 86, A 4493-4510, 1981. Eastman, T.E., 1.R. Anderson, L.A. Frank, and G.K. Parks, Upstream particles observed in the Earth’s foreshock region

  5. Observation of mesospheric gravity waves at Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station (62° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An airglow all-sky imager was operated at Comandante Ferraz Antarctica Station (62.1° S, 58.4° W, between April and October of 2007. Mesospheric gravity waves were observed using the OH airglow layer during 43 nights with good weather conditions. The waves presented horizontal wavelengths between 10 and 60 km and observed periods mainly distributed between 5 and 20 min. The observed phase speeds range between 5 m/s and 115 m/s; the majority of the wave velocities were between 10 and 60 m/s. The waves showed a preferential propagation direction towards the southwest in winter (May to July, while during spring (August to October there was an anisotropy with a preferential propagation direction towards the northwest. Unusual mesospheric fronts were also observed. The most probable wave source could be associated to orographic forcing, cold fronts or strong cyclonic activity in the Antarctica Peninsula.

  6. Some organodioxygen complexes of molybdenum(VI), tungsten(VI), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) containing some monodentate and multidentate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafder, M.T.H.; Leo Man Lin; Grouse, Karen A.; Mariotto, Gino

    2003-08-01

    Several novel organodioxygen complexes of the type [M(O)(O 2 ) 2 L](MMo(VI), W(VI)) and [M'(O 2 )L](M'= Cd(II) and Zn(II)) have been synthesized using monodentate, bidentate and tridentate ligands, L pyridine, picolinic acid, diethylenetriamine, 1,2-phenylenediamine, triphenylphosphine oxide. These complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, infrared, Raman spectral studies. For dioxygen complexes, the v(O=O) stretches of the superoxo moities were only Raman active, because of apparent linearity of the M-O 2 moieties, giving peaks at 1020-1030 cm -1 . The complexes were all thermodynamically stable. The dioxygen complexes containing bidentate co-ligands were found to show oxygen transfer reactions to various organic and inorganic substrates. Mechanisms have been postulated. (author)

  7. Strain effects in the common-cation II-VI heterostructures: case of ZnS/ZnSe superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Tit, N

    2003-01-01

    The electronic band-structures of the strained-layer ZnS/ZnSe (001) superlattices (SLs) have been investigated using the sp sup 3 s* tight-binding method, which includes the strain and spin-orbit effects. The SL band-structures are studied versus the biaxial strain, layer thickness, and band offsets. The results suggest that the common-cation II-VI heterojunction exhibit a vanishingly small conduction-band offset (CBO). It is shown that the SL valence-band top state is always a heavy-hole localized within ZnSe slabs; whereas the conduction-band edge state (electron) is sensitive to the biaxial strain (or VBO). To assess the strain effects, we considered three differently strained SLs corresponding to the three substrates: (i) ZnSe; (ii) ZnS sub 0 sub . sub 5 Se sub 0 sub . sub 5; and (iii) ZnS. The results show that all the studied SLs are of type-I except those strained to ZnS (case iii), that may exhibit type-I to type-II transition. One striking result obtained here is the existence of a critical VBO (V su...

  8. Thorium s-wave neutron widths from 21 to 2006 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ingle, R.W.; Portney, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A 232 Th total cross section measurement in the resolved resonance region has been requested with a 2% accuracy in order to obtain resonance parameters with a 5% accuracy. These data are required for both fast and light-water breeder reactor studies. Inspection of the prior 232 Th differential data base shows several problems: the thermal cross sections seem inconsistent; the measured capture widths have large uncertanties; the two rather complete sets of measured neutron widths are systematically discrepant; and the differential data appear to give Cd capture ratios and shielded-capture resonance integrals smaller than those required by integral measurements. In order to improve the differential data base we have measured neutron transmission spectra through eight samples of 232 Th. Resonance parameters have been obtained from these data using the computer code S10B. Fits to these data up to 440 eV, which concentrated on the capture widths, have been previously reported. The results of extending these fits to 2.0 keV are reported and discussed in terms of the s-wave strength function and the dilute-capture resonance integral

  9. Oxygen atom transfer from a trans-dioxoruthenium(VI) complex to nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wai-Lun; Lam, William W Y; Ng, Siu-Mui; Tsang, Wenny Y K; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2012-01-02

    In aqueous acidic solutions trans-[Ru(VI)(L)(O)(2)](2+) (L=1,12-dimethyl-3,4:9,10-dibenzo-1,12-diaza-5,8-dioxacyclopentadecane) is rapidly reduced by excess NO to give trans-[Ru(L)(NO)(OH)](2+). When ≤1 mol equiv NO is used, the intermediate Ru(IV) species, trans-[Ru(IV)(L)(O)(OH(2))](2+), can be detected. The reaction of [Ru(VI)(L)(O)(2)](2+) with NO is first order with respect to [Ru(VI)] and [NO], k(2)=(4.13±0.21)×10(1) M(-1) s(-1) at 298.0 K. ΔH(≠) and ΔS(≠) are (12.0±0.3) kcal mol(-1) and -(11±1) cal mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. In CH(3)CN, ΔH(≠) and ΔS(≠) have the same values as in H(2)O; this suggests that the mechanism is the same in both solvents. In CH(3)CN, the reaction of [Ru(VI)(L)(O)(2)](2+) with NO produces a blue-green species with λ(max) at approximately 650 nm, which is characteristic of N(2)O(3). N(2)O(3) is formed by coupling of NO(2) with excess NO; it is relatively stable in CH(3)CN, but undergoes rapid hydrolysis in H(2)O. A mechanism that involves oxygen atom transfer from [Ru(VI)(L)(O)(2)](2+) to NO to produce NO(2) is proposed. The kinetics of the reaction of [Ru(IV)(L)(O)(OH(2))](2+) with NO has also been investigated. In this case, the data are consistent with initial one-electron O(-) transfer from Ru(IV) to NO to produce the nitrito species [Ru(III)(L)(ONO)(OH(2))](2+) (k(2)>10(6) M(-1) s(-1)), followed by a reaction with another molecule of NO to give [Ru(L)(NO)(OH)](2+) and NO(2)(-) (k(2)=54.7 M(-1) s(-1)). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Factors contributing to record-breaking heat waves over the Great Plains during the 1930s Dust Bowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, T.; Hegerl, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    Record-breaking summer heat waves that plagued contiguous United States in the 1930s emerged during the decade-long "Dust Bowl" drought. Using high-quality daily temperature observations, the Dust Bowl heat wave characteristics for the Great Plains are assessed using metrics that describe variations in heat wave activity and intensity. We also quantify record-breaking heat waves over the pre-industrial period for 22 CMIP5 model multi-century realisations. The most extreme Great Plains heat wave summers in the Dust Bowl decade (e.g. 1931, 1934, 1936) were pre-conditioned by anomalously dry springs, as measured by proxy drought indices. In general, summer heat waves over the Great Plains develop 15-20 days earlier after anomalously dry springs, and are also significantly longer and hotter, indicative of the importance of land surface feedbacks in heat wave intensification. The majority of pre-industrial climate model experiments capture regionally clustered summer heat waves across North America, although the North Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperature patterns associated with the heat waves vary considerably between models. Sea surface temperature patterns may be more important for influencing winter and spring precipitation, thus amplifying summer heat waves during drought periods. The synoptic pattern that commonly appeared during the exceptional Dust Bowl heat waves featured an anomalous broad surface pressure ridge straddling an upper level blocking anticyclone over the western United States. This forced significant subsidence and adiabatic warming over the Great Plains, and triggered anomalous southward warm advection over southern regions, prolonging and amplifying the heat waves over central United States. Importantly, the results show that despite the sparsity of stations in the 1930s, homogeneous observations are crucial in accurately quantifying the Dust Bowl decade heat waves, as opposed to solely relying on atmospheric reanalysis.

  11. Wavelengths and energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI obtained by collision-based spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, M.O.; Gonzalez, A.M.; Hallin, R.; Heijkenskjoeld, F.; Nystroem, B.; O'Sullivan, G.; Weber, C.; Waennstroem, A.

    1996-01-01

    We have utilized collision-based spectroscopy to investigate the spectra of Xe V and Xe VI. The radiation emitted following electron capture by 50 keV Xe 5+ and 60 keV Xe 6+ ions impinging on a He (Ar) gas target has been recorded in the 350-6000 (1200-2500) A wavelength region. A number of new energy levels of Xe V and Xe VI have been established from lines identified by us. In particular, we have observed and identified transitions from the 5s 2 5p4f (5s 2 4f) configuration of Xe V (Xe VI). The analysis was supported by Hartree-Fock calculations. (orig.)

  12. Arguments for fundamental emission by the parametric process L yields T + S in interplanetary type III bursts. [langmuir, electromagnetic, ion acoustic waves (L, T, S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, I. H.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of low frequency ion acoustic-like waves associated with Langmuir waves present during interplanetary Type 3 bursts are used to study plasma emission mechanisms and wave processes involving ion acoustic waves. It is shown that the observed wave frequency characteristics are consistent with the processes L yields T + S (where L = Langmuir waves, T = electromagnetic waves, S = ion acoustic waves) and L yields L' + S proceeding. The usual incoherent (random phase) version of the process L yields T + S cannot explain the observed wave production time scale. The clumpy nature of the observed Langmuir waves is vital to the theory of IP Type 3 bursts. The incoherent process L yields T + S may encounter difficulties explaining the observed Type 3 brightness temperatures when Langmuir wave clumps are incorporated into the theory. The parametric process L yields T + S may be the important emission process for the fundamental radiation of interplanetary Type 3 bursts.

  13. Method for making graded I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductors and solar cell obtained thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, Walter E.

    1987-08-04

    Improved cell photovoltaic conversion efficiencies are obtained by the simultaneous elemental reactive evaporation process of Mickelsen and Chen for making semiconductors by closer control of the evaporation rates and substrate temperature during formation of the near contact, bulk, and near junction regions of a graded I-III-VI.sub.2, thin film, semiconductor, such as CuInSe.sub.2 /(Zn,Cd)S or another I-III-VI.sub.2 /II-VI heterojunction.

  14. The determination of uranium(VI) by flow-injection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for the direct determination of uranium(VI) in waste waters and acid leach liquors by use of a flow-injection procedure and spectrophotometric measurement with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (bromo-PADAP). The interference effects of several commonly occurring elements were studied. The calibration curve is linear over concentrations of uranium(VI) from 0,5 to 20 mg/1, and the precision obtained on a synthetic leach liquor was 0,019 (relative standard deviation). The procedure is rapid and convenient, and up to 40 samples can be analysed in an hour

  15. Kinetics of U(VI) reduction by a dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium under non-growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Peyton, B.M.; Valentine, N.B.; Gorby, Y.A.

    1997-01-01

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms may be useful in processes designed for selective removal of uranium from aqueous streams. These bacteria can use U(VI) as an electron acceptor and thereby reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). While significant research has been devoted to demonstrating and describing the mechanism of dissimilatory metal reduction, the reaction kinetics necessary to apply this for remediation processes have not been adequately defined. In this study, pure culture Shewanella alga strain BrY reduced U(VI) under non-growth conditions in the presence of excess lactate as the electron donor. Initial U(VI) concentrations ranged from 13 to 1,680microM. A maximum specific U(VI) reduction rate of 2.37 micromole-U(VI)/(mg-biomass h) and Monod half-saturation coefficient of 132 microM-U(VI) were calculated from measured U(VI) reduction rates. U(VI) reduction activity was sustained at 60% of this rate for at least 80 h. The initial presence of oxygen at a concentration equal to atmospheric saturation at 22 C delays but does not prevent U(VI) reduction. The rate of U(VI) reduction by BrY is comparable or better than rates reported for other metal reducing species. BrY reduces U(VI) at a rate that is 30% of its Fe(III) reduction rate

  16. In- and outbound spreading of a free-particle s-wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bialynicki-Birula, i.; Cirone, M. A.; Dahl, Jens Peder

    2002-01-01

    We show that a free quantum particle in two dimensions with zero angular momentum (s wave) in the form of a ring-shaped wave packet feels an attraction towards the center of the ring, leading first to a contraction followed by an expansion. An experiment to demonstrate this effect is also outlined....

  17. S-wave kaon-nucleon phase shifts with instanton induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, S.; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2003-01-01

    The kaon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts have been calculated, for both isospin channels I=0 and I=1, in the framework of a semirelativistic quark potential model which includes an instanton induced force. The agreement with experimental phase shifts is poor essentially because of a dominant attraction coming from instantons. The low-energy behaviour of S-wave phase shifts, for I=0 and I=1 channels, obtained in the kaon-nucleon system is characteristic of a potential which can produce one loosely bound state

  18. S-wave kaon-nucleon phase shifts with instanton induced effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, S. E-mail: lemaire@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Labarsouque, J.; Silvestre-Brac, B

    2003-09-22

    The kaon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts have been calculated, for both isospin channels I=0 and I=1, in the framework of a semirelativistic quark potential model which includes an instanton induced force. The agreement with experimental phase shifts is poor essentially because of a dominant attraction coming from instantons. The low-energy behaviour of S-wave phase shifts, for I=0 and I=1 channels, obtained in the kaon-nucleon system is characteristic of a potential which can produce one loosely bound state.

  19. Adsorption of chromium(VI) on pomace-An olive oil industry waste: Batch and column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoc, Emine; Nuhoglu, Yasar; Dundar, Murat

    2006-01-01

    The waste pomace of olive oil factory (WPOOF) was tested for its ability to remove chromium(VI) from aqueous solution by batch and column experiments. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o have been calculated. The thermodynamics of chromium(VI) ion onto WPOOF system indicates spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. The ability of WPOOF to adsorb chromium(VI) in a fixed bed column was investigated, as well. The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and inlet metal ion concentration on the sorption characteristics of WPOOF was investigated. The longest breakthrough time and maximum of Cr(VI) adsorption is obtained at pH 2.0. The total adsorbed quantities, equilibrium uptakes and total removal percents of chromium(VI) related to the effluent volumes were determined by evaluating the breakthrough curves obtained at different flow rates and different inlet chromium(VI) concentrations for adsorbent. The data confirmed that the total amount of sorbed chromium(VI) and equilibrium chromium(VI) uptake decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing inlet chromium(VI) concentration. The Adams-Bohart model were used to analyze the experimental data and the model parameters were evaluated

  20. Analytical recovery of Cr (VI), Mo (VI), Ti (IV) and Co (II) by N-phenyl-meta-nitro-benzohydroxamic and N-P-tolyl-meta-nitro-benzohydroxamic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Abdul Aziz Malik Mohamed

    2000-05-01

    , of 82.20% for Mo (VI) at pH 1.0, and of 78.47% for Co (II) at pH 8.0, whereas N-p-tolyl-m-nitro-benzohydroxamic acid was found to have a maximum extraction of 42.25% for Ti (IV) at pH 2.0, of 97.06 for Cr (VI) at 3MH 2 SO 4 , of 81.32% for Mo (VI) at pH 1.0, and of 71.13% for Co (II)) at pH 8.0. The two reagents developed yellow colour chelate with Cr(VI) which was found to have molar absorptivity equal to 9014 L.mole -1 .cm -1 at wave length 480 nm, whereas the chelate of Cr(VI) with 1,5 diphenyl-carbazide have molar absorptivity equal to 8694 L.mole -1 .cm -1 at the same wavelength. The two reagents developed colorless chelate with Ti(IV), Mo(VI) and Co(II). (Author)

  1. A Study on Parametric Wave Estimation Based on Measured Ship Motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics of the param......The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics...... of the parametric model are discussed by considering the results of a similar estimation concept based on Bayesian modelling. The purpose of the latter comparison is not to favour the one estimation approach to the other but rather to highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches....

  2. Application of advanced one sided stress wave velocity measurement in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun; Song, Won Joon; Popovices, J. S.; Achenbach, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    It is of interest to reliably measure the velocity of stress waves in concrete. At present, reliable measurement is not possible for dispersive and attenuating materials such as concrete when access to only one surface of the structure is available, such as in the case of pavement structures. In this paper, a new method for one-sided stress wave velocity determination in concrete is applied to investigate the effects of composition, age and moisture content. This method uses a controlled impact as a stress wave source and two sensitive receivers mounted on the same surface as the impact sites. The novel aspect of the technique is the data collection system which automatically determines the arrival of the generated longitudinal and surface wave arrivals. A conventional ultrasonic through transmission method is used to compare with the results determined by the one-sided method.

  3. P- and S-body wave tomography of the state of Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Leiph

    2010-04-01

    P- and S-body wave travel times collected from stations in and near the state of Nevada were inverted for P-wave velocity and the Vp/Vs ratio. These waves consist of Pn, Pg, Sn and Sg, but only the first arriving P and S waves were used in the inversion. Travel times were picked by University of Nevada Reno colleagues and were culled for inclusion in the tomographic inversion. The resulting tomographic model covers the entire state of Nevada to a depth of {approx}90 km; however, only the upper 40 km indicate relatively good resolution. Several features of interest are imaged including the Sierra Nevada, basin structures, and low velocities at depth below Yucca Mountain. These velocity structure images provide valuable information to aide in the interpretation of geothermal resource areas throughout the state on Nevada.

  4. SDO/AIA Observations of Quasi-periodic Fast (~1000 km/s) Propagating (QFP) Waves as Evidence of Fast-mode Magnetosonic Waves in the Low Corona: Statistics and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Ofman, L.; Title, A. M.; Zhao, J.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent EUV imaging observations from SDO/AIA led to the discovery of quasi-periodic fast (~2000 km/s) propagating (QFP) waves in active regions (Liu et al. 2011). They were interpreted as fast-mode magnetosonic waves and reproduced in 3D MHD simulations (Ofman et al. 2011). Since then, we have extended our study to a sample of more than a dozen such waves observed during the SDO mission (2010/04-now). We will present the statistical properties of these waves including: (1) Their projected speeds measured in the plane of the sky are about 400-2200 km/s, which, as the lower limits of their true speeds in 3D space, fall in the expected range of coronal Alfven or fast-mode speeds. (2) They usually originate near flare kernels, often in the wake of a coronal mass ejection, and propagate in narrow funnels of coronal loops that serve as waveguides. (3) These waves are launched repeatedly with quasi-periodicities in the 30-200 seconds range, often lasting for more than one hour; some frequencies coincide with those of the quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the accompanying flare, suggestive a common excitation mechanism. We obtained the k-omega diagrams and dispersion relations of these waves using Fourier analysis. We estimate their energy fluxes and discuss their contribution to coronal heating as well as their diagnostic potential for coronal seismology.

  5. The O VI Mystery: Mismatch between X-Ray and UV Column Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, S.; Nicastro, F.; Gupta, A.; Krongold, Y.; McLaughlin, B. M.; Brickhouse, N.; Pradhan, A.

    2017-12-01

    The UV spectra of Galactic and extragalactic sightlines often show O VI absorption lines at a range of redshifts, and from a variety of sources from the Galactic circumgalactic medium to active galactic nuclei (AGN) outflows. Inner shell O VI absorption is also observed in X-ray spectra (at λ =22.03 Å), but the column density inferred from the X-ray line was consistently larger than that from the UV line. Here we present a solution to this discrepancy for the z = 0 systems. The O II Kβ line {}4{S}0\\to {(}3D)3{p}4P at 562.40 eV (≡22.04 Å) is blended with the O VI Kα line in X-ray spectra. We estimate the strength of this O II line in two different ways, and show that in most cases the O II line accounts for the entire blended line. The small amount of O VI equivalent width present in some cases has column density entirely consistent with the UV value. This solution to the O VI discrepancy, however, does not apply to high column-density systems like AGN outflows. We discuss other possible causes to explain their UV/X-ray mismatch. The O VI and O II lines will be resolved by gratings on board the proposed mission Arcus and the concept mission Lynx, and would allow the detection of weak O VI lines not just at z = 0, but also at higher redshift.

