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  1. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during ...

  2. Simultaneously photocatalytic treatment of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) using rotating reactor under solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngji [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Laboratory, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Hyunku [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Laboratory, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Her, Namguk [Korea Army Academy at Young-Cheon, Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, 135-1 Changhari, Kokyungmeon, Young-cheon, Gyeongbuk 770-849 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yeomin [University of South Carolina, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Sohn, Jinsik [Kookmin University, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 77 Jeongneung-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungpyo [Korea University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jaekyung, E-mail: jyoon@kier.re.kr [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Laboratory, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Self-rotating reactor including TiO{sub 2} NTs is applied under solar irradiation. • Simultaneously photocatalysis of Cr(VI) and EDCs is observed to be up to 95%. • Photocatalytic reactions of Cr(VI) and EDCs are favorable under acidic pH. • Charge interaction and hole scavenge between TiO{sub 2} and pollutants are synergy factors. - Abstract: In this study, simultaneous treatments, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and oxidation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (E2), were investigated with a rotating photocatalytic reactor including TiO{sub 2} nanotubes formed on titanium mesh substrates under solar UV irradiation. In the laboratory tests with a rotating type I reactor, synergy effects of the simultaneous photocatalytic reduction and oxidation of inorganic (Cr(VI)) and organic (BPA) pollutants were achieved. Particularly, the concurrent photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of BPA was higher under acidic conditions. The enhanced reaction efficiency of both pollutants was attributed to a stronger charge interaction between TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (positive charge) and the anionic form of Cr(VI) (negative charge), which are prevented recombination (electron–hole pair) by the hole scavenging effect of BPA. In the extended outdoor tests with a rotating type II reactor under solar irradiation, the experiment was extended to examine the simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of additional EDCs, such as EE2 and E2 as well as BPA. The findings showed that synergic effect of both photocatalytic reduction and oxidation was confirmed with single-component (Cr(VI) only), two-components (Cr(VI)/BPA, Cr(VI)/EE2, and Cr(VI)/E2), and four-components (Cr(VI)/BPA/EE2/E2) under various solar irradiation conditions.

  3. Biochemical and endocrine aspects of oxytocin production by the mammalian corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormshak Fredrick

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A review of the current state of knowledge of oxytocin production by the preovulatory follicle and corpus luteum is presented. Corpora lutea of a number of mammalian species have been found to synthesize oxytocin. However, the synthesis and secretion of this nanopeptide by the corpus luteum of the ruminant has been most extensively studied because of the potential role of this peptide in facilitating luteal regression. While much information exists relative to various biochemical and endocrine factors that impact on oxytocin gene expression, this aspect about luteal synthesis of this peptide hormone remains enigmatic. Prostaglandin F-2α (PGF-2α has been shown to be a primary endogenous hormone responsible for triggering luteal secretion of oxytocin. Details are provided regarding the PGF-2α-induced intracellular signal transduction pathway that ultimately results in exocytosis of luteal oxytocin. Evidence is also presented for potential autocrine/paracrine actions of oxytocin in regulating progesterone production by luteal and granulosa cells. Concluding remarks highlight aspects about luteal oxytocin production that require further research.

  4. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES AND ENDOCRINE RESPONSES IN PRE-COMPETITION TRAINING IN ELITE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe biochemical changes and endocrine responses to low-volume pre-competition swimming training for elite swimmers. Twelve sprint swimmers (6 males and 6 females participated in 3-week pre-competition training. Measures of velocity anaerobic threshold (VAT, creatine kinase (CK, blood urea (BU, haemoglobin (Hb and testosterone/cortisol ratio (TC were obtained before and after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd week of training. The training load decreased from 27.3 to 13.7 km per week within 3 weeks. The VAT tested the load with an increased training protocol of 200 m×4 freestyle swimming and initial loads were 85, 90, 95, and 100 percent of the individual load. There were changes in the values of VAT, CK, BU, Hb and TC ratio during the training, and the changes corresponded to the changes of the training stimuli in time. There were also differences between the male and female swimmers. The most significant finding in this study was that such training stimulated the enginery of the swimmers and helped the swimmers recover enginery and indicated improved velocity in the competition with the following adjusting exercise after pre-competition training.

  5. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). Clinical, biochemical and genetical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, K; Skogseid, B; Eriksson, B

    1989-01-01

    The syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease affecting several endocrine organs. The affected organs include the pituitary, the parathyroids and endocrine pancreas, where different types of lesions can be found, such as hyperplasia or frank carcinomas. The most life threatening lesions are the endocrine pancreatic tumors, which cause about 80% of all deaths among the MEN-1 members. In our own series of 108 members from 16 families with multiple endocrine neoplasia, 55 members had the MEN-1 trait. Among these members, pituitary lesions were found in 42%, parathyroid involvement in 89% and endocrine pancreatic tumors in 58%. Hyperparathyroidism was the presenting lesion of the MEN-1 trait. By using a specific meal stimulation test we have been able to unveil pancreatic lesions up to a median of five years previous to radiological detection. Very recently we have been able to detect a specific genetic lesion in MEN-1 members by studying DNA rearrangements with recombinant DNA technique, using the method of polymorphic restriction enzyme recognition in three large kindreds. The MEN-1 locus maps to chromosome 11q and the MEN-1 predisposition would be a constitutional mutation in heterozygous form, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Tumor development involves a second mutational event which involves the chromosome 11, carrying the remaining 'wild' type allele at the MEN-1 locus by means of chromosome loss event. Survival analysis demonstrates that patients with the MEN-1 syndrome had a significantly better survival from diagnosis than patients with sporadic endocrine pancreatic tumors (median 15.1 years and 5.8 years respectively, p = 0.0068). Earlier diagnosis and start of treatment might account for a longer survival in the MEN-1 group, but a possibility of differences in tumor biology between familial and sporadic endocrine pancreatic tumors cannot be ruled out. The surgical treatment of patients with MEN-1

  6. Metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer associations: biochemical and pathophysiological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Di Palo, Rossella; Lamantia, Elvira; Castaldo, Luigi; Nocerino, Flavia; Ametrano, Gianluca; Cappuccio, Francesca; Malzone, Gabriella; Montanari, Micaela; Vanacore, Daniela; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Iovane, Gelsomina; Pepe, Maria Filomena; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carmine; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; De Falco, Francesco; Maiolino, Piera; Caraglia, Michele; Montella, Maurizio; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes the main pathophysiological basis of the relationship between metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptor exposure and prostate cancer that is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and hormonal factors having a central role in the initiation and recurrence of many western chronic diseases including hormonal-related cancers and it is considered as the worlds leading health problem in the coming years. Many biological factors correlate metabolic syndrome to prostate cancer and this review is aimed to focus, principally, on growth factors, cytokines, adipokines, central obesity, endocrine abnormalities and exposure to specific endocrine disruptors, a cluster of chemicals, to which we are daily exposed, with a hormone-like structure influencing oncogenes, tumor suppressors and proteins with a key role in metabolism, cell survival and chemo-resistance of prostate cancer cells. Finally, this review will analyze, from a molecular point of view, how specific foods could reduce the relative risk of incidence and recurrence of prostate cancer or inhibit the biological effects of endocrine disruptors on prostate cancer cells. On the basis of these considerations, prostate cancer remains a great health problem in terms of incidence and prevalence and interventional studies based on the treatment of metabolic syndrome in cancer patients, minimizing exposure to endocrine disruptors, could be a key point in the overall management of this disease. PMID:28389628

  7. MMP Mediated Degradation of Type VI Collagen Is Highly Associated with Liver Fibrosis - Identification and Validation of a Novel Biochemical Marker Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgard; Karsdal, Morten Asser; Vassiliadis, Efstathios

    2011-01-01

    fragments, so-called neo-epitopes, may be specific biochemical marker of liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to develop an ELISA detecting a fragment of type VI collagen generated by MMP-2 and MMP-9, and evaluate this assay in two preclinical models of liver fibrosis. Methods: Mass spectrometric...... analysis of cleaved type VI collagen revealed a large number of protease-generated neo-epitopes. A fragment unique to type VI collagen generated by MMP-2 and MMP-9 was selected for ELISA development. The CO6-MMP assay was evaluated in two rat models of liver fibrosis: bile duct ligation (BDL) and carbon......Background and Aims: During fibrogenesis, in which excessive remodeling of the extracellular matrix occurs, both the quantity of type VI collagen and levels of matrix metalloproteinases, including MMP-2 and MMP-9, increase significantly. Proteolytic degradation of type VI collagen into small...

  8. Effects of arsenic supplementation in feed on laying performance, arsenic retention of eggs and organs, biochemical indices and endocrine hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Zhou, M Y; Li, L L; Jiang, Y J; Zou, X T

    2017-02-01

    1. The primary objective of this experiment was to estimate the toxic effects of arsenic (As) supplementation in feed on laying performance, As retention by eggs and organs, serum biochemical indices and endocrine hormones in laying hens. 2. A total of 320 "Jinghong Number 1" hens, 56-week-old, were randomly allocated into four treatments of four replicates with 20 layers in each. Graded arsenical was added to the basal diet in the experimental diets at As levels of 0, 17, 34 and 51 mg/kg, respectively. The trial lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week for acclimatisation. 3. Supplementation of dietary As for eight weeks had no effect on laying performance. As retention in albumen, yolk, egg, liver and kidney increased as As levels increased The level of serum phosphorus (P) was minimised at the 17 mg As/kg group. The activity of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) increased linearly. No differences were observed for levels of serum calcium (Ca), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). Concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PG) declined at 34 and 51 mg/kg As levels compared with the control group. As supplementation exerted no influence on levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and the ratio between T3 and T4. 4. In conclusion, dietary As supplementation accelerated retention in tissues and eggs, and affected the laying rate by diminishing hormone levels of E2 and PG at 51 mg/kg.

  9. Elucidating the Molecular Basis and Regulation of Chromium (VI) Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Using Biochemical, Genomic, and Proteomic Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettich, Robert L.

    2006-10-30

    Although microbial metal reduction has been investigated intensively from physiological and biochemical perspectives, little is known about the genetic basis and regulatory mechanisms underlying the ability of certain bacteria to transform, detoxify, or immobilize a wide array of heavy metals contaminating DOE-relevant environments. The major goal of this work is to elucidate the molecular components comprising the chromium(VI) response pathway, with an emphasis on components involved in Cr(VI) detoxification and the enzyme complex catalyzing the terminal step in Cr(VI) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. We have identified and characterized (in the case of DNA-binding response regulator [SO2426] and a putative azoreductase [SO3585]) the genes and gene products involved in the molecular response of MR-1 to chromium(VI) stress using whole-genome sequence information for MR-1 and recently developed proteomic technology, in particular liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (LC-MS), in conjunction with conventional protein purification and characterization techniques. The proteome datasets were integrated with information from whole-genome expression arrays for S. oneidensis MR-1 (as illustrated in Figure 1). The genes and their encoded products identified in this study are of value in understanding metal reduction and bacterial resistance to metal toxicity and in developing effective metal immobilization strategies.

  10. Analyzing the some biochemical parameters of diabetes mellitus and obese patients who applied to Siirt State Hospital endocrine polyclinic and their prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageçili, Hasan; Yerlikaya, Emrah; Aydin, Ruken Zeynep

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are major public health problems throughout the World. Obese individuals body mass index (BMI) is >30 kg/m2. Obesity is characterized by increased waist circumference, total body fat and hyperglycemia. The increased triglyceride and cholesterol level is also shown in obese individuals. The development of obesity is largely due to the consumption of high energy food and sedentary lifestyle. This study was held with the participation of patients applied to Siirt State Hospital endocrine policlinic for treatment. Our aim is to try to determine the biochemical relation and border line of obese and obese+diabetes mellitus patients. Patients and control group lipid profiles were studied in the hospital biochemisty laboratory. Laboratory results of diabetes+obese, obese and control groups were evaluated. Patients and control samples blood serum levels were compared according to their lipid profiles. In 2015, 735 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients applied to Endocrine polyclinic. Some of these patient's serum levels were evaluated. Difference between diabetes+obese and diabetes groups were near critical level for LDL and trigliserid. There were not observed statistically significant difference between groups in terms of HDL and cholesterol. There were found significant difference between groups for blood glucose p<0.003, age p<0.001. According to gender between women and men serum levels, ALT and AST levels; p<0.006 and cholesterol; p<0.04 were detected. According to participants education level blood biochemistry levels were observed statisticaly different p<0.001 with non-literacy group. In conclusion, obese and obese+diabetes patients blood serum values nearly close to each other. Obese subjects were been diabetic obese with age. In women obesity and diabetes mellitus prevalence were seen too much.

  11. High-dose biotin therapy leading to false biochemical endocrine profiles: validation of a simple method to overcome biotin interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Marie-Liesse; Prie, Dominique; Sedel, Frederic; Bernard, Delphine; Hercend, Claude; Chanson, Philippe; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2017-05-01

    High-dose biotin therapy is beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and is expected to be adopted by a large number of patients. Biotin therapy leads to analytical interference in many immunoassays that utilize streptavidin-biotin capture techniques, yielding skewed results that can mimic various endocrine disorders. We aimed at exploring this interference, to be able to remove biotin and avoid misleading results. We measured free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), parathyroid homrone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, C-peptide, cortisol (Roche Diagnostics assays), biotin and its main metabolites (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) in 23 plasmas from MS patients and healthy volunteers receiving high-dose biotin, and in 39 biotin-unsupplemented patients, before and after a simple procedure (designated N5) designed to remove biotin by means of streptavidin-coated microparticles. We also assayed fT4, TSH and PTH in the 23 high-biotin plasmas using assays not employing streptavidin-biotin binding. The biotin concentration ranged from 31.7 to 1160 µg/L in the 23 high-biotin plasmas samples. After the N5 protocol, the biotin concentration was below the detection limit in all but two samples (8.3 and 27.6 μg/L). Most hormones results were abnormal, but normalized after N5. All results with the alternative methods were normal except two slight PTH elevations. In the 39 biotin-unsupplemented patients, the N5 protocol did not affect the results for any of the hormones, apart from an 8.4% decrease in PTH. We confirm that most streptavidin-biotin hormone immunoassays are affected by high biotin concentrations, leading to a risk of misdiagnosis. Our simple neutralization method efficiently suppresses biotin interference.

  12. Adaptive capability as indicated by endocrine and biochemical responses of Malpura ewes subjected to combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) in a semi-arid tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Maurya, Vijai P.; Naqvi, Sayeed M. K.

    2010-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of combined stresses (thermal and nutritional) on endocrine and biochemical responses in Malpura ewes. Twenty eight adult Malpura ewes (average body weight 33.56 kg) were used in the present study. The ewes were divided into four groups viz., GI ( n = 7; control), GII ( n = 7; thermal stress), GIII ( n = 7; nutritional stress) and GIV ( n = 7; combined stress). The animals were stall fed with a diet consisting of 60% roughage and 40% concentrate. GI and GII ewes were provided with ad libitum feeding while GIII and GIV ewes were provided with restricted feed (30% intake of GI ewes) to induce nutritional stress. GII and GIV ewes were kept in climatic chamber at 40°C and 55% RH for 6 h a day between 1000 hours and 1600 hours to induce thermal stress. The study was conducted for a period of two estrus cycles. The parameters studied were Hb, PCV, glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, ACP, ALP, cortisol, T4, T3, and insulin. Combined stress significantly ( P homeostasis in sheep.

  13. Chromium (VI) induced phytotoxicity and oxidative stress in pea (Pisum sativum L.): biochemical changes and translocation of essential nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Dwivedi, S; Singh, N K; Rai, U N; Tripathi, R D

    2009-05-01

    Due to widespread industrial use, chromium (Cr) is considered a hazardous environmental pollutant. It is known to inhibit plant growth and development. The present study provides the evidence of the phytotoxicity of this metal on the pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Azad) plants. The plants of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were grown in refined sand under different concentrations i.e. 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mM of Cr (VI) in order to study the effect on growth and yield, photosynthetic pigments, relative water content, non-reducing sugar and protein with activity of certain enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, starch phosphorylase and ribonuclease. The analysis of the results showed that photosynthetic pigments (68.68%), relative water contents (62.77%), non-reducing sugar (66.66%) and protein (81.57%) were decrease along with reduction in plant height (52.69%) and leaf area (50.81%) of the pea plants. However, in response to various concentration of Cr exposed plants showed significant induction of reducing and total sugars with enzymes like catalase, starch phosphorylase and ribonuclease. The translocation of Cr in various part of pea plant have been found in order of root> stem> leaves>seeds which ranged between 34.8 to 217.3 mg g(-1) d.wt. (dry weight) in roots, 6.5 to 173.13 mg g(-1) d.wt. in shoot, 4.2 to 74.43 mg g(-1) d.wt. in leaves and 0.94 to 8.64 mg g(-1) d.wt. in seeds, that is also reflected by the transfer factor of Cr from refined sand to tested species.

  14. CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL DATA OF ADULT THALASSEMIA MAJOR PATIENTS (TM WITH MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE COMPLICATIONS (MEC VERSUS TM PATIENTS WITH NORMAL ENDOCRINE FUNCTIONS: A RETROSPECTIVE LONG-TERM STUDY (40 YEARS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Introduction: It is well known that the older generation of adult TM patients has a higher incidence of morbidities and co-morbidities. At present, little information is available on adult TM patients with multiple endocrine complications (MEC. The main objectives of this longitudinal retrospective survey were: 1 to establish the incidence and progression of MEC (3 or more in TM patients; 2 to compare the clinical, laboratory and imaging data to a sex and age-matched group of TM patients without MEC; 3 to assess the influence of iron overload represented by serum ferritin (peak and mean annual value at the last endocrine observation. Patients and Methods: The study was started in January 1974 and was completed by the same physician at the end of December 2015. The registry database of the regularly followed TM patients from diagnosis included 145 adults (> 18 years. All TM patients were of Italian ethnic origin. Eleven out of 145 patients (7.5 % developed MEC. Twenty-four other patients (12 females and 12 males had a normal endocrine function (16.5 % and served as controls. Results: In our survey, four important, relevant aspects emerged in the MEC group. These included the late age at the start of chelation therapy with desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO; the higher serum ferritin peak (8521.8 ± 5958.9 vs 3575.2± 1801.4 ng/ml ; the higher percentage of splenectomized (81.8 % vs. 28.5% patients and poor compliance registered mainly during the peripubertal and pubertal age (72.7 % vs.16.6 % in TM patients developing MEC versus those without endocrine complications. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed in all TM patients between LIC and final height (r: -0.424; p= 0.031. Conclusions: Our study supports the view that simultaneous involvement of more than one endocrine gland is not uncommon (7.5 %. It mainly occurred in TM patients who started chelation therapy with DFO late in life and who had irregular/poor compliance to

  15. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System Print A A ... called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  16. Elucidating the Molecular Basis and Regulation of Chromium(VI) Reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Resistance to Metal Toxicity Using Integrated Biochemical, Genomic and Proteomic Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorothea K. Thompson; Robert Hettich

    2007-02-06

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a model environmental organism that possesses diverse respiratory capacities, including the ability to reduce soluble Cr(VI) to sparingly soluble, less toxic Cr(III). Chromate is a serious anthropogenic pollutant found in subsurface sediment and groundwater environments due to its widespread use in defense and industrial applications. Effective bioremediation of chromate-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and regulation of heavy metal resistance and biotransformation by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Towards this goal, our ERSP-funded work was focused on the identification and functional analysis of genes/proteins comprising the response pathways for chromate detoxification and/or reduction. Our work utilized temporal transcriptomic profiling and whole-cell proteomic analyses to characterize the dynamic molecular response of MR-1 to an acute chromate shock (up to 90 min) as well as to a 24-h, low-dose exposure. In addition, we have examined the transcriptome of MR-1 cells actively engaged in chromate reduction. These studies implicated the involvement of a functionally undefined DNA-binding response regulator (SO2426) and a putative azoreductase (SO3585) in the chromate stress response of MR-1.

  17. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ... and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. Fact Steroid ...

  18. Geometry VI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Geometry VI - Space-the Final Frontier. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 28-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0028-0033 ...

  19. VI KA’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen handler om hvordan man kan bruge et spil til at udvikle og måle kompetencer. Artiklen diskuterer forskellige forståelser kompetencebegrebet og diskuterer hvordan Vi Ka'-spillet bidrager til at indfange den mere aktive forståelse af kompetence, som noget du gør i en bestemt kontekst....

  20. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  1. Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo F. Ricci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs and actions for their regulation. For both, dose–response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence. The European Union (EU has several regulatory tools and ongoing research on the risks associated with bisphenol A, under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH Regulation and other regulations or directives. The integration of a vast (in kind and in scope number of research papers into a statement of causation for either policy or to satisfy legal requirements, in both the United States and the EU, relies on experts. We outline the discursive dilemma and issues that may affect consensus-based results and a Bayesian causal approach that accounts for the evolution of information, yielding both value of information and flexibility associated with public choices.

  2. Endocrine Labomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory endocrinology forms an integral part of 21 st century endocrinology. Perhaps, no other specialty of medicine is as closely associated with laboratory as endocrinology. This review intends to highlight the challenges faced by an endocrinologist before interpreting a hormone assay report. This review by no means is holistic but intends to highlight some of the pitfalls of laboratory endocrinology and arouse further interest in this important but neglected section of endocrinology. Lack of standardization, as well as rigorous implementation is some of the major challenges facing endocrine assays in our country. It is essential to be aware not only of the details of the method of analysis of a hormone, the pre-analytical requisites, but also disease-specific analytical issues to prevent unnecessary concern both for the patient, as well as the treating physician, as well as needless investigations. Problems with interpretation of serum prolactin, thyroglobulin, steroid hormone assays, rennin assay and vitamin-D assay have been highlighted.

  3. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine), severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally sialidosis and mucolipidosis. Before enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase (Naglazyme®), clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided. PMID:20385007

  4. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmatz Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine, severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally ARSB gene, located in chromosome 5 (5q13-5q14. Over 130 ARSB mutations have been reported, causing absent or reduced arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase activity and interrupted dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate degradation. Diagnosis generally requires evidence of clinical phenotype, arylsulfatase B enzyme activity ®, clinical management was limited to supportive care and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Galsulfase is now widely available and is a specific therapy providing improved endurance with an acceptable safety profile. Prognosis is variable depending on the age of onset, rate of disease progression, age at initiation of ERT and on the quality of the medical care provided.

  5. Endocrine Treatment of Transsexual Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ... About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  6. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  7. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; VIth nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy; Sixth nerve palsy; Neuropathy - sixth nerve ... Cranial mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial nerve. This nerve is also called the abducens nerve. ...

  8. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spikes Is mealtime insulin right for you? The Endocrine System Access more 3D visualizations by downloading the Hormone ... Endocrinologist Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  10. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search The Endocrine System Access more 3D visualizations by downloading the Hormone ... About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  11. Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 4 of 4 Items. 2013. Vol 7, No 1 ...

  12. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The endocrine quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  14. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    hormones and their precursors across the foeto-maternal interface. The endocrine system is the earliest system developing in foetal life, and it is functional from early intrauterine existence through old age. Regulation of the foetal endocrine system relies, to some extent, on precursors secreted......The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  15. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  16. Multiple endocrine neoplasia: the Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René E. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN types 1 and 2 are genetic diseases that are inherited as autosomal traits. The major clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 include the so-called "3 P's": parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic tumors, including gastroenteroneuroendocrine tumors. Genetic testing can be performed on patients and the potential carriers of the menin gene mutation, but the genotype-phenotype correlation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is less straightforward than multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Most likely, the main advantage of genetic testing in MEN1 is to exclude from further studies those who are negative for the genetic mutation if they belong to a family with a known history of MEN1. In Chile, we started with rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene genetic testing (MEN2 15 years ago. We carried out a prophylactic total thyroidectomy to prevent medullary thyroid carcinoma in a three-year-old girl who presented with microscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma. More than 90% of the individuals who tested positive using a genetic test achieved a biochemical cure compared with only 27% of patients who receive a clinical diagnosis. Mutations are mainly located in exon 11; the most common is C634W, rather than C634R. Hypertensive crisis was the cause of death in three patients, and extensive distant metastases occurred in nine (including two patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B of 14 patients. Earlier recognition of medullary thyroid carcinoma and the other features of the disease, especially pheochromocytoma, will improve the survival rate of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  17. Endocrine system: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  18. How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, M; Chetty, Y; Chetty, V T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones. We will also examine the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and insulin pathophysiology associated with obesity. We will provide a general overview of the biochemical changes that can be seen in patients with obesity, review possible aetiologies of these changes and briefly consider current guidelines on their management. This review will not discuss endocrine causes of obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing....... To improve knowledge on possible influences of endocrine disrupters on female reproductive system, the effects of EDCs on genital malformations in females and the development of mammary glands were studied in the present project. AIMS: The aims for the studies on male and female mammary gland development...... effects on prepubertal female rat mammary glands were observed at lower levels than those affecting other endpoints studied. CONCLUSION: The present findings in rats suggest that EDCs may affect mammary gland development in women and men, although risk assessment including comparison with exposure...

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000399.htm Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed ...

  1. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Special Needs Glasses and Contact Lenses Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System Print A A A en español Tu sistema ... a pea, is the "master gland" of the endocrine system. It makes and releases a bunch of hormones ...

  2. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal accepts original contributions related to the practice and science of clinical endocrinology, articles updating the clinical endocrinologist on current areas of interest in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, articles discussing dilemma facing endocrinologists in the clinical, social, and ethical arena of ...

  4. Endocrine Drugs in Aircrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    intracellular inflammatory action of corticosteroids, the and extracellular communication. The site of action contraceptive action of gonadal steroids...complications occur have results in the disappearance of weakness, malaise allowed more effective methods of prevention and and fatigue. Anorexia and...disease * Osteoporosis "* Pancreatitis * Myopathy Endocrine-Metabolic Neuropsychiatric "* latrogenic Cushing * Psychosis "* Acne, hirsutism, menstrual

  5. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating disorders: obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. In: Wilson JD, Foster ... Original Articles should be restricted to clinical or basic studies, particularly translational research, which add new information to the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of endocrine disorders that have not been published previously.

  6. Vi, de civiliserede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?......Vi har i årtier troet på, at mennesker under de rette omstændigheder kan lykkes med at leve i fred og fordragelighed med hinanden. Skal vi til at erkende, at også vores samfundsstrukturer kun er en tynd fernis ovenpå et utæmmeligt voldspotentiale og egoisme?...

  7. Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Angelousi, Anna; Weickert, Martin O; Randeva, Harpal S; Kaltsas, Gregory; Grossman, Ashley

    2017-06-01

    The majority of neoplasms are responsible for symptoms caused by mass effects to surrounding tissues and/or through the development of metastases. However, occasionally neoplasms, with or without endocrine differentiation, acquire the ability to secrete a variety of bioactive substances or induce immune cross-reactivity with the normal tissues that can lead to the development of characteristic clinical syndromes. These syndromes are named endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes when the specific secretory components (hormones, peptides or cytokines) are unrelated to the anticipated tissue or organ of origin. Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes can complicate the patient's clinical course, response to treatment, impact prognosis and even be confused as metastatic spread. These syndromes can precede, occur concomitantly or present at a later stage of tumour development, and along with the secreted substances constitute the biological 'fingerprint' of the tumour. Their detection can facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying neoplasia, monitor response to treatment and/or detect early recurrences following successful initial management. Although when associated with tumours of low malignant potential they usually do not affect long-term outcome, in cases of highly malignant tumours, endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes are usually associated with poorer survival outcomes. Recent medical advances have not only improved our understanding of paraneoplastic syndrome pathogenesis in general but also enhanced their diagnosis and treatment. Yet, given the rarity of endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes, there is a paucity of prospective clinical trials to guide management. The development of well-designed prospective multicentre trials remains a priority in the field in order to fully characterise these syndromes and provide evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Biochemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnill, P.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemical engineering as a scientific discipline is becoming accepted in England and is drawing many young men and women to its ranks. This article focuses on how engineering came to embrace the biological sciences. (Author/SA)

  9. Zearalenone endocrine system catch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bursić Vojislava P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the contamination of our environment with thousands of both natural and man-made chemicals which affect the endocrine system of humans and animals. These so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are thought to mimic or block the action of hormones and therefore disrupt sexual development in utero. EDCs are organochlorine pesticides, dioxin compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, alkylpolyethoxylates, plastic additives and phytoestrogens (occurring naturally in foods: isoflavones coumenestans and zearalenone. The structure of zearalenone is similar to the structure of estrogens and it enables binding to the estrogenic receptors. DNA laddering on gel electrophoresis was present 12 h after dosing thus indicating a conclusion that there was apoptosis. Apoptosis is the principal mechanism contributing to germ cell depletion and testicular atrophy following zearalenone exposure.

  10. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...

  11. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  12. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias. PMID:26816789

  13. Diagnosis of endocrine disease: Biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, A van; Lenders, J.W.; Timmers, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenal phaechromocytomas and extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumours, characterised by production of the catecholamines: noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine. Tumoural secretion of catecholamines determines their clinical presentation which is highly

  14. [Hand and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Ryndak, Amélie; Karrouz, Wassila; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Baudoux, Florence

    2013-12-01

    The whole of hormones likely influence state of hands, modifying colouring and trophicity of the skin and having influence on its muscular, tendineous, osseous, articular components. Thus state of the hands contributes to the recognition of the endocrine diseases: hot and moist hands of the Graves' disease, dry, cold and infiltrated hands in myxoedema, pale and fine hands of hypopituitarism, broad and thick hand of acromegaly, brachymetacarpia in the pseudohypoparathyroidism… Diabetes exposes particularly to tendineous and articular retractions, to whitlows and ungual mycosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Women's Health Endocrine Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Ekta; Faubion, Stephanie; Hines, Stephanie; Stuenkel, Cynthia A

    2017-11-07

    The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice changing journal articles summarized for our readers. Topics include menopause, sexual dysfunction, breast health, contraception, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this clinical update, we selected four recent high-impact publications related to endocrine issues in women. We have chosen to highlight research on subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including cognitive outcomes in offspring; the progression of metabolic syndrome severity during the menopausal transition; and the association of diabetes and metformin use with cancer risk and mortality.

  16. and dioxouranium(vi)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) with atomic radii of 1.65 and .... to ν(NH) vibrations. Practically no effect on these frequencies after complexation precludes the possibility of metal-coordination at this group. The absorptions at 1600 ... observation suggests involvement of unsaturated nitrogen atoms of the two azomethine groups.

  17. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: achievements and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Machens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. This principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. This review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and DNA-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated DNA-based/biochemical concept; (ii our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. With familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. This is when DNA-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. However, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. Screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. In this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations.

  18. II-VI semiconductor compounds

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For condensed matter physicists and electronic engineers, this volume deals with aspects of II-VI semiconductor compounds. Areas covered include devices and applications of II-VI compounds; Co-based II-IV semi-magnetic semiconductors; and electronic structure of strained II-VI superlattices.

  19. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Endocrine Practice, a peer reviewed publication published twice a year is the official publication of the Nigerian Chapter of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE-Nigeria). The primary mission of the Nigerian Endocrine Practice is to enhance the health care of patients with ...

  20. VI Nukitsa konkurss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    VI Nukitsa konkursi auhinnad: Kirjanikud: I - Henno Käo ("Kusagil mujal"); II - Aidi Vallik ("Kuidas elad, Ann?"); III - Artur Jurin ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Kunstnikud: I - Karel Korp (Leelo Tungla ja Karel Korbi "Tema amet"); II - Edgar Valter ("Kuidas õppida vaatama?"); III - Artur Jurin - ("Piletijaht: uued segadused Kilulibeda teel"). Täiskasvanute küsitluse võitis nii teksti kui piltidega Ene-Maris Tali ja Tarmo Tali "Tähtraamat. Aastaring Maarjamaal"

  1. Endocrine Actions of Osteocalcin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Patti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin is the most abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Once transcribed, this protein undergoes posttranslational modifications within osteoblastic cells before its secretion, including the carboxylation of three glutamic residues in glutamic acid, which is essential for hydroxyapatite binding and deposition in the extracellular matrix of bone. Recent provocative data from experimental observations in mice showed that the circulating undercarboxylated fraction of osteocalcin increases insulin secretion and sensitivity, lowers blood glucose, and decreases visceral fat in both genders, while it enhances testosterone production by the testes in males. Moreover, both total and undercarboxylated osteocalcins increase following physical activity with potential positive effects on glucose tolerance. Despite that these evidences have been only in part confirmed in humans, further prospective investigations are needed to definitively establish the endocrine role of osteocalcin both in the general population and cohorts of patients with diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, western style diet and smoking......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more...... than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin...

  3. SARCOPENIA: AN ENDOCRINE DISORDER?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Alexis; Morley, John E; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Vinik, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as low muscle function (walking speed or grip strength) in the presence of low muscle mass. A simple screening test-the SARC-F-is available to identify persons with sarcopenia. The major endocrine causes of sarcopenia are diabetes mellitus and male hypogonadism. Other causes are decreased physical activity, loss of motor neuron units, weight loss, inflammatory cytokines, reduced blood flow to muscles, very low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and decreased growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Treatment for sarcopenia includes resistance and aerobic exercise, leucine-enriched essential amino acids, and vitamin D. In hypogonadal males, testosterone improves muscle mass, strength, and function. Selective androgen receptor molecules and anti-myostatin activin II receptor molecules are under development as possible treatments for sarcopenia. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease DHEA = dehydroepiandrosterone IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1 GH = growth hormone mTOR = mammalian target of rapamycin SARM = selective androgen receptor molecule.

