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Sample records for vi mushrooms tomatoes

  1. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kang, Hee Wan

    2015-01-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium caro...

  2. Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hericium erinaceus Suppresses Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, A Min; Min, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Sang Yeop; Kang, Hee Wan

    2015-09-01

    Culture filtrates of six different edible mushroom species were screened for antimicrobial activity against tomato wilt bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum B3. Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes (Sanjo 701), Grifola frondosa, and Hypsizygus marmoreus showed antibacterial activity against the bacteria. Water, n-butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) of H. erinaceus exhibited high antibacterial activity against different phytopathogenic bacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, R. solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, X. axonopodis pv. citiri, and X. axonopodis pv. glycine. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that water extracts of SMS (WESMS) of H. erinaceus induced expressions of plant defense genes encoding β-1,3-glucanase (GluA) and pathogenesis-related protein-1a (PR-1a), associated with systemic acquired resistance. Furthermore, WESMS also suppressed tomato wilt disease caused by R. solanacearum by 85% in seedlings and promoted growth (height, leaf number, and fresh weight of the root and shoot) of tomato plants. These findings suggest the WESMS of H. erinaceus has the potential to suppress bacterial wilt disease of tomato through multiple effects including antibacterial activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction.

  3. Composted biogas residue and spent mushroom substrate as a growth medium for tomato and pepper seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xingyao; Dai, Jiali; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xiaofen; Zhu, Wanbin; Yuan, Xufeng; Yuan, Hongli; Cui, Zongjun

    2017-09-25

    A composted material derived from biogas production residues, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and pig manure was evaluated as a partial or total replacement for peat in growth medium for tomato and pepper seedlings. Five different substrates were tested: T1, compost + perlite (5:1, v:v); T2, compost + peat + perlite (4:1:1, v:v:v); T3, compost + peat + perlite (2.5:2.5:1, v:v:v); T4, compost + peat + perlite (1:4:1, v:v:v); and CK, a commercial peat + perlite (5:1, v:v). The physical-chemical characteristics of the various media were analyzed, and the germination rate and morphological growth were also measured. Real-time Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to quantify Fusarium concentrations. The addition of compost to peat-based growth medium increased the pH, electrical conductivity, air porosity, bulk density, and nutrition (NPK), and decreased the water holding capacity and total porosity. The use of compost did not affect the percent germination at day 15 of the tomato and pepper seedlings. The addition of compost resulted in better or comparable seedling quality compared with CK and fertilized CK. The best growth parameters were seen in tomato and pepper seedlings grown in T1 and T2, with higher morphological growth in comparison with CK and fertilized CK. However, T2 showed the highest Fusarium concentration compared to compost and all growth media. Fusarium concentrations in T1, T3, and T4 did not differ significantly from those in CK for tomato seedlings, and those in T1 and T4 were also similar to those in CK for pepper seedlings. The results suggest that biogas residues and SMS compost is a good alternative to peat, allowing 100% replacement, and that 20-50% replacement produces tomato and pepper seedlings with higher morphological growth and lower Fusarium concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serotonin, one of the chemicals in our brains. Increased amounts of serotonin can create feelings of euphoria and altered perceptions of reality. The effects of mushrooms generally begin after about ...

  5. The development of type VI glandular trichomes in the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and a related wild species S. habrochaites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergau, Nick; Bennewitz, Stefan; Syrowatka, Frank; Hause, Gerd; Tissier, Alain

    2015-12-12

    Type VI glandular trichomes represent the most abundant trichome type on leaves and stems of tomato plants and significantly contribute to herbivore resistance, particularly in the wild species. Despite this, their development has been poorly studied so far. The goal of this study is to fill this gap. Using a variety of cell imaging techniques, a detailed record of the anatomy and developmental stages of type VI trichomes in the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and in a related wild species (S. habrochaites) is provided. In both species, the development of these structures follows a highly reproducible cell division pattern. The two species differ in the shape of the trichome head which is round in S. habrochaites and like a four-leaf clover in S. lycopersicum, correlating with the presence of a large intercellular cavity in S. habrochaites where the produced metabolites accumulate. In both species, the junction between the intermediate cell and the four glandular cells constitute a breaking point facilitating the decapitation of the trichome and thereby the quick release of the metabolites. A strongly auto-fluorescent compound transiently accumulates in the early stages of development suggesting a potential role in the differentiation process. Finally, immuno-labelling with antibodies recognizing specific cell wall components indicate a key role of pectin and arabinogalactan components in the differentiation of type VI trichomes. Our observations explain the adaptive morphologies of type VI trichomes for metabolite storage and release and provide a framework for further studies of these important metabolic cellular factories. This is required to better exploit their potential, in particular for the breeding of pest resistance in tomato.

  6. The use of spent mushroom substrate of L. subnudus Berk as a soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of spent mushroom substrate on the vegetative growth and yields of cowpea and tomato were determined. Autoclaved and unautoclaved spent mushroom substrates, mixed with loamy soil in ratio 1:9 were utilized with both composted and uncomposted spent mushroom substrates. Composted spent mushroom ...

  7. Furlough Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  8. Reishi Mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)eishi mushroom might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking reishi mushroom along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go ...

  9. Oyster Mushroom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to look into the possibility of using the different lignocellulosic biomasses for Pleurotus sajor-caju (oyster mushroom) cultivation. The mushroom species was cultivated on nine types of substrates; namely three acacia species, three types of straws, coffee husk and saw dust obtained from two.

  10. Medicinal mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargano, Maria Letizia; Griensven, van Leo J.L.D.; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S.; Lindequist, Ulrike; Venturella, Giuseppe; Wasser, Solomon P.; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2017-01-01

    Higher Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes mushrooms possess various immunological and anticancer properties. They also offer important health benefits and exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, cytotoxic, immunomodulating,

  11. Mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguven, M; Yilmaz, O; Deveci, M; Aksu, N; Dursun, F; Pelit, M; Cebeci, N

    2007-09-01

    We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning. We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994-2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning. All of the cases were admitted to the hospital in autumn. Twenty three (59%) of the patients were female and 16 (41%) were male. Mean age of the patients was 8.05 +/- 2.10 years. Amanita phalloides toxin was detected in the serum in 8 patients. Eleven (28%) of the cases were strongly suggestive of amanita poisoning but alpha amanitin level could not be studied. The average time of appearance of symptoms after mushroom consumption, duration of symptoms, hospital stay, serum AST, ALT, PT and creatinine levels were significantly higher in patients with amanita poisoning (pamanita poisoning (30%), totally 7 patients died of hepatic coma. The average time of admission to hospital, mean AST, ALT, creatinine and PT values at 3rd day were significantly higher in patients who died of hepatic coma. Prognosis was better in case of early admittance to hospital in patients with amanita poisoning. Early diagnosis and treatment in mushroom poisoning can be life saving. Public awareness is very important in prevention of intoxication as well as encouraging early admission to hospitals.

  12. Hallucinogenic mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R H; Smith, D E

    1988-02-01

    Ingestion of mushrooms containing psilocybin produces hallucinogenic effects and has become a popular form of substance abuse among some adolescents and young adults. We have reviewed the medical literature on psilocybin mushrooms and describe current patterns of use, provide background material on the botony and pharmacology of these crude drugs, and report results of a small study on usage patterns among identified adolescent drug abusers. Among 174 adolescents already identified as substance abusers, 45 (26%) reported having used hallucinogenic mushrooms, frequently in conjunction with alcohol or other drugs. An average intake of 2-4 mushrooms was obtained for about +8, and led to intoxication for 5-6 hours. Mixing of intoxicants such as alcohol, marijuana, and psilocybin mushrooms was the rule. The acute adverse reactions may have been the result of drug synergy. Pediatricians should become aware of the specific patterns of the use of hallucinogenic drugs by adolescents and consider the possibility of such use when evaluating a delirious or psychotic adolescent.

  13. The Edible Mushroom Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Anna Del; Læssøe, Thomas

    A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats.......A gourmet's guide to foraging and cooking mushrooms. It helps readers find out how to forage, prepare and cook mushrooms that are wild, fresh and free. It features photographs, which show edible mushrooms in their natural habitats....

  14. The oldest fossil mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew N.; Crane, J. Leland; Thomas, M. Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M.; Methven, Andrew S.; Raudabaugh, Daniel B.; Wang, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. et sp. nov. is remarkable for its exceptional preservation as a mineralized replacement in laminated limestone, as all other fossil mushrooms are known from amber inclusions. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana. PMID:28591180

  15. The oldest fossil mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, Sam W; Miller, Andrew N; Crane, J Leland; Thomas, M Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M; Methven, Andrew S; Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Wang, Yinan

    2017-01-01

    A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. et sp. nov. is remarkable for its exceptional preservation as a mineralized replacement in laminated limestone, as all other fossil mushrooms are known from amber inclusions. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana.

  16. Flagellate shiitake mushroom dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luber, Adam J; Ackerman, Lindsay S

    2015-08-15

    An 84-year-old woman presented with 5 days of a pruritic skin eruption that formed arciform and linear patterns. She was diagnosed with flagellate shiitake mushroom dermatitis related to shiitake mushroom consumption the day prior symptom onset.

  17. Functional foods from mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms are defined as “a macro fungus with distinctive fruiting bodies that could be hypogeous or epigeous, large enough to be seen by naked eyes and to be picked by hands.” The Basidiomycetes and some species of Ascomycetes are categorized as mushrooms. Mushrooms constitute 22,000 known species ...

  18. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  19. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerkamp, Yvonne; Paz, Ana Margarita; Guzmán, Gastón

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species.

  20. Mushroom Use by College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

  1. Mushrooms as therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushila Rathee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been known for their nutritional and culinary values and used as medicines and tonics by humans for ages. In modern terms, they can be considered as functional foods which can provide health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients. There are monographs that cover the medicinal and healing properties of some individual traditional mushrooms. There has been a recent upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a health food which is rich in protein but also as a source of biologically active compounds of medicinal value which include complementary medicine/dietary supplements for anticancer, antiviral, hepatoprotective, immunopotentiating and hypocholesterolemic agents. However the mechanisms of the various health benefits of mushrooms to humans still require intensive investigation, especially given the emergence of new evidence of their health benefits. In the present paper the medicinal potential of mushrooms is being discussed.

  2. Hepatoprotective Effects of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts.

  3. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed.

  4. Antioxidant properties of cultivated edible mushroom (Agaricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peter Omenda (Dr.)

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... Key words: Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), edible mushroom, antioxidant, reducing power, scavenging ability, phytochemicals. INTRODUCTION. The button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange). Imbach, is the premier cultivated edible mushroom and is consumed throughout the world.

  5. Geometry VI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Geometry VI - Space-the Final Frontier. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 28-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0028-0033 ...

  6. VI KA’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen handler om hvordan man kan bruge et spil til at udvikle og måle kompetencer. Artiklen diskuterer forskellige forståelser kompetencebegrebet og diskuterer hvordan Vi Ka'-spillet bidrager til at indfange den mere aktive forståelse af kompetence, som noget du gør i en bestemt kontekst....

  7. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (tomato juice). (iv) Tomato paste, or tomato puree, or tomato pulp complying with the compositional... appropriate. (e) The name of the packing medium: “tomato paste”, “tomato puree”, or “tomato pulp” as provided...

  8. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  9. Baba Yaga and the Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nineteenth and early twentieth century artists portray the Russian witch Baba Yaga with mushrooms, especially with Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric. Fairy tales about Baba Yaga, as well as other Slavic folktales, repeatedly contain passing reference to mushrooms, but mushrooms are not integral to st...

  10. Browning sensitivity of button mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.; Bastiaan-Net, S.; Hendrix, E.A.H.J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    To study the sensitivity of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms to bruising, a reproducible method was developed to apply mechanical damage to mushroom caps and quantify the subsequent discoloration. The newly developed bruising device can apply damage to the cap tissue of intact button mushrooms by a

  11. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-10-27

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  12. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  13. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine), severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally sialidosis and mucolipidosis. Before enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase (Naglazyme®), clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided. PMID:20385007

  14. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmatz Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine, severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally ARSB gene, located in chromosome 5 (5q13-5q14. Over 130 ARSB mutations have been reported, causing absent or reduced arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase activity and interrupted dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate degradation. Diagnosis generally requires evidence of clinical phenotype, arylsulfatase B enzyme activity ®, clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided.

  15. Shiitake Mushroom Dermatitis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Mathew Paul; Chung, Stella; Handler, Marc Zachary; Handler, Nancy Stefanie; Handler, Glenn A; Schwartz, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis.

  16. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  18. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  19. Global collection of mushroom pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Korsten, L.

    2013-01-01

    In many places in the world, increasingly less chemical crop protection agents are available for use in mushroom cultivation. As a consequence, mushroom cultivation will loose the ability to use crop protection agents. As a consequence, good hygiene management, early detection and monitoring of

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF MUSHROOM MYCELIA USING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of. Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden. ABSTRACT. The suitability of using DNA techniques in the determination of relatedness of mushroom fruiting bodies to isolated mycelia was examined. Nine isolates of edible mushroom mycelia of genera.

  1. CULTIVATION OF MUSHROOM (Pleurotus ostreatus) USING CORN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    KEY WORDS: Mushroom, Pleurotus Ostreatus, Saw Dust, Corn Cobs, Substrates. INTRODUCTION. Mushrooms have been defined as macro-fungi with distinctive fruit bodies, which are visible to the naked eye. Mushrooms belong to the class. Basidiomycetes (Pelczar et al., 2003). Mushrooms have long been recognized ...

  2. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus (Psalliota...

  3. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on mushroom and mushroom products is dynamic with global increasing interest. The natural habitat of mushrooms being the wild, it is imperative to cultivate mushroom domestically in order to make it available to the populace. The aim of this research was to assess the perception of consumers to consumption of ...

  4. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  5. [Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

    2011-12-01

    The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT

  6. Expression of stress-related genes in tomato plants exposed to arsenic and chromium in nutrient solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Souguir, Dalila; Ferjani, Ezzedine; Faure, Olivier; Hitmi, Adnane; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2009-09-01

    The molecular responses of hydroponically cultivated tomato plants to As(V) or Cr(VI) were assessed by transcript accumulation analysis of genes coding for products potentially involved in heavy metal tolerance. A quantitative real-time PCR experiment was performed with Hsp90-1, MT2- and GR1-like protein genes using RNA isolated from tomato roots or shoots treated for 24h with As(V) or Cr(VI) at concentrations ranging from 80 to 640 microM. Both transient metallic treatments induced Hsp90-1 transcript accumulation in tomato plants. MT2- and GR1-like transcripts accumulated in tomato roots treated with As(V) but were only slightly affected by Cr(VI) treatment. Tomatoes showed phenotypic symptoms to heavy metal toxicity when plants were exposed to Cr(VI) but not As(V). Plant lethality was observed at 1280 microM Cr(VI), indicating that tomatoes were more tolerant to As than Cr stress under the experimental conditions used here.

  7. [Factors determining students' knowledge on wild mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwaluk, Paweł; Parnicki, Florian; Cisoń-Apanasewicz, Urszula; Potok, Halina; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted among students of university schools in Nowy Sacz, Biała Podlaska and Zamość to determine the guidelines of mushroom poisoning prevention. The study included 580 people. The dependence of knowledge about mushrooms from the place of origin of students, frequency of participation in mushrooming, preferred sources of information about mushrooms, major of study and self-competence in discsriminating of mushrooms was determined. Mushrooms gathered nearly 80% of respondents. Residents of large cities more often that those living in villages and small towns have difficulites in distinguishing the edible and poisonous mushrooms. People often participating in mushrooming retain proper habits during the harvesting and processing of mushrooms. Irrational ways of distinguishing edible mushrooms from poisonous are often rejected by inexperienced people than by frequently gathering mushrooms. Nearly 20% of respondents, regardless of their own experience and self-assessment of their competence in discriminating mushrooms belive that after culinary preparation can by safely consume even deadly poisonous species. The primary source of knowledge on mushrooms for the majority of responents are parents. There was no correlation between the preferred source of information about mushrooms and belief in the myths about them. Knowledge on the mushrooms of medical students (nursing, emergency medical service) is not greater than students other courses.

  8. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

    2012-01-01

    An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4).

  9. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Phillips

    Full Text Available An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol. Vitamin D(4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3H] itamin D(3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively. Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4 content was more than twice that of D(2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g. Vitamin D(4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g. Vitamin D(4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4 coeluted with D(3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2 in mushrooms and using D(3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3 and D(4.

  10. Short Communication Mushroom: Nature's Treasure in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    ... Equar and Solomon Amhare. Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Mekelle University, ... medicinal and culinary uses, status of mushrooms in Ethiopia, and sustainable use for sustenance and food security. Keywords: Mushroom, Fungus, Status, Tigray, Ethiopia. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  11. Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, J; Baeza, A

    2014-07-01

    Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1209...

  13. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  14. Tomato handling practices in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Elizabeth; Green, Laura R; Stone, Carmily; Reimann, Dave; Nicholas, Dave; Mason, Ryan; Frick, Roberta; Coleman, Sandra; Bushnell, Lisa; Blade, Henry; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, multiple outbreaks of Salmonella infection have been associated with fresh tomatoes. Investigations have indicated that tomato contamination likely occurred early in the farm-to-consumer chain, although tomato consumption occurred mostly in restaurants. Researchers have hypothesized that tomato handling practices in restaurants may contribute to these outbreaks. However, few empirical data exist on how restaurant workers handle tomatoes. This study was conducted to examine tomato handling practices in restaurants. Members of the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) observed tomato handling practices in 449 restaurants. The data indicated that handling tomatoes appropriately posed a challenge to many restaurants. Produce-only cutting boards were not used on 49% of tomato cutting observations, and gloves were not worn in 36% of tomato cutting observations. Although tomatoes were washed under running water as recommended in most (82%) of the washing observations, tomatoes were soaked in standing water, a practice not recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in 18% of observations, and the temperature differential between the wash water and tomatoes did not meet FDA guidelines in 21% of observations. About half of all batches of cut tomatoes in holding areas were above 41 degrees F (5 degrees C), the temperature recommended by the FDA. The maximum holding time for most (73%) of the cut tomatoes held above 41 degrees F exceeded the FDA recommended holding time of 4 h for unrefrigerated tomatoes (i.e., tomatoes held above 41 degrees F). The information provided by this study can be used to inform efforts to develop interventions and thus prevent tomato-associated illness outbreaks.

  15. Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Joyce; Kirk, Dwayne D; Walmsley, Amanda M

    2006-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) is an important fruit crop in the Americas, southern Europe, the Middle East, and India, with increasing production in China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. It is amenable to producing pharmaceuticals, particularly for oral delivery; for many of the same reasons, it is a popular vegetable. Its fruit does not contain toxic substances and is palatable uncooked; it is easily processed; the plants are able to be propagated by seed or clonally by tip or shoot cuttings; the plants have a high yield of fruit; there is reasonable biomass and protein content; and they are easily grown under containment. This chapter describes Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the tomato nucleus using cotyledons as explants. We have used this protocol to generate transgenic lines from several tomato cultivars expressing various genes of interest and selectable markers. We also provide protocols for molecular characterization of transgenic lines and batch processing tomato fruit.

  16. Peeling tomato paste subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte, Frank H.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Common Market Organisation (CMO) for fruit and vegetable products is currently evaluated by the European Commission. The evaluation may lead to a reform of the CMO. One of the elements under debate is the production subsidy for processing tomatoes. The processing tomato sector is one of most heavily subsidized sectors in primary production of fruit and vegetables. The current production subsidy equals approximately 50% of producer turnover. This paper evaluates two possible reforms of the...

  17. Edible mushroom-related poisoning: A study on circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlikowski, T; Romek, M; Satora, L

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Poison Control Center (AAPCC) shows that in 2012 there were 0.3% of human exposures involving mushrooms. Only 17% of 6600 cases were then identified by the species. The present retrospective study was designed to identify the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to Krakow's Department of Clinical Toxicology (DCT) from 2002 to 2009. This study was conducted retrospectively after examining the files of 457 adult patients with wild mushroom poisoning. Mycological analysis was made and the species of the poisoning-inducing mushroom was determined. Furthermore, the circumstances related to the mushroom gathering, transport, storage, preparation, and consumption have been analyzed. The analysis revealed that in 400 (87.53%) out of 457 cases, the clinical symptoms were caused by ingestion of identified edible mushroom species. The main reason for edible mushroom poisoning is associated with their incorrect processing after harvest. The analysis of the circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage shows that the largest percentage of poisoning was connected with long-term storage of mushroom dishes, collecting, and storing them in plastic bags, and long storage of mushrooms. Based on spore analysis of the gastric content, edible mushrooms were responsible for the great majority of mushroom poisoning cases admitted to the DCT. The toxicity of edible mushroom is associated with proceeding with them during collection, transport, and storage. The medical history should be supplemented by questions concerning these circumstances. The identification of the mushroom by a mycologist is highly desirable. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J; Barrett, M

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms. We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies. Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

  19. Deadly Poisonous Turkish Mushrooms Containing Alpha Amanitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgaz Akata

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom poisoning is still a serious health problem for Turkey. The mushroom species which cause fatal mushroom poisoning have been reported to contain at least 98% alpha-amanitin. The knowledge of the poisonous mushroom species including alpha- amanitin is important for the treatment and prevention of these poisonings. In this review, the mushrooms containig alpha-amanitin and causing deadly mushroom poisinings were listed and given information about their poisonus effects. According to literature, nine poisonous mushroom species which include alpha-amanitin have so far been reported from Turkey. These are Lepiota brunneoincarnata; Lepiota castanea; Lepiota helveola; Lepiota subincarnata; Amanita phalloides; Amanita verna; Amanita virosa; Conocybe filaris and Galerina marginata.

  20. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  1. Vi, de civiliserede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?......Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?...

  2. Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M.; Milner, John A.; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B.; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T.; Castlebury, Lisa A.; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Haytowitz, David B.; Hubbard, Van S.; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S.; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D.; Woteki, Catherine E.; Wu, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9–10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

  3. Cadmium determination in Lentinus edodes mushroom species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Akiko Maihara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have drawn attention to the occurrence and concentration of toxic elements found in the fruiting body of mushrooms. Some edible mushroom species are known to accumulate high levels of inorganic contaminants, mainly cadmium, mercury, and lead. There are about 2,000 known edible mushroom species, but only 25 of them are cultivated and used as food. In Brazil, the most marketed and consumed mushroom species are Agaricus bisporus, known as Paris champignon, Lentinus edodes, or Shitake and Pleurotus sp, also called Shimeji or Hiratake. In this study, the concentration of cadmium was determined in Lentinus edodes mushrooms from different cities in São Paulo state and some samples imported from Japan and China. The analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after HNO3-H2O2 digestion. The results showed a lower concentration of Cd in the mushrooms cultivated in São Paulo (0.0079 to 0.023 mg.kg-1 in natura than that of the mushrooms cultivated abroad (0.125 to 0.212 mg.kg-1 in natura. Although there is no tolerance limit for Cd in mushrooms in Brazil, the results show that Lentinus edodes mushrooms can be safely consumed.

  4. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ,12,13-. THODA. It has recently been shown that the enzyme peroxygenase is involved in the synthe- sis of 9,12,13-THODA in tomato fruits and that this trihydroxy fatty acid was probably further broken down or converted into other metabo-.

  5. Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Heusden, van A.W.; Bai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    After its introduction in Europe the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has gone a long way. Dedicated breeding has resulted in numerous cultivars grown all over the world, differing in all kind of aspects such as yield, shape, resistance, taste and quality. Modern cultivars are sold as hybrids with a

  6. Mushroom fruiting and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauserud, Håvard; Stige, Leif Christian; Vik, Jon Olav; Okland, Rune H; Høiland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2008-03-11

    Many species of fungi produce ephemeral autumnal fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic importance, little is known about the phenology of fruiting bodies. Using approximately 34,500 dated herbarium records we analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940-2006. We show that the time of fruiting has changed considerably over this time period, with an average delay in fruiting since 1980 of 12.9 days. The changes differ strongly between species and groups of species. Early-fruiting species have experienced a stronger delay than late fruiters, resulting in a more compressed fruiting season. There is also a geographic trend of earlier fruiting in the northern and more continental parts of Norway than in more southern and oceanic parts. Incorporating monthly precipitation and temperature variables into the analyses provides indications that increasing temperatures during autumn and winter months bring about significant delay of fruiting both in the same year and in the subsequent year. The recent changes in autumnal mushroom phenology coincide with the extension of the growing season caused by global climate change and are likely to continue under the current climate change scenario.

  7. Uptake of certain heavy metals from contaminated soil by mushroom--Galerina vittiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Dilna; Vidya Shetty, K; Raj Mohan, B

    2014-06-01

    Remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals has received considerable attention in recent years. In this study, the heavy metal uptake potential of the mushroom, Galerina vittiformis, was studied in soil artificially contaminated with Cu (II), Cd (II), Cr (VI), Pb (II) and Zn (II) at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/kg. G. vittiformis was found to be effective in removing the metals from soil within 30 days. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for both mycelia and fruiting bodies with respect to these heavy metals at 50mg/kg concentrations were found to be greater than one, indicating hyper accumulating nature by the mushroom. The metal removal rates by G. vittiformis was analyzed using different kinetic rate constants and found to follow the second order kinetic rate equation except for Cd (II), which followed the first order rate kinetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of flushes on some constituents of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus cultivated on different composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Bąkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two different composts: horse manure and broiler chicken manure and the influence of flushes during the growing cycle on some chemical components contained in the mushroom (Agaricus bisporus was studied. The strain Somycel 11 was analyzed. The following determinations were made: dry matter, total nitrogen and crude protein, nitrates, nitrites and amino acids composition. It has been noted that the crude protein from. combined flushes III to VI of mushrooms cultivated on horse manure was about 24% higher than in those grown on broiler chicken manure. Some changes in amino acids composition, especially lysine, histidine, arginine, aspartic acid, serine, methionine, glutamic acid and alanine were observed, depending on the size of the fruit-body, flushes and type of compost.

  9. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan,; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R; Grinsven, van, Saskia

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can be obtained by introgression of natural sources of resistance from wild relatives or by expressing viral sequences in transgenic tomato plants. We report high levels of resistance to TSWV obtained...