  6. [Adsorptive Stabilization of Soil Cr (VI) Using HDTMA Modified Montmorillonite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A series of organo-montomorillonites were prepared using Na-montomorillonite and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA). The organo-montomorillonites were then investigated for the remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soils. FT-IR, XRD, SEM and N2 -BET, CEC, Zeta potential measurement were conducted to understand the structural changes of montmorillonites as different amounts of HDTMAs were added as modifier. The characterization results indicated that the clay interlayer spacing distance increased from 1. 25 nm to 2. 13 nm, the clay surface roughness decreased, the clay surface area reduced from 38.91 m² · g⁻¹ to 0.42 m² · g⁻¹, the clay exchangeable cation amount reduced from 62 cmol · kg⁻¹ to 9.9 cmol · kg⁻¹ and the clay surface charge changed from -29.1 mV to 5.59 mV as the dosage of HDTMA in montmorillonite was increased. The TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) was used to evaluate the leachate toxicity of Cr(VI). The effects of the initial soil Cr(VI) concentration, montmorillonites dosage, reaction time and HDTMA modification amount were investigated, respectively. The results revealed that modification of montmorillonites would manifest an attenuated physical adsorptive effect and an enhanced electrostatic adsorptive effect on Cr(VI), suggesting electrostatic effect was the major force that resulted in improved Cr(VI) adsorption onto HDTMA modified montmorillonites.

  7. Polytypism in ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe: First-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Boutaiba, F.

    2014-06-23

    We report results of first-principles calculations based on the projector augmented wave (PAW) method to explore the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of cubic (3C) and hexagonal (6H, 4H, and 2H) polytypes of II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe. We find that the different bond stacking in II-VI polytypes remarkably influences the resulting physical properties. Furthermore, the degree of hexagonality is found to be useful to understand both the ground-state properties and the electronic structure of these compounds. The resulting lattice parameters, energetic stability, and characteristic band energies are in good agreement with available experimental data. Trends with hexagonality of the polytype are investigated.

  8. Polytypism in ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe: First-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Boutaiba, F.; Belabbes, Abderrezak; Ferhat, M.; Bechstedt, F.

    2014-01-01

    We report results of first-principles calculations based on the projector augmented wave (PAW) method to explore the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of cubic (3C) and hexagonal (6H, 4H, and 2H) polytypes of II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe. We find that the different bond stacking in II-VI polytypes remarkably influences the resulting physical properties. Furthermore, the degree of hexagonality is found to be useful to understand both the ground-state properties and the electronic structure of these compounds. The resulting lattice parameters, energetic stability, and characteristic band energies are in good agreement with available experimental data. Trends with hexagonality of the polytype are investigated.

  9. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haitao

    2007-01-01

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis and application of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based on high temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has become one of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. This method is first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkers in 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and later extended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well as anisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod. This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystal synthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied by characterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and products and following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on these results, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction between the precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth of nanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theory calculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursor decomposition and monomer formation pathway. Based on the proposed reaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses water as a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSe and CdS nanorods

  10. A highly sensitive and selective detection of Cr(VI) and ascorbic acid based on nitrogen-doped carbon dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Fang, Xian; Zhao, Hong; Li, Zengxi

    2018-05-01

    A highly sensitive and selective detection of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and ascorbic acid (AA) was proposed using nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs). In the absence of AA, the quantitative detection of Cr(VI) was realized through Cr(VI) acting as a quencher to quench the fluorescence of N-CDs by inner filter effect (IFE) and static quenching effect. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range for Cr(VI) detection was from 0.01 to 250μM with a detection limit of 5nM (S/N = 3). In the presence of AA, the fluorescence intensity could be rapidly enhanced compared with the fluorescence of N-CDs/Cr(VI) system since Cr(VI) can be reduced into trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) by AA. And a wide linear range for AA detection was obtained from 1 to 750μM. The detection limit was 0.3μM (S/N = 3). More importantly, this method can be successfully applied to the detection of Cr(VI) in real water samples, and AA in vitamins C tablets and human serum sample. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coupled s-wave and d-wave states in the heavy-fermion superconductor U/sub 1-//sub x/Th/sub x/Be/sub 13/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, A.; Sahu, D.; George, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    In the heavy-fermion superconductor U/sub 1-//sub x/Th/sub x/Be/sub 13/, superconducting states coexist for thorium concentrations 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06. Assuming s-wave and d-wave symmetries for these states, we derive a Ginzburg-Landau free-energy expression which couples s- and d-wave states and is rotationally invariant, in contrast to the free-energy expression proposed by P. Kumar and P. Woelfle [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1954 (1987)]. We discuss in detail the consequences that follow from our free-energy relation. In particular, we predict that in the above system there are two eigenfrequencies associated with the dynamics of phase oscillations (internal Josephson effect) which are characteristic of the s-wave and d-wave states

  12. Oxidação de microcistinas-LR em águas pelo íon ferrato(VI Aqueous oxidation of microcystin-LR by ferrate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio João de Luca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxinas de cianobactérias têm se tornado um grave problema na produção segura de água para consumo humano e animal. Técnicas convencionais de tratamento falham em atingir padrões de potabilidade. O ferrato(VI de potássio, um composto oxidante e coagulante, mostra potencialidade no tratamento de águas contaminadas. Neste trabalho, são apresentados resultados da oxidação pelo ferrato(VI de uma toxina gerada por cianobactérias, a microcistina-LR. Ensaios de cinética de oxidação e de teste de jarros mostram um valor médio de 0,012 min-1 para a constante de taxa de reação de pseudoprimeira ordem, para concentrações de MC-LR de 100 a 200 µg.L-1 na água bruta. Dosagens de 1,6 a 5,0 mg.L-1 de ferrato(VI sugerem o atendimento ao padrão de potabilidade para microcistinas, mostrando que o oxidante poderá ser empregado como coadjuvante no tratamento de água.Algae toxins are becoming a severe problem in the water treatment industry, especially for human and animal consumption. Traditional treatment processes have failed in complying with water supply standards. Potassium ferrate(VI is a powerful oxidant, disinfectant and, also, a coagulant. In this paper, the results of microcystin-LR oxidation by ferrate(VI ion are presented. Kinetic and jar tests showed a average value of 0,012 min-1 for the pseudo first order reaction rate constant, for 100 and 200 µg.L-1 concentration of MC-LR. Ferrate(VI dosages between 1.6 and 5.0 mg.L-1 suggest that water supply standards for MC-LR can be reached, which means that the oxidant may be employed as coadjuvant in water treatment.

  13. Different roles of ROS and Nrf2 in Cr(VI)-induced inflammatory responses in normal and Cr(VI)-transformed cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Ram Vinod; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Yong-Ok; Wang, Lei [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hitron, John Andrew [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Zhang, Zhuo [Department of Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@email.uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, 1095 VA Drive, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is classified as a human carcinogen. Cr(VI) has been associated with adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The present study shows that acute Cr(VI) treatment in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) increased inflammatory responses (TNF-α, COX-2, and NF-кB/p65) and expression of Nrf2. Cr(VI)-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for increased inflammation. Despite the fact that Nrf2 is a master regulator of response to oxidative stress, silencing of Nrf2 in the acute Cr(VI) treatment had no effect on Cr(VI)-induced inflammation. In contrast, in Cr(VI)-transformed (CrT) cells, Nrf2 is constitutively activated. Knock-down of this protein resulted in decreased inflammation, while silencing of SOD2 and CAT had no effect in the expression of these inflammatory proteins. Results obtained from the knock-down of Nrf2 in CrT cells are very different from the results obtained in the acute Cr(VI) treatment. In BEAS-2B cells, knock-down of Nrf2 had no effect in the inflammation levels, while in CrT cells a decrease in the expression of inflammation markers was observed. These results indicate that before transformation, ROS plays a critical role while Nrf2 not in Cr(VI)-induced inflammation, whereas after transformation (CrT cells), Nrf2 is constitutively activated and this protein maintains inflammation while ROS not. Constitutively high levels of Nrf2 in CrT binds to the promoter regions of COX-2 and TNF-α, leading to increased inflammation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that before cell transformation ROS are important in Cr(VI)-induced inflammation and after transformation a constitutively high level of Nrf2 is important. - Highlights: • Cr(VI)-induced ROS increased inflammation, while Nrf2 had no effect. • In the CrT cells knock-down of Nrf2 resulted in decreased inflammation. • Mechanistic differences in regulating Cr(VI)-induced inflammation.

  14. ViDa1: The Development and Validation of a New Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Martel, Dácil; Ruiz Fernández, M. Angeles; Cuadrado Vigaray, Maribel; Carrillo, Armando; Boronat, Mauro; Expósito Montesdeoca, Ana; Nattero Chávez, Lía; Pozuelo Sánchez, Maite; López Quevedo, Pino; Santana Suárez, Ana D.; Hillman, Natalia; Subias, David; Martin Vaquero, Pilar; Sáez de Ibarra, Lourdes; Mauricio, Didac; de Pablos-Velasco, Pedro; Nóvoa, Francisco J.; Wägner, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the development of a new questionnaire to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with type 1 diabetes (the ViDa1 questionnaire) and provides information on its psychometric properties. For its development, open interviews with patients took place and topics relevant to patients' HRQoL were identified and items were generated. Qualitative analysis of items, expert review, and refinement of the questionnaire followed. A pilot study (N = 150) was conducted to explore the underlying structure of the 40-item ViDa1 questionnaire. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed and six of the items that did not load on any of the factors were eliminated. The results supported a four-dimensional structure for ViDa1, the dimensions being Interference of diabetes in everyday life, Self-care, Well-being, and Worry about the disease. Subsequently, the PCA was repeated in a larger sample (N = 578) with the reduced 34-item version of the questionnaire, and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed (N = 428). Overall fit indices obtained presented adequate values which supported the four-factor model initially proposed [(χ(df=554)2= 2601.93) (p diabetes and low correlations with other constructs such as self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were presented. The ViDa1 also discriminated between different aspects of clinical interest such as type of insulin treatment, presence of chronic complications, and glycemic control, temporal stability, and sensitivity to change after an intervention. In conclusion, the ViDa1 questionnaire presents adequate psychometric properties and may represent a good alternative for the evaluation of HRQoL in type 1 diabetes. PMID:28620331

  15. Wave Shape and Impact Pressure Measurements at a Rock Coast Cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, S. J.; Rosser, N. J.; Brain, M.; Vann Jones, E. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rock coast research focuses largely on wave behaviour across beaches and shore platforms but rarely considers direct wave interaction with cliffs. Hydraulic action is one of the most important drivers of erosion along rock coasts. The magnitude of wave impact pressure has been shown by numerical and laboratory studies to be related to the wave shape. In deep water, a structure is only subjected to the hydrostatic pressure due to the oscillating clapotis. Dynamic pressures, related to the wave celerity, are exerted in shallower water when the wave is breaking at the point of impact; very high magnitude, short duration shock pressures are theorised to occur when the approaching wavefront is vertical. As such, wave shape may directly influence the potential of the impact to weaken rock and cause erosion. Measurements of impact pressure at coastal cliffs are limited, and the occurrence and influence of this phenomenon is currently poorly constrained. To address this, we have undertaken a field monitoring study on the magnitude and vertical distribution of wave impact pressures at the rocky, macro-tidal coastline of Staithes, North Yorkshire, UK. A series of piezo-resistive pressure transducers and a camera were installed at the base of the cliff during low tide. Transducers were deployed vertically up the cliff face and aligned shore-normal to capture the variation in static and dynamic pressure with height during a full spring tidal cycle. Five minute bursts of 5 kHz pressure readings and 4 Hz wave imaging were sampled every 30 minutes for six hours during high tide. Pressure measurements were then compensated for temperature and combined with wave imaging to produce a pressure time series and qualitative wave shape category for each wave impact. Results indicate the presence of a non-linear relationship between pressure impact magnitude, the occurrence of shock pressures, wave shape and tidal stage, and suggest that breaker type on impact (and controls thereof) may

  16. Sandwich-like nano-system for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from water and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongfang; Zhang, Guilong; Dai, Zhangyu; Zhou, Linglin; Bian, Po; Zheng, Kang; Wu, Zhengyan; Cai, Dongqing

    2018-05-07

    In this work, a novel nano-system with sandwich-like structure was synthesized via face-to-face combination of two pieces of waste cotton fabrics (CFs) carrying ferrous sulfide (FeS) and carboxyl-functionalized ferroferric oxide (CFFM) respectively, and the obtained nano system was named as FeS/CFFM/CF. Therein, FeS has high reduction and adsorption capabilities for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), CFFM possesses a high adsorption ability on cadmium ion (Cd(II)) through electrostatics attraction and chelation, and CF displays high immobilization ability for FeS and CFFM and adsorption performance on Cd(II). FeS/CFFM/CF could simultaneously remove Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from water, inhibit the uptake of Cr and Cd by fish and water spinach, ensuring the food safety. Besides, this technology could efficiently control migration of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) in sand-soil mixture, which was favorable to prevent their wide diffusion. Importantly, FeS/CFFM/CF possessed a high flexibility and could be conveniently produced with needed scale and shape, and easily separated from water and soil, displaying a promising approach to remediate Cr(VI)/Cd(II)-contaminated water and soil and a huge application potential.

  17. Natural and man-made hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in groundwater near a mapped plume, Hinkley, California—study progress as of May 2017, and a summative-scale approach to estimate background Cr(VI) concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, John A.; Groover, Krishangi D.

    2018-03-22

    This report describes (1) work done between January 2015 and May 2017 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), background study and (2) the summative-scale approach to be used to estimate the extent of anthropogenic (man-made) Cr(VI) and background Cr(VI) concentrations near the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) natural gas compressor station in Hinkley, California. Most of the field work for the study was completed by May 2017. The summative-scale approach and calculation of Cr(VI) background were not well-defined at the time the USGS proposal for the background Cr(VI) study was prepared but have since been refined as a result of data collected as part of this study. The proposed summative scale consists of multiple items, formulated as questions to be answered at each sampled well. Questions that compose the summative scale were developed to address geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical constraints on Cr(VI) within the study area. Each question requires a binary (yes or no) answer. A score of 1 will be assigned for an answer that represents data consistent with anthropogenic Cr(VI); a score of –1 will be assigned for an answer that represents data inconsistent with anthropogenic Cr(VI). The areal extent of anthropogenic Cr(VI) estimated from the summative-scale analyses will be compared with the areal extent of anthropogenic Cr(VI) estimated on the basis of numerical groundwater flow model results, along with particle-tracking analyses. On the basis of these combined results, background Cr(VI) values will be estimated for “Mojave-type” deposits, and other deposits, in different parts of the study area outside the summative-scale mapped extent of anthropogenic Cr(VI).

  18. What Do s- and p-Wave Neutron Average Radiative Widths Reveal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mughabghab, S.F.

    2010-04-30

    A first observation of two resonance-like structures at mass numbers 92 and 112 in the average capture widths of the p-wave neutron resonances relative to the s-wave component is interpreted in terms of a spin-orbit splitting of the 3p single-particle state into P{sub 3/2} and P{sub 1/2} components at the neutron separation energy. A third structure at about A = 124, which is not correlated with the 3p-wave neutron strength function, is possibly due to the Pygmy Dipole Resonance. Five significant results emerge from this investigation: (i) The strength of the spin-orbit potential of the optical-model is determined as 5.7 {+-} 0.5 MeV, (ii) Non-statistical effects dominate the p-wave neutron-capture in the mass region A = 85 - 130, (iii) The background magnitude of the p-wave average capture-width relative to that of the s-wave is determined as 0.50 {+-} 0.05, which is accounted for quantitatively in tenns of the generalized Fermi liquid model of Mughabghab and Dunford, (iv) The p-wave resonances arc partially decoupled from the giant-dipole resonance (GDR), and (v) Gamma-ray transitions, enhanced over the predictions of the GDR, are observed in the {sup 90}Zr - {sup 98}Mo and Sn-Ba regions.

  19. Remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil using long-duration sodium thiosulfate supported by micro–nano networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lulu; Wang, Min; Zhang, Guilong; Qiu, Guannan; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work aims to develop a long-duration remediation agent (LRA). • LRA was obtained using Na 2 S 2 O 3 supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks. • ATP micro–nano networks was induced by high-energy electron beam irradiation. • LRA can effectively control the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). • LRA displayed high performance on the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. - Abstract: In this work, a long-duration remediation agent (LRA) on hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed using sodium thiosulfate (ST) supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks induced through high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The ATP networks could effectively reduce the leaching amount of Cr(VI) in soil. More importantly, the ATP networks could significantly control the leaching behavior of ST, and then prolong the duration and increase the reduction efficiency of ST on Cr(VI). As a result, LRA displayed high performance on controlling the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Additionally, pot experiment indicated that LRA could effectively decrease the absorbed amount of Cr(VI) in corn, and reduce the inhibition effect of Cr(VI) on the growth of corn. Therefore, this work could provide a facile approach to remediate the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and lower the harmful effect of Cr(VI) on crop

  20. Remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soil using long-duration sodium thiosulfate supported by micro–nano networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lulu [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang, Min; Zhang, Guilong [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Qiu, Guannan [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Bioenergy Forest Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xinzhang@ahau.edu.cn [School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • This work aims to develop a long-duration remediation agent (LRA). • LRA was obtained using Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks. • ATP micro–nano networks was induced by high-energy electron beam irradiation. • LRA can effectively control the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). • LRA displayed high performance on the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. - Abstract: In this work, a long-duration remediation agent (LRA) on hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was developed using sodium thiosulfate (ST) supported by attapulgite (ATP) micro–nano networks induced through high-energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation. The ATP networks could effectively reduce the leaching amount of Cr(VI) in soil. More importantly, the ATP networks could significantly control the leaching behavior of ST, and then prolong the duration and increase the reduction efficiency of ST on Cr(VI). As a result, LRA displayed high performance on controlling the migration of Cr(VI) and reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Additionally, pot experiment indicated that LRA could effectively decrease the absorbed amount of Cr(VI) in corn, and reduce the inhibition effect of Cr(VI) on the growth of corn. Therefore, this work could provide a facile approach to remediate the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and lower the harmful effect of Cr(VI) on crop.

  1. S-wave Qanti Qqanti q states in the adiabatic approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, K T [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics

    1981-06-01

    The static potential energy for an S-wave Qanti Qqanti q system is discussed in an adiabatic (Born-Oppenheimer) approximation. Both spherical bag and arbitrary bag are considered. We concentrate on those Qanti Qqanti q states in which both (Qanti Q) and (qanti q) are colour singlets. Their energy level, wave function, and possible experimental observation are studied.

  2. Measurements of P- and S wave velocities in a rock massif and its use in estimating elastic moduli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Živor, Roman; Vilhelm, J.; Rudajev, Vladimír; Lokajíček, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2011), s. 157-167 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seismic source * seismic waves velocity * elastic constants * geophone * piezo -electric transducer Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/02_11/6_Zivor.pdf

  3. Measurements of Waves in a Wind-wave Tank Under Steady and Time-varying Wind Forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadsky, Andrey; Shemer, Lev

    2018-02-13

    This manuscript describes an experimental procedure that allows obtaining diverse quantitative information on temporal and spatial evolution of water waves excited by time-dependent and steady wind forcing. Capacitance-type wave gauge and Laser Slope Gauge (LSG) are used to measure instantaneous water surface elevation and two components of the instantaneous surface slope at a number of locations along the test section of a wind-wave facility. The computer-controlled blower provides airflow over the water in the tank whose rate can vary in time. In the present experiments, the wind speed in the test section initially increases quickly from rest to the set value. It is then kept constant for the prescribed duration; finally, the airflow is shut down. At the beginning of each experimental run, the water surface is calm and there is no wind. Operation of the blower is initiated simultaneously with the acquisition of data provided by all sensors by a computer; data acquisition continues until the waves in the tank fully decay. Multiple independent runs performed under identical forcing conditions allow determining statistically reliable ensemble-averaged characteristic parameters that quantitatively describe wind-waves' variation in time for the initial development stage as a function of fetch. The procedure also allows characterizing the spatial evolution of the wave field under steady wind forcing, as well as decay of waves in time, once the wind is shut down, as a function of fetch.