  4. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  5. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  6. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  7. as endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of removing EDCs and other pollutants at South African wastewater treatment .... of a particular component within one endocrine axis may also ...... HPG. Hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal. HPT. Hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid.

  8. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Vi tror, vi forstår hinanden, men det gør vi ikke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Mikkel Snorre Wilms

    2016-01-01

    Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den......Vores verdensbillede er baseret på en tro på, at vi forstår hinanden. Men meget tyder på, at denne tro snarere er en illusion. Derfor må vi indstille os på, at der skal en særlig indsats til, hvis vi skal kunne forstå vores omverden og menneskene i den...

  10. Endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Didem; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Erbas, Tomris

    2010-01-01

    To present an overview of the published data on endocrine involvement and endocrine dysfunction in patients with systemic amyloidosis. We conducted a review of the medical literature using MEDLINE data sources, including clinical trials, in vitro studies, and case reports on pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic, adrenal, and gonadal involvement in systemic amyloidosis. Reports of endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis seem to consist primarily of small-samplesize clinical trials or case reports, probably because of the rarity of the disease itself. Systemic amyloidosis mainly involves and causes functional impairment in the thyroid and testes in the endocrine system. Evaluation of adrenal function necessitates special consideration because amyloid infiltration of the adrenal glands resulting in failure may be a life-threatening condition. Amyloid deposition commonly seen in the pituitary gland and the pancreas of patients with Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively, is generally classified as local amyloidosis and should not be confused with systemic involvement. Additionally, detection of amyloid deposition in the thyroid and testes may have a diagnostic role in patients with suspected systemic or renal amyloidosis. Published data suggest that systemic amyloidosis frequently involves the endocrine system, and endocrine dysfunction seems to be not as rare as previously thought. A rapidly growing goiter or symptoms and signs of adrenal or gonadal dysfunction should raise suspicion of amyloid infiltration. Involvement of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic sites in systemic amyloidosis still remains to be clarified. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed for complete characterization of the effect of systemic amyloidosis on the endocrine system.

  11. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Angel; Quesada, Ivan; Tudurí, Eva; Nogueiras, Rubén; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma

    2017-09-01

    Energy balance involves the adjustment of food intake, energy expenditure and body fat reserves through homeostatic pathways. These pathways include a multitude of biochemical reactions, as well as hormonal cues. Dysfunction of this homeostatic control system results in common metabolism-related pathologies, which include obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) are a particular class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect energy homeostasis. MDCs affect multiple endocrine mechanisms and thus different cell types that are implicated in metabolic control. MDCs affect gene expression and the biosynthesis of key enzymes, hormones and adipokines that are essential for controlling energy homeostasis. This multifaceted spectrum of actions precludes compensatory responses and favours metabolic disorders. Herein, we review the main mechanisms used by MDCs to alter energy balance. This work should help to identify new MDCs, as well as novel targets of their action.

  12. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  13. Occult endocrine dysfunction in patients of cerebrovascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebrovascular disorders are common conditions leading to significant morbidity and mortality in the population. Occult endocrine disorders also contribute to the morbidity and we studied the prevalence of endocrine dysfunction in patients of cerebrovascular accident (CVA. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 30 patients of CVA (aged 18-75, admission within 72 h of symptoms and positive neuroimaging in this prospective, observational study. All subjects were assessed clinically and biochemically for hormonal dysfunction at admission and for mortality at the end of 1 month. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (infarct, n = 20 and Group 2 (hemorrhage, n = 10 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests using GraphPad Prism Software, version 6. Results: The study participants (24M:6F had a mean age of 60.7 ± 11.4 years and body weight of 67.2 ± 11.4 kg. Fourteen out of 30 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including sick euthyroid syndrome (SES and central hypothyroidism (n = 10, secondary hypogonadism (n = 3, subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 1, and growth hormone (GH deficiency in two patients. The endocrine conditions did not differ significantly between both the groups and nine out of 30 patients succumbed to their illness within 1 month. None of the hormonal parameters studied, could predict the 30 day mortality. Conclusion: Endocrine disorders are common in acute stage of CVA and commonest finding is a SES. Hormonal dysfunction did not differ based on the etiology of the CVA. Long-term follow-up is essential to understand the morbidity contributed by the hormonal alterations.

  14. Lipid effects of endocrine medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Dan V; Vora, Avni; Mazzone, Theodore

    2011-02-01

    Various alterations of lipid homeostasis have a significant role in the pathophysiology of the artherosclerotic process. The effects of usual lipid-lowering agents such as statins, fibrates, or niacin are well known, but other endocrine therapeutic agents could also affect the blood levels of various lipoproteins and, in turn, influence atheroma formation. In this review, we attempt to summarize the effect of several hormonal and non-hormonal endocrine agents on lipid metabolism, including insulin, thyroid hormone, sex hormones, glucocorticoids, growth hormone, and several anti-diabetic agents.

  15. Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aspect of your health. What is the endocrine system? Your endocrine system includes glands and organs that make and release ... to feel well. How can TBI affect the endocrine system? Two important parts of the endocrine system—the ...

  16. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  18. ViFiLite Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ViFiLite is a wireless infrastructure that utilizes the advantages of a V-band technology in supporting data gathering for structural health monitoring as well as...

  19. Skal vi have flere krondyr?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    Vi kunne have væsentligt flere krondyr i den danske natur end vi har i øjeblikket. Den primære årsag er jagt. Det viser en ny undersøgelse fra Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser ved Aarhus Universitet. Bestanden af krondyr er ganske vist steget meget siden 1970, men der er både plads og føde til mange...

  20. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  1. Endocrine disruptors and their effects on puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Çetinkaya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors and their possible impact on human health have become a topic of discussion. Endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in plastics, detergents, pesticides and industrial chemicals. Some of these persist in the environment and others do not. Some are lipophilic, sequestered in adipose tissue and secreted in milk, and others may only be present for short periods of time but at critical periods of development. Endocrine disruptors are defined as an extrogenous substance or mixture that alters the function of the endocrine system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny. Endocrine disruptors affect the reproductive system and they may be responsible for oligospermia, abnormality of sperm characteristics, disorders of testicular steroidogenesis, testicular atrophy, uterus weight increases and precocious puberty. In this review, we aimed to assess on exposure to endocrine disruptors and the effects of endocrine disruptors on puberty.

  2. Afferent Endocrine Control of Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Wolfgang; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    The afferent endocrine factors that control eating can be separated into different categories. One obvious categorization is by the time course of their effects, with long-term factors that signal adiposity and short-term factors that operate within the time frame of single meals. The second...... obvious categorization is by the origin of the endocrine signalling molecules. The level of knowledge concerning the physiological mechanisms and relevance of the hormones that are implicated in the control of eating is clearly different. With the accumulating knowledge about the hormones' actions......, various criteria have been developed for when the effect of a hormone can be considered 'physiologic'. This chapter treats the hormones separately and categorizes them by origin. It discusses ALL hormones that are implicated in eating control such as Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone and glucagon-like peptide...

  3. Classical endocrine diseases causing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jolanta U

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with several endocrine diseases, including common ones such as hypothyroidism and polycystic ovarian syndrome to rare ones such as Cushing's syndrome, central hypothyroidism and hypothalamic disorders. The mechanisms for the development of obesity vary in according to the endocrine condition. Hypothyroidism is associated with accumulation of hyaluronic acid within various tissues, additional fluid retention due to reduced cardiac output and reduced thermogenesis. The pathophysiology of obesity associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome remains complex as obesity itself may simultaneously be the cause and the effect of the syndrome. Net excess of androgen appears to be pivotal in the development of central obesity. In Cushing's syndrome, an interaction with thyroid and growth hormones plays an important role in addition to an increased adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. This review also describes remaining rare cases: hypothalamic obesity due to central hypothyroidism and combined hormone deficiencies.

  4. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Luisetto, G; Basso, S M M; Basso, U; Brunello, A; Camozzi, V

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the first leading causes of death in women, and currently endocrine treatment is of major therapeutic value in patients with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and GnRH agonists are the drugs of choice. Tamoxifen, a partial nonsteroidal estrogen agonist, is a type II competitive inhibitor of estradiol at its receptor, and the prototype of SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors significantly lower serum estradiol concentration in postmenopausal patients, having no detectable effects on adrenocortical steroids formation, while GnRH agonists suppress ovarian function, inducing a menopause-like condition in premenopausal women. Endocrine therapy has generally a relatively low morbidity, leading to a significant reduction of mortality for breast cancer. The aim of chemoprevention is to interfere early with the process of carcinogenesis, reducing the risk of cancer development. As preventive agents, raloxifene and tamoxifene are equivalent, while raloxifene has more potent antiresorptive effects in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocrine treatment is usually considered a standard choice for patients with estrogen-receptor positive cancers and non-life-threatening advanced disease, or for older patients unfit for aggressive chemotherapy regimens. Several therapeutic protocols used in patients with breast cancer are associated with bone loss, which may lead to an increased risk of fracture. Bisphosphonates are the drugs of choice to treat such a drug-induced bone disease. The aim of this review is to outline current understanding on endocrine therapy of breast cancer. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  5. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid diseas...

  6. SLEEP APNEA IN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a  number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.

  7. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-10-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist. In some with CD, multiple glandular endocrinopathies may also occur and complicate the initial presentation of the intestinal disease. In others presenting with an apparent isolated endocrine disorder, serological screening for underlying subclinical CD may prove to be positive, particularly if type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid or other autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as Addison's disease are first detected. A number of reports have also recorded hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism or ovarian failure in CD and these may be improved with a strict gluten-free diet.

  8. Protostars and Planets VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    star and planet formation. They are used by students to dive into new topics, and they are much valued by experienced researchers as a comprehensive overview of the field with all its interactions. We hope that you will enjoy reading (and learning from) this book as much as we do. The organization of the Protostars and Planets conference was carried out in close collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and the Center for Astronomy of the University Heidelberg, with generous support from the German Science Foundation. This volume is a product of effort and care by many people. First and foremost, we want to acknowledge the 250 contributing authors, as it is only due to their expertise and knowledge that such a comprehensive review compendium in all its depth and breadth is possible. The Protostars and Planets VI conference and this volume was a major undertaking, with support and contributions by many people and institutions. We like to thank the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee who selected the 38 teams and chapters out of more than 120 submitted proposals. Similarly, we are grateful to the reviewers, who provided valuable input and help to the chapter authors. The book would also not have been possible without the great support of Renée Dotson and other staff from USRA’s Lunar and Planetary Institute, who handled the detailed processing of all manuscripts and the production of the book, and of Allyson Carter and other staff from the University of Arizona Press. We are also grateful to Richard Binzel, the General Editor of the Space Science Series, for his constant support during the long process, from the original concept to this final product. Finally, we would like to express a very special thank you to the entire conference local organizing committee, and in particular, Carmen Cuevas and Natali Jurina, for their great commitment to the project and for a very fruitful and enjoyable collaboration.

  9. BISEN: Biochemical Simulation Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F; Vinnakota, K. C.; Han, Y; Dash, R. K.; Yang, F; Beard, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for user-specified multi-compartment systems of enzymes and transporters accounting for detailed biochemical thermodynamics, rapid equilibria of multiple biochemical species and dynamic proton and met...

  10. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  11. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  12. VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaal / Leonhard Lapin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lapin, Leonhard, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    15.-17. IX Tallinnas Niguliste kirikus toimuval VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalil esinevad inglise arhitektuurikriitik Peter Davey, šveitsi arhitekt Peter Zumthor, soome arhitekt Juha Leviskä, eesti arhitekt Vilen Künnapu, eesti kunstiajaloolane Juhan Maiste jt. Külastatakse KUMU, tutvutab autor Pekka Vapaavuori

  13. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  14. Osmoregulation and endocrine glands of teleosts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oguri, M

    1970-01-01

    ...), have indicated that the following endocrine glands: thyroid gland, hypophysis, interrenal body, urophysis, corpuscle of stannius and juxtaglomerular cells, are involved in the osmoregulation in teleosts...

  15. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  16. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  17. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  18. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15

    donors are possible. Although the version of the Phylochip used for monitoring the microbial community at the Hanford site did not include S. barnesii it did have probes for detecting other Sulfurospirillum species (e.g., S. multivorans, S. halorespirans). For D. desulfuricans, again, redox active proteins such as dissimilatory nitrite reductase and dissimilary sulfite reductase are effectively oxidized by Cr(VI) thus inhibiting their reductive potential. More physiological and biochemical data are needed before a possible strategy can be designed and assessed.

  19. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2017-04-01

    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dixon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Around 70% of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha positive and hence their development is highly dependent on estradiol. While the invention of endocrine therapies has revolusioned the treatment of the disease, resistance to therapy eventually occurs in a large number of patients. This paper seeks to illustrate and discuss the complexity and heterogeneity of the mechanisms which underlie resistance and the approaches proposed to combat them. It will also focus on the use and development of methods for predicting which patients are likely to develop resistance.

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1: institution, management, and data analysis of a nationwide multicenter patient database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Francesca; Cianferotti, Luisella; Boaretto, Francesca; Cetani, Filomena; Cioppi, Federica; Colao, Annamaria; Davì, Maria Vittoria; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Ferolla, Piero; Ferone, Diego; Fossi, Caterina; Giudici, Francesco; Gronchi, Giorgio; Loli, Paola; Mantero, Franco; Marcocci, Claudio; Marini, Francesca; Masi, Laura; Opocher, Giuseppe; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca; Scillitani, Alfredo; Sciortino, Giovanna; Spada, Anna; Tomassetti, Paola; Tonelli, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate European epidemiological data on patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 by creating an Italian registry of this syndrome, including clinical and genetic characteristics and therapeutic management. Clinical, familial and genetic data of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, diagnosed, treated, and followed-up for a mean time of 11.3 years, in 14 Italian referral endocrinological centers, were collected, over a 3-year course (2011-2013), to build a national electronic database. The Italian multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 database includes 475 patients (271 women and 204 men), of whom 383 patients (80.6%) were classified as familial cases (from 136 different pedigrees), and 92 (19.4%) patients were sporadic cases. A MEN1 mutation was identified in 92.6% of familial cases and in 48.9% of sporadic cases. Four hundred thirty-six patients were symptomatic, presenting primary hyperparathyroidism, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and pituitary tumors in 93, 53, and 41% of cases, respectively. Thirty-nine subjects, belonging to affected pedigrees positive for a MEN1 mutation, were asymptomatic at clinical and biochemical screening. Age at diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 probands was similar for both familial and simplex cases (mean age 47.2 ± 15.3 years). In familial cases, diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in relatives of affected probands was made more than 10 years in advance (mean age at diagnosis 36.5 ± 17.6 years). The analysis of Italian registry of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients revealed that clinical features of Italian multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients are similar to those of other western countries, and confirmed that the genetic test allowed multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis 10 years earlier than biochemical or clinical diagnosis.

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1926.1126 Section 1926.1126 Labor... Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI) in all forms... objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or a specific process, operation, or...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chromium (VI). 1915.1026 Section 1915.1026 Labor... § 1915.1026 Chromium (VI). (a) Scope. (1) This standard applies to occupational exposures to chromium (VI... cement; or (4) Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing chromium or...

  4. Primary cilia: a link between hormone signalling and endocrine-related cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Samuel M; Chapple, J Paul

    2016-10-15

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that play a role as signalling hubs. Disruption of primary cilia structure and function is increasingly recognised in a range of cancers, with a growing body of evidence suggesting that ciliary disruption contributes to tumourigenesis. This review considers the role of primary cilia in the pathogenesis of endocrine-related cancers. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  5. Neuroimmune endocrine effects of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marco Antonioli, Joanna Rybka, LA CarvalhoPsychoimmunology Translational Laboratory, Health Science Research Centre, Roehampton University, London, UKAbstract: Antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date the most often used treatment for depression, but the exact mechanism of action underlying its therapeutic effect is still unclear. Many theories have been put forward to account for depression, as well as antidepressant activity, but none of them is exhaustive. Neuroimmune endocrine impairment is found in depressed patients; high levels of circulating corticosteroids along with hyperactivation of the immune system, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, low levels of melatonin in plasma and urine, and disentrainment of circadian rhythms have been demonstrated. Moreover, antidepressant treatment seems to correct or at least to interfere with these alterations. In this review, we summarize the complex neuroimmune endocrine and chronobiological alterations found in patients with depression and how these systems interact with each other. We also explain how antidepressant therapy can modify these systems, along with some possible mechanisms of action shown in animal and human models.Keywords: antidepressant agents, biological markers, human, cytokines, neuroinflammation, psychoneuroimmunology, endophenotype

  6. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Environmental endocrine disruptors: New diabetogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénichel, Patrick; Chevalier, Nicolas

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades. While lifestyle factors (sedentariness, noxious food), together with genetic susceptibility, are well-known actors, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a pathophysiological role in the occurrence of metabolic diseases. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence support a role for early and chronic exposure to low doses of chemical pollutants with endocrine and metabolic disrupting effects. Most are present in the food chain and accumulate in the fat mass after absorption. In rodents, bisphenol A stimulates synthesis and secretion of pancreatic β cells and disturbs insulin signaling in liver, muscle and adipose tissue through epigenetic changes leading to insulin resistance and β cell impairment. In humans, epidemiological reports show statistical link between exposure to pesticides, polychlorinated bisphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins or aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbides or heavy metals and DT2 after acute accidental releases or early in life and/or chronic, low doses exposure. More prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the importance of such environmental risk factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal. Journal Home > Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. People. » Contact ...

  9. Positron emission tomography (PET) in endocrine tumours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine pancreatic tumours is probably limited to those that are less well differentiated and metabolically active. However, a future role for PET imaging in the detection of endocrine tumours, using more specific substrates, appears very promising. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa Vol.

  10. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  11. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  12. Hvad bruger vi tiden til?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2016-01-01

    I denne artikel kaster vi et antropologisk blik på samtidsarkæologi ved at diskutere måder, hvorpå antropologiske analyser kan adressere tid, fortidige hændelser og historiske processer. Vi argumenterer for, at en radikal nutidsorientering er en afgørende kvalitet ved det antropologiske feltarbej...... komplicerer en ide om fortidige (gamle eller nyere) objekter som nogle, der kan udgraves......., hvis sigte det er løbende at generere sit materiale nu og her med henblik på at skabe nye forståelser, historier og forslag til mangeartede sammenhænge. En implikation af dette er, at uanset hvor ’historisk’ et antropologisk materiale end måtte være, må det altid ses som samtidigt og ufærdigt, hvilket...

  13. ENDOCRINE MANIFESTATIONS OF PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Shatha; Eisenberg, Yuval

    2017-11-16

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations. We conducted a PubMed search for articles related to PH1. The terms "primary hyperoxaluria," "nonPTH mediated hypercalcemia," "hypothyroidism," and "hypogonadism" were used to identify pertinent literature. Given the rarity of PH1, there is scant literature regarding the incidence and clinical significance of endocrine manifestations of this disorder. There are rare reports of hypercalcemia secondary to osteoclast-stimulating activity of macrophages in bone granulomas, which occur in response to oxalate deposits. We report that hypercalcemia may also be mediated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 (OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism are thought to be due partly to calcium oxalate deposition in thyroid and testicular tissue. The presented case is the first to report PTHrP mediated hypercalcemia and primary hypogonadism in a patient with PH1. PH1 is a metabolic disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Owing to its rarity, it is not widely recognized in the field of endocrinology, despite presenting with several endocrinopathies. Recognition of endocrine disturbances can result in early and successful treatment, limiting morbidity and improving quality of life in these challenging patients. PH = primary hyperoxaluria; ESRD = end stage renal disease; PTH = parathyroid hormone; 1,25 (OH)2D = 1,25 dihydoxyvitamin D; PTHrP = parathyroid hormone related protein; CKD = chronic kidney disease; AGT = alanine: glyoxylate

  14. [Vascular risk in endocrine diseases other than diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antequera, Isabel; Cuende, José I; Nieto López-Guerrero, Jerónimo; Valdivielso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Endocrinological diseases directly affect the cardiovascular system. The deleterious effects on cardiovascular function can be direct, and linked to the increase or reduction of circulating hormones. Equally, the adverse effects may be indirect; for example following the rise in blood pressure, increase or redistribution of lean mass, or increased plasma lipoproteins. The best health care and the increasing availability of biochemical tests lead to the diagnosis of many endocrine diseases before the onset of clinical signs. This review will focus on presenting evidence of cardiovascular functional or structural impairment in cases of primary hyperparathyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and hypothyroidism in their sub-clinical forms, as well as the reversibility of complications after appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, Francesco, E-mail: f.tonelli@dfc.unifi.it; Giudici, Francesco [Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Surgical Unit, Medical School, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy); Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School and Regional Centre for Hereditary Endocrine Tumors, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy)

    2012-05-07

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present.

  16. Endocrine Disruptors Leading to Obesity and Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios Petrakis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The review aims to comprehensively present the impact of exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs in relation to the clinical manifestation of obesity and related diseases, including diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, carcinogenesis and infertility. EDs are strong participants in the obesity epidemic scenery by interfering with cellular morphological and biochemical processes; by inducing inflammatory responses; and by presenting transcriptional and oncogenic activity. Obesity and lipotoxicity enhancement occur through reprogramming and/or remodeling of germline epigenome by exposure to EDs. Specific population groups are vulnerable to ED exposure due to current dietary and environmental conditions. Obesity, morbidity and carcinogenicity induced by ED exposure are an evolving reality. Therefore, a new collective strategic approach is deemed essential, for the reappraisal of current global conditions pertaining to energy management.

  17. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664

  18. Behcet's Disease and Endocrine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet's disease (BD is a chronic disease which is characterized by recurrent oral apthous ulcerations, recurrent genital ulcerations, skin eruptions, ocular involvements and other various systemic manifestations as well as systemic vasculitis. Endocrine involvement in BD regarding various systems can be seen. Hypophysis is one of the best and dense vascularized organs of the body, thus it is likely that it can be affected by BD. Not only anterior hypophysis functions, but posterior hypophysis functions as well can be affected. As BD is a disease of autoimmune process, it may be possible that adrenal insufficiency or alterations in the cortisol levels could be expected. Another concern is whether or not there is insulin resistance in patients with BD. The avaliable data suggests that there is an increased susceptibility to insulin resistance in patients with BD.

  19. Retinoid metabolism in invertebrates: when evolution meets endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, A; Ruivo, R; Gesto, M; Castro, L Filipe C; Santos, M M

    2014-11-01

    Recent genomic and biochemical evidence in invertebrate species pushes back the origin of the retinoid metabolic and signaling modules to the last common ancestor of all bilaterians. However, the evolution of retinoid pathways are far from fully understood. In the majority of non-chordate invertebrate lineages, the ongoing functional characterization of retinoid-related genes (metabolism and signaling pathways), as well as the characterization of the endogenous retinoid content (precursors and active retinoids), is still incomplete. Despite limited, the available data supports the presence of biologically active retinoid pathways in invertebrates. Yet, the mechanisms controlling the spatial and temporal distribution of retinoids as well as their physiological significance share similarities and differences with vertebrates. For instance, retinol storage in the form of retinyl esters, a key feature for the maintenance of retinoid homeostatic balance in vertebrates, was only recently demonstrated in some mollusk species, suggesting that such ability is older than previously anticipated. In contrast, the enzymatic repertoire involved in this process is probably unlike that of vertebrates. The suggested ancestry of active retinoid pathways implies that many more metazoan species might be potential targets for endocrine disrupting chemicals. Here, we review the current knowledge about the occurrence and functionality of retinoid metabolic and signaling pathways in invertebrate lineages, paying special attention to the evolutionary origin of retinoid storage mechanisms. Additionally, we summarize existing information on the endocrine disruption of invertebrate retinoid modules by environmental chemicals. Research priorities in the field are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. BISEN: Biochemical Simulation Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlier, J; Wu, F; Qi, F; Vinnakota, K C; Han, Y; Dash, R K; Yang, F; Beard, D A

    2009-03-15

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for user-specified multi-compartment systems of enzymes and transporters accounting for detailed biochemical thermodynamics, rapid equilibria of multiple biochemical species and dynamic proton and metal ion buffering. The software and a user manual (including several tutorial examples) are available at bbc.mcw.edu/BISEN.

  1. WNT4 mediates estrogen receptor signaling and endocrine resistance in invasive lobular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Matthew J; Jacobsen, Britta M; Levine, Kevin; Chen, Jian; Davidson, Nancy E; Lee, Adrian V; Alexander, Caroline M; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2016-09-20

    Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast typically presents with clinical biomarkers consistent with a favorable response to endocrine therapies, and over 90 % of ILC cases express the estrogen receptor (ER). However, a subset of ILC cases may be resistant to endocrine therapies, suggesting that ER biology is unique in ILC. Using ILC cell lines, we previously demonstrated that ER regulates a distinct gene expression program in ILC cells, and we hypothesized that these ER-driven pathways modulate the endocrine response in ILC. One potential novel pathway is via the Wnt ligand WNT4, a critical signaling molecule in mammary gland development regulated by the progesterone receptor. The ILC cell lines MDA-MB-134-VI, SUM44PE, and BCK4 were used to assess WNT4 gene expression and regulation, as well as the role of WNT4 in estrogen-regulated proliferation. To assess these mechanisms in the context of endocrine resistance, we developed novel ILC endocrine-resistant long-term estrogen-deprived (ILC-LTED) models. ILC and ILC-LTED cell lines were used to identify upstream regulators and downstream signaling effectors of WNT4 signaling. ILC cells co-opted WNT4 signaling by placing it under direct ER control. We observed that ER regulation of WNT4 correlated with use of an ER binding site at the WNT4 locus, specifically in ILC cells. Further, WNT4 was required for endocrine response in ILC cells, as WNT4 knockdown blocked estrogen-induced proliferation. ILC-LTED cells remained dependent on WNT4 for proliferation, by either maintaining ER function and WNT4 regulation or uncoupling WNT4 from ER and upregulating WNT4 expression. In the latter case, WNT4 expression was driven by activated nuclear factor kappa-B signaling in ILC-LTED cells. In ILC and ILC-LTED cells, WNT4 led to suppression of CDKN1A/p21, which is critical for ILC cell proliferation. CDKN1A knockdown partially reversed the effects of WNT4 knockdown. WNT4 drives a novel signaling pathway in ILC cells, with a

  2. In vitro evaluation of bioremediation capacity of a commercial probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, for chromium (VI and lead (II toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoti Belapurkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bioaccumulation of heavy metals including chromium (VI (Cr (VI and lead (II (Pb (II causes fatal toxicity in humans. Some naturally occurring bacterial genera such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas help in bioremediation of these heavy metals and some of the species of Bacillus are proven probiotics. However, no study has been conducted on Bacillus coagulans, which is a proven probiotic species of genus Bacillus. Objectives: The primary objective of the present study was to assess the potential of a proven probiotic, B. coagulans, marketed as “Sporlac-DS,” to survive in the presence of Cr (VI and Pb (II and its ability to reduce its concentration in vitro. Materials and Methods: The Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the organism for Cr (VI and Pb (II was determined followed by its biochemical and morphological characterization. Its antibiotic sensitivity and probiotic efficacy were assessed. Further, its bioremediation capacity was observed in vitro by determining the residual Cr (VI and Pb (II concentration after 72 h. Results: B. coagulans could tolerate up to 512 ppm concentration of Cr (VI and had an MIC of 128 ppm for Pb (II. After 72 h, the organism reduced 32 ppm Cr (VI and 64 ppm Pb (II by 93% and 89%, respectively. When B. coagulans was studied before and after growing on Cr (VI and Pb (II for 24 h, an increase was seen in sensitivity toward the tested antibiotics whereas no change was observed in morphological and biochemical characters. It also showed no change in their bile and acid tolerance, indicating that it retains its probiotic efficacy. Conclusion: The tested probiotic B. coagulans may have a potential role in bioremediation of Cr (VI and Pb (II, in vivo.

  3. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... of endocrine disruption. Results: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis and it was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurs...

  5. Endocrine effects on heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gamberini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors associated with thalassemic heart disease, endocrine disturbance is also a contributing factor. We present a retrospective, cross sectional study, which aims to establish the prevalence of cardiac complications in thalassaemia major (TM patients with endocrine complications and to evaluate the influence of endocrine disease on cardiac complications. Endocrinological and cardiological parameters were considered on 957 TM patients who are enrolled in the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassemia (MIOT network in 68 sites in Italy. Patients with pubertal hypogonadism (163 males and 175 females, hypothyroidism (192, diabetes mellitus (87 and hypoparathyroidism (61, were compared according to cardiac complications: global heart T2*, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, arrythmias, pulmonary hypertension and myocardial fibrosis. Control groups were made up according to the age range of patients with the corresponding endocrinopathy. The prevalence of cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure was significantly increased in patients with endocrinopathies. Cardiac complications tended to increase according to the number of endocrinologies affecting the patient. 与地中海贫血心脏疾病相关的因素中,内分泌失调也是一个促进因素。 我们进行了回顾和断面研究,旨在患有内分泌并发症的重型地中海贫血患者中建立心脏并发症的患病率,以及评估内分泌疾病对心脏并发症的影响。 曾考虑到意大利地中海贫血心肌铁过载(MIOT)网络的68个站点上注册的957名重型地中海贫血患者的内分泌和心脏病学参数。 根据以下心脏并发症对青春期性腺机能减退的患者(男性163名、女性175名)、甲状腺机能减退患者(192名)、糖尿病患者(87名)和甲状旁腺机能减退患者(61名)进行了比较: 心脏 T2*、心功能障碍、心脏衰竭、心率不齐、肺动脉高

  6. Har vi brug for hovedregning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2015-01-01

    Hvor ofte har vi brug for at regne noget i hoved? Har de fleste af os ikke altid et elektronisk hjælpemiddel ved hånden enten som en lille lommeregner eller telefonen? Selvom det umiddelbart kan synes unødvendigt at træne hovedregning, viser det sig, at netop træning af hovedregning støtter...... udvikling af hurtige regnestrategier, hvorfor det faktisk er en god ide at investere tid og energi i at træne netop dette....

  7. [Endocrine disruptors are a novel direction of endocrinologic scientific investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglova, N V; Iaglov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous anthropogenic chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and others), that are able to bind hormonal receptors of endocrine and other cells in vivo and act like hormones. These substances disrupt endocrine regulation of metabolism, reproduction and adaptive reactions of organisms and promote human and animal endocrine disorders.

  8. Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malabsorptive procedures. Weight loss depends on following a strict diet. • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RYGB ... index.cfm). www.hormone.org Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery Patient Guide November 2010

  9. Endocrine Disorders Induced by Antiepileptic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disturbances in adolescent women with epilepsy, and the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs and hormonal contraception are discussed by a pediatric neurologist and epileptologist at the Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

  10. The clandestine organs of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2018-02-01

    This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  12. Report on Criteria for Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather...... new knowledge on endocrine disrupters with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board....... The overall aim of this project is to provide a science based proposal for criteria for endocrine disrupters. The terms of reference for the project specify elements to be included and/or addressed when developing the criteria (Annex 1). Also, several international reports and papers dealing with assessment...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: multiple endocrine neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neoplasia multiple endocrine neoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... stones, thinning of bones, nausea and vomiting, high blood pressure (hypertension), weakness, and fatigue. The most common sign ...

  14. Contribution of the Endocrine Perspective in the Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... issues. This paper aims at discussing the relevance of the endocrine perspective with regard to EDC effects on pubertal timing. Puberty involves particular sensitivity to environmental conditions. Reports about the advancing onset of puberty in several countries have led to the hypothesis...

  15. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-08-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  16. Wilson′s disease: An endocrine revelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilson′s disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism. The affected patients, who otherwise have a near normal life span, may often suffer from some potentially treatable and under recognized endocrine disorders that may hinder their quality of life. We explored previously published literature on the various endocrine aspects of this disease with their probable underlying mechanisms, highlighting the universal need of research in this area.

  17. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  18. Endocrine manifestations of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooten, Rachel; Schmitt, Jessica; Schwartz, Alison

    2018-02-01

    To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures. Risk of thyroid disease is present throughout the life course in individuals with Down syndrome. New approaches and understanding of the pathophysiology and management of subclinical hypothyroidism continue to be explored. Individuals with Down syndrome are also at risk for other autoimmune conditions, with recent research revealing the role of the increased expression of the Autoimmune Regulatory gene on 21st chromosome. Lastly, Down-syndrome-specific growth charts were recently published and provide a better assessment of growth. Recent research confirms and expands on the previously known endocrinopathies in Down syndrome and provides more insight into potential underlying mechanisms.

  19. The endocrine system in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefai, Hisham; Allababidi, Hisham; Levy, Shiri; Levy, Joseph

    2002-07-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is complex and not fully understood. However, it emerges as an abnormal metabolic condition associated with a systemic damage to the vascular bed. Cumulative evidence also reveals that the endocrine system is not intact in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is not clear whether the changes observed in the endocrine system represent a primary defect or reflect the effects of the impaired insulin action and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism on the hormonal milieu. Review of the literature reveals that the function of the entire endocrine system including the functions of hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, the vitamin D system, the gonads, and the endocrine function of the adipose tissue, is impaired. Good metabolic control and insulin treatment may reverse some of these abnormalities. It remains unanswered as to what extent these changes in the endocrine system contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in individuals affected by diabetes mellitus and whether part of the abnormalities observed in the endocrine system reflect a basic cellular defect in the diabetic syndrome.