  10. and dioxouranium(vi)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) with atomic radii of 1.65 and .... to ν(NH) vibrations. Practically no effect on these frequencies after complexation precludes the possibility of metal-coordination at this group. The absorptions at 1600 ... observation suggests involvement of unsaturated nitrogen atoms of the two azomethine groups.

  11. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  12. Environmental signaling and regulation of mushroom formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018514

    2016-01-01

    Mushrooms are of great value as a food source. The Netherlands has a large share of the European white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production. This market will increase in the future due to larger demand for high quality food with a growing world population. Environmental factors play a role

  13. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  14. NMR and mushrooms : imaging post harvest senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, H.C.W.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this thesis was to explore the potentials of NMR for the study of water relations in harvested mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ). Since harvested mushrooms tend to continue their growth after harvest, their morphogenesis is heavily

  15. Accuracy of sampling during mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments described in this report were performed to increase the accuracy of the analysis of the biological efficiency of Agaricus bisporus strains. Biological efficiency is a measure of the efficiency with which the mushroom strains use dry matter in the compost to produce mushrooms (expressed

  16. Identification of Tanzanian saprophytic edible mushrooms by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, ten wild saprophytic edible mushrooms samples, collected from Tanzania natural forests and planted trees, and their two domesticated forms were characterized by in-vitro/in-vivo amplification and sequencing of ITS/LSU regions. Mushroom genomic DNA was extracted by ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MniPrep Kit.

  17. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms ADEDAYO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Vol. 15 (1) 9 - 11. Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms. ADEDAYO, MAJEKODUNMI RACHEL. Nigerian Stored Product Research Institute, P.M.B.3032, Kano. ABSTRACT: Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in.

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of Oyster mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mushrooms have medicinal as well as nutritive value and extensively used as human food from the time immortal. In order to determine the genetic diversity among Pleurotus species of mushroom using morphological and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, about seven different species were collected.

  19. Lethal ingestion of stored Amanita phalloides mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelmann, A; Mang, G; Schnorf-Huber, S

    2001-10-20

    We report the first case of a lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. After picking the mushrooms were kept in a freezer for 7-8 months. This case is in accordance with the well-known stability of the amatoxins and demonstrates the possibility of A. phalloides poisoning at any time of year.

  20. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Karahan Research Fellow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications.

  1. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Samet; Erden, Abdulsamet; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avci, Deniz; Ortakoyluoglu, Adile Irfan; Karagoz, Hatice; Bulut, Kadir; Basak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications. PMID:26835473

  2. Flagellate dermatitis following consumption of shiitake mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Hui Voon; Oon, Hazel H

    2011-08-03

    Japanese dermatologists were the first to describe the very characteristic flagellate dermatitis following consumption of undercooked or raw shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). These similar eruptions were also reported in patients treated with bleomycin, in dermatomyositis and adult onset Still's disease. We report a case where a 40 year old chinese female developed flagellate dermatitis following ingestion of a bun containing shiitake mushroom.

  3. Textural modification of processing tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D M; Garcia, E; Wayne, J E

    1998-04-01

    Knowledge of the textural properties of processing tomatoes is crucial to ensuing product acceptability; measurement, control, and optimization of these properties through judicious selection of varieties and control of unit operations results in products that the consumer prefers. It is important to first define the terms texture, rheology, consistency, and viscosity prior to discussing principles of their measurement. The textural properties of processing tomatoes may be measured using both sensory and objective tests, and the latter may be either destructive or nondestructive in nature. The unique anatomy of tomato fruit (peel, pericarp, columella, and locules) in part dictates the method of texture measurement. Numerous factors, including variety, maturity, genetic modification, cultural particles, and environmental conditions, processing conditions, and calcium addition affect the textural integrity of tomatoes. Textural properties of raw tomatoes and most processed tomato products are reviewed in this article.

  4. Genotyping and evaluation of Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sumiati, E.

    2005-01-01

    Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) represent one of the most popular mushroom species grown in Indonesia. There is a need for strains that are better adapted to the climate conditions at Java, where most mushrooms in Indonesia are produced. Strains that can produce mushrooms at 22 to 28 oC and

  5. Mushroom flora and associated insect fauna in Nsukka Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communites is indicaed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests ...

  6. Evaluating the production of Ganoderma mushroom on corn cobs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... Mushroom substrates are organic materials which mushroom mycelia can digest and which support growth, development and fruiting of mushrooms. Without good substrates, satisfactory yields of mushrooms will not be obtained. Consequently, finding good substrates on which to grow Ganoderma lucidum ...

  7. Evaluating the production of Ganoderma mushroom on corn cobs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mushroom substrates are organic materials which mushroom mycelia can digest and which support growth, development and fruiting of mushrooms. Without good substrates, satisfactory yields of mushrooms will not be obtained. Consequently, finding good substrates on which to grow Ganoderma lucidum is of great ...

  8. Unravelling the bruising discoloration of Agaricus bisporus, the button mushroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.

    2013-01-01

      In this research the browning-discoloration caused by bruising of button mushrooms was analysed. Brown-discoloration of mushrooms can amongst others be caused by the picking and storage of mushrooms. Current day commercial hybrids can not be used for mechanical harvesting because mushrooms

  9. wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in nigeria abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Research on mushroom and mushroom products is dynamic with global increasing interest. The natural habitat of mushrooms being the wild, it is imperative to cultivate mushroom domestically in order to make it available to the populace. The aim of this research was to assess the perception of consumers to consumption of ...

  10. Immunomodulatory Properties of Plants and Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Jan; Ko, Yun-Fei; Ojcius, David M; Lu, Chia-Chen; Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D

    2017-11-01

    Plants and mushrooms are used for medicinal purposes and the screening of molecules possessing biological activities. A single plant or mushroom may produce both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on immune cells, depending on experimental conditions, but the reason behind this dichotomy remains obscure. We present here a large body of experimental data showing that water extracts of plants and mushrooms usually activate immune cells, whereas ethanol extracts inhibit immune cells. The mode of extraction of plants and mushrooms may thus determine the effects produced on immune cells, possibly due to differential solubility and potency of stimulatory and inhibitory compounds. We also examine the possibility of using such plant and mushroom extracts to treat immune system disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenylhydrazines in the cultivated mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, H. C.; Gry, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    In 1991, the Nordic Working Group on Food Toxicology and Risk Evaluation (NNT) reviewed the available data on phenylhydrazines naturally occurring in the cultivated mushroom. It was concluded that the mushroom may contain about 500 mg of the hydrazine derivatives per kg fresh weight. The hydrazine...... derivatives as well as extracts of the cultivated mushroom were mutagenic to a variable degree in most of the reported short-term tests. The raw mushroom and several of the hydrazines induced tumours when administered to Swiss mice as reported by American scientists. However, reservations were expressed...... as to the design of the studies. Based on this review, and due to the concern expressed, a Nordic project (coordinated by Jørn Gry, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration) was initiated dealing with toxicological and chemical studies on the cultivated mushroom and its phenylhydrazine derivatives in order...

  13. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  14. The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sanhong; Weaver, Veronika; Martin, Keith; Cantorna, Margherita T

    2009-01-01

    Background Consumption of edible mushrooms has been suggested to improve health. A number of isolated mushroom constituents have been shown to modulate immunity. Five commonly consumed edible mushrooms were tested to determine whether whole mushrooms stimulate the immune system in vitro and in vivo. Results The white button (WB) extracts readily stimulated macrophage production of TNF-α. The crimini, maitake, oyster and shiitake extracts also stimulated TNF-α production in macrophage but the levels were lower than from WB stimulation. Primary cultures of murine macrophage and ovalbumin (OVA) specific T cells showed that whole mushroom extracts alone had no effect on cytokine production but co-stimulation with either lipopolysacharide or OVA (respectively) induced TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β while decreasing IL-10. Feeding mice diets that contained 2% WB mushrooms for 4 weeks had no effect on the ex vivo immune responsiveness or associated toxicity (changes in weight or pathology of liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract). Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) stimulation of mice that were fed 1% WB mushrooms were protected from DSS induced weight loss. In addition, 2% WB feeding protected the mice from transient DSS induced colonic injury. The TNF-α response in the colon and serum of the DSS challenged and 2% WB fed mice was higher than controls. Conclusion The data support a model whereby edible mushrooms regulate immunity in vitro. The in vivo effects of edible mushrooms required a challenge with DSS to detect small changes in TNF-α and transient protection from colonic injury. There are modest effects of in vivo consumption of edible mushrooms on induced inflammatory responses. The result is not surprising since it would certainly be harmful to strongly induce or suppress immune function following ingestion of a commonly consumed food. PMID:19232107

  15. The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantorna Margherita T

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of edible mushrooms has been suggested to improve health. A number of isolated mushroom constituents have been shown to modulate immunity. Five commonly consumed edible mushrooms were tested to determine whether whole mushrooms stimulate the immune system in vitro and in vivo. Results The white button (WB extracts readily stimulated macrophage production of TNF-α. The crimini, maitake, oyster and shiitake extracts also stimulated TNF-α production in macrophage but the levels were lower than from WB stimulation. Primary cultures of murine macrophage and ovalbumin (OVA specific T cells showed that whole mushroom extracts alone had no effect on cytokine production but co-stimulation with either lipopolysacharide or OVA (respectively induced TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β while decreasing IL-10. Feeding mice diets that contained 2% WB mushrooms for 4 weeks had no effect on the ex vivo immune responsiveness or associated toxicity (changes in weight or pathology of liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS stimulation of mice that were fed 1% WB mushrooms were protected from DSS induced weight loss. In addition, 2% WB feeding protected the mice from transient DSS induced colonic injury. The TNF-α response in the colon and serum of the DSS challenged and 2% WB fed mice was higher than controls. Conclusion The data support a model whereby edible mushrooms regulate immunity in vitro. The in vivo effects of edible mushrooms required a challenge with DSS to detect small changes in TNF-α and transient protection from colonic injury. There are modest effects of in vivo consumption of edible mushrooms on induced inflammatory responses. The result is not surprising since it would certainly be harmful to strongly induce or suppress immune function following ingestion of a commonly consumed food.

  16. Determination of Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-OES in mushroom samples from Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Altıntığ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russula cyanoxantha, Russula delica, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius deliciosus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus spp and Boletus edulis were collected from Sakarya-Turkey respectively. Also canned food in the form of the Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lactarius salmonicolor mushrooms were used for the examination. Trace metal concentrations found in these mushrooms were determined inductively using coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry microwave processes. The results were obtained for (Cr 0.3-26.65, (Cu 17.38-132.75, (Fe 26.3-225.40, (Ni 2.57-39.28, (Pb 11.52-185.20, and (Zn 22.86-126.84 mg/kg. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1 and tomato leaves (1573a.

  17. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiya; Retno Lantarsih; Titop Dwiwinarno*

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrome...

  18. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The MMS medium was a mixture of 2.15 g of Murashige and Skoog me- dium, 0.97g of 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulphonic acid and 10 g of saccharose in. 500 ml of distilled water. The pH of the MMS medium was adjusted to 5.6 with 1 M KOH solution. Plant material and treatments. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv ...

  19. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  20. Minimum number and best combinations of harvests to evaluate accessions of tomato plants from germplasm banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Abreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.

  1. VI Nukitsa konkurss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    VI Nukitsa konkursi auhinnad: Kirjanikud: I - Henno Käo ("Kusagil mujal"); II - Aidi Vallik ("Kuidas elad, Ann?"); III - Artur Jurin ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Kunstnikud: I - Karel Korp (Leelo Tungla ja Karel Korbi "Tema amet"); II - Edgar Valter ("Kuidas õppida vaatama?"); III - Artur Jurin - ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Täiskasvanute küsitluse võitis nii teksti kui piltidega Ene-Maris Tali ja Tarmo Tali "Tähtraamat. Aastaring Maarjamaal"

  2. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a...

  3. RESPONSE OF PACKAGED TOMATOES (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    diseases (often encouraged by mechanical damage) are clear indications of the ... transportation. However this loading may cause some level of deterioration to tomato if the load on it is beyond what the tomato can withstand. Hence if the load cannot be .... modulus is often useful in relating the mechanical properties of the ...

  4. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  5. Flagellate dermatitis caused by shiitake mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Lidia Marilia; Anders, Diana; Kneitz, Hermann; Bröcker, Eva-Bettina; Benoit, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) is the second most consumed mushroom in the world. It has long been known in Asian medicine for its anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive and serum cholesterol level reduction properties. Nevertheless, the consumption of raw or not well-cooked mushrooms may cause skin eruptions which usually occur 24 to 48 hours after ingestion and are characterized by linearly arranged pruritic erythematous papules and plaques. We present a 36-year-old patient that developed typical symptoms 24 hours after consumption of shiitake mushrooms and summarize therapeutic options and particularities of this disease.

  6. 7 CFR 966.5 - Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tomatoes. 966.5 Section 966.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.5 Tomatoes. Tomatoes means all varieties of the edible fruit (Lycopersicon...

  7. Molecular characterization of Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is an important vegetable crop in Mexico. Recently, a phytoplasma associated with leaf yellowing and curling, severe stunting and little leaf in tomato plant was identified as Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (16SrIII group). DNAs extracted from tomato leaves with symptoms were examined for ...

  8. Molecular characterization of Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is an important vegetable crop in Mexico. Recently, a phytoplasma associated with leaf yellowing and curling, severe stunting and little leaf in tomato plant was identified as Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (16SrIII group). DNAs extracted from tomato leaves with symptoms.

  9. INTENSIFICATION OF JELLY MUSHROOM CULTIVATION IN PAKEM SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom cultivation is long enough to be a source of income for some people in Pakem, Sleman. However, cultivation techniques that do not yet meet the standards for technical, so that productivity is still low. Marketing mushrooms are limited to the traditional market. Waste mushroom has not been used well, so potentially to pollute the environment mushroom. This service activities include the provision of mushroom cultivation equipment, such as water pumps and termohygrometer and nozzle, and education and training bookkeeping, marketing, and processing waste into mushroom compost. The results showed an increase in the production of mushroom seen from the Biological Conversion Efficiency (BCE are in the top 30 percent. Partners also has a business bookkeeping and have Blog to market the mushroom by on-line. Partners also have the skills to process the manure (compost made from the waste of mushroom which can be used to help fertilize their crops.

  10. Chaga mushroom-induced oxalate nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yuko; Seta, Koichi; Ogawa, Yayoi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Taguchi, Takashi; Yahata, Kensei

    2014-06-01

    Chaga mushrooms have been used in folk and botanical medicine as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones. A 72-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with liver cancer 1 year prior to presenting at our department. She underwent hepatectomy of the left lobe 3 months later. Chaga mushroom powder (4 - 5 teaspoons per day) had been ingested for the past 6 months for liver cancer. Renal function decreased and hemodialysis was initiated. Renal biopsy specimens showed diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Oxalate crystals were detected in the tubular lumina and urinary sediment and oxalate nephropathy was diagnosed. Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations. This is the first report of a case of oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of Chaga mushrooms.

  11. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan.

  12. Flagellate dermatitis caused by shiitake mushrooms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poppe, Lidia Marilia; Anders, Diana; Kneitz, Hermann; Bröcker, Eva-Bettina; Benoit, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) is the second most consumed mushroom in the world. It has long been known in Asian medicine for its anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive and serum cholesterol level reduction properties...

  13. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czarnecka, Agnieszka B; Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch

    2014-01-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes...

  14. Higher glandular trichome density in tomato leaflets and repellence to spider mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Inoue, Irene Fumi; Ferreira, Raphael de Paula Duarte; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Augusto [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Agricultura]. E-mail: wrmaluf@ufla.br; fuminoue@yahoo.com.br; raphaelufla@yahoo.com.br; laagomes@ufla.br; Castro, Evaristo Mauro de [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia]. E-mail: emcastro@ufla.br; Cardoso, Maria das Gracas [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mcardoso@ufla.br

    2007-09-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of selection for higher glandular trichome densities, as an indirect criterion of selection for increasing repellence to spider mites Tetranychus urticae, in tomato populations derived from an interspecific cross between Lycopersicon esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Trichome densities were evaluated in 19 genotypes, including 12 from advanced backcross populations, derived from the original cross L. esculentum x L. hirsutum var. glabratum PI 134417. Counts were made both on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, and trichomes were classified into glandular types IV and VI, other glandular types (types I+VII), and nonglandular types. Mite repellence was measured by distances walked by mites onto the tomato leaf surface after 20, 40 and 60 min. Spider mite repellence biotests indicated that higher densities of glandular trichomes (especially type VI) decreased the distances walked by the mites onto the tomato leaf surface. Selection of plants with higher densities of glandular trichomes can be an efficient criterion to obtain tomato genotypes with higher resistance (repellence) to spider mites. (author)

  15. Flagellate dermatitis following consumption of shiitake mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Voon Loo; Hazel H. Oon

    2011-01-01

    Japanese dermatologists were the first to describe the very characteristic flagellate dermatitis following consumption of under-cooked or raw shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). These similar eruptions were also reported in patients treated with bleomycin, in dermatomyositis and adult onset Still’s disease. We report a case where a 40 year old chinese female developed flagellate dermatitis following ingestion of a bun containing shiitake mushroom.

  16. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A convenient process design methodology which accounts also for product quality is Conceptual Process Design (CPD). An approach to follow CPD methodology is first to explore, the material properties...

  17. [Mushroom poisonings: syndromic diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The major syndromes of mushroom poisoning can be divided by presentation timing: Early syndromes (symptom onset 6 hrs after ingestion) are life-threatening due to liver- and renal failure. Patients who are jaundiced after an acute gastrointestinal episode, are suspected to be poisoned with Amatoxins. Patients with flank pain, hematuria, polyuria or oliguria in the absence of jaundice are suspected to have an intoxication with Cortinarius mushrooms. In both cases an intensive care management is indicated.

  18. A novel orellanine containing mushroom Cortinarius armillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dahai; Tang, Shusheng; Healy, Rosanne A; Imerman, Paula M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-05-01

    Orellanine (3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine-1,1'-dioxide) is a tetrahydroxylated di-N-oxidized bipyridine compound. The toxin, present in certain species of Cortinarius mushrooms, is structurally similar to herbicides Paraquat and Diquat. Cortinarius orellanus and Cortinarius rubellus are the major orellanine-containing mushrooms. Cortinarius mushrooms are widely reported in Europe where they have caused human poisoning and deaths through accidental ingestion of the poisonous species mistaken for the edible ones. In North America, Cortinarius orellanosus mushroom poisoning was recently reported to cause renal failure in a Michigan patient. Cortinarius mushroom poisoning is characterized by delayed acute renal failure, with some cases progressing to end-stage kidney disease. There is debate whether other Cortinarius mushroom contain orellanine or not, especially in North America. Currently, there are no veterinary diagnostic laboratories in North America with established test methods for detection and quantitation of orellanine. We have developed two diagnostic test methods based on HPLC and LC-MSMS for identification and quantitation of orellanine in mushrooms. Using these methods, we have identified Cortinarius armillatus as a novel orellanine-containing mushroom in North America. The mean toxin concentration of 145 ug/g was <1% of that of the more toxic C. rubellus. The HPLC method can detect orellanine at 17 μg g(-1) while the LC-MSMS method is almost 2000 times more sensitive and can detect orellanine at 30 ng g(-1). Both tests are quantitative, selective and are now available for veterinary diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flagellate dermatitis following consumption of shiitake mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Voon Loo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese dermatologists were the first to describe the very characteristic flagellate dermatitis following consumption of under-cooked or raw shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes. These similar eruptions were also reported in patients treated with bleomycin, in dermatomyositis and adult onset Still’s disease. We report a case where a 40 year old chinese female developed flagellate dermatitis following ingestion of a bun containing shiitake mushroom.

  20. [Study on pyrogen in natural and cultivated edible mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masanao; Tsuzuki, Hideaki; Tomita, Ban-ichi

    2006-08-01

    We examined endotoxin and pyrogen contents in several kinds of natural and cultivated edible mushrooms, as well as some cultivated vegetables. According to the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 14th Ed., two types of endotoxin (gel-clot Limulus amebocyte lysate) test and the pyrogen test were performed using natural edible mushrooms collected in Aichi Prefecture and cultivated mushrooms and vegetables purchased at a market. The endotoxin contents of natural mushrooms were apparently higher than those of cultivated mushrooms or vegetables. The endotoxin contents in the cultivated mushrooms were slightly higher than those in the vegetables. Similar results were obtained in the pyrogen test.

  1. Arsenic and its compounds in mushrooms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Rizal, Leela M

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the detail concentration of arsenic in some species of mushrooms as well as organic and inorganic forms of arsenic in the substrates where wild and cultivated edible mushrooms grow. We also briefly review the molecular forms of arsenic in mushrooms. There is still a lack of experimental data from the environment for a variety of species from different habitats and for different levels of geogenic arsenic in soil. This information will be useful for mushrooms consumers, nutritionists, and food regulatory agencies by describing ways to minimize arsenic content in edible mushrooms and arsenic intake from mushroom meals.

  2. Mushroom Cosmetics: The Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzheng Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds for centuries and have recently been exploited for potential components in the cosmetics industry. Numerous mushrooms and their ingredients have been known to be beneficial to the skin and hair. The representative ingredients are as follows: phenolics, polyphenolics, terpenoids, selenium, polysaccharides, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds. These compounds show excellent antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects, which make them ideal candidates for cosmetics products. This review provides some perspectives of mushrooms (and/or extracts and their ingredients presently used, or patented to be used, in both cosmeceuticals for topical administration and nutricosmetics for oral administration. With the small percentage of mushrooms presently identified and utilized, more mushroom species will be discovered, verified, and cultivated in the future, boosting the development of relevant industry. Combining with progress in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems pharmacology, mushrooms can find their way into cosmetics with multiple approaches.

  3. Vi tror, vi forstår hinanden, men det gør vi ikke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Mikkel Snorre Wilms

    2016-01-01

    Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den......Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den...

  4. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  5. Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms.

  6. Antiobesity properties of mushroom polysaccharides – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushrooms are widely consumed for their nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported health-promoting properties of bioactive mushroom polysaccharides, this presentation will survey the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) and reported antiobesity ...

  7. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushroom spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampere, Alexandre; Delhaes, Laurence; Soots, Jacques; Bart, Frederic; Wallaert, Benoit

    2012-08-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary granulomatosis involving an immunoallergic mechanism caused by chronic inhalation of antigens, most frequently organic substances, as well as chemicals. We report the first European case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to the inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores. A 37-year-old French Caucasian man with a one-month history of persistent dry cough, shortness of breath and loss of weight was admitted to our hospital on December 2010. Anamnesis showed he was involved in mushroom production beginning in the summer of 2010. His temperature on admission was 36.6°C and he had a normal blood pressure (135/90 mmHg). Bilateral fine crackles were audible in the base of both lungs. Pulmonary function tests showed a mild restrictive pattern with decreased DLco and a PaO(2) of 65 mmHg, Chest CT scan revealed reticulo-nodular shadows, slight ground glass opacities, liner atelectasis, and subpleural opacities in both lung fields. Bronchoscopy was normal but cytological examination of BAL revealed a predominant lymphocytosis (55%). Serum precipitins to the Shiitake mushroom spores were positive (3 precipitins arcs with high intensity) and as a result we advised the patient to cease his mushroom production activities. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores was established as a result of the improvement of all of his clinical symptoms, i.e., cough, weight loss, bilateral fine crackles, mild restrictive pattern of pulmonary function, and reticulo-nodular shadows on chest CT, once exposure was eliminated. Recent interest in exotic mushrooms varieties, e.g., Shiitake, in developed countries because of their possible medicinal properties might increase the potential risk of HP among mushrooms workers. Therefore, healthcare professionals have to take this new potential respiratory disease into account.

  8. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in t...

  9. Oyster Mushroom as Cash-Crop Fungus Cultivated

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Ai Suminarti

    2017-01-01

    Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) is a fungus that much-loved by the community. In addition to the delicious, oyster mushrooms are also very beneficial to the health of the body. High nutritional content with a variety of essential amino acids contained in it, Oyster mushrooms also contain other compounds that are important for the medical aspects. It is easily cultivated and derives income as cash for the farmer. In nature, oyster mushrooms grow only in certain seasons in limited quanti...

  10. Nigerian Mushrooms: Underutilized Non-Wood Forest Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    sustainable access to edible and medicinal mushrooms in Nigeria can be achieved in a number of ways which may include (i) by promoting opportunities for co-operation between all stake- holders such as the mushroom farmers, researchers/mycologists, politicians and other mushroom prospectors (marketer, NGOs and.

  11. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  12. Cultivation of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) on palm oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyster mushroom is a popular mushroom due to its nutritional, medicinal and potential commercial value. In Malaysia, the fungus is currently cultivated on sawdust and rice husk. In this study, the efficiency of cultivating oyster mushroom was assessed using palm oil mesocarp fibre as a substrate. The experiment consisted ...

  13. Substrate affects growth and yield of shiitake mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lentinus edodes (Berk.), the shiitake mushroom, is worldwide one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms. Sawdust is the most popular basal ingredient used in synthetic substrate formulations for producing shiitake spawn. However, the best sawdust for this uses needs to be determined. Shiitake mushroom was cultivated ...

  14. A resource efficiency assessment of the industrial mushroom production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Becerra Ramírez, Henry A.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the exergetic performance of a conventional industrial mushroom production chain with a mushroom production chain where part of the compost waste is recycled and reused as raw material. The critical exergy loss points (CEPs) identified are the cooking-out process of the spent mushroom

  15. Medicinal uses of mushrooms in Nigeria: towards full and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For centuries, mushrooms have been appreciated as sources of food nutrients and pharmacologically important compounds useful in medicine. Yet not all the medicinal properties of mushrooms have been exploited. The above statement is more pertinent to mushrooms that are indigenous to Nigeria. There are inadequate ...

  16. Shiitake, a new mushroom variety proposed in Mauritius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom introduced in Mauritius in order to diversify the mushroom varieties cultivated locally. Till recently, the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp) was the only species cultivated in. Mauritius. Shiitake is already present on the local market, imported in a major part in the dried form.

  17. Acceptability of Edible Mushroom as a Dietary Supplement in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the acceptability of edible mushroom as a dietary supplement. Virtually all the respondents (96.6 %) know what mushrooms are, but only half (55.2 %) consumes it. Less than half of the respondents (34.5 %) know the dietary components/benefits of mushroom. A greater majority of the respondents ...