  4. Decision Model for U.S.- Mexico Border Security Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    missions that the I&A focuses on is, “border security, including narcotics smuggling, alien and human smuggling, and money laundering ...and money assigned to border security investments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Department of Homeland Security (DHS), border security, U.S.–Mexico border...and money assigned to border security investments. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION

  5. Revolutsioonilisest ja igavikulisest VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalil / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaali idee sünnist. 1990.a. toimus esimene triennaal nimega Põhja- ja Baltimaade Arhitektuuritriennaal. Niguliste kirikus toimunud VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalist. Korraldajaks Irina Raud. Tunnuslauseks "Feeling Architecture". Triennaali avanud ja lõpetanud Peter Davey ja teiste esinejate ettekannetest. Eestlastest esinesid Juhan Maiste ja Vilen Künnapu

  6. Modification of Poly- and Oligosaccharides with Os(VI) pyridine. Voltammetry of the Os(VI) Adducts Obtained by Ligand Exchange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2013), s. 1813-1817 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : OS(VI)-MODIFIED POLYSACCHARIDES * STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY * TRANS-ESTERIFICATION Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.502, year: 2013

  7. Kinetic investigations of quinoline oxidation by ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiyong; Li, Xueming; Zhai, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Quinoline is considered as one of the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds and is commonly found in industrial wastewaters, which require treatment before being discharged. Removal of quinoline by the use of an environmentally friendly oxidant, potassium ferrate(VI) (K2FeO4), was assessed by studying the kinetics of the oxidation of quinoline by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) as a function of pH (8.53-10.53) and temperature (21-36°C) in this work. The reaction of quinoline with Fe(VI) was found to be first order in Fe(VI), half order in quinoline, and 1.5 order overall. The observed rate constant at 28°C decreased non-linearly from 0.5334 to 0.2365 M(-0.5) min(-1) with an increase in pH from 8.53 to 10.03. Considering the equilibria of Fe(VI) and quinoline, the reaction between quinoline and Fe(VI) contained two parallel reactions under the given pH conditions. The individual rate constants of these two reactions were determined. The results indicate that the protonated species of Fe(VI) reacts more quickly with quinoline than the deprotonated form of Fe(VI). The reaction activation energy Ea was obtained to be 51.44 kJ·mol(-1), and it was slightly lower than that of conventional chemical reaction. It reveals that the oxidation of quinoline by Fe(VI) is feasible in the routine water treatment.

  8. Immunization with the conjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇ against Salmonella typhi induces Vi-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Fabio; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Rondini, Simona; Pozzi, Gianni; Martin, Laura B; Medaglini, Donata

    2012-09-21

    Typhoid fever is a public health problem, especially among young children in developing countries. To address this need, a glycoconjugate vaccine Vi-CRM₁₉₇, composed of the polysaccharide antigen Vi covalently conjugated to the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM₁₉₇, is under development. Here, we assessed the antibody and cellular responses, both local and systemic, following subcutaneous injection of Vi-CRM₁₉₇. The glycoconjugate elicited Vi-specific serum IgG titers significantly higher than unconjugated Vi, with prevalence of IgG1 that persisted for at least 60 days after immunization. Vi-specific IgG, but not IgA, were present in intestinal washes. Lymphocytes proliferation after restimulation with Vi-CRM₁₉₇ was observed in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. These data confirm the immunogenicity of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ and demonstrate that the vaccine-specific antibody and cellular immune responses are present also in the intestinal tract, thus strengthening the suitability of Vi-CRM₁₉₇ as a promising candidate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parametric study of electromagnetic waves propagating in absorbing curved S ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    A finite-element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study attenuation of transverse magnetic (TM) waves propagating in two-dimensional S-curved ducts with absorbing walls. In the frequency range where the duct diameter and electromagnetic wave length are nearly equal, the effect of duct length, curvature (duct offset), and absorber wall thickness was examined. For a given offset in the curved duct, the length of the S-duct was found to significantly affect both the absorptive and reflective characteristics of the duct. For a straight and a curved duct with perfect electric conductor terminations, power attenuation contours were examined to determine electromagnetic wall properties associated with maximum input signal absorption. Offset of the S-duct was found to significantly affect the value of the wall permittivity associated with the optimal attenuation of the incident electromagnetic wave.

  10. Nicomachean Ethics VI.9: good deliberation and phronesis [Ética a Nicômaco VI.9: boa deliberação e phronesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Pires de Oliveira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put under scrutiny the arguments put forward by Aristotle in Nicomachean Ethics (NE VI.9. The paper has two main parts. In the first, I examine the NE VI.9’s first part where Aristotle develops the concept of good deliberation, offering its definition in 1142b27-28. In the second, I examine the connection between good deliberation and phronesis, and, then, discuss the vexata quæstio about if the lines 1142b31-33 might be read as introducing the claim that phronesis provides moral ends. [Neste artigo, analiso pormenorizadamente os argumentos apresentados por Aristóteles em Ética a Nicômaco (EN VI.9. O artigo é dividido em duas partes principais. Na primeira, abordo a primeira parte de EN VI.9 onde Aristóteles desenvolve a noção de boa deliberação, culminando com a apresentação da sua definição em 1142b27-28. Na segunda, abordo a conexão entre boa deliberação e phronesis e discuto a vexata quaestio de se as linhas 1142b31-33 podem ser lidas como introduzindo a tese de que a phronesis fornece os fins morais

  11. ViDa1: The Development and Validation of a New Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dácil Alvarado-Martel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development of a new questionnaire to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with type 1 diabetes (the ViDa1 questionnaire and provides information on its psychometric properties. For its development, open interviews with patients took place and topics relevant to patients' HRQoL were identified and items were generated. Qualitative analysis of items, expert review, and refinement of the questionnaire followed. A pilot study (N = 150 was conducted to explore the underlying structure of the 40-item ViDa1 questionnaire. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA was performed and six of the items that did not load on any of the factors were eliminated. The results supported a four-dimensional structure for ViDa1, the dimensions being Interference of diabetes in everyday life, Self-care, Well-being, and Worry about the disease. Subsequently, the PCA was repeated in a larger sample (N = 578 with the reduced 34-item version of the questionnaire, and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed (N = 428. Overall fit indices obtained presented adequate values which supported the four-factor model initially proposed [(χ(df=5542= 2601.93 (p < 0.001; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = 0.060 (CI = 0.056 −0.064]. As regards reliability, the four dimensions of the ViDa1 demonstrated good internal consistency, with Cronbach's alphas ranging between 0.71 and 0.86. Evidence of convergent-discriminant validity in the form of high correlations with another specific HRQoL questionnaire for diabetes and low correlations with other constructs such as self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were presented. The ViDa1 also discriminated between different aspects of clinical interest such as type of insulin treatment, presence of chronic complications, and glycemic control, temporal stability, and sensitivity to change after an intervention. In conclusion, the ViDa1 questionnaire presents adequate psychometric

  12. Measuring the Viewing Angle of GW170817 with Electromagnetic and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, Daniel; De, Soumi; Brown, Duncan A.; Berger, Edo; Biwer, Christopher M.

    2018-06-01

    The joint detection of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) radiation from the binary neutron star merger GW170817 ushered in a new era of multi-messenger astronomy. Joint GW–EM observations can be used to measure the parameters of the binary with better precision than either observation alone. Here, we use joint GW–EM observations to measure the viewing angle of GW170817, the angle between the binary’s angular momentum and the line of sight. We combine a direct measurement of the distance to the host galaxy of GW170817 (NGC 4993) of 40.7 ± 2.36 Mpc with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo GW data and find that the viewing angle is {32}-13+10 +/- 1.7 degrees (90% confidence, statistical, and systematic errors). We place a conservative lower limit on the viewing angle of ≥13°, which is robust to the choice of prior. This measurement provides a constraint on models of the prompt γ-ray and radio/X-ray afterglow emission associated with the merger; for example, it is consistent with the off-axis viewing angle inferred for a structured jet model. We provide for the first time the full posterior samples from Bayesian parameter estimation of LIGO/Virgo data to enable further analysis by the community.

  13. Extreme waves at Filyos, southern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bilyay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wave measurement project was carried out for a new port planned in Filyos, in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. The measurement at a depth of 12.5 m lasted for a period of two years and 7949 records were obtained. During the analysis, it was noticed that there were 209 records in which H/Hs ratio was higher than 2.0. These higher waves in a record are called extreme waves in this study. Although the purpose of wave measurement is not to investigate extreme waves, it is believed that studying these unexpected waves could be interesting. Therefore, detailed statistical and spectral analyses on the extreme waves were done for the records. The analyses results show that the distribution of surface profiles of the records containing extreme waves deviates from Gaussian distribution with the negative skewness changing between –0.01 and –0.4 and with the high kurtosis in the range of 3.1–4.2. Although the probability of occurrence of the extreme waves is over-predicted by the Rayleigh distribution, a higher ratio of Hsrms indicates that the wave height distribution can be represented by Rayleigh. The average value of the slope of the frequency spectrum at the high frequency range is proportional to f–9 which is much steeper than the typical wind-wave frequency power law, f–4, –5. The directional spreading is measured with the parameter Smax and it is in the range of 5–70 for the extreme wave records. The wave and current interaction was also investigated and it was found that in most cases, extreme waves occur when the wave and the current are almost aligned. Furthermore, it is observed that extreme waves appear within a group of high waves.

  14. Ex-situ bioremediation of U(VI from contaminated mine water using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRomero-Gonzalez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ex-situ bioremoval of U(VI from contaminated water using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain 8455 and 13538 was studied under a range of pH and uranium concentrations. The effect of pH on the growth of bacteria was evaluated across the range 1.5 – 4.5 pH units. The respiration rate of At. ferrooxidans at different U(VI concentrations was quantified as a measure of the rate of metabolic activity over time using an oxygen electrode. The biosorption process was quantified using a uranyl nitrate solution, U-spiked growth media and U-contaminated mine water. The results showed that both strains of At. ferrooxidans are able to remove U(VI from solution at pH 2.5 – 4.5, exhibiting a buffering capacity at pH 3.5. The respiration rate of the micro-organism was affected at U(VI concentration of 30 mg L-1. The kinetics of the sorption fitted a pseudo-first order equation, and depended on the concentration of U(VI. The KD obtained from the biosorption experiments indicated that strain 8455 is more efficient for the removal of U(VI. A bioreactor designed to treat a solution of 100 mg U(VI L-1 removed at least 50% of the U(VI in water. The study demonstrated that At. ferrooxidans can be used for the ex-situ bioremediation of U(VI contaminated mine water.

  15. Adoção sequencial de tecnologia pós-colheita aplicada à cafeicultura em Viçosa (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Wemerson Gomes Pereira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O processo de adoção tecnológica na agricultura é de fundamental importância para o aumento da produtividade e a melhoria da qualidade dos produtos agrícolas. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os determinantes da adoção da tecnologia pós-colheita na cafeicultura em Viçosa (MG, no ano de 2007. Os resultados sugerem que o modelo sequencial é o mais apropriado à análise e que as variáveis associativismo, rentabilidade, treinamento, crédito, capital próprio e escolaridade são os principais determinantes na adoção de estágios mais elevados de tecnologia pós-colheita aplicada à cafeicultura. Os efeitos marginais mais importantes para adoção de maiores níveis tecnológicos são associativismo, treinamento, crédito e rentabilidade.The process of tecnology adoption in agriculture is fundamentally important for increasing productivity and improving the quality of agricultural products. The objective of this study is to evaluate the factors that determine the technological adoption of post-harvest coffee employed in Viçosa (MG in the year of 2007. The results indicate that the sequential model is more appropriate for the analysis and the most important determinants for the adoption of higher levels of post-harvest technology are association, profitability, training, education, credit, stock of capital, and years at school. The most important marginal effects for the adoption of higher levels of post-harvest technology are association, training, credit and profitability.

  16. Effects of gravity and planetary waves on the lower ionosphere as obtained from radio wave absorption measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 26, 6, Part C (2001), s. 381-386 ISSN 1464-1917 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3012007; GA AV ČR IAA3042102; GA MŠk OC 271.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : planetary wave * gravity wave * lower ionosphere Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2001

  17. Effect of porosity and surface chemistry on the adsorption-desorption of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakout, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rice straw-based biochars modified with different chemical regents were used as an adsorbent for uranium(VI). Effect of pyrolysis temperature and nature of modifying agent's as well as surface chemistry, surface charge, and pore structure on U(VI) removal was investigated. Amount and nature of the surface groups has, in general, more influence than its porosity on U(VI) adsorption. The adsorption was maximum for the initial pH of 5.5. Rice straw derived biochars had comparable U(VI) adsorption as compared to other adsorbents. The U(VI) removal was 90 % from groundwater. NaHCO 3 was found to be the most efficient desorbent eluent for U(VI). (author)

  18. Measurements of Electric Field in a Nanosecond Pulse Discharge by 4-WAVE Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratte, Edmond; Adamovich, Igor V.; Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig

    2017-06-01

    Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and spatially resolved electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric discharge sustained in room air and in an atmospheric pressure hydrogen diffusion flame. Measurements of the electric field, and more precisely the reduced electric field (E/N) in the plasma is critical for determination rate coefficients of electron impact processes in the plasma, as well as for quantifying energy partition in the electric discharge among different molecular energy modes. The four-wave mixing measurements are performed using a collinear phase matching geometry, with nitrogen used as the probe species, at temporal resolution of about 2 ns . Absolute calibration is performed by measurement of a known electrostatic electric field. In the present experiments, the discharge is sustained between two stainless steel plate electrodes, each placed in a quartz sleeve, which greatly improves plasma uniformity. Our previous measurements of electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharge by picosecond 4-wave mixing have been done in air at room temperature, in a discharge sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode (a quartz plate or a layer of distilled water). Electric field measurements in a flame, which is a high-temperature environment, are more challenging because the four-wave mixing signal is proportional to the to square root of the difference betwen the populations of N2 ground vibrational level (v=0) and first excited vibrational level (v=1). At high temperatures, the total number density is reduced, thus reducing absolute vibrational level populations of N2. Also, the signal is reduced further due to a wider distribution of N2 molecules over multiple rotational levels at higher temperatures, while the present four-wave mixing diagnostics is using spectrally narrow output of a ps laser and a high

  19. Initial Characterization of the Wave Resource at Several High Energy U.S. Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Dallman, Ann; Neary, Vincent S.

    2014-01-01

    Wave energy resource characterization efforts are critical for developing knowledge of the physical conditions experienced by wave energy converter (WEC) devices and arrays. Developers are lacking a consistent characterization of possible wave energy test sites, and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been tasked with developing a catalogue characterizing three high energy U.S. test sites. The initial results and framework for the catalogue are discussed in this paper. U.S. De...

  20. Electrochemical alkaline Fe(VI) water purification and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Yu, Xingwen

    2005-10-15

    Fe(VI) is an unusual and strongly oxidizing form of iron, which provides a potentially less hazardous water-purifying agent than chlorine. A novel on-line electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification methodology is introduced. Fe(VI) addition had been a barrier to its effective use in water remediation, because solid Fe(VI) salts require complex (costly) syntheses steps and solutions of Fe(VI) decompose. Online electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification avoids these limitations, in which Fe(VI) is directly prepared in solution from an iron anode as the FeO42- ion, and is added to the contaminant stream. Added FeO42- decomposes, by oxidizing a wide range of water contaminants including sulfides (demonstrated in this study) and other sulfur-containing compounds, cyanides (demonstrated in this study), arsenic (demonstrated in this study), ammonia and other nitrogen-containing compounds (previously demonstrated), a wide range of organics (phenol demonstrated in this study), algae, and viruses (each previously demonstrated).

  1. Using the analysis of stress waves to build research for experimentation on ultrasonic film measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shi-Shing; Wu, John H.

    1993-09-01

    After the 2th world war, although the application of ultrasonic wave in industries is becoming more and more popular. But due to the restriction of the precise equivelent , experimental method and the support of the basic theoremsetc. Ultrasonic wave is not applied in precise measurement. Nowadays due to many conditions - the improvement in the production technic, the precise of the equivelent, causes to increase the application of ultrasonic wave. But it's still limited due to the lack of measurement and analysis theorem. In this paper, first we caculate translation of the stress wave (elastic wave) in material for the free surface of material by a normal impulse load. as the theorem analysis base in real application. It is applied to an experiment of film measurement. We can find the partical motion in material and the arriving time of wave front. Then we can estimate the thickness of layers and can prove the actual condition with the result of experiment. This resarch is not only in the theoretical investigation but also in setting overall the measurement system, and excutes the following three experiments: the thickness measurement of two layers, the thickness measurement of film material. the thickness measurement of air propagation. About the data processing, we relied on the frequency analysis to evalute the time difference of two overlapped ultrasonic wave signal. in the meanwhile. we also designed several computer programs to assist the sonic wave identification and signal analysis.

  2. Box-Behnken experimental design for chromium(VI) ions removal by bacterial cellulose-magnetite composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Mihalache, Nicoleta; Botez, Adriana; Matei, Cristian; Berger, Daniela; Damian, Celina Maria; Ionita, Valentin

    2016-10-01

    In this study bacterial cellulose-magnetite composites were synthesised for the removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the bacterial cellulose-magnetite composites and to reveal the uniform dispersion of nanomagnetite in the BC matrix. Magnetic properties were also measured to confirm the magnetite immobilization on bacterial cellulose membrane. The effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration, solution pH and solid/liquid ratio upon chromium removal were examined using the statistical Box-Behnken Design. Because of the possibility of magnetite dissolution during chromium(VI) adsorption, the degree of iron leaching was also analysed in the same conditions as Cr(VI) adsorption. From the factors affecting chromium(VI) adsorption the most important was solution pH. The highest Cr(VI) removal efficiency was observed at pH 4, accompanied by the lowest iron leaching in the solution. The adsorption experiments also indicated that the adsorption process of chromium(VI) is well described by Freundlich adsorption model. Our results proved that the BC-magnetite composites could be used for an efficient removal of chromium(VI) from diluted solutions with a minimum magnetite dissolution during operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electronic structure, fluorescence and photochemistry of the uranyl ion, and comparison with octahedral uranium (VI), ruthenyl (VI), rhenium (V) and osmium (VI) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, C K [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland)

    1977-01-01

    The highly anisotropic uranyl complexes (with very short U-O distances and very long distances to the ligating atoms in the equatorial plane) are compared with trans-dioxo complexes of 4d/sup 2/Ru(VI) and 5d/sup 2/Re(V) and Os(VI). A major difference is the low-lying empty 5f orbitals, and the first excited state is highly oxidizing, and sufficiently long-lived to abstract hydrogen atoms from most organic molecules. It is argued that even the low concentrations of uranyl carbonate present in sea water is excited by solar radiation roughly every 10 minutes. Octahedral U(VI)O/sub 6/ in perovskites and UF/sub 6/ are also discussed, as well as trans-lawrencium chemistry.

  4. Uranium(VI) sorption on iron oxides in Hanford Site sediment: Application of a surface complexation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Brown, Christopher F.; Rod, Kenton A.