  20. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  1. Endocrine alterations are the main determinants of cardiac remodelling in restrictive anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlomagno, Guido; Mercurio, Valentina; Ruvolo, Antonio; Senatore, Ignazio; Halinskaya, Irina; Fazio, Valeria; Affuso, Flora; Fazio, Serafino

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Anorexia nervosa is a condition of reduced hemodynamic load, characterized by varying degrees of cardiac remodelling, only in part related to reduced body mass; the mechanism for such variability, as well as its clinical significance, remains unknown. Aim of the study was to assess the possible influence of a great number of clinical, biochemical, and endocrine factors on cardiovascular parameters in restrictive anorexia nervosa. Method. Twenty-five female patients hospitalized for restrictive anorexia nervosa underwent extensive cardiovascular, clinical, and biochemical evaluation. Results. Height-adjusted and cardiac workload-matched left ventricular mass was significantly related to several endocrine parameters, blood pressure, and vasoreactivity. On multivariate analysis, IGF/GH ratio and systolic blood pressure were the only independent predictors of height-adjusted ventricular mass (adj-R(2) = 0.585; P = 0.001); when matching for cardiac workload, left ventricular mass was independently predicted only by GH and FT3 levels. All effects were independent of patient's weight and BMI. Conclusions. Indices of endocrine impairment seem to be the most relevant determinants of left ventricular hypotrophy in anorectic patients, apparently independent of reduced hemodynamic load and BMI. In particular, IGF/GH ratio and FT3 seem to particularly affect left ventricular mass in this population.

  2. Persistent Comorbidities in Cushing’s Syndrome after Endocrine Cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Resmini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was assumed that resolution of hypercortisolism in Cushing syndrome (CS was followed by normalization of morbidity; however, in the last decade evidence is accumulating that patients with cured CS still have increased morbidity and mortality after the biochemical control of hypercortisolism. Patients with CS have an increased cardiovascular and metabolic risk and persistent accumulation of central fat, with an unfavorable adipokine profile, not only during the active phase of the disease but also long after biochemical remission. Clinical management should be particularly careful in identifying global cardiovascular risk, as a primary goal during the followup of these patients, aimed at improving global vascular morbidity. Moreover bone mass is reduced not only due to the endogenous hypercortisolism but also due to duration and dose of exogenous glucocorticoid (GC replacement therapy after surgery. Thus, therapy in operated patients with inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis should be reduced to the lowest dose and duration possible. Specific treatments should be considered in patients with decreased bone mass, aimed at reducing the increased fracture incidence. Finally, cognitive and health related quality of life impairments, described in active disease, are still abnormal after endocrine cure. Thus, residual morbidity persists in cured CS, suggesting irreversibility of GC-induced phenomena, typical of chronic hypercortisolism.

  3. Vi tror ikke noget, vi undersøger det

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Winther Johannsen, Inger

    2017-01-01

    I diskussionerne om, hvad der kan betegnes som god viden i forhold til udvikling af pædagogisk ud-vikling og kvalitet, er yderpunkterne kridtet op. Begreber som ”evidensbaseret” og ”datainformeret” synes at udfordre det pædagogiske felts egen forståelse af faglighed og pædagogisk kvalitet. I proj...... tager afsæt i det konkrete projekt og samarbejdet med døgntilbuddene. Vi viser, at arbejdet med datainformeret metode på denne måde ikke er en udradering af pædagogisk faglighed knyttet til fagprofessionel dømmekraft – snarere tværtimod...

  4. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Rida; Yrjälä, Kim; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI) reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM) was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI). It was observed that initial stress of 1000 μgmL(-1) caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI) ions. Cr(VI) stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI) stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology.

  5. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida Batool

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI. It was observed that initial stress of 1000 µgmL-1 caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI ions. Cr(VI stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology.

  6. Mens vi venter på finansloven ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2011-01-01

    Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning.......Vi må dog lufte en forsigtig optimisme over, at der kom signaler om opgør med detailstyring og knopskydningen af øremærket forskning....

  7. Når vi taler om 68

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Metz, Georg

    Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi......Når vi taler om 68 er en intellektuel samtale mellem to ligeværdige gentlemen og skallesmækkere. En essayistisk dyst om porno, RAF, Pittelkow og livsfilosofi...

  8. MURALS WITH A ViBe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    The ViBe District in Virginia Beach is a hub for the local arts community. There is a fenced area in the ViBe District that features a whole row of murals created by professional artists, amateurs, and student groups from all over...

  9. Econophys-Kolkata VI Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Bikas; Chakraborti, Anirban; Ghosh, Asim

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the book is to present the ideas and research findings of active researchers such as physicists, economists, mathematicians and financial engineers working in the field of “Econophysics,” who have undertaken the task of modeling and analyzing systemic risk, network dynamics and other topics. Of primary interest in these studies is the aspect of systemic risk, which has long been identified as a potential scenario in which financial institutions trigger a dangerous contagion mechanism, spreading from the financial economy to the real economy. This type of risk, long confined to the monetary market, has spread considerably in the recent past, culminating in the subprime crisis of 2008. As such, understanding and controlling systemic risk has become an extremely important societal and economic challenge. The Econophys-Kolkata VI conference proceedings are dedicated to addressing a number of key issues involved. Several leading researchers in these fields report on their recent work and al...

  10. Dissimilatory Reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas Isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Peyton, B. M.; Petersen, J. N.; Sani, R.

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain (Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  11. Dissimilatory reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, R K; Peyton, B M; Smith, W A; Apel, W A; Petersen, J N

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain ( Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  12. Genetics Home Reference: collagen VI-related myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions Collagen VI-related myopathy Collagen VI-related myopathy Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Collagen VI-related myopathy is a group of disorders ...

  13. Finite difference simulation of biological chromium (VI) reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (VI) concentration profiles inside porous aquifer media columns. The model was thereafter used to calculate Cr(VI) removal rate for a range of Cr(VI) loadings. Internal concentration profiles were modelled against data collected from ...

  14. Paraneoplastic endocrine-metabolic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The paraneoplastic syndromes (PS are characterized by the presence of biochemical alterations, signs and symptoms expressive of cancer distance action into the patient’s organism. Sometimes these syndromes can precede the evidence of malignancy even of some years or can correspond to cancer relapse. PS, even being characterized by general symptoms (fever, anorexia, cachexia, may occur with neurological, rheumathological, osteoarticular, vascular, haematological, nephrological and endocrinological/metabolic symptoms; the latter ones are discussed in this article. AIM OF THE STUDY Here we will focus on the most common PS: paraneoplastic hypercalcemia, inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH and paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Our work can be useful in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of paraneoplastic syndromes.

  15. Monitoring and risk assessment for endocrine disruptors in the aquatic environment: a biomarker approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerregaard, P.; Korsgaard, B.; Christiansen, L.B.; Pedersen, K.L.; Christensen, L.J.; Pedersen, S.N.; Horn, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Biologisk Inst.

    1998-12-31

    Evidence that a number of chemicals affect wildlife populations or individuals via interaction with endocrine systems has been increasing in recent years. Not all of the mechanisms of action are fully understood, but endocrine disrupting chemicals may work at various biochemical levels, e.g. affecting the synthesis of hormones, interfering with hormone transporting proteins in the blood, affecting the metabolisation of hormones or by direct effects on cellular hormone receptors. In dogwhelks Nucella lapillus tributyltin inhibits the aromatase that converts testosterone to oestrogen thereby masculinising the females (Oehlmann et al. 1996). Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls interfere with thyroxin transporting proteins in the blood of seals. Chemicals that induce MFO-activity may indirectly lead to altered hormone levels by increasing the metabolisation of hormones. Alkylphenols react directly with the oestrogen receptor which in turn may lead to feminisation of male organisms exposed. (orig.)

  16. Evidence for endocrine disruption in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetken, Matthias; Bachmann, Jean; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption (ED) in invertebrates has generated remarkably little interest in the past compared to research with aquatic vertebrates in this area. However, with more than 95% of all known species in the animal kingdom, invertebrates constitute a very important part of the global biodiversity with key species for the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that ED in invertebrates has been investigated on a smaller scale than in vertebrates, invertebrates provide some of the best documented examples for deleterious effects in wildlife populations following an exposure to endocrine-active substances. The article provides an overview of the diversity in endocrine systems of invertebrates. The principal susceptibility of invertebrates to endocrine-active compounds is demonstrated with the case studies of tributyltin effects in mollusks and of insect growth regulators, the latter as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters. The additional evidence for ED in invertebrates from laboratory and field studies is summarized as an update and amendment of the EDIETA report from 1998. Finally, conclusions about the scale and implications of the observed effects are drawn and research needs are defined.

  17. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  18. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Endocrine sequelae in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casano Sancho, Paula

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to the advances in cancer treatment, the five-year survival rate after childhood cancer has increased up to 80%. Therefore 1/500 young adults will be a survivor. Endocrine sequelae are most common, affecting 40-60% of survivors. The most frequent sequelae include growth failure and gonadal and thyroid diseases. Sequelae occur more frequently in survivors from central nervous system tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma. Their development will depend on the type of cancer, its location, age at diagnosis, and treatment administered. Treatments associated to more endocrine sequels are cranial radiotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Because of the high prevalence of endocrine sequelae, international guidelines recommend endocrinologists to prospectively evaluate the survivors. As some of these endocrine changes will not develop until adult life, transition programs should be implemented, and active investigation should be made to decrease the endocrine consequences of cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used.

  1. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG......) to assess the effect of chemicals in molluscs. To date no endocrine specific mollusc biomarkers have though been validated and included in draft test guidelines due to lack of knowledge of the endocrine system. Here we investigate effects of pharmaceuticals targeting serotonin and dopamine in a cost...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L...

  2. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Erika [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L{sup -1} U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  3. Learning the vi and Vim Editor

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold; Hannah, Elbert

    2008-01-01

    There's nothing that hard-core Unix and Linux users are more fanatical about than their text editor. Editors are the subject of adoration and worship, or of scorn and ridicule, depending upon whether the topic of discussion is your editor or someone else's. vi has been the standard editor for close to 30 years. Popular on Unix and Linux, it has a growing following on Windows systems, too. Most experienced system administrators cite vi as their tool of choice. And since 1986, this book has been the guide for vi. However, Unix systems are not what they were 30 years ago, and neither is this

  4. Mucopolissacaridose tipo VI: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Lais Orosco Bialon Santana; Carolina Ando Matsuno; Marta Wey Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: As mucopolissacaridoses são erros inatos do metabolismo de depósito lisossomal subclassificadas segundo a enzima deficiente. A arilsulfatase B (ARSB), responsável por degradar os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs), que atuam no tecido conjuntivo, é deficiente na mucopolissacaridose tipo VI (MP VI). A MP VI tem clínica variável, sem anormalidades ao nascimento, evidenciando-se progressivamente ao acúmulo de GAGs. O diagnóstico se faz pela redução da atividade da ARSB ou da mutação genética...

  5. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...

  7. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a r...

  8. ViSIT: Visitor Survey Information Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — ViSIT is an interactive web tool created by USGS to visualize the data collected as part of the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey. The national survey was...

  9. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  10. BIOCHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is the object of the article to review the specific hydrolytic, redox, and electron transfer reactions involving enzymes and their mechanisms...The stability of the synthetic high polymers in the biochemical environments is much higher than that of proteins in general, but the increasing use of

  11. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  12. Derfor elsker og hader vi positiv psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog.......Hvorfor er positiv psykologi så populært? Er positiv psykologi ved at blive en religion? Asterisk har mødt tre fremtrædende forskere, der forklarer, hvorfor vi elsker og hader positiv psykolog....

  13. Kan vi forebygge en kompliceret sorgreaktion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Kjærgaard; Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Pårørende til alvorligt syge patienter er i en sårbar situation og risikerer selv at blive syge. Som sundhedsprofessionelle har vi mulighed for at støtte pårørende i palliative forløb, og vi vil i denne artikel beskrive mulige prædiktorer for kompliceret sorg og depression hos den pårørende efter...

  14. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til? Link: http://videnskab.dk/kultur-samfund/hvad-skal-vi-med-trump-satire...

  15. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  16. Schedule for Rating Disabilities; the Endocrine System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) by revising the portion of the Schedule that addresses endocrine conditions and disorders of the endocrine system. The effect of this action is to ensure that the VASRD uses current medical terminology and to provide detailed and updated criteria for evaluation of endocrine disorders.

  17. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  18. Spreeta-based biosensor for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  19. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental "Obesogen" Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-07-28

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called "obesogenic environment". Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity.

  20. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, and f) effect on PPAR α and γ using a transactivation assay. For the in vitro metabolism studies, ten selected EDCs: five azole fungicides, three parabens, and two phthalates, were tested in vitro in the T-screen assay to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDCs to bind to and activate...... when looking at the metabolism of the azole fungicides. The PCBinduced rat microsomes gave a statistically significant difference between the amount of parent compound before and after treatment with the microsomes for four out of the five azole fungicides tested. When using the human liver S9...

  1. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  2. Primary endocrine-secreting pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C

    1980-04-01

    Insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), vipoma, somatostatinoma and a tumor that secretes human pancreatic polypeptide are the primary endocrine-secreting tumors of the pancreas. hormones are produced by specific tumor cell types and cause a variety of dramatic clinical pictures. Diagnosis often requires hormone assays. Computerized tomography may be helpful. Definitive surgical treatment is possible, but metastases may be present.

  3. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many chemicals have recently been demonstrated to be Endocrine-disrupting compounds and may potential interfere with normal reproductive processes. In this study, we quantified the effect of Bonnylight crude oil contaminated diet on Wister albino rats. Forty-five rats (twenty male and twenty five females) were expose to ...

  4. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting activity of Bonny light crude oil contaminated - diet on Wistar albino rats. Olawale OTITOJU. 1* and Ikechukwu N. E. ONWURAH. 2. 1Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, P M B 1008 Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. 2Dept of Biochemistry, Pollution ...

  5. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  6. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  7. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify...

  8. Early endocrine disruptors exposure acts on 3T3-L1 differentiation and endocrine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boudalia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.

  9. [Early endocrine complications in childhood cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, Cristina; Andrades Toledo, Mónica; Cárdeno Morales, Álvaro; Gutiérrez Carrasco, Ignacio; Ramírez Villar, Gema Lucía; Pérez Hurtado, José María; García García, Emilio

    2016-10-21

    The treatment of childhood cancers has increased survival rates, but also the risk of sequelae, such as endocrine complications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood malignant tumors within the first years after treatment and analyze the variables related to their appearance. A retrospective medical record review of patients referred to pediatric endocrinology after treatment of malignancy. Outcome measures were frequency and types of endocrine dysfunction and new-onset obesity. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed every 6 months. Statistics tests were: chi square and multiple logistic regression. Fifty five patients (26 women) were included with an age at diagnosis of tumour (mean±standard deviation) 6.0±4.4 years and followed up for 6.8±3.6 years. Thirty endocrine disorders were diagnosed in 26 patients (47.3%), 17 women (P=.01). Eleven adolescents had primary hypogonadism (26.2% to 0.6±0.5 years of follow-up) in relation to local irradiation (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.99, P=.005). Eleven patients had a pituitary disorder (20.0%) 5.2±2.4 years after diagnosis in relation to brain irradiation (OR 1.54, P=.039). Six children (10.9%) had primary hypothyroidism from 3.2±1.0 years of follow-up. Two children developed obesity. Endocrine disorders are frequently seen within the first years after diagnosis of a childhood cancer, so hormonal evaluation should start early and be repeated periodically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  11. Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Wylie C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Gooren, Louis J; Meyer, Walter J; Spack, Norman P; Tangpricha, Vin; Montori, Victor M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for endocrine treatment of transsexual persons. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence, which was low or very low. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society, European Society of Endocrinology, European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and World Professional Association for Transgender Health commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Transsexual persons seeking to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender require a safe, effective hormone regimen that will 1) suppress endogenous hormone secretion determined by the person's genetic/biologic sex and 2) maintain sex hormone levels within the normal range for the person's desired gender. A mental health professional (MHP) must recommend endocrine treatment and participate in ongoing care throughout the endocrine transition and decision for surgical sex reassignment. The endocrinologist must confirm the diagnostic criteria the MHP used to make these recommendations. Because a diagnosis of transsexualism in a prepubertal child cannot be made with certainty, we do not recommend endocrine treatment of prepubertal children. We recommend treating transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2) by suppressing puberty with GnRH analogues until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. We suggest suppressing endogenous sex hormones, maintaining physiologic levels of gender-appropriate sex hormones and monitoring for known risks in adult transsexual persons.

  12. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  13. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Greg K; Taylor, Howard E; Kiesling, Richard L; Ferrey, Mark L; Jahns, Nathan D; Bartell, Steve E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17β-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Polyglandular autoimmune endocrine insufficiency complicated by severe osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassotti, G; Di Sarra, D; Pietrobono, D; Schiaffini, R; Battocletti, T; D'Amico, T; Gargiulo, P

    2006-12-01

    In literature different cases of polyglandular autoimmune type II syndrome (PGA II) are reported, where Addison's disease is associated with gonadal insufficiency. The lack in the production of sexual steroids causes a severe postmenopausal osteoporosis. The case we report is related to a 38-year-old woman we met in 1988 and who was suffering from deep asthenia, cramps, cutaneous hyperpigmentation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weight loss and hypotension. The biochemical data were indicative for autoimmune adrenal failure. Between 1988 and 1997 the patient developed a progressive insufficiency of other endocrine glands, leading to the classic feature of PGA II. In 1998, this clinical status was complicated by a severe osteoporosis. We thought that the sudden decrease in the bony mineral density was due to the lack of the protective role played by adrenal gland androgens in postmenopausal osteoporosis. They would directly act on the bony tissue, independently from oestrogens peripheral conversion, thus producing a stimulant effect on the bone formation. A new therapeutical approach, in case of osteoporosis, is today represented by DHEA replacement therapy in women showing low hormone levels.

  15. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Morbidity in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long-term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin resistance. Available data from register-based and data linkage studies support that metabolic-vascular and thyroid diseases, asthma, migraine, depression and cancer are diagnosed more frequently in PCOS, whereas fracture risk is decreased. Drug prescriptions are significantly more common in PCOS than controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long-term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, Western-style diet and smoking, whereas lifestyle intervention including weight loss may partly or fully resolve the symptoms of PCOS and could improve the long-term prognosis. In this review, the possible implications of increased morbidity for the clinical and biochemical evaluation of patients with PCOS at diagnosis and follow-up is further discussed along with possible modifying effects of medical treatment. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ENDOCRINE CELLS IN VARIOUS REGION OF DIGESTIVE TRACT OF BUFFALO (BUBALUS BUBALIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dehury

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The histomorphology of enteroendocrine cells were studied in different segments of gastrointestinal tract of six adult buffalo. Depending upon the histomorphological study, the enteroendocrine cells were divided into 7 different types viz. oval cell (type I, pyriform cell (type II, spherical or rounded cell (type III, elongated cell (type IV, pyramidal cell (typeV, spindle cell (type VI and large oblong cell (type VII. Further the granulation pattern of the cell types were noted as basal granulation, dense granulation, peripheral granulation and diffuse granulation.The endocrine cells revealed differential staining character with each of the stain (Masson-Haemperl argentaffin reaction, Grimelius silver technique, Ferric ferricyanide reduction reaction, Lead haematoxylin employed in the present study depending upon their physiological status.

  17. Biochemical Characterization of Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Michele; Bongianni, Matilde; Monaco, Salvatore; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2017-01-01

    Prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterized by the presence of the abnormal form of the prion protein (PrPSc). The pathological and transmissible properties of PrPSc are enciphered in its secondary and tertiary structures. Since it's well established that different strains of prions are linked to different conformations of PrPSc, biochemical characterization of prions seems a preliminary but reliable approach to detect, analyze, and compare prion strains. Experimental biochemical procedures might be helpful in distinguishing PrPSc physicochemical properties and include resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion, insolubility in nonionic detergents, PK-resistance under denaturing conditions and sedimentation properties in sucrose gradients. This biochemical approach has been extensively applied in human prion disorders and subsequently expanded for PrPSc characterization in animals. In particular, in sporadic Creutzfedlt-Jakob disease (sCJD) PrPSc is characterized by two main glycotypes conventionally named Type 1 and Type 2, based on the apparent gel migration at 21 and 19kDa of the PrPSc PK-resistant fragment. An additional PrPSc type was identified in sCJD characterized by an unglycosylated dominant glycoform pattern and in 2010 a variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) was reported showing a PrPSc with an electrophoretic ladder like pattern. Additionally, the presence of PrPSc truncated fragments completes the electrophoretic characterization of different prion strains. By two-dimensional (2D) electrophoretic analysis additional PrPSc pattern was identified, since this procedure provides information about the isoelectric point and the different peptides length related to PK cleavage, as well as to glycosylation extent or GPI anchor presence. We here provide and extensive review on PrPSc biochemical analysis in human and animal prion disorders. Further, we show that PrPSc glycotypes observed in CJD share similarities with

  18. Assessing for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 in Patients Evaluated for Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome-Clues to a Safer Diagnostic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ospina, Naykky; Donegan, Diane; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Al-Hilli, Zahraa; Young, William F

    2017-05-01

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare cause of tumoral hypergastrinemia; 1 of 5 patients with this syndrome also has multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The diagnosis of this disease is complicated by the widespread use of proton pump inhibitors that can elevate serum gastrin levels, the cornerstone for biochemical diagnosis. Abrupt discontinuation of proton pump inhibitors could lead to adverse outcomes. Clinician awareness of the relationship between Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 could lead to a safer diagnostic pathway. We conducted a retrospective review of a cohort of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. There were 287 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (73 with gastrinoma) evaluated between 1997 and 2014. Two patients experienced adverse events after proton pump inhibitor therapy was discontinued to re-measure serum gastrin level during the evaluation of severe peptic ulcer disease. In both cases, the diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was made after proton pump therapy was discontinued. Abrupt discontinuation of proton pump therapy can lead to adverse outcomes in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Clinical assessment for features of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (eg, serum calcium levels, personal and family history of hypercalcemia, pituitary or pancreatic tumors) could identify patients with higher risk for a tumoral source of hypergastrinemia where imaging studies can help support the diagnosis without the potential side effects of abrupt discontinuation of proton pump inhibitor therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and validation of mathematical methods for the evaluation of spectroscopic data of uranyl (VI) hxdrolysis; Entwicklung und Validierung mathematischer Methoden zur Auswertung spektroskopischer Daten der Uranyl(VI)-Hydrolyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobot, Bjoern

    2016-08-18

    The availability of metals in the biosphere is determined by the chemical state. Spectroscopic methods are appropriate for the analysis of speciation - the problem is the data processing. In the frame of the thesis the use of the software PARAFAC was used to analyze the excitation spectra of uranyl (VI) hydrolysis. It was shown that modern mathematical tools are essential for the data processing. The range of applicability covers deprotonation processes up to complex biochemical processes.

  20. Monogenic autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  3. Paraoxonase 1 Activity in Endocrine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tarçın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase is an esterase bound to high-density lipoproteins which by metabolizing lipid peroxides, prevents their accumulation on low-density lipoproteins. It also hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds. Considering the role of PON1 in hydrolyzing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides and thus protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, it can be concluded that PON1 may be an indicator of the risk of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease development. Recent studies have also shown that PON activity was related to several disorders, including endocrine disorders as well. In this paper, we review the relation of PON1 activity with endocrine diseases like diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, osteoporosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, obesity and dyslipidemia. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 33-8

  4. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models. © 2010

  5. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  6. Endocrine dysfunction in patients of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18-70 years, any duration in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40 and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3, growth hormone (GH deficiency (n = 2, primary hypogonadism (n = 2 and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study.

  7. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Trbojević, Božo

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l), or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l) hypothyrodi...

  8. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagusnerve

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural-crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from ...

  9. Effect of endocrine disruptors on male reproduction in humans: why the evidence is still lacking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliatka, D; Lymperi, S; Mastorakos, G; Goulis, D G

    2017-05-01

    The so-called "endocrine disruption hypothesis" suggests that exposures to endocrine disruption (EDs) during fetal, neonatal and adult life may interfere with the development of reproductive organs and alter semen quality and reproductive hormone production. Even though animal studies provide substantial evidence of adverse effects of EDs on male reproductive system, epidemiological studies in humans arrive at conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature to locate methodological characteristics of the studies that struggle the formation of an association between EDs and human male reproduction. Such characteristics include: (i) definition of the exposed and the non-exposed population, (ii) age, (iii) insufficient control for confounders, (iv) ED assay and threshold, (v) time parameters of ED exposure, and (vi) study outcomes. Additional issues are: (i) the late effect of an early exposure, (ii) the multiple exposure effect, and (iii) the fact the same ED may exhibit different modes of action. Unfortunately, the nature of the field precludes the conduction of randomized-controlled trials, which could result to etiological associations between EDs and human male reproduction. Consequently, there is a great need to conduct well-designed studies of case-control or cohort type to evaluate EDs effects on human male reproductive health, and apply possible measures that could limit dangerous exposures. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  11. Vi overser hjertepatienter med ondt i livet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted-Rasmussen, Morten; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Sundhedsvæsenet har ved en målrettet indsats sikret markant øget overlevelse efter blodprop i hjertet. Men vi risikerer at skylle det hele ud med badevandet, hvis der ikke bliver taget hånd om de psykiske følger i den kroniske fase af sygdommen......Sundhedsvæsenet har ved en målrettet indsats sikret markant øget overlevelse efter blodprop i hjertet. Men vi risikerer at skylle det hele ud med badevandet, hvis der ikke bliver taget hånd om de psykiske følger i den kroniske fase af sygdommen...

  12. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional and body composition abnormalities are common in advanced intensively-treated (transplanted) multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, D M; Boland, E; Ezaydi, Y; Ross, R J M; Ahmedzai, S H; Snowden, J A

    2014-07-01

    Modern treatment strategies have increased life expectancy in multiple myeloma, but little is known about the endocrine, metabolic and nutritional status of long-term survivors. We performed endocrine, metabolic, bone, body composition and nutritional evaluations in 32 patients with intensively-treated, advanced but stable, myeloma a median duration of 6 years from diagnosis and three lines of intensive treatment, including at least one haematopoietic SCT procedure. All patients were off active treatment. There was a high prevalence of endocrine dysfunction: hypothyroidism (9%), hypogonadism (65% males) and elevated prolactin (19%). Adrenocortical function was preserved despite large cumulative corticosteroid pretreatment. Biochemical markers were consistent with postmenopausal status in all females and infertility in males. Nutritionally, 59% were vitamin D insufficient/deficient, reduced serum folate in 25% and vitamin B12 in 6%. Total body DEXA scanning confirmed 'sarcopenic-obesity' in 65%, but reduced bone density was seen in a minority. We conclude that potentially correctable endocrine, metabolic and nutritional abnormalities are prevalent in heavily-treated patients with stable multiple myeloma. Preservation of bone supports the efficacy of bisphosphonate treatment from diagnosis, but sarcopenic-obesity may contribute to frailty. Ultimately, multi-system screening and appropriate interventions may optimise quality of long-term survival and further studies are warranted.

  13. Persistent Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Rock, Sarah; Park, Sally

    2017-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prominent chronic liver disease in Western countries, affecting approximately 25% of the population worldwide. Sex-specific differences in the development of NAFLD are apparent. While obesity and insulin resistance are major contributors to the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, a growing body of literature suggests that exposure to persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals (pEDCs) may also play a role. This review summarizes recent (2011 and later) scientific literature investigating exposures to pEDCs, specifically persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and NAFLD, with a focus on sex-specific associations. The overwhelming majority of studies were conducted in single-sex animal models and provide biological evidence that exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin polychlorinated biphenyls, and other POPs or POP mixtures are negatively associated with liver health. There were four cross-sectional epidemiological studies in humans that reported associations for several POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls and perfluorinated chemicals, with elevated liver enzymes. Only one of these studies, using a sample of gastric bypass surgery patients, examined sex-specific associations of POPs and liver enzymes, finding adverse associations among women only. The noticeable lack of studies investigating how differences (i.e., biochemical, physiological, and behavioral) between men and women may influence associations of pEDCs and NAFLD represents a large research gap in environmental health. Sexual dimorphism in metabolic processes throughout the body, including the liver, is established but often overlooked in the designs and analyses of studies. Other factors identified in this review that may also act to modulate associations of environmental chemicals and NAFLD are reproductive status and dietary nutrient intakes, which also remain understudied in the literature. Despite knowledge of sexual dimorphism in the

  14. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  15. Simulation of quantitative characters by genes with biochemically definable action. VI. Modifications of a simple model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, G; Seyffert, W

    1977-03-01

    Investigations on metric characters of defined genotypes of Matthiola incana, and application of different linear models for the estimation of genetic parameters, indicate that the use of midparental value as a reference point results in parameter estimates that do not correspond to the actual biological situation. Use of the most recessive genotype as a reference point causes all of the contributions of single loci to be undirectional and positive, and all the allelic and nonallelic interactions to be unidirectional and negative, in accord with our Model 2.2. The results indicate that the phenotypic response to allelic substitutions follows the characteristics of a saturation curve. The possibility is discussed that the saturation character results from regulating processes, whereas deviations of single measurements from the response curve, or response surface, reflect real interactions between allelic and nonallelic genes.

  16. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive system of farm animals as well as in dogs and cats are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence for clinical cases of endocrine disruption by chemical pollutants is weak, whereas for phytooestrogens, it is well established. However, there is concern that particular dogs and cats may be exposed to man-made endocrine disruptors. PMID:26382024

  17. BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI) USING IMMOBILIZED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... water and air. It affects the growth of flora and fauna which in turn affect human health negatively. Chromium could also bio-accumulate in plants and animals and this becomes ... The sorption kinetic models of Cr (VI) onto the biosorbents were examined with ... bulk density, moisture and ash contents.

  18. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... for FTA staff to make oral presentations about the two proposed Circulars and allow attendees an... proposed Circular would incorporate lessons learned from triennial reviews, discretionary Title VI... Implementation Plan for Limited English Proficient (LEP) persons now contains a summary of the DOT LEP guidance...

  19. Prospek pengembangan industri perkulitan pada pelita VI

    OpenAIRE

    D. Karyadi

    1995-01-01

    The leather industry is one of the strong competitive industry, as it comes from renewable natural resources. Therefore, the leather industry has good prospect to develop at the Pelita VI to be the industrial products export competitive. To develop leather industry and leather products should be given closed attention and well managed, especially concerning raw material supply, quality and leather waste treatment.

  20. Resúmenes Presentaciones Orales VI ECAP

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Arana, Editor Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de las presentaciones orales del VI Ecuentro Científico de la Amazonía Peruana, desarrollado el 27 y 28 de cotubre de 2015 en la ciudad de Iquitos, Perú.

  1. Vi har selv designet naturens love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    ForskerZonenNaturlovene er universelt gyldige i de flestes øjne. De gælder altid, uanset hvad vi tænker. Men dette billede står ikke uimodsagt i videnskabsfilosofien, og der er meget, der tyder på, at det ikke er specielt empirisk korrekt...

  2. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 77 FR 52116 - Title VI; Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... enforcement of Title VI disparate impact regulations, it did not undermine the validity of those regulations... streamlined this process. We have modified the definition of ``disparate impact'' for clarity. We decline to... process reengineering. In response, FTA will review the public engagement plan and its implementation when...

  4. Hvem er vi? Hvem er de?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Kommentaren tager afsæt i initiativer i de pædagogiske faglige foreninger i Europa EERA) og i Norden (NERA) og argumenterer for at det er forpligtelse for os som nordiske og europæiske pædagogiske forskere at gå op imod de stadigt mere ekskluderende vi-konstruktioner, som er blevet formuleret i for...

  5. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  6. Stochastic Modeling Of Biochemical Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    STOCHASTIC MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS Abhyudai Singh and João Pedro Hespanha* Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of...procedure for con- structing approximate stochastic models for chemical reactions used for modeling biochemical processes such as gene regulatory networks... biochemical reactions , the modeling tools developed in this paper can be applied to a very general class of stochastic systems, in particular

  7. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  8. Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-12-01

    The study of a number of rare familial syndromes associated with endocrine tumor development has led to the identification of genes involved in the development of these tumors. Major advances have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of these rare endocrine tumors, resulting in the elucidation of causative genes in rare familial diseases and a better understanding of the signaling pathways implicated in endocrine cancers. Recognition of the familial syndrome associated with a particular patient's endocrine tumor has important implications in terms of prognosis, screening of family members, and screening for associated conditions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The eunuchs of India: An endocrine eye opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.

  10. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P; Duno, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine function and its association to number of CTG repeats in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Concentration of various hormones and metabolites in venous blood was used to assess the endocrine function in 97 patients with DM1....... We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma...

  11. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.

  12. Well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.

  13. Cloning and expression of a Vi mimotope of Salmonella enterica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... A recombinant His-Vi protein of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was successfully constructed and cloned into an expression vector ... recombinant protein can be used to detect specific anti-Vi antibody produced by typhoid patients. Overall, the His-Vi ... E-mail: khchua@um.edu.my. Tel.:603-. 79676607.