  18. Mushroom production in the faculty of agriculture teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that total variable cost spent in the production of mushroom in 2015 was ₦131,090.00, out of which, cost of energy for sterilization that is industrial gas constituted ₦54, 450.00. The result shows that the quantity of mushroom harvested was estimated at 619.8 kg. A kilogram of mushroom was sold for ...

  19. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  20. Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevki Hakan Eren

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS: Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32, 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8% had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion and delayed (6 h to 20 d. Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9% and six (2.1% patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%. The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION: Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality.

  1. The Unexplored Anticaries Potential of Shiitake Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, J; Vinay, S; Jha, Kunal; Das, Diptajit; Goutham, B S; Kumar, Gunjan

    2016-01-01

    Keeping an eye the escalating costs of dental services, the treatment cost of the consequences of dental caries can be reduced to manageable proportions by preventive measures aimed at decreasing the prevalence. One such measure is by increasing the consumption of caries preventive foods. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in mushrooms not only as a healthy food but also as a caries preventive food. The most common type of mushroom, Lentinula edodes also called as shiitake, is studied in-depth for its oral health benefits. The cultivation of shiitake dates way back to 1100 A.D. during the rule of Sung dynasty which is replaced by more modern and efficient sawdust substrate log cultures lately. Shiitake mushroom extract can be isolated in various forms such as freeze dried, oil, and ethyl acetate extracts. Various biologically active compounds such as erythritol, copalic acid, adenosine, carvacrol, and many more are responsible for this mushroom's antimicrobial activity. Anticariogenicity can be attributed to the induction of the detachment of cariogenic microorganisms from hydroxyapatite, changes in cell surface hydrophobicity, bactericidal activity, and disruption of signal transduction in Streptococcus mutans as proved through various in vivo and in vitro studies. Apart from these benefits, it has tremendous potential to be used as an antioxidant, anticancer, antigingivitis, antifungal, and antiviral agent. The one and only known adverse reaction due to shiitake mushroom consumption is the eruption of pruritic erythematous papules termed as shiitake dermatitis. This review highlights the unexplored anticaries potential of one such useful bioactive metabolite-shiitake mushroom.

  2. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet reports current management recommendations for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus and the thrips that transmits each of these viruses. All three viruses are important pathogens for Florida tomato crops. This information is useful for...

  3. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained from...

  4. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  5. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  6. ViFiLite Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ViFiLite is a wireless infrastructure that utilizes the advantages of a V-band technology in supporting data gathering for structural health monitoring as well as...

  7. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste.

  8. Tomato plant inheritance of antixenotic resistance to tomato leafminer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Castro Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of resistance by antixenosis in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum to tomato leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae]. Evaluations were performed for tomato plants of the generations P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 and RC2. The measured characteristic in the parents, BGH-1497 (P2 male and 'Santa Clara' (P1 female, and in the F1, F2, RC1 and RC2 generations was the number of eggs per plant. This number was converted to the oviposition nonpreference index. The inheritance of antixenosis resistance of genotype BGH-1497 is ruled by a gene of greater effect and polygenes in epistatic interactions, with a phenotypic proportion of 13:3 between susceptible and resistant genotypes, respectively.

  9. Skal vi have flere krondyr?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    Vi kunne have væsentligt flere krondyr i den danske natur end vi har i øjeblikket. Den primære årsag er jagt. Det viser en ny undersøgelse fra Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser ved Aarhus Universitet. Bestanden af krondyr er ganske vist steget meget siden 1970, men der er både plads og føde til mange...

  10. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with mushroom worker's lung: an update on the clinical significance of the importation of exotic mushroom varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Convery, Rory P; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri R; Elborn, J Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis remains an important industrial disease in mushroom workers. It has a significant morbidity, and early diagnosis and removal from exposure to the antigen are critically important in its management. Recently, several new allergens have been described, particularly those from mushroom species originating in the Far East, which are of clinical significance to workers occupationally exposed to such allergens in cultivation, picking, and packing of commercial mushroom crops. Importing of exotic mushrooms including Shiitake is common in EU countries, and some of the exotic species of mushrooms are cultivated for local markets. This practice may contribute to an increase in clinical cases of mushroom hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This update reviews the recent literature and examines changing trends of mushroom worker's lung, with increased movement of commercial product and labour markets worldwide.

  11. Transubstantiating commercial mushroom market with ultrasonically ultrasized mushroom powders showcasing higher bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaomin; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Chun, Sechul; Gopal, Judy; Keum, Young Soo

    2016-11-01

    Mushrooms that have been restricted to fresh markets have now entered commercial and pharmaceutical markets. However, not much research has been targeted on testing the efficiency of these commercialized mushroom powders or capsules. For the first time, efforts were made to study the bioactive properties and antimicrobial properties of four predominant mushroom capsules available for commercial purposes. Then, these commercial mushroom powders were downsized to ultrasized fine powders by sonication and then their properties were compared against the commercialized ones. The results indicated that the bioactive properties and the antioxidant properties of these powders when used as marketed capsules was very less. It was following ultrasonication assisted size reduction that the cumulative bioactivity related properties got accelerated. Micro size reduction of the mushroom powders lead to significant enhancement of antiviral properties compared to antibacterial and antifungal properties. This work demonstrates that commercialization of mushroom as powders could realize higher impact through sonication assisted ultrasizing and even nanosizing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  13. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhi, Adil; Negrão, Sónia; Essack, Magbubah; Morton, Mitchell J L; Bougouffa, Salim; Razali, Rozaimi; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tester, Mark; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2017-07-20

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  14. Ameliorative Effect of Different Concentration of Mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental groups were exposed to 0.1 g/l of lead daily for 21 days. At the end of exposure period, lead salt was discontinued for 21 and 42days to verify possible ameliorative effect of mushroom in the post-experimental stage. Samples of liver and kidney tissues were then collected and subsequently analyzed for ...

  15. Mushroom: Nature's Treasure in Ethiopia | Semwal | Momona ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mushroom is a form of fungus having distinct fruit body produced either above ground or below ground. It can be easily noticed in moist habitat in and around forest, grassland, on tree trunks due to their peculiar appearance. Present communication discusses important habit and habitats, medicinal and culinary uses, status ...

  16. identification of tanzanian saprophytic edible mushrooms by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUU SUMMAYYAH

    For analyzing recombinant E. coli DH5α cells, colony PCR and sequencing were done using M13-F/M13-R primers. The studied mushrooms ... The most frequently sequenced genetic markers for fungi are the internal transcribed spacer ... process are ligation, transformation, and analysis of recombinant clones (Russell and.

  17. Beneficial and harmful mushrooms in the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Landowners and clients often confront arborists and landscapers about mushrooms or other visible signs of fungi. Questions can run the gamut from "Are they killing the trees," "Should I knock them off," to "Are they good to eat?" Although no one can have the perfect answer to all possible questions, the practitioner can guide the client to...

  18. [Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attema-de Jonge, M E; Portier, C B; Franssen, E J F

    2007-12-29

    Two young men, 25 and 32 years old, presented with severe automutilation by knife wounds after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms. The first patient had also used cocaine, cannabis and alcohol, while the second patient had only used the hallucinogenic mushrooms. Both patients were treated symptomatically and survived despite their severe stab wounds. Psilocybin-containing mushrooms are used as mind-altering drugs. These drugs may sometimes induce 'bad trips', a psychotic reaction accompanied by fear, panic, and dangerous behaviour, especially when used in combination with other drugs and alcohol or by psychiatrically unstable patients. During a bad trip, patients may hurt themselves. Because the duration of the psychotic and sympathicomimetic effects of psilocybin after ingestion of mushrooms is short (up to 6 h), and since psilocin itself causes no permanent organ toxicity, the treatment of psilocybin intoxication is only symptomatic. The diagnosis ofpsilocybin intoxication is hampered by the lack of routinely available, rapid and sensitive, analytical methods for the quantification ofpsilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin.

  19. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... growing medium must consist of a substrate (a habitat and nutrient base) sterilized by heat treatment. (d...

  20. Melanin biosynthesis pathway in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijn, A.; Bastiaan-Net, S.; Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    With the full genome sequence of Agaricus bisporus available, it was possible to investigate the genes involved in the melanin biosynthesis pathway of button mushrooms. Based on different BLAST and alignments, genes were identified in the genome which are postulated to be involved in this pathway.

  1. Heavy metals bioaccumulation by edible saprophytic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan ŠIRIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of heavy metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb i Cd in certain edible species of saprophytic fungi and the substrate on three area of sampling, and to assess the role of individual species as biological indicators of environmental pollution. In this study were used three species of wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus macroarpus Bohus, Clitocybe inversa (Scop. ex Fr. Pat. and Macrolepiota procera (Scop. ex Fr. Sing.,. Completely developed and mature fruiting bodies were collected at random selection in localities of Trakošćan, Jaska and Petrova gora. At the same time, the substrate soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-10. Determination of heavy metals in mushrooms and the substrate soil were carried out by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The data obtained were analysed by means of the statistical program SAS V9.2. Significant differences were found in the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd between analysed species of mushrooms and localities of sampling (P 1. The consumption of investigated mushrooms poses no toxicological risk to human health due to low concentrations analysed metals.

  2. Antimicrobial activities of some selected Nigerian mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of five Nigerian mushrooms – Auricularia polytricha, Corilopsis occidentalis, Daldinia concentrica, Daedalea elegans and Tricholoma lobayensis were investigated for their antimicrobial activities using filter paper disc and hole diffusion methods. Bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, ...

  3. Improving biological efficiency of Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various crop residues can be used in producing Oyster mushrooms either as main substrates or in combinations with supplements. Yield response is determined by the type of crop residue and production practice used. Two factorial experiments were performed to evaluate the mycelium vigor and biological efficiency (BE) ...

  4. Alternative substrates for cultivating oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat straw has generally been used as the main substrate for cultivating oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus); however, in South Africa it is becoming expensive for small-scale farmers to utilise. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to investigate the use of alternative, but suitable substrates for planting oyster ...

  5. Identification of medicinal and poisonous mushroom from Khorramabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyede zahra Hosseini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms grow in a very wide range of ecological conditions, however their growth vary in different conditions. Mushrooms are a valuable source for antibiotics and they are known as drugs in traditional medicine. Identification and characterization of mushrooms is the first step of their exploitations in drug industry. There are many poisonous species of mushrooms, so their identification is essential for better health of societies and also a good indication for physicians in identification of mushroom poisonings and their cure. Material and Method: In this research the samples of mushroom were collected in Khorramabad district during spring and fall of 2008 and 2009. The macroscopic and microscopic characters of collected mushrooms were observed in field and laboratory and these criteria aligned to the species characters in scientific resources. Results: eight mushroom species namely Collybia maculate coprinus atramentarius three species of Boletus (B. luridus, B. felleus and B. satanas two species of Lactarius (L. piperatus and L. vellereus and Hypholoma capnoides were identified . Discussions: Based on the results of biodiversity of mushrooms in khorramabad district found in the present research, it is concluded that there are valuable resources of mushrooms for medicinal purposes in this area.

  6. First Report of Tomato torrado virus Infecting Tomato in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown in plastic greenhouses near Villa de Leyva, northeast of Bogota, Colombia showed necrotic spots on the leaves in September 2008. Initial symptoms were necrosis beginning at the base of leaflets that were surrounded by yellow areas. These symptoms

  7. Chemical Compositions and Macrophage Activation of Polysaccharides from Leon's Mane Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Different Maturation Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao-Zhen; Wu, Di; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan; Cui, Fengjie

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of the maturation stage on the chemical compositions and macrophage activation activity of polysaccharides from the culinary-medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus. Results showed that total polysaccharides increased, whereas protein content decreased with the maturation stage development of fruiting body. Nine polysaccharide fractions, 3 from each of the maturity stages IV (small fungal spine stage), V (mid-fungal spine stage) and VI (mature), were prepared using the gradient ethanol precipitation method. The polysaccharide fraction HP4A isolated from the maturating-stage (stage IV) fruiting body had a significant difference from the fractions HP5A (stage V) and HP6A (stage VI) in the molecular weight distribution and monosaccharide compositions. Immunostimulating tests revealed that the polysaccharide fraction HP6 isolated from the mature stage (stage VI) fruiting body presented higher macrophage activation activity. Our findings provided important information for the harvest and use of H. erinaceus with higher qualities and functional benefits.

  8. RESPONSE OF PACKAGED TOMATOES (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    35mm and below, the material was able to withstand high pressure force radially than axially before yielding. Keywords: axial loading, radial loading, deformation, Instron universal compression test machine and tomato. 1. INTRODUCTION. Mechanical behavior of a compressed material at bioyield can be expressed in ...

  9. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  10. Temperature, light and the tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, K.

    1955-01-01

    In good illumination, six tomato varieties all responded to an increase in day or/and night temperature by faster stem and fruit growth, earlier but smaller fruit yield with fewer fruits in shorter and lighter clusters, and a reduction in root, stem and leaf weight. Optimum temperatures for moderate

  11. Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Liu, Rui; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur

    2013-05-24

    Mushrooms are considered as nutritionally functional foods and source of physiologically beneficial medicines. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's Mane Mushroom or Hedgehog Mushroom, is an edible fungus, which has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine. This mushroom is rich in some physiologically important components, especially β-glucan polysaccharides, which are responsible for anti-cancer, immuno-modulating, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and neuro-protective activities of this mushroom. H. erinaceus has also been reported to have anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials. This review article has overviewed the recent advances in the research and study on H. erinaceus and discussed the potential health beneficial activities of this mushroom, with the recognition of bioactive compounds responsible for these medicinal properties.

  12. Household methods to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostiainen, E. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-09-15

    High radiocaesium contents in different species of mushrooms have been observed in areas contaminated by radiocaesium deposition after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. There has been no significant reduction in the {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms during the past ten years, besides via radioactive decay. The internal radiation dose received via mushrooms can be reduced by processing mushrooms before consumption. Various household methods were studied to find out their efficiency to reduce {sup 137}Cs contents of mushrooms. The methods tested were the same as normally used in cooking. The tests were made for the species of edible mushrooms widely consumed. The retention factors for the treatments tested were in most cases 0.2-0.3. The efficiency of treatments in reducing the {sup 137}Cs contents increased with larger water volumes and prolonged treatment times.

  13. Tomato phytochemicals and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jessica K; Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Lindshield, Brian L; Boileau, Thomas W-M; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2004-12-01

    Mounting evidence over the past decade suggests that the consumption of fresh and processed tomato products is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. The emerging hypothesis is that lycopene, the primary red carotenoid in tomatoes, may be the principle phytochemical responsible for this reduction in risk. A number of potential mechanisms by which lycopene may act have emerged, including serving as an important in vivo antioxidant, enhancing cell-to-cell communication via increasing gap junctions between cells, and modulating cell-cycle progression. Although the effect of lycopene is biologically relevant, the tomato is also an excellent source of nutrients, including folate, vitamin C, and various other carotenoids and phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, which also may be associated with lower cancer risk. Tomatoes also contain significant quantities of potassium, as well as some vitamin A and vitamin E. Our laboratory has been interested in identifying specific components or combination of components in tomatoes that are responsible for reducing prostate cancer risk. We carried out cell culture trials to evaluate the effects of tomato carotenoids and tomato polyphenols on growth of prostate cancer cells. We also evaluated the ability of freeze-dried whole-tomato powder or lycopene alone to reduce growth of prostate tumors in rats. This paper reviews the epidemiological evidence, evaluating the relationship between prostate cancer risk and tomato consumption, and presents experimental data from this and other laboratories that support the hypothesis that whole tomato and its phytochemical components reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

  14. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Standard analytical techniques were employed to determine the proximate composition and lycopene content of three tomato cultivars namely: ... Keywords: Antioxidant, lycopene content, proximate composition, tomato cultivars. INTRODUCTION ..... from oranges, tomatoes and carrots. African. Journal of ...

  15. Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a

  16. Effect of mushroom powder in fresh pasta development

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Paula; Esteves, Sabrina; Guiné, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Fresh pastas with Shiitake mushroom flour (MF) were produced. The MF was produced by drying the mushrooms at 40, 50, and 60 ᵒC. Proportions of 5%, 10%, and 15% MF were used to prepare the fresh pastas (FP), with two types of wheat flour (regular (RWF) and 30% semolina wheat flour (SWF)). Mushroom pastas were analysed before (FP) and after cooking (CP). FP presented moisture and water acidity lower than 35% and 0.95, respectively. The L* and b* colo...

  17. Effects of Porosity and Thermal Treatment on Hydration of Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, R.M.; Sman, van der, R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hydration of mushroom as a porous food material has been studied considering their biphasic character. It consists of a solid phase that consists of intertwined hyphae and having cell walls with a swellable polymeric matrix and a pore phase made up by the space in between the hyphae. We have investigated the hydration of mushrooms as a function of initial porosity and thermal treatment. Variation in porosity is induced by the natural variation in the growth of mushroom. Porosit...

  18. Dung-associated, Potentially Hallucinogenic Mushrooms from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Wen Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To identify potentially hallucinogenic mushrooms, dung-associated mushrooms collected from Qingtiangang, Yangmingshan National Park were subjected to a detailed morphological investigation and phylogentic analysis. The investigation identified four taxa: a recorded species (Panaeolus antillarum; a new combination (Conocybe nitrophila; and two new species (Psilocybe angulospora, Protostropharia ovalispora. Morphological and molecular characteristics of the collected mushrooms were compared with allied fungal taxa.

  19. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of spent mushroom compost tea on mycelial growth and yield of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, Francisco J; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Tello, Julio C; Navarro, María J

    2012-08-01

    Preliminary studies suggested that the use of compost tea made from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) may be regarded as a potential method for biologically controlling dry bubble disease in button mushroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SMS compost tea on the host, the button mushroom, to ascertain whether the addition of these water extracts has a toxic effect on Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth and on mushroom yield. In vitro experiments showed that the addition of SMS compost tea to the culture medium inoculated with a mushroom spawn grain did not have an inhibitory effect on A. bisporus mycelial growth. The effect of compost teas on the quantitative production parameters of A. bisporus (yield, unitary weight, biological efficiency and earliness) was tested in a cropping trial, applying the compost teas to the casing in three different drench applications. Quantitative production parameters were not significantly affected by the compost tea treatments although there was a slight delay of 0.8-1.4 days in the harvest time of the first flush. These results suggest that compost teas have no fungitoxic effect on A. bisporus so that they can be considered a suitable biocontrol substance for the control of dry bubble disease.

  1. Radionuclides in mushrooms and soil-to-mushroom transfer factors in certain areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Fei; Zhang, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Yao, Shuaimo; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Zeshu

    2017-12-01

    Activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K in 64 mushroom samples collected in China from Yunnan, Fujian and Heilongjiang Provinces, were measured. Gamma-ray emissions were determined by using high-purity germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry. The range of concentrations (Bq kg -1 dry weight) for 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K in all investigated mushroom samples were from 0.12 to 12, 0.05 to 7.5, 0.14 to 14, MDC(mushrooms showed some variation between species sampled at the same site. To calculate soil to mushroom transfer factors, levels of radionuclide in 15 paired soil samples and mushrooms were also investigated. The median transfer factors for 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 137 Cs and 40 K were 8.32 × 10 -2 , 3.03 × 10 -2 , 6.69 × 10 -2 , 0.40 and 1.19, respectively. The results were compared with values of other areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the "Food of the Gods." For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an "elixir of life." They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  3. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikineswary Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  4. Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  5. Improved techniques to enhance the yield of paddy straw mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved techniques to enhance the yield of paddy straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) for commercial cultivation. Gurudevan Thiribhuvanamala, Subbiah Krishnamoorthy, Karupannan Manoranjitham, Velappa Praksasm, Sakthivel Krishnan ...

  6. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  7. Radiocesium uptake mechanisms in wild and culture mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi (Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)); Isomura, Kimio; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Shibata, Hisashi

    1993-12-01

    Concentrations of [sup 137]Cs and stable Cs in wild mushrooms, cultivated mushrooms and those substrates were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The average concentration of [sup 137]Cs in 80 wild mushrooms in Japan was 87.5 Bq/kg (wet wt.), and concentration of [sup 137]Cs in mycorrhizal mushrooms was higher than that of saprophytic mushrooms. High concentrations of [sup 137]Cs were found in Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1, saprophytic mushrooms, cultivated in culture substrates containing high [sup 137]Cs. Clear correlations with 5% level of significance were found between wild mushroom-to-substrate ratios (wet/dry) of [sup 137]Cs concentration and those of stable Cs. Cultivated P. ostreatus-to-culture substrate ratios (wet/wet) of [sup 137]Cs concentration were stable in the order of 10[sup 0] when the culture substrate was containing 10 000 Bq/kg (wet wt.) of [sup 137]Cs or 1 000 mg/kg (wet wt.) of stable Cs. The ratios of [sup 137]Cs concentration in cultivated mushrooms were about equal to those in wild mushrooms. Higher concentration of [sup 137]Cs in culture substrate after sampling P. ostreatus was observed at the upper layer where mycelium density was high. (author).

  8. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  9. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Valverde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements.

  10. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ping Geng; Ka-Chai Siu; Zhaomei Wang; Jian-Yong Wu

    2017-01-01

    ... or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber...

  11. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

  12. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into raw tomatoes and processed tomato products.

    OpenAIRE

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E

    1991-01-01

    Rates of death and growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto raw whole and into chopped tomatoes stored at 10 and 21 degrees C were not influenced by prior treatment of tomatoes with chlorine or packaging under an atmosphere of 3% O2 and 97% N2. Growth of the pathogen occurred in whole tomatoes held at 21 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C, while death occurred in chopped tomatoes stored at these temperatures. Likewise, growth patterns of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, psychrotrophi...

  13. Protostars and Planets VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    star and planet formation. They are used by students to dive into new topics, and they are much valued by experienced researchers as a comprehensive overview of the field with all its interactions. We hope that you will enjoy reading (and learning from) this book as much as we do. The organization of the Protostars and Planets conference was carried out in close collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and the Center for Astronomy of the University Heidelberg, with generous support from the German Science Foundation. This volume is a product of effort and care by many people. First and foremost, we want to acknowledge the 250 contributing authors, as it is only due to their expertise and knowledge that such a comprehensive review compendium in all its depth and breadth is possible. The Protostars and Planets VI conference and this volume was a major undertaking, with support and contributions by many people and institutions. We like to thank the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee who selected the 38 teams and chapters out of more than 120 submitted proposals. Similarly, we are grateful to the reviewers, who provided valuable input and help to the chapter authors. The book would also not have been possible without the great support of Renée Dotson and other staff from USRA’s Lunar and Planetary Institute, who handled the detailed processing of all manuscripts and the production of the book, and of Allyson Carter and other staff from the University of Arizona Press. We are also grateful to Richard Binzel, the General Editor of the Space Science Series, for his constant support during the long process, from the original concept to this final product. Finally, we would like to express a very special thank you to the entire conference local organizing committee, and in particular, Carmen Cuevas and Natali Jurina, for their great commitment to the project and for a very fruitful and enjoyable collaboration.

  14. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  15. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients.

  16. [Biological significance of edible mushrooms in mycoremediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Lazur, Jan; Dobosz, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    The importance of fungi in environmental remediation is due both to their ability to biotransformation of xenobiotics and to accumulate heavy metals. These processes depend primarily on the species, while the role of the species or systematic affiliation is less important, as is the strategy of symbiosis, for example: mycorrhiza, parasitism or saprophytism. The main factors controlling the absorption of metals by mushrooms are bioavailability and soil type, while xenobiotics are dependent on soil factors such as cation exchange capacity, pH, or organic matter content. The composition of the substrate is an important factor as there are large differences in the intake of individual substances. The composition, the amount of impurities present, but also the age of the mycelium that may be present in nature for many years or (compared) only for several months under culture conditions. It is a well-known fact that the content of mushroom fruiting bodies is correlated with the emission of pollutants.

  17. Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

  18. Western flower thrips can transmit Tomato spotted wilt virus from virus-infected tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisition and transmission of Tomato spotted wilt virus from symptomatic tomato fruits by western flower thrips was demonstrated for the first time. This suggests that infected tomato fruits may be a source of virus and also provide an additional means of virus movement between geographic areas....

  19. Predicting the presence of whiteflies and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Florida tomato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...

  20. VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaal / Leonhard Lapin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lapin, Leonhard, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    15.-17. IX Tallinnas Niguliste kirikus toimuval VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalil esinevad inglise arhitektuurikriitik Peter Davey, šveitsi arhitekt Peter Zumthor, soome arhitekt Juha Leviskä, eesti arhitekt Vilen Künnapu, eesti kunstiajaloolane Juhan Maiste jt. Külastatakse KUMU, tutvutab autor Pekka Vapaavuori

  1. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  2. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  3. The case of tomato in Ghana: Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Elizabeth J. Z.; Kolavalli, Shashi L.

    2010-01-01

    Processing of highly perishable non-storable crops, such as tomato, is typically promoted for two reasons: as a way of absorbing excess supply, particularly during gluts that result from predominantly rainfed cultivation; and to enhance the value chain through a value-added process. For Ghana, improving domestic tomato processing would also reduce the country's dependence on imported tomato paste and so improve foreign exchange reserves, as well as provide employment opportunities and develop...

  4. Alternative substrates for higher mushrooms mycelia cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETIANA KRUPODOROVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of 29 species of higher mushroom mycelia on alternative substrates – wastes of Ukrainian oil-fat industry, has been investigated. The amount of mushroom mycelia obtaining on 12 investigated substrates varied significantly, from 1.0 g/L to 22.9 g/L on the 14th day of cultivation. The superficial cultivation adopted in this study allows for easy to choose appropriate medium (substrate for mycelia production. Alternative substrates (compared to glucose-peptone-yeast medium were selected for all studied species, from soybean cake – most suitable for the mycelial growth of 24 species, to walnut cake − suitable only for 2 species. The utilization of substrates has been evaluated by biological efficiency. The best index of biological efficiency varied from 19.0% to 41.6% depending on the mushroom species. It was established high biological efficiency of mycelia cultivation on substrates: wheat seed cake – Pleurotus djamor, Lyophyllum shimeji, Crinipellis schevczenkovi, Phellinus igniarius, Spongipellis litschaueri; oat seed cake – Ganoderma applanatum and G. lucidum; soybean cake – Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, Trametes versicolor, Morchella esculenta, Cordyceps sinensis, C. militaris, and Agrocybe aegerita; rape seed cake – Auriporia aurea; camelina seed cake – Fomes fomentarius. The cultivation of these species are perspective as a biotechnological process of agricultural wastes converted into mycelia, which could be used in different forms of products with therapeutic action: powder or tablets nutraceuticals or ingredients for functional foods.