    2008-01-01

    Sorption of U(VI) on Hanford fine sand (HFS) with varying Fe-oxide (especially ferrihydrite) contents showed that U(VI) sorption increased with the incremental addition of synthetic ferrihydrite into HFS, consistent with ferrihydrite being one of the most reactive U(VI) sorbents present in natural sediments. Surface complexation model (SCM) calculations for U(VI) sorption, using only U(VI) surface-reaction constants obtained from U(VI) sorption data on freshly synthesized ferrihydrite at different pHs, were similar to the measured U(VI) sorption results on pure synthetic ferrihydrite and on HFS with high contents of ferrihydrite (5 wt%) added. However, the SCM prediction using only U(VI) sorption reactions and constants for synthetic ferrihydrite overestimated U(VI) sorption on the natural HFS or HFS with addition of low amounts of added ferrihydrite (1 wt% added). Over-predicted U(VI) sorption was attributed to reduced reactivity of natural ferrihydrite present in Hanford Site sediments, compared to freshly prepared synthetic ferrihydrite. Even though the SCM general composite (GC) approach is considered to be a semi-quantitative estimation technique for contaminant sorption, which requires systematic experimental data on the sorbent-sorbate system being studied to obtain credible SCM parameters, the general composite SCM model was still found to be a useful technique for describing U(VI) sorption on natural sediments. Based on U(VI) batch sorption results, two simple U(VI) monodentate surface species, SO U O 2 HCO 3 and SO U O 2 OH on ferrihydrite and phyllosillicate in HFS, respectively, can be successfully used to describe U(VI) sorption onto Hanford Site sediment contacting varying geochemical solutions

  5. CHROMIUM(VI REDUCTION BY A MIXED CULTURE OF SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA DEVELOPED IN COLUMN REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Henny

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A lactate enriched mixed sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB culture was examined for the reduction of Cr(VI in a continuous flow system. The influent was mineral salts media added with lactate and sulfate with amounts of 8 and 6 mM respectively as electron donor and electron acceptor. The SRB culture was allowed to stabilize in the column before adding the Cr(VI to the influent. Chromium and sulfate reduction and lactate oxidation were examined by measuring the concentrations of Cr(Vl, sulfate and lactate in the influent and the effluent over time. The experiment was discontinued when Cr(VI concentration in the effiuent was breakthrough. In the absence of Cr(VI, sulfate was not completely reduced in the column, although lactate was completely oxidized and acetate as an intermediate product was not often detected. Almost all of Cr(VI loaded was reduced in the column seeded with the SRB culture at influent Cr(VI concentrations of 192,385 and769 mM. There was no significant Cr(VI loss in the control column, indicating that Cr(VI removal was due to the reduction of Cr(VI to Cr (lll by the SRB culture. The instantaneous Cr(VI removal decreased to a minimum of 32%, 24 days after the influent Cr(VI concentration was increased to 1540 mM, ancl sulfate removal efficiency decreased to a minimum of 17%. The SRB population in the column decreased 100 days after C(VI was added to the column. The total mass of Cr(VI reduced was approximately 878 mmol out of 881 mmol of Cr(Vl loaded in 116 days. The results clearly show that our developed SRB culture could reduced Cr(Vl considerably.

  6. Energy Transfer between U(VI) and Eu(III) Ions Adsorbed on a Silica Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. K.; Cha, W.; Cho, H. R.; Im, H. J.; Jung, E. C.; Song, K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Understanding of chemical behavior of actinide in a groundwater flow is important for assessing the possibility of their migration with water flows in a radioactive waste disposal site. Uranium is ubiquitous in the environment and a major actinide in a nuclear fuel cycle. Americium and curium having isotopes of long half life are minor actinides in a spent fuel. If a minor actinide coexists with uranium in a groundwater flow, some interactions between them could be expected such as minor actinide adsorption onto uranium precipitates and competition with each other for an adsorption to a mineral surface site. Eu(III) ion is frequently used as a chemical analogue of Am(III) and Cm(III) ions in a migration chemistry. The luminescent spectra of U(VI) and Eu(III) ions show a dependency on the coordination symmetry around them, and the changes in intensity or bandwidth of spectra can yield valuable information on their local environment. The luminescent lifetime also strongly depends on the coordination environment, and its measurement is valuable in probe studies on micro-heterogeneous systems. The excited U(VI) ion can be quenched through Stern.Volmer process, hydrolysis of excited species, exciplex formation, electron transfer or energy transfer. In case of U(VI)-Eu(III) system, the interaction between two ions can be studied by measuring the effect of Eu(III) ion on the quenching of U(VI) ion luminescence. There are only a few investigations on the interaction between an excited U(VI) ion and a lanthanide(III) ion. In perchlorate solution, the energy transfer to Eu(III) ion occurred only in solutions of pH>3.87. In this study, the quenching of U(VI) luminescence by Eu(III) on a silica surface was measured. The results will be discussed on the basis of a chemical interaction between them

  7. A Survey of Metal Lines at High Redshift. II. SDSS Absorption Line Studies—O VI Line Density, Space Density, and Gas Metallicity at z abs ~ 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N >=5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r >= 0.19 Å for the O VI 1032 Å component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs >= 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the "incompleteness and S/N-corrected" redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O VI,c /Δzc (2.8 secure lower limit for the contribution of O VI to the closure mass density at the redshifts probed here: ΩO VI (2.8 = 1.9 × 10-8 h -1. We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, {O VI}/{O}, and adopting the Anders & Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 = 3.6 × 10-4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution.

  8. Biosorption of Cr(VI) by coconut coir: Spectroscopic investigation on the reaction mechanism of Cr(VI) with lignocellulosic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Ying-Shuian; Wang, Shan-Li; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Tzou, Yu-Min; Huang, Jang-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the removal mechanism of Cr(VI) from water by coconut coir (CC) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that, upon reaction with CC at pH 3, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), which was either bound to CC or released back into solution. As revealed by the FTIR spectra of CC before and after reacting with Cr(VI), the phenolic methoxyl and hydroxyl groups of lignin in CC are the dominant drivers of Cr(VI) reduction, giving rise to carbonyl and carboxyl groups on CC. These functional groups can subsequently provide binding sites for Cr(III) resulting from Cr(VI) reduction. In conjunction with forming complexes with carbonyl and carboxyl groups, the formation of Cr(III) hydroxide precipitate could also readily occur as revealed by the linear combination fitting of the Cr K-edge XANES spectrum using a set of reference compounds. The phenolic groups in lignin are responsible for initiating Cr(VI) reduction, so lignocellulosic materials containing a higher amount of phenolic groups are expected to be more effective scavengers for removal of Cr(VI) from the environment.

  9. Biosorption of Cr(VI) by coconut coir: Spectroscopic investigation on the reaction mechanism of Cr(VI) with lignocellulosic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ying-Shuian [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shan-Li, E-mail: slwang@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Science Application and Dissemination, National Taichung University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tzou, Yu-Min; Huang, Jang-Hung [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the removal mechanism of Cr(VI) from water by coconut coir (CC) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that, upon reaction with CC at pH 3, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), which was either bound to CC or released back into solution. As revealed by the FTIR spectra of CC before and after reacting with Cr(VI), the phenolic methoxyl and hydroxyl groups of lignin in CC are the dominant drivers of Cr(VI) reduction, giving rise to carbonyl and carboxyl groups on CC. These functional groups can subsequently provide binding sites for Cr(III) resulting from Cr(VI) reduction. In conjunction with forming complexes with carbonyl and carboxyl groups, the formation of Cr(III) hydroxide precipitate could also readily occur as revealed by the linear combination fitting of the Cr K-edge XANES spectrum using a set of reference compounds. The phenolic groups in lignin are responsible for initiating Cr(VI) reduction, so lignocellulosic materials containing a higher amount of phenolic groups are expected to be more effective scavengers for removal of Cr(VI) from the environment.

  10. Biosorption of Cr(VI) by coconut coir: spectroscopic investigation on the reaction mechanism of Cr(VI) with lignocellulosic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying-Shuian; Wang, Shan-Li; Huang, Shiuh-Tsuen; Tzou, Yu-Min; Huang, Jang-Hung

    2010-07-15

    In this study, the removal mechanism of Cr(VI) from water by coconut coir (CC) was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and FTIR spectroscopy. The results showed that, upon reaction with CC at pH 3, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III), which was either bound to CC or released back into solution. As revealed by the FTIR spectra of CC before and after reacting with Cr(VI), the phenolic methoxyl and hydroxyl groups of lignin in CC are the dominant drivers of Cr(VI) reduction, giving rise to carbonyl and carboxyl groups on CC. These functional groups can subsequently provide binding sites for Cr(III) resulting from Cr(VI) reduction. In conjunction with forming complexes with carbonyl and carboxyl groups, the formation of Cr(III) hydroxide precipitate could also readily occur as revealed by the linear combination fitting of the Cr K-edge XANES spectrum using a set of reference compounds. The phenolic groups in lignin are responsible for initiating Cr(VI) reduction, so lignocellulosic materials containing a higher amount of phenolic groups are expected to be more effective scavengers for removal of Cr(VI) from the environment. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  12. The use of halloysite functionalized with isothiouronium salts as an organic/inorganic hybrid adsorbent for uranium(VI) ions removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysz-Płaska, A; Majdan, M; Tarasiuk, B; Sternik, D; Grabias, E

    2018-07-15

    Elimination of U(VI) from nuclear wastes and from the underground water near the uranium mines is the serious problem. Therefore search for new sorbents for U(VI) is still a big challenge for the scientists. This paper investigates of U(VI) ions sorption on halloysite modified with the isothiouronium salts: S-dodecaneisothiouronium bromide (ligand 1), S,S'-dodecane-1,12-diylbis(isothiouronium bromide) (ligand 2), S-hexadecaneisothiouronium chloride (ligand 3), S,S'-naphthalene-1,4-diylbis(methylisothiouronium) dichloride (ligand 4), and S,S'-2,5-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diylbis(methylisothiouronium) dichloride (ligand 5). It was established that halloysite modified by the ligands with four nitrogen atoms in their structure (ligand-5, 2 and 4) was characterized by higher sorption capacity compared with that modified by the ligands with two donor nitrogens (ligand-1 and 3). The maximum sorption capacity of halloysite-5 toward U(VI) was 157 mg U/g and this places the modified mineral among the most effective sorbents for U(VI) removal from wastes. As follows from ATR, XPS and thermal degradation spectra of the sorption products [R-S-C(NH)(NH 2 )] n = 1-2 (UO 2 2+ ) complexes are formed on the external surface of the halloysite whereas oligomeric hydroxy complexes (UO 2 ) 3 (OH) 5 + and (UO 2 ) 4 (OH) 7 + are present in the interior of halloysite structure and interact predominantly with aluminols. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of electronic nematicity in the interplay between s- and d-wave broken-symmetry states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kee, Hae-Young

    2010-01-01

    To understand the role of electronic nematic order in the interplay between s- and d-wave particle-particle or particle-hole condensate states, relations between various s- and d-wave order parameters are studied. We find that the nematic operator transforms two independent six-dimensional vectors. The d-wave superconducting, d-density wave, and antiferromagnetic orders are organized into one vector, and the s-wave superconducting, charge density wave, and spin-triplet d-density wave orders into the other vector. Each vector acts as a superspin and transforms under the action of SO(6) where charge, spin, η- and π-pairing, spin-triplet nematic operators satisfy the SO(6) Lie algebra. Electronic nematic order is not a part of the SO(6) group. It commutes with all 15 generators. Our findings imply that nematic order does not affect the competition among the order parameters within the same superspin, while it strongly interferes the interplay between two order parameters that belong to different superspins. For example, nematicity allows a linear coupling between d- and s-wave superconducting order parameters which modifies the superconducting transition temperature. A generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory and further physical implications are discussed.

  14. Isolation of a star-shaped uranium(V/VI) cluster from the anaerobic photochemical reduction of uranyl(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, Lucile; White, Sarah; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2016-01-01

    Actinide oxo clusters are an important class of compounds due to their impact on actinide migration in the environment. The photolytic reduction of uranyl(VI) has potential application in catalysis and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, but the intermediate species involved in this reduction have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that the photolysis of partially hydrated uranyl(VI) in anaerobic conditions leads to the reduction of uranyl(VI), and to the incorporation of the resulting U V species into the stable mixed-valent star-shaped U VI /U V oxo cluster [U(UO 2 ) 5 (μ 3 -O) 5 (PhCOO) 5 (Py) 7 ]. This cluster is only the second example of a U VI /U V cluster and the first one associating uranyl groups to a non-uranyl(V) center. The U V center in 1 is stable, while the reaction of uranyl(V) iodide with potassium benzoate leads to immediate disproportionation and formation of the U 12 IV U 4 V O 24 cluster {[K(Py) 2 ] 2 [K(Py)] 2 [U 16 O 24 (PhCOO) 24 (Py) 2 ]}.

  15. Measuring the band structures of periodic beams using the wave superposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyi, L.; Ruffini, V.; Balint, D.

    2016-11-01

    Phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials are artificially engineered periodic structures that have several interesting properties, such as negative effective stiffness in certain frequency ranges. An interesting property of phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials is the presence of band gaps, which are bands of frequencies where elastic waves cannot propagate. The presence of band gaps gives this class of materials the potential to be used as vibration isolators. In many studies, the band structures were used to evaluate the band gaps. The presence of band gaps in a finite structure is commonly validated by measuring the frequency response as there are no direct methods of measuring the band structures. In this study, an experiment was conducted to determine the band structure of one dimension phononic crystals with two wave modes, such as a bi-material beam, using the frequency response at only 6 points to validate the wave superposition method (WSM) introduced in a previous study. A bi-material beam and an aluminium beam with varying geometry were studied. The experiment was performed by hanging the beams freely, exciting one end of the beams, and measuring the acceleration at consecutive unit cells. The measured transfer function of the beams agrees with the analytical solutions but minor discrepancies. The band structure was then determined using WSM and the band structure of one set of the waves was found to agree well with the analytical solutions. The measurements taken for the other set of waves, which are the evanescent waves in the bi-material beams, were inaccurate and noisy. The transfer functions at additional points of one of the beams were calculated from the measured band structure using WSM. The calculated transfer function agrees with the measured results except at the frequencies where the band structure was inaccurate. Lastly, a study of the potential sources of errors was also conducted using finite element modelling and the errors in

  16. Chromium(VI) reduction by catechol(amine)s results in DNA cleavage in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, D I; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Levina, A

    2001-01-01

    is reduced considerably by treatment of the Cr(VI)/catechol(amine) mixtures with catalase, which shows that the DNA damage is H(2)O(2)-dependent and that the major reactive intermediates are likely to be Cr(V)-peroxo and mixed Cr(V)-catechol-peroxo complexes, rather than Cr(V)-catechol intermediates....

  17. Comparison of U(VI) adsorption onto nanoscale zero-valent iron and red soil in the presence of U(VI)–CO_3/Ca–U(VI)–CO_3 complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhibin; Liu, Jun; Cao, Xiaohong; Luo, Xuanping; Hua, Rong; Liu, Yan; Yu, Xiaofeng; He, Likai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • NZVI can be used for adsorbing U(VI)–CO_3 complexes. • Use of NZVI is feasible for remediation of uranium-contaminated soils. • The mechanism of U(VI)–CO_3 complexes adsorbing onto NZVI has been explained. - Abstract: The influence of U(VI)–CO_3 and Ca–U(VI)–CO_3 complexes on U(VI) adsorption onto red soil and nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was investigated using batch adsorption and fixed-bed column experiments to simulate the feasibility of NZVI as the reactive medium in permeable- reactive barriers (PRB) for in situ remediation of uranium-contaminated red soils. The adsorption capacity (q_e) and distribution constant (K_d) of NZVI and red soil decreased with increasing pH, dissolved carbonate and calcium concentrations, but the q_e and K_d values of NZVI were 5–10 times higher than those of red soil. The breakthrough pore volume (PV) values increased with the decrease of pH, dissolved carbonate and calcium concentration; however, the breakthrough PV values of the PRB column filled with 5% NZVI were 2.0–3.5 times higher than the 100% red soil column. The U(VI)–CO_3 complexes adsorbed onto the surface of red soil/NZVI (≡SOH) to form SO–UO_2CO_3"− or SO–UO_2 (CO_3)_2"3"−. XPS and XRD analysis further confirmed the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) and the formation of FeOOH on NZVI surfaces. The findings of this study are significant to the remediation of uranium-contaminated red soils and the consideration of practical U(VI) species in the natural environment.

  18. On reforming chapter VI of the Euratom Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandtner, W.

    1984-01-01

    The supply of uranium to the countries of the EC has been provided for in Chapter VI of the European Treaty. An Euratom Supply Agency was created, which enjoys a monopoly. However, this arrangement was hardly ever utilized in practice. For this reason, several attempts were made in the course of time to reform Chapter VI, most recently in 1979 on the initiative of France. The EC Commission now presented a ''new nuclear power strategy'' in early 1982, which was followed by a detailed report about the proposed changes in late 1982. Its main points as outlined and discussed in this article are these: defining the range of application; the unity of the market; international relations; solidarity measures; the future role of the Supply Agency. (orig.) [de

  19. Large amplitude solitary waves in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere, magnetopause and bow shock: Polar and Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cattell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary waves with large electric fields (up to 100's of mV/m have been observed throughout the magnetosphere and in the bow shock. We discuss observations by Polar at high altitudes ( ~ 4-8 RE , during crossings of the plasma sheet boundary and cusp, and new measurements by Polar at the equatorial magnetopause and by Cluster near the bow shock, in the cusp and at the plasma sheet boundary. We describe the results of a statistical study of electron solitary waves observed by Polar at high altitudes. The mean solitary wave duration was ~ 2 ms. The waves have velocities from ~ 1000 km/s to  > 2500 km/s. Observed scale sizes (parallel to the magnetic field are on the order of 1-10lD, with eF/kTe from ~ 0.01 to O(1. The average speed of solitary waves at the plasma sheet boundary is faster than the average speed observed in the cusp and at cusp injections. The amplitude increases with both velocity and scale size. These observations are all consistent with the identification of the solitary waves as electron hole modes. We also report the discovery of solitary waves at the magnetopause, observed in Polar data obtained at the subsolar equatorial magnetopause. Both positive and negative potential structures have been observed with amplitudes up to ~ 25 mV/m. The velocities range from 150 km/s to >2500 km/s, with scale sizes the order of a kilometer (comparable to the Debye length. Initial observations of solitary waves by the four Cluster satellites are utilized to discuss the scale sizes and time variability of the regions where the solitary waves occur. Preliminary results from the four Cluster satellites have given a glimpse of the spatial and temporal variability of the occurrence of solitary waves and their association with other wave modes. In all the events studied, significant differences were observed in the waveforms observed simultaneously at the four locations separated by ~ 1000 km. When solitary waves were seen at one satellite, they

  20. Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    O'Boyle, Louise; Elsäßer, Björn; Whittaker, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Wave energy converters (WECs) inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An ...