  14. Bioreduction of Cr (VI) by potent novel chromate resistant alkaliphilic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of Cr (VI) resistant alkaliphilic bacteria from sediment and water samples collected from Wadi Natrun hypersaline Soda lakes (located in northern Egypt), resulted in isolation of several alkaliphilic bacterial strains that can tolerate up to 2.94 g/l of Cr (VI) in alkaline medium. However, with increasing Cr (VI) ...

  15. Health disparities in endocrine disorders: biological, clinical, and nonclinical factors--an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-09-01

    The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC STATEMENT: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. consensus process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the Advocacy and Public

  16. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A.; Chin, Marshall H.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L.; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E.; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. Participants in Development of Scientific Statement: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. Evidence: The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. Consensus Process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the

  17. Prediction of biochemical recurrence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: analysis of 784 Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Kunihiko; Nagao, Go; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Yoshio; Horiguchi, Yutaka; Namiki, Kazunori; Nakashima, Jun; Tachibana, Masaaki

    2015-02-01

    To examine biochemical recurrence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in Japanese patients, and to develop a risk stratification model for biochemical recurrence. The study cohort consisted of 784 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy without neoadjuvant or adjuvant endocrine therapy. The relationships of biochemical recurrence with perioperative findings were evaluated. The prognostic factors for biochemical recurrence-free survival were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard model analyses. During the follow-up period, 80 patients showed biochemical recurrence. The biochemical recurrence-free survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 92.2%, 85.2% and 80.1%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the prostate-specific antigen level, prostate-specific antigen density, biopsy Gleason score, percent positive core, pathological T stage, pathological Gleason score, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion and positive surgical margin were significantly associated with biochemical recurrence. In multivariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen density ≥0.4 (P = 0.0011), pathological T stage ≥3a (P = 0.002), pathological Gleason score ≥8 (P = 0.007) and positive surgical margin (P biochemical recurrence. The patients were stratified into three risk groups according to these factors. The 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rate was 89.4% in the low-risk group, 65.6% in the intermediate-risk group and 30.3% in the high-risk group. The prostate-specific antigen density, pathological T stage, pathological Gleason score and positive surgical margin were independent prognostic factors for biochemical recurrence. The risk stratification model developed using these four factors could help clinicians identify patients with a poor prognosis who might be good candidates for clinical trials of alternative management strategies. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B A; Eroschenko, V P; Fox, G A; Fry, D M; Gorsline, J

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  19. Somatostatin receptors as markers for endocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reubi, J.C.

    1987-06-19

    Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively rare neoplasias that secrete large amounts of peptide hormones such as insulin, glucagon, gastrin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These substances are usually responsible for the distinct clinical features observed in patients with such tumors. Although most are relatively slow growing tumors, they may lead in early stages to dramatic symptoms such as hypoglycemia, gastric ulcerations, or watery diarrhea. Unfortunately they are often difficult to localize precisely at that stage. Somatostatin, a tetradecapeptide that inhibits peptide hormone release in various sites such as the pituitary, the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract, has been shown recently to have beneficial effects when given chronically in the form of a stable non-degradable octapeptide analogue (SMS 201-995) in such gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. This essay demonstrates with autoradiographic techniques the very high density of somatostatin receptors in one case of human gastrinoma. A hematoxylineosin-stained histologic section reveals a well-defined, 2-mm-long tumor surrounded by normal tissue. After incubation of the section with an iodinated somatostatin analogue (/sup 125/I-(Leu, D-Trp, Tyr)-somatostatin-28), the distribution of somatostatin receptors was visualized on tritium-sensitive films after a one-week exposure of the section in x-ray cassettes.

  20. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

  1. Endocrine disruption: fact or urban legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Borgert, Christopher J; Dietrich, Daniel; Rozman, Karl K

    2013-12-16

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances that cause adverse health effects via endocrine-mediated mechanisms in an intact organism or its progeny or (sub) populations. Purported EDCs in personal care products include 4-MBC (UV filter) or parabens that showed oestrogenic activity in screening tests, although regulatory toxicity studies showed no adverse effects on reproductive endpoints. Hormonal potency is the key issue of the safety of EDCs. Oestrogen-based drugs, e.g. the contraceptive pill or the synthetic oestrogen DES, possess potencies up to 7 orders of magnitude higher than those of PCP ingredients; yet, in utero exposure to these drugs did not adversely affect fertility or sexual organ development of offspring unless exposed to extreme doses. Additive effects of EDs are unlikely due to the multitude of mechanisms how substances may produce a hormone-like activity; even after uptake of different substances with a similar mode of action, the possibility of additive effects is reduced by different absorption, metabolism and kinetics. This is supported by a number of studies on mixtures of chemical EDCs. Overall, despite of 20 years of research a human health risk from exposure to low concentrations of exogenous chemical substances with weak hormone-like activities remains an unproven and unlikely hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Endocrine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Peppa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the existing literature data concerning the involvement of skeletal muscle (SM in whole body glucose homeostasis and the contribution of SM insulin resistance (IR to the metabolic derangements observed in several endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, adrenal disorders and thyroid function abnormalities. IR in PCOS is associated with a unique postbinding defect in insulin receptor signaling in general and in SM in particular, due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Adrenal hormone excess is also associated with disrupted insulin action in peripheral tissues, such as SM. Furthermore, both hyper- and hypothyroidism are thought to be insulin resistant states, due to insulin receptor and postreceptor defects. Further studies are definitely needed in order to unravel the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In summary, the principal mechanisms involved in muscle IR in the endocrine diseases reviewed herein include abnormal phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins, altered muscle fiber composition, reduced transcapillary insulin delivery, decreased glycogen synthesis, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  4. Noget vi kan tro på

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jan Brødslev

    2016-01-01

    Situationen er alvorlig. Verden står over for enorme udfordringer med pres på naturressourcer, klima, befolkningsvækst, flygtninge og konflikter. Det er svært at se, hvordan disse problemer kan håndteres inden for den nuværende menneskelige bevidstheds rammer. Vi må derfor foretage et bevidstheds......Situationen er alvorlig. Verden står over for enorme udfordringer med pres på naturressourcer, klima, befolkningsvækst, flygtninge og konflikter. Det er svært at se, hvordan disse problemer kan håndteres inden for den nuværende menneskelige bevidstheds rammer. Vi må derfor foretage et...

  5. Hvad skal vi med Trump-satire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?......Trump-satire er et stort hit, og særligt en lang række satiriske videohilsner til Trump fra lande verden over får folk til at trække på smilebåndet. Men hvorfor er det så sjovt at gøre grin med Trump, og hvad kan vi bruge den politiske humor til?...

  6. CPE OF URANIUM (VI USING IONIC LIQUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANAA NAÏT-TAHAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud point extraction (CPE was used to extract uranium (VI from an aqueous solution in acetate media. The methodology used is based on the formation of uranyl-ionic liquid (I complexes and uranyl-D2EHPA soluble in a micellar phase of non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-100. The uranium (VI complexes are then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase at ambient temperature. The ionic liquid (IL used as a chelating agent was synthesized and characterized in this study. It is composed of N-butyl N’-triethoxy methyl imidazolium cation and diethylhexylphosphate (D2EHPA-H as anion. The effect of the IL on the extraction efficiency was studied in presence and in absence of IL’s cation in acetate medium.

  7. Paediatric endocrine disorders as seen at the University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In most developing countries, data on the prevalence and distribution of paediatric endocrine disorders is lacking. Objective: To describe the pattern of endocrine disorders seen in the Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria between 2004 to 2013.

  8. The endocrine effects of mercury in humans and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shirlee W; Meiller, Jesse C; Mahaffey, Kathryn R

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is well studied and research continues as our knowledge of its health risks increases. One expanding area of research not well emphasized to date is the endocrine effects of Hg. This review summarizes the existing literature on the effects of Hg on the endocrine system and identifies gaps in the knowledge. It focuses on the thyroid, adrenal, and reproductive systems, including the accumulation of Hg in the endocrine system, sex differences that are manifested with Hg exposure, reproductive effects in male and female animals including humans, and Hg effects on the thyroid and adrenal systems. We concluded that there are five main endocrine-related mechanisms of Hg across these systems: (a) accumulation in the endocrine system; (b) specific cytotoxicity in endocrine tissues; (c) changes in hormone concentrations; (d) interactions with sex hormones; and (e) up-regulation or down-regulation of enzymes within the steroidogenesis pathway. Recommendations for key areas of research to better understand how the endocrine effects of Hg affect human and wildlife health were developed, and include increasing the amount of basic biological information available about Hg and wildlife species, exploring the role of Hg in the presence of other stressors and chemicals, understanding sublethal and indirect effects of Hg on adverse outcomes, developing better methods to extrapolate effects across species, and understanding the effects of Hg on multiple organ systems following exposure of an animal. Greater inclusion of endocrine endpoints in epidemiological and field studies on humans and wildlife will also advance the research in this area.

  9. Nuclear Receptors and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, K.M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311470238

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can

  10. paediatric endocrine disorders at the university college hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.O. Jarrett1, B.O. Ogunbosi1 and O.O. Ayoola2. 1. Department of Paediatrics, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2. Endocrine Science Research Group, University of Manchester, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital,. Manchester, UK. Correspondence: Dr. Omolola Ayoola. Endocrine Science Research Group,.

  11. Case Report: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A | Klisiewicz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN-2A) is an autosomal dominant genetic syndrome consisting of medullary thyroid carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism. A germline ...

  12. The heart of the matter: Cardiac manifestations of endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya John Binu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disorders manifest as a disturbance in the milieu of multiple organ systems. The cardiovascular system may be directly affected or alter its function to maintain the state of homeostasis. In this article, we aim to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical features and management of cardiac manifestations of various endocrine disorders.

  13. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. RJ Pegoraro, DJ Hacking, RH Buck, L Rom, PA Lanning, GMB Berger. Abstract. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects.

  14. In vitro screening for endocrine disruptive activity in selected South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various waterborne anthropogenic contaminants disrupt the endocrine systems of wildlife and humans, targeting reproductive pathways, among others. Very little is known, however, regarding the occurrence of endocrine disruptive activity in South African freshwater ecosystems, and coastal ecosystems have not been ...

  15. paediatric endocrine disorders at the university college hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infectious diseases, childhood endocrine disorders constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. ... on infectious diseases and malnutrition giving the impression that endocrine disorders are uncommon. Reports on .... of Vitamin D and the role of ultra violent light in prevention.12 The increased risk in dark skinned.

  16. The coagulation system in endocrine disorders: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Ageno, W.; Büller, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the

  17. INTRODUCTION Endocrine disorders do occur among children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine disorders in children in developing countries are few compared to ... children. We use this case to illustrate the challenges of diagnosis, management and of follow up of this treatable endocrine condition in a developing country and the ... electrocardiography, full blood count, urine culture and urinalysis were all ...

  18. Endocrine disruptors induce perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of human pluripotent stem cell derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamani, Uthra; Gross, Andrew R.; Ocampo, Camille; Andres, Allen M.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Sareen, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We ...

  19. Corneal hysteresis in mucopolysaccharidosis I and VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnehjelm, Kristina Teär; Chen, Enping; Winiarski, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    High intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma are often suspected in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). To determine corneal hysteresis (CH) and IOP in children with mucopolysaccharidosis I-Hurler (MPS I-H) and MPS VI. Clinical measurements with ocular response analyzer (ORA). In seven patients, five with MPS I-H treated with stem cell transplantation (SCT), and two with MPS VI, one treated with SCT and the other with enzyme therapy, the IOP was examined with ORA. Ocular response analyzer measurements were made at a median age of 8.7 years in the patients with MPS I-H and at a median age of 9.3 years in the patients with MPS VI. Earlier measurements had raised suspicion of high IOP in one patient. The ORA showed an increased CH and a falsely high IOP values in all 14 eyes. The recalculated IOPs were normal in all 14 eyes. Mild to severe corneal opacities were present in all 14 eyes. Optic disc areas, borders and cupping were clinically normal in the 12 of 14 eyes that were possible to examine. Severe corneal opacities hampered optic disc evaluation in the older patient with MPS VI. Three eyes in two patients had normal thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer measured with scanning laser polarimetry with corneal compensation (GDx VCC). No patient was diagnosed or treated for glaucoma. The IOPs are often falsely high because of an increased resistance of the cornea and correlate to the extent of corneal clouding. In this small, cross-sectional study, it appears that corneal resistance is directly correlated with corneal clouding, although a longitudinal study that evaluates resistance as the cornea clears with treatment would provide more direct evidence that corneal deposits are directly related to resistance. A correct measured IOP can avoid unnecessary medical or surgical hypotensive treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  20. Prospek pengembangan industri perkulitan pada pelita VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Karyadi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather industry is one of the strong competitive industry, as it comes from renewable natural resources. Therefore, the leather industry has good prospect to develop at the Pelita VI to be the industrial products export competitive. To develop leather industry and leather products should be given closed attention and well managed, especially concerning raw material supply, quality and leather waste treatment.

  1. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented...... in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  2. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  3. Palbociclib Combined with Fulvestrant in Premenopausal Women with Advanced Breast Cancer and Prior Progression on Endocrine Therapy: PALOMA-3 Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Sibylle; Turner, Nicholas C; Ro, Jungsil; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Iwata, Hiroji; Im, Seock-Ah; Masuda, Norikazu; Loi, Sherene; André, Fabrice; Harbeck, Nadia; Verma, Sunil; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Puyana Theall, Kathy; Hoffman, Justin; Zhang, Ke; Bartlett, Cynthia Huang; Dowsett, Mitchell

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy and safety of palbociclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor, combined with fulvestrant and goserelin was assessed in premenopausal women with advanced breast cancer (ABC) who had progressed on prior endocrine therapy (ET). One hundred eight premenopausal endocrine-refractory women ≥18 years with hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) ABC were among 521 women randomized 2:1 (347:174) to fulvestrant (500 mg) ± goserelin with either palbociclib (125 mg/day orally, 3 weeks on, 1 week off) or placebo. This analysis assessed whether the overall tolerable safety profile and significant progression-free survival (PFS) improvement extended to premenopausal women. Potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and ovarian suppression with goserelin were assessed via plasma pharmacokinetics and biochemical analyses, respectively. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01942135) RESULTS: Median PFS for premenopausal women in the palbociclib (n = 72) versus placebo arm (n = 36) was 9.5 versus 5.6 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.29-0.87), and consistent with the significant PFS improvement in the same arms for postmenopausal women. Any-grade and grade ≤3 neutropenia, leukopenia, and infections were among the most frequent adverse events reported in the palbociclib arm with concurrent goserelin administration. Hormone concentrations were similar between treatment arms and confirmed sustained ovarian suppression. Clinically relevant DDIs were not observed. Palbociclib combined with fulvestrant and goserelin was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for premenopausal women with prior endocrine-resistant HR+/HER2- ABC. Inclusion of both premenopausal and postmenopausal women in pivotal combination ET trials facilitates access to novel drugs for young women and should be considered as a new standard for clinical trial design. PALOMA-3, the first registrational study

  4. Fha Interaction with Phosphothreonine of TssL Activates Type VI Secretion in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jer-Sheng; Wu, Hsin-Hui; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Ma, Lay-Sun; Pang, Yin-Yuin; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread protein secretion system found in many Gram-negative bacteria. T6SSs are highly regulated by various regulatory systems at multiple levels, including post-translational regulation via threonine (Thr) phosphorylation. The Ser/Thr protein kinase PpkA is responsible for this Thr phosphorylation regulation, and the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain-containing Fha-family protein is the sole T6SS phosphorylation substrate identified to date. Here we discovered that TssL, the T6SS inner-membrane core component, is phosphorylated and the phosphorylated TssL (p-TssL) activates type VI subassembly and secretion in a plant pathogenic bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Combining genetic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that TssL is phosphorylated at Thr 14 in a PpkA-dependent manner. Further analysis revealed that the PpkA kinase activity is responsible for the Thr 14 phosphorylation, which is critical for the secretion of the T6SS hallmark protein Hcp and the putative toxin effector Atu4347. TssL phosphorylation is not required for the formation of the TssM-TssL inner-membrane complex but is critical for TssM conformational change and binding to Hcp and Atu4347. Importantly, Fha specifically interacts with phosphothreonine of TssL via its pThr-binding motif in vivo and in vitro and this interaction is crucial for TssL interaction with Hcp and Atu4347 and activation of type VI secretion. In contrast, pThr-binding ability of Fha is dispensable for TssM structural transition. In conclusion, we discover a novel Thr phosphorylation event, in which PpkA phosphorylates TssL to activate type VI secretion via its direct binding to Fha in A. tumefaciens. A model depicting an ordered TssL phosphorylation-induced T6SS assembly pathway is proposed. PMID:24626341

  5. Mucopolissacaridose tipo VI: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Orosco Bialon Santana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As mucopolissacaridoses são erros inatos do metabolismo de depósito lisossomal subclassificadas segundo a enzima deficiente. A arilsulfatase B (ARSB, responsável por degradar os glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs, que atuam no tecido conjuntivo, é deficiente na mucopolissacaridose tipo VI (MP VI. A MP VI tem clínica variável, sem anormalidades ao nascimento, evidenciando-se progressivamente ao acúmulo de GAGs. O diagnóstico se faz pela redução da atividade da ARSB ou da mutação genética. A principal causa de óbito é insuficiência cardíaca, ocorrendo na segunda ou terceira década de vida. Relato de Caso: Masculino, 4 anos, portador de MP VI, há 3 dias com febre e sinais flogísticos em sítio de acesso central, colocado para reposição enzimática, com flutuação e saída de material purulento. Ultrassom evidenciou coleção laminar e borramento de planos gordurosos. Ecocardiograma demonstra hipertensão pulmonar discreta decorrente de prolapso valvar mitral com refluxo discreto, além de endocardite da valva mitral. Optou-se por retirada cirúrgica do dispositivo e administração de vancomicina e amicacina. Durante internação, evoluiu bem, sem complicações pós operatórias. Conclusão: A MP VI têm inteligência preservada, baixa estatura e alterações osteomusculares, como no caso relatado. Não há correlação entre a gravidade clínica e a atividade residual enzimática. Dificuldade respiratória pode levar a hipóxia crônica, hipertensão pulmonar e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva. Das alterações cardíacas, encontramos valvulopatias, insuficiência cardíaca e hipertensão pulmonar, observadas no caso. O tratamento se faz com transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas e terapia de reposição enzimática.

  6. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixing Feng

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and prolactin (PRL were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1, estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1, steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR, estrogen receptor (ERα and androgen receptor (AR were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth.

  7. Hidden diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 unraveled during workup of virilization caused by adrenocortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN1 is an autosomal dominant syndrome with classic triad of parathyroid hyperplasia, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and pituitary adenomas. Other recognized manifestations include carcinoid, cutaneous or adrenocortical tumors. It is commonly presented with clinical features related to parathyroid, pancreas or pituitary lesions. Here, we have presented a case that had virilization and biochemical Cushing′s syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma as presenting feature of MEN1. Cushing′s syndrome in MEN1 is an extremely rare and usually late manifestation and most cases are due to corticotropin-producing pituitary adenomas. Although Cushing′s syndrome generally develops years after the more typical manifestations of MEN1 appear, it may be the primary manifestation of MEN1 syndrome particularly when related to adrenal adenoma or carcinoma.

  8. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 20 years ago, it was hypothesized that exposure to prenatal and early postnatal environmental xenobiotics with the potential to disrupt endogenous hormone signaling might be on the causal path to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm count and testicular cancer. Several...... was to systematically synthesize published data on the risk of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm counts and testicular cancer following in utero or infant exposure to chemicals that have been included on the European Commission's list of Category 1 endocrine disrupting chemicals defined as having documented...... and exposures documented by biochemical analyses of biospecimens including maternal blood or urine, placenta or fat tissue as well as amnion fluid, cord blood or breast milk; this was followed by meta-analysis of quantitative data. OUTCOMES: The literature search resulted in 1314 references among which we...

  9. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for "diabesity."

  10. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  11. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  12. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and growth of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Jérémie; Kadawathagedara, Manik; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine

    2017-06-01

    According to the "environmental obesogen hypothesis", early-life (including in utero) exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may disturb the mechanisms involved in adipogenesis or energy storage, and thus may increase the susceptibility to overweight and obesity. Animal models have shown that exposure to several of these chemicals could induce adipogenesis and mechanisms have been described. Epidemiological studies are crucial to know whether this effect could also be observed in humans. We aimed at summarizing the literature in epidemiology on the relationship between EDCs exposure and child's growth. Overall, epidemiological studies suggest that pre- and/or early postnatal exposure to some EDCs may increase the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood. In that review, we present some limitations of these studies, mainly in exposure assessment, that currently prevent to conclude about causality. Recent advances in epidemiology should bring further knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla

    The aim of this session is to give a presentation of the report (both ENV and HH) on criteria carried out by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. CEHOS is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls...... and gives examples of available ED data and relevant placement in groups. The overall purpose of the report is to provide scientific background for Danish input to the ongoing EU work within this field....

  14. Surgical management of pancreatico-duodenal tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Åkerström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatico-duodenal tumors are the second most common endocrinopathy in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1, and have a pronounced effect on life expectancy as the principal cause of disease-related death. Previous discussions about surgical management have focused mainly on syndromes of hormone excess and, in particular, the management of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1-related Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Since hormonal syndromes tend to occur late and indicate the presence of metastases, screening with biochemical markers and endoscopic ultrasound is recommended for early detection of pancreatico-duodenal tumors, and with early surgery before metastases have developed. Surgery is recommended in patients with or without hormonal syndromes in the absence of disseminated liver metastases. The suggested operation includes distal 80% subtotal pancreatic resection together with enucleation of tumors in the head of the pancreas, and in cases with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, excision of duodenal gastrinomas together with clearance of regional lymph node metastases. This strategy, with early and aggressive surgery before metastases have developed, is believed to reduce the risks for tumor recurrence and malignant progression.

  15. Endocrine and follicular studies in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M G; Biggs, C; Faillace, L S

    1993-01-01

    The enhanced early embryonic survival in Chinese Meishan compared with Large-White gilts may be due, in part, to differences in ovarian and endocrine function, particularly during the periovulatory period. The overall patterns of oestradiol, LH and FSH secretion were not different between Meishan and Large-White hybrid controls during this period, although circulating inhibin concentrations were higher in Meishan gilts. Thus, there appeared to be a decreased sensitivity to inhibin feedback on FSH secretion in Meishan gilts. Behavioural oestrus was exhibited earlier relative to the LH surge in Meishan gilts than in Large-White hybrid gilts, but the time interval from the oestradiol peak until the LH surge was similar in both breeds. This finding suggests that Meishan gilts are more sensitive in terms of initiating a behavioural response, but not in terms of positive feedback. Although preovulatory follicular characteristics were as variable in Meishan as in Large-White hybrid gilts, follicles from Meishan gilts were smaller, but contained a higher concentration of oestradiol in the follicular fluid. This was probably due to increased aromatase activity in both granulosa and theca cells of Meishan follicles. The enhanced maturation of the intrafollicular environment in Meishan gilts was reflected in the oocyte population which was at a more advanced stage of development in the period preceding ovulation. In addition to decreasing the time between onset of oestrus and ovulation, advancing the LH surge to coincide with onset of oestrus (via hCG administration) decreased embryo survival at day 30 of gestation. It is concluded that both endocrine and follicular mechanisms have a role in ensuring the prolificacy in the Meishan breed.

  16. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene T. Won

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.

  17. An Overview on Production and Applications of Ferrate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaiekhozani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection are essential processes in water and waste treatment. A chemical that can be applied for all the above mentioned purposes is ferrate(VI. Although there are many studies about ferrate(VI, no comprehensive review paper can be found about ferrate(VI from production to applications. The aim of this study was to review ferrate(VI production, measurement, stability and utilization in water and wastewater treatment. Evidence Acquisition In acidic conditions, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. New researches have provided the technology of using ferrate(VI for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, which can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency. Results Despite the existence of these technologies, there is no full-scale application of ferrate(VI in the water and wastewater industry which it is due to difficulties associated with I, the lack of adequate researches that have demonstrated its capabilities and advantages over the existing water and wastewater treatment methods; ii, the instability of ferrate(VI depending on its method of preparation, and iii, the relatively low yield of ferrate(VI. Conclusions To solve the above mentioned difficulties, fundamental study most be carried out to discover the novel methods of ferrate(VI production, focusing on increasing the product stability and the production yield.

  18. Phosphate solubilization and chromium (VI) remediation potential of Klebsiella sp. strain CPSB4 isolated from the chromium contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratishtha; Kumar, Vipin; Usmani, Zeba; Rani, Rupa; Chandra, Avantika

    2018-02-01

    In this study, an effort was made to identify an efficient phosphate solubilizing bacterial strain from chromium contaminated agricultural soils. Based on the formation of a solubilized halo around the colonies on Pikovskaya's agar amended with chromium (VI), 10 strains were initially screened out. Out of 10, strain CPSB4, which showed significantly high solubilization zone at different chromium concentrations, was selected for further study. The strain CPSB4 showed significant plant growth promotion traits with chromium (VI) stress under in-vitro conditions in broth. The plant growth promotion activities of the strain decreased regularly, but were not completely lost with the increase in concentration of chromium up to 200 mg L(-1). On subjected to FT-IR analysis, the presence of the functional group, indicating the organic acid aiding in phosphate solubilization was identified. At an optimal temperature of 30 (°)C and pH 7.0, the strain showed around 93% chromium (VI) reduction under in-vitro conditions in broth study. In soil condition, the maximum chromium (VI) reduction obtained was 95% under in-vitro conditions. The strain CPSB4 was identified as Klebsiella sp. on the basis of morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This study shows that the diverse role of the bacterial strain CPSB4 would be useful in the chromium contaminated soil as a good bioremediation and plant growth promoting agent as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  20. Endocrine adaptations in the foal over the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J; Ousey, J C

    2012-02-01

    In adapting to life ex utero, the foal encounters a number of physiological challenges. It has to assume the nutritional, respiratory and excretory functions of the placenta and activate full regulatory control over its own internal environment for the first time. To achieve this, there must be structural and functional changes to a wide range of tissues including several endocrine glands. In most species, including the horse, these maturational changes begin in late gestation and continue into the first few days of neonatal life. Consequently, during this perinatal period, there are major changes in the sensitivity and/or set point of key endocrine axes, which alter the circulating hormone concentrations in the foal. In turn, these endocrine changes are responsible for many of the other physiological adaptations essential for neonatal survival. The perinatal alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are particularly important in these processes, although the sympatho-adrenal medullary axis and endocrine pancreas also have key roles in ensuring homeostasis during the multiple novel stimuli experienced at birth. Abnormalities in the perinatal endocrine profile caused by adverse conditions before or after birth may, therefore, lead to maladaptation or aid survival of the newborn foal depending on the specific circumstances. This review examines the perinatal changes in endocrinology in normal and compromised foals and the role of these endocrine changes in the physiological adaptations to extrauterine life with particular emphasis on the HPA axis, adreno-medullary catecholamines and the endocrine pancreas.

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals – probability of adverse environmental effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk due to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. Endocrine disruptors are defined as chemicals substances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and wildlife. Exposure to EDCs in animals models correlate positively with an increased incidence of malformations of genital tract, on neoplasmas, obesity, alternations on male and female reproduction and changes in neuroendocrinology and behavior. Results from animal models, human clinical observations and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant risk to public health.

  2. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  3. Headway in resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yali; Sun, Qiang

    2010-09-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy is the major problem for ERα(+) breast cancer patients. Research in endocrine resistance, mainly based on breast cancer cell lines and transplantation animal models, has indicated that phosphorylation of estrogen receptors, high expression of SRC and high activation of ErbB/MAPK pathway are the 3 main mechanisms for occurrence of endocrine resistance. Restoration of ER expression and exploration of inhibitors to various biological targets are the 2 promising ways to solve this problem. Further research is needed to deeply explore relevant mechanisms and resolvents so as to guide clinical practice.

  4. Farvel til globaliseringen som vi kendte den

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Vi er endt med en krise, som rækker langt ud over det globale monetære system, fordi den ideologiske ortodoksi, der skabte den, har ført til udflytning af millioner af arbejdspladser, tæring af nationalstaternes sammenhængskraft og overgreb på naturen. Kronikken refererer bl.a. til John Maynard...... Keynes og en artikel af økonomen Robert Skidelsky i The American Prospect. Udgivelsesdato: 12. januar 2009...

  5. "LICENS ER NOGET VI GIVER TIL HINANDEN"

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Nana Lysbo; Birksholm, Sarah Schlander; Rosendahl, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Nadja Loran

    2013-01-01

    This study consists of a rhetorical analysis of how the Danish Broadcasting Corporation argues for the compulsory license fee in their campaign video: ’Licens er noget vi giver til hinanden’. On the assumption that a visual product can argue on equal terms with the spoken language, the paper will look at the specific visual tools that are used in the argumentation and the portrayal of the concept of public service and the license fee. In extension to this the paper will examine if the vid...

  6. Oral–Facial–Digital Syndrome type VI with self mutilations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 2.5 year old female, 2nd in order of birth of 1st cousin consanguineous marriage, with the typical features of Oral–Facial–Digital Syndrome type VI (OFDS VI including midline pseudo cleft upper lip, sublingual nodule, molar tooth sign by MRI brain, bilateral mesoaxial polydactyly (hexadactyly, and developmental delay. The patient had self mutilations which was not reported before in OFDS VI except once.

  7. Biochemical effects of Calotropis procera on hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ismaiel Ali Abd Alrheam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropis procera commonly known as Sodom apple is a 6-meter high shrub that belongs to the Aclepiadaceae plant family and is commonly found in West Africa and other tropical places. In Saudi Arabia the plant is commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of variety of diseases including fever, constipation, muscular spasm and joint pain. Aim: In the present study C. procera were investigated for the hepatoprotective activity. Material and Methods: Carbon tetrachloride is used to produce hepatotoxicity. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats. Carbon tetrachloride 2ml/kg was administered twice a week to all of the groups of animals except group I, which served as control and given the normal saline. Group II served as Carbon tetrachloirde control. Group III received Silymarin at 100 mg/kg/day dose, Group IV received aqueous leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group V received chloroform leaves extracts C. procera 200mg/kg, Group VI received ethanol leaves extracts C. procera 200 mg/kg, Group VII received latex of C. procera 200mg/kg. The effect of aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera on biochemical parameters of liver was measured. Results: The results showed that the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extract and latex C. procera produced significant decrease in Acid phosphatase, Alkaline phosphatase, Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, Total protein, Albumin and total bilirubin levels compared to the CCL4 treated group II. Conclusion: Calotropis procera appears to to have hepatoprotective activity and these may be due to enrich of the plant by phytoconstituents that activate and in hence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the plant. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(12.000: 446-453

  8. Bioaccumulation and subcellular partitioning of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the freshwater green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharchaou, Imad [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine and CNRS, 8 rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Rosabal, Maikel; Liu, Fengjie [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada); Battaglia, Eric; Vignati, Davide A.L. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine and CNRS, 8 rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Fortin, Claude, E-mail: claude.fortin@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec (Québec) G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • C. reinhardtii accumulated similar levels of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). • The subcellular partitioning of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) was similar. • Cr(III) and Cr(VI) associated mainly with organelles and heat-stable proteins. • Metallomic analysis showed two main Cr-binding biomolecules after 72 h of exposure. - Abstract: Chromium occurs in aquatic environments under two main redox forms, namely Cr(III) and Cr(VI), with different geochemical and biochemical properties. Cr(VI) readily crosses biological membranes of living organisms and once inside the cells it undergoes a rapid reduction to Cr(III). The route of entry for the latter form is, however, poorly known. Using the radioactive tracer {sup 51}Cr we compared the accumulation (absorption and adsorption) of the two Cr forms by the green unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii after 1 h and 72 h of exposure to 100 nM of either Cr(III) or Cr(VI) at pH 7. Both Cr forms had similar accumulation, with a major part in the extracellular (adsorbed) fraction after 1 h and a major part of total accumulated Cr in the intracellular (absorbed) fraction after 72 h. We also investigated the intracellular partitioning of Cr using an operational fractionation scheme and found that both Cr forms had similar distributions among fractions: Cr was mostly associated with organelles (23 ± 12% after 1 h and 37 ± 7% after 72 h) and cytosolic heat-stable proteins and peptides (39 ± 18% after 1 h and 35 ± 3% after 72 h) fractions. Further investigations using a metallomic approach (SEC-ICP-MS) were performed with the heat-stable proteins and peptides fraction to compare the distribution of the two Cr forms among various biomolecules of this fraction. One Cr-binding biomolecule (∼28 kDa) appeared after 1 h of exposure for both Cr species. After 72 h another biomolecule of lower molecular weight (∼0.7 kDa) was involved in binding Cr and higher signal intensities were observed for Cr(VI) than for Cr(III). We show, for the

  9. Environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, May-Helen; Cochrane, Sabine; Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    There has been an environmental investigation in Region VI Halten Bank. This report presents the results of the chemical and biological assays performed on samples from a total of 316 stations in 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (AG)

  10. Environmental Survey in Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Summary report; Miljoeundersoekelse i Region VI, Haltenbanken, 2009. Sammendragsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannvik, Hans-Petter; Wasbotten, Ingar Halvorsen

    2010-07-01

    An environmental survey of Region VI, Haltenbanken, has been carried out. This report presents the results from the analyses carried out on samples from a total of 316 stations at 16 fields and 15 regional stations. A status of the environmental conditions in the region is given at the end of the report. (Author)

  11. Fremtidens lavenergibyggeri - kan vi gøre som vi plejer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen

    2011-01-01

    Stramninger af kravene til energiforbruget i vores boliger medfører stor fokus på energiberegningen, men erfaringer fra lavenergiboliger opført i dag viser, at vi, for at sikre succes for fremtidens boliger, også skal inddrage dokumentation af indeklimaet og forbedre samarbejdet mellem arkitekter...