  5. The sulfur chemistry of shiitake mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneeden, Eileen Yu; Harris, Hugh H; Pickering, Ingrid J; Prince, Roger C; Johnson, Sherida; Li, Xiaojie; Block, Eric; George, Graham N

    2004-01-21

    Allium herbs, such as Chinese chive, garlic, and onion, share a common sulfur biochemistry that occurs on cell breakage. Sulfoxide precursors are converted enzymatically to sulfenic acid intermediates and thence to a variety of pungent and in some cases noxious sulfur species that probably act to deter herbivores. Very similar biochemistry has been proposed to occur in shiitake mushrooms. Prior to the present work, our understanding of the sulfur biochemistry of these plants and fungi has been derived largely from conventional analysis procedures. We have used in situ sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy in intact and disrupted allium plants and shiitake mushroom. The expected changes in sulfur forms following cell breakage are indeed observed for the alliums, but no significant changes occur for the fungus. Thus, any changes involving the sulfur-containing compounds of shiitake mushroom following cell breakage occur to a far smaller extent than those involving allium plants, presumably reflecting the need in shiitake for action by multiple enzymes, namely a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and a C-S lyase. The shiitake C-S lyase occurs in far lower concentrations than the corresponding enzyme in garlic. Furthermore, cleavage of the flavorant precursor by the shiitake C-S lyase is reported to cease before cleavage of the precursor has been completed, presumably due to a product or suicide inhibition mechanism.

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1926.1126 Section 1926.1126 Labor... Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI) in all forms... objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or a specific process, operation, or...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1915.1026 Section 1915.1026 Labor... § 1915.1026 Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI... cement; or (4) Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or...

  8. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.

  9. Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

    2002-05-01

    Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw.

  10. Potential of organic residues in producing oyster mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low mushroom yields are observed when non-supplemented substrates are used for production. The experiments were carried out to evaluate potential benefits of organic supplements in cotton residues, maize stover and wheat straw substrates used for cultivation of oyster mushroom. Mixed formulations at various doses ...

  11. Yield response of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... The study was conducted to investigate yields of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves ... waste tea leaves based composts, the highest mushroom yield (24.90%) were recorded on wheat straw and pigeon ... kg then filled into plastic bags at 7 kg wet weight basis. During.

  12. Determination of Listeria monocytogenes Growth during Mushroom Production and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Leong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the EU, food is considered safe with regard to Listeria monocytogenes if its numbers do not exceed 100 CFU/g throughout the shelf-life of the food. Therefore, it is important to determine if a food supports growth of L. monocytogenes. Challenge studies to determine the ability of a food to support growth of L. monocytogenes are essential as predictive modelling often overestimates the growth ability of L. monocytogenes. The aim of this study was to determine if growth of L. monocytogenes was supported during the production and distribution of mushrooms. A three-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated onto three independent batches of whole mushrooms, sliced mushrooms, mushroom casing and mushroom substrate at a concentration of about 100–1000 CFU/g. The batches were incubated at potential abuse temperatures, as a worst case scenario, and at intervals during storage L. monocytogenes numbers, % moisture and pH were determined. The results showed that the sliced and whole mushrooms had the ability to support growth, while mushroom casing allowed survival but did not support growth. Mushroom substrate showed a rich background microflora that grew on Listeria selective media and this hindered enumeration of L. monocytogenes. In the case of this study, Combase predictions were not always accurate, indicating that challenge studies may be a necessary part of growth determination of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  14. More efficient mushroom canning through pinch and exergy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Sman, van der Ruud G.M.; Westerik, Nieke; Awasthi, Ashutosh; Dewi, Belinda P.C.; Boom, Remko M.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional production of canned mushrooms involves multiple processing steps as vacuum hydration, blanching, sterilization, etc. that are intensive in energy and water usage. We analyzed the current mushroom processing technique plus three alternative scenarios via pinch and exergy analysis.

  15. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela and Ohon) in Central Cross River State, Nigeria. The marketing of edible mushroom in the state offers job opportunities for both skilled and unskilled rural population at farm gate and offers market employment opportunities for ...

  16. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon P. Wasser

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and an...

  17. Nigerian Mushrooms: Underutilized Non-Wood Forest Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mushroom resources have been exploited in most developed economies because of their huge agro-industrial, medicinal and commercial benefits. Nigerians utilized mushroom-forming fungi only for food and folk medicine for many decades. Auricularia auricular Judae (Bull.) Quél, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus ...

  18. Indigenous knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms in parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge on edible fungi in Ghana has mostly been limited to rural people. Edible mushrooms are collected from forest reserves, secondary forests and fields under fallow. However, with the current rate of bush burning and deforestation, collection of edible mushrooms from the wild is threatened. A survey was ...

  19. Effect of oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ) mycelia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the mycoremediation effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) mycelia on petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated substrate was carried out in the mushroom unit of the Faculty of Agriculture Demonstration Farm, located in the University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The study aimed at determining ...

  20. Cytotoxic triterpenoids from the mushroom Clavulina cinerea (Bull) J ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C. cinerea (Bull) J. Schröt (Lyophyllaceae) is among the many edible mushrooms in Kenya and is also traditionally regarded as a complementary medicine for chronically-ill people. The use of these mushrooms in the East African prompted this investigation in which the phytochemistry and potential anti-cancer activity was ...

  1. Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) cultivation technique using re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. Alternative re-usable substrate containers for fructification are required because plastic bags currently used suffocate soil biotic entities. They are a cost for mushroom farmers who purchase plastic bags in every oyster mushroom crop and they are left as non-biodegradable wastes, which are ...

  2. Proximate and mineral analysis of some wild edible mushrooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate and mineral analysis of five species of mushroom, Lentinus squarrosulus, Volvariella volvacea, Coprinus micaceus, Lepiota procera, and Auricularia auricula were examined in this study to determine their nutritional value. These mushrooms were found to contain on the average, 3.24 to 8.70% of crude fibre; 4.12 ...

  3. Preliminary study on the effect of medicinal mushroom extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mushrooms are like mannas and their water heal eye diseases. To determine if aqueous mushroom extract has an effect on ocular hypertension, 8 cats with baseline intra ocular pressure (IOP) of 14.94 ± 0.153mmHg were used in the first phase of this study. The second phase consisted of 2 groups, the experimental and ...

  4. Assessing the toxicity level of some useful mushrooms of Burkina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The goal of this study is to evaluate the potential risks of intoxication following the ingestion of wild mushrooms. Methodology and results: This study was carried out on four different species of wild mushrooms including two edible species Chlorophyllum cf. molybdites and Phlebopus sudanicus and two medicinal ...

  5. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  6. Wild edible mushrooms in the Blue Mountains: resource and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; Craig L. Schmitt

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the wild mushroom resource of the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington and summarizes issues and concerns for regulation, monitoring, and management. Existing biological information on the major available commercial mushrooms in the area, with emphasis on morels, is presented. Brief descriptions of the most commonly...

  7. Oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus spp.) cultivation technique using re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternative re-usable substrate containers for fructification are required because plastic bags currently usedsuffocate soil biotic entities. They are a cost for mushroom farmers who purchase plastic bags in everyoyster mushroom crop and they are left as non-biodegradable wastes, which are disposed of to theenvironment ...

  8. Medicinal uses of mushrooms in Nigeria: towards full and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are inadequate data on the identity and medicinal properties of these wild mushrooms. Information on the ethnomedicinal uses of some mushrooms such as Pleurotus tuber-regium used for headache, stomach pain fever, cold, constipation; Lentinus squarullosus for mumps, heart diseases; Termitomyces microcarpus ...

  9. 78 FR 15683 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the... Co., Ltd. should be equated with Zhejiang Iceman Group Co., Ltd. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From...

  10. 76 FR 12704 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People... preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final Determination of Sales at...

  11. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of... merchandise subject to the order is certain preserved mushrooms. The product is currently classified under the...

  12. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's... antidumping duty orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant to...

  13. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms... the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India.\\1\\ We invited...

  14. 77 FR 13264 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering... Federal Register the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (``mushrooms'') from the PRC.\\1...

  15. Hvad bruger vi tiden til?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2016-01-01

    I denne artikel kaster vi et antropologisk blik på samtidsarkæologi ved at diskutere måder, hvorpå antropologiske analyser kan adressere tid, fortidige hændelser og historiske processer. Vi argumenterer for, at en radikal nutidsorientering er en afgørende kvalitet ved det antropologiske feltarbej...... komplicerer en ide om fortidige (gamle eller nyere) objekter som nogle, der kan udgraves......., hvis sigte det er løbende at generere sit materiale nu og her med henblik på at skabe nye forståelser, historier og forslag til mangeartede sammenhænge. En implikation af dette er, at uanset hvor ’historisk’ et antropologisk materiale end måtte være, må det altid ses som samtidigt og ufærdigt, hvilket...

  16. Mycophagous rove beetles highlight diverse mushrooms in the Cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenyang; Leschen, Richard A. B.; Hibbett, David S; Xia, Fangyuan; Huang, Diying

    2017-01-01

    Agaricomycetes, or mushrooms, are familiar, conspicuous and morphologically diverse Fungi. Most Agaricomycete fruiting bodies are ephemeral, and their fossil record is limited. Here we report diverse gilled mushrooms (Agaricales) and mycophagous rove beetles (Staphylinidae) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, the latter belonging to Oxyporinae, modern members of which exhibit an obligate association with soft-textured mushrooms. The discovery of four mushroom forms, most with a complete intact cap containing distinct gills and a stalk, suggests evolutionary stasis of body form for ∼99 Myr and highlights the palaeodiversity of Agaricomycetes. The mouthparts of early oxyporines, including enlarged mandibles and greatly enlarged apical labial palpomeres with dense specialized sensory organs, match those of modern taxa and suggest that they had a mushroom feeding biology. Diverse and morphologically specialized oxyporines from the Early Cretaceous suggests the existence of diverse Agaricomycetes and a specialized trophic interaction and ecological community structure by this early date. PMID:28300055

  17. Identification of Amanita mushrooms by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dezhang; Liu, Gang; Song, Dingshan; Liu, Jian-hong; Zhou, Yilan; Ou, Jiaming; Sun, Shizhong

    2006-09-01

    Amanita is one of cosmopolitan genera of basidiomycetes. This genus contains some of the most poisonous toadstools, as well as several species of the most favorite edible mushrooms. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of the fruiting bodies of wild growing Amanita mushrooms. The results show that the mushrooms exhibit characteristic spectra, whose strong absorption bands appear at about 1655, 1076, and 1040 cm -1. The vibrational spectra indicate that the main compositions of the Amanita mushrooms are proteins and polysaccharides. The observed spectral differences might be used to discriminate different species of Amanita. It is showed that FTIR spectroscopic method is a valuable tool for rapid and nondestructive identification of Amanita mushrooms.

  18. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  19. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  20. Growing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number of fruit clusters, number of branches, internodes length, and plant height with gall index. This reflects that root-knot nematodes negatively affect the general physiology of the plant growth (Netscher and Sikora, 1990). Tomato plant pests on post-harvested tomato plants in surveyed fields. Management of fields after ...

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to clarify carbohydrate content and enzymes activities involved in sugar metabolism in tomato seedling leaves and yield and fruit quality under low night temperature and subsequent recovery, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Liaoyuanduoli) were grown in different climatic controlledenvironment ...

  2. Toxins of molds from decaying tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwig, J; Scott, P M; Stoltz, D R; Blanchfield, B J

    1979-01-01

    Among 27 mold isolates from decaying tomatoes, culture filtrates or ethyl acetate extracts of 8 isolates grown in yeast extract-sucrose medium were markedly toxic (mortality, greater than 50%) to brine shrimp larvae. The toxicity of six of these isolates could be attributed to the presence of citrinin, tenuazonic acid, or T-2 toxin. Ethyl acetate extracts of five Alternaria isolates and one Fusarium isolate were mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium strains. In ripe tomatoes inoculated with toxin-producing isolates and incubated at 25 degrees C, one Alternaria alternata isolate produced tenuazonic acid in seven of seven tomatoes at levels of up to 106 micrograms/g and alternariol methyl ether in one of the seven tomatoes at 0.8 microgram/g. Another A. alternata isolate produced tenuazonic acid or alternariol methyl ether at much lower levels in only three of seven tomatoes. Patulin and citrinin were produced by a Penicillium expansum isolate at levels of up to 8.4 and 0.76 microgram/g, respectively. In tomatoes incubated at 15 degrees C, a Fusarium sulphureum isolate produced T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and neosolaniol at levels of up to 37.5, 37.8 and 5.6 micrograms/g, respectively. If these mycotoxins are thermostable, they may occur at detectable levels in tomato products whenever partially moldy tomatoes are used as raw material. PMID:391152

  3. Tomato: Potentials for Alternative Source of Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a study of the potentials of tomato production as a viable source of economic empowerment. An empirical survey was undertaken through oral interviews in Kano to identify farmers' revenues, and agricultural development thereby assessing the connection between tomato production and economic reliance.

  4. An improved Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato crop throughout the world. This disease is very dangerous in hot and humid regions, where it spreads with the irrigation water to whole field within days, which resulted in severe decline in yield. Two varieties of tomato were used for developing bacterial wilt resistance.

  5. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research set out to identify fungi associated with physically damaged tomato and pepper and verify their effects on the nutritional composition of these vegetables. Healthy looking and physically damaged tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. Fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ...

  6. The expanded tomato fruit volatile landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambla, J.L.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Monforte, A.J.; Bovy, A.G.; Granell, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present review aims to synthesize our present knowledge about the mechanisms implied in the biosynthesis of volatile compounds in the ripe tomato fruit, which have a key role in tomato flavour. The difficulties in identifiying not only genes or genomic regions but also individual target

  7. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Characterization and functional expression of a ubiquitously expressed tomato pectin methylesterase. Plant Phys. 114: 1547-1556. Gubis J, Lajchová Z, Faragó J, Jureková Z (2004). Effect of growth regulators on shoot induction and plant regeneration in tomato. (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Biologia.

  8. Mycorrhizal Dependency and Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...

  9. Modelling the firmness behaviour of cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Natalini, A.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Woltering, E.J.; Kooten, van O.

    2010-01-01

    Firmness is one of the main quality attributes of sliced tomatoes. Here, a physiology-based mechanism is proposed that describes the development of firmness as measured by limited compression. The mechanism assumes that softening of slices is radically different from that of whole tomatoes and

  10. Metabolomics of a model fruit: tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Moing, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato has quickly become a favoured species for metabolomics research. Tomato fills a niche that cannot be occupied by Arabidopsis, particularly regarding studies on fleshy fruit. Variations in genotype and phenotype have been broadly exploited using metabolomics approaches in order to gain a

  11. Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of select mushroom varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeman, Cheryl L; Bauer, Laura L; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Fahey, George C

    2005-02-23

    Select mushrooms were analyzed for proximate constituents and carbohydrate profiles either raw or cooked and at different stages of maturity. White button mushrooms (Agaricus biporus) contained high concentrations of ash (12.5 and 11.9% for immature and mature mushrooms, respectively). Starch and total dietary fiber (TDF) concentrations were higher in maitake (Grifola frondosa) and shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. Crude protein (CP) and acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) were highest in crimini (Agaricus bisporus) and white button and maitake mushrooms, respectively. Chitin concentrations were highest in portabella (Agaricus bisporus) and enoki (Flammulina velutipes) mushrooms (8.0 and 7.7%, respectively). Oligosaccharides were found in low concentrations in some mushrooms. CP and TDF accounted for 86.4 and 49.3% of mushroom organic matter. Cooking increased starch, TDF, and AHF but decreased CP and chitin concentrations. The chitin concentration increased with mushroom maturity. These results detail the complete carbohydrate profile of several important mushroom varieties.

  12. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  13. Preference Mapping of Fresh Tomatoes Across 3 Stages of Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Yates, M D; Drake, M A

    2016-06-01

    Tomatoes (Solanum lycoperiscum) are a popular produce choice and provide many bioactive compounds. Consumer choice of tomatoes is influenced by flavor and visual appearance and external texture cues including hand firmness and sliceability. The objective of this study was to determine drivers of liking for fresh tomatoes across 3 stages of consumption. Seven tomato cultivars were ripened to a 6 on the USDA color chart. Trained panelists documented appearance, flavor, and texture attributes of tomatoes in triplicate. Tomato consumers (n = 177) were provided with knives and cutting boards and evaluated tomatoes across 3 stages: appearance (stage 1), slicing (stage 2), and consumption (stage 3). Consumers evaluated overall liking at each stage. Analysis of variance and external preference mapping were conducted. Overall liking was highest during the appearance portion of the test and lowest during the consumption portion (P sweet and umami tastes were drivers of liking for tomatoes at consumption (stage 3). Four separate clusters of tomato consumers were identified. Cluster 1 preferred tomatoes with even color, higher color intensity, and flavor intensity. Cluster 2 preferred firm tomatoes. Cluster 3 preferred tomatoes that were soft and at peak ripeness; this cluster also had the highest liking scores for all tomatoes. Cluster 4 consumers generally consumed tomatoes in sandwiches rather than as-is and preferred tomatoes with even and intense color. Tomato growers can utilize these results to target cultivars that are well liked by consumers. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  15. Wild Mushroom Poisoning in North India: Case Series with Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome. PMID:25755582

  16. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  17. Diversity in conserved genes in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deynze, Allen; Stoffel, Kevin; Buell, C Robin; Kozik, Alexander; Liu, Jia; van der Knaap, Esther; Francis, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Tomato has excellent genetic and genomic resources including a broad set of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data and high-density genetic maps. In addition, emerging physical maps and bacterial artificial clone sequence data serve as template to investigate genetic variation within the cultivated germplasm pool with the goal to manipulate agriculturally important traits. Unfortunately, the nearly exclusive focus of resource development on interspecific populations for genetic analyses and diversity studies has left a void in our understanding of genotypic variation within tomato breeding programs that focus on intra-specific populations. We describe the results of a study to identify nucleotide variation within tomato breeding germplasm and mapping parents for a set of conserved single-copy ESTs that are orthologous between tomato and Arabidopsis. Results Using a pooled sequencing strategy, 967 tomato transcripts were screened for polymorphism in 12 tomato lines. Although intron position was conserved, intron lengths were 2-fold larger in tomato than in Arabidopsis. A total of 1,487 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 282 insertion/deletions were identified, of which 579 and 206 were polymorphic in breeding germplasm, respectively. Fresh market and processing germplasm were clearly divergent, as were Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiformae and Solanum pimpinellifolium, tomato's closest relatives. The polymorphisms identified serve as marker resources for tomato. The COS is also applicable to other Solanaceae crops. Conclusions The results from this research enabled significant progress towards bridging the gap between genetic and genomic resources developed for populations derived from wide crosses and those applicable to intra-specific crosses for breeding in tomato. PMID:18088428

  18. Bistability in mushroom-type metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, David E.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2017-07-01

    Here, we study the electromagnetic response of asymmetric mushroom-type metamaterials loaded with nonlinear elements. It is shown that near a Fano resonance, these structures may have a strong tunable, bistable, and switchable response and enable giant nonlinear effects. By using an effective medium theory and full wave simulations, it is proven that the nonlinear elements may allow the reflection and transmission coefficients to follow hysteresis loops, and to switch the metamaterial between "go" and "no-go" states similar to an ideal electromagnetic switch.

  19. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into raw tomatoes and processed tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E

    1991-01-01

    Rates of death and growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto raw whole and into chopped tomatoes stored at 10 and 21 degrees C were not influenced by prior treatment of tomatoes with chlorine or packaging under an atmosphere of 3% O2 and 97% N2. Growth of the pathogen occurred in whole tomatoes held at 21 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C, while death occurred in chopped tomatoes stored at these temperatures. Likewise, growth patterns of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and yeasts and molds on whole and chopped tomatoes were essentially unaffected by chlorine and modified atmosphere packaging treatments. Populations of L. monocytogenes inoculated into commercially processed tomato juice and sauce and held at 5 degrees C remained constant for 14 days. A gradual decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes cells was observed in juice and sauce held at 21 degrees C. In contrast, the organism died rapidly when suspended in commercial tomato ketchup at 5 and 21 degrees C. Unlike low-acid raw salad vegetables such as lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and cauliflower on which we have observed L. monocytogenes grow at refrigeration temperatures, tomatoes are not a good growth substrate for the organism. Nevertheless, L. monocytogens can remain viable on raw whole and chopped tomatoes and in commercial tomato juice and sauce for periods extending beyond their normal shelf-life expectancy. PMID:1906697

  20. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.

  1. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D?Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  2. A Tomato Vacuolar Invertase Inhibitor Mediates Sucrose Metabolism and Influences Fruit Ripening1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Weihao; Cai, Jianghua; Chen, Yong; Tian, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a series of physiological and biochemical changes that ultimately influence fruit quality traits, such as color and flavor. Sugar metabolism is an important factor in ripening, and there is evidence that it influences various aspects of ripening, although the associated mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we identified and analyzed the expression of 36 genes involved in Suc metabolism in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel mobility shift assays indicated that SlVIF, which encodes a vacuolar invertase inhibitor, and SlVI, encoding a vacuolar invertase, are directly regulated by the global fruit ripening regulator RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). Moreover, we showed that SlVIF physically interacts with SlVI to control Suc metabolism. Repression of SlVIF by RNA interference delayed tomato fruit ripening, while overexpression of SlVIF accelerated ripening, with concomitant changes in lycopene production and ethylene biosynthesis. An isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-based quantitative proteomic analysis further indicated that the abundance of a set of proteins involved in fruit ripening was altered by suppressing SlVIF expression, including proteins associated with lycopene generation and ethylene synthesis. These findings provide evidence for the role of Suc in promoting fruit ripening and establish that SlVIF contributes to fruit quality and the RIN-mediated ripening regulatory mechanisms, which are of significant agricultural value. PMID:27694342

  3. A Tomato Vacuolar Invertase Inhibitor Mediates Sucrose Metabolism and Influences Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guozheng; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Weihao; Cai, Jianghua; Chen, Yong; Li, Li; Tian, Shiping

    2016-11-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a series of physiological and biochemical changes that ultimately influence fruit quality traits, such as color and flavor. Sugar metabolism is an important factor in ripening, and there is evidence that it influences various aspects of ripening, although the associated mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we identified and analyzed the expression of 36 genes involved in Suc metabolism in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel mobility shift assays indicated that SlVIF, which encodes a vacuolar invertase inhibitor, and SlVI, encoding a vacuolar invertase, are directly regulated by the global fruit ripening regulator RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). Moreover, we showed that SlVIF physically interacts with SlVI to control Suc metabolism. Repression of SlVIF by RNA interference delayed tomato fruit ripening, while overexpression of SlVIF accelerated ripening, with concomitant changes in lycopene production and ethylene biosynthesis. An isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-based quantitative proteomic analysis further indicated that the abundance of a set of proteins involved in fruit ripening was altered by suppressing SlVIF expression, including proteins associated with lycopene generation and ethylene synthesis. These findings provide evidence for the role of Suc in promoting fruit ripening and establish that SlVIF contributes to fruit quality and the RIN-mediated ripening regulatory mechanisms, which are of significant agricultural value. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. [Poisoning with selected mushrooms with neurotropic and hallucinogenic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Beata; Ferenc, Tomasz; Kusowska, Joanna; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Picking mushrooms, especially in summer and autumn, is still very popular in Poland. Despite raising awareness of poisonous mushrooms in the Polish society, year after year hospitals treat many patients diagnosed with poisoning with the most common toxic species of mushroom found in our country. Furthermore, growing interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms among young people has become a serious medical problem of our time. Websites make it incredibly easy for people to obtain information on the morphology and appearance of mushrooms with psychoactive properties, which leads inexperienced pickers to misidentification, resulting frequently in a fatal outcome. The article explores the subject of poisoning with the most common mushrooms with neurotropic effects, these are: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Inocybe rubescens, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe rivulosa and Psilocybe semilanceata. Toxins found in these species show symptoms that affect the central nervous system, parasympathetic system as well as the gastro-intestinal system. The effects of poisoning in the mushroom species mentioned above are mild in general, liver and kidney damage occur rarely, but the symptoms depend on both the dosage of the consumed toxins and individual susceptibility. In most cases the treatment is of symptomatic nature. There is no specific treatment. Medical procedures mainly involve induced gastrolavage--stomach pumping (providing that the patient is conscious), prescription of active carbon as well as replacement of lost body fluids and electrolytes. If the muscarinic symptoms prevail it is generally advised to dose atropine. Patients showing the signs of hyperactivity receive tranquilizers or narcoleptics to eliminate psychotic symptoms.

  5. Comparison of Different Drying Methods for Recovery of Mushroom DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouxian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Jianping

    2017-06-07

    Several methods have been reported for drying mushroom specimens for population genetic, taxonomic, and phylogenetic studies. However, most methods have not been directly compared for their effectiveness in preserving mushroom DNA. In this study, we compared silica gel drying at ambient temperature and oven drying at seven different temperatures. Two mushroom species representing two types of fruiting bodies were examined: the fleshy button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and the leathery shelf fungus Trametes versicolor. For each species dried with the eight methods, we assessed the mushroom water loss rate, the quality and quantity of extracted DNA, and the effectiveness of using the extracted DNA as a template for PCR amplification of two DNA fragments (ITS and a single copy gene). Dried specimens from all tested methods yielded sufficient DNA for PCR amplification of the two genes in both species. However, differences among the methods for the two species were found in: (i) the time required by different drying methods for the fresh mushroom tissue to reach a stable weight; and (ii) the relative quality and quantity of the extracted genomic DNA. Among these methods, oven drying at 70 °C for 3-4 h seemed the most efficient for preserving field mushroom samples for subsequent molecular work.