  1. Controllable one-pot synthesis of various one-dimensional Bi2S3 nanostructures and their enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Enlai; Gao, Xuehui; Etogo, Atangana; Xie, Yunlong; Zhong, Yijun; Hu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 1D Bi 2 S 3 nanostructures were prepared by a facile ethanol-assisted one-pot reaction. • The size and morphology of the products can be conveniently varied. • The sulfur source plays a crucial role in determining the morphologies of products. • 1D Bi 2 S 3 nanostructures exhibit enhanced photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI). • Bi 2 S 3 nanowires exhibit the highest photoreduction activity among three samples. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) Bi 2 S 3 nanostructures with various morphologies, including nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes, have been successfully synthesized through a facile ethanol-assisted one-pot reaction. It is found that the size, morphology and structure of the products can be conveniently varied or controlled by simply adjusting the volume ratio of ethanol and water in the reaction system. Further experimental results indicate that sulfur source also plays the other crucial role in determining the product morphology. The synthetic strategy developed in this work is highly efficient in producing 1D Bi 2 S 3 nanostructures with high quality and large quantity. Photocatalysis experiments show the as-prepared 1D Bi 2 S 3 nanostructures possess significantly enhanced photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) when exposed to visible light irradiation. Especially, Bi 2 S 3 nanowires exhibit the highest photocatalytic activity and can be used repeatedly after washed with dilute HCl

  2. Anomalous shear wave delays and surface wave velocities at Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.G.; Boore, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate the effects of a geothermal area on the propagation of intermediate-period (1--30 s) teleseismic body waves and surface waves, a specially designed portable seismograph system was operated in Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming. Travel time residuals, relative to a station outside the caldera, of up to 2 s for compressional phases are in agreement with short-period residuals for P phases measured by other investigators. Travel time delays for shear arrivals in the intermediate-period band range from 2 to 9 s and decrease with increasing dT/dΔ. Measured Rayleigh wave phase velocities are extremely low, ranging from 3.2 km/s at 27-s period to 2.0 km/s at 7-s period; the estimated uncertainty associated with these values is 15%. We propose a model for compressional and shear velocities and Poisson's ratio beneath the Yellowstone caldera which fits the teleseismic body and surface wave data: it consists of a highly anomalous crust with an average shear velocity of 3.0 km/s overlying an upper mantle with average velocity of 4.1 km/s. The high average value of Poisson's ratio in the crust (0.34) suggests the presence of fluids there; Poisson's ratio in the mantle between 40 and approximately 200 km is more nearly normal (0.29) than in the crust. A discrepancy between normal values of Poisson's ratio in the crust calculated from short-period data and high values calculated from teleseismic data can be resolved by postulating a viscoelastic crustal model with frequency-dependent shear velocity and attenuation

  3. Application of NKF-6 zeolite for the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengfei Zong; Hai Wang; Hui Pan; Yaolin Zhao; Chaohui He

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the application of NKF-6 zeolite as an adsorbent for the removal of U(VI) from radionuclides and heavy metal ions polluted water, herein, NKF-6 zeolite was employed to remove U(VI) at different experimental conditions. The influence of solid/liquid ratio, contact time, pH, ionic strength, humic substances and temperature on sorption of U(VI) to NKF-6 zeolite was investigated using batch technique under ambient conditions. The experimental results demonstrated that the sorption of U(VI) on NKF-6 zeolite was strongly dependent on pH. The sorption property of U(VI) was influenced by ionic strength at pH 7.0. The presence of fulvic acid or humic acid promoted the sorption of U(VI) on NKF-6 zeolite at low pH values while restrained the sorption at high pH values. The thermodynamic parameters (i.e., ΔS 0 , ΔH 0 , and ΔG 0 ) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms demonstrated that the sorption process of U(VI) on NKF-6 zeolite was endothermic and spontaneous. At low pH values, the sorption of U(VI) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation and ion exchange with Na + /H + on NKF-6 zeolite surfaces, while inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH values. From the experimental results, one can conclude that NKF-6 zeolite can be used as a potential adsorbent for the preconcentration and solidification of U(VI) from large volumes of aqueous solutions. (author)

  4. Measurement of lower-hybrid-driven current profile by Abel inversion of electron-cyclotron wave transmission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Caron, X.; Meyer, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A method for measuring the radial profile of the lower-hybrid-driven current in a low-density tokamak plasma using electron-cyclotron wave attenuation is discussed. This diagnostic scheme is reminiscent of the transmission interferometry approach, commonly used in tokamaks to measure the plasma density, but now the wave amplitude instead of the phase is measured. Wave attenuation of the ordinary mode at ω p much-lt ω c along vertical chords is measured; at these frequencies, the waves are absorbed by the superthermal tail sustained by lower-hybrid waves and the local wave absorption coefficient is proportional to the noninductive current density. The radial profile of this current is obtained from Abel inversion. An application to the Tore Supra tokamak is presented

  5. Comparison of Microwave Backscatter Measurements and Small-scale Surface Wave Measurements Made from the Dutch Ocean Research Tower "Noordwijk"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeij, P.; Halsema, D. van; Oost, W.A.; Calkoen, C.J.; Vogelzang, J.; Waas, S.; Jaehne, B.

    1991-01-01

    To improve the understanding of the interaction between microwaves and water waves the VIERS-l project started in 1986 with the preparation of two wind/wave tank experiments and an ocean tower experiment. In February 1988, combined measurements of microwave backscatter, wind, waves and gas exchange

  6. O tratamento dos doentes insanos de Vila Viçosa no hospital de Rilhafoles (segunda metade do século XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo de Araújo, Maria Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we examined the procedural requirements related to the sending of insane patients of Vila Viçosa to the hospital of Rilhafoles, in the second half of the 19th century, and the relationships established with the hospital of this Alentejo town relating to the payment of treatment. Faced with a severe financial crisis, the hospital of Vila Viçosa systematically refused the responsibility to send the insane patients to the Rilhafoles hospital in an attempt to pass this burden on the administration of the county, being very reluctant to pay the bills that came to him from the hospital of São José. The conflict between the two institutions came to the monarch with no other alternative than the payment, the hospital of village of the Alentejo region proceeded to sending parcels of money, albeit way too late. For the realization of this work we use the books of the Misericórdia and the documents of the Civil Governor found of the city of Évora under the custody of the Distrital Archive of the same city. This documents results, basically, from the correspondence between the Misericórdia of Vila Viçosa, the council administrator and the civil governor of Évora.[pt] Neste trabalho analisamos os trâmites processuais respeitantes ao envio de doentes insanos de Vila Viçosa para o hospital de Rilhafoles, na segunda metade do século XIX, e as relações estabelecidas com o hospital desta vila alentejana relativamente ao pagamento do tratamento. A braços com uma grave crise financeira, o hospital de Vila Viçosa recusava sistematicamente a responsabilidade de enviar os alienados para Rilhafoles, numa tentativa de passar esse ónus para a administração do concelho, mostrando-se muito renitente no pagamento das faturas que lhe chegavam do hospital de São José. O conflito entre as duas instituições chegou ao monarca e sem outra alternativa que a do pagamento, o hospital da vila alentejana procedeu ao envio de parcelas de dinheiro

  7. Sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.

    1985-01-01

    The sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide was investigated in dependence on pH, time of sorption, and on the concnetrations of sorbate and sorbent. The mechanisms of the sorption of Crsup(3+) and CrOsub(4)sup(2-) traces on lead sulfide are discussed; a difference between CrOsub(4)sup(2-) sorption on PbS and α-Fesub(2)Osub(3) was found. Sulfates and molybdates affect the removal of chromates from aqueous solutions. Lead sulfide carrier prepared in this work was also used for the preconcentration of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) from tap water. (author)

  8. Stellar Laboratories: New GeV and Ge VI Oscillator Strengths and their Validation in the Hot White Dwarf RE0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Biemont, E.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art spectral analysis of hot stars by means of non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques has arrived at a high level of sophistication. The analysis of high-resolution and high-S/N spectra, however, is strongly restricted by the lack of reliable atomic data for highly ionized species from intermediate-mass metals to trans-iron elements. Especially data for the latter has only been sparsely calculated. Many of their lines are identified in spectra of extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars. A reliable determination of their abundances establishes crucial constraints for AGB nucleosynthesis simulations and, thus, for stellar evolutionary theory. Aims. In a previous analysis of the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, spectral lines of highly ionized Ga, Ge, As, Se, Kr, Mo, Sn, Te, I, and Xe were identified. Individual abundance determinations are hampered by the lack of reliable oscillator strengths. Most of these identified lines stem from Ge V. In addition, we identified Ge VI lines for the first time. We calculated Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths in order to reproduce the observed spectrum. Methods. We newly calculated Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our non-LTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Ge IV-VI spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N FUV (FUSE) and UV (ORFEUS/BEFS, IUE) observations of RE 0503-289. Results. In the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, we identify four Ge IV, 37 Ge V, and seven Ge VI lines. Most of these lines are identified for the first time in any star. We can reproduce almost all Ge IV, GeV, and Ge VI lines in the observed spectrum of RE 0503-289 (T(sub eff) = 70 kK, log g = 7.5) at log Ge = -3.8 +/- 0.3 (mass fraction, about 650 times solar). The Ge IV/V/VI ionization equilibrium, that is a very sensitive T(sub eff) indicator, is reproduced well. Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a

  9. How to fully exploit frequency-dependent S-wave travel times for refining the Earth's mantle imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaroli, C.; Nolet, G.; Charlety, J.; Debayle, E.; Sambridge, M.

    2011-12-01

    To better constrain the structure of the Earth's interior, new theoretical developments on seismic wave propagation have emerged in recent years, and received increasing attention in global tomography. A recent focus has been to take into account the "Finite-Frequency" (FF) behaviour of seismic waves (e.g. wavefront-healing). We have chosen to use the FF approach by Dahlen et al. (2000) in multiple frequency bands, based on a ray-Born approximation, also known as Multiple-Frequency Tomography (MFT). The principle of MFT is to invert delay times measured in several frequency bands, using 3-D FF sensitivity kernels for modeling single-scattering phenomena undergone by seismic waves. Such FF effects are intrinsically always present in delay times measured by waveform cross-correlation (as opposed to onset measurements in ray theory). In this study, we pose the question how much MFT really contributes to improving the 3-D imaging of the deep Earth structure? We investigate the role of the model parameterization and regularization when using MFT, in our ability/unability to map the structural dispersion present in the data into a tomographic model. Our data consist of 274 066 globally distributed S, ScS and SS time residuals measured at 10, 15, 22 and 34 s period (Zaroli et al., 2010). Two ways of parameterizing the Earth's mantle, and their implications on the model obtained using MFT, are presented. One is based on irregularly spaced spherical triangular prisms, with nodes spacing ranging from 200 to 900 km, i.e. a "coarse" parameterization. The other is based on a "cubed Earth", that consists of cubic cells of 70 km size near the top, down to 35 km near the base of the mantle, i.e. a "fine" parameterization. We also investigate how the model regularization (i.e. choice of the damping parameter in the inversion) may prevent us from fully exploiting the extra information, on the 3-D structure, present in our multi-band dataset. We present a comparison of a multi

  10. Analysis of the 3d9ns (n = 5, 6), 3d95p, 3d94f and 3d84s4p configurations of five times ionized arsenic (As VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabtsev, A.N.; Gayasov, R.R.; Joshi, Y.N.; Van het Hof, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectrum of arsenic was photographed in the 100-1250 A region on grazing and normal incidence spectrographs. The spectrum of As VI was extended. Seven out of eight levels of the 3d 9 5s and 6s configurations, 12 out of 12 levels of the 3d 9 5p configuration, 13 out of 20 levels of the 3d 9 4f configuration and 35 levels belonging to the 3d 9 4s4p configuration have been established. Least-Square-Fitted parametric calculations involving configuration interactions both in even and odd parity systems were carried out to adequately interpret the spectrum. One hundred and thirty-two additional lines were classified in the As VI spectrum. A new value of the ionization limit was obtained. Thus, the 3d 9 2 D 5/2 ground level in As VII lies 977500 cm -1 (121.17 eV) above the As VI ground state. (orig.)

  11. The behavior of dissolution/passivation and the transformation of passive films during electrocoagulation: Influences of initial pH, Cr(VI) concentration, and alternating pulsed current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhao-hui; Xu, Hai-yin; Zeng, Guang-ming; Luo, Yuan-ling; Yang, Xia; Huang, Jing; Wang, Li-ke; Song, Pei-pei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Initial pH, Cr(VI) and APC could affect the behavior of dissolution/passivation in Fe-EC. • A dissolution/passivation region was constructed with different initial pH-Cr(VI). • The film was rich in Fe and Cr at high Cr(VI), whereas with lots of Fe but negligible of Cr at low Cr(VI). • The film was non-protective at long T APC , but became more stable and protective at short T APC . • Behavior of dissolution/passivation and passive film transformation in Fe-EC was elucidated. - Abstract: The passivation behavior of an iron anode for electrocoagulation (EC) was first investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Tested initial pH range, Cr(VI) concentration and alternating pulsed current (APC) were 4.0 to 8.0, 52 to 520 mg L −1 and 10 to 590 s, respectively. The distance between electrodes was 25 mm, and K 2 SO 4 (1 g L −1 ) was used as the supporting electrolyte in a 2.5 L EC reactor. Results confirmed that initial pH, Cr(VI) concentration, and APC significantly influence the extent of passivation. Then, based on the interaction effect on passivation behavior between initial pH and Cr(VI) in RSM, a pH-Cr(VI)-dissolution/passivation diagram was constructed with galvanostatic measurements. The diagram showed an optimal dissolution region for EC operation. This optimum was characterized by a reasonable final pH for extended precipitation and little passivation. Results of the cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a significant difference in the composition and stability of oxide films in the region with more pronounced passivation. Interestingly, the APC had both positive and negative effect on the passivation behavior. Long period of APC (T APC = 590 s) produced a non-protective film, which favored the Fe 0 dissolution. However, a more stable and protective passive film with a uniform structure of Fe and Cr oxides was formed by short T APC (10 s). Based on the above results, this study elucidated the

  12. Statistical analysis of mesospheric gravity waves over King Sejong Station, Antarctica (62.2°S, 58.8°W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Hosik; Jee, Geonhwa; Kim, Yong; Ham, Young-bae; Song, In-Sun

    2017-03-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of mesospheric short period (King Sejong Station (KSS) (62.22°S, 58.78°W) during a period of 2008-2015. By applying 2-dimensional FFT to time differenced images, we derived horizontal wavelengths, phase speeds, and propagating directions (188 and 173 quasi-monochromatic waves from OH and OI airglow images, respectively). The majority of the observed waves propagated predominantly westward, implying that eastward waves were filtered out by strong eastward stratospheric winds. In order to obtain the intrinsic properties of the observed waves, we utilized winds simultaneously measured by KSS Meteor Radar and temperatures from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). More than half the waves propagated horizontally, as waves were in Doppler duct or evanescent in the vertical direction. This might be due to strong eastward background wind field in the mesosphere over KSS. For freely propagating waves, the vertical wavelengths were in the interquartile range of 9-33 km with a median value of 15 km. The vertical wavelengths are shorter than those observed at Halley station (76°S, 27°W) where the majority of the observed waves were freely propagating. The difference in the wave propagating characteristics between KSS and Halley station suggests that gravity waves may affect mesospheric dynamics in this part of the Antarctic Peninsula more strongly than over the Antarctic continent. Furthermore, strong wind shear over KSS played an important role in changing the vertical wavenumbers as the waves propagated upward between two airglow layers (87 and 96 km).

  13. Estimating the Wet-Rock P-Wave Velocity from the Dry-Rock P-Wave Velocity for Pyroclastic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Sair; Fener, Mustafa; Kilic, Cumhur Ozcan

    2017-07-01

    Seismic methods are widely used for the geotechnical investigations in volcanic areas or for the determination of the engineering properties of pyroclastic rocks in laboratory. Therefore, developing a relation between the wet- and dry-rock P-wave velocities will be helpful for engineers when evaluating the formation characteristics of pyroclastic rocks. To investigate the predictability of the wet-rock P-wave velocity from the dry-rock P-wave velocity for pyroclastic rocks P-wave velocity measurements were conducted on 27 different pyroclastic rocks. In addition, dry-rock S-wave velocity measurements were conducted. The test results were modeled using Gassmann's and Wood's theories and it was seen that estimates for saturated P-wave velocity from the theories fit well measured data. For samples having values of less and greater than 20%, practical equations were derived for reliably estimating wet-rock P-wave velocity as function of dry-rock P-wave velocity.

  14. Reactivity of nitrido complexes of ruthenium(VI), osmium(VI), and manganese(V) bearing Schiff base and simple anionic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Wai-Lun; Lam, William W Y; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2014-02-18

    Nitrido complexes (M≡N) may be key intermediates in chemical and biological nitrogen fixation and serve as useful reagents for nitrogenation of organic compounds. Osmium(VI) nitrido complexes bearing 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (terpy), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), or hydrotris(1-pyrazolyl)borate anion (Tp) ligands are highly electrophilic: they can react with a variety of nucleophiles to generate novel osmium(IV)/(V) complexes. This Account describes our recent results studying the reactivity of nitridocomplexes of ruthenium(VI), osmium(VI), and manganese(V) that bear Schiff bases and other simple anionic ligands. We demonstrate that these nitrido complexes exhibit rich chemical reactivity. They react with various nucleophiles, activate C-H bonds, undergo N···N coupling, catalyze the oxidation of organic compounds, and show anticancer activities. Ruthenium(VI) nitrido complexes bearing Schiff base ligands, such as [Ru(VI)(N)(salchda)(CH3OH)](+) (salchda = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)o-cyclohexyldiamine dianion), are highly electrophilic. This complex reacts readily at ambient conditions with a variety of nucleophiles at rates that are much faster than similar reactions using Os(VI)≡N. This complex also carries out unique reactions, including the direct aziridination of alkenes, C-H bond activation of alkanes and C-N bond cleavage of anilines. The addition of ligands such as pyridine can enhance the reactivity of [Ru(VI)(N)(salchda)(CH3OH)](+). Therefore researchers can tune the reactivity of Ru≡N by adding a ligand L trans to nitride: L-Ru≡N. Moreover, the addition of various nucleophiles (Nu) to Ru(VI)≡N initially generate the ruthenium(IV) imido species Ru(IV)-N(Nu), a new class of hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) reagents. Nucleophiles also readily add to coordinated Schiff base ligands in Os(VI)≡N and Ru(VI)≡N complexes. These additions are often stereospecific, suggesting that the nitrido ligand has a directing effect on the incoming nucleophile. M≡N is also

  15. Development of fiber optic sensors at TNO for explosion and shock wave measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Smorenburg, C.; Bree, J.L.M.J. van; Bouma, R.H.B.; Meer, B.J. van der; Prinse, W.C.; Scholtes, J.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    Fiber Optic sensors are found to be very suitable for explosion and shock wave measurements because they are immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). In the past few years, TNO has developed a number of sensor systems for explosion and shock wave measurements in which the optical fiber is a

  16. Influence of Calcite and Dissolved Calcium on Uranium(VI) Sorption to a Hanford Subsurface Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Stone, Alan T.; Bai, Jing; Zachara, John M.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of calcite and dissolved calcium on U(VI) adsorption was investigated using a calcite-containing sandy silt/clay sediment from the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site. U(VI) adsorption to sediment, treated sediment, and sediment size fractions was studied in solutions that both had and had not been preequilibrated with calcite, at initial [U(VI)] ) 10-7-10-5 mol/L and final pH ) 6.0- 10.0. Kinetic and reversibility studies (pH 8.4) showed rapid sorption (30 min), with reasonable reversibility in the 3-day reaction time. Sorption from solutions equilibrated with calcite showed maximum U(VI) adsorption at pH 8.4 (0.1. In contrast, calcium-free systems showed the greatest adsorption at pH 6.0-7.2. At pH > 8.4, U(VI) adsorption was identical from calcium-free and calcium-containing solutions. For calcite-presaturated systems, both speciation calculations and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic analyses indicated that aqueous U(VI) was increasingly dominated by Ca2UO2(CO3)3 0(aq) at pH<8.4 and that formation of Ca2UO2(CO3)3 0(aq) is what suppresses U(VI) adsorption. Above pH 8.4, aqueous U(VI) speciation was dominated by UO2(CO3)3 4- in all solutions. Finally, results also showed that U(VI) adsorption was additive in regard to size fraction but not in regard to mineral mass: Carbonate minerals may have blocked U(VI) access to surfaces of higher sorption affinity

  17. Optimisation of 40 Gb/s wavelength converters based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, K.; Petersen, Martin Nordal; Herrera, J.

    2007-01-01

    The optimum operating powers and wavelengths for a 40 Gb/s wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor 14 optical amplifier are inferred from experimental results. From these measurements, some general rules of thumb are derived for this kind of devices. Generally, the optim...

  18. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 16 (2010), s. 1837-1845 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) GPP301/10/P548; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651 Program:KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * electroactive labels * osmium(VI) complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  19. Exploration of deep S-wave velocity structure using microtremor array technique to estimate long-period ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Higashi, Sadanori; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2007-01-01

    In this study, microtremor array measurements were conducted at 9 sites in the Niigata plain to explore deep S-wave velocity structures for estimation of long-period earthquake ground motion. The 1D S-wave velocity profiles in the Niigata plain are characterized by 5 layers with S-wave velocities of 0.4, 0.8, 1.5, 2.1 and 3.0 km/s, respectively. The depth to the basement layer is deeper in the Niigata port area located at the Japan sea side of the Niigata plain. In this area, the basement depth is about 4.8 km around the Seirou town and about 4.1 km around the Niigata city, respectively. These features about the basement depth in the Niigata plain are consistent with the previous surveys. In order to verify the profiles derived from microtremor array exploration, we estimate the group velocities of Love wave for four propagation paths of long-period earthquake ground motion during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake by multiple filter technique, which were compared with the theoretical ones calculated from the derived profiles. As a result, it was confirmed that the group velocities from the derived profiles were in good agreement with the ones from long-period earthquake ground motion records during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake. Furthermore, we applied the estimation method of design basis earthquake input for seismically isolated nuclear power facilities by using normal mode solution to estimate long-period earthquake ground motion during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake. As a result, it was demonstrated that the applicability of the above method for the estimation of long-period earthquake ground motion were improved by using the derived 1D S-wave velocity profile. (author)

  20. Four-wave mixing and parametric four-wave mixing near the 4P-4S transition of the potassium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katharakis, M; Merlemis, N; Serafetinides, A; Efthimiopoulos, T

    2002-01-01

    Potassium 4S 1/2 -6S 1/2 two-photon excitation initiates the emission of several internally generated photons. For the first time two emission lines, one close to and one below the potassium 4P 3/2 level, are reported for low pumping intensity. Radiation emitted below the 4P 3/2 level is due to a parametric four-wave mixing process that uses the photons emitted at the 5P 3/2 -4S 1/2 transition and a two-step four-wave mixing process generates the line emitted close to the 4P 3/2 level

  1. Evaluation of dynamic properties of soft ground using an S-wave vibrator and seismic cones. Part 2. Vs change during the vibration; S ha vibrator oyobi seismic cone wo mochiita gen`ichi jiban no doteki bussei hyoka. 2. Kashinchu no Vs no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inazaki, T [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    With an objective to measure a behavior of the surface ground during a strong earthquake directly on the actual ground and make evaluation thereon, a proposal was made on an original location measuring and analyzing method using an S-wave vibrator and seismic cones. This system consists of an S-wave vibrator and a static cone penetrating machine, and different types of measuring cones. A large number of measuring cones are inserted initially in the object bed of the ground, and variation in the vibration generated by the vibrator is measured. This method can derive decrease in rigidity rate of the actual ground according to dynamic strain levels, or in other words, the dynamic nonlinearity. The strain levels can be controlled with a range from 10 {sup -5} to 10 {sup -3} by varying the distance from the S-wave vibrator. Furthermore, the decrease in the rigidity rate can be derived by measuring variations in the S-wave velocity by using the plank hammering method during the vibration. Field measurement is as easy as it can be completed in about half a day including preparatory works, and the data analysis is also simple. The method is superior in mobility and workability. 9 figs.