  12. Vi lider af prætraumatisk stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Vi lider af prætraumatisk stress. Vi vil nemlig nå det hele og presser konstant nye aftaler ind i vores kalender. Det eneste, der hjælper, er at ’gøre intet’ – men kan man overhovedet det? Udgivelsesdato: 30.09.09......Vi lider af prætraumatisk stress. Vi vil nemlig nå det hele og presser konstant nye aftaler ind i vores kalender. Det eneste, der hjælper, er at ’gøre intet’ – men kan man overhovedet det? Udgivelsesdato: 30.09.09...

  13. Behaviour of chromium(VI) in stormwater soil infiltration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Ingvertsen, Simon T.; Jensen, Marina B.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of stormwater infiltration systems to retain Cr(VI) was tested by applying a synthetic stormwater runoff solution with a neutral pH and high Cr(VI) concentrations to four intact soil columns excavated from two roadside infiltration swales in Germany. Inlet flow rates mimicked normal (10......, while under extreme rain events approximately 20% of Cr(VI) was retained. In both cases effluent concentrations of Cr(VI) would exceed the threshold value of 3.4 mu g/L if the infiltrated water were introduced to freshwater environments. More knowledge on the composition of the stormwater runoff...

  14. Remediation of Cr(VI) in solution using vitamin C*

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Yong; Xu, Xin-hua; He, Ping

    2005-01-01

    The effectiveness of vitamin C in treating Cr(VI)-contaminated water is being evaluated. Cr(VI) is an identified pollutant of some soils and groundwater. Vitamin C, an important biological reductant in humans and animals, can be used to transform Cr(VI) to essentially nontoxic Cr(III). The removal efficiency was 89% when the mass concentration of vitamin C was 80 mg/L in 60 min, and nearly 100% Cr(VI) was removed when the mass concentration was 100 mg/L. Our data demonstrated that the removal...

  15. Heterogeneity of collagens in rabbit cornea: type VI collagen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cintron, C; Hong, BS

    1988-01-01

    .... These physical characteristics, together with the susceptibility of these polypeptides to collagenase and their amino acid composition, identified the high molecular weight aggregate as type VI collagen...

  16. 78 FR 57859 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... determine the potential for a drug to disrupt the endocrine system. This draft guidance also discusses... compounds that have the potential to interfere with some aspect of the endocrine system of an organism or its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although...

  17. Late Neanderthals at Jarama VI (central Iberia)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Martin; Burow, Christoph; Hilgers, Alexandra; Navazo, Marta; Pastoors, Andreas; Weniger, Gerd-Christian; Wood, Rachel; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F.

    2013-09-01

    Previous geochronological and archaeological studies on the rock shelter Jarama VI suggested a late survival of Neanderthals in central Iberia and the presence of lithic assemblages of Early Upper Paleolithic affinity. New data on granulometry, mineralogical composition, geochemical fingerprints and micromorphology of the sequence corroborate the previous notion that the archaeological units JVI.2.1 to JVI.2.3 are slackwater deposits of superfloods, which did not experience significant post-depositional changes, whereas the artifact-rich units JVI.3 and JVI.1 mainly received sediment inputs by sheetwash and cave spall. New AMS radiocarbon measurements on three samples of cut-marked bone using the ultrafiltration technique yielded ages close to, or beyond, the limit of radiocarbon dating at ca. 50 14C ka BP, and hence suggest much higher antiquity than assumed previously. Furthermore, elevated temperature post-IR IRSL luminescence measurements on K feldspars yielded burial ages for subunits JVI.2.2 and JVI.2.3 between 50 and 60 ka. Finally, our reappraisal of the stone industry strongly suggests that the whole sequence is of Mousterian affinity. In conclusion, Jarama VI most probably does not document a late survival of Neanderthals nor an Early Upper Paleolithic occupation in central Iberia, but rather indicates an occupation breakdown after the Middle Paleolithic.

  18. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, S; Nasiri, M; Mesbahi, A; Khani, M H

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG(0), ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short

  20. VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aguilar (Helena); A. Urruticoechea (Ander); P. Halonen (Pasi); K. Kiyotani (Kazuma); T. Mushiroda (Taisei); X. Barril (Xavier); J. Serra-Musach (Jordi); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); L. Caizzi (Livia); L. Di Croce (Luciano); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); W. Zwart (Wilbert); J. Bostner (Josefine); E. Karlsson (Elin); G. Pérez Tenorio (Gizeh); T. Fornander (Tommy); D.C. Sgroi (Dennis); R. Garcia-Mata (Rafael); M.P.H.M. Jansen (Maurice); N. García (Nadia); N. Bonifaci (Núria); F. Climent (Fina); E. Soler (Eric); A. Rodríguez-Vida (Alejo); M. Gil (Miguel); J. Brunet (Joan); G. Martrat (Griselda); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); A.I. Extremera (Ana); J. Figueras; J. Balart (Josep); R. Clarke (Robert); K.L. Burnstein (Kerry); K.E. Carlson (Kathryn); J.A. Katzenellenbogen (John); M. Vizoso (Miguel); M. Esteller (Manel); A. Villanueva (Alberto); A.B. Rodríguez-Peña (Ana); X.R. Bustelo (Xosé); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); H. Zembutsu (Hitoshi); O. Stål (Olle); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through

  1. Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-pos...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...

  2. Differential levels of Neurod establish zebrafish endocrine pancreas cell fates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalgin, Gökhan; Prince, Victoria E

    2015-01-01

    .... Differentiation of appropriate numbers of each hormone-expressing endocrine cell type is essential for the normal development of the pancreas and ultimately for effective maintenance of blood glucose levels...

  3. Endocrine disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day eac...... as endocrine disruptors in vivo, although the profile of action in vivo varies. As ketoconazole is known to implicate numerous endocrine-disrupting effects in humans, the concern for the effects of the other tested azole fungicides in humans is growing.......The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each...

  4. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L

    2012-01-01

    exposures to have potent and irreversible effects. Finally, with regard to the current program designed to detect putative EDC, namely, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, we offer recommendations for strengthening this program through the incorporation of basic endocrine principles to promote......An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variability...... in regulation of these events across the life cycle. The developmental age at which EDC exposures occur is a critical consideration in understanding their effects. Because endocrine systems exhibit tissue-, cell-, and receptor-specific actions during the life cycle, EDC can produce complex, mosaic effects...

  5. Interaction of monosaccharides and related compounds with oxocations of Mo(VI), W(VI) and U(VI) studied by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Castro, M.M.C.A.; Saraiva, M.E.; Aureliano, M.; Dias, B.A.

    1988-05-01

    Proton, /sup 13/C and /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the complexation of Mo(VI), W(VI) and U(VI) oxocations with various aldoses, cyclic polyols and ribose-5-phosphate in aqueous solution. The aldoses D-mannose, D-lyxose and D-ribose form tridentate complexes with Mo(VI) and W(VI) at pH similarly ordered 5, via the 1,2,3-hydroxyl groups, which are cis to each other in these sugars. Other aldoses, like D-arabinose, D-glucose, D-xylose and D-galactose form weaker bidentate complexes with those ions because they can only use the 1 and 3-cis hydroxyl groups in metal binding. These bidentate interactions also take place in the binding of U(VI) to D-mannose and D-ribose, at pH similarly ordered 10. However, sugars having 1,3,5-hydroxyl groups in the cis position do not form stable chelates with these oxocations, possibly due to steric crowding. In the case of ribose-5-phosphate, the phosphate group is the exclusive binding site for the three oxocations, except for U(VI) at very basic pH (pH > 10), where the hydroxyl groups also interact with UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/.

  6. Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the earliest reports of the effects of cannabis consumption on humans were related to endocrine system changes. In this review, the effects of cannabinoids and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin and oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Preclinical and human study results are presented.

  7. Cabergoline and the risk of valvular lesions in endocrine disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Livadariu, E.; Markov, M.; Daly, Adrian; Burlacu, M. C.; BETEA, Daniela; Pierard, Luc; Beckers, Albert

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The cardiac valvular risk associated with lower exposure to cabergoline in common endocrine conditions such as hyperprolactinemia is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional, case-control echocardiographic study to assess the valvular status in 102 subjects receiving cabergoline for endocrine disorders and 51 matched control subjects. Cabergoline treatment ranged from 12 to 228 months, with a cumulative dose of 18-1718 mg. Valvular regurgitation was equally prevalent...

  8. Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities. PMID:20090508

  9. Sarcopenic Obesity and Endocrinal Adaptation with Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal aging, changes in the body composition occur that result in a shift toward decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed sarcopenia and is an important cause of frailty, disability, and loss of independence in older adults. Age-related changes in the body composition as well as the increased prevalence of obesity determine a combination of excess weight and reduced muscle mass or strength, recently defined as sarcopenic obesity. Weight gain increases total/abdominal fat, which, in turn, elicits inflammation and fatty infiltration in muscle. Sarcopenic obesity appears to be linked with the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, leptin, and myostatin and the downregulation of adiponectin and IL-15. Multiple combined exercise and mild caloric restriction markedly attenuate the symptoms of sarcopenic obesity. Intriguingly, the inhibition of myostatin induced by gene manipulation or neutralizing antibody ameliorates sarcopenic obesity via increased skeletal muscle mass and improved glucose homeostasis. In this review, we describe the possible influence of endocrinal changes with age on sarcopenic obesity.

  10. Metabolic and endocrine effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copinschi, Georges

    2005-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has multiple effects on endocrine and metabolic function. In particular, sleep restriction is accompanied by increased cortisol levels in the afternoon and early evening and a shorter quiescent period compared with extended sleep periods. Those alterations could facilitate central and peripheral disturbances that are associated with glucocorticoid excess, such as memory deficits, and are similar to those observed in aging. Thus, chronic sleep loss could contribute to acceleration of the aging process. Sleep restriction is also associated with an impairment of carbohydrate tolerance, similar to that observed in individuals with clinically significant impaired glucose tolerance. Thus, chronic sleep deprivation may increase the risk for diabetes. Finally, sleep plays an important role in energy balance. Partial sleep deprivation was found to be associated with a decrease in plasma levels of leptin and a concomitant increase in plasma levels of ghrelin; subjective ratings of hunger and appetite also increased (the appetite for protein-rich foods was not significantly affected). Moreover, a remarkable correlation was found between the increase in hunger and the increase in the ghrelin:leptin ratio. Thus, the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and food intake appears to be influenced by sleep duration, and sleep restriction may favor the development of obesity.

  11. QSAR Methods to Screen Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Porta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is one of the important goals of environmental chemical hazard screening. We report on in silico methods addressing toxicological studies about EDCs with a special focus on the application of QSAR models for screening purpose. Since Estrogen-like (ER activity has been extensively studied, the majority of the available models are based on ER-related endpoints. Some of these models are here reviewed and described. As example for their application, we screen an assembled dataset of candidate substitutes for some known EDCs belonging to the chemical classes of phthalates, bisphenols and parabens, selected considering their toxicological relevance and broad application, with the general aim of preliminary assessing their ED potential. The goal of the substitution processes is to advance inherently safer chemicals and products, consistent with the principles of green chemistry. Results suggest that the integration of a family of different models accounting for different endpoints can be a convenient way to describe ED as properly as possible and allow also both to increase the confidence of the predictions and to maximize the probability that most active compounds are correctly found.

  12. The endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Patrick; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Marbaix, Etienne

    2012-07-25

    During the reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes cycles of substantial remodeling including, at menstruation, a massive but delimited tissue breakdown immediately followed by scarless repair. The present review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on the endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation in the light of recent observations that undermine obsolete dogmas. Menstruation can be globally considered as a response to falling progesterone concentration. However, tissue breakdown is heterogeneous and tightly controlled in space and time by a complex network of regulators and effectors, including cytokines, chemokines, proteases and various components of an inflammatory response. Moreover, menstruation must be regarded as part of a complex and integrated mechanism of tissue remodeling including features that precede and follow tissue lysis, i.e. decidualization and immediate post-menstrual regeneration. The understanding of the regulation of menstruation is of major basic and clinical interest. Indeed, these mechanisms largely overlap with those controlling other histopathological occurrences of tissue remodeling, such as development and cancer, and inappropriate control of menstrual features is a major potential cause of two frequent endometrial pathologies (i.e. abnormal uterine bleeding and endometriosis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner′s syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  14. Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Kenji; Machida, Takuji; Hirafuji, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle plays a key role in postural retention as well as locomotion for maintaining the physical activities of human life. Skeletal muscle has a second role as an elaborate energy production and consumption system that influences the whole body's energy metabolism. Skeletal muscle is a specific organ that engenders a physical force, and exercise training has been known to bring about multiple benefits for human health maintenance and/or improvement. The mechanisms underlying the improvement of the human physical condition have been revealed: skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes multiple factors, and these muscle-derived factors, so-called as myokines, exert beneficial effects on peripheral and remote organs. In this short review, we focus on the third aspect of skeletal muscle function - namely, the release of multiple types of myokines, which constitute a broad network for regulating the function of remote organs as well as skeletal muscle itself. We conclusively show that skeletal muscle is one of the endocrine organs and that understanding the mechanisms of production and secretion of myokines may lead to a new pharmacological approach for treatment of clinical disorders.

  15. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans—especially during development—may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the

  16. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam De Coster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  17. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Reifschneider

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries (TBI are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children’s quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6–12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life.

  18. Immunohistochemical and biochemical studies on the collagenous proteins of human osteosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Y; Nakanishi, I

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of type I, II, III, IV, V and VI collagens in 20 cases of osteosarcoma was demonstrated immunohistochemically using monospecific antibodies to different collagen types. In addition, biochemical analysis was made on collagenous proteins synthesized by tumor cells in short-term cultures obtained from seven representative cases and compared with dermal fibroblasts. In osteoblastic areas, most of the tumor osteoid consisted exclusively of type I collagen. Type V collagen was associated in some of them. Type III and type VI collagens were mainly localized in the perivascular fibrous stroma. Cultured tumor cells from osteoblastic osteosarcomas produced type I collagen exclusively and small amount of type V collagen constantly, while the synthetic activity of type III collagen was extremely low. In contrast, fibroblastic areas were characterized by the codistribution of type I, III, VI collagens and chondroblastic areas by type I, V, VI collagens as well as type II. Furthermore, type IV collagen was demonstrated in the stroma, other than the basement membrane region of blood vessels, in fibroblastic, intramedullary well-differentiated and telangiectatic osteosarcomas. In vitro, the production of variable amounts of type IV collagen, which was not detected in cultured dermal fibroblasts, was also recognized in the osteoblastic, fibroblastic, undifferentiated and intramedullary well-differentiated osteosarcomas examined. These findings suggest that the immunohistochemical approach using monospecific antibodies to different collagen types is useful not only in identifying some specific organoid components, such as tumor osteoid, but also in disclosing the biological properties of osteosarcoma cells with diverse differentiation.

  19. BEST: Biochemical Engineering Simulation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1996-01-01

    The idea of developing a process simulator that can describe biochemical engineering (a relatively new technology area) was formulated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) during the late 1980s. The initial plan was to build a consortium of industrial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners to enhance a commercial simulator with biochemical unit operations. DOE supported this effort; however, before the consortium was established, the process simulator industry changed considerably. Work on the first phase of implementing various fermentation reactors into the chemical process simulator, ASPEN/SP-BEST, is complete. This report will focus on those developments. Simulation Sciences, Inc. (SimSci) no longer supports ASPEN/SP, and Aspen Technology, Inc. (AspenTech) has developed an add-on to its ASPEN PLUS (also called BioProcess Simulator [BPS]). This report will also explain the similarities and differences between BEST and BPS. ASPEN, developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for DOE in the late 1970s, is still the state-of-the-art chemical process simulator. It was selected as the only simulator with the potential to be easily expanded into the biochemical area. ASPEN/SP, commercially sold by SimSci, was selected for the BEST work. SimSci completed work on batch, fed-batch, and continuous fermentation reactors in 1993, just as it announced it would no longer commercially support the complete ASPEN/SP product. BEST was left without a basic support program. Luckily, during this same time frame, AspenTech was developing a biochemical simulator with its version of ASPEN (ASPEN PLUS), which incorporates most BEST concepts. The future of BEST will involve developing physical property data and models appropriate to biochemical systems that are necessary for good biochemical process design.

  20. Cr(VI) sorption by free and immobilised chromate-reducing bacterial cells in PVA-alginate matrix: equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Monica; Rawat, A P; Giri, Krishna; Rai, J P N

    2013-08-01

    Chromate-resistant bacterial strain isolated from the soil of tannery was studied for Cr(VI) bioaccumulation in free and immobilised cells to evaluate its applicability in chromium removal from aqueous solution. Based on the comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and phenotypic and biochemical characterization, this strain was identified as Paenibacillus xylanilyticus MR12. Mechanism of Cr adsorption was also ascertained by chemical modifications of the bacterial biomass followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the cell wall constituents. The equilibrium biosorption analysed using isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Redushkevich) and kinetics models (pseudo-first-order, second-order and Weber-Morris) revealed that the Langmuir model best correlated to experimental data, and Weber-Morris equation well described Cr(VI) biosorption kinetics. Polyvinyl alcohol alginate immobilised cells had the highest Cr(VI) removal efficiency than that of free cells and could also be reused four times for Cr(VI) removal. Complete reduction of chromate in simulated effluent containing Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+) by immobilised cells, demonstrated potential applications of a novel immobilised bacterial strain MR12, as a vital bioresource in Cr(VI) bioremediation technology.

  1. Hvad skal vi med skønlitteraturen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Oksbjerg, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    didaktiske læremidler, der produceres i disse år, lægges der ikke op til en udnyttelse af skønlitteraturens potentiale for at danne eleverne til demokratiske borgere. I denne artikel beskriver vi, hvad der er galt med læremidlerne. Desuden skitserer vi kriterier for formulering af elevopgaver, der lægger op...

  2. Detoxification of chromium (VI) in coastal water using lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, attempts have been made to harness lignocellulosic agricultural waste material (bagasse) for the removal of chromium (VI) from highly saline coastal water used for aquacultural practices using brackish water. Five different products prepared from bagasse were evaluated for the detoxification of Cr(VI) ...

  3. Biosorption of chromium(VI) using immobilized Bacillius subtilis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the batch removal of Cr (VI) from environment water bodies becomes necessary. Its removal from aqueous solution using immobilized Bacillus subtilis (IBBS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IPBS), mixed biomass (IMBS) and Alginate alone (IABS) was carried out. The conditions of influence of initial Cr (VI) ...

  4. Predicting chromium (VI) adsorption rate in the treatment of liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption rate of chromium (VI) on commercial activated carbon during the treatment of the flocculation effluent of liquid-phase oil-based drill-cuttings has been investigated in terms of contact time and initial chromium (VI) ion concentration. Homogenizing 1 g of the activated carbon with 100 ml of the flocculation ...

  5. Moderate selenium dosing inhibited chromium (VI) toxicity in chicken liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Yongxia; Wan, Huiyu; Zhu, Yiran; Chen, Peng; Hao, Pan; Cheng, Ziqiang; Liu, Jianzhu

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effect of selenium (Se) on chromium (VI) [Cr(VI)]-induced damage in chicken liver. A total of 105 chickens were randomly divided into seven groups of 15. Group I received deionized water; group II received Cr(VI) (7.83 mg/kg/d) alone; and other groups orally received both Cr(VI) (7.83 mg/kg/d) and Se of different doses (0.14, 0.29, 0.57, 1.14, and 2.28 mg/kg/d). The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), Ca2+ -ATPase, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured. Results showed that Cr(VI) increased MDA content and decreased GSH content, T-SOD activity, Ca2+ -ATPase activity, and MMP level. Meanwhile, Se co-treatment (0.14, 0.29, and 0.57 mg/kg/d) increased the viability of the above indicators compared with Cr(VI)-treatment alone. In addition, histopathologic examination revealed that Cr(VI) can cause liver damage, whereas Se supplementation of moderate dose inhibited this damage. This study confirmed that Se exerted protective effect against Cr(VI)-induced liver damage. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Kandinsky's "Composition VI": Heideggerian Poetry in Noah's Ark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    The author will begin his investigation of Wassily Kandinsky's painting "Composition VI" with Kandinsky's own commentary on the painting. He will then turn to the analysis of Kandinsky and the "Compositions" in John Sallis's book "Shades." Using this analysis as his point of departure, the author will consider how "Composition VI" resonates with…

  7. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2017-07-31

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  8. Museo del oro: viñetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Field

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En enero de 2011 convocamos a un grupo internacional de académicos/activistas para discutir en Colombia las complejidades de la relación entre arqueología, excavaciones “ilícitas”, museos y comunidades indígenas desde una mirada comparativa. El taller de tres días tuvo lugar en Bogotá y Villa de Leyva. Uno de los eventos programados durante los dos días de la parte bogotana del taller fue una visita al Museo del Oro. En el restaurante del museo conversamos sobre lo que acabábamos de ver, sentir y pensar, y surgieron estas impresiones en las que el estupor convive con un fuerte deseo por decir algo. En Villa de Leyva nació la idea de que cada uno de nosotros transcribiera sus emociones en formato de viñeta.

  9. A Video Tour through ViSta 6.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabriel Molina

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a visual tour throughout ViSta 6.4, a freeware statistical program based on Lisp-Stat and focused on techniques for statistical visualization (Young 2004. This travel around ViSta is based on screen recordings that illustrate the main features of the program in action. The following aspects of ViSta 6.4 are displayed: the program's interface (ViSta's desktop, menubar and pop-up menus, help system; its data management capabilities (data input and editing, data transformations; features associated to data analysis (data description, statistical modeling; and the options for Lisp-Stat development in ViSta. The video recordings associated to this tour (.wmv files can be visualized at http://www.jstatsoft.org/v13/i08/ using the Internet Explorer navigator, or by clicking on the figures in the paper.

  10. Biosorption of uranium (VI) by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jingsong, E-mail: xhwjs@163.co [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China) and Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hu Xinjiang [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Liu Yunguo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Xie Shuibo [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Hunan Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, University of South China, Henyang, Hunan 421001 (China); Bao Zhenglei [School of Urban Construction, University of South China, 28 West Changsheng Road, Hengyang, Hunan 421001 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Biosorption of uranium (VI) ions by immobilized Aspergillus fumigatus beads was investigated in a batch system. The influences of solution pH, biosorbent dose, U (VI) concentration, and contact time on U (VI) biosorption were studied. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity was strongly affected by the solution pH, the biosorbent dose and initial U (VI) concentration. Optimum biosorption was observed at pH 5.0, biosrobent dose (w/v) 2.5%, initial U (VI) concentration 60 mg L{sup -1}. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 120 min. The adsorption process conformed to the Freunlich and Temkin isothermal adsorption models. The dynamic adsorption model conformed to pseudo-second order model.

  11. Investigation of uranium (VI) adsorption by polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdi, S. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, M., E-mail: mnasiri@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mesbahi, A. [Faculty of Chemical, Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35195-363 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khani, M.H. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, 14395-836 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The adsorbent (polypyrrole) was synthesized by a chemical method using PEG, DBSNa and CTAB as the surfactant. • The solution pH was one of the most important parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium. • The CTAB provided higher removal percentage compared with the other surfactants. • The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm was 87.72 mg/g. • The pseudo second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic of polypyrrole to uranium. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption of uranium (VI) ions on the polypyrrole adsorbent. Polypyrrole was synthesized by a chemical method using polyethylene glycol, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant and iron (III) chloride as an oxidant in the aqueous solution. The effect of various surfactants on the synthesized polymers and their performance as the uranium adsorbent were investigated. Adsorbent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The effect of different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentrations, adsorbent dose, and the temperature was investigated in the batch system for uranium adsorption process. It has been illustrated that the adsorption equilibrium time is 7 min. The results showed that the Freundlich model had the best agreement and the maximum adsorption capacity of polypyrrole for uranium (VI) was determined 87.72 mg/g from Langmuir isotherm. In addition, the mentioned adsorption process was fast and the kinetic data were fitted to the Pseudo first and second order models. The adsorption kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0} and ΔS{sup 0} showed that the uranium adsorption process by polypyrrole was endothermic and spontaneous.

  12. Six-fold Coordinated Carbon Dioxide VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iota, V; Yoo, C; Klepeis, J; Jenei, Z

    2006-03-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent while silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and represents one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of a new extended-solid phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}): a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this new extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2}--a prototypical molecular solid, and SiO{sub 2}--one of Earth's fundamental building blocks. The phase diagram suggests a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and proposes that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III, and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the caxis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  13. Minireview: Gut Microbiota: The Neglected Endocrine Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gerard; Stilling, Roman M.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The concept that the gut microbiota serves as a virtual endocrine organ arises from a number of important observations. Evidence for a direct role arises from its metabolic capacity to produce and regulate multiple compounds that reach the circulation and act to influence the function of distal organs and systems. For example, metabolism of carbohydrates results in the production of short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate and propionate, which provide an important source of nutrients as well as regulatory control of the host digestive system. This influence over host metabolism is also seen in the ability of the prebiotic inulin to influence production of relevant hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and leptin. Moreover, the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60, which produces conjugated linoleic acid, has been shown to reduce body-weight gain and white adipose tissue without effects on food intake. Manipulating the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract modulates plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Indirectly and through as yet unknown mechanisms, the gut microbiota exerts control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This is clear from studies on animals raised in a germ-free environment, who show exaggerated responses to psychological stress, which normalizes after monocolonization by certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. It is tempting to speculate that therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may be useful in treating stress-related disorders and metabolic diseases. PMID:24892638

  14. Endocrine activity of mycotoxins and mycotoxin mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaegdt, Heidi; Daminet, Britt; Evrard, Annick; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; Pussemier, Luc; Callebaut, Alfons; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2016-10-01

    Reporter gene assays incorporating nuclear receptors (estrogen, androgen, thyroid β and PPARγ2) have been implemented to assess the endocrine activity of 13 mycotoxins and their mixtures. As expected, zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β- zearalenol turned out to have the strongest estrogenic potency (EC50 8,7 10-10 ± 0,8; 3,1 10-11 ± 0,5 and 1,3 10-8 ± 0,3 M respectively). The metabolite of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol also had estrogenic activity (EC50 3,8 10-7 ± 1,1 M). Furthermore, most of the mycotoxins (and their mixtures) showed anti-androgenic effects (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and α-zearalenol with potencies within one order of magnitude of that of the reference compound flutamide). In particular, deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol acted as antagonists for the PPARy2 receptor. When testing mixtures of mycotoxins on the same cell systems, we showed that most of the mixtures reacted as predicted by the concentration addition (CA) theory. Generally, the CA was within the 95% confidence interval of the observed ones, only minor deviations were detected. Although these reporter gene tests cannot be directly extrapolated in vivo, they can be the basis for further research. Especially the additive effects of ZEN and its metabolites are of importance and could have repercussions in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić-Macut Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l, or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l hypothyrodism. We analyzed 50 patients (35 with clinical hypothyroidism and 15 with subclinical form. In all patients anthropometric data (age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure and heart rate, and clinical signs of hypothyroidism (skin changes, menstrual disorders were determined. Blood was drawn in fasting state for measurement of FT4, sTSH, glucose, lipids, ionized calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, gonadotropins, estradiol in women of reproductive age, and testosterone in men. Skin lesions were rarely present. Oligomenorrhea was more frequent in subclinical hypothyroidism, and menopause in clinical hypothyroidism. Blood pressure was normal in all subjects. Patients with clinical hypothyroidism compared to those with subclinical form had higher TSH values (19.5 ± 5.7 vs. 5.9 ± 0.3 mIU/l, and higher doses of L-thyroxine (81.2 ± 4.6 vs. 21.4 ± 3.5 μg/day. Disturbance of glycemic control was present in 18% of patients. Total cholesterol and LDL were insignificantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in subclinical form of the disease. FT4, calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, gonadotropins, estradiol and testosterone did not differ between groups. The proatherogenic relation of estradiol with triglycerides was established in women with clinical form of hypothyroidism.

  16. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  17. ADSORPTION OF Cr(VI ON BLACK WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasti Januarita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of initial concentration of Cr(VI on adsorption to black water of Gambut, District of Banjar, South Borneo has been investigated, as well as interaction between Cr(VI species and functional black water organic fraction. The initial work was optimization of Cr(VI determination using UV-Visible Spectrophotometry with diphenylcarbacide as complexing agent and preparation of black water using mixture of 2% HCl and 5% HF with HCl-HF ratio of 1 : 1 (v/v. The quantity of Cr(VI species adsorbed on black water was calculated by determining the amount of Cr(VI species in solution before and after interaction. The functional groups in interaction between Cr(VI species and black water organic fraction was studied qualitatively using infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that optimum condition for Cr(VI species analysis using UV-Visible spectrophotometry with diphenylcarbacide as complexing agent was at wave length of 540 nm, pH 1,5, 15 - 60 minutes at which complex remain stable, and minimum mol ratio of diphenylcarbacide : Cr(VI 45 : 1, and has a sensitivity of 1.134 mg/L and detection limit of 0.00495 mg/L. The analysis was not affected by the presence of Cr(III in concentration less than 40 times of Cr(VI concentration. After treatment with HCl-HF the quantity of black water organic fraction showing humic acid properties decreased 0,1998 percent. Organic fraction of black water used adsorpted Cr(VIwith capacity of 4,050 mg/g.   Keywords: Adsorption, Cr(VI, Black Water

  18. Technology-derived storage solutions for stabilizing insulin in extreme weather conditions I: the ViViCap-1 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Pesach, Gidi; Nagar, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures 30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy. Combined chemical and engineering solutions for heat protection are employed in ViViCap-1 for disposable insulin pens. The device works based on vacuum insulation and heat consumption by phase-change material. Laboratory studies with exposure of ViViCap-1 to hot outside conditions were performed to evaluate the device performance. ViViCap-1 keeps insulin at an internal temperature change process and 'recharges' the device for further use. ViViCap-1 performed within its specifications. The small and convenient device maintains the efficacy and safety of using insulin even when carried under hot weather conditions.

  19. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    1978-01-01

    -butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  20. Autotaxin : biochemical and functional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, Anna Jacoba Sara

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on autotaxin (ATX), the main enzyme responsible for the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The ATX-LPA receptor axis has a wide implication in health and disease. The studies described in this thesis aim at characterizing the biochemical and functional properties of ATX,

  1. BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF SCHISTOSOME BEHAVIOUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF SCHISTOSOME BEHAVIOUR. P.J.FRIPP. Bilharzia. Research Unit, South African Institute for Medical Research, Johannesburg. ABSTRACT. The haematophagous blood trematodes that comprise the genus SchistolJlOmIl live in a stable environment with an adequate food supply and an ...

  2. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  3. Immunohistochemical study on gastrointestinal endocrine cells of four reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Gen; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the types, regional distributions and distribution densities as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the gastrointestinal track (GIT) of four reptiles, Gekko japonicus, Eumeces chinensis, Sphenomorphus indicus and Eumeces elegans. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) of seven parts (cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum) of GIT dissected from the four reptiles were prepared. GI endocrine cells were revealed by using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method. Seven types of antisera against 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin (SS), gastrin (GAS), glucagon (GLU), substance P (SP), insulin and pancreatic polypeptide were identified and then GI endocrine cells were photomicrographed and counted. RESULTS: The GI endocrine system of four reptiles was a complex structure containing many endocrine cell types similar in morphology to those found in higher vertebrates. Five types of GI endocrine cells, namely 5-HT, SS, GAS, SP and GLU immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified in the GIT of G. japonicus, E. chinensis and S. indicus; while in the GIT of E. elegans only the former three types of endocrine cells were observed. No PP- and INS- IR cells were found in all four reptiles. 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus or duodenum, distributed throughout the whole GIT of four reptiles. However, their distribution patterns varied from each other. SS-IR cells, which were mainly found in the stomach especially in the pylorus and/or fundus, were demonstrated in the whole GIT of E. chinensis, only showed restricted distribution in the other three species. GAS-IR cells, with a much restricted distribution, were mainly demonstrated in the pylorus and/or the proximal small intestine of four reptiles. GLU-IR cells exhibited a limited and species-dependent variant distribution in the GIT of four reptiles. SP-IR cells were found

  4. Nanotoxicity: a growing need for study in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefei; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiangjun; Lobie, Peter E; Chen, Chunying; Zhu, Tao

    2013-05-27

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are engineered for commercial purposes such as semiconductors, building materials, cosmetics, and drug carriers, while natural nanoparticles (NPs) already exist in the environment. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, they may interact actively with biological systems. Some of these interactions might be detrimental to human health, and therefore studies on the potential 'nanotoxicity' of these materials in different organ systems are warranted. The purpose of developing the concept of nanotoxicity is to recognize and evaluate the hazards and risks of NMs and evaluate safety. This review will summarize and discuss recent reports derived from cell lines or animal models concerning the effects of NMs on, and their application in, the endocrine system of mammalian and other species. It will present an update on current studies of the effects of some typical NMs-such as metal-based NMs, carbon-based NMs, and dendrimers-on endocrine functions, in which some effects are adverse or unwanted and others are favorable or intended. Disruption of endocrine function is associated with adverse health outcomes including reproductive failure, metabolic syndrome, and some types of cancer. Further investigations are therefore required to obtain a thorough understanding of any potential risk of pathological endocrine disruption from products containing NMs. This review aims to provide impetus for further studies on the interactions of NMs with endocrine functions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders in Children With Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei-Moghadam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Survivors of childhood malignancy are at risk of long-term late effects. One of the most commonly involved systems in this effect is endocrine system. Appropriate timely recognition and treatment of late complications including endocrine complication is essential for the continuing health and improvement in quality of life in cancer survivors. Objectives Therefore, this study has been conducted to investigate the aforementioned complications resulting from the treatment of the common malignancies in children in Iran. Patients and Methods We performed a cross sectional study for evaluation of endocrine complication in cancer survivors who had finished their cancer treatment and come for followed up in oncology clinic of children medical center. Results Demographic data, treatment modality, and endocrine late effect recorded and analyzed. There were 96 survivors with median age of 13.8 ± 5.8 years (range 3 - 31 years. The median follow up time was 2.7 years (range 1 - 10 years. Hyperinsulinemia was the most common late effect. Other complication was dyslipidemia, overweight, obesity, osteopenia, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis respectively. Conclusions Our study has demonstrated a significant prevalence of endocrine complication after childhood cancer therapy and a long term follow-up program for survivors of childhood cancer is therefore needed.