  6. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wild mushroom exposures in Florida, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintziger, Kristina W; Mulay, Prakash; Watkins, Sharon; Schauben, Jay; Weisman, Richard; Lewis-Younger, Cynthia; Blackmore, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to wild mushrooms can lead to serious illness and death. However, there is little information on the epidemiology of mushroom exposures nationwide, as there is no specific surveillance for this outcome. We described mushroom exposures in Florida using available data sources. We performed a population-based study of mushroom exposure calls to the Florida Poison Information Center Network (FPICN) and cases of mushroom poisoning reported in hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) data from 2003 through 2007. There were 1,538 unduplicated mushroom exposures reported during this period, including 1,355 exposure calls and 428 poisoning cases. Most exposures reported to FPICN occurred in children ≤6 years of age (45%) and males (64%), and most were unintentional ingestions (60%). Many exposures resulted in no effect (35%), although 21% reported mild symptoms that resolved rapidly, 23% reported prolonged/systemic (moderate) symptoms, and 1% reported life-threatening effects. Most calls occurred when in or en route to a health-care facility (43%). More than 71% of poisonings identified in hospital records were managed in an ED, and most occurred in young adults 16-25 years of age (49%), children ≤6 years of age (21%), adults >25 years of age (21%), and males (70%). No deaths were reported. Combined, these data were useful for describing mushroom exposures. Most exposures occurred in males and in young children (≤6 years of age) and young adults (16-25 years of age), with 78% resulting in contact with a health-care facility. Education should target parents of young children-especially during summer, when mushrooms are more abundant-and young adults who are likely experimenting with mushrooms for their potential hallucinogenic properties.

  8. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Organic Cherry Vine Tomatoes Taste Better Than Conventional Cherry Vine Tomatoes? A Sensory and Instrumental Comparative Study from Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A consumer panel was able to distinguish a perceptible difference between organically farmed and conventionally produced tomatoes, and preferred the taste of the conventional tomatoes. The sensory evaluation results of the trained panel revealed that the conventional tomatoes were sweeter and less sour than the organic tomatoes. In addition to this, the conventional tomatoes showed significant differences for oBrix, reducing sugars and electrical conductivity. No significant differences were ...

  10. Har vi brug for hovedregning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2015-01-01

    Hvor ofte har vi brug for at regne noget i hoved? Har de fleste af os ikke altid et elektronisk hjælpemiddel ved hånden enten som en lille lommeregner eller telefonen? Selvom det umiddelbart kan synes unødvendigt at træne hovedregning, viser det sig, at netop træning af hovedregning støtter...... udvikling af hurtige regnestrategier, hvorfor det faktisk er en god ide at investere tid og energi i at træne netop dette....

  11. Inheritance of resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Peronosporales, Pythiaceae in a new source of resistance in tomato (Solanum sp. (formerly Lycopersicon sp., Solanales, Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Abreu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, no commercial tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. formerly Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. varieties are available which are resistant to the late blight, one of the most important tomato diseases, produced by the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora infestans. The wild tomato (Solanum habrochaites Knapp & Spooner, formerly Lycopersicon hirsutum Dunal shows resistance to P. infestans, because of which we investigated an interspecific cross between S. lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara and S. habrochaites accession BGH 6902 maintained at the Horticultural Germplasm Bank at the Federal University of Viçosa (Banco de Germoplasma de Horticultura (BGH, Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil The genitors, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 were used to study the inheritance of resistance to P. infestans and to estimate the genetic parameters associated with resistance. Analysis of the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC indicated that inheritance is polygenic and that dominance controls character, whereas mean analysis showed that the additive effect was the most important. Although the character presents variability, the heritability is low which generates the need to better control the environment to obtain success with the selection.

  12. Clinical importance of toxin concentration in Amanita verna mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ismail; Kaya, Ertugrul; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Bayram, Recep; Surmen, Mustafa Gani; Colakoglu, Serdar

    2014-09-01

    Poisoning from Amanita group of mushrooms comprises approximately 3% of all poisonings in our country and their being responsible for nearly the entire fatal mushroom poisonings makes them important. These mushrooms contain primarily two types of toxins, amatoxins and phallotoxins. Phallotoxins have a more limited toxicity potential and they primarily consist of phalloidin (PHN) and phallacidin (PCN). Amatoxins, on the other hand, are very toxic and they primarily consist of alpha-amanitin (AA), beta-amanitin (BA) and gamma-amanitin (GA). Toxin levels can vary among various species, even among varieties of the same species, of Amanita mushroom family. Revealing the differences between the toxin compositions of the Amanita species that grow in our region may contribute to the clinics of poisonings. Our study aims at showing in detail the toxin levels in various parts of Amanita verna mushroom. A. verna mushrooms needed for toxin analysis were collected from Kozak Plateau near Ayvalik county of Balıkesir, Turkey in April 2013. The mushrooms were divided into their parts as pileus, gills, stripe and volva. Following the procedures required before the analysis, the AA, BA, GA, PHN and PCN levels were measured using the RP-HPLC method. While the lowest level of amatoxin was in the volva of the mushroom, the highest was measured in the gills. This was followed by pileus and stripe where the levels were close to each other. Similarly, the highest level of phallotoxin was measured in the gills. Gamma toxin and phalloidin were at lower amounts than the other toxins. A. verna is frequently confused with edible mushrooms with white caps due to its macroscopic similarity. If just one of them is eaten by mistake by an adult person with no mushroom experience, it can easily poison them. The amount of amatoxin is more as compared to Amanita phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba. Particularly, the AA and BA levels are approximately three times higher, whereas GA levels are lower

  13. Chromelosporium fulvum in the mushroom industry: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available The peat mould, Chromelosporium fulvum (Link McGinty, Hennebert and Korf is a cosmopolitan fungus commonly occur­ring in greenhouses and on mushroom beds. In South Africa, however, this fungus remains relatively poorly known. In this paper the sometimes conflicting literature concerning the role of the peat mould in the mushroom industry is reviewed. Vari­ous aspects, including the characteristics and detrimental effects of the fungus on mushroom beds, as well as control meas­ures, are discussed.

  14. Energy Accounting in Canning Tomato Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R P; Carroad, P A; Chhinnan, M S; Rose, W W; Jacob, N L

    1979-01-01

    An energy-accounting method was used to determine energy use in various unit operations in canning tomato juice, whole-peeled tomatoes, and tomato paste. Data on steam and electric consumption were obtained from a canning plant with the use of steam flow meters and electric transducers. Unit operations associated with the following equipment were investigated: crushers, hot-break heaters, pulpers, finishers, lye-bath peelers, evaporators, and retorts. Data were analyzed to determine amount of energy used per unit of raw product. Energy-intensive operations were identified for future modifications to reduce energy consumption.

  15. TOMATO YIELD AT TREATMENT BY BIOLOGICAL PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Baydelyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of bacterial products Mizorin and PG-5 for treatment of seeds and seedlings roots of tomato cv. Novichok was studied. The positive effect of these biological products on productivity and disease resistance of tomato was revealed. The most effective was Mizorin when both treatments were applied. Biological efficiency was 46% and 38% against Septoria disease and Phytophtora, respectively. The yield of tomato increased (0.4 – 3.3 t/ha when Mizorin was applied.

  16. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Gadzhieva; G. I. Kasianov

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environm...

  17. Sugihiratake mushroom (angel's wing mushroom)-induced cryptogenic encephalopathy may involve vitamin D analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hideki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yoshifumi; Kondo, Kazunari; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Kasahara, Yoshimasa; Maitani, Tamio

    2006-12-01

    In autumn 2004, many Japanese patients with renal failure developed cryptogenic encephalopathy by consuming sugihiratake mushroom, a Japanese delicacy. To elucidate the relationship between the cryptogenic cases and this mushroom, we conducted a multivariate analysis of metabolites in 'Probably Toxic' sugihiratake collected from the area of encephalopathy outbreaks, and 'Probably Safe' sugihiratake collected from unaffected areas using UPLC/ToF MS. The results indicate that the presence of milligram quantities of vitamin D-like compounds per 10 g of dried sugihiratake from the areas of encephalopathy outbreaks. Two hypotheses to induce the encephalopathy are proposed: the found metabolites are (1) vitamin D agonists, which induce acute and severe hypercalcemia and/or hyperammonemia and/or vitamin D toxicity, or (2) vitamin D antagonists, which induce acute and severe hypocalcemia.

  18. COMPARISON OF CAROTENOID CONTENT IN TOMATO, TOMATO PULP AND KETCHUP BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. T. GAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over 80 % the consumption of tomatoes is in the form of processed products such as tomato pulp, ketchup, juice and sauce. Research has indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. The present study was carried out to determine the carotenoid content of fresh tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by high performance liquid chromatography. The major differences among these products were in the concentration of some of the pigments. Tomato had all-trans-lycopene (1046-1099 μg/g DW, cislycopene (125-132 μg/g DW and all-trans- -carotene (45-59 μg/g DW as principal carotenoids. Tomato pulp and ketchup had all-trans-lycopene (951-999 μg/g DW and 455-476 μg/g DW, all-trans- -carotene (76-88 DW μg/g and 20-27 DW μg/g and cis-lycopene (71-83 μg/g DW and 14-25 μg/g DW as the main pigments, respectively. They also contained other carotenoids in much smaller amounts (lycoxanthin, zeaxanthin, anteraxanthin, lutein, -carotene, -carotene and phytofluene.

  19. Diversity of Mushrooms and Their Metabolites of Nutraceutical and Therapeutic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K. Rahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are well known for their nutritional as well as therapeutic values worldwide. Interest in mushrooms has peaked because immunity and cellular protection are important issues for health conscious consumers and for those individuals who are dealing with serious health issues. Mushrooms generally belong to Basidiomycetes which harbors numerous mushroom species with diversity of metabolites of nutraceutical and therapeutic significance. They have been reported to be the most valuable ones for humans. Investigations on the therapeutic and nutritional properties of mushrooms are underway throughout the world. Researchers are providing crucial data on the array of bioactive compounds found within these fascinating fungi. People are now accepting mushrooms more as food and food supplements. Various academic and research institutes are all involved actively in research on bioactive metabolites of mushrooms. The present paper aims at reviewing the diversity of mushrooms and the types of metabolites especially of nutraceutical and therapeutic importance present in these mushrooms and their role as bioactive agents.

  20. Vi tror ikke noget, vi undersøger det

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Winther Johannsen, Inger

    2017-01-01

    I diskussionerne om, hvad der kan betegnes som god viden i forhold til udvikling af pædagogisk ud-vikling og kvalitet, er yderpunkterne kridtet op. Begreber som ”evidensbaseret” og ”datainformeret” synes at udfordre det pædagogiske felts egen forståelse af faglighed og pædagogisk kvalitet. I proj...... tager afsæt i det konkrete projekt og samarbejdet med døgntilbuddene. Vi viser, at arbejdet med datainformeret metode på denne måde ikke er en udradering af pædagogisk faglighed knyttet til fagprofessionel dømmekraft – snarere tværtimod...

  1. Nutritional attributes of agaricus Bisporus and Pleurotus sajor caju mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rajni; Grewal, R B; Goyal, R K

    2006-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus sajor caju mushrooms were procured from the Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (INDIA) and analysed for various nutritional attributes. The fat and ash content were significantly higher in Agaricus bisporus, whereas, crude fibre and crude protein contents were significantly higher in Pleurotus sajor caju. Total and protein nitrogen was significantly higher in Pleurotus sajor caju than Agaricus bisporus mushroom as a result its true protein content was also significantly higher. No significant differences were found in the energy, carbohydrates and non-protein nitrogen contents of both the varieties of mushroom. Both varieties contained low phytic acid and oxalate however, it was significantly higher in Pleurotus sajor caju mushroom. The in vitro protein digestibility of both was not differing significantly.

  2. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  3. Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield response of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts using supplements of some locally available peats and their mixture with some secondary casing materials.

  4. Chemical Composition and Bioactive Compounds of Some Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda NAGY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the consumption of mushrooms has significantly increased due to the scientific evidence of their ability to help the organism in the combat and prevention of several diseases (Kalac, 2009. Fruiting bodies of mushrooms are consumed as a delicacy for their texture and flavour, but also for their nutritional properties that makes them even more attractable (Heleno S. 2015. In this paper data were collected from several scientific studies with the aim to characterize the chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds of various mushrooms species: Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lactarius piperatus. The chemical composition of 5 wild edible studied mushrooms, including moisture, ash, total carbohydrates, total sugars, crude fat, crude protein and energy were determined according to AOAC procedures.

  5. Wild 'Death Cap' Mushroom Seriously Sickens 14 in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foraging by novices tied to 3 people needing liver transplants and permanent brain damage in a child To ... dangerous mushroom. All 14 recovered, but three required liver transplants, and a toddler suffered permanent brain damage, the ...

  6. Food, medicinal and environmental values of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Alekseenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the literature review describing food, medicinal and ecological properties of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom. It is shown that the mushroom is adequate foodstuff for human beings. It provides with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts. Protein of the oyster mushrooms’ mycothallus contains 18 amino acids, eight of which were essential (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and valine. Therapeutic value of the mushroom is characterised by a content of water-soluble (thiamine B1, riboflavin B2, niacin, B5, PP, pyridoxine B6, biotin B7, ascorbic and pantothenic acid and liposoluble (calciferol, ergosterol, tocopherol vitamins. The considerable gains from the farm wastes use for the mushrooms raising with subsequent application of the substrate in plant cultivation and animal husbandry are stated.

  7. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) from spent mushroom substrate on milk and serum immunoglobulin levels and serum antioxidant capacity. Methods: Forty cows within the same parity and stage of lactation and with similar body weight were randomly divided into four groups ...

  8. Amanita mushroom poisoning: efficacy of aggressive treatment of two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegzes, John H; Puschner, Birgit

    2002-04-01

    Amatoxins, the primary toxins found in mushrooms of the genus Amanita, are very toxic to dogs. Acute fulminant liver failure and death can occur within a few days of ingestion. By their curious nature, dogs, especially young dogs, are prone to ingest mushrooms. Early identification of suspect mushrooms, and prompt emergency measures aimed at decreasing absorption of the toxins can improve the chance of survival. Knowing the major clinical syndromes associated with Amanita mushroom toxicosis can help direct the treatment and supportive care of affected animals and improve survival rates. We describe 2 cases in dogs with confirmed ingestion of Amanita phalloides and Amanita ocreata resulting in fulminant liver failure. Death occurred in 1 dog despite aggressive treatment measures including hemoperfusion, while aggressive measures resulted in a favorable outcome in the other dog.

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

    1976-01-01

    The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized. PMID:788340

  10. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  11. An insect-like mushroom body in a crustacean brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Gabriella Hannah; Thoen, Hanne Halkinrud; Marshall, Justin; Sayre, Marcel E

    2017-01-01

    Mushroom bodies are the iconic learning and memory centers of insects. No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. Here, using key identifiers to characterize neural arrangements, we demonstrate insect-like mushroom bodies in stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimps). More than any other crustacean taxon, mantis shrimps display sophisticated behaviors relating to predation, spatial memory, and visual recognition comparable to those of insects. However, neuroanatomy-based cladistics suggesting close phylogenetic proximity of insects and stomatopod crustaceans conflicts with genomic evidence showing hexapods closely related to simple crustaceans called remipedes. We discuss whether corresponding anatomical phenotypes described here reflect the cerebral morphology of a common ancestor of Pancrustacea or an extraordinary example of convergent evolution. PMID:28949916

  12. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-11

    Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc. Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. The compound index divided the cultural significance into several cultural domains and showed

  13. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided

  14. Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) inoculated with ... The field study attempted to validate positive responses obtained in the greenhouse. ... height and girth with the regression coefficient (r2) ranging from 0.74 to 0.96.

  15. Molecular characterization of Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Medina JA, Méndez-Lozano J, Leyva-. López NE (2008). Detection and molecular characterization of two little leaf phytoplasma strains associated with pepper and tomato diseases in Guanajuato and Sinaloa, Mexico. Plant Dis.

  16. Canned fish bites in tomato sauce

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, R.C; Darfler, J.M

    1980-01-01

    Meatballs in tomato sauce are a popular canned convenience product. Since small bite-sized portions of a fish mixture in a creamy sauce had been found to be an acceptable product (Creamy Fish Bites...

  17. Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Małgorzata E; Mirończuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential.

  18. Ribosomal Biosynthesis of the Cyclic Peptide Toxins of Amanita Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Luo, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Some species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita are extremely poisonous and frequently fatal to mammals including humans and dogs. Their extreme toxicity is due to amatoxins such as α- and β-amanitin. Amanita mushrooms also biosynthesize a chemically related group of toxins, the phallotoxins, such as phalloidin. The amatoxins and phallotoxins (collectively known as the Amanita toxins) are bicyclic octa- and heptapeptides, respectively. Both contain an unusual Trp-Cys cross-bridge known as tryp...

  19. Truths and myths about the mushroom Agaricus blazei

    OpenAIRE

    Eustáquio Souza Dias; Carlos Abe; Rosane Freitas Schwan

    2004-01-01

    The mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill was discovered in Piedade, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and sent to Japan to be studied for its medicinal properties. Studies in guinea pigs revealed antitumor properties, triggering Japanese importation of A. blazei from Brazil. Because of its high price on the international market, many companies and rural growers produce A. blazei as alternative crop to increase income, but because interest in this mushroom occurred suddenly there has not been enough tim...

  20. [Poisoning with spotted and red mushrooms--pathogenesis, symptoms, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupalska-Wilczyńska, K; Ignatowicz, R; Poziemski, A; Wójcik, H; Wilczyński, G

    1996-01-01

    Amanita pantherina and Amanita muscaria are commonly occurring mushrooms in Polish forests. They contain ibotenic acid and muscimol: the substances reacting with neurotransmitter receptors in central nervous system. The ingestion of these mushrooms produces a distinctive syndrome consisting of alternating phases of drowsiness and agitation with hallucinations, and sometimes with convulsions. The diagnosis of Amanita pantherina or Amanita muscaria poisoning is established by means of mycologic investigation of gastric lavage. The treatment is only symptomatic, and the prognosis is usually good.

  1. Nutritional value of huitlacoche, maize mushroom caused by Ustilago maydis

    OpenAIRE

    AYDOĞDU, Mehmet; GÖLÜKÇÜ, Muharrem

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Smutty maize cobs, caused by Ustilago maydis ((DC) Corda.), a fungus belonging to Basidiomycetes, can be seen wherever maize is grown. It is considered as a fungal disease limiting maize yield worldwide. However, in Mesoamerica, it is called as “huitlacoche” and evaluated as an edible mushroom. The present study was conducted to examine nutritional characteristics of this mushroom. In the study, smutty cobs naturally infected by U. maydis were randomly gleaned from plants in maize pr...

  2. Cultivation experiments on uptake of radionuclides by mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-02-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, high concentrations of radiocesium in mushrooms were found in Europe. In our previous studies, we found that [sup 137]Cs concentrations in mushrooms were markedly higher than autotrophic plants. In order to study radionuclide uptake by mushrooms, cultivation experiments in flasks were carried out using radiotracers, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 85]Sr, [sup 60]Co, [sup 54]Mn and [sup 65]Zn. Three mushroom species Hebeloma vinosophyllum, Flammulina velutipes and Coprinus phlyctidosporus were used. In addition, a plant sample, Medicago sativa, was also tested. We found mushrooms tended to accumulate Cs, although there was a large difference between mushroom species. The concentration ratio, which was defined as 'activity of radionuclide in mushroom (Bq/g, wet wt.)' divided by 'activity of radionuclide in medium (Bq/g, wet wt.)', had the highest value of 21 for Cs in H. vinosophyllum. The value was much higher than that in the plant sample. The present findings agreed with previous observations in which Hebeloma species collected in forests contained large amount of [sup 137]Cs. Considerable accumulations were not found for Sr and Co. The concentration ratio of Mn for the mushrooms was about 10, while the ratio of Zn ranged from 15 to 30. The effects of stable elements in the medium on the accumulations were investigated and was found the concentration ratios of Cs, Sr and Co were not influenced highly by coexisting stable elements in the medium. But the concentration ratio of Mn decreased as the amount of coexisting stable elements in the medium was increased. (author).

  3. Edible mycorrhizal mushrooms as sources of bioactive phenolic compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    João C. M. Barreira; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms are emerging as one of the most appreciated foods on a global basis. Besides their nutritional properties and unique organoleptic characteristics, mushrooms might act as functional foods in view of the medicinal properties of their bioactive compounds [1,2]. Those medicinal properties are often due the antioxidant activity of specific molecules such as phenolic compounds [3]. In the present work, five edible mycorrhizal mushoom species (Amanita caesarea, Cortinarius anomalus, Co...

  4. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  5. Mens vi venter på finansloven ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2011-01-01

    Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning.......Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning....

  6. Når vi taler om 68

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Metz, Georg

    Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi......Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi...

  7. MURALS WITH A ViBe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    The ViBe District in Virginia Beach is a hub for the local arts community. There is a fenced area in the ViBe District that features a whole row of murals created by professional artists, amateurs, and student groups from all over...

  8. Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus tha...

  9. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically.

  10. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed.

  11. USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Poyedinok

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial light is used in greenhouses to increase productivity and quality of agricultural and ornamental plants. Despite the awareness of the fact that light also plays important role in the life of nonhotosynthetic organisms, such as fungi, its using in their biotechnology cultivation is currently limited. Science has quite a large amount information about the influence of artificial light of different nature on morphogenesis, metabolic processes and productivity of more than 100 species of fungi, many of which are valuable producers of biologically active compounds. Themechanisms of photoreactions of various fungi, which is an integral part of a purposeful photoregulation their activity in biotechnological processes are described. The analysis of the researches and of the experience of their practical application allows predicting potential of using artificial light in mushroom growing industry, as well as in creating highly productive, environmentally clean technologies of targeted synthesis of the final product.

  12. Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

  13. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  14. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among mushroom workers in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J P; Rooney, J

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and upper airways symptoms have been ascribed to fungal exposures. Mushroom workers may be at risk of these as a consequence. To assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in mushroom workers. A cross-sectional study assessed 4 weeks of respiratory symptoms among mushroom workers divided into four categories of exposure, using a self-administered respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. The population of 191 subjects was predominantly (66%) from Eastern Europe; 61% were women and 39% were under 30. It included 73 growers, 38 composters, 26 administrators and 52 packers. Among all workers, there was a high prevalence (67%) of one or more respiratory symptoms which did not appear to vary by age, gender, pack-years of smoking or duration of employment. There was a significant improvement in respiratory symptoms in workers during absence from the workplace (P mushroom growers. Growers were significantly more likely to have symptoms consistent with airways disease than all other workers, odds ratio 9.2 (95% CI 3.0-28.4). There was a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among mushroom workers. Mushroom growers may be at high risk of airways disease, possibly from fungal antigens or related exposures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Antifatigue Functions and Mechanisms of Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ping; Siu, Ka-Chai; Wang, Zhaomei; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Fatigue is the symptom of tiredness caused by physical and/or psychological stresses. As fatigue is becoming a serious problem in the modern society affecting human health, work efficiency, and quality of life, effective antifatigue remedies other than pharmacological drugs or therapies are highly needed. Mushrooms have been widely used as health foods, because of their various bioactive constituents such as polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. This paper reviews the major findings from previous studies on the antifatigue effects, the active components of mushrooms, and the possible mechanisms. Many studies have demonstrated the antifatigue effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms. These mushrooms probably mitigate human fatigue through effects on the functional systems, including the muscular, cardiovascular, hormone, and immune system. The bioactive constituents that contribute to the antifatigue effects of mushrooms may include polysaccharides, peptides, nucleosides, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. Further research is still needed to identify the active ingredients and to investigate their mechanism of action on the antifatigue effects. Since most previous studies have been carried out in animal models, more human trials should be performed to verify the antifatigue function of edible and medicinal mushrooms.

  16. Residual Levels of Diazinon and Benomyl on Greenhouse Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pesticides are one of the important sources of environmental pollution that influence human health. The aim of current study was to determine diazinon and benomyl residues levels in mushrooms grown in greenhouses. Methods: Mushroom samples were obtained from 10 active greenhouses of Hamadan Province, Iran, every 14 days from May 2014. The absorbance of diazinon and benomyl were measured at 435nm in a Chemistry laboratory in Hamadan Branch, Islamic Azad University by spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and one-sample test in SPSS 20 statistical package. Results: Diazinon residue levels in mushroom ranged from 0.026 to 0.185mg/kg. Approximately 90.0% of mushrooms were contaminated with diazinon, which was significantly more than MRL for human consumption provided by European Union (0.05mg/kg. Benomyl residue levels ranged from 0.00025 to 0.097mg/kg. Approximately 50.0% of mushrooms were contaminated with benomyl, which was significantly higher than the MRL for human consumption provided by WHO (0.01mg/kg. Conclusion: Mushrooms of Hamedan Province, Iran, Greenhouses contamination with diazinon and benomyl is higher than international standards.

  17. A constitutively active G-protein-coupled receptor causes mating self-compatibility in the mushroom Coprinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesnicky, N S; Brown, A J; Dowell, S J; Casselton, L A

    1999-01-01

    In the mushroom Coprinus cinereus, the multiallelic B mating type genes are predicted to encode a large family of seven-transmembrane domain receptors and CaaX-modified pheromones. We have shown that a single amino acid change Q229P in transmembrane domain VI of one receptor confers a self-compatible mating phenotype. Using a heterologous yeast assay, we have demonstrated that this C.cinereus pheromone receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor and that the Q229P mutation is constitutively activating. A C.cinereus pheromone precursor was processed to an active species specifically in yeast MATa cells and activated the co-expressed wild-type receptor. Yeast cells expressing the wild-type receptor were used to test the activity of synthetic peptides, enabling us to predict the structure of the mature C.cinereus pheromone and to show that the Q229P mutation does not compromise normal receptor function. PMID:10329622

  18. Drying and rehydration of oyster mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini Pasiznick Apati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration and rehydration processes of Pleurotus ostreatus fruiting bodies were investigated in this work. Mushroom samples were dehydrated at 40, 50 and 60 ºC, using drying air with relative humidity of 75 %. The rehydration was investigated at different temperatures of immersion water (25, 55 and 85 ºC and different immersion times (30, 75 and 120 minutes. The best rehydration occurred for the samples dried at 40 ºC. The rehydration could be done in water at room temperature, during 30 minutes. Water sorption isotherms of samples were determined at 30, 40 and 50 ºC. Both GAB and BET models satisfactorily represented the experimental data of moisture sorption of dried mushrooms.Processos de desidratação e de rehidratação de cogumelos da espécie Pleurotus ostreatus foram avaliados neste trabalho. Os cogumelos foram desidratados a 40, 50 e 60 ºC, com umidade relativa do ar de 75 %. O processo de rehidratação foi avaliado para diferentes temperaturas de água de imersão (25, 55 e 85 ºC e diferentes tempos de imersão (30, 75 e 120 minutos. A melhor temperatura de secagem foi 40 ºC, levando em consideração a melhor rehidratação dos cogumelos desidratados nesta temperatura. A rehidratação pode ser feita em água a temperatura ambiente, por 30 minutos. Isotermas de sorção de umidade de amostras foram determinadas a 30, 40 e 50 ºC.Tanto o modelo de GAB quanto o de BET representaram satisfatoriamente os dados experimentais de isoterma de sorção de umidade.