  2. Mechanisms of chromium (VI)-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Fernanda A; Machiavelli, Leticia I; Miler, Eliana A; Cabilla, Jimena P; Duvilanski, Beatriz H

    2008-07-30

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is a highly toxic metal. Exposure to Cr (VI) compounds may affect reproductive functions. Due to the importance of anterior pituitary hormones on reproductive physiology we have studied the effects of Cr (VI) on anterior pituitary. We previously demonstrated that, after in vivo Cr (VI) administration, Cr accumulates in the pituitary gland and affects prolactin secretion. In vitro, Cr (VI) causes apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells due to oxidative stress generation. To better understand the mechanisms involved in Cr (VI)-induced apoptosis we studied: (a) whether Cr (VI) affects the intracellular antioxidant response and (b) which of the apoptotic factors participates in Cr (VI) effect. Our results show that Cr (VI) treatment induces a decrease in catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity but does not modify glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Cr (VI) exposure causes an increase of GSH levels. p53 and Bax mRNA are also upregulated by the metal. Pifithrin alpha, a p53 transcriptional inhibitor, increases Cr (VI) cytotoxicity, suggesting a role of p53 as a survival molecule. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) could prevent Bax mRNA increase and caspase 3 activation, confirming that Cr (VI)-induced apoptosis involves oxidative stress generation.

  3. Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman J. M. Horing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green’s function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green’s function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green’s function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function. The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ(x-potential profile. This retarded Green’s function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green’s function for the system without the δ(x-potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green’s function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.

  4. Automation of measurement of heights waves around a model ship; Mokeisen mawari no hako keisoku no jidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, M; Kato, M; Yanagida, F [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Trial fabrication and tests were performed on an instrument to automate measurement of heights of waves around a model ship. The currently used electric wave height measuring instrument takes long time for measurement, hence poor in efficiency. The method for processing optical images also has a problem in accuracy. Therefore, a computer controlled system was structured by using AC servo motors in driving the X and Y axes of a traverse equipment. Equipment was fabricated to automate the wave height measurement, in which four servo type wave height meters are installed on a moving rack in the lateral (Y-axial) direction so that wave heights to be measured by four meters can be measured automatically all at once. Wave heights can be measured continuously by moving the moving rack at a constant speed, verifying that wave shapes in longitudinal cross sections can be acquired by only one towing. Time required in the measurements using the instrument was 40 hours as a net time for fixed point measurement and 12 hours for continuous measurement, or 52 hours in total. On the other hand, the time may reach 240 hours for fixed point measurement when the conventional all-point manual traverse equipment is used. Enormous effects were obtained from automating the instrument. Collection of wave height data will continue also on tankers and other types of ships. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Kinetics of Uranium(VI) Desorption from Contaminated Sediments: Effect of Geochemical Conditions and Model Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shi, Zhenqing; Zachara, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Stirred-flow cell experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl (U(VI)) desorption from a contaminated sediment collected from the Hanford 300 Area at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, Washington. Three influent solutions of variable pH, Ca and carbonate concentrations that affected U(VI) aqueous and surface speciation were used under dynamic flow conditions to evaluate the effect of geochemical conditions on the rate of U(VI) desorption. The measured rate of U(VI) desorption varied with solution chemical composition that evolved as a result of thermodynamic and kinetic interactions between the influent solutions and sediment. The solution chemical composition that led to a lower equilibrium U(VI) sorption to the solid phase yielded a faster desorption rate. The experimental results were used to evaluate a multi-rate, surface complexation model (SCM) that has been proposed to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in the Hanford sediment that contained complex sorbed U(VI) species in mass transfer limited domains. The model was modified and supplemented by including multi-rate, ion exchange reactions to describe the geochemical interactions between the solutions and sediment. With the same set of model parameters, the modified model reasonably well described the evolution of major ions and the rates of U(VI) desorption under variable geochemical and flow conditions, implying that the multi-rate SCM is an effective way to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in subsurface sediments

  6. Modeling of Cr(VI) Bioreduction Under Fermentative and Denitrifying Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, S.; Steefel, C.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    The mechanisms of bioreductive immobilization of Cr(VI) were investigated by reactive transport modeling of a set of flow-through column experiments performed using natural Hanford 100H aquifer sediment. The columns were continuously eluted with 5 μM Cr(VI), 5 mM lactate as the electron donor, and selected electron acceptors (tested individually). Here we focus on the two separate experimental conditions that showed the most removal of Cr(VI) from solution: fermentation and denitrification. In each case, a network of enzymatic and abiotic reaction pathways was considered to interpret the rate of chromate reduction. The model included biomass growth and decay, and thermodynamic limitations on reaction rates, and was constrained by effluent concentrations measured by IC and ICP-MS and additional information from bacterial isolates from column effluent. Under denitrifying conditions, Cr(VI) reduction was modeled as co-metabolic with nitrate reduction based on experimental observations and previous studies on a denitrifying bacterium derived from the Hanford 100H aquifer. The reactive transport model results supported this interpretation of the reaction mechanism and were used to quantify the efficiency of the process. The models results also suggest that biomass growth likely relied on a nitrogen source other than ammonium (e.g. nitrate). Under fermentative conditions and based on cell suspension studies performed on a bacterial isolate from the columns, the model assumes that Cr(VI) reduction is carried out directly by fermentative bacteria that convert lactate into acetate and propionate. The evolution to complete lactate fermentation and Cr(VI) reduction took place over a week's time and simulations were used to determine an estimate for a lower limit of the rate of chromate reduction by calibration with the flow-through column experimental results. In spite of sulfate being added to these columns, sulfate reduction proceeded at a slow rate and was not well

  7. A brute-force spectral approach for wave estimation using measured vessel motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik D.; Brodtkorb, Astrid H.; Sørensen, Asgeir J.

    2018-01-01

    , and the procedure is simple in its mathematical formulation. The actual formulation is extending another recent work by including vessel advance speed and short-crested seas. Due to its simplicity, the procedure is computationally efficient, providing wave spectrum estimates in the order of a few seconds......The article introduces a spectral procedure for sea state estimation based on measurements of motion responses of a ship in a short-crested seaway. The procedure relies fundamentally on the wave buoy analogy, but the wave spectrum estimate is obtained in a direct - brute-force - approach......, and the estimation procedure will therefore be appealing to applications related to realtime, onboard control and decision support systems for safe and efficient marine operations. The procedure's performance is evaluated by use of numerical simulation of motion measurements, and it is shown that accurate wave...

  8. Helicon wave field measurements in Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneses, Juan Francisco; Piotrowicz, Pawel; Goulding, Richard; Caughman, John; Showers, Missy; Kafle, Nischal; Rapp, Juergen; Campbell, Ian; Proto-MPEX Team

    2016-10-01

    A high density Deuterium discharge (ne 5e19 m-3, Te 4 eV) has been recently observed in ProtoMPEX (Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment). The discharge (100 kW, 13.56 MHz, D2, 700 G at the source, 1e4 G at the Target) begins with a low density plasma with hollow Te profile and transitions in about 100 ms to a high density mode with flat Te profile. It is believed that the transition to the high density mode is produced by a ``helicon resonance'' as evidenced by the centrally-peaked power deposition profile observed with IR imaging on a 2 mm thick metallic target plate. In this work, we present b-dot probe measurements of the radial helicon wavefields 30 cm downstream of the antenna during both the low and high density modes. In addition, we compare the experimental results with full wave simulations. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Oxidation of indometacin by ferrate (VI): kinetics, degradation pathways, and toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junlei; Wang, Yahui; Liu, Guoguang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Fengliang; Ma, Jingshuai; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Haijin; Lv, Wenying

    2017-04-01

    The oxidation of indometacin (IDM) by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)) was investigated to determine the reaction kinetics, transformation products, and changes in toxicity. The reaction between IDM and Fe(VI) followed first-order kinetics with respect to each reactant. The apparent second-order rate constants (k app ) decreased from 9.35 to 6.52 M -1  s -1 , as the pH of the solution increased from 7.0 to 10.0. The pH dependence of k app might be well explained by considering the species-specific rate constants of the reactions of IDM with Fe(VI). Detailed product studies using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated that the oxidation products were primarily derived from the hydrolysis of amide linkages, the addition of hydroxyl groups, and electrophilic oxidation. The toxicity of the oxidation products was evaluated using the Microtox test, which indicated that transformation products exhibited less toxicity to the Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis calculated by the ecological structure activity relationship (ECOSAR) revealed that all of the identified products exhibited lower acute and chronic toxicity than the parent pharmaceutical for fish, daphnid, and green algae. Furthermore, Fe(VI) was effective in the degradation IDM in water containing carbonate ions or fulvic acid (FA), and in lake water samples; however, higher Fe(VI) dosages would be required to completely remove IDM in lake water in contrast to deionized water.

  10. Solubility and sorption characteristics of uranium(VI) associated with rock samples and brines/groundwaters from WIPP and NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solubility measurements for U(VI) in WIPP-related brines/groundwaters were made using initial U(VI) concentrations in the range of 1 to 50 μg/ml. Distribution coefficients (Kd) for U(VI) were determined for Culebra and Magenta dolomites using four different brine/groundwater compositions and for argillaceous shale and hornfels samples from the Eleana and Calico Hills Formation on NTS using a groundwater simulant typical of that area. The Kd's were evaluated as functions of: (1) U(VI) concentration (1.4 x 10 -4 to 1.4 μg/ml); (2) solution volume-to-rock mass ratios used in the measurements (5 to 100 ml/g), and for WIPP material only; (3) water composition (0 to 100% brine in groundwater); and (4) sample location in the Culebra and Magenta dolomite members of the Rustler Formation. The results indicate that if groundwater intrudes into a repository and leaches a waste form, significant concentrations of dissolved or colloidal U(VI) could be maintained in the liquid phase. Should these solutions enter an aquifer system, there are reasonable sets of conditions which could lead to subsequent migration of U(VI) away from the repository site

  11. Vişne ve Nar Suyu ve Konsantratlarında Antosiyaninlerin Degradasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmela Asafı

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nar ve vişne suyu konsantratlarında antosiyaninlerin parçalanması üzerine sıcaklığın etkisi incelenmiştir. 70°Bx'lik konsantratlardan 45°Bx ve 15° Bx lik örnekler hazırlanarak -18°C, 5°C, 20°C ve 37°C depolanmıştır. Depolanma süresince, sıcaklık dercesine bağlı olarak değişik aralıklarla alman örneklerde antosiyanin kaybı saptanarak parçalanma hızı incelenmiştir. Elde edilen bulgulara göre antosiyaninlerin parçalanma­sı birinci dereceden bir reaksiyon kinetiğine göre gelişmektedir. Tüm örneklerde beklendiği gibi sıcaklık derecesi yükseldikçe antosiyaninlerin degradasyon hızları artmaktadır. Örneğin 15° Bx'lik vişne suyunda -18°C'de hız konsantı k=0.534 x 10-3 gün-1 olduğu halde, 37°C'de k= 184 x 10-3 gün-1 'e yükselmiştir. Aynı şekilde 15° Bx'lik vişne suyunda -18°C'de hız konstantı k= 0.203 x 10-3 gün-1 olduğu halde 37°C'de k= 94 x10-3 gün-1'e yükselmiştir. Ayrıca reaksiyonun sıcaklığa bağımlılığı, Arrhenius eşitliğinden yararlanarak açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Nar suyu ve konsantratlannda antosiyaninlerin degradasyon hızı, vişne suyu ve konsantratlarında olduğundan daha yüksektir. Böylece nar suyu ve konsantratlarında depolama süresince sıcaklığa bağlı olarak hızla renk kaybı oluşmaktadır. Ayrıca doğal briksindeki vişne suyunda antosiyaninler, konsantratlarda olduğundan daha stabil olduğu halde nar suyunda bunun aksine konsantratlardaki antosiyaninlerin daha stabil ol­duğu anlaşılmaktadır.

  12. Balanç benefici/risc del contingut en polifenols i alcohol del vi: bases científiques dels efectes del consum moderat de vi sobre el sistema cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Chiva Blanch, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    [cat] L'objectiu d'aquesta tesi doctoral és avaluar els efectes de les fraccions del vi (alcohòlica i no alcohòlica -principalment polifenols-) sobre els principals factors de risc cardiovascular en 67 homes amb un elevat risc de patir malalties cardiovasculars. Es va realitzar un assaig clínic, aleatoritzat i creuat en el qual tots els participants van rebre en un ordre aleatori les tres intervencions: 30 gr d'alcohol / dia en forma de vi negre, la mateixa quantitat de polifenols en forma de...

  13. Direct measurement technique for shock wave velocity with irradiation drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Peng Xiaoshi; Liu Shenye; Jiang Xiaohua; Ding Yongkun

    2011-01-01

    According to the ionization mechanism of transparent material under super high pressure, the direct diagnosis method of shock wave has been analyzed. With the Drude free electron model, the reflectivity difference of shock wave front under different pressures was analyzed. The blank effect in the detector was studied, which is caused by the X-ray ionization of transparent material, after analyzing the reflectivity data in space-time scale. The experiment shows that the beginning point and duration of blank effect are consistent with the start point and duration of laser pulse, respectively. And the reflectivity of shock wave front is about 35% when the shock velocity is 32 km/s. The reason and solution for blank effect was presented. The formula to calculate the shock wave velocity in transparent material was also deduced and verified. (authors)

  14. Nonvolatile Memories Using Quantum Dot (QD) Floating Gates Assembled on II-VI Tunnel Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, E.; Gogna, M.; Al-Amoody, F.; Karmakar, S.; Ayers, J.; Heller, E.; Jain, F.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents preliminary data on quantum dot gate nonvolatile memories using nearly lattice-matched ZnS/Zn0.95Mg0.05S/ZnS tunnel insulators. The GeO x -cladded Ge and SiO x -cladded Si quantum dots (QDs) are self-assembled site-specifically on the II-VI insulator grown epitaxially over the Si channel (formed between the source and drain region). The pseudomorphic II-VI stack serves both as a tunnel insulator and a high- κ dielectric. The effect of Mg incorporation in ZnMgS is also investigated. For the control gate insulator, we have used Si3N4 and SiO2 layers grown by plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  15. Determination of thermodynamic parameters of Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution onto Agave lechuguilla biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Gonzalez, J. [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Peralta-Videa, J.R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Rodriguez, E. [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Ramirez, S.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Gardea-Torresdey, J.L. [Environmental Science and Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 (United States)]. E-mail: jgardea@utep.edu

    2005-04-15

    The temperature dependence of the Cr(VI) bioadsorption and its possible reduction to Cr(III) by Agave lechuguilla biomass were studied. The experimental data obtained in batch experiments at different temperatures were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms to obtain the characteristic parameters of each model. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich model. The average model parameters calculated from Freundlich's isotherms (adsorption capacity K{sub F} = 4 . 10{sup -2} mol . g{sup -1} and an average adsorption intensity value n = 13.07) showed that A. lechuguilla can be considered as an effective biomaterial for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. Thermodynamic parameters ({delta}G{sup .}, {delta}H{sup .}, and {delta}S{sup .}) for Cr(VI) adsorption determined in the temperature range from (283 to 313) K suggest that a portion of Cr(VI) may be bound to functional groups on the surface of the adsorbent and then reduced to Cr(III). Additionally, the parameters of the Dubinin-Radushkevick equation indicated that the sorption of chromium species onto lechuguilla biomass mainly proceeds through binding surface functional groups.

  16. Structure and properties of phosphorene-like IV-VI 2D materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhinan; Wang, Bo; Ou, Liangkai; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-10-14

    Because of the excellent physical and chemical properties of phosphorene, phosphorene and phosphorene-like materials have attracted extensive attention. Since phosphorus belongs to group V, some group IV-VI compounds could also form phosphorene-like configurations. In this work, GeO, SnO, GeS, and SnS monolayers were constructed to investigate the structural and electronic properties by employing first-principles computations. Phonon spectra suggest that these monolayers are dynamically stable and could be realized in experiments. These monolayers are all semiconductors with the band gaps of 2.26 ∼ 4.13 eV. Based on the monolayers, GeO, SnO, GeS, and SnS bilayers were also constructed. The band gaps of these bilayers are smaller than those of the corresponding monolayers. Moreover, the optical properties of these monolayers and bilayers were calculated, and the results indicate that the SnO, GeS and SnS bilayers exhibit obvious optical absorption in the visible spectrum. All the results suggest that phosphorene-like IV-VI materials are promising candidates for electronic and optical devices.

  17. II-I2-IV-VI4 (II = Sr,Ba; I = Cu,Ag; IV = Ge,Sn; VI = S,Se): Earth-Abundant Chalcogenides for Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Huhn, William P.; Shin, Donghyeop; Mitzi, David B.; Blum, Volker; Saparov, Bayrammurad

    Chalcogenides such as CdTe, CIGSSe, and CZTSSe are successful for thin film photovoltaics (PV) but contain elements that are rare, toxic, or prone to the formation of detrimental antisite disorder. Recently, the BaCu2SnS4-xSex system has been shown to offer a prospective path to circumvent these problems. While early prototypes show efficiencies of a few percent, many avenues remain to optimize the materials, including the underlying chemical composition. In this work, we explore 16 compounds II-I2-IV-VI4 to help identify new candidate materials for PV, with predictions based on both known experimental and computationally derived structures that belong to five different space groups. We employ hybrid density functional theory (HSE06) to explore the band gap tunability by substituting different elements, and other characteristics such as the effective mass and the absorption coefficient. Compounds containing Cu (rather than Ag) are found to have direct or nearly direct band gaps. Depending on the compound, replacing S with Se leads to a decrease of the predicted band gaps by 0.2-0.8 eV and to somewhat decreasing hole effective masses.