  6. Endocrine Disruptors in Mediterranean top marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, M Cristina; Casini, Silvia; Marsili, Letizia

    2006-05-01

    Man-made Endocrine Disruptors (EDs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDs was investigated. In a four-year survey on the Mediterranean population of swordfish (Xiphias gladius), the potential toxicological effects of organochlorine compounds (OCs) on specimens of swordfish and tuna fish (Thunnus thynnus thynnus), caught in the spawning seasons from 1999 to 2002 in the Straits of Messina, Sicily (Italy), were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg), Zona radiata proteins (Zrp), and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activities (EROD, BPMO). Tissues (skin and blubber) were obtained from Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis and Balaenoptera physalus from the western Ligurian Sea, between Corsica and the French-Italian coast, and Ionic Sea using biopsy darts launched with a crossbow. Benzo(alpha)pyrene monoxigenase (BPMO) activity was mesured in biopsies and cholrinated hydrocarbon levels were detected. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in Xiphias gladius and Thunnus thynnus thynnus), and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis and Balaenoptera physalus) exposed to EDs. The present research shows that: a) Vtg and Zrp can be used as diagnostic tools for fish stocks hazard assessment in the Mediterranean Sea; b) that CYP1A1 (BPMO) induction in

  7. Recent findings within the microbiota–gut–brain–endocrine metabolic interactome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrenovich M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mark Obrenovich,1–4 Thriveen Sankar Chittoor Mana,5 Herleen Rai,2 Dorjee Shola,4,6 Christopher Sass,2,3 Benjamin McCloskey,4 Bruce S Levison7 1Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Service, 2Research Service, Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, 4Gilgamesh Foundation, 5Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 6Gene Targeting Resource Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, 7Department of Pediatrics, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA Purpose of review: We have established that many metabolic biomes exist within the complex mammalian gut. Substantial metabolism occurs within these biomes and is called co-metabolism of the host and resident microorganisms. This gut–brain–endocrine metabolic interaction emphasizes how bacteria can affect the brain and the hormonal axes in the process of co-metabolism. This review highlights new findings in this regard. Recent findings: In this review, we explore how the gut microbiota affect the development and regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and neurochemistry from mental health and behavioral health to memory, depression, mood, anxiety, obesity, and the development of the blood–brain barrier. Summary: This review describes the implications of the findings for clinical practice or research. Interaction of small molecules within these biomes is now described collectively as a “metabolic interactome”. Metabolites of the gut–brain–endocrine axis and our overall gut health constantly shape the host phenotype in ways previously unimagined, and this niche represents potential targets for treatment and drug design, since the interaction or biochemical interplay results in net metabolite production and/or end products to exercise either positive or negative effects on human health. Keywords: neurotransmitters, gut brain axis, metabolomics, microbiota

  8. Surgical approach to medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the surgical approaches to medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (medullary thyroid carcinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. The recommended surgical approaches are usually based on the age of the affected carrier/patient, tumor staging and the specific rearranged during transfection codon mutation. We have focused mainly on young children with no apparent disease who are carrying a germline rearranged during transfection mutation. Successful management of medullary thyroid carcinoma in these cases depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy should be performed before 6 months of age in infants carrying the rearranged during transfection 918 codon mutation, by the age of 3 years in rearranged during transfection 634 mutation carriers, at 5 years of age in carriers with level 3 risk rearranged during transfection mutations, and by the age of 10 years in level 4 risk rearranged during transfection mutations. Patients with thyroid tumor >5 mm detected by ultrasound, and basal calcitonin levels >40 pg/ml, frequently have cervical and upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis. In the latter patients, total thyroidectomy should be complemented by extensive lymph node dissection. Also, we briefly review our data from a large familial medullary thyroid carcinoma genealogy harboring a germline rearranged during transfection Cys620Arg mutation. All 14 screened carriers of the rearranged during transfection Cys620Arg mutation who underwent total thyroidectomy before the age of 12 years presented persistently undetectable serum levels of calcitonin (<2 pg/ml during the follow-up period of 2-6 years. Although it is recommended that preventive total thyroidectomy in rearranged during transfection codon 620 mutation carriers is performed before the age of 5 years, in this particular family the surgical intervention performed before the age of 12 years led to an apparent

  9. Radiological surveillance in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: a double-edged sword?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Therese Casey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a hereditary condition characterised by the predisposition to hyperplasia/tumours of endocrine glands. MEN1-related disease, moreover, malignancy related to MEN1, is increasingly responsible for death in up to two-thirds of patients. Although patients undergo radiological and biochemical surveillance, current recommendations for radiological monitoring are based on non-prospective data with little consensus or evidence demonstrating improved outcome from this approach. Here, we sought to determine whether cumulative radiation exposure as part of the recommended radiological screening programme posed a distinct risk in a cohort of patients with MEN1.Patients and study design: A retrospective review of 43 patients with MEN1 attending our institution between 2007 and 2015 was performed. Demographic and clinical information including phenotype was obtained for all patients. We also obtained details regarding all radiological procedures performed as part of MEN1 surveillance or disease localisation. An estimated effective radiation dose (ED for each individual patient was calculated.Results: The mean ED for the total patient cohort was 121 mSv, and the estimated mean lifetime risk of cancer secondary to radiation exposure was 0.49%. Patients with malignant neuroendocrine tumours (NETS had significantly higher ED levels compared to patients without metastatic disease (P < 0.0022.Conclusions: In MEN1, radiological surveillance is associated with clinically significant exposure to ionising radiation. In patients with MEN1, multi-modality imaging strategies designed to minimise this exposure should be considered.

  10. Combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzein Abdulhalem

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas comprise 10%–15% of pancreatic cystic lesions, with the serous cystadenoms being the commonest. The association of exocrine and endocrine tumours of the pancreas unrelated to Von Hipple Lindau disease is very rare. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. We present another case of both these tumours in one patient. Case presentation A female patient was seen in the surgical clinic for a pain in the right groin. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a diagnosis of combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. She underwent surgery and is under regular follow-up in the surgical clinic. Conclusion Biphasic differentiation of pancreatic stem cell during embryological development could happen and may result in combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. Imaging studies are excellent in diagnosing theses lesions. Surgery has a central role and could be curative.

  11. Risk of osteoporosis in endocrine disorders and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trinti, Biagino

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a loss of bone mass; the bones become less dense, fragile and prone to fracturing. It is regulated by endocrine-environmental factors with the genetic component accounting for 70% of an individual's variation in bone mass density (BMD). Pathological conditions such as celiac disease (CD) exacerbate the process of bone loss and the presence of osteoporosis in celiac subjects may be the only sign of undiagnosed CD. The interleukins IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are stimulators of bone resorption; the relatives of celiac patients shown the increased IL-1beta supporting the genetic susceptibility. In women osteoporosis is indirectly associated with early menopause and amenorrhea, while in men it is associated with hypogonadism and GH deficit. The direct effect on the bones of CD is secondary to poor absorption of calcium and vitamin D. These endocrine and non-endocrine factors exert their effects on bones by modulating the RANK/RANK-L/OPG system.

  12. Endocrine Disruptor Induction of Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental exposures such as toxicants, nutrition and stress have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease susceptibility. Endocrine disruptors are one of the largest groups of specific toxicants shown to promote this form of epigenetic inheritance. These environmental compounds that interfere with normal endocrine signaling are one of the largest classes of toxicants we are exposed to on a daily level. The ability of ancestral exposures to promote disease susceptibility significantly increases the potential biohazards of these toxicants. Therefore, what your great-grandmother was exposed to during pregnancy may influence your disease development, even in the absence of any exposure, and you are going to pass this on to your grandchildren. This non-genetic form of inheritance significantly impacts our understanding of biology from the origins of disease to evolutionary biology. The current review will describe the previous studies and endocrine disruptors shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. PMID:25088466

  13. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  14. Biochemical effects of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, M

    1976-01-01

    Literature on the biochemical effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) is reviewed. The effects of OCs on concentrations of mineral elements ( calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, copper, and zinc), vitamins (ascor bic acid, folic acid, and Vitamins-B6, B12, and E), hormones, (gonadotro pins, progesterone, estrogens, androgens, corticosteroids, aldosterone, renin-angiotensin, insulin, growth hormone, thyroid hormones, catecholamines, and prolactin), amino acids and proteins (free amino acids, tryptophan, metalloproteins, hormone-binding proteins, miscellaneous serum proteins, and blood coagulation factors), carbohydra tes (glucose tolerance tests, glucose metablism and other carbohydrates) , lipids (total serum lipids, triglycerides, phospholipids, fatty acids, and cholesterol), and enzymes (aminotransfereases, alkaline phosphatase, and glutamyltransferase) are reviewed. Changes induced by combined, sequential, and low-dose OCs in 116 biochemical parameters are summarized in a table.

  15. Cinética e equilíbrio de adsorção dos oxiânions Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI pelo sal de amônio quaternário de quitosana Kinetics and equilibrium of adsorption of oxyanions Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI by quaternary ammonium chitosan salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane A. Spinelli

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O sal quaternário de quitosana foi sintetizado com cloreto de glicidil trimetil amônio. A modificação química foi caracterizada por espectrometria no IV, RMN de 13C e ¹H, e mmol/g de grupos quaternários presentes na matriz polimérica por condutimetria. A remoção de Cr (VI, Mo (VI e Se (VI, em meio aquoso, foi investigada em processo de batelada. A adsorção mostrou ser dependente do pH para o Cr (VI e Se (VI, com um pH ótimo de adsorção, entre 4,0 a 6,0. Para o Mo (VI a adsorção manteve-se quase constante no intervalo de pH entre 4,0 e 11,5. O modelo de isoterma de Langmuir descreveu melhor os dados de equilíbrio na faixa de concentração investigada. No presente estudo, um grama do sal quaternário de quitosana reticulado com glutaraldeído adsorveu 68,3 mg de Cr, 63,4 mg de Mo e 90,0 mg de Se. A velocidade de adsorção, no processo, segue a equação cinética de pseudo segunda-ordem, sendo que o equilíbrio para os três íons foi alcançado próximo aos 200 minutos. A análise dispersiva de raios-X para o Cr (VI mostrou que o principal mecanismo de adsorção é a troca iônica entre os íons Cl- da superfície do polímero pelos oxiânions. O trocador aniônico apresentou a seguinte ordem de seletividade: Cr (VI > Mo (VI > Se (VI.Quaternary chitosan salt was synthesized in the presence of glycidyl trimetyl ammonium chloride. The polymer was characterized by spectroscopic techniques: infrared, 13C and ¹H NMR, while the amount of quaternary ammonium groups was obtained by condutimetry. The removal of Cr (VI, Mo (VI and Se (VI from aqueous solutions was carried out in batch adsorption processes. The process seemed to be pH dependent for Cr (VI and Se (VI with an optimum pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.0; while for Mo (VI the adsorption remained almost constant within the range between 4.0 and 11.5. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit of the equilibrium data over the whole concentration investigated. In the experiment

  16. Inhibitors of Src and Focal Adhesion Kinase Promote Endocrine Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrikanova, Ivka; Yebra, Mayra; Simpkinson, Megan; Xu, Yang; Hayek, Alberto; Montgomery, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Stepwise approaches for the derivation of β-cells from human embryonic stem cells have been described. However, low levels of endocrine specification limit the final yield of insulin-producing β-cells. In this study, we show that the pyrrolo-pyrimidine Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor PP2 effectively promotes the endocrine specification of human embryonic stem cell derivatives based on its capacity to induce the expression of proendocrine transcription factors (NGN3, NEUROD1, NKX2.2, and PAX4) and to significantly increase the final yield of insulin-positive cells. We further demonstrate that PP2 inhibits the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and selective inhibition of this kinase is also sufficient to induce early endocrine commitment based on increased expression of NGN3, NEUROD1, and NKX2.2. Additional studies using dominant negative constructs and isolated human fetal pancreata suggest that c-Src is at least partially responsible for inhibiting early endocrine specification. Mechanistically, we propose that inhibition of SFK/FAK signaling can promote endocrine specification by limiting activation of the TGFβR/Smad2/3 pathway. Moreover, we show that inhibition of SFK/FAK signaling suppresses cell growth, increases the expression of the β-cell-associated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57kip2, and simultaneously suppresses the expression of Id1 and Id2. This study has important implications for the derivation of β-cells for the cell-based therapy of diabetes and sheds new light on the signaling events that regulate early endocrine specification. PMID:21852242

  17. Persistent developmental toxicity in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern of permanent damage to the endocrine and nervous systems after developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this study the permanent reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of combined exposure to five endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole...

  18. Vi behøver innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2007-01-01

    . Især hvad angår vores forbrugsmønstre. Her er der behov for at kongeriget Danmark med sine 13 ton CO2-emission pr. person om året lytter. I landet hvor kraftvarmeproduk­tion, vindturbiner og industrial ecology i form af Kalundborg eksperimentet blev født, bør vi ikke også ride på denne nye miljøbølge......? Den amerikanske videnskabsmand Jeremy Rifkin beskriver i sin seneste bog, The European Dream, hvordan europæisk energipolitik, -forskning, -udvikling og relateret industri kan hjælpe os til at bremse vores for øjeblikket eksponentielt stigende CO2-produktion - og hvordan vores globaliseringstankegang...... rent faktisk kan fremme denne indsats. Den eneste udfordring er, at nogen skal igangsætte en økonomisk/industriel revolution, for at drømmen går i opfyldelse. Hvem skal tage ansvar for at sætte denne revolution i gang, og hvordan skal den opnås? Rifkin's patentløsning er inspirerende. Den er kort...

  19. [VI Symposium on "Chemistry of Proteolytic Enzymes"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsh, L D; Rotanova, T V

    2008-01-01

    The VI Symposium on the Chemistry of Proteolytic Enzymes took place in Moscow on April 23-25, 2007. It was dedicated to the memory of Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir Konstantinovich Antonov. At the symposium, 40 reports were delivered and 103 posters were presented in the following sections: (1) expression of genes, isolation and general characterization of proteases; (2) structure-function studies of proteases; (3) regulation of the activity of proteolytic enzymes; (4) regulatory functions of proteolytic enzymes; (5) proteases in biotechnology, protein engineering, and peptide synthesis; and (6) proteolysis and medicine. In addition to Russian scientists, researchers from the United States, the Netherlands, France, Ukraine, Belarus, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan took part in the work of the symposium. Note that, in the five years since the V Symposium, the geography of Russian scientific centers working in the area of proteolysis has been considerably extended. Participating in the forum were researchers from, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Penza, and Stavropol in addition to scientists from Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Petrozavodsk, Kazan, Nizhni Novgorod, and Krasnodar.

  20. Wind tunnel test of musi VI bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Robby; Andika, Matza Gusto; Syariefatunnisa, Risdhiawan, Eri; Hermawan, Budi; Noordiana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Musi VI Bridge is planned to cross the Musi River in Palembang City, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The main span is a steel arch type with 200 m length and side span length is 75 m. Finite element analysis results showed that the bridge has frequency ratio for torsional and heaving mode (torsional frequency/heaving frequency)=1.14. This close to unity value rises concern about aerodynamic behaviour and stability of the bridge deck under wind loading. Sectional static and free vibration wind tunnel test were performed to clarify this phenomena in B2TA3 facility in Serpong, Indonesia. The test followed the draft of Guide of Wind Tunnel Test for Bridges developed by Indonesian Ministry of Public Works. Results from wind tunnel testing show that the bridge is safe from flutter instability and no coupled motion vibration observed. Therefore, low value of frequency ratio has no effect to aerodynamic behaviour of the bridge deck. Vortex-induced vibration in heaving mode occurred in relatively low wind velocity with permissible maximum amplitude value.

  1. Ultrastructural investigation of renomedullary interstitial cells in "endocrine kidney".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavi, B L

    1980-01-01

    In the renomedullary interstitial cells of rats with Selye's "endocrine kidney" in the phase of beginning hypertension there appeared bilateral stress hypergranulation and an ultrastructural pattern of intensive prostaglandin synthesis. In the interstitial tissue of the left medulla there appeared light and dense (fibroblast- or macrophage-like) cells. Along with the stabilization of hypertension a relative degranulation of interstitial cells in the right kidney and an absolute degranulation in the left kidney took place. Necrobiotic changes, appearing in the ischaemic kidney, reflected an exhaustion of morphological substrates of prostaglandin synthesis. The changes in the interstitial cells, possessing endocrine activity, present the decisive links in the genesis of experimental malignant hypertension in rats.

  2. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Amitabha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer′s disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia.

  3. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  4. Purinergic receptors in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    2008-01-01

    The pancreas is a complex gland performing both endocrine and exocrine functions. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that both endocrine and exocrine cells possess purinergic receptors, which influence processes such as insulin secretion and epithelial ion transport. Most commonly......, there is also evidence for other P2 and adenosine receptors in beta cells (P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(6), P2X subtypes and A(1) receptors) and in glucagon-secreting alpha cells (P2X(7), A(2) receptors). In the exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and ATP-hydrolysing and ATP-generating enzymes. P2 receptors...

  5. Elucidating the links between endocrine disruptors and neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Blawas, Ashley M; Gray, Kimberly; Heindel, Jerrold J; Lawler, Cindy P

    2015-06-01

    Recent data indicate that approximately 12% of children in the United States are affected by neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disorders, intellectual disabilities, and autism spectrum disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates a multifactorial etiology for these disorders, with social, physical, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, and chemical toxicants acting together to influence risk. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during the early stages of life can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus alter brain function and disease susceptibility later in life. This article highlights research efforts and pinpoints approaches that could shed light on the possible associations between environmental chemicals that act on the endocrine system and compromised neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  6. Physiological and biochemical responses of halophyte Kalidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a halophyte Kalidium foliatum to salinity were studied. In order to reflect salt-tolerance in K. foliatum and to analyze the physiological and biochemical mechanism for its salt tolerance, salinity threshold and biochemical parameters were studied. A halophyte ...

  7. Craniofacial abnormalities in animal models of mucopolysaccharidoses I, VI, and VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, O; Wortman, J; Harvey, C; Hayden, J; Haskins, M

    1994-01-01

    The genetic mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a family of lysosomal storage diseases resulting from the partial catabolism of several glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Depending on the particular enzyme deficient in activity, the MPS syndromes are defined into groups MPS I through VII, with several subgroups for a total of 10 disorders. In humans, clinical features include dysostosis multiplex, hepatosplenomegaly, hypertelorism, macroglossia, hypoplastic and irregularly shaped teeth, hyperplastic lips and gingiva, facial dysmorphia, corneal clouding, and mental retardation. MPS I (alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency) and VI (arylsulfatase B deficiency) have been described in cats, MPS VII (beta-glucuronidase deficiency) in dogs. Biochemically, these syndromes appear the same as their human counterparts and have similar clinical characteristics. All are inherited as autosomal recessive traits. The purpose of this study was to analyze the craniofacial aspects of these diseases in the animal models and compare these data with descriptions of the human syndromes. A total of 28 live animals were examined. Thirty-one skulls prepared from postmortem specimens were measured directly and radiographed. Controls were closely related family members of the same sex and similar age without the disease, clinically or biochemically. The data indicated that, as in the human syndromes, each is distinct, and the skull bones most severely affected are those of endochondral origin.

  8. Biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Jonathon H; Paganini, Adam W

    2015-06-01

    The change in oceanic carbonate chemistry due to increased atmospheric PCO2  has caused pH to decline in marine surface waters, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). The effects of OA on organisms have been shown to be widespread among diverse taxa from a wide range of habitats. The majority of studies of organismal response to OA are in short-term exposures to future levels of PCO2 . From such studies, much information has been gathered on plastic responses organisms may make in the future that are beneficial or harmful to fitness. Relatively few studies have examined whether organisms can adapt to negative-fitness consequences of plastic responses to OA. We outline major approaches that have been used to study the adaptive potential for organisms to OA, which include comparative studies and experimental evolution. Organisms that inhabit a range of pH environments (e.g. pH gradients at volcanic CO2 seeps or in upwelling zones) have great potential for studies that identify adaptive shifts that have occurred through evolution. Comparative studies have advanced our understanding of adaptation to OA by linking whole-organism responses with cellular mechanisms. Such optimization of function provides a link between genetic variation and adaptive evolution in tuning optimal function of rate-limiting cellular processes in different pH conditions. For example, in experimental evolution studies of organisms with short generation times (e.g. phytoplankton), hundreds of generations of growth under future conditions has resulted in fixed differences in gene expression related to acid-base regulation. However, biochemical mechanisms for adaptive responses to OA have yet to be fully characterized, and are likely to be more complex than simply changes in gene expression or protein modification. Finally, we present a hypothesis regarding an unexplored area for biochemical adaptation to ocean acidification. In this hypothesis, proteins and membranes exposed to the

  9. A Case of Aplasia Cutis Congenita Type VI: Bart Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yasmin Alfayez; Sahar Alsharif; Adel Santli

    2017-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita type VI, also known as Bart syndrome, is a rare genetic mechanobullous disorder characterized by congenital localized absence of skin, mucocutaneous blistering lesions, and nail abnormalities...

  10. Stark broadening parameter tables for F VI and Cl VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a semiclassical approach, we have calculated electron−, proton−, and He III−impact line widths and shifts for 2 F VI and 10 Cl VII multiplets as a function of temperature and perturber density.

  11. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  12. Expression and distribution of type VI collagen in gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, S; Magro, G; Colombatti, A

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the distribution of type VI collagen in 36 cases of routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded gynecomastia using an immunoperoxidase method for light microscopic visualization. Four samples of normal male mammary gland tissue were also included as controls. A protease predigestion was essential for the visualization of this extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein. In normal male breast, no immunoreaction for type VI collagen was detected in the stroma surrounding the ducts. Gynecomastia was classified into three histological types: florid (type I), fibrous (type II), and intermediate (type III). Type VI collagen was differentially expressed in the periductal stroma of all types. This collagen was markedly expressed at the early disease stage (type I) when the periductal stroma is highly cellular and vascular. Its expression decreased when periductal stroma undergoing fibrotic transformation (type III) and completely disappeared from the dense periductal stroma of fibrous stage (type II). These findings suggest that type VI collagen is involved in the ECM remodelling occurring in gynecomastia.

  13. INTELSAT VI artist concept drawing titled 'Ocean Bridge'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) VI artist concept drawing titled 'Ocean Bridge' shows satellite built by Hughes Aircraft Company and owned and operated by INTELSAT, a 122-nation cooperative, orbiting the Earth.

  14. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Ana M. Rosa da [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica do Algarve, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, DQF, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Matos, Antonio Pedro [Servico de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Curry Cabral, Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  15. Thermodynamical analysis of the fission product release in the ORNL VI-3 and VI-5 tests; Analyse thermodynamique du relachement des produits de fission dans les essais ORNL VI-3 et VI-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defoort, J.; Froment, K

    1998-06-01

    The thermodynamical equilibrium hypothesis has been applied to the tests ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) VI-3 and VI-5 (Vertical Induction heated), to study fission release products. Irradiated fuel samples were heated under oxidizing (VI-3) and reducing (VI-5) controlled atmosphere. They can be compared to the Vercors 4 and 5 tests. The thermodynamical calculus results of barium and ruthenium fission products release, agree in the lump with measures, whatever the gas phase nature. The strontium release calculus under reducing atmosphere, is largely upper than those measured and correctly evaluated under oxidizing atmosphere. These results confirm those obtained for Vercors 4 and 5 and show the interest of the select model. (A.L.B.)

  16. In vitro screening for endocrine disruptive activity in selected South African harbours and river mouths

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Truter, JC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Various waterborne anthropogenic contaminants disrupt the endocrine systems of wildlife and humans, targeting reproductive pathways, among others. Very little is known, however, regarding the occurrence of endocrine disruptive activity in South...

  17. Developing brain as an endocrine organ: a paradoxical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrumov, M V

    2010-06-01

    The maintaining of homeostasis in the organism in response to a variable environment is provided by the highly hierarchic neuroendocrine-immune system. The crucial component of this system is the hypothalamus providing the endocrine regulation of key peripheral organs, and the adenohypophysis. In this case, neuron-derived signaling molecules (SM) are delivered to the blood vessels in hypothalamic "neurohaemal organs" lacking the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the posterior lobe of the pituitary and the median eminence. The release of SM to the blood vessels in most other brain regions is prohibited by BBB. According to the conventional concept, the development of the neuroendocrine system in ontogenesis begins with the "maturation" of peripheral endocrine glands which first are self-governed and then operate under the adenohypophysial control. Meantime, the brain maturation is under the control of SM secreted by endocrine glands of the developing organism and coming from the placenta and maternal organism. The hypothalamus is involved in the neuroendocrine regulation only after its full maturation that is followed by the conversion of the opened-looped neuroendocrine system to the closed-looped system as in adulthood. Neurons of the developing brain begin to secrete SM shortly after their origin and long before the establishment of specific interneuronal relations providing initially autocrine and paracrine morphogenetic influence on differentiating target neurons. Taking into account that the brain lacks BBB over this ontogenetic period, we hypothesized that it operates as the multipotent endocrine gland secreting SM to the general circulation and thereby providing the endocrine regulation of peripheral organs and the brain. The term "multipotent" means that the spectrum of the brain-derived circulating SM and their occupancy at the periphery in the developing organism should greatly exceed those in adulthood. In order to test this hypothesis, gonadotropin

  18. VI Congrés Internacional de Conflictologia

    OpenAIRE

    Planell Estany, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Discurs del rector de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Josep A. Planell Estany, amb motiu del VI Congrés Internacional de Conflictologia. Discurso del rector de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Josep A. Planell Estany, con motivo del VI Congreso Internacional de Conflictología. Speech by the president of the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Josep A. Planell Estany,on the occasion of the Sixth International Congress on Conflict Resolution.

  19. Co-culture of chondrons and mesenchymal stromal cells reduces the loss of collagen VI and improves extracellular matrix production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owida, H A; De Las Heras Ruiz, T; Dhillon, A; Yang, Y; Kuiper, N J

    2017-12-01

    Adult articular chondrocytes are surrounded by a pericellular matrix (PCM) to form a chondron. The PCM is rich in hyaluronan, proteoglycans, and collagen II, and it is the exclusive location of collagen VI in articular cartilage. Collagen VI anchors the chondrocyte to the PCM. It has been suggested that co-culture of chondrons with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) might enhance extracellular matrix (ECM) production. This co-culture study investigates whether MSCs help to preserve the PCM and increase ECM production. Primary bovine chondrons or chondrocytes or rat MSCs were cultured alone to establish a baseline level for ECM production. A xenogeneic co-culture monolayer model using rat MSCs (20, 50, and 80%) was established. PCM maintenance and ECM production were assessed by biochemical assays, immunofluorescence, and histological staining. Co-culture of MSCs with chondrons enhanced ECM matrix production, as compared to chondrocyte or chondron only cultures. The ratio 50:50 co-culture of MSCs and chondrons resulted in the highest increase in GAG production (18.5 ± 0.54 pg/cell at day 1 and 11 ± 0.38 pg/cell at day 7 in 50:50 co-culture versus 16.8 ± 0.61 pg/cell at day 1 and 10 ± 0.45 pg/cell at day 7 in chondron monoculture). The co-culture of MSCs with chondrons appeared to decelerate the loss of the PCM as determined by collagen VI expression, whilst the expression of high-temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HtrA1) demonstrated an inverse relationship to that of the collagen VI. Together, this implies that MSCs directly or indirectly inhibited HtrA1 activity and the co-culture of MSCs with chondrons enhanced ECM synthesis and the preservation of the PCM.

  20. [Novel concepts in biology of diffuse endocrine system: results and future investigations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse endocrine system is a largest part of endocrine system of vertebrates. Recend findings showed that DES-cells are not neuroectodermal but have ectodermal, mesodermal, and entodermal ontogeny. The article reviews novel concept of diffuse endocrine system anatomy and physiology, functional role of DES hormones and poorly investigated aspects like DES-cell morphology, hormones secretion in normal and pathologic conditions. Further research of diffuse endocrine system has a great significance for biochemistry, morphology, and clinical medicine.

  1. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    -called endocrine disrupters. Precocious puberty has been described in several case reports of accidental exposure to oestrogenic compounds in cosmetic products, food and pharmaceuticals. Local epidemics of premature thelarche have also been suggested to be linked to endocrine disrupters. Children adopted from...... developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  2. Role of metal d states in II-VI semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, S.; Zunger, A.

    1988-05-15

    All-electron band-structure calculations and photoemission experiments on II-VI semiconductors both exhibit a metal d subband inside the main valence band. It has nevertheless been customary in pseudopotential and tight-binding approaches to neglect the metal d band by choosing Hamiltonian parameters which place this band inside the chemically inert atomic cores. Using all-electron self-consistent electronic-structure techniques (which treat the outermost d electrons on the same footing as other valence electrons) and comparing the results to those obtained by methods which remove the d band from the valence spectrum, we study their effects on valence properties. For II-VI semiconductors we find that p-d repulsion and hybridization (i) lower the band gaps, (ii) reduce the cohesive energy, (iii) increase the equilibrium lattice parameters, (iv) reduce the spin-orbit splitting, (v) alter the sign of the crystal-field splitting, (vi) increase the valence-band offset between common-anion II-VI semiconductors, and (vii) modify the charge distributions of various II-VI systems and their alloys. p-d repulsion is also shown to be responsible for the occurrence of deep Cu acceptor levels in II-VI semiconductors (compared with shallow acceptors of Zn in III-V), for the anomalously small band gaps in chalcopyrites, and for the negative exchange splitting in ferromagnetic MnTe.

  3. Vi har intet lært - hvornår lærer vi det?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten

    2016-01-01

    WHO anså fra i går ikke længere ebola for at være en trussel mod global folkesundhed, så fra i dag er kameraerne slukket i Vestafrika og vi er tilbage hvor vi startede. SDG målene skal have et dansk udtryk, men hvad er de danske kompetencer på globalt plan når sundhed ikke længere er en kerneakti......WHO anså fra i går ikke længere ebola for at være en trussel mod global folkesundhed, så fra i dag er kameraerne slukket i Vestafrika og vi er tilbage hvor vi startede. SDG målene skal have et dansk udtryk, men hvad er de danske kompetencer på globalt plan når sundhed ikke længere er en...

  4. Complexation of uranium(VI) with peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkleit, Astrid; Moll, Henry; Bernhard, Gert

    2009-07-21

    We investigated the interaction of UO(2)(2+) with peptidoglycan (PG), the main part of the outer membrane of Gram-positive bacteria, by potentiometric titration and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) over a wide pH (2.0 to 9.0) and concentration range (10(-5) to 10(-4) M U(vi), 0.01 to 0.2 g L(-1) PG). With potentiometry two different dissociation constants for the carboxyl sites of glutamic acid and diaminopimelic acid (pK(a) = 4.55 +/- 0.02 and 6.31 +/- 0.01), and one averaged pK(a) for hydroxyl and amino groups (which are not distinguishable) (9.56 +/- 0.03) and the site densities could be identified. With potentiometry three different uranyl PG complexes were ascertained: two 1 : 1 uranyl carboxyl complexes R-COO-UO(2)(+), one with the glutamic acid carboxyl group (log beta(110) = 4.02 +/- 0.03), which has a very small formation ratio, and one with the diaminopimelic acid carboxyl group (log beta(110) = 7.28 +/- 0.03), and a mixed 1 : 1 : 1 complex with additional hydroxyl or amino coordination, R-COO-UO(2)((+))-A(i)-R (A(i) = NH(2) or O(-)) (log beta(1110) = 14.95 +/- 0.02). With TRLFS, also three, but different, species could be identified: a 1 : 1 uranyl carboxyl complex R-COO-UO(2)(+) (log beta(110) = 6.9 +/- 0.2), additionally a 1 : 2 uranyl carboxyl complex (R-COO)(2)-UO(2) (log beta(120) = 12.1 +/- 0.2), both with diaminopimelic acid carboxyl groups, and the mixed species R-COO-UO(2)((+))-A(i)-R (A(i) = NH(2) or O(-)) (log beta(1110) = 14.5 +/- 0.1). The results are in accordance within the errors of determination.