  19. Econophys-Kolkata VI Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the book is to present the ideas and research findings of active researchers such as physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of “Econophysics,” who have undertaken the task of modeling and analyzing systemic risk, network dynamics and other topics. Of primary interest in these studies is the aspect of systemic risk, which has long been identified as a potential scenario in which financial institutions trigger a dangerous contagion mechanism, spreading from the financial economy to the real economy. This type of risk, long confined to the monetary market, has spread considerably in the recent past, culminating in the subprime crisis of 2008. As such, understanding and controlling systemic risk has become an extremely important societal and economic challenge. The Econophys-Kolkata VI conference proceedings are dedicated to addressing a number of key issues involved. Several leading researchers in these fields report on their recent work and al...

  20. Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus that caused the devastating loss of potato in Europe in 1845. A similar magnitude of crop loss in tomato has not occurred but Phytophthora infestans has caused the complete loss of tomato crops around the world on a small scale. Several attempts have been made through conventional breeding and the molecular biological approaches to understand the biology of host-pathogen interaction so that the disease can be managed and crop loss prevented. In this review, we present a comprehensive analysis of information produced by molecular genetic and genomic experiments on host-pathogen interactions of late blight, early blight, septoria leaf spot, verticilim wilt and fusarium wilt in tomato. Furthermore, approaches adopted to manage these diseases in tomato including genetic transformation are presented. Attempts made to link molecular markers with putative genes and their use in crop improvement are discussed. PMID:20808521

  1. Dissimilatory Reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas Isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Peyton, B. M.; Petersen, J. N.; Sani, R.

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain (Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  2. Dissimilatory reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, R K; Peyton, B M; Smith, W A; Apel, W A; Petersen, J N

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain ( Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  3. Genetics Home Reference: collagen VI-related myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Collagen VI-related myopathy Collagen VI-related myopathy Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Collagen VI-related myopathy is a group of disorders ...

  4. Finite difference simulation of biological chromium (VI) reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (VI) concentration profiles inside porous aquifer media columns. The model was thereafter used to calculate Cr(VI) removal rate for a range of Cr(VI) loadings. Internal concentration profiles were modelled against data collected from ...

  5. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulsamet Erden,1 Kübra Esmeray,1 Hatice Karagöz,1 Samet Karahan,1 Hasan Hüseyin Gümüsçü,1 Mustafa Basak,1 Ali Çetinkaya,1 Deniz Avci,1 Orhan Kürsat Poyrazoğlu2 1Internal Medicine Department, 2Gastroenterology Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Abstract: It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. Keywords: acute liver failure, Amanita phalloides, mushroom, poisoning

  6. Understanding the mechanism of resistance breaking on tomato by Tomato mottle mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato mottle mosaic virus (ToMMV) has broadened it’s distribution around the world. In our previous work, we observed a partial resistance breaking by ToMMV on tomato. To understand the mechanism of this resistance breaking, we carried out comparative analysis through Sanger sequencing, genotyping ...

  7. Genotypic variability for antioxidant and quality parameters among tomato cultivars, hybrids, cherry tomatoes and wild species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Pillakenchappa; Shivashankara, Kodthalu S; Rao, Vala K; Sadashiva, Avverahally T; Ravishankar, Kundapur V; Sathish, Gonchigar J

    2014-03-30

    Wide germplasm diversity and transferability of antioxidant parameters is the primary requirement for the development of high-antioxidant tomato cultivars. The present study was conducted to screen tomato genotypes including hybrids, varieties, cherry tomatoes, wild species, elite germplasm lines, interspecific hybrids and backcross populations for antioxidant activity and other quality parameters to select high-antioxidant lines with good total soluble solids (TSS) for further usage in crop improvement programmes. Wild species and interspecific hybrids between LA-1777 (Solanum habrochaites) and an elite genotype 15SBSB recorded very high antioxidant capacity (FRAP), DPPH radical-scavenging ability, and high phenols and flavonoids. Interspecific hybrids also recorded very high total soluble solids (TSS). Significantly higher total carotenoids, lycopene and vitamin C were observed in IIHR-249-1 with moderately higher TSS. Cherry tomato lines IIHR-2866, 2865 and 2864 recorded four to five times more β-carotene than commercial hybrids/varieties. Tomato line IIHR-249-1 can be used for improving antioxidant capacity, total carotenoids and lycopene in tomato breeding programmes. Cherry tomato lines IIHR-2866, 2865 and 2864 can be used for improving β-carotene content. LA-1777 and interspecific hybrids could be used for developing tomato lines rich in antioxidants as well as TSS. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. First report of southern Tomato virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Espino, A.; Botella, M.; Alfaro-Fernández, A.; Font, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2006, tomato plants with torrado disease were sampled in Spain. In a sample of cv. Mariana, originating from Gran Canaria, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV, genus Torradovirus) was detected (isolate GCN06; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2010). In 2013, the sample was further analysed using

  9. Total contents of arsenic and associated health risks in edible mushrooms, mushroom supplements and growth substrates from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

    2014-11-01

    The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (pGalicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-08

    Oct 8, 2012 ... Screen House of the University of Ilorin, North-central Nigeria were studied using treated and untreated detergent and ... for each crop and irrigated with 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% Treated and Untreated wastewaters. After 12WAP ... the effects of municipal sewage sludge on the. Pb and Cd contents of ...

  11. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ON THE PROCESSING TOMATO CROP AND TOMATO FOR CONSUMPTION IN NATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. O. Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Weeds cause direct and indirect damage to processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura. The coexistence period is decisive for the intensity of damage, although the economic cost is also considered for decision making when to control the weeds. There are similarities between processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura cropping system and peculiarities. This causes the management has adopted its common applications and its variables within each system. As control alternative, the farmer has basically the preventive control, mechanical, cultural, biological and chemical. The application of a single method is not recommended. Ideally, the methods needs to be integrated in order to combat weeds, highly evolved populations and resistant to unfavorable conditions. Consider weed management taking only one control measure is to underestimate the evolutionary ability of such species. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate the various methods available to the weed interference not impede the tomato production.

  12. environmental system analysis of tomato production in ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Cradle to gate approach). The ... Cycle Analysis (LCA) techniques, tropical tomato production ... Emissions and other. Environ me ntal releases. Use of. Products. Figure 1. The process flow and system boundaries of tomatoes production in Ghana.

  13. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of 18 different wild Cantharellus mushrooms of northwestern Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, D; Reddy, M S; Upadhyay, R C

    2011-12-01

    A total of 18 wild edible mushrooms of Cantharellus species were collected from northwestern Himalayan region of India. The basic composition (moisture, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, crude fat, ash, nitrogen and protein) and amino acid contents (by high-performance liquid chromatography) of these wild edible mushrooms were determined. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild mushrooms were rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity from water and methanolic extracts of these mushrooms were also determined. These wild mushrooms also had significant amount of phenol content and antioxidant capacity. Studies also provide the precise antioxidant status of 18 indigenous species of mushrooms, which can serve as a useful database for the selection of mushrooms for the function of preparation of mushroom-based nutraceutics.

  14. Advances in genetic analysis and biotechnology of the cultivated button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.M.H.; Mooibroek, H.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade several major breakthroughs have been achieved in mushroom biotechnology, which greatly enhanced classical mushroom breeding. DNA-based technologies such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms and randomly amplified polydisperse DNA sequences have allowed for a measure

  15. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used.

  16. Visualization of interactions between a pathogenic and a beneficial Fusarium strain during biocontrol of tomato foot and root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwerk, Annouschka; Lagopodi, Anastasia L; Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2005-07-01

    The soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici causes tomato foot and root rot (TFRR), which can be controlled by the addition of the nonpathogenic fungus F. oxysporum Fo47 to the soil. To improve our understanding of the interactions between the two Fusarium strains on tomato roots during biocontrol, the fungi were labeled using different autofluorescent proteins as markers and subsequently visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results were as follows. i) An at least 50-fold excess of Fo47over F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was required to obtain control of TFRR. ii) When seedlings were planted in sand infested with spores of a single fungus, Fo47 hyphae attached to the root earlier than those of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. iii) Subsequent root colonization by F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was faster and to a larger extent than that by Fo47. iv) Under disease-controlling conditions, colonization of tomato roots by the pathogenic fungus was significantly reduced. v) When the inoculum concentration of Fo47 was increased, root colonization by the pathogen was arrested at the stage of initial attachment to the root. vi) The percentage of spores of Fo47 that germinates in tomato root exudate in vitro is higher than that of the pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Based on these results, the mechanisms by which Fo47 controls TFRR are discussed in terms of i) rate of spore germination and competition for nutrients before the two fungi reach the rhizoplane; ii) competition for initial sites of attachment, intercellular junctions, and nutrients on the tomato root surface; and iii) inducing systemic resistance.

  17. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Erika [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L{sup -1} U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  18. Mushroom Extracts Decrease Bone Resorption and Improve Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erjavec, Igor; Brkljacic, Jelena; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Jakopovic, Boris; Jakopovich, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mushroom extracts have shown promising effects in the treatment of cancer and various chronic diseases. Osteoporosis is considered one of the most widespread chronic diseases, for which currently available therapies show mixed results. In this research we investigated the in vitro effects of water extracts of the culinary-medicinal mushrooms Trametes versicolor, Grifola frondosa, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus on a MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblast-like cell line, primary rat osteoblasts, and primary rat osteoclasts. In an animal osteoporosis model, rats were ovariectomized and then fed 2 mushroom blends of G. frondosa and L. edodes for 42 days. Bone loss was monitored using densitometry (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and micro computed tomography. In the concentration test, mushroom extracts showed no toxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells; a dose of 24 µg/mL showed the most proliferative effect. Mushroom extracts of T. versicolor, G. frondosa, and L. edodes inhibited osteoclast activity, whereas the extract of L. edodes increased osteoblast mineralization and the production of osteocalcin, a specific osteoblastic marker. In animals, mushroom extracts did not prevent trabecular bone loss in the long bones. However, we show for the first time that the treatment with a combination of extracts from L. edodes and G. frondosa significantly reduced trabecular bone loss at the lumbar spine. Inhibitory properties of extracts from L. edodes on osteoclasts and the promotion of osteoblasts in vitro, together with the potential to decrease lumbar spine bone loss in an animal osteoporosis model, indicate that medicinal mushroom extracts can be considered as a preventive treatment and/or a supplement to pharmacotherapy to enhance its effectiveness and ameliorate its harmful side effects.

  19. PROTOPLAST FUSION BETWEEN WHITE AND BROWN OYSTER MUSHROOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Djajanegara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic crossing of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus floridae to introduce longer storage life trait can only be done within individuals in this particular species. However, longer storage life trait is possessed by brown oyster mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus. Therefore, a protoplast fusion experiment between white and brown oyster mushrooms was conducted to obtain an oyster mushroom strain showing high productivity and long storage life. The experiment was done at the biology laboratory of the University of Al Azhar Indonesia from May 2008 to August 2009. Protoplast fusion was done by isolating protoplast from 5-day old monokaryotic mycelia grown in potato dextrose broth (PDB. Around 3.15 x 105 protoplasts ml-1 were harvested using mixture of cellulase Onozuka R-10 (1% and macerozyme R-10 (1% from brown oyster mushroom with 80.61% viability. Similarly, 3.71 x 105 protoplasts ml-1 were harvested using lysing enzyme (2% from white oyster mushroom with 83.68% viability. Protoplast fusions were conducted using 40% PEG6000 for 10 minutes. The candidate fusants were then screened using minimum regeneration media (MRM. There were 22 colonies grew on MRM media and four colonies (FS1, FS2, FS3, and FS4 showed clamp connection as well as primordia formation to be chosen as candidate fusants. However, isozyme studies using malate dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase as marker enzymes confirmed that only FS1 and FS2 were the hybridized products. The two colonies showed different mycelia growth patterns and hyphae sizes, fruit body morphology and productivity compared to their parents. These two fusants, however, did not indicate the presence of longer storage life trait as expected despite a higher productivity achieved by FS1. In this study, the protoplast fusion only yielded higher productivity strain of mushroom with different colors without any changes in storage life.

  20. Is tomato a healthy and/or functional food?

    OpenAIRE

    Inmaculada Navarro-González; Maria Jesús Periago

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a literature review about the presence of bioactive compounds in tomato and tomato based food, and these compounds function to promote health in the human organism. Several scientific studies show that tomato and tomato based products have several molecules, some of them with antioxidant activity, that protect lipids, lipoproteins, DNA, etc. against free radicals. This function could be one of the causes of the apparent link between consumption and protection of degenerative and...

  1. Radiocesium concentrations in wild mushrooms and characteristics of cesium accumulation by the edible mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan); Shibata, Hisashi; Morita, Yohoji; Kato, Fumio

    2000-10-01

    Mushrooms collected from a sub-alpine forest of Mt. Fuji and some other locations in Japan in 1996 were analyzed for radiocesium. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in 37 mushrooms varied widely from 1.6 to 783 Bqkg{sup -1} fresh wt. The characteristics of Cs accumulation were analyzed by culturing fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Fr.) Kummer Y-1 (P. ostreatus Y-1). The {sup 137}Cs and stable Cs accumulation expressed as the concentration ratio (CR, {sup 137}Cs or Cs concentration in the dried fruiting body/{sup 137}Cs or Cs concentration in the fresh medium) were in good agreement, indicating similar migration. The CR of Cs grown on medium containing both 0.1% Cs and 0.1% K, 10.2, showed a decrease of about 30 percent as compared with that containing 0.1% Cs only. These CR values suggested that Cs accumulation by the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 is affected by the presence of K similarly to previous observations in the mycelia. The {sup 133}Cs-NMR spectra from the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus Y-1 showed two resonance signals, whereas those from the media after harvesting of fruiting bodies showed only one signal. Just before growth of the fruiting bodies, bunches consisting of many mycelia were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant differences in the elemental distribution (Cs, K, P and C) were detected in the mycelium surface by SEM equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer. (author)

  2. Learning the vi and Vim Editor

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold; Hannah, Elbert

    2008-01-01

    There's nothing that hard-core Unix and Linux users are more fanatical about than their text editor. Editors are the subject of adoration and worship, or of scorn and ridicule, depending upon whether the topic of discussion is your editor or someone else's. vi has been the standard editor for close to 30 years. Popular on Unix and Linux, it has a growing following on Windows systems, too. Most experienced system administrators cite vi as their tool of choice. And since 1986, this book has been the guide for vi. However, Unix systems are not what they were 30 years ago, and neither is this

  3. Mucopolissacaridose tipo VI: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Lais Orosco Bialon Santana; Carolina Ando Matsuno; Marta Wey Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: As mucopolissacaridoses são erros inatos do metabolismo de depósito lisossomal subclassificadas segundo a enzima deficiente. A arilsulfatase B (ARSB), responsável por degradar os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs), que atuam no tecido conjuntivo, é deficiente na mucopolissacaridose tipo VI (MP VI). A MP VI tem clínica variável, sem anormalidades ao nascimento, evidenciando-se progressivamente ao acúmulo de GAGs. O diagnóstico se faz pela redução da atividade da ARSB ou da mutação genética...

  4. Measuring Leaf Motion of Tomato by Machine Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Marx, G.E.H.; Hofstee, J.W.; Hemming, J.; Sarlikioti, V.

    2012-01-01

    For a better understanding of growth and development of tomato plants in three dimensional space, tomato plants were monitored using a computer vision system. It is commonly known that leaves of tomato plants do not have a fixed position and orientation during the day; they move in response to

  5. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is required. Tomato samples were collected based on the fruit growth conditions which were divided into five different stages in this article: breakers, turning, pink, light-red, ...

  6. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, the study examines the effect of dry season tomato farming on poverty alleviation among women farmers in Niger State, Nigeria. Specifically, it examines the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the women dry season tomato farmers, their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing ...

  7. Effect of tomato internal structure on its mechanical properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... As different tomatoes have different locular cavities and a particular tomato material is inhomogeneous, the effect of tomato internal structure on its mechanical properties and degree of mechanical damage may be significant during the gripping process with robot fingers. This was studied using the ...

  8. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  9. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the socio-economic characteristics of wholesale tomato marketers with a view to identifying the marketing channels of tomato fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. Information was randomly collected with the aid of a well structured ...

  10. Price Variation of Tomatoes and Ginger in Giwa Market, Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jamila Rabe Mani

    rural farmers and marketers of ginger and tomato. Further the result indicated that tomato has the highest volatility than ginger in the market. Declining trends were obtained for majority of the months in both tomato and ginger marketing an indication of principle of supply and demand. The feasibility for storage were 20.71% ...

  11. Economics Of Tomato Production In Yewa North Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions relating to the socio-economic characteristics of the tomato farmers, tomato outputs, output prices and cost of resources viz. labour, seed, fertilizer and land ... Most of the tomato farmers were literate with an average of secondary school education, and their average age of 35 years fall within the active age group.

  12. Metabolite profiling of Italian tomato landraces with different fruit types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldina, Svetlana; Picarella, Maurizio E.; Troise, Antonio D.; Pucci, Anna; Ruggieri, Valentino; Ferracane, Rosalia; Barone, Amalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Mazzucato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest toward traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to

  13. Identification and distribution of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus TYLCV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf samples of 177 tomato plants were collected during 2006-2007 in tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) infected fields, as well as 100 leaf samples of sweet pepper, common bean, zucchini and the wild species Solanum elaeagnifolium, in order to study the population structure and genetic variation of Tomato yellow ...

  14. Tomato lycopene is a natural antioxidant and can alleviate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lycopene of tomato wastes was extracted and determination. The level of tomato lycopene was 145.50 ppm. An aliquots of the concentrated tomato lycopene, represent 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm; grade lycopene (200 ppm) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 200 ppm) were investigated by the 1,1- ...

  15. Natural incidence of tomato viruses in the North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohammadi HAJIABADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in Qazvin province in the North of Iran, to determine the incidence of tomato viruses including: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV, Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Tomato ring spot virus (ToRSV, Tomato aspermy virus (TAV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Beet curly top virus (BCTV, and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. A total of 742 tomato symptomatic samples were collected during the summer of 2007 in five regions of Qazvin province (Qazvin, Takestan, Boeen-Zahra, Alborz and Abiyek and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. TSWV was detected in Alborz (4.4 % and Abiyek (3.57% regions but TMV and CMV were detected in all five regions. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses were recorded in Alborz (40.7 % and Takestan (11.1 %, respectively. The presence of these viruses was also evaluated in the weed hosts as natural sources of plant viruses. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses in weed hosts were recorded in Boeen-Zahra (25.6 % and Qazvin (12.8 %, respectively. TSWV was not detected in weeds. Transmission tests demonstrated that Thrips tabaci acts as TSWV carrier and Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii were CMV carriers. Seed transmission tests were positive for TMV (13 tomato seedlings from 100 seedlings, but no TSWV transmission was observed through the seeds of infected tomato fruits.

  16. Biochemical evaluation of tomato germplasm part I: workflow and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...

  17. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümüşçü, Hasan Hüseyin; Başak, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Ali; Avcı, Deniz; Poyrazoğlu, Orhan Kürşat

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. PMID:24294010

  18. Identification of molecular species of acylglycerols of Philippine wild edible mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in many countries. We successfully cultivated four edible, medicinal Philippine mushrooms in liquid culture. Recently, we identified the molecular species of acylglycerols in the lipid extract of mushroom G. lucidum NRRL66208. One hundred and three molecular...

  19. On the asymmetry of mating in natural populations of the mushroom fungus Schizophyllum commune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.; Nieuwhof, S.; Aanen, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Before a mycelium of a mushroom-forming basidiomycete develops mushrooms, the monokaryotic mycelium needs to become fertilized. Although the mechanistic details of mating in mushrooms have been studied thoroughly in laboratory research, very little is known on mating patterns in nature. In this

  20. 75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period February 1, 2002, through January 31... the final results of the 2002-2003 administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from the...

  1. 76 FR 70112 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended... results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...

  2. 76 FR 56732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... preliminary results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  3. 76 FR 67146 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for Guangxi...., Ltd. (Co.) (Hongda).\\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...

  4. 77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of...'' section below. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  5. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission... the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review February 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms...

  6. 77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR) of February 1... 19 CFR 351.213(b), the Department received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the...

  7. 76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR) of February 1...(b), the Department received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

  8. 78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The NSR covers Shandong... order are certain preserved mushrooms, whether imported whole, sliced, diced, or as stems and pieces...

  9. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis...)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and... determines that revocation of the antidumping duty order on preserved mushrooms from Indonesia would not be...

  10. 75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of... requests for new shipper reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  11. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States... duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission... orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to...

  12. 76 FR 16604 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) for Shandong Fengyu Edible Fungus Corporation... Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews...

  13. 78 FR 18315 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of... a NSR. Therefore, we are rescinding this NSR. \\1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's...

  14. 76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation... request for a new shipper review (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of Amendment of Final Determination of Sales...

  15. 75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR), February 1... Department received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a domestic interested...

  16. 77 FR 19620 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation... request for a new shipper review (NSR) of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from... February 19, 1999, the Department published the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from...

  17. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  18. 78 FR 34037 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final... results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the... Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

  19. 78 FR 26319 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review (POR) of February 1... 19 CFR 351.213(b), the Department received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the...

  20. 75 FR 16075 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of... requests for new shipper reviews of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the... Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...

  1. 75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... International Trade Administration (A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission... antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia for the period of review (POR), February... Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a domestic interested party in the above-referenced proceeding...

  2. 78 FR 69817 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the... of the Order The products covered by this antidumping order are certain preserved mushrooms, whether...

  3. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümüşçü, Hasan Hüseyin; Başak, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avcı, Deniz; Poyrazoğlu, Orhan Kürşat

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms.

  4. Structural and Functional Genomics of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Amalia; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Giuliano, Giovanni; Grandillo, Silvana; Frusciante, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the most intensively investigated Solanaceous species both in genetic and genomics studies. It is a diploid species with a haploid set of 12 chromosomes and a small genome (950 Mb). Based on the detailed knowledge on tomato structural genomics, the sequencing of the euchromatic regions started in the year 2005 as a common effort of different countries. The manuscript focuses on markers used for tomato, on mapping efforts mainly based on exploitation of natural biodiversity, and it gives an updated report on the international sequencing activities. The principal tools developed to explore the function of tomato genes are also summarized, including mutagenesis, genetic transformation, and transcriptome analysis. The current progress in bioinformatic strategies available to manage the overwhelming amount of data generated from different tomato “omics” approaches is reported, and emphasis is given to the effort of producing a computational workbench for the analysis of the organization, as well as the functionality and evolution of the Solanaceae family. PMID:18317508

  5. Bioactive components in breeding industrial tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Nenad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of tomato lines for industrial use regarding their nutritional value is a potential that will reflect in the final product obtained from tomato fruits. At the same time, technological process of preparation of tomato juice (100 °C, as well as hot air drying, was studied in order to establish an optimal technological process that is the least disrupting for the natural potential of nutrients contained in fresh fruits. The research was performed on 6 lines and one variety of industrial tomato. The content of vitamin C, vitamin E, lycopene, β-carotene, phenols, flavonoids, dry matter and total antioxidative capacity was studied by applying standard methods for determination of the level of these parameters. Grouping was performed according to traits of average carotenoid content (lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, phenols, flavonoids, dry matter and total antioxidative capacity in tomato fruit, by applying PCA. The first two principle components were responsible for 77.18 % of total variability of researched samples. The impact of other five components was low and they were responsible for 22.18 % of the variability. Antioxidative activity was best preserved after finishing, through small losses of lycopene and β-carotene. Losses of vitamin C, vitamin E, phenols and flavonoids during thermal processing were great, mostly in juice, while in dried product, these losses were lower. Nutrient losses were in function of temperature height that the fruits were exposed to during the thermal processing. Genotypes SPRZ and SPSM were marked as the best.

  6. Whitefly population dynamics and evaluation of whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-resistant tomato genotypes as whitefly and TYLCV reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistant tomato cultivars are a major tool for management of this economically important virus. Results presented emphasize that such resistant tomatoes can serve as virus and whitefly reservoirs and potentially influence virus epidemics....

  7. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontognali, Tomaso; D'Angeli, Ilenia; Tisato, Nicola; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Bernasconi, Stefano; Gonzales, Esteban; DeWaele, Jo

    2016-04-01

    Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries). More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) - the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs) has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  8. Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  9. Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

    2014-01-15

    Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mushroom speleothems: Stromatolites that formed in the absence of phototrophs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaso eBontognali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unusual speleothems resembling giant mushrooms occur in Santa Catalina Cave, Cuba. Although these mineral buildups are considered a natural heritage, their composition and formation mechanism remain poorly understood. Here we characterize their morphology and mineralogy and present a model for their genesis. We propose that the mushrooms, which are mainly comprised of calcite and aragonite, formed during four different phases within an evolving cave environment. The stipe of the mushroom is an assemblage of three well-known speleothems: a stalagmite surrounded by calcite rafts that were subsequently encrusted by cave clouds (mammilaries. More peculiar is the cap of the mushroom, which is morphologically similar to cerebroid stromatolites and thrombolites of microbial origin occurring in marine environments. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of this last unit revealed the presence of fossilized extracellular polymeric substances (EPS – the constituents of biofilms and microbial mats. These organic microstructures are mineralized with Ca-carbonate, suggesting that the mushroom cap formed through a microbially-influenced mineralization process. The existence of cerebroid Ca-carbonate buildups forming in dark caves (i.e., in the absence of phototrophs has interesting implications for the study of fossil microbialites preserved in ancient rocks, which are today considered as one of the earliest evidence for life on Earth.