  18. Laser enhanced reductions of uranium(VI) ion in aqueous phosphoric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.Y.; Harada, M.; Tomiyasu, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Takashima, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Photochemical reactions of U(VI) ions with inorganic anions (I - , Br - , Cl - , NCS - ) and organic compounds (1-hexene, cyclohexene, pyridine) in phosphoric acid were studied for the purpose of finding an efficient method of adjusting the oxidation states of uranium ions in nuclear fuel reprocessing. The formation of U(IV) was observed in the photoreactions with I - , Br - and NCS - , but not with Cl - . The yield of U(VI) increased in the order, Br - - - . This order was the same as the quenching rate constants of the excited U(VI) ions with these anions, and the reverse of their standard redox potentials. The rates of the formation of U(IV) in the presence of Br - were measured spectrophotometrically. It was found that the rate equation was first order in both [U(VI)] and [Br - ]. The results were reasonably interpreted by a series of reaction processes involving U(V) and Br radical. With organic molecules, 1-hexene, cyclohexene, and pyridine, the formation of U(IV) were observed. The yield of U(IV) increased in the order pyridine < 1-hexene < cyclohexene. This order is the reverse of their vertical ionization potentials, suggesting an electron transfer mechanism between these organic molecules and excited U(VI). (author)

  19. Shock wave overtake measurements on cesium iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The luminosity of the shock front for CsI makes it an ideal material for which to measure directly sound velocities along the Hugoniot using shock wave overtake methods. In these measurements, the occurrence of melting along the Hugoniot is marked by a discontinuous decrease in the measured sound velocity. In addition, CsI is isoelectronic with xenon and is expected to begin to show metallic behavior along the Hugoniot near 0.9 Mbar. The directly-determined sound velocities and corresponding elastic moduli would be expected to be more sensitive to this transition than either Hugoniot equations of state or optical pyrometry experiments. This paper presents a brief description of the present experiments and results

  20. Wave directional spectrum from array measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Sarma, Y; Menon, H.B.

    Using the method of Esteva (1976, 1977), whcih assumes that at the frequency band the waves approach from just a single "mean" wave direction, wave direction has been consistently, accurately and unambiguously evaluated as a function of frequency...

  1. Estudio de materiales adsorbentes de bajo costo para remover Cr(VI de efluentes acuosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Vargas-Niño

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio muestra el enorme potencial de dos tipos de sólidos diferentes, una alúmina comercial y un material producto del compostaje, en la adsorción/eliminación de Cr(VI en medio acuoso, en concentraciones de metal equivalentes a las halladas en aguas residuales provenientes de industrias en Colombia. Ambos materiales mostraron propiedades importantes para la eliminación de Cr(VI, considerándose de mayor relevancia el compost por ser un material de bajo costo. Se establecieron las condiciones óptimas para la adsorción de cromo sobre alúmina y sobre compost. Para la alúmina: concentración inicial de Cr(VI = 10 mgL-1, volumen de solución por masa de adsorbente = 100 mL/g, pH = 2,0, tiempo de equilibrio = 1 hora, y agitación = 150 rpm. Para el compost: concentración inicial de Cr(VI = 3 mg L-1, volumen de solución por masa de adsorbente = 50 mL/g, pH = 2.5, tiempo de equilibrio = 3 horas, y agitación = 150 rpm. Además, los resultados mostraron que las propiedades de adsorción del compost se pueden mejorar mediante la adición de pequeñas cantidades de alúmina. El estudio permitió seleccionar al compost como un material promisorio para procedimientos de remediación de aguas residuales que contienen cromo (VI dentro de una política de manejo y uso de residuos sólidos con el objeto de minimizar el impacto ambiental de éstos.

  2. Drake Antarctic Agile Meteor Radar (DrAAMER) First Results: Configuration and Comparison of Mean and Tidal Wind and Gravity Wave Momentum Flux Measurements with SAAMER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Iimura, H.; Hocking, W. K.; Bageston, J. V.; Pene, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    A new-generation meteor radar was installed at the Brazilian Antarctic Comandante Ferraz Base (62.1degS) in March 2010. This paper describes the motivations for the radar location, its measurement capabilities, and comparisons of measured mean winds, tides, and gravity wave momentum fluxes from April to June of 2010 and 2011 with those by a similar radar on Tierra del Fuego (53.8degS). Motivations for the radars include the "hotspot" of small-scale gravity wave activity extending from the troposphere into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) centered over the Drake Passage, the maximum of the semidiurnal tide at these latitudes, and the lack of other MLT wind measurements in this latitude band. Mean winds are seen to be strongly modulated at planetary wave and longer periods and to exhibit strong coherence over the two radars at shorter time scales as well as systematic seasonal variations. The semidiurnal tide contribute most to the large-scale winds over both radars, with maximum tidal amplitudes during May and maxima at the highest altitudes varying from approx.20 to >70 m/s. In contrast, the diurnal tide and various planetary waves achieve maximum winds of approx.10 to 20 m/s. Monthly-mean gravity wave momentum fluxes appear to reflect the occurrence of significant sources at lower altitudes, with relatively small zonal fluxes over both radars, but with significant, and opposite, meridional momentum fluxes below approx.85 km. These suggest gravity waves propagating away from the Drake Passage at both sites, and may indicate an important source region accounting in part for this "hotspot".

  3. A Study on non-contact measurements of laser-generated lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Tae Seong; Lee, Jung Ju; Lee, Seung Seok

    2002-01-01

    Generation and detection of Lamb waves offer an effective non-destructive testing technique that will detect defects quickly and reliably. Lamb waves are generated in a thin plate by Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb modes in low-frequency-thickness regime are excited by illuminating a thin plate with an array of laser-generated line sources. The propagation of laser-generated Lamb waves is detected by measuring the out-of-plane displacements in a non-contact manner using the fiber optic Sagnac interferometer and all commercial adaptive reference-beam interferometer. The characteristics of laser-generated Lamb wave due to its frequency are investigated. Fundamental understanding of laser-generated Lamb modes is presented.

  4. Statistical properties of small-amplitude Langmuir waves in the Earth’s electron foreshock

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musatenko, K.; Lobzin, V.; Souček, Jan; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Décréau, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 15 (2007), s. 2273-2280 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Langmuir waves * Electron foreshock * Density inhomogeneities * Probability density functions * Beam-plasma instability * Plasma waves * Kinetic waves and instabilities Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2007

  5. Variation of Pressure Waveforms in Measurements of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inose, Naoto; Ide, Masao

    1993-05-01

    In this paper, we describe measurement of variation in pressure waveforms of the acoustic field of an extra-corporeal shock-wave lithotripter (ESWL). Variations in the measured acoustic fields and pressure waveform of an underwater spark-gap-type ESWL with an exhausted spark plug electrode have been reported by researchers using crystal sensors. If the ESWL spark plugs become exhausted, patients feel pain during kidney, biliary stone disintegration. We studied the relationship between exhaustion of electrodes and the variation of pressure waveforms and shock-wave fields of the ESWL using a newly developed hydrophone.

  6. Accurate calibration of waveform data measured by the Plasma Wave Experiment on board the ARASE satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, M.; Katoh, Y.; Hikishima, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kojima, H.; Ozaki, M.; Yagitani, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) is installed on board the ARASE satellite to measure the electric field in the frequency range from DC to 10 MHz, and the magnetic field in the frequency range from a few Hz to 100 kHz using two dipole wire-probe antennas (WPT) and three magnetic search coils (MSC), respectively. In particular, the Waveform Capture (WFC), one of the receivers of the PWE, can detect electromagnetic field waveform in the frequency range from a few Hz to 20 kHz. The Software-type Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (S-WPIA) is installed on the ARASE satellite to measure the energy exchange between plasma waves and particles. Since S-WPIA uses the waveform data measured by WFC to calculate the relative phase angle between the wave magnetic field and velocity of energetic electrons, the high-accuracy is required to calibration of both amplitude and phase of the waveform data. Generally, the calibration procedure of the signal passed through a receiver consists of three steps; the transformation into spectra, the calibration by the transfer function of a receiver, and the inverse transformation of the calibrated spectra into the time domain. Practically, in order to reduce the side robe effect, a raw data is filtered by a window function in the time domain before applying Fourier transform. However, for the case that a first order differential coefficient of the phase transfer function of the system is not negligible, the phase of the window function convoluted into the calibrated spectra is shifted differently at each frequency, resulting in a discontinuity in the time domain of the calibrated waveform data. To eliminate the effect of the phase shift of a window function, we suggest several methods to calibrate a waveform data accurately and carry out simulations assuming simple sinusoidal waves as an input signal and using transfer functions of WPT, MSC, and WFC obtained in pre-flight tests. In consequence, we conclude that the following two methods can

  7. Design of a Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement System Based on Pulse Wave and ECG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Qiang; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhuang-Zhuang; Deng, Gen-Qiang; Wang, Huihui; Mavromoustakis, Constandinos X; Song, Houbing; Ming, Zhong

    2018-01-01

    With increasingly fierce competition for jobs, the pressures on people have risen in recent years, leading to lifestyle and diet disorders that result in significantly higher risks of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension is one of the common chronic cardiovascular diseases; however, mainstream blood pressure measurement devices are relatively heavy. When multiple measurements are required, the user experience and the measurement results may be unsatisfactory. In this paper, we describe the design of a signal collection module that collects pulse waves and electrocardiograph (ECG) signals. The collected signals are input into a signal processing module to filter the noise and amplify the useful physiological signals. Then, we use a wavelet transform to eliminate baseline drift noise and detect the feature points of the pulse waves and ECG signals. We propose the concept of detecting the wave shape associated with an instance, an approach that minimizes the impact of atypical pulse waves on blood pressure measurements. Finally, we propose an improved method for measuring blood pressure based on pulse wave velocity that improves the accuracy of blood pressure measurements by 58%. Moreover, the results meet the american medical instrument promotion association standards, which demonstrate the feasibility of our measurement system.

  8. Vi-da: vitiligo diagnostic assistance mobile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, G. A.; Nurhudatiana, A.; Bahana, R.

    2018-03-01

    Vitiligo is a skin disorder in which white patches of depigmentation appear on different parts of the body. Usually, patients come to hospitals or clinics to have their vitiligo conditions assessed. This can be very tiring to the patients, as vitiligo treatments usually take a relatively long period of time, which can range from months to years. To address this challenge, we present in this paper a prototype of an Android-based mobile application called Vi-DA, which stands for Vitiligo Diagnostic Assistance. Vi-DA consists of three subsystems, which are user sign-up subsystem, camera and image analysis subsystem, and progress report subsystem. The mobile application was developed in Java programming language and uses MySQL as the database system. Vi-DA adopts a vitiligo segmentation algorithm to segment input image into normal skin area, vitiligo skin area, and non-skin area. Results showed that Vi-DA gave comparable results to the previous system implemented in Matlab. User acceptance testing results also showed that all respondents agreed on the usefulness of the system and agreed to use Vi-DA again in the future. Vi-DA benefits both dermatologists and patients as not only a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool but also as a smart application that can be used for self-assessment at home.

  9. Wave kinematics and response of slender offshore structures. Vol 3: Description of measuring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riber, H.J.

    1999-08-01

    The report presents the measuring systems used during the measurements in the North Sea at the Tyra field. The report consists of two parts: (1) Description of the wave measuring systems (WMS); (2) Description of the load mesuring system (LMS). The developed Wave Kinematics Measuring Systems (WMS) is an acoustic system based on the pulsed incoherent Doppler technique. Basically it consists of 4 sonar stations and a control and monitoring station. The sonar stations are positioned at the seabed north of the TCP-A platform in a star configuration with one station surrounded by the other three stations in a fixed distance of 37 m. From the central sonar stations an umbilical is routed to the TCP-A platform where the control and monitoring stations is positioned in the satellite communication room. The measurement periods have been concentrated to periods with storms. It was a special emphasis to measure the wave kinematics of extremely high waves. The LMS is described in terms of geometrical data, structural properties, instrumentation, and other characteristics. (LN)

  10. Constructing Cd0.5Zn0.5S@ZIF-8 nanocomposites through self-assembly strategy to enhance Cr(VI) photocatalytic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jianhao; Zhang, Xiong-Fei; Zhang, Xingguang; Feng, Yi; Li, Yuxin; Yang, Lvye; Lu, Haiqiang; Yao, Jianfeng

    2018-05-05

    A novel and highly efficient photocatalyst of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S@ZIF-8 nanocomposite has been developed by a facile self-assembly strategy. This is the first report on the application of Cd x Zn 1-x S and metal-organic framework (MOF) nanocomposite as photocatalysts for the reduction of Cr(VI). The resulting Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S@ZIF-8 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of pristine Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S and ZIF-8. Particularly, the CZS@Z60 composite with 60 wt% of ZIF-8 exhibited a photocatalytic activity that is about 1.6 times as high as that of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S. The dominant reason for the improved photocatalytic reduction potential is proved to be the newly-formed interfacial SZn bonds that firmly connect Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S and ZIF-8 and substantially improve the separation efficiency of photo-excited electrons and holes. The newly-formed chemical bonds are confirmed by XPS analyses, and the prolonged lifetime of photo-excited electrons is evidenced by the electrochemical measurement of photocurrent, which shows that the photocurrent on Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S@ZIF-8 is much higher than that of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S and ZIF-8. This study clearly demonstrates that the MOF-based composite nanomaterials hold great promises for applications in the field of environmental remediation and for design of novel photocatalytic materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ViA: a perceptual visualization assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Chris G.; St. Amant, Robert; Elhaddad, Mahmoud S.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes an automated visualized assistant called ViA. ViA is designed to help users construct perceptually optical visualizations to represent, explore, and analyze large, complex, multidimensional datasets. We have approached this problem by studying what is known about the control of human visual attention. By harnessing the low-level human visual system, we can support our dual goals of rapid and accurate visualization. Perceptual guidelines that we have built using psychophysical experiments form the basis for ViA. ViA uses modified mixed-initiative planning algorithms from artificial intelligence to search of perceptually optical data attribute to visual feature mappings. Our perceptual guidelines are integrated into evaluation engines that provide evaluation weights for a given data-feature mapping, and hints on how that mapping might be improved. ViA begins by asking users a set of simple questions about their dataset and the analysis tasks they want to perform. Answers to these questions are used in combination with the evaluation engines to identify and intelligently pursue promising data-feature mappings. The result is an automatically-generated set of mappings that are perceptually salient, but that also respect the context of the dataset and users' preferences about how they want to visualize their data.

  12. Determination of the S-wave scattering shape parameter P from the zero-energy wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermode, M.W.; van Dijk, W.

    1990-01-01

    We show that for S-wave scattering at an energy k 2 by a local potential which supports no more than one bound state, the shape parameter P and coefficients of higher powers of k 2 in the effective range expansion function cotδ=-1/a+1/2 r 0 k 2 -Pr 0 3 k 3 +Qr 0 5 k 6 +..., where δ is the phase shift, may be obtained from the zero-energy wave function, u 0 (r). Thus δ itself may be determined from u 0 . We show that Pr 0 3 =∫ 0 R [β(r)u 0 2 (r)-bar β(r)bar u 0 2 (r)]dr, where r 0 is the effective range, β(r) is determined from an integral involving the wave function, and bar β(r) is a simple function of r which involves the scattering length and effective range

  13. Prospects for ion temperature measurements in JET by Thomson scattering of submillimetre waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitbourn, L.B.

    1975-03-01

    The Thomson scattering of submillimeter waves is envisaged as a possible means for measuring the ion temperature of the JET plasma. The present discussion is principally concerned with the practical limitations imposed to the method by the availability of high power pulsed sources and sensitive detectors and noise due to plasma emission at submillimeter wavelengths (bremsstrahlung and electron cyclotron emission). Coherent scattering from plasma wave (e.g. ion acoustic waves and electron drift waves) with millimeter and submillimeter waves are considered briefly. Further suitable development of lasers and heterodyne detectors would make such measurements possible. A pulsed HCN laser associated with a detectors with a lower heterodyne noise equivalent power could then be used to advantage. For scattering with CH 3 F laser the NEP of a Josephson junction would be adequate because a relatively high level of plasma emission is expected at 496 μm [fr

  14. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  15. Comparison of U(VI) adsorption onto nanoscale zero-valent iron and red soil in the presence of U(VI)–CO{sub 3}/Ca–U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhibin [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); Liu, Jun [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Cao, Xiaohong, E-mail: xhcao@ecit.cn [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); Luo, Xuanping [Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); Hua, Rong; Liu, Yan [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment (East China Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); Yu, Xiaofeng; He, Likai [Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences Department, East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330013 (China); and others

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • NZVI can be used for adsorbing U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes. • Use of NZVI is feasible for remediation of uranium-contaminated soils. • The mechanism of U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes adsorbing onto NZVI has been explained. - Abstract: The influence of U(VI)–CO{sub 3} and Ca–U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes on U(VI) adsorption onto red soil and nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was investigated using batch adsorption and fixed-bed column experiments to simulate the feasibility of NZVI as the reactive medium in permeable- reactive barriers (PRB) for in situ remediation of uranium-contaminated red soils. The adsorption capacity (q{sub e}) and distribution constant (K{sub d}) of NZVI and red soil decreased with increasing pH, dissolved carbonate and calcium concentrations, but the q{sub e} and K{sub d} values of NZVI were 5–10 times higher than those of red soil. The breakthrough pore volume (PV) values increased with the decrease of pH, dissolved carbonate and calcium concentration; however, the breakthrough PV values of the PRB column filled with 5% NZVI were 2.0–3.5 times higher than the 100% red soil column. The U(VI)–CO{sub 3} complexes adsorbed onto the surface of red soil/NZVI (≡SOH) to form SO–UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{sup −} or SO–UO{sub 2} (CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 3−}. XPS and XRD analysis further confirmed the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) and the formation of FeOOH on NZVI surfaces. The findings of this study are significant to the remediation of uranium-contaminated red soils and the consideration of practical U(VI) species in the natural environment.

  16. Study of new U(VI) and Pu(VI) coprecipitation methods for the preparation of (U,Pu)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanoit, J. de.

    1990-01-01

    Two U(VI) and Pu(VI) coprecipitation methods have been studied, for the definition of new processes to prepare (U,Pu)O 2 mixed oxides suitable for making MoX fuels or fast breeder reactor fuels. The first system is based on the coprecipitation of a new U(VI), Pu(VI) compound; ammonium uranoplutonate, where as a second system is related to the precipitation of uranyl plutonyl monocarbonate. Experimental conditions to optimize the precipitation and the filtration steps of these two systems have been determined. After calcination under reducing conditions, the mixed oxides obtained are characterized according to different techniques: granulometry, thermogravimetry, solubility in boiling HNO 3 solutions. The properties of such oxides are excellent. The possible processes for preparing (U, Pu)O 2 using these new routes are compared with those actually exploited [fr

  17. Effectiveness and sustainability of the ViSC Social Competence Program to prevent cyberbullying and cyber-victimization: Class and individual level moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the general anti-bullying program ViSC sustainably prevents cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. A longitudinal randomized control group design was used to examine (i) program effectiveness immediately after a 1 year implementation phase and (ii) sustainable program effects 6 months later taking several moderators on the class level (class climate and ethnic diversity) and on the individual level (gender, age, internet usage, traditional bullying/victimization) into account. Effectiveness (e.g., the change between waves 2 and 1) was examined in 2,042 students (47.6% girls), aged 11.7 years (SD = 0.88) enrolled in 18 schools and 103 classes. Sustainability (e.g., the change between waves 3 and 2) was examined in a sub-sample of 6 schools and 35 classes comprising 659 students. The self-assessment multiple-item scales showed longitudinal and multiple group invariance. Factor scores were extracted to compute difference scores for effectiveness (Posttest minus Pretest) and sustainability (Follow-up test minus Posttest) for cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. Multilevel Modeling was applied to examine (i) the effectiveness and (ii) the sustainability of the ViSC intervention controlling for several individual and class level variables. Controlling for covariates, it was demonstrated that the ViSC program is effective in preventing cyberbullying and cyber-victimization and that the effects are sustainable after 6 months. The consequences for cyberbullying prevention are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution by dried activated sludge biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; Zhang Hua; He Pinjing; Yao Qian; Shao Liming

    2010-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution using activated sludge biomass. The effects of acid pretreatment of the biomass, initial pH, biomass and Cr(VI) concentrations on Cr(VI) removal efficiency were investigated. Proton consumption during the removal process and the reducing capacity of sludge biomass were studied. The results show that acid pretreatment could significantly improve Cr(VI) removal efficiency and increase Cr(VI) reducing capacity by 20.4%. Cr(VI) removal was remarkably pH-dependent; lower pH (pH = 1, 2) facilitated Cr(VI) reduction while higher pH (pH = 3, 4) favored sorption of the converted Cr(III). Lower Cr(VI) concentration as well as higher biomass concentration could accelerate Cr(VI) removal. Cr(VI) reduction was not the only reason for proton consumption in the removal process. Pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model could successfully simulate Cr(VI) removal except under higher pH conditions (pH = 3, 4).

  19. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.