  5. 38 CFR 4.119 - Schedule of ratings-endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-endocrine system. 4.119 Section 4.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Endocrine System § 4.119 Schedule of ratings—endocrine system. Rating 7900Hyperthyroidism Thyroid enlargement, tachycardia (more than 100 beats per...

  6. Two Virus Based Endocrine Disruptor Assays Effective Across Vertebrate Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of hormone mimics, or endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC’s), in the environment are increasing. Sources range from agricultural run–off, pharmaceuticals in waste water, to industrial operations. Current levels of contamination are sufficient to alter sexual develo...

  7. Psychotropic medication during endocrine treatment for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G.H.; Musters, R.F.; Bos, H.J.; Schroder, C.P.; Mourits, M.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, [No Value

    Psychological problems are frequently mentioned in women treated for breast cancer in whom depression is mentioned as the most common disorder. The aim was to study the prescription of psychotropic medication in women with endocrine treatment for breast cancer in women in our prospective and

  8. High efficiency endocrine operation protocol: From design to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarella, Marco A; Lahrichi, Nadia; Cloutier, Fabienne; Kleiman, Simcha; Payne, Richard J; Rosenberg, Lawrence

    2016-10-01

    We developed a high efficiency endocrine operative protocol based on a mathematical programming approach, process reengineering, and value-stream mapping to increase the number of operations completed per day without increasing operating room time at a tertiary-care, academic center. Using this protocol, a case-control study of 72 patients undergoing endocrine operation during high efficiency days were age, sex, and procedure-matched to 72 patients undergoing operation during standard days. The demographic profile, operative times, and perioperative complications were noted. The average number of cases per 8-hour workday in the high efficiency and standard operating rooms were 7 and 5, respectively. Mean procedure times in both groups were similar. The turnaround time (mean ± standard deviation) in the high efficiency group was 8.5 (±2.7) minutes as compared with 15.4 (±4.9) minutes in the standard group (P < .001). Transient postoperative hypocalcemia was 6.9% (5/72) and 8.3% (6/72) for the high efficiency and standard groups, respectively (P = .99). In this study, patients undergoing high efficiency endocrine operation had similar procedure times and perioperative complications compared with the standard group. The proposed high efficiency protocol seems to better utilize operative time and decrease the backlog of patients waiting for endocrine operation in a country with a universal national health care program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Imaging Finding of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Tae Jun; Cho, Hee Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with characteristic clinical and radiological manifestations. Many reports on MEN1 have been published; however, no cases of radiologically diagnosed MEN1 have been reported. Therefore, we report on a radiologically diagnosed case of MEN1 with clinical symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer.

  10. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders Associated with Human Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Many reports have described endocrine and metabolic disorders in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection . This article reviewed various reports in the literature in order to increase the awareness and thus the need for early intervention when necessary. DATA SOURCE: Data were obtained from ...

  11. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS AND REPRODUCTION IN VERTEBRATE WILDLIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fields of toxicology, endocrinology, and reproductive physiology recently have combined resources to study the effects of endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) in wildlife populations. EDCs include a wide variety of chemicals that are only related by the ability to disrupt...

  12. Influence of Endocrine Activity on Larval Development in Busseola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the role of juvenile and moulting hormones in development of Busseola fusca. Morphometric measurements were used to distinguish differences in endocrine activity between non-diapause and diapause development with regard to the prothoracic glands and the corpora allata. The corpora ...

  13. The impact of opioids on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Nathaniel; Mazer, Norman A

    2009-02-01

    Opioids have been used for medicinal and analgesic purposes for centuries. However, their negative effects on the endocrine system, which have been known for some times, are barely discussed in modern medicine. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of opioids on the endocrine system. A review of the English language literature on preclinical and clinical studies of any type on the influence of opioids on the endocrine system was conducted. Preliminary recommendations for monitoring and managing these problems were provided. Long-term opioid therapy for either addiction or chronic pain often induces hypogonadism owing to central suppression of hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Symptoms of opioid-induced hypogonadism include loss of libido, infertility, fatigue, depression, anxiety, loss of muscle strength and mass, osteoporosis, and compression fractures in both men and women; impotence in men; and menstrual irregularities and galactorrhea in women. In view of the increased use of opioids for chronic pain, it has become increasingly important to monitor patients taking opioids and manage endocrine complications. Therefore, patients on opioid therapy should be routinely screened for such symptoms and for laboratory abnormalities in sex hormones. Opioid-induced hypogonadism seems to be a common complication of therapeutic or illicit opioid use. Patients on long-term opioid therapy should be prospectively monitored, and in cases of opioid-induced hypogonadism, we recommend nonopioid pain management, opioid rotation, or sex hormone supplementation after careful consideration of the risks and benefits.

  14. Spreeta-based biosensor assays for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; meulenberg, E.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta™-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  15. Review: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (phenol and phthalates) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endocrinedisrupting chemicals have been reported in water, sediment and serum, as well as in fish tissue samples, at a level that could trigger endocrine disruption in humans and wildlife. Although some monitoring has been reported, particularly in water systems within the country, information on EDCs in other ...

  16. Rhythms in the endocrine system of fish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Azpeleta, Clara; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The environment which living organisms inhabit is not constant and many factors, such as light, temperature, and food availability, display cyclic and predictable variations. To adapt to these cyclic changes, animals present biological rhythms in many of their physiological variables, timing their functions to occur when the possibility of success is greatest. Among these variables, many endocrine factors have been described as displaying rhythms in vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to provide a thorough review of the existing knowledge on the rhythms of the endocrine system of fish by examining the hormones that show rhythmicity, how environmental factors control these rhythms and the variation in the responses of the endocrine system depending on the time of the day. We mainly focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which can be considered as the master axis of the endocrine system of vertebrates and regulates a great variety of functions, including reproduction, growth, metabolism, energy homeostasis, stress response, and osmoregulation. In addition, the rhythms of other hormones, such as melatonin and the factors, produced in the gastrointestinal system of fish are reviewed.

  17. The peripheral GABAergic system as a target in endocrine disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladkevich, A; Korf, J; Hakobyan, VP; Melkonyan, KV

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its well-recognized function as a cerebral inhibitory transmitter, less well established is the role of GABA in peripheral nervous and endocrine systems. We Summarize current evidence that GABA serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the autonomic nervous system and as a

  18. Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Taxvig, Camilla; Christiansen, Sofie

    2010-01-01

    Parabens are preservatives used in a wide range of cosmetic products, including products for children, and some are permitted in foods. However, there is concern for endocrine disrupting effects. This paper critically discusses the conclusions of recent reviews and original research papers...

  19. Pollution by endocrine disrupting estrogens in aquatic ecosystems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane Erike-Etchie

    This study aimed to assess the extent of pollution of aquatic ecosystems by endocrine disrupting .... Water from these tributaries is collected in the Mindu dam whose purpose is to supply drinking water to Morogoro urban area but also used for fishing activities. ... were supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Texas, USA.

  20. Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Anders Aagaard; Plass, Mireya; Krogh, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) and to be associated with type I and II diabetes, pre-eclampsia, fragile X-associated premature ovarian insufficiency, ectopic Cushing syndrome, and many cancer diseases, including several types of endocrine tumor diseases. Perspectives: Recent developments in high...

  1. Endocrine Disruptor Degradation by Photocatalytic Pilot Plant Unit.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spáčilová, Lucie; Morozová, Magdalena; Mašín, P.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, František; Dytrych, Pavel; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena; Šolcová, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2016), s. 4613-4620 ISSN 2458-9403 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020700 Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984398 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * titanium dioxide * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M)

  2. Paediatric Endocrine Disorders at the University College Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects/Methods: A review of records of children who presented at University College Hospital, Ibadan with paediatric endocrine disorders from 2002 to 2009 was ... Rickets and metabolic disorders constituted 56.4% of patients; Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 12.8%, adrenal disoders in 10.6%, pubertal disorders in ...

  3. Sleep and Quality of Life in Endocrine Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise; Verster, Joris; PandiPerumal, S.R.; Streiner, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary It is well established that a close relationship exists between sleep and hormones of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. Sleep has an electrophysiological component and an endocrine component, i.e., the distinct patterns of hormone secretion. Both the electrophysiological and the hormonal

  4. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (phenol and phthalates) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been increasing concern about the impacts of exposure to chemical compounds with endocrine disrupting activi- ties in the environment, ... natural and synthetic organic compounds, but are mostly man- made products such as ...... and organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and semi-volatile organic compounds in ...

  5. Endocrine Hypertension | Elamin | Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is noted in both adults and children but it is more relevant for children where it comes second to renal hypertension, the common cause of hypertension in that age group. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 3 (3) 2008: pp.

  6. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-01-01

    Jan 1, 1998 ... occurs as a component of either multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A, comprising MTC, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism, or the rarer. MEN type 28 characterised by MTC, phaeochromocytoma,. Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Natal, Durban. R J Pegoraro. BSc, PhD.

  7. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".

  8. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Yoshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems. PMID:28053803

  9. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  10. 76 FR 19692 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... that causes a hormonal imbalance. When an endocrine gland functions abnormally, producing either too... insulin, impairing glucose absorption and metabolism. Treatment of type 2 DM generally requires lifestyle... blood glucose that may produce acute and long-term complications. Acute complications of hyperglycemia...

  11. Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S V S

    2014-07-01

    An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.

  12. Endocrine Disruption and In Vitro Ecotoxicology: Recent Advances and Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Kienle, Cornelia; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Oehlmann, Jörg

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling. Omnipresent in the environment, they can cause adverse effects in a wide range of wildlife. Accordingly, Endocrine Disruption is one focal area of ecotoxicology. Because EDCs induce complex response patterns in vivo via a wide range of mechanisms of action, in vitro techniques have been developed to reduce and understand endocrine toxicity. In this review we revisit the evidence for endocrine disruption in diverse species and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Based on this, we examine the battery of in vitro bioassays currently in use in ecotoxicological research and discuss the following key questions. Why do we use in vitro techniques? What endpoints are we looking at? Which applications are we using in vitro bioassays for? How can we put in vitro data into a broader context? And finally, what is the practical relevance of in vitro data? In critically examining these questions, we review the current state-of-the-art of in vitro (eco)toxicology, highlight important limitations and challenges, and discuss emerging trends and future research needs.

  13. Effects of endocrine disrupting heavy metals on pituitary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of hypogonadism and visceral obesity (VO) was recently demonstrated in male auto-mechanics occupationally exposed to endocrine disruptors (ED)-lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, known to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The effects of exposure to these EDs on pituitary and gonadal ...

  14. Steroidogenesis in vitro : towards relevant models for endocrine disruptor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, M.J.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357301137

    2016-01-01

    Starting our search for in vitro alternative methods to screen for steroidogenesis toxicity, we focused on the effects of (suggested) endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme activity. CYP17 is responsible for conversion of progestagens to dehydroepiandrosterone

  15. Pollution by endocrine disrupting estrogens in aquatic ecosystems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Morogoro urban and peri-urban areas. The main sources of fresh water for domestic uses, fishing and agricultural activities in the study areas including the Mindu dam catchment area, Ngerengere and Morogoro Rivers were assessed. The endocrine disrupting estrogens in water samples were ...

  16. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems.

  17. The Role of ARX in Human Pancreatic Endocrine Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Blair K; Asadi, Ali; Baker, Robert K; Webber, Travis D; Wang, Rennian; Itoh, Masayuki; Hayashi, Masaharu; Miyata, Rie; Akashi, Takumi; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offers a model system to explore human development. Humans with mutations in the transcription factor Aristaless Related Homeobox (ARX) often suffer from the syndrome X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia (XLAG), affecting many cell types including those of the pancreas. Indeed, XLAG pancreatic islets lack glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide-positive cells but retain somatostatin, insulin, and ghrelin-positive cells. To further examine the role of ARX in human pancreatic endocrine development, we utilized genomic editing in hESCs to generate deletions in ARX. ARX knockout hESCs retained pancreatic differentiation capacity and ARX knockout endocrine cells were biased toward somatostatin-positive cells (94% of endocrine cells) with reduced pancreatic polypeptide (rarely detected), glucagon (90% reduced) and insulin-positive (65% reduced) lineages. ARX knockout somatostatin-positive cells shared expression patterns with human fetal and adult δ-cells. Differentiated ARX knockout cells upregulated PAX4, NKX2.2, ISL1, HHEX, PCSK1, PCSK2 expression while downregulating PAX6 and IRX2. Re-expression of ARX in ARX knockout pancreatic progenitors reduced HHEX and increased PAX6 and insulin expression following differentiation. Taken together these data suggest that ARX plays a key role in pancreatic endocrine fate specification of pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, glucagon and insulin positive cells from hESCs.

  18. Formaldehyde removal from wastewater and air by using UV, ferrate(VI) and UV/ferrate(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Salari, Malihe; Talaei, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Marzieh; Eskandari, Zeynab

    2016-12-15

    Formaldehyde removal from an air stream absorbed into a water stream in a packed bed continuously and then removed by employing a combination of UV and ferrate(VI) as a highly-powerful oxidant in a continuous stirred tank. In addition, the removal of formaldehyde from water was investigated in both batch and continuous modes. The results of the study performed on formaldehyde-contaminated water treatment can be used for both air and water treatment process design. The primary objective of this study is to compare the performance of using UV and ferrate(VI) individually with that of using UV/ferrate(VI) simultaneously to remove formaldehyde from both air and water. Moreover, the effects of several factors such as pH, ferrate(VI) concentration and temperature on formaldehyde removal from water using ferrate(VI) method were evaluated. The results of the current study in batch condition showed that the best initial pH and ferrate(VI) concentration to obtain the highest formaldehyde removal are 2 and 1 mg/l, respectively. The results of this part of research also reveal that temperatures rise from 25 °C to 50 °C increases formaldehyde removal from 69% to 97%; however, further increase in temperature has an adverse effect on removal efficiency. The combination of UV and ferrate(VI) enhances formaldehyde removal efficiency to very close to 100% within 35 min. In continuous air stream treatment, maximum formaldehyde removal of 94% was obtained by using a packed bed scrubber with gas over liquid flow rates ratio of 1.28 m(3)/m(3). Although the results of this study shows that ferrate(VI) method for removal of formaldehyde can be considered as a promising alternative for both water and air treatment, further economic studies are required for this process to be commercialized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomarkers of effect in endocrine disruption: how to link a functional assay to an adverse outcome pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lorenzetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of in vitro testing strategies may achieve a cost-effective generation of comprehensive datasets on a large number of chemicals, according to the requirements of the European Regulation REACH. Much emphasis is placed on in vitro methods based on subcellular mechanisms (e.g., nuclear receptor interaction, but it is necessary to define the predictive value of molecular or biochemical changes within an adverse outcome pathway (AOP. AOP pivots on the description of the flow from a molecular initiating event through a cascade of intermediate events needed to produce a specific adverse effect at organism level: downstream responses at cell level are, therefore, essential to define an AOP. Several in vitro assays are based on human cell lines representative of endocrine-targeted tissues (e.g., prostate and on functional biomarkers of clinical relevance (e.g., PSA secretion in human prostate epithelial cells. We discuss the implementation of such functional biomarkers in the AOP context.

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia similar to human subtype 2A in a dog: Medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Soler Arias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human multiple endocrine neoplasia subtype 2A (MEN 2A is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma in the same individual. In this report, a case of a female Rottweiler with medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma was described. Clinical manifestations of muscle weakness, polydipsia, polyuria, diarrhea and weight loss were observed. Two adrenal neoplasms were identified incidentally by ultrasonography, and tumor in the left thyroid lobe was identified by palpation. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed by biochemical testing. Histopathology report was consistent with diagnosis of bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for calcitonin and synaptophysin, and negative for thyroglobulin, which confirmed medullary thyroid carcinoma. This case in a dog is presenting neoplastic characteristics similar to human MEN 2A and emphasizing the importance of using immunohistochemistry for confirmation.

  1. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a biorefinery concept for biological production of chemicals, drugs, feed and fuels using plant biomass as raw material in well-defined cell-factories. Among the important goals is the discovery of new biocatalysts for production of enzymes, biochemicals and fuels and already our...... screening of a large collection of fungal strains isolated from natural habitats have resulted in identification of strains with high production of hydrolytic enzymes and excretion of organic acids. Our research focuses on creating a fungal platform based on synthetic biology for developing new cell...

  2. Biochemical structure of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korakhashvili, A; Kacharava, T; Kiknavelidze, N

    2007-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal herb. It is common knowledge that its medicinal properties are conditioned on biologically active complex substances of Carotin (Provitamin A), Stearin, Triterpiniod, Plavonoid, Kumarin, macro and micro compound elements. Because of constant need in raw material of Calendula officinalis, features of its ontogenetic development agro-biological qualities in various eco regions of Georgia were investigated. The data of biologically active compounds, biochemical structure and the maintenance both in flowers and in others parts of plant is presented; the pharmacological activity and importance in medicine was reviewed.

  3. Biochemical markers of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, M; Burlina, A

    1991-06-01

    Most liver diseases lead to a pathobiochemical reaction termed liver fibrosis. This is a dynamic process implying different rates of progression or regression. Thus, histological examination of a liver biopsy is essential for a diagnosis but biochemical tests are necessary for assessing the activity of the process and monitoring its evolution. We review the most important constituents of liver connective tissue and the biochemical tests developed for evaluating liver fibrosis. The aminopeptide of type III procollagen is the most widely used parameter: two different radioimmunoassays have been developed with different affinities for the two circulating forms of the molecule. The determination of serum P3P reveals an elevation of blood levels both in acute and chronic liver diseases. In the first, serum P3P is an index of hepatic necrosis and inflammation which correlates with other biochemical parameters. In the second it is an index of active fibrogenesis. Moreover, in primary biliary cirrhosis this parameter is an independent prognostic variable and an important predictor of survival. Other immunoassays exist for different collagen cleavage products, but their clinical value is not established. Laminin and fibronectin are the principal structural glycoproteins in liver. Fibronectin determination does not seem to be of clinical value in liver disease. In contrast, serum laminin correlates with the severity of portal venous pressure in advanced liver disease. Its concentration parallels the severity of varices and may indicate the risk of bleeding. Hyaluronate is a high molecular weight polysaccharide, raised serum concentrations reflect both its increased synthesis by activated fibroblasts and its impaired catabolism by the liver. Thus, it may be useful for evaluating and monitoring the progression of chronic liver disease. The measurement of the activity of prolyl 4-hydroxylase as well as that of lysine oxidase and other enzymes has been proposed, but their

  4. Endocrine system on chip for a diabetes treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dao Thi Thuy; van Noort, Danny; Jeong, In-Kyung; Park, Sungsu

    2017-02-21

    The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion. Thus, we constructed a co-culture of intestinal-pancreatic cells to measure the effect of glucose on the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the L-cell line (GLUTag) and insulin from the pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1). After three days of culture, both cell lines formed aggregates, exhibited 3D cell morphology, and showed good viability (>95%). We separately measured the dynamic profile of GLP-1 and insulin release at glucose concentrations of 0.5 and 20 mM, as well as the combined effect of GLP-1 on insulin production at these glucose concentrations. In response to glucose stimuli, GLUTag and INS-1 cells produced higher amounts of GLP-1 and insulin, respectively, compared to a static 2D cell culture. INS-1 combined with GLUTag cells exhibited an even higher insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. At higher glucose concentrations, the diabetes model on chip showed faster saturation of the insulin level. Our results suggest that the endocrine system developed in this study is a useful tool for observing dynamical changes in endocrine hormones (GLP-1 and insulin) in a glucose-dependent environment. Moreover, it can potentially be used to screen GLP-1 analogues and natural insulin and GLP-1 stimulants for diabetes treatment.

  5. Concurrent endocrine and other surgical procedures: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rachel; Yen, Tina W F; Doffek, Kara; Carr, Azadeh A; Wilson, Stuart D; Evans, Douglas B; Wang, Tracy S

    2017-05-01

    The number of endocrine procedures, specifically parathyroidectomy, thyroidectomy, and adrenalectomy, being performed is increasing. There is a paucity of literature on the feasibility of combining these procedures with other surgical procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of performing concurrent surgical procedures on postoperative outcomes. This is a single institution retrospective review of multiple prospectively maintained databases of patients who underwent elective thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, and/or adrenalectomy in combination with another procedure. The other procedures included soft tissue, breast or hernia, abdominal major, abdominal minor, cervical, and "other". Demographics, operative details, length-of-stay, and 30-d outcomes were reviewed. "Endocrine-specific" complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, cervical wound infection, hematoma, and other. The cohort comprised 104 patients. Overall, 19 (18%) patients had 21 complications, including endocrine-specific complications in eleven (11%) patients. These eleven complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (n = 3; 3%), hematoma (n = 2; 2%), wound infection (n = 1; 1%), transient hypoparathyroidism (n = 2; 2%), and other (n = 3; 3%). The remaining complications included three (3%) general complications, six (6%) patients with complications related to the concurrent procedure, and one patient who underwent an open adrenalectomy and hysterectomy and developed a midline wound dehiscence, which could not be specifically attributed to either procedure. Less than 5% of patients undergoing a surgical endocrine procedure underwent a concurrent procedure, ranging from soft tissue to major abdominal. Short-term endocrine-specific complications were managed safely, suggesting that concurrent procedures can be considered, with minimal effect on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Training our future endocrine surgeons: a look at the endocrine surgery operative experience of U.S. surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarebczan, Barbara; McDonald, Robert; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Leverson, Glen; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S

    2010-12-01

    During the last 10 years, the number of endocrine procedures performed in the United States has increased significantly. We sought to determine whether this has translated into an increase in operative volume for general surgery and otolaryngology residents. We evaluated records from the Resident Statistic Summaries of the Residency Review Committee (RRC) for U.S. general surgery and otolaryngology residents for the years 2004-2008, specifically examining data on thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies. Between 2004 and 2008, the average endocrine case volume of U.S. general surgery and otolaryngology residents increased by approximately 15%, but otolaryngology residents performed more than twice as many operations as U.S. general surgery residents. The growth in case volume was mostly from increases in the number of thyroidectomies performed by U.S. general surgery and otolaryngology residents (17.9 to 21.8, P = .007 and 46.5 to 54.4, P = .04). Overall, otolaryngology residents also performed more parathyroidectomies than their general surgery counterparts (11.6 vs 8.8, P = .007). Although there has been an increase in the number of endocrine cases performed by graduating U.S. general surgery residents, this is significantly smaller than that of otolaryngology residents. To remain competitive, general surgery residents wishing to practice endocrine surgery may need to pursue additional fellowship training. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular evolution of type VI intermediate filament proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Michel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanabin, transitin and nestin are type VI intermediate filament (IF proteins that are developmentally regulated in frogs, birds and mammals, respectively. Tanabin is expressed in the growth cones of embryonic vertebrate neurons, whereas transitin and nestin are found in myogenic and neurogenic cells. Another type VI IF protein, synemin, is expressed in undifferentiated and mature muscle cells of birds and mammals. In addition to an IF-typical α-helical core domain, type VI IF proteins are characterized by a long C-terminal tail often containing distinct repeated motifs. The molecular evolution of type VI IF proteins remains poorly studied. Results To examine the evolutionary history of type VI IF proteins, sequence comparisons, BLAST searches, synteny studies and phylogenic analyses were performed. This study provides new evidence that tanabin, transitin and nestin are indeed orthologous type VI IF proteins. It demonstrates that tanabin, transitin and nestin genes share intron positions and sequence identities, have a similar chromosomal context and display closely related positions in phylogenic analyses. Despite this homology, fast evolution rates of their C-terminal extremity have caused the appearance of repeated motifs with distinct biological activities. In particular, our in silico and in vitro analyses of their tail domain have shown that (avian transitin, but not (mammalian nestin, contains a repeat domain displaying nucleotide hydrolysis activity. Conclusion These analyses of the evolutionary history of the IF proteins fit with a model in which type VI IFs form a branch distinct from NF proteins and are composed of two major proteins: synemin and nestin orthologs. Rapid evolution of the C-terminal extremity of nestin orthologs could be responsible for their divergent functions.

  8. Expert recommendations for the laboratory diagnosis of MPS VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, T; Bodamer, O A; Burin, M G; D'Almeida, V; Fietz, M; Giugliani, R; Hawley, S M; Hendriksz, C J; Hwu, W L; Ketteridge, D; Lukacs, Z; Mendelsohn, N J; Miller, N; Pasquali, M; Schenone, A; Schoonderwoerd, K; Winchester, B; Harmatz, P

    2012-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (arylsulfatase B, ASB). This enzyme is required for the degradation of dermatan sulfate. In its absence, dermatan sulfate accumulates in cells and is excreted in large quantities in urine. Specific therapeutic intervention is available; however, accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial for maximal benefit. To better understand the current practices for diagnosis and to establish diagnostic guidelines, an international MPS VI laboratory diagnostics scientific summit was held in February of 2011 in Miami, Florida. The various steps in the diagnosis of MPS VI were discussed including urinary glycosaminoglycan (uGAG) analysis, enzyme activity analysis, and molecular analysis. The following conclusions were reached. Dilute urine samples pose a significant problem for uGAG analysis and MPS VI patients can be missed by quantitative uGAG testing alone as dermatan sulfate may not always be excreted in large quantities. Enzyme activity analysis is universally acknowledged as a key component of diagnosis; however, several caveats must be considered and the appropriate use of reference enzymes is essential. Molecular analysis supports enzyme activity test results and is essential for carrier testing, subsequent genetic counseling, and prenatal testing. Overall the expert panel recommends caution in the use of uGAG screening alone to rule out or confirm the diagnosis of MPS VI and acknowledges enzyme activity analysis as a critical component of diagnosis. Measurement of another sulfatase enzyme to exclude multiple sulfatase deficiency was recommended prior to the initiation of therapy. When feasible, the use of molecular testing as part of the diagnosis is encouraged. A diagnostic algorithm for MPS VI is provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Type VI Secretion System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachani, Abderrahman; Lossi, Nadine S.; Hamilton, Alexander; Jones, Cerith; Bleves, Sophie; Albesa-Jové, David; Filloux, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium causing chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Such infections are associated with an active type VI secretion system (T6SS), which consists of about 15 conserved components, including the AAA+ ATPase, ClpV. The T6SS secretes two categories of proteins, VgrG and Hcp. Hcp is structurally similar to a phage tail tube component, whereas VgrG proteins show similarity to the puncturing device at the tip of the phage tube. In P. aeruginosa, three T6SSs are known. The expression of H1-T6SS genes is controlled by the RetS sensor. Here, 10 vgrG genes were identified in the PAO1 genome, among which three are co-regulated with H1-T6SS, namely vgrG1a/b/c. Whereas VgrG1a and VgrG1c were secreted in a ClpV1-dependent manner, secretion of VgrG1b was ClpV1-independent. We show that VgrG1a and VgrG1c form multimers, which confirmed the VgrG model predicting trimers similar to the tail spike. We demonstrate that Hcp1 secretion requires either VgrG1a or VgrG1c, which may act independently to puncture the bacterial envelope and give Hcp1 access to the surface. VgrG1b is not required for Hcp1 secretion. Thus, VgrG1b does not require H1-T6SS for secretion nor does H1-T6SS require VgrG1b for its function. Finally, we show that VgrG proteins are required for secretion of a genuine H1-T6SS substrate, Tse3. Our results demonstrate that VgrG proteins are not only secreted components but are essential for secretion of other T6SS substrates. Overall, we emphasize variability in behavior of three P. aeruginosa VgrGs, suggesting that, although very similar, distinct VgrGs achieve specific functions. PMID:21325275

  10. Endocrine function over time in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia Rebecka; Ørngreen, M C; Witting, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) have an increased incidence of endocrine dysfunction. In this study, the temporal evolution of endocrine dysfunction in patients with DM1 was investigated. METHODS: Endocrine function was assessed in 68 patients with DM1, in whom...... endocrine function had been followed, on average, for 8 years. The endocrine function was assessed by measuring the concentration of hormones and metabolites in blood and by validating libido with questionnaires. RESULTS: At baseline, 30 of the 68 patients presented with at least one hormonal dysfunction...

  11. A Notch-dependent molecular circuitry initiates pancreatic endocrine and ductal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shih, Hung Ping; Kopp, Janel L; Sandhu, Manbir

    2012-01-01

    signaling promotes the expression of Sox9, which cell-autonomously activates the pro-endocrine gene Ngn3. However, at high Notch activity endocrine differentiation is blocked, as Notch also induces expression of the Ngn3 repressor Hes1. At the transition from high to intermediate Notch activity, only Sox9......, but not Hes1, is maintained, thus de-repressing Ngn3 and initiating endocrine differentiation. In the absence of Sox9 activity, endocrine and ductal cells fail to differentiate, resulting in polycystic ducts devoid of primary cilia. Although Sox9 is required for Ngn3 induction, endocrine differentiation...

  12. Sasse Modeling of First Cycle Neptunium (VI) Recovery Flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2006-04-01

    A flowsheet has been proposed to separate neptunium from solutions in H-Canyon Tanks 16.4, 12.5, and 11.7 in the First Cycle solvent extraction banks, in which cerium(IV) (Ce(IV)) serves as an agent to oxidize neptunium to neptunium(VI) (Np(VI)). A SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) spreadsheet model indicates that the proposed flowsheet is a feasible method for separating neptunium and uranium from sulfates, thorium, and other metal impurities. The proposed flowsheet calls for stripping the sulfates, thorium, and other metal impurities into the 1AW stream and extracting and then stripping the neptunium and uranium into the 1BP stream. SASSE predicts that separation of thorium from the other actinides can be accomplished with actinide losses of 0.01% or less. It is assumed that other metal impurities such as iron, aluminum, and fission products will follow the thorium into 1AW. Due to an organic/aqueous distribution coefficient that is close to one, SASSE predicts that plutonium(VI) (Pu(VI)) is split between the A Bank and B Bank aqueous output streams, with 27% going to 1AW and 73% going to 1BP. An extrapolated distribution coefficient based on unvalidated Ce(IV) distribution measurements at a single nitrate concentration and a comparison with thorium(IV) (Th(IV)) distributions indicates that Ce(IV) could reflux in 1B Bank. If the Ce(IV) distribution coefficient is lower than would be predicted by this single point extrapolation, but still higher than the distribution coefficient for Th(IV), then Ce(IV) would follow Np(VI) and uranium(VI) (U(VI)) into 1BP. The SASSE model was validated using data from a 1964 oxidizing flowsheet for the recovery of Np(VI) in Second Cycle. For the proposed flowsheet to be effective in recovering neptunium, the addition of approximately 0.025 M ceric ammonium nitrate (Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6) to both the 1AF and 1AS streams is required to stabilize the neptunium in the +6

  13. Integrated Cr(VI) removal using constructed wetlands and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Mar-Yam; Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md Muktadirul Bari; Michailides, Michail K; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-01-08

    The present work was conducted to study integrated chromium removal from aqueous solutions in horizontal subsurface (HSF) constructed wetlands. Two pilot-scale HSF constructed wetlands (CWs) units were built and operated. One unit was planted with common reeds (Phragmites australis) and one was kept unplanted. Influent concentrations of Cr(VI) ranged from 0.5 to 10mg/L. The effect of temperature and hydraulic residence time (8-0.5 days) on Cr(VI) removal were studied. Temperature was proved to affect Cr(VI) removal in both units. In the planted unit maximum Cr(VI) removal efficiencies of 100% were recorded at HRT's of 1 day with Cr(VI) concentrations of 5, 2.5 and 1mg/L, while a significantly lower removal rate was recorded in the unplanted unit. Harvested reed biomass from the CWs was co-composted with olive mill wastes. The final product had excellent physicochemical characteristics (C/N: 14.1-14.7, germination index (GI): 145-157%, Cr: 8-10mg/kg dry mass), fulfills EU requirements and can be used as a fertilizer in organic farming. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Endocrine dysfunctions in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Myung Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWilliams-Beuren syndrome (WBS is caused by a hemizygous microdeletion of chromosome 7q11.23 and is characterized by global cognitive impairment, dysmorphic facial features, and supravalvular aortic stenosis. Endocrine dysfunctions have been reported in patients with WBS. This study was performed to investigate the frequency, clinical features, and outcomes of endocrine dysfunctions in children with WBS.MethodsOne hundred two patients were included. The diagnosis was confirmed by chromosome analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Medical charts were reviewed retrospectively to analyze endocrine dysfunctions such as short stature, precocious puberty, thyroid dysfunctions, and hypocalcemia.ResultsThe age at diagnosis was 3.7±4.4 years (one month to 19 years. Height- and weight-standard deviation score (SDS were –1.1±1.1 and –1.4±1.4 at presentation, respectively. Short stature was found in 26 patients (28.3% among those older than 2 years. Body mass index-SDS increased as the patients grew older (P<0.001. Two males and one female (2.9% were diagnosed with central precocious puberty. Nine patients (8.8% were diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism at age 4.0±4.3 years (one month to 12.1 years; their serum thyroid stimulating hormone and free T4 levels were 15.2±5.4 µU/mL and 1.2±0.2 ng/dL, respectively. Hypercalcemia was observed in 12 out of 55 patients under age 3 (22% at the age of 14.3±6.6 months (7 to 28 months with a mean serum calcium level of 13.1±2.1 mg/dL.ConclusionEndocrine dysfunctions are not uncommon causes of morbidity in patients with WBS. The severity and outcomes of their endocrine manifestations were heterogeneous. Long-term follow-up is needed to predict the prognosis of endocrine features.