  11. Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  12. Advances in Mushroom Research in the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Pan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of progress in mushroom science and biotechnology in the last decade. The optimization of PFGE separation of fungal chromosomes allowed the study of the molecular karyotype of mushrooms and the assignment of genes to chromosomes. There are 115 genes encoded from different species of mushrooms. Cross breeding continues to be the principal method, but it is accompanied by the analyses of RAPD or RFLPs methods. The genetic makers are used and introduced into commercial large hybrids via introgression breeding. The complex traits such as yield, resistance to disease and quality characteristics, and quantitative traits more than one quantitative trait locus (QTL are found and used in practice. The transformants or transgenic mutant strains were obtained by Agrobacterium system or particle bombardment. At least 651 species representing 182 genera of hetero- and homobasidiomycetes mushrooms were researched containing antitumor or immunostimulating polysaccharides. Ergosterol in the lipid fraction was identified as one of the most active constituents. New sesquiterpenoid hydroquinones, steroids, oxalic acid, triterpenes, water-soluble lignins, sulfated polysaccharides, protein-bound polysaccharides are researched intensively as antimicrobial or antiviral agents. Many small molecular mass compounds exhibit cytotoxic activities, such as illudins, leaianafulvene, triterpenes (ganoderic acids, acetoxyscirpenediol, ergosterol peroxide, sterols. There are many other compounds or activities found in the mushrooms, such as antioxidative, hypoglycemic action, anti-inflammatory effect, hepatoprotective compounds, psychoactive compounds and activities.

  13. The North American mushroom competitor, Trichoderma aggressivum f. aggressivum, produces antifungal compounds in mushroom compost that inhibit mycelial growth of the commercial mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Oliver Albert; Castle, Alan J; Rinker, Danny Lee

    2003-12-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a ubiquitously distributed asexual soil fungus that produces a variety of antibiotic compounds. Colonisation of soil inhabited by competing microbiota is facilitated by the antibiotic activity of these compounds. In addition, T. harzianum produces hydrolytic enzymes that degrade the cell wall components of many microorganisms, which can then be used as a source of nutrients. Recently, biotypes of T. harzianum differing morphologically from those originally described by Rifai were isolated on commercial mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) farms. These 'aggressive' biotypes cause devastating crop loss on mushroom farms. The aggressive biotype in North America was originally known as 'Th4' but has been recently renamed Trichoderma aggressivum f. aggressivum. In contrast, 'non-aggressive' biotypes, have no noticeable effect on the crop, are similar to T. harzianum and are commonly found on mushroom farms. The mechanism of disease establishment is unknown. We have identified a metabolite produced by T. aggressivum isolates in vitro that inhibits growth of A. bisporus and other fungi. This antifungal compound is not produced by 'non-aggressive' T. harzianum isolates under the culture conditions tested and is identified as 3,4-dihydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin. Another compound was isolated from both liquid culture and infested compost. Although its chemical structure could not be precisely determined, this compound also inhibits A. bisporus growth, is predominant in infested compost and likely has a inhibitory effect on the mycelia present in mushroom compost, resulting in devastating crop loss.

  14. ViSIT: Visitor Survey Information Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — ViSIT is an interactive web tool created by USGS to visualize the data collected as part of the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey. The national survey was...

  15. Derfor elsker og hader vi positiv psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog.......Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog....

  16. Kan vi forebygge en kompliceret sorgreaktion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard; Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Pårørende til alvorligt syge patienter er i en sårbar situation og risikerer selv at blive syge. Som sundhedsprofessionelle har vi mulighed for at støtte pårørende i palliative forløb, og vi vil i denne artikel beskrive mulige prædiktorer for kompliceret sorg og depression hos den pårørende efter...

  17. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til? Link: http://videnskab.dk/kultur-samfund/hvad-skal-vi-med-trump-satire...

  18. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  19. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  20. Effect of tiazofurin on tomato plants infected with tomato spotted wilt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, J; Amélia, M; Alexandre, V; Vicente, M

    1984-12-01

    Tiazofurin (2-beta-D-ribofuranosylthiazole-4-carboxamide) was examined for its activity against tomato-spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato plants. Solutions containing 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/l of the drug were sprayed onto the leaves. The results showed that 100 and 200 mg/l were the most efficient concentrations to suppress TSWV infection, thereby delaying the appearance of systemic symptoms. The drug was more effective in controlling TSWV infection when applied after than before virus inoculation. The results suggest that tiazofurin can be used as an efficient antiviral drug in the treatment of TSWV-infected tomato plants.

  1. Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi Mushroom) and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Ahmet; Nayir, Erdinc; Kirca, Onder; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Having a long historical past in traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma Lucidum (G. Lucidum) is a type of mushroom believed to extend life and promote health. Due to the increasing consumption pattern, it has been cultivated and marketed intensively since the 1970s. It is claimed to be effective in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, and in addition, it exerts anticancer properties. Almost all the data on the benefits of G. Lucidum are based on laboratory and preclinical studies. The few clinical studies conducted are questionable. Nevertheless, when the findings obtained from laboratory studies are considered, it turns that G. Lucidum is likely to have some benefits for cancer patients. What is important at this point is to determine the components that will provide these benefits, and use them in drug development, after testing their reliability. In conclusion, it would be the right approach to abstain from using and incentivizing this product, until its benefits and harms are set out clearly, by considering its potential side effects.

  2. Environmental impact of mushroom compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Francisco; Saenz-Díez, Juan-Carlos; Martínez, Eduardo; Jiménez, Emilio; Blanco, Julio

    2016-09-01

    This research analyses the environmental impact of the creation of Agaricus bisporus compost packages. The composting process is the intermediate stage of the mushroom production process, subsequent to the mycelium cultivation stage and prior to the fruiting bodies cultivation stage. A full life cycle assessment model of the Agaricus bisporus composting process has been developed through the identification and analysis of the inputs-outputs and energy consumption of the activities involved in the production process. The study has been developed based on data collected from a plant during a 1 year campaign, thereby obtaining accurate information used to analyse the environmental impact of the process. A global analysis of the main stages of the process shows that the process that has the greatest impact in most categories is the compost batch preparation process. This is due to an increased consumption of energy resources by the machinery that mixes the raw materials to create the batch. At the composting process inside the tunnel stage, the activity that has the greatest impact in almost all categories studied is the initial stage of composting. This is due to higher energy consumption during the process compared to the other stages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Paleogene Radiation of a Plant Pathogenic Mushroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Martin P. A.; Bloomer, Paulette; Wingfield, Michael J.; Wingfield, Brenda D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species. Methods The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach. Results Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana. Conclusions The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:22216099

  4. Melanin biosynthesis pathway in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijn, A; Bastiaan-Net, S; Wichers, H J; Mes, J J

    2013-06-01

    With the full genome sequence of Agaricus bisporus available, it was possible to investigate the genes involved in the melanin biosynthesis pathway of button mushrooms. Based on different BLAST and alignments, genes were identified in the genome which are postulated to be involved in this pathway. Seven housekeeping genes were tested of which 18S rRNA was the only housekeeping gene that was stably expressed in various tissues of different developmental stages. Gene expression was determined for most gene homologs (26 genes) involved in the melanin pathway. Of the analysed genes, those encoding polyphenol oxidase (PPO), the PPO co-factor L-chain (unique for A. bisporus), and a putative transcription factor (photoregulator B) were among the highest expressed in skin tissue. An in depth look was taken at the clustering of several PPO genes and the PPO co-factor gene on chromosome 5, which showed that almost 25% of the protein encoding genes in this cluster have a conserved NACHT and WD40 domain or a P-loop nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase. This article will be the start for an in depth study of the melanin pathway and its role in quality losses of this economically important product. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Paleogene radiation of a plant pathogenic mushroom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P A Coetzee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species. METHODS: The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP, Maximum Likelihood (ML and Bayesian Inference (BI. A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere.

  6. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  7. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38℃). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the

  8. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  9. The climacteric in ripening tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D J; Rowan, K S

    1971-09-01

    Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit.Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration.

  10. The Climacteric in Ripening Tomato Fruit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, David J.; Rowan, Kingsley S.

    1971-01-01

    Phosphofructokinase is identified as the regulator reaction activated at the onset of the climacteric rise in respiration of the ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The concentration of ATP in the fruit increases to a maximum value after the climacteric peak of respiration is past. Orthophosphate is proposed as the most probable activator of phosphofructokinase in the ripening fruit. Fifteen hours after infiltrating tomato fruit with orthophosphate, the rate of respiration increased and remained high until the end of the experiment, 45 hours after infiltration. In experiments where tomato plants were grown at various nutrient levels of P, the rate of respiration when fruit harvested at the mature-green stage reached the respiratory climacteric was correlated with the concentration of orthophosphate in the fruit at the end of the experiment. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of phosphofructokinase through increasing concentration of orthophosphate in the cytoplasm of the fruit contributes to the climacteric rise in respiration. PMID:16657771

  11. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  12. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...... of NIR-HSI for varietal identification is very important. The work on MS III demonstrates the utilisation in various scenarios for classification of tomato seeds using MSI. The results displayed that MSI can be used in confirming the hybridity of the hybrid seeds. Manuscript III showed that accuracy......The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...

  13. Tolerance of Drosophila flies to ibotenic acid poisons in mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuno, Nobuko; Takahashi, Kazuo H; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Osawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Chihiro

    2007-02-01

    The mushroom genus Amanita has a spectrum of chemical compounds affecting survival and performance of animals. Ibotenic acid is one of such compounds found in some Amanita mushrooms. We studied the effects of ibotenic acid and its derivative, muscimol, on egg-to-pupa survival, pupation time, and pupal size in five Drosophila species (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Drosophila bizonata, Drosophila angularis, Drosophila brachynephros, Drosophila immigrans, and Drosophila melanogaster. The first three species are mycophagous and use a wide range of mushrooms for breeding, whereas D. immigrans and D. melanogaster are frugivorous. We reared fly larvae on artificial medium with 500, 250, 125, and 62.5 microg/ml of ibotenic acid and/or musimol. The three mycophagous species were not susceptible to ibotenic acid, whereas the two frugivorous species were affected. In experiments with D. melanogaster, muscimol was less toxic than ibotenic acid.

  14. Species clarification of the culinary Bachu mushroom in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Sulayman, Mamtimin; Zhu, Xue-Tai; Zhao, Yong-Chang; Yang, Zhu-Liang; Hyde, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    The Bachu mushroom, previously identified as Helvella leucopus, is characterized by a saddle-shaped, to irregularly lobed pileus, with a gray, brown to blackish hymenium and a whitish to pale receptacle surface and white, terete stipe with enlarged basal grooves. It has high economic value, mostly as a dietary supplement in western China, and its medicinal functions have raised broad interest. In the present paper species of the Bachu mushroom in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China were investigated with morphology and DNA sequence data. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from ITS, 28S and TEF1 sequence data strongly supported lineages corresponding to morphological features. The Bachu mushroom, which differs from the European Helvella leucopus, comprises two distinct new species, namely Helvella bachu and Helvella subspadicea. In this paper we introduce the new species with descriptions and figures and compare them with similar taxa. The European Helvella spadicea is also re-examined, described and illustrated. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  15. Foreign bodies in dried mushrooms marketed in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Schiavo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of foreign bodies in mushrooms affects their marketability and may result in health risks to consumers. The inspection of fresh or dried mushrooms today is very important in view of the increased consumption of this kind of food. Ten samples of dried mushrooms collected in supermarkets were examined for evidence of entomological contamination by macro and microscopic analytical methods, the so-called filth-test. A total of 46 determinations, comprising 15 g of the vegetable matrix, were made. The microscopic filth test consistently detected an irregular distribution of physical contaminants following repeated determinations of the same sample. Visual examination, on the other hand, was not sufficient to ensure a product free of contaminants.

  16. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaras, Michael D; Richie, John P; Calcagnotto, Ana; Beelman, Robert B

    2017-10-15

    While mushrooms are the highest dietary source for the unique sulfur-containing antioxidant ergothioneine, little is known regarding levels of the major biological antioxidant glutathione. Thus, our objectives were to determine and compare levels of glutathione, as well as ergothioneine, in different species of mushrooms. Glutathione levels varied >20-fold (0.11-2.41mg/gdw) with some varieties having higher levels than reported for other foods. Ergothioneine levels also varied widely (0.15-7.27mg/gdw) and were highly correlated with those of glutathione (r=0.62, Pmushrooms species. Agaricus bisporus harvested during the third cropping flush contained higher levels of ergothioneine and glutathione compared to the first flush, possibly as a response to increased oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that certain mushroom species are high in glutathione and ergothioneine and should be considered an excellent dietary source of these important antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, M.E.R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  18. CANTHARELLUS CIBARIUS - CULINARY-MEDICINAL MUSHROOM CONTENT AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bozena; Kała, Katarzyna; Firlej, Anna; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    One of the most frequently harvested mushrooms in Polish forests is Yellow chanterelle (chanterelle) - Cantharellus cibarius Fr. from the Cantharellaceae family. Chanterelle is an ectomycorrhizal mushroom occurring in Poland. Chanterelle lives in symbiosis with pine, spruce, oak and hombeam. In cookery, chanterelle is appreciated because of the aroma, taste, firmness and crunchiness of its fruiting bodies. Wild edible mushrooms are widely consumed in Asia, Western Europe and Central America. Chanterelle contains a great number of carbohydrates and proteins and a low amount of fat. Actual review presents the main groups of physiologically active primary and secondary metabolites in the fruiting bodies of chanterelle such as indole and phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, free amino acids, sterols, carotenoids, enzymes, vitamins and elements with biological activity. The presence of these compounds and elements conditions the nutrient and therapeutic activity of chanterelle, e.g., immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial and antigenotoxic properties.

  19. Chemical composition and biological activities of the Agaricus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Munkhgerel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Agaricus mushroom grown in Mongolia were analyzed for their element content. Biological activity and chemical components study of Agaricus, grown in the Mongolian flora has been investigated for the first time. The ethanol extracts of dried Agaricus sp. mushrooms were analyzed for antioxidant activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and interferon-like activity. The ethanol extracts from Agaricus arvensis showed the most potent radical scavenging activity. The IC50 of A. silvaticus and A. arvensis were 216 and 17.75 g/ml respectively. Among the twenty three mushroom extracts, the extracts from A. silvatisus and A. arvensis have shown the interferon-like activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.197Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p41-45

  20. Accumulation route and chemical form of mercury in mushroom species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minagawa, K.; Sasaki, T.; Takizawa, Y.; Tamura, R.; Oshina, T.

    1980-09-01

    Some papers were published on several species of fungi having more accumulating abilities of mercury than other land plants and a relatively small part of mercury being present as methylmercury in most species (Stegnar et al. 1973, Stijve and Roschnik 1974). But, little information is available regarding the routes of mercury in fungi, and also no report on mercury speciation (chemical form and complexation) in them have been published, apart from methylmercury. In order to evaluate accurately their biological characteristics such as absorption, excretion, accumulation and toxicity (The Task Group on Metal Interaction 1978), the mercury speciation present in mushrooms, regardless of edible or nonedible, should be identified. In this report, we present (1) contents of total and methylmercury in mushrooms near the acetaldehyde factory which had the mounds of sludge containing mercury, (2) data or exposure experiment of mercury vapor to raw mushrooms (Shiitake) on the market, and (3) data on mercury speciation of mercury other than methylmercury.

  1. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  2. Radical scavenging potential and DNA damage protection of wild edible mushrooms of Kashmir Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsheen Shameem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The edible mushrooms Verpa bohemica and Morchella esculenta are locally used for dietary and antioxidant in tribal areas of Kashmir Himalaya. In the present study, sequences of solvents on the basis of their polarity were used for the extraction from selected mushrooms. The comprehensive antioxidant activity of all edible mushroom extracts was evaluated by seven different methods. V. bohemica exhibited significant inhibitory activity of radicals among all the mushrooms while Morchella extracts protected the DNA damage from OH· radicals. This study provides us the substantiation for the use of these mushrooms as antioxidants besides being already eaten as food.

  3. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  4. Consumer sensory analysis of high flavonoid transgenic tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wansang; Miller, Rebecca; Park, Jungeun; Park, Sunghun

    2014-06-01

    Tomatoes have ameliorative effects on cardiovascular disease and cancer. In this study, metabolic engineering of flavonoids was utilized to improve the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing flavonol and anthocyanin content. Total flavonol content was significantly increased in both the peel and flesh using the onion chalcone isomerase (CHI) gene. The Delila (Del) and Rosea1 (Ros1) genes from the snapdragon Antirrhinum majus were concomitantly expressed to produce an anthocyanin-rich tomato which was purple in color. Sensory evaluation by a panel of 81 untrained consumers revealed no significant difference in liking of color or texture between CHI, Del/Ros1, and wild-type tomatoes. Consumers reported marginal but significantly higher preference for the flavor and overall liking of CHI tomatoes over Del/Ros1 and wild-type tomatoes. This study is the first to report the results of sensory tests of transgenic tomatoes by a consumer panel representing the general consuming public. Transgenic procedures were used to increase the flavonol and anthocyanin contents of tomatoes. An untrained consumer panel scored flavor and overall liking of the 2 transgenic tomatoes higher than wild-type tomatoes and reported no difference in liking of texture or color between the 3 tomatoes. After participating in the sensory study, 14% of the panelists changed their attitudes positively toward transgenic vegetables and 96% of the consumers on the panel reported that they would buy transgenic food if they believed that it would promote health. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. [Story of the tomato through its genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2012-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a model for fruit development. The tomato history has origins traced back to the early Aztecs. It was not until around the 16(th) century that Europeans were introduced to this fruit, but only as ornamental plant since it was related to nightshade belladona. Then it was accepted into the kitchen all around the world. The genome sequence of the inbred cultivar Heinz 1706 is sequenced and provides interesting insights into the fleshy evolution. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  6. Evaluation of different mushroom species as indicator organisms[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Stensrud, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    To investigate the differences between accumulation capacity and transfer factor from soil to different mushroom species, 25 species were collected at 9 locations in south and central parts of Norway. Yearly sampling has been carried since 1988 and a total of 1283 samples analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Entire, fresh fruit bodies were collected, homogenized and measured fresh weight. Levels of ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in Norway were taken from a nationwide sampling program carried out by National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in 1986 following the Chernobyl accident. The estimated ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs (Bq m{sup -2}) and the corresponding activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in mushrooms were used to calculate the ratio between activity concentration in mushroom and ground deposition (transfer factor, TF). Both the mushroom and the soil data are decay corrected to 2004. Considerable differences in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in different mushroom species were found. The Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, and Rozites caperata were found to have the highest levels. Followed by two Cortinarius species, C. brunneus and C. traganus. The highest transfer factors were found in the Cortinarius armillatus and C. brunneus, but also Tricoloma album and Rozites caperata had high transfer factors. Other mushroom species, e.g. Leccinum versipelle (Orange Birch Bolete), Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric), Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete), Collybia butyracea (Butter Cap) generally show a low radiocaesium uptake and are therefore not considered as good indicators. Even though Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, C. brunneus, C. traganus, and Rozites caperata accumulate high levels of {sup 137}Cs, their seasonality and local occurrence should be evaluated before they are considered as good indicator organisms. (LN)

  7. Early molecular adsorbents recirculating system treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, Taru; Kantola, Teemu; Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Höckerstedt, Krister; Isoniemi, Helena

    2009-10-01

    Acute poisoning due to ingestion of hepatotoxic Amanita sp. mushrooms can result in a spectrum of symptoms, from mild gastrointestinal discomfort to life-threatening acute liver failure. With conventional treatment, Amanita phalloides mushroom poisoning carries a substantial risk of mortality and many patients require liver transplantation. The molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS) is an artificial liver support system that can partly compensate for the detoxifying function of the liver by removing albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins from blood. This treatment has been used in acute liver failure to enable native liver recovery and as a bridging treatment to liver transplantation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the outcome of 10 patients with Amanita mushroom poisoning who were treated with MARS. The study was a retrospectively analyzed case series. Ten adult patients with accidental Amanita poisoning of varying severity were treated in a liver disease specialized intensive care unit from 2001 to 2007. All patients received MARS treatment and standard medical therapy for mushroom poisoning. The demographic, laboratory, and clinical data from each patient were recorded upon admission. The one-year survival and need for liver transplantation were documented. The median times from mushroom ingestion to first-aid at a local hospital and to MARS treatment were 18 h (range 14-36 h) and 48 h (range 26-78 h), respectively. All 10 patients survived longer than one year. One patient underwent a successful liver transplantation. No serious adverse side-effects were observed with the MARS treatment. In conclusion, MARS treatment seems to offer a safe and effective treatment option in Amanita mushroom poisoning.

  8. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  9. Use of multispectral images and chemometrics in tomato seed studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    During the production of tomato seeds, green tomatoes are normally discarded before seed extraction irrespective of their maturity stage. Studies indicate that seeds from green tomatoes may reach be able to reach full germination capacity. Thus the potential of multispectral imaging for non......-destructive discrimination of seeds based on their germination capacity was investigated. A total of 840 seeds extracted from green and red tomatoes were divided into two sets; a training set and a test set consisting of 648 and 192 seeds respectively. Each set consisted of 96 seeds from green tomatoes. The multispectral......, respectively. Similarly, dead seeds were predicted with 98% of accuracy. Results also showed that 23 and 14 seeds from green tomatoes in the training and test sets respectively were viable, while only one viable seed in the test set was misclassified. The results indicate that green tomatoes might be mature...

  10. Amatoxin poisoning from ingestion of Japanese Galerina mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, H; Tomomasa, T; Inoue, Y; Kunimoto, F; Fukusato, T; Muraoka, S; Gonmori, K; Matsumoto, T; Morikawa, A

    2001-01-01

    Although some Japanese Galerina species poisonings manifest as gastrointestinal symptoms followed by late-onset hepatorenal failure (phalloides syndrome), the toxin responsible for this has not been determined. We report a 6-year-old boy who developed characteristic cholera-like diarrhea and late-onset severe hepatic deterioration after eating mushrooms, later identified as a Galerina species, most likely Galerina fasciculata. A residual mushroom revealed alpha-amanitin. This account is the first known reported case of poisoning by Japanese Galerina species where an amatoxin was demonstrated to be responsible for the toxicity.

  11. Acute renal failure after intoxication with Cortinarius mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmdahl, J; Mulec, H; Ahlmén, J

    1984-08-01

    Four previously healthy young adults developed the clinically recognised features of Cortinarius poisoning 3-4 days after intoxication. Two patients treated with haemoperfusion and haemodialysis 5 days after ingestion of the mushrooms regained normal kidney function. Two patients treated late with single haemoperfusion or dialysis had irreversible renal failure. The clinical results and our experimental studies on the toxic principle of the mushrooms indicate that early treatment with HP and HD may be important in order to avoid the development of irreversible renal failure.

  12. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Sulyok, M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques......-precursors, bis-anthraquinone derivatives from Talaromyces islandicus, emerging toxins (e.g. enniatins) and other Fusarium metabolites, and clavine alkaloids. Although little is known on the toxicology of these substances, the absence of aflatoxins and other primary mycotoxins suggests that dried mushrooms may...

  13. Growth and yield performance of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Fr.) Kumm (oyster mushroom) on different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmay, Zenebe; Gorems, Weldesemayat; Birhanu, Getachew; Zewdie, Solomon

    2016-12-01

    Mushroom cultivation is reported as an economically viable bio-technology process for conversion of various lignocellulosic wastes. Given the lack of technology know-how on the cultivation of mushroom, this study was conducted in Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resource, with the aim to assess the suitability of selected substrates (agricultural and/or forest wastes) for oyster mushroom cultivation. Accordingly, four substrates (cotton seed, paper waste, wheat straw, and sawdust) were tested for their efficacy in oyster mushroom production. Pure culture of oyster mushroom was obtained from Mycology laboratory, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management, Addis Ababa University. The pure culture was inoculated on potato dextrose agar for spawn preparation. Then, the spawn containing sorghum was inoculated with the fungal culture for the formation of fruiting bodies on the agricultural wastes. The oyster mushroom cultivation was undertaken under aseptic conditions, and the growth and development of mushroom were monitored daily. Results of the study revealed that oyster mushroom can grow on cotton seed, paper waste, sawdust and wheat straw, with varying growth performances. The highest biological and economic yield, as well as the highest percentage of biological efficiency of oyster mushroom was obtained from cotton seed, while the least was from sawdust. The study recommends cotton seed, followed by paper waste as suitable substrates for the cultivation of oyster mushroom. It also suggests that there is a need for further investigation on various aspects of oyster mushroom cultivation in Ethiopia to promote the industry.

  14. Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.

  15. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D

    2012-01-01

    .... The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L...

  16. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms.

  17. Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing.

  18. Tomato marchitez virus, a new plant picorna-like virus from tomato related to tomato torrado virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from the state of Sinaloa in Mexico. This plant showed symptoms locally known as `marchitez disease¿: severe leaf necrosis, beginning at the base of the leaflets, and necrotic rings on the fruits. A virus was isolated from the infected plant consisting of

  19. Salivary glucose oxidase from caterpillars mediates the induction of rapid and delayed-induced defenses in the tomato plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donglan Tian

    Full Text Available Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2. Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts.

  20. Salivary glucose oxidase from caterpillars mediates the induction of rapid and delayed-induced defenses in the tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Donglan; Peiffer, Michelle; Shoemaker, Erica; Tooker, John; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA) and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2). Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX) was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts.

  1. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  2. AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Involved in Response to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curly Virus in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV, transmitted by the whitefly (, causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.. The APETALA2 (AP2 and ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factor (TF family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato. A total of 22 tomato AP2/ERF TFs in response to TYLCV were identified according to transcriptome database. Five ERF-B3 TFs were identified in cultivars Hongbeibei (highly resistant, Zheza-301, Zhefen-702 (both resistant, Jinpeng-1, and Xianke-6 (both susceptible. Interaction network indicated that SlERF TFs could interact with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Expression profiles of five ERF-B3 genes (, , , , and were detected by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR after TYLCV infection in five tomato cultivars. expression was upregulated in five tomato cultivars. The expressions of three genes (, , and were upregulated in Zheza-301 and Zhefen-702. and expressions were downregulated in Hongbeibei and Xianke-6, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid showed that the GCC-box binding ability of ERF-B3 TFs differed in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. Expression profiles were related to the GCC-box binding ability of SlERF TFs in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. The defense mechanism underlying the tomato’s response to TYLCV involved a complicated network, which provided important information for us in breeding and genetic analysis.