    2013-01-01

    mm in 2 h) and extreme (100 mm in 3 h) rain events. The objectives were to understand the behaviour of the anionic and toxic Cr(VI) in soil at neutral pH and to asses treatment efficiency towards Cr(VI). During normal rain events Cr(VI) was largely retained (more than 50, even though pH was neutral......The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  20. The development of a method for the simultaneous measurement of cerium (IV) and chromium (VI) species in nitric acid media - 16124

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickson, Ian D.; Boxall, Colin; Jackson, Angela; Whillock, Guy O.H.

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion of stainless steel in nitric acid media is a major concern for the nuclear industry. Several reprocessing schemes such as PUREX (Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction) and UREX (Uranium Reduction Extraction) utilise nitric acid media, and an understanding of the behaviour of key chemical species in these process streams is vital if their effect on associated corrosion reactions and their rates is to be accurately assessed and quantified. This will allow for more accurate prediction of the working lifetime of any stainless steel surface in contact with the process stream in question. Two such key species that are found in nuclear process streams are cerium as Ce (IV) and chromium as Cr(VI), both of which may act as corrosion accelerants. The redox chemistry of cerium and chromium in highly active liquor (HAL) will depend on nitrous acid concentration, temperature, acidity, total nitrate and possibly the influence of other dissolved species and hence an analytical technique for the on-line measurement of these quantities would be useful for lifetime prediction and corrosion prevention. As a result of this, a strategy for the simultaneous measurement of both Ce(IV) and Cr(VI) species in the presence of other ions typically found in process streams (such as Iron, Magnesium Neodymium and Aluminium) has been developed. The work presented will discuss the design and implementation of the electrochemical techniques that we have used in the development of this strategy and in the measurement of the species in question. (authors)

  1. Clinically acceptable agreement between the ViMove wireless motion sensor system and the Vicon motion capture system when measuring lumbar region inclination motion in the sagittal and coronal planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjøsund, Hanne Leirbekk; Boyle, Eleanor; Kjær, Per

    2017-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: We found a clinically acceptable level of agreement between these two methods for measuring standing lumbar inclination motion in these two cardinal movement planes. Further research should investigate the ViMove system's ability to measure lumbar motion in more complex 3D functional movements...

  2. Evanescent Wave Absorption Based Fiber Sensor for Measuring Glucose Solution Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Candra Pratiwi, Arni; Suryanti, Venty

    2018-03-01

    An optical fiber sensor based on evanescent wave absorption designed for measuring glucose solution consentration was proposed. The sensor was made to detect absorbance of various wavelength in the glucose solution. The sensing element was fabricated by side polishing of multimode polymer optical fiber to form a D-shape. The sensing element was immersed in different concentration of glucoce solution. As light propagated through the optical fiber, the evanescent wave interacted with the glucose solution. Light was absorbed by the glucose solution. The larger concentration the glucose solution has, the more the evanescent wave was absorbed in particular wavelenght. Here in this paper, light absorbtion as function of glucose concentration was measured as function of wavelength (the color of LED). We have shown that the proposed sensor can demonstrated an increase of light absorption as function of glucose concentration.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Lawsonia inermis Extracts Inhibits Chromium(VI-Induced Cellular and DNA Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Guha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI is a very strong oxidant which consequently causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress. Prevention of Cr(VI-induced cellular damage has been sought in this study in aqueous and methanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis Linn. (Lythraceae, commonly known as Henna. The extracts showed significant (P < .05 potential in scavenging free radicals (DPPH• and ABTS•+ and Fe3+, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. DNA damage caused by exposure of pBR322 to Cr(VI-UV is markedly inhibited by both extracts in varying degrees. A distinct decline in Cr(VI-induced cytotoxicity was noticed in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells with an increase in dosage of both extracts individually. Furthermore, both extracts proved to contain a high content of phenolic compounds which were found to have a strong and significant (P < .05 positive correlation to the radical scavenging potential, lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity and cyto-protective efficiency against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cellular damage. HPLC analysis identified some of the major phenolic compounds in both extracts, which might be responsible for the antioxidant potential and the properties of DNA and cyto-protection. This study contributes to the search for natural resources that might yield potent therapeutic drugs against Cr(VI-induced oxidative cell damage.

  4. Isolation of a star-shaped uranium(V/VI) cluster from the anaerobic photochemical reduction of uranyl(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelain, Lucile; White, Sarah; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. de Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques

    2016-11-07

    Actinide oxo clusters are an important class of compounds due to their impact on actinide migration in the environment. The photolytic reduction of uranyl(VI) has potential application in catalysis and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, but the intermediate species involved in this reduction have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that the photolysis of partially hydrated uranyl(VI) in anaerobic conditions leads to the reduction of uranyl(VI), and to the incorporation of the resulting U{sup V} species into the stable mixed-valent star-shaped U{sup VI}/U{sup V} oxo cluster [U(UO{sub 2}){sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-O){sub 5}(PhCOO){sub 5}(Py){sub 7}]. This cluster is only the second example of a U{sup VI}/U{sup V} cluster and the first one associating uranyl groups to a non-uranyl(V) center. The U{sup V} center in 1 is stable, while the reaction of uranyl(V) iodide with potassium benzoate leads to immediate disproportionation and formation of the U{sub 12}{sup IV}U{sub 4}{sup V}O{sub 24} cluster {[K(Py)_2]_2[K(Py)]_2[U_1_6O_2_4(PhCOO)_2_4(Py)_2]}.

  5. P-Wave and S-Wave Velocity Structure of Submarine Landslide Associated With Gas Hydrate Layer on Frontal Ridge of Northern Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, T.; Lu, H.; Yelisetti, S.; Spence, G.

    2015-12-01

    The submarine landslide associated with gas hydrate is a potential risk for environment and engineering projects, and thus from long time ago it has been a hot topic of hydrate research. The study target is Slipstream submarine landslide, one of the slope failures observed on the frontal ridges of the Northern Cascadia accretionary margin off Vancouver Island. The previous studies indicated a possible connection between this submarine landslide feature and gas hydrate, whose occurrence is indicated by a prominent bottom-simulating reflector (BSR), at a depth of ~265-275 m beneath the seafloor (mbsf). The OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) data collected during SeaJade (Seafloor Earthquake Array - Japan Canada Cascadia Experiment) project were used to derive the subseafloor velocity structure for both P- and S-wave using travel times picked from refraction and reflection events. The P-wave velocity structure above the BSR showed anomalous high velocities of about 2.0 km/s at shallow depths of 100 mbsf, closely matching the estimated depth of the glide plane (100 ± 10 m). Forward modelling of S-waves was carried out using the data from the OBS horizontal components. The S-wave velocities, interpreted in conjunction with the P-wave results, provide the key constraints on the gas hydrate distribution within the pores. The hydrate distribution in the pores is important for determining concentrations, and also for determining the frame strength which is critical for controlling slope stability of steep frontal ridges. The increase in S-wave velocity suggests that the hydrate is distributed as part of the load-bearing matrix to increase the rigidity of the sediment.

  6. Radial shock wave therapy in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre N A; Ferreira, Marcio P; Hagen, Stefano C F; Patrício, Geni C F; Matera, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    The study aims were to evaluate the effects of radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA) using clinical assessment and kinetic analysis. Thirty dogs diagnosed with bilateral hip OA and 30 healthy dogs were used. In OA dogs, one limb was randomly selected for treatment with RSWT while the contralateral limb served as an untreated control. Dogs were evaluated while walking on a pressure walkway. Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were documented; symmetry index (SI) was also calculated. Blinded clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Owner perception data regarding levels of physical activity were also collected. The RSWT protocol (2000 pulses, 10 Hz, 2-3.4 bars) consisted of three weekly treatment sessions (days 1, 8 and 16). Follow-up data were collected 30, 60 and 90 days after the first session. Data were compared between time points, groups and limbs pairs. At the end of the experimental period, mean PVF and VI values had increased (25.9 to 27.6%BW and 2.1 to 12.7%BW × s respectively) in treated limbs, with no significant differences in control limbs; SI values suggest improvement. Mean PVF and VI remained lower in the treated compared to the healthy group following treatment. The VAS scores suggested improvement in pain and lameness in treated dogs. Owner perception data suggested improved levels of physical activity following treatment. Outcomes of this study suggested beneficial effects of RSWT in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.

  7. Lower Mantle S-wave Velocity Model under the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Grand, S. P.

    2016-12-01

    Deep mantle plumes created by thermal instabilities at the core-mantle boundary has been an explanation for intraplate volcanism since the 1970's. Recently, broad slow velocity conduits in the lower mantle underneath some hotspots have been observed (French and Romanowicz, 2015), however the direct detection of a classical thin mantle plume using seismic tomography has remained elusive. Herein, we present a seismic tomography technique designed to image a deep mantle plume under the Yellowstone Hotspot located in the western United States utilizing SKS and SKKS waves in conjunction with finite frequency tomography. Synthetic resolution tests show the technique can resolve a 235 km diameter lower mantle plume with a 1.5% Gaussian velocity perturbation even if a realistic amount of random noise is added to the data. The Yellowstone Hotspot presents a unique opportunity to image a thin plume because it is the only hotspot with a purported deep origin that has a large enough aperture and density of seismometers to accurately sample the lower mantle at the length scales required to image a plume. Previous regional tomography studies largely based on S wave data have imaged a cylindrically shaped slow anomaly extending down to 900km under the hotspot, however they could not resolve it any deeper (Schmandt et al., 2010; Obrebski et al., 2010).To test if the anomaly extends deeper, we measured and inverted over 40,000 SKS and SKKS waves' travel times in two frequency bands recorded at 2400+ stations deployed during 2006-2012. Our preliminary model shows narrow slow velocity anomalies in the lower mantle with no fast anomalies. The slow anomalies are offset from the Yellowstone hotspot and may be diapirs rising from the base of the mantle.

  8. Technical realisation of the VISA-II Project, Phase II, Chapter X, Vol. VI; Tehnicka realizacija projekta VISA-II, II faza, Glava X, Album VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavicevic, M; Nikolic, M [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-01-15

    The second phase of the 'Project VISA-2 described in this chapter of Vol. VI includes the project specifications and technical drawings of the 'measuring system of VISA-2 for testing the VISA-2 channels outside and in the reactor'. In addition to the task objective, description of the measuring system, action plan, description of the work done it contains the definition of the task 'Leak testing' and instructions for the instrumentation personnel on duty. [Serbo-Croat] Druga faza zadatka {sup T}ehnicka realizacija projekta VISA-2' opisana u ovom poglavlju Albuma VI, sadrzi tehnicki opis i crteze 'Mernog sistema VISA-2 i ispitivanje kanala VISA-2 van reaktora i u reaktoru'. Pored definicije zadatka, opisa mernog sistema VISA-2, razrade zadatka, tekstualnog dela projekta i opisa izvedenih radova, ovo poglavlje obuhvata definiciju i razradu podzadatka 'Ispitivanje hermeticnosti' i dodatak sa instrukcijama za dezurne instrumentatore u vezi eksperimenta VISA-2.

  9. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  10. Reactions of ferrate(VI) with iodide and hypoiodous acid: kinetics, pathways, and implications for the fate of iodine during water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaedon; von Gunten, Urs; Reckhow, David A; Allard, Sebastien; Lee, Yunho

    2018-06-01

    Oxidative treatment of iodide-containing waters can form iodinated disinfection by-products (I-DBPs) that are more toxic than the regulated DBPs. To better understand the fate of iodine during water treatment with ferrate(VI), kinetics, products, and stoichiometries for the reactions of ferrate(VI) with iodide (I - ) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) were determined. Ferrate(VI) showed considerable reactivities to both I - and HOI with higher reactivities at lower pH. Interestingly, the reaction of ferrate(VI) with HOI ( k = 6.0×10 3 M -1 s -1 at pH 9) was much faster than with I - ( k = 5.6×10 M -1 s -1 at pH 9). The main reaction pathway during treatment of I - -containing waters was the oxidation of I - to HOI and its further oxidation to IO 3 - by ferrate(VI). However, for pH > 9, the HOI disproportionation catalyzed by ferrate(VI) became an additional transformation pathway forming I - and IO 3 - . The reduction of HOI by hydrogen peroxide ( k = 2.0×10 8 M -1 s -1 for the reaction, HOI + HO 2 - → I - + O 2 + 2H + ), the latter being produced from ferrate(VI) decomposition, also contributes to the I - regeneration in the pH range 9 - 11. A kinetic model was developed that could well simulate the fate of iodine in the ferrate(VI)-I - system. Overall, due to a rapid oxidation of I - to IO 3 - with short-lifetimes of HOI, ferrate(VI) oxidation appears to be a promising option for I-DBP mitigation during treatment of I - -containing waters.

  11. Ion-exchanger ultraviolet spectrophotometry for uranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, H.; Korkisch, J.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive method based on solid-phase spectrophotometry has been developed for the microdetermination of uranium(VI) in water samples. Uranium is sorbed on the anion-exchanger QAE-Sephadex from thiocyanate solution and the absorbance of the exchanger is measured at 300 nm. This method is about 30 times more sensitive than solution spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra of various metals in the anion-exchanger phase are presented and their interferences discussed. A procedure for the cation-exchange separation of uranium from accompanying elements before spectral measurement of uranium is proposed. (author)

  12. Preparation and application of attapulgite/iron oxide magnetic composites for the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Qiao-hui; Li, Ping; Chen, Yun-fei; Wu, Wang-suo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We first synthesized ATP/IOM composites as an adsorbents for removal U(VI) from aqueous solution. → The sorption ability of ATP/IOM composites were obviously superior to ATP and iron oxides. → The prevalent species of U(VI) on ATP/IOM composites were =S s OUO 2 + and =S w OUO 2 (CO 3 ) 2 3- . → ATP/IOM composites could be a promising candidate for pre-concentration and immobilization of radionuclides from large volumes of aqueous solutions. - Abstract: Recently, magnetic sorbents have received considerable attention because of their excellent segregative features and sorption capacities. Herein, attapulgite/iron oxide magnetic (ATP/IOM) composites were prepared and characterized. The sorption results indicated that ATP/IOM composites were superior to ATP and iron oxides individually for the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and surface complexation model, the main sorption species of U(VI) on ATP were =X 2 UO 2 0 below pH 4.0 and =S s OUO 2 + , =S w OUO 2 CO 3 - , and =S w OUO 2 (CO 3 ) 2 3- above pH 5.0. However the prevalent species on ATP/IOM composites were =S s OUO 2 + and =S w OUO 2 (CO 3 ) 2 3- over the observed pH range. ATP/IOM composites are a promising candidate for pre-concentration and immobilization of radionuclides from large volumes of aqueous solutions, as required for remediation purposes.

  13. Long-term wave measurements in a climate change perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomaro, Angela; Bertotti, Luciana; Cavaleri, Luigi; Lionello, Piero; Portilla-Yandun, Jesus

    2017-04-01

    At present multi-decadal time series of wave data needed for climate studies are generally provided by long term model simulations (hindcasts) covering the area of interest. Examples, among many, at different scales are wave hindcasts adopting the wind fields of the ERA-Interim reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, Reading, U.K.) at the global level and by regional re-analysis as for the Mediterranean Sea (Lionello and Sanna, 2006). Valuable as they are, these estimates are necessarily affected by the approximations involved, the more so because of the problems encountered within modelling processes in small basins using coarse resolution wind fields (Cavaleri and Bertotti, 2004). On the contrary, multi-decadal observed time series are rare. They have the evident advantage of somehow representing the real evolution of the waves, without the shortcomings associated with the limitation of models in reproducing the actual processes and the real variability within the wave fields. Obviously, observed wave time series are not exempt of problems. They represent a very local information, hence their use to describe the wave evolution at large scale is sometimes arguable and, in general, it needs the support of model simulations assessing to which extent the local value is representative of a large scale evolution. Local effects may prevent the identification of trends that are indeed present at large scale. Moreover, a regular maintenance, accurate monitoring and metadata information are crucial issues when considering the reliability of a time series for climate applications. Of course, where available, especially if for several decades, measured data are of great value for a number of reasons and can be valuable clues to delve further into the physics of the processes of interest, especially if considering that waves, as an integrated product of the local climate, if available in an area sensitive to even limited changes of the

  14. Measurement of the temperature dependence of Young's modulus of cartilage by phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C H; Li, J; Singh, M; Larin, K V [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Skryabina, M N [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Sobol, E N [Institute of Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The development of an effective system to monitor the changes in the elastic properties of cartilage tissue with increasing temperature in laser reconstruction is an urgent practical task. In this paper, the use of phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for detection of elastic waves in the sample has allowed Young's modulus of cartilage tissue to be measured directly during heating. Young's modulus was calculated from the group velocity of propagation of elastic waves excited by means of a system supplying focused air pulses. The measurement results are in agreement with the results of measurements of the modulus of elasticity under mechanical compression. The technique developed allows for noninvasive measurements; its development is promising for the use in vivo. (laser biophotonics)

  15. Effective shunt impedance comparison between s-band standing wave accelerators with on-axis and off-axis couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Funk, L.W.; Hutcheon, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The effective shunt impedances of a side-coupled S-band standing wave accelerating structure and a structure employing on-axis couplers have been compared by measuring the energy of accelerated electrons. Criteria for choosing an on-axis coupled structure compared to side-coupled and ''disk and washer'' accelerating structures are given. (author)

  16. Time-dependent approach to electron scattering and ionization in the s-wave model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihra, W.; Draeger, M.; Handke, G.; Friedrich, H.

    1995-01-01

    The time-dependent Schroedinger equation is integrated for continuum states of two-electron atoms in the framework of the s-wave model, in which both electrons are restricted to having vanishing individual orbital angular momenta. The method is suitable for studying the time evolution of correlations in the two-electron wave functions and yields probabilities for elastic and inelastic electron scattering and for electron-impact ionization. The spin-averaged probabilities for electron-impact ionization of hydrogen in the s-wave model reproduce the shape of the experimentally observed integrated ionization cross section remarkably well for energies near and above the maximum

  17. The S-wave resonance contributions in the B{sup 0}{sub s} decays into ψ(2S,3S) plus pion pair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui, Zhou [North China University of Science and Technology, College of Sciences, Tangshan (China); Li, Ya [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Wen-Fei [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    2017-03-15

    The three-body decays B{sup 0}{sub s} → ψ(2S,3S)π{sup +}π{sup -} are studied based on the perturbative QCD approach. With the help of the nonperturbative two-pion distribution amplitudes, the analysis is simplified into the quasi-two-body processes. Besides the traditional factorizable and nonfactorizable diagrams at the leading order, the next-to-leading order vertex corrections are also included to cancel the scale dependence. The f{sub 0}(980), f{sub 0}(1500) resonance contributions as well as the nonresonant contributions are taken into account using the presently known ππ time-like scalar form factor for the s anti s component. It is found that the predicted B{sup 0}{sub s} → ψ(2S)π{sup +}π{sup -} decay spectra in the pion pair invariant mass shows a similar behavior as the experiment. The calculated S-wave contributions to the branching ratio of B{sup 0}{sub s} → ψ(2S)π{sup +}π{sup -} is 6.0 x 10{sup -5}, which is in agreement with the LHCb data B(B{sup 0}{sub s} → ψ(2S)π{sup +}π{sup -}) = (7.2±1.2) x 10{sup -5} within errors. The estimate of B(B{sup 0}{sub s} → ψ(3S)π{sup +}π{sup -}) can reach the order of 10{sup -5}, pending the corresponding measurements. (orig.)

  18. The absorption spectra of Pu(VI), -(V) and -(IV) produced electrochemically in carbonate-bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, D.W.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Absorption spectra in carbonate and bicarbonate media have been measured for various oxidation states of plutonium. The oxidation state of plutonium was adjusted electrochemically (Pu(VI)-V), Esub(f)=+0.11 V vs. SCE) to avoid contamination by redox reagents. In carbonate medium the spectra of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) showed marked differences from the spectra of the same oxidation state in acidic solutions. In bicarbonate the spectra of Pu(VI) and Pu(IV) also differed from the corresponding spectra in acidic media. Reduction to Pu(III) resulted in a precipitate in both carbonate and bicarbonate media. (author)

  19. A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel Methods f