  3. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  4. Comprehensive resources for tomato functional genomics based on the miniature model tomato micro-tom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

    2008-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom.

  5. Compact tomato seedlings and plants upon overexpression of a tomato chromatin remodelling ATPase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Adam; Bargsten, Joachim W; Bisseling, Ton; Nap, Jan-Peter; Mlynarova, Ludmila

    2016-02-01

    Control of plant growth is an important aspect of crop productivity and yield in agriculture. Overexpression of the AtCHR12/23 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced growth habit without other morphological changes. These two genes encode Snf2 chromatin remodelling ATPases. Here, we translate this approach to the horticultural crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We identified and cloned the single tomato ortholog of the two Arabidopsis Snf2 genes, designated SlCHR1. Transgenic tomato plants (cv. Micro-Tom) that constitutively overexpress the coding sequence of SlCHR1 show reduced growth in all developmental stages of tomato. This confirms that SlCHR1 combines the functions of both Arabidopsis genes in tomato. Compared to the wild type, the transgenic seedlings of tomato have significantly shorter roots, hypocotyls and reduced cotyledon size. Transgenic plants have a much more compact growth habit with markedly reduced plant height, severely compacted reproductive structures with smaller flowers and smaller fruits. The results indicate that either GMO-based or non-GMO-based approaches to modulate the expression of chromatin remodelling ATPase genes could develop into methods to control plant growth, for example to replace the use of chemical growth retardants. This approach is likely to be applicable and attractive for any crop for which growth habit reduction has added value. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comprehensive Resources for Tomato Functional Genomics Based on the Miniature Model Tomato Micro-Tom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, C; Aoki, K; Fukuda, N; Mizoguchi, T; Asamizu, E; Saito, T; Shibata, D; Ezura, H

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae) is an excellent model plant for genomic research of solanaceous plants, as well as for studying the development, ripening, and metabolism of fruit. In 2003, the International Solanaceae Project (SOL, www.sgn.cornell.edu ) was initiated by members from more than 30 countries, and the tomato genome-sequencing project is currently underway. Genome sequence of tomato obtained by this project will provide a firm foundation for forthcoming genomic studies such as the comparative analysis of genes conserved among the Solanaceae species and the elucidation of the functions of unknown tomato genes. To exploit the wealth of the genome sequence information, there is an urgent need for novel resources and analytical tools for tomato functional genomics. Here, we present an overview of the development of genetic and genomic resources of tomato in the last decade, with a special focus on the activities of Japan SOL and the National Bio-Resource Project in the development of functional genomic resources of a model cultivar, Micro-Tom. PMID:19506732

  7. Eugenol enhances the resistance of tomato against tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmei; Fan, Yongjian

    2014-03-15

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease (TYLCVD) causes severe to economic losses in tomato crops in China. The control of TYLCVD is based primarily on the use of synthetic insecticide to control its vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). To look for an alternative method for disease control, we investigated the effect of eugenol on controlling TYLCVD. The potential of eugenol to trigger systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tomato (Jiangsu 14) plants against TYLCV was also investigated. In greenhouse experiments, eugenol significantly reduced disease severity when applied as a foliar spray, thus demonstrating a systemic effect. The disease spread rapidly in control plants and by the end of the experiment almost all control plants showed severe symptoms. Eugenol also induced H₂O₂ accumulation in tomato plants. Activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were significantly induced compared with those of control plants. As further consequences, increase of salicylic acid (SA) levels and expression of PR-1 proteins, a molecular marker of SAR in tomato, could also be observed. This is the first report of eugenol as an elicitor and its ability to suppress plant virus diseases under greenhouse conditions. It is suggested that eugenol has the potential to be an effective biocontrol agent against TYLCV in tomato plants. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Induction of Jasmonic Acid-Associated Defenses by Thrips Alters Host Suitability for Conspecifics and Correlates with Increased Trichome Densities in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Bravo, Rocío; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Leiss, Kirsten A

    2017-03-01

    Plant defenses inducible by herbivorous arthropods can determine performance of subsequent feeding herbivores. We investigated how infestation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) alters host plant suitability and foraging decisions of their conspecifics. We explored the role of delayed-induced jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated plant defense responses in thrips preference by using the tomato mutant def-1, impaired in JA biosynthesis. In particular, we investigated the effect of thrips infestation on trichome-associated tomato defenses. The results showed that when offered a choice, thrips preferred non-infested plants over infested wild-type plants, while no differences were observed in def-1. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate restored the repellency effect in def-1. Gene expression analysis showed induction of the JA defense signaling pathway in wild-type plants, while activating the ethylene signaling pathway in both genotypes. Activation of JA defenses led to increases in type-VI leaf glandular trichome densities in the wild type, augmenting the production of trichome-associated volatiles, i.e. terpenes. Our study revealed that plant-mediated intraspecific interactions between thrips are determined by JA-mediated defenses in tomato. We report that insects can alter not only trichome densities but also the allelochemicals produced therein, and that this response might depend on the magnitude and/or type of the induction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  9. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro culture response was assessed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. c. v. Omdurman) for optimum callus induction and plantlet regeneration. Callus induction was achieved within seven to ten days directly on the cut surfaces of both hypocotyls and cotyledon explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) ...

  10. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccurullo, G.; Giordano, L.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling.

  11. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... and antioxidant (lycopene) (Junichiro, 2006). Since S. lycopersicum has long been used for the treatment of variety of disease, the present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of tomato leaves against PGE2 using. RAW264.7 macrophages cells and introduce a new potential of anti-inflammatory ...

  12. Tomato pomace powder ameliorated cisplatin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pomace powder (TPP) may be a preventive agent by virtue of its known antioxidant property. The possible protective role of TPP against cisplatin-induced alteration of the microanatomy of rat brain was investigated. Thirty rats were divided equally into five groups: control, propylene glycol ...

  13. Differential accumulation of flavonoids by tomato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology and results: The contents of flavonoids in different tissues of tomato fruits at increasing maturation and ripening stages were determined using high performance liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry. The levels of eriodictyol, kaempferol-glc-rhamnose, naringenin, naringenin-chalcone-hexose and ...

  14. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen determination on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings by color image analysis (RGB). Adán Mercado-Luna, Enrique Rico-García, Alfredo Lara-Herrera, Genaro Soto-Zarazúa, Rosalía Ocampo-Velázquez, Ramón Guevara-González, Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz, Irineo Torres-Pacheco ...

  15. Physicochemical characteristics of osmotically dehydrated tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, osmotic dehydration was combined with other drying methods with a view to investigating the method that will produce high quality product. Combination of sucrose and salt solution was used to soak tomato at 400 Brix for 4hours. The osmotically dehydrated samples were subjected to open air (sun), solar ...

  16. How to grasp a ripe tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fortunately, we don’t have to think about this when we are standing in the supermarket after a busy day. We adjust our grip without effort, making sure we don’t squish an overripe tomato, while we firmly grasp a hard green one. This is actually a complex task in which humans are surprisingly

  17. Phytophthora nicotianae var. nicotianae on tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststeijn, G.

    1973-01-01

    Around 1960 some disorders which initially were considered to be of a physiological nature were found in tomato plants grown in glasshouses in the Netherlands. One complex of symptoms was a brown rot of the lateral roots and the tap root, often followed by decomposition of the stem base

  18. Effect of Leaf Area on Tomato Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Bakker, M.J.; Elings, A.; Kaarsemaker, R.C.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of leaf area on tomato yield was evaluated, both by simulations and experimental work. Simulated crop growth results from daily crop gross assimilation rate minus maintenance respiration rate, multiplied by a conversion efficiency factor. Dry matter partitioning is simulated based on

  19. Restricted spread of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, P.C.; Joosten, N.N.; Goldbach, R.W.; Peters, D.

    2003-01-01

    Spread of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and population development of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis were studied on the pepper accessions CPRO-1 and Pikante Reuzen, which are resistant and susceptible to thrips, respectively. Viruliferous thrips were released on plants of each accession

  20. Differential accumulation of flavonoids by tomato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-12-29

    Dec 29, 2014 ... 1Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of ... maturation and ripening stages were determined using high ... synthesis of specific types of flavonoids. ... anti-diabetes and cardiovascular protective effects ... flavonoid composition of tomato fruits (Tronchet, ..... Phytochemistry 19: 1415-.

  1. Growth response of tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of Azotobacter croococcum Beijerinck in enhancing growth and fruit production of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) was investigated in 3 greenhouse experiments and a field study. The first experiment assessed the appropriate method of inoculation while the 2nd study determined the relationship ...

  2. Parthenocarpy and functional sterility in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Parthenocarpy is the development of the fruit in absence of pollination and/or fertilization. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), parthenocarpy is considered as an interesting trait because it can improve fruit setting under environmental conditions that affect the viability of the pollen. Auxins and

  3. Enhanced regeneration in explants of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... Significant differences for regeneration, time taken to regenerate and number of leaf primordial were observed for different ... caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and various nematodes. Development of protocols for in vitro ... high quality tomato seedlings via tissue culture could help to reduce the price per ...

  4. (I2 gene) from tomato cultivar Heamsona

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-16

    Oct 16, 2013 ... cloned and characterized for the incompatibility against race 2 type of the pathogens. In India race 1 type of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici observed commonly which require presence of I1 gene in tomato plant for the incompatibility reactions but in the present study, I2 gene was partially isolated from the.

  5. The tomato terpene synthase gene family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falara, V.; Akhtar, T.A.; Nguyen, T.T.H.; Spyropoulou, E.A.; Bleeker, P.M.; Schauvinhold, I.; Matsuba, Y.; Bonini, M.E.; Schilmiller, A.L.; Last, R.L.; Schuurink, R.C.; Pichersky, E.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play many roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of Solanum lycopersicum (cultivated tomato) contains 40 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 28

  6. REARING TOMATO WHITEFLY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-05-27

    May 27, 2015 ... resilience to heat stress. Further, assessment of germination potentials of conidia was conducted at three aw levels. (0.995, 0.98 and 0.96: corresponding to different levels of water availability). Thereafter, they were tested against. B. tabaci infestation on tomato plants and insect densities after the ...

  7. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato concentrates. 155.191 Section 155.191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... considered added salt). (ii) Lemon juice, concentrated lemon juice, or organic acids. (iii) Sodium...

  8. Postharvest fungal deterioration of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    'tatase' during the wet and dry seasons contribute immensely to the national requirement; however, the bulk of ... environmental conditions such as heat and drought (Idah et.al.,. 2007) Furthermore, improper postharvest ... nutritional value of infected tomatoes and pepper. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 2.1 Sampling Area.

  9. Industrial tomato lines: morphological properties and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, J V M; Neto, C de M S; Campos, L F C; Dourado, W de S; Nogueira, A P O; Nascimento, A Dos R

    2017-04-13

    The tomato is the second most produced vegetable in the world, with significant participation in the human diet. In addition, the production of tomatoes generates jobs and family income. The availability of improved cultivars that provide greater profitability to the producer and satisfactorily meets the needs of the fresh fruit market and the processing industry becomes imperative due to its importance. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and select industrial tomato lines in regard to fruit yield, number of leaf branches, and number of flower racemes (NFR). The experiment was conducted in 2014 in the experimental area of the Federal University of Goiás (Universidade Federal de Goiás). The design was a randomized block design with four replicates and 25 genotypes. The number of leaf branches (NB), NFR, and fruit productivity were evaluated. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test. A difference was observed (P ≤ 0.01) for all traits analyzed. The NB and NFR were related, where more branches promoted an increase in NFR and thus the productivity increases. In addition, a greater number of fruits implied in smaller fruit size, and consequently lower fruit mass. The lowest number of fruit per plant caused increased fruit size and mass. The lines CVR 1, CVR 3, CVR 4, CVR 5, CVR 21, and CVR 22 were suitable for genetic enhancement of tomato and provided the greatest productivity.

  10. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  11. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  12. Genotypic variation in tomatoes affecting processing and antioxidant attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Dhua, R S

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment (hp) tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status.

  13. Anti-viral activity of Hydnellum concrescens, a medicinal mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trafficking of viral glycoprotein to the surface of infected-cells results in syncytium formation in Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-infected baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Hydnellum concrescens, known as a medicinal mushroom, inhibited not only syncytium formation, but also trafficking of glycoprotein, ...

  14. Pro- and antioxidative properties of medicinal mushroom extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, W.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Hot water extracts of 2 groups of medicinal mushrooms have been tested from the genera Agaricus, Antrodia, Auricularia, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Hericium, Grifola, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Phellinus, and Trametes for ROS-generating activity in human cells and for DPPH-TEAC antioxidant activity. Group 1

  15. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    carbohydrates, amino acids and minerals (Jiskani, 2001). All essential amino acids are present as well as water- soluble vitamins and all the essential minerals (Buigut,. 2002). Mushroom are ... combinations to cure headache, stomach ailments, colds and fever (Oso, 1977) asthma, smallpox and high blood pressure (Fasidi ...

  16. Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus) are useful for utilizing lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. ADEBAYO

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... This review shows the biotechnological potential of oyster mushrooms with lignocellulosic biomass. The bioprocessing of plant byproducts using Pleurotus species provides numerous value-added products, such as basidiocarps, animal feed, enzymes, and other useful materials. The biodegradation.

  17. analysis of edible mushroom marketing in three villages in central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    agricultural products like sawdust, straws, sugar-cane waste products and coconut waste products. .... =Taxes (naira). X8,. = Quantity of edible mushroom consumed monthly(kg). X9,. = Average cost of transportation per month(naira). X10,. = Experience in (years) e1. = Error term four linear function forms were fitted in the ...

  18. Effects of spent mushroom compost on quality and productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMC), which is a waste product of mushroom processing through a year, on greenhouse cucumber growth as an organic matter source for the soil. The effects of SMC on several yield related characteristics, such as total yield, fruit width, fruit ...

  19. Proximate analysis on four edible mushrooms | Adedayo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate study was conducted on four edible mushrooms commonly found in farmlands in West Yagba Local Government Areas of Kogi state of Nigeria to ... The high fibre content make them a good source of roughages while their low acidity and alkalinity confirms their edibility and the fact that they are not likely to ...

  20. Effect of mushroom ( Pleurotus tuber-regium ) inoculums on crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution of soils by crude oil in Niger-Delta of Nigeria has brought untold hardship to the inhabitants of the region. This study was carried out in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to determine the effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium (mushroom) inoculums on crude oil polluted soil on stover and grain yields and as well as cob length ...

  1. Effects of Porosity and Thermal Treatment on Hydration of Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, R.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hydration of mushroom as a porous food material has been studied considering their biphasic character. It consists of a solid phase that consists of intertwined hyphae and having cell walls with a swellable polymeric matrix and a pore phase made up by the space in between the

  2. Evaluation on the effects of P. ostreatus spent mushroom compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Realization in minimizing production cost for in vitro culture had brought to a study on application of P. ostreatus spent mushroom compost (SMC). Sterile nodal explants was inoculated on different treatments with 15 replicates each. Treatments were MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of SMC (1 and 2 ...

  3. Cultivation of mushroom ( Volvariella volvacea ) on banana leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the solid state fermentation of banana leaves (Musa sapientum lina) by lignin degrading mushroom (Volvariella volvacea), yield of fruiting bodies and compositional changes of the substrate were evaluated using a student parametric “T” test model. The biological efficiency was 5.21 while the total weight of fruit ...

  4. Cultivation of Schizophyllum commune mushroom on different wood substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Dasanayaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune is an edible mushroom grown on wood under natural conditions. Present study focused on cultivation of S.commune on different wood substrates since it is not commercially cultivated. A pure culture of S. commune was obtained by growing a tissue of the mushroom on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA medium. Spawns were produced by growing the mycelium on paddy grains. Mushroom was cultivated on sawdust of seven different wood substrates. The maximum yield was observed in sawdust of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus followed by sawdust of rambutan (Nepheliumlappaceum and country almond (Terminaliacatappa. A significant difference was not observed when mango (Mangiferaindica elephant apple (Dilleniaindica, tulip wood tree (Harpulliaarborea and thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust used as substrate. The lowest yield was observed in thungfaa (Alstoniamacrophylla sawdust. Effect of some additives on the yield was studied and significant difference in yield was observed when rice bran and used-tea leaves used as additives. Effect of rice bran on yield was studied using different ratios of sawdust to rice bran and the highest was observed in 2:1 ratio of sawdust to rice bran. The best incubating temperature for mycelial growth on the substrate was 350C. The composition of the mushroom on a dry weight basis was; 71.4% moisture, 23.35% crude protein and 6% ash. Tested wood species are promising substrates for cultivation of S.communeas cottage industry.

  5. Nigerian Mushrooms: Underutilized Non-Wood Forest Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    1 University of Benin, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, P.M.B 1154, Benin City, Edo State,. Nigeria. 2 Western Delta University, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, P.M.B 10, Oghara, Delta State, Nigeria. .... associated with mushrooms, increase market sources of ...

  6. Potential for manipulating the polysaccharide content of shiitake mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiitake mushroom growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide gr...

  7. Bacterial selection by mycospheres of Atlantic Rainforest mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Joshua Andrew; de Cássia Pereira E Silva, Michele; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on the selection exerted on bacterial communities in the mycospheres of mushrooms collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. A total of 24 paired samples (bulk soil vs. mycosphere) were assessed to investigate potential interactions between fungi and bacteria present in fungal mycospheres. Prevalent fungal families were identified as Marasmiaceae and Lepiotaceae (both Basidiomycota) based on ITS partial sequencing. We used culture-independent techniques to analyze bacterial DNA from soil and mycosphere samples. Bacterial communities in the samples were distinguished based on overall bacterial, alphaproteobacterial, and betaproteobacterial PCR-DGGE patterns, which were different in fungi belonging to different taxa. These results were confirmed by pyrosequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene (based on five bulk soil vs. mycosphere pairs), which revealed the most responsive bacterial families in the different conditions generated beneath the mushrooms, identified as Bradyrhizobiaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. The bacterial families Acetobacteraceae, Chrhoniobacteraceae, Planctomycetaceae, Conexibacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae were found in all mycosphere samples, composing the core mycosphere microbiome. Similarly, some bacterial groups identified as Koribacteriaceae, Acidobacteria (Solibacteriaceae) and an unclassified group of Acidobacteria were preferentially present in the bulk soil samples (found in all of them). In this study we depict the mycosphere effect exerted by mushrooms inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, and identify the bacteria with highest response to such a specific niche, possibly indicating the role bacteria play in mushroom development and dissemination within this yet-unexplored environment.

  8. The war of the mushrooms: A Russian folktale revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous versions of a Russian folktale, War of the Mushrooms. The tale is indexed in standard folkloristic references as tale type 297B. Unfortunately, it is not included in the best known collection of Russian folktales translated into English, that of Alexander Afanesiev. It was first r...

  9. Ostreolysin enhances fruiting initiation in the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berne, S.; Pohleven, J.; Vidic, I.; Rebolj, K.; Pohleven, F.; Turk, T.; Macek, P.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Sepcic, K.

    2007-01-01

    Fruiting initiation in mushrooms can be triggered by a variety of environmental and biochemical stimuli, including substances of natural or synthetic origin. In this work ostreolysin, a cytolytic protein specifically expressed during the formation of primordia and fruit bodies of Pleurotus

  10. Usage of Edible Mushrooms in Various Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of edible mushrooms which are generally consumed in houses in dried form is based on mainly instant soup and sauce formulations. Recently, the cultivations of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species have become widespread. Utilization of these cultivated mushrooms in recipes would bring added value to related food products. For this purpose, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus species farmed in Osmaniye Korkut Ata University Mushroom House were dried and then pulverized. Firstly, a snack was prepared with Agaricus bisporus powder. Agaricus bisporus powder was substituted for wheat flour at the rates of 5 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % and thus the potential of food product which had relatively lower carbohydrate and fat level and higher fiber content was investigated. In the second part of the study, either 5 %, 10 % of Agaricus bisporus powder or 5 %, 10 % of Pleurotus ostreatus powder were added into traditional Turkish meatball (beef mince, salt which was cooked in conventional oven, so meat flavor could be replaced by herbal flavor coming from mushroom. This property mat obey the purpose that, the created new product will be consumed fondly especially by children. Sensory and physical (colour and texture analysis were performed in both snack and meatball samples and the results were evaluated statistically.

  11. Yield evaluation of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Oyster mushroom) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield evaluation of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Oyster mushroom) on different agricultural wastes and various grains for spawn production. ... Palm fruit husk was the best performing substrate with the highest total yield harvest (190.0g), biological efficiency (63.3%) and production rate (6.33%); banana leaves gave the lowest ...

  12. Mushrooms as Efficient Solar Steam-Generation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Hu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Weichao; Li, Xiuqiang; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    Solar steam generation is emerging as a promising technology, for its potential in harvesting solar energy for various applications such as desalination and sterilization. Recent studies have reported a variety of artificial structures that are designed and fabricated to improve energy conversion efficiencies by enhancing solar absorption, heat localization, water supply, and vapor transportation. Mushrooms, as a kind of living organism, are surprisingly found to be efficient solar steam-generation devices for the first time. Natural and carbonized mushrooms can achieve ≈62% and ≈78% conversion efficiencies under 1 sun illumination, respectively. It is found that this capability of high solar steam generation is attributed to the unique natural structure of mushroom, umbrella-shaped black pileus, porous context, and fibrous stipe with a small cross section. These features not only provide efficient light absorption, water supply, and vapor escape, but also suppress three components of heat losses at the same time. These findings not only reveal the hidden talent of mushrooms as low-cost materials for solar steam generation, but also provide inspiration for the future development of high-performance solar thermal conversion devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Composition variability of spent mushroom compost in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, S N; Mullen, G J; Murphy, M C

    2008-01-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC) has proven to be an attractive material for improving soil structure in tilled soils and increasing dry matter production in grassland soils, owing to its high organic matter content and availability of essential plant nutrients. Because of this, it is important to identify the variability in composition of SMC in order to evaluate its merit as a fertilizer/soil conditioner. For this reason, a study was carried out involving the analysis of SMC samples obtained from five mushroom growers using compost from each of the 13 mushroom composting yards currently operating in both Northern Ireland (5 yd) and the Republic of Ireland (8 yd). The selected parameters measured include dry matter, organic matter, total N, P and K, C/N ratio; plant-available P and K, pH, EC, total Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb; and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents. Yield of mushroom data were also collected from the selected growers. There were significant differences (PIreland and the Republic of Ireland independently, particularly among total and available phosphorus and potassium values. The results obtained show that, while SMC has fertilizer merit, its variability of composition must be taken into account when assessing this value. The variability of composition is also of particular interest in the context of recent emphasis on plant nutrient management in agriculture.

  14. Yield Of Edible Pleurotus Mushrooms Grown On Rice Straw With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of different species of edible Pleurotus mushrooms grown on rice straw substrate with and without chicken manure supplementation. The Pleurotus species /varieties tested were P. flabellatus of Tanzania, India and Thailand origin, and P. sajor caju from Tanzania ...

  15. Renal involvement in mushroom poisoning: The case of Orellanus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Pasquale; La Porta, Edoardo; Calatroni, Marta; Bianzina, Stefania; Libetta, Carmelo; Gregorini, Marilena; Rampino, Teresa; Dal Canton, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Although mushroom poisoning is a rare cause of acute renal injury, in some cases it may lead to the development of a severe and irreversible renal failure. Orellanus syndrome is the most important example of organic renal damage related to mushroom consumption. It is caused by the ingestion of orellanine, the main toxin of different types of Cortinarius mushrooms (Cortinarius speciosissimus, C. orellanus, C. orellanoides, etc.), and it is characterized by progressive clinical phases with a predominant kidney involvement, finally requiring renal replacement therapy in about 10% of cases. Renal damage is often late and associated with a histological picture of interstitial nephritis. Diagnosis is essentially clinical and no specific therapy has been shown to be effective in preventing and treating renal damage. Here, we describe the case of a patient with mixed wild mushroom poisoning, presenting the typical clinical signs and course of the Orellanus syndrome. This case offers us the opportunity to review the main clinical features of this severe and little-known intoxication. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. Tocopherols composition of Portuguese wild mushrooms with antioxidant capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Sandrina A. Heleno; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Martins, Anabela; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant composition and properties of 18 Portuguese wild mushrooms (Clitocybe alexandri, Cortinarius glaucopus, Fistulina hepatica, Hydnum repandum, Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, Hypholoma capnoides, Laccaria amethystina, Laccaria laccata, Lactarius aurantiacus, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lepista inversa, Lepista sordida, Mycena rosea, Russula delica, Russula vesca, Suillus collinitus, Suillus mediterraneensis, Tricholoma sulphureum) were evaluated, in order to contribute to the...

  17. Cultivation and bromatological analysis of the medicinal mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the production of two strains of Ganoderma lucidum on agricultural waste and carry out bromatological analyses of the basidiomata obtained from the cultivation. The experiment was carried out at the Mushroom Module at the School of Agronomic Sciences of the São Paulo State ...

  18. Cultivation of mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) on banana leaves

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    Following the solid state fermentation of banana leaves (Musa sapientum lina) by lignin degrading mushroom (Volvariella volvacea), yield of fruiting bodies and compositional changes of the substrate were evaluated using a student parametric “T” test model. The biological efficiency was 5.21 while the total weight of fruit ...

  19. Harm potential of magic mushroom use: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van den Brink, Wim

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Minister of Health of the Netherlands requested the CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of magic mushrooms. The present paper is an updated redraft of the review, written to support the assessment by CAM experts. It summarizes the

  20. Cultivation and bromatological analysis of the medicinal mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... The objective of the study was to evaluate the production of two strains of Ganoderma lucidum on agricultural waste and carry out bromatological analyses of the basidiomata obtained from the cultivation. The experiment was carried out at the Mushroom Module at the School of Agronomic. Sciences of the ...