  15. New generation ion-imprinted nanocarrier for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uygun, Murat, E-mail: muygun@adu.edu.tr [Adnan Menderes University, Kocarl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Vocational and Training School (Turkey); Feyzioglu, Esra; Oezcal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, Emir; Caka, Mueserref; Ergen, Aygen; Akgoel, Sinan [Ege University, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Turkey)

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a novel ion-imprinted nanoparticle to remove Cr(VI) ions from waste water. For this, Cr(VI) ions were complexed with 2-methacryloylamido histidine (MAH) and then Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles were synthesized by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization technique. The templates, Cr(VI) ions, were removed from the nanoparticles using 0.1 M of HNO{sub 3} solution. The specific surface area of the Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles was found to be 1,397.85 m{sup 2}/g, and the particle size was calculated as 155.3 nm. These Cr(VI)-imprinted nanoparticles were used for the adsorption/desorption of Cr(VI) ions from its aqueous solutions. The effects of initial Cr(VI) concentration and medium pH on the Cr(VI) adsorption capacity were also studied. The maximum adsorbed amount of Cr(VI) on the imprinted nanoparticles was found to be 3,830.58 mg/g nanoparticle in pH 4.0. In order to investigate the selectivity of the imprinted nanoparticle, adsorption studies were repeated using Cr(III) ions. The selectivity results demonstrated that Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(HEMAH) nanoparticles showed high affinity for the Cr(VI) ions than Cr(III). The Cr(VI)-imprinted nanoparticles were used several times without decreasing their Cr(VI) adsorption capacities.

  16. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  17. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition affecting women of reproductive age and characterized by chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. There are no published data on this syndrome in Libyan patients. Aims and objectives: To assess the frequency of ...

  18. Isolation of a star-shaped uranium(V/VI) cluster from the anaerobic photochemical reduction of uranyl(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelain, Lucile; White, Sarah; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) (Switzerland). Inst. de Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques

    2016-11-07

    Actinide oxo clusters are an important class of compounds due to their impact on actinide migration in the environment. The photolytic reduction of uranyl(VI) has potential application in catalysis and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, but the intermediate species involved in this reduction have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that the photolysis of partially hydrated uranyl(VI) in anaerobic conditions leads to the reduction of uranyl(VI), and to the incorporation of the resulting U{sup V} species into the stable mixed-valent star-shaped U{sup VI}/U{sup V} oxo cluster [U(UO{sub 2}){sub 5}(μ{sub 3}-O){sub 5}(PhCOO){sub 5}(Py){sub 7}]. This cluster is only the second example of a U{sup VI}/U{sup V} cluster and the first one associating uranyl groups to a non-uranyl(V) center. The U{sup V} center in 1 is stable, while the reaction of uranyl(V) iodide with potassium benzoate leads to immediate disproportionation and formation of the U{sub 12}{sup IV}U{sub 4}{sup V}O{sub 24} cluster {[K(Py)_2]_2[K(Py)]_2[U_1_6O_2_4(PhCOO)_2_4(Py)_2]}.

  19. Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carere

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.

  20. Review of Prader-Willi syndrome: the endocrine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heksch, Ryan; Kamboj, Manmohan; Anglin, Kathryn; Obrynba, Kathryn

    2017-10-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder with implications on the endocrine and neurologic systems, metabolism, and behavior. Early in life, PWS is characterized by hypotonia and failure to thrive, followed by obesity and hyperphagia. Patients with PWS develop hypothalamic dysfunction which may lead growth hormone deficiency (GHD), hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and poor bone mineral density (BMD). In addition to hypothalamic dysfunction, individuals with PWS have increased risk for obesity which may be complicated by metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this paper, we will review the current literature pertaining to the endocrine concerns of PWS and current recommendations for screening and management of these conditions.

  1. Mixture effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Taxvig, Camilla; Andersen, H. R.

    2010-01-01

    P>Four different equi-molar mixtures were investigated for additive endocrine disrupting effects in vitro using the concentration addition model. It was found that additive effects on the same molecular target (the androgen receptor; AR) can be predicted for both mixtures of compounds with effect...... on AR could not be predicted under assumption of additivity in our model system. For a mixture containing three azole fungicides (epoxiconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole), the observed AR antagonistic effects were close to the predicted effect assuming additivity. Azole fungicides are known...... assuming additivity. Overall these and other studies show that weak endocrine disrupting compounds, like parabens and azole fungicides, give rise to combination effects when they occur in mixtures. These combination effects should be taken into account in regulatory risk assessment not to under...

  2. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  3. Review of Prader-Willi syndrome: the endocrine approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heksch, Ryan; Kamboj, Manmohan; Anglin, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder with implications on the endocrine and neurologic systems, metabolism, and behavior. Early in life, PWS is characterized by hypotonia and failure to thrive, followed by obesity and hyperphagia. Patients with PWS develop hypothalamic dysfunction which may lead growth hormone deficiency (GHD), hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and poor bone mineral density (BMD). In addition to hypothalamic dysfunction, individuals with PWS have increased risk for obesity which may be complicated by metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this paper, we will review the current literature pertaining to the endocrine concerns of PWS and current recommendations for screening and management of these conditions. PMID:29184809

  4. [Neurokinkin B and it's function on reproductive endocrine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Ran; Tian, Zhan-Zhuang

    2012-04-01

    Neurokinkin B (NKB) is a member of tachykinin family and plays a role mainly through its receptor NK3R. NKB and NK3R are wide spread through the neural system. Studies revealed that NKB has kinds of biological functions such as constringing the smooth muscle of hollow viscus, relaxing blood vessels, reducing mean arterial pressure, slowing heart rate, exciting in vitro spinal cord neurons of rats and astringing sphincter pupillae. For the past few years, people pay more and more attentions to the regulating action of NKB on reproductive endocrine and a lot of research are made to discuss the function of NKB in HPGA. This article summarizes the distribution and physiological function of NKB and NK3R, discusses their functions in reproductive endocrine. Future studies will be needed to determine the precise mechanism of NKB.

  5. International spinal cord injury endocrine and metabolic extended data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, W A; Wecht, J M; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Extended Data Set (ISCIEMEDS) within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of endocrine and metabolic...... (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations, societies and individual reviewers. The data set was posted for two months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. Variable names were standardized, and a suggested database...... findings in the SCI population. SETTING: This study was conducted in an international setting. METHODS: The ISCIEMEDS was developed by a working group. The initial ISCIEMEDS was revised based on suggestions from members of the International SCI Data Sets Committee, the International Spinal Cord Society...

  6. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Piecha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism may occur as a part of an inherited syndrome in a combination with pancreatic endocrine tumours and/or pituitary adenoma, which is classified as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1. This syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in MEN-1 gene encoding a tumour-suppressor protein, menin. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1, which usually appears in the second decade of life as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia and progresses through the next decades. The most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is bone demineralisation and recurrent kidney stones rarely followed by chronic kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to present the pathomechanism, screening procedures, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the MEN-1 syndrome. It also summarises the recent advances in the pharmacological therapy with a new group of drugs—calcimimetics.

  7. Biosensors for environmental monitoring of endocrine disruptors: a review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Lopez de Alda, Maria J.; Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Maria-Pilar [Department of Biological Organic Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the applications of biosensors in analysis and monitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the environment. Special attention is devoted to the various types of physical-chemical signal transduction elements, biological mechanisms employed as sensing elements and techniques used for immobilisation of the bioreceptor molecules on the transducer surface. Two different classes of biosensors for EDCs are considered: biosensors that measure endocrine-disrupting effects, and biosensors that respond to the presence of a specific substance (or group of substances) based on the specific recognition of a biomolecule. Several examples of them are presented to illustrate the power of the biosensor technology for environmental applications. Future trends in the development of new, more advanced devices are also outlined. (orig.)

  8. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    with locally advanced (M0) disease compared with castration, suggesting that this treatment may benefit patients with early disease. Bicalutamide was favoured in 8 out of 9 evaluable quality of life dimensions, and this was statistically significant for sexual interest and physical capacity. Endocrine......Recent interest has focused on the use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer for both the management of patients with non-metastatic disease and as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant to curative therapies. This has resulted in patients with fewer symptoms being treated for longer periods of time. Endocrine...... treatments for prostate cancer, such as castration, combined androgen blockade and non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, have shown similar results in terms of time to progression and survival. The main difference between these treatments is their impact on patients' quality of life. Instruments...

  9. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves′ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman′s syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove′s syndrome, Cushing′s disease, and Addison′s disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner′s, Rothmund′s, and Klinefelter′s syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner′s, Cockayne′s, Wolfram′s, Kearns Sayre′s, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases.

  10. Osteoporosis in celiac disease and in endocrine and reproductive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, Anna-Velia; Trecca, Antonello; Trinti, Biagino

    2008-01-28

    As the increase in lifespan brings to light diseases that were previously not clinically detectable, osteoporosis has become an issue of worldwide significance. The disease is marked by a loss of bone mass; the bones become less dense, fragile and more prone to fracturing. Because it is regulated by endocrine and environmental factors, osteoporosis presents a multifactorial etiopathogenesis, with the genetic component accounting for 70% of an individual variation in bone mass density (BMD), the principal determinant, with age, of fracture risk. Pathological conditions such as celiac disease (CD) exacerbate the process of bone loss, so that the occurrence of osteoporosis in celiac subjects is of particular note: indeed, the screening of osteoporosis patients for this disease is advisable, since it may be the only sign of undiagnosed CD. An increase in interleukin IL-1beta, of the IL-1 system, in the relatives of celiac patients confirms the genetic predisposition to osteoporosis and its presence is evidence of an association between the two conditions. The direct effect on the bones of CD is secondary to poor absorption of calcium and vitamin D. In women osteoporosis is indirectly associated with early menopause and amenorrhea, and it may follow prolonged breast-feeding and frequent pregnancies, while in men it is associated with hypogonadism and GH deficit. These endocrine and non-endocrine factors exert their effects on bones by modulating the RANK/RANK-L/OPG system. An appropriate lifestyle from adolescence onwards, together with early diagnosis of and treatment for CD and primary and secondary endocrine pathologies are important for the prevention of damage to the bones.

  11. Osteoporosis in celiac disease and in endocrine and reproductive disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trecca, Antonello; Trinti, Biagino

    2008-01-01

    As the increase in lifespan brings to light diseases that were previously not clinically detectable, osteoporosis has become an issue of worldwide significance. The disease is marked by a loss of bone mass; the bones become less dense, fragile and more prone to fracturing. Because it is regulated by endocrine and environmental factors, osteoporosis presents a multifactorial etiopathogenesis, with the genetic component accounting for 70% of an individual variation in bone mass density (BMD), t...

  12. Gut Chemosensing: Interactions between Gut Endocrine Cells and Visceral Afferents

    OpenAIRE

    Raybould, Helen E.

    2009-01-01

    Chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract is less well understood than many aspects of gut mechanosensitivity; however, it is important in the overall function of the GI tract and indeed the organism as a whole. Chemosensing in the gut represents a complex interplay between the function of enteroendocrine (EEC) cells and visceral (primarily vagal) afferent neurons. In this brief review, I will concentrate on new data on endocrine cells in chemosensing in the GI tract, in particular on new fi...

  13. Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J; Perovich, Laura J; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in product composition. Consumers should be able to avoid

  14. Characterization of Endocrine Cells and Tumours in the Stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Apostolos V.

    2008-01-01

    Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) and ghrelin cells, in the human gastric mucosa and in gastric endocrine tumours (GETs), were subclassified with respect to immunohistochemical reaction vs. vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2), ghrelin/obestatin, and histidine decarboxylase (HDC). The immunohistochemical expression of ghrelin/obestatin and HDC in GETs was related/correlated to plasma ghrelin/obestatin and urinary methyl imidazole acetic acid (U-MeImAA) excretion respectively, with the intenti...

  15. Endocrine Disruptors and Asthma-Associated Chemicals in Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J.; Perovich, Laura J.; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. Objectives: We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. Methods: We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. Results: We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Conclusions: Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in

  16. Hormonal effect on the inner ear : two endocrine syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnard, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss is a major problem in our society with more than 5 % of the population world-wide suffering from disabling hearing loss according to the WHO. There are many endocrine syndromes associated with hearing loss. In both Turner syndrome and Pendred syndrome hearing loss is a prominent feature often leading to a need for hearing rehabilitation with hearing aids or cochlear implants. Hormonal treatment might also affect the inner ear directly and studies have shown a negative effect on h...

  17. [Blood biochemical parameters of tilted primates periodically subjected to gravitational stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, M A; Aiusheva, I A; Rudneva, R I; Korol'kov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Head-down tilting of primates (HOT) is a universal method of studying the hypokinetic syndrome effects on functionality of various body systems. Clinical biochemical blood assay was performed in a 25-day HDT experiment (-5 degrees) with 11 Macaca rhesus. One group of animals was kept tilted all the time through, whereas the other was periodically returned into the orthostatic position for 30 to 120 minutes 4-5 times a week. Dry chemistry was employed in biochemical analysis of blood serum and enzyme immunodetection (EID) in measuring blood hormones. As a rule, the biochemical parameters of primates' serum were within the physiological norm range. Shifts in protein, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism were sought for and enzymic activity in blood serum and hormone concentrations were determined. HDT did not produce noteworthy changes in blood concentrations of somatotropic hormone, thyrotrophic hormone (TTH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) or cortisol. Animals of both groups showed statistically reliable decrease in blood osteocalcine. The preventive complex did not contribute materially to the control of metabolic homeostasis and endocrine function of the primates adapting to the 25-day HDT.

  18. Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI on enzyme replacement therapy since infancy: Six years follow-up of four children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne D.G. Horovitz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and biochemical improvements are reported on Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI patients on Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT with rhASB (galsulfase, Naglazyme®, and preclinical and clinical studies have shown clinical benefits of early initiation. We report four unrelated MPS VI children who began ERT as infants (ages 5 days–10 months. The three older patients showed the first clinical signs of MPS VI at baseline, also presenting different degrees of dysostosis multiplex, and two had mild heart disease. The two oldest also had mild facial coarseness, one had hearing conduction deficit and sleep disorder and the other corneal clouding at baseline. After six years on ERT, all four patients have normal urinary GAG values. Although they all showed normal motor and mental development, brain and cervical spine MRI images available from two of the older patients showed abnormalities, while the youngest child continues having normal images. The four patients presented slower progression of bone and joint disease when compared to their affected older siblings. It should be noticed that only two patients in this sample are currently below the 3rd percentile for height: the youngest who has a constitutional factor associated and the eldest who already presented frank dysostosis at 10 months of age. These findings confirm previous studies that report that skeletal features of the disease cannot be completely prevented despite early ERT. Heart disease already present in two of the four infants at baseline got worse over time and appeared in another patient, but the youngest child on ERT introduction still has a normal echocardiogram at six years of age; he also is the only one without corneal clouding after six years follow-up. Our results also suggest that early ERT prevented storage in spleen and liver and may also have improved or prevented progression of facial dysmorphic features, corroborating similar findings seen in previous studies

  19. Sådan skaber vi mønsterbrydere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    2017-01-01

    Treårigt forskningsprojekt viser, at pædagoger og medhjælpere kan undersøtte alle børns trivsel og udvikling og dermed styrke udsatte børns ressourcer. det vil kjælpe med at bryde den sociale arv og forhindre, at vi reproducerer ulighed.......Treårigt forskningsprojekt viser, at pædagoger og medhjælpere kan undersøtte alle børns trivsel og udvikling og dermed styrke udsatte børns ressourcer. det vil kjælpe med at bryde den sociale arv og forhindre, at vi reproducerer ulighed....

  20. Sådan bekæmper vi skattely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Corlin; Mondrup Pedersen, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    I kampens hede er det belejligt at skyde skylden på Nordea og Mossack Fonseca, men skal vi skattely til livs, kræver det en mere omfattende reformation af det internationale skattesystem. Her er de tre største udfordringer......I kampens hede er det belejligt at skyde skylden på Nordea og Mossack Fonseca, men skal vi skattely til livs, kræver det en mere omfattende reformation af det internationale skattesystem. Her er de tre største udfordringer...

  1. Nonspecificity of bacterial reduction of Cr(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdyak, P.I.; Mogilevich, N.F.; Ryl' skiy, A.F.; Grishchenko, N.I.

    1985-03-01

    Eight different genera of gram-positive and negative bacteria were tested for their ability to carry out reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The results demonstrated that in addition to Pseudomonas the other genera capable of similar enzymatic activity were Achromobacter, Bacillus and Micrococcus. These observations indicate that reduction of Cr(VI) is not a unique feature of Pseudomonas alone, and that the availability of other bacteria with similar metabolic potential expands the possibility of their utilization in water treatment and possibly in metallurgical enrichment biotechnology. 15 references.

  2. Endocrine manifestations related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantyghem Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are recessive, genetically transmitted diseases and are classified into 3 main groups according to their mechanisms: cellular intoxication, energy deficiency, and defects of complex molecules. They can be associated with endocrine manifestations, which may be complications from a previously diagnosed IEM of childhood onset. More rarely, endocrinopathies can signal an IEM in adulthood, which should be suspected when an endocrine disorder is associated with multisystemic involvement (neurological, muscular, hepatic features, etc.. IEM can affect all glands, but diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism are the most frequent disorders. A single IEM can present with multiple endocrine dysfunctions, especially those involving energy deficiency (respiratory chain defects, and metal (hemochromatosis and storage disorders (cystinosis. Non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter and sometimes hypoparathyroidism should steer the diagnosis towards a respiratory chain defect. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is frequent in haemochromatosis (often associated with diabetes, whereas primary hypogonadism is reported in Alström disease and cystinosis (both associated with diabetes, the latter also with thyroid dysfunction and galactosemia. Hypogonadism is also frequent in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (with adrenal failure, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and Fabry and glycogen storage diseases (along with thyroid dysfunction in the first 3 and diabetes in the last. This is a new and growing field and is not yet very well recognized in adulthood despite its consequences on growth, bone metabolism and fertility. For this reason, physicians managing adult patients should be aware of these diagnoses.

  3. Endocrine manifestations and management of Prader-Willi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder, caused by lack of expression of genes on the paternally inherited chromosome 15q11.2-q13. In infancy it is characterized by hypotonia with poor suck resulting in failure to thrive. As the child ages, other manifestations such as developmental delay, cognitive disability, and behavior problems become evident. Hypothalamic dysfunction has been implicated in many manifestations of this syndrome including hyperphagia, temperature instability, high pain threshold, sleep disordered breathing, and multiple endocrine abnormalities. These include growth hormone deficiency, central adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and complications of obesity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the recent literature investigating optimal screening and treatment of endocrine abnormalities associated with PWS, and provides an update on nutrition and food-related behavioral intervention. The standard of care regarding growth hormone therapy and surveillance for potential side effects, the potential for central adrenal insufficiency, evaluation for and treatment of hypogonadism in males and females, and the prevalence and screening recommendations for hypothyroidism and diabetes are covered in detail. PWS is a genetic syndrome in which early diagnosis and careful attention to detail regarding all the potential endocrine and behavioral manifestations can lead to a significant improvement in health and developmental outcomes. Thus, the important role of the provider caring for the child with PWS cannot be overstated. PMID:23962041

  4. [Reproduction, endocrine disorders and celiac disease: risk factors of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, A V; Trinti, B

    2006-04-01

    In genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease (CD) is permanent intolerance to gluten. Besides the overt enteropathy, there are clinical and subclinical forms which appear later in life; target organs include liver, thyroid, skin and reproductive systems. CD interference is related to the different concurrent genetic-environmental factors, showing multifactorial nature. CD induces malabsorption with consequent deficiencies of micronutrients essential for organogenesis, spermatogenesis and bone structure, such as vitamin D and calcium. In fact, among extraintestinal manifestations of CD, osteoporosis deserves attention because it can be a sign of silent CD. In celiac patients' serum, cytochinic imbalance related to bone loss is present; in vitro these sera act on the osteoblastic activity. The IL-1b is also present in celiac patients' relatives, confirming the genetic predisposition to its etiopathogenesis which is also regulated by endocrine-environmental factors. In females, CD acts indirectly on the bone, determining early menopause and amenorrhea. Even frequent pregnancies and long periods of lactation can bring to bone loss; in such periods, silent CD can appear, suggesting the presence of endocrine-immunology factors. In celiac males, osteoporosis presence, besides calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, is associated to growth hormone deficit and hypogonadism, which is related to hyperprolactinemia, endocrine factors which affect the reproduction. Osteoporosis is relevant among the elderly and vitamin D and calcium supplementations are important to people diagnosed with CD later in life. Thus, to prevent damages such as osteoporosis, early CD screening among people with reproductive problems is necessary.

  5. Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzé, Colin; Neal, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels.

  6. CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated endocrine differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chung-Kuang [Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lai, Yi-Chyi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yung-Fu; Chen, Hau-Ren [Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Ming-Ko, E-mail: biomkc@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify CCAR1 to directly interact with Ngn3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCAR1 is co-localized with Ngn3 in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCAR1 cooperates with Ngn3 in activating NeuroD expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated PANC-1 transdifferentiation. -- Abstract: Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that specifies pancreatic endocrine cell fates during pancreas development. It can also initiate a transdifferentiation program when expressed in pancreatic exocrine and ductal cells. However, how Ngn3 initiates a transcriptional cascade to achieve endocrine differentiation is still poorly understood. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1), which is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors, also interacts with Ngn3. The association between Ngn3 and CCAR1 was verified by pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Using gene reporter assays, we found that CCAR1 is essential for Ngn3 to activate the expression of the reporter genes containing the NeuroD promoter. Moreover, down-regulation of endogenous CCAR1 in the PANC-1 pancreatic ductal cell line inhibits the transdifferentiation program initiated by Ngn3. CCAR1 is, therefore, a novel partner of Ngn3 in mediating endocrine differentiation.

  7. [Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on birth outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Zee, E; Cornet, P; Lazimi, G; Rondet, C; Lochard, M; Magnier, A M; Ibanez, G

    2013-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors are ubiquitous chemicals contaminants in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Their adverse effects on reproduction are well-documented. There is growing evidence that they can contribute to the current emergence of chronic diseases. Our aim is to assess the relationships between endocrine disruptors and the neonatal health outcomes. Two persons have independently reviewed Medline and Toxline databases about the following pollutants: bisphenol A, phthalates, parabens, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. Only the human epidemiological studies, in general population with an abstract available, published between 2007 January the 1st and 2011 December the 31st, were analysed. The quality of each study was assessed with the Strobe score. Twenty-five out of 680 studies were included in the analysis. All pollutants were widely detected in maternal and new borns samples. Most of the studies have shown associations between bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds and lower birth weight. The effects on gestational age were less documented and have shown no clear connection. Results for phthalates were more ambiguous. Only one non-instructive study was found on parabens. Due to the inherent methological bias on endocrine disruptors research, further additional studies on environmental health must be investigated. It seems necessary to adopt preventive health measures first for vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy: physiological and hormonal aspects of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-12-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase and the foeto-maternal exchange begins to be dominated by secretory function of the placenta. As gestation progresses toward term, the number of cytotrophoblasts again declines and the remaining syncytial layer becomes thin and barely visible. This arrangement facilitates transport of compounds including hormones and their precursors across the foeto-maternal interface. The endocrine system is the earliest system developing in foetal life, and it is functional from early intrauterine existence through old age. Regulation of the foetal endocrine system relies, to some extent, on precursors secreted by placenta and/or mother. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association studies in common endocrine diseases (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akrami SM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the pathogenesis of endocrine disorders increase rapidly by genetic studies at the molecular level. Common endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and cancer follow the multifactorial model in the genetic aspect. This review tries to clarify the approach in molecular studies of such diseases for clinicians in different specialties. How to evaluate a possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism and an endocrinopathy or its complication is the main concern of this review. Two approaches for gene mapping will be discussed as well as main challenges regarding each approach. All such genetic studies ideally include some test of the association between genome sequence variation and the phenotype of interest such as the trait itself, the presence of a given complication, or measures of some endocrinopathy-related intermediate trait. Despite different advances in this analysis, there are major concerns regarding the overall performance and robustness of genetic association studies. By using powerful new high-throughput methods, further insights to molecular basis of such endocrine disorders can be expected. Close correlation between geneticists and clinicians can effectively bridge between basic sciences and clinical investigations.

  10. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  11. Epigenetic regulation of placental endocrine lineages and complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rosalind M

    2013-06-01

    A defining feature of mammals is the development in utero of the fetus supported by the constant flow of nutrients from the mother obtained via a specialized organ: the placenta. The placenta is also a major endocrine organ that synthesizes vast quantities of hormones and cytokines to instruct both maternal and fetal physiology. Nearly 20 years ago, David Haig and colleagues proposed that placental hormones were likely targets of the epigenetic process of genomic imprinting in response to the genetic conflicts imposed by in utero development [Haig (1993) Q. Rev. Biol. 68, 495-532]. There are two simple mechanisms through which genomic imprinting could regulate placental hormones. First, imprints could directly switch on or off alleles of specific genes. Secondly, imprinted genes could alter the expression of placental hormones by regulating the development of placental endocrine lineages. In mice, the placental hormones are synthesized in the trophoblast giant cells and spongiotrophoblast cells of the mature placenta. In the present article, I review the functional role of imprinted genes in regulating these endocrine lineages, which lends support to Haig's original hypothesis. I also discuss how imprinting defects in the placenta may adversely affect the health of the fetus and its mother during pregnancy and beyond.

  12. Postmenopausal women who progress on fulvestrant ('Faslodex') remain sensitive to further endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergote, I; Robertson, J F R; Kleeberg, U; Burton, G; Osborne, C K; Mauriac, L

    2003-05-01

    This retrospective evaluation of data from two randomized, multicenter trials examined whether tumor responses to further endocrine therapy were seen in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer who had progressed on both initial endocrine therapy, usually tamoxifen, and on the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist fulvestrant ('Faslodex'). A combined total of 423 patients received fulvestrant 250 mg as a monthly intramuscular injection. After progression on fulvestrant, some patients received another endocrine therapy. Responses to subsequent endocrine therapy were assessed using a questionnaire sent to the trial investigators. Best responses were classified as a complete or partial response (CR or PR), stable disease (SD) lasting > or = 24 weeks, or disease progression. Follow-up data were available for 54 patients who derived clinical benefit (CB, defined as CR, PR or SD) from fulvestrant and who received subsequent endocrine therapy, resulting in a PR in 4 patients, SD in 21 patients, and disease progression in 29 patients. Data were available for 51 patients who derived no CB from fulvestrant and who received further endocrine therapy, resulting in a PR in 1 patient, SD in 17 patients, and disease progression in 33 patients. Aromatase inhibitors were used as subsequent endocrine therapy in > 80% of patients. After progression on fulvestrant, patients may retain sensitivity to other endocrine agents. Fulvestrant provides an additional option to existing endocrine therapies for the treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and may provide the opportunity to extend the sequence of endocrine regimens before cytotoxic chemotherapy is required.

  13. Feedback control of growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of pancreatic endocrine progenitors in an epithelial plexus niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankaitis, Eric D.; Bechard, Matthew E.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian pancreas, endocrine cells undergo lineage allocation upon emergence from a bipotent duct/endocrine progenitor pool, which resides in the “trunk epithelium.” Major questions remain regarding how niche environments are organized within this epithelium to coordinate endocrine differentiation with programs of epithelial growth, maturation, and morphogenesis. We used EdU pulse-chase and tissue-reconstruction approaches to analyze how endocrine progenitors and their differentiating progeny are assembled within the trunk as it undergoes remodeling from an irregular plexus of tubules to form the eventual mature, branched ductal arbor. The bulk of endocrine progenitors is maintained in an epithelial “plexus state,” which is a transient intermediate during epithelial maturation within which endocrine cell differentiation is continually robust and surprisingly long-lived. Within the plexus, local feedback effects derived from the differentiating and delaminating endocrine cells nonautonomously regulate the flux of endocrine cell birth as well as proliferative growth of the bipotent cell population using Notch-dependent and Notch-independent influences, respectively. These feedback effects in turn maintain the plexus state to ensure prolonged allocation of endocrine cells late into gestation. These findings begin to define a niche-like environment guiding the genesis of the endocrine pancreas and advance current models for how differentiation is coordinated with the growth and morphogenesis of the developing pancreatic epithelium. PMID:26494792

  14. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Mei; Hadox, Erin; Szladovits, Balazs; Garden, Oliver A

    2016-01-01

    The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  15. Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballarini, Paolo; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Mura, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking. In Proc. of the Second International Workshop "From Biology To Concurrency" (FBTC 2008), Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science......Analysing Biochemical Oscillations through Probabilistic Model Checking. In Proc. of the Second International Workshop "From Biology To Concurrency" (FBTC 2008), Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science...

  16. immunological arthritis Prevalence of biochemical and abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormali- ties was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39 ...

  17. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  18. Serum Biochemical Phenotypes in the Domestic Dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Chang

    Full Text Available The serum or plasma biochemical profile is essential in the diagnosis and monitoring of systemic disease in veterinary medicine, but current reference intervals typically take no account of breed-specific differences. Breed-specific hematological phenotypes have been documented in the domestic dog, but little has been published on serum biochemical phenotypes in this species. Serum biochemical profiles of dogs in which all measurements fell within the existing reference intervals were retrieved from a large veterinary database. Serum biochemical profiles from 3045 dogs were retrieved, of which 1495 had an accompanying normal glucose concentration. Sixty pure breeds plus a mixed breed control group were represented by at least 10 individuals. All analytes, except for sodium, chloride and glucose, showed variation with age. Total protein, globulin, potassium, chloride, creatinine, cholesterol, total bilirubin, ALT, CK, amylase, and lipase varied between sexes. Neutering status significantly impacted all analytes except albumin, sodium, calcium, urea, and glucose. Principal component analysis of serum biochemical data revealed 36 pure breeds with distinctive phenotypes. Furthermore, comparative analysis identified 23 breeds with significant differences from the mixed breed group in all biochemical analytes except urea and glucose. Eighteen breeds were identified by both principal component and comparative analysis. Tentative reference intervals were generated for breeds with a distinctive phenotype identified by comparative analysis and represented by at least 120 individuals. This is the first large-scale analysis of breed-specific serum biochemical phenotypes in the domestic dog and highlights potential genetic components of biochemical traits in this species.

  19. Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After 84 days of exposure, blood was collected and used in conducting haematological and biochemical analyses. Exposure of water to crude oil caused increased levels in chloride, conductivity, salinity, magnesium, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, turbidity and Nitrate. The crude oil contaminated ...

  20. Diversity in Biochemical Characteristics and Antibiotics Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, biochemical and antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out on one hundred and fifty poultry isolates of Escherichia coli using Microscan® Dried Gram-negative Breakpoint Combo Pannels. The microscan panel analysed bacterial isolates for 24 biochemical tests and 23 to 25 antimicrobial agents following ...

  1. Associative learning in biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nikhil; Ashkenasy, Gonen; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2007-11-07

    It has been recently suggested that there are likely generic features characterizing the emergence of systems constructed from the self-organization of self-replicating agents acting under one or more selection pressures. Therefore, structures and behaviors at one length scale may be used to infer analogous structures and behaviors at other length scales. Motivated by this suggestion, we seek to characterize various "animate" behaviors in biochemical networks, and the influence that these behaviors have on genomic evolution. Specifically, in this paper, we develop a simple, chemostat-based model illustrating how a process analogous to associative learning can occur in a biochemical network. Associative learning is a form of learning whereby a system "learns" to associate two stimuli with one another. Associative learning, also known as conditioning, is believed to be a powerful learning process at work in the brain (associative learning is essentially "learning by analogy"). In our model, two types of replicating molecules, denoted as A and B, are present in some initial concentration in the chemostat. Molecules A and B are stimulated to replicate by some growth factors, denoted as G(A) and G(B), respectively. It is also assumed that A and B can covalently link, and that the conjugated molecule can be stimulated by either the G(A) or G(B) growth factors (and can be degraded). We show that, if the chemostat is stimulated by both growth factors for a certain time, followed by a time gap during which the chemostat is not stimulated at all, and if the chemostat is then stimulated again by only one of the growth factors, then there will be a transient increase in the number of molecules activated by the other growth factor. Therefore, the chemostat bears the imprint of earlier, simultaneous stimulation with both growth factors, which is indicative of associative learning. It is interesting to note that the dynamics of our model is consistent with certain aspects of

  2. Isolation and characterization of Cr(VI)-reducing actinomycetes from estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terahara, Takeshi; Xu, Xudan; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki

    2015-04-01

    Bioremediation technologies have strong potential use in the less costly and more environmentally friendly removal of highly toxic hexavalent-chromium (Cr(VI)) compared with physicochemical technologies. Several Cr(VI)-reducing bacteria have been isolated; however, there are few studies on Cr(VI)-resistant and Cr(VI)-reducing actinomycetes. In this study, Cr(VI)-reducing actinomycetes were screened from estuarine, marine, and terrestrial samples on the basis of Cr(VI)-resistant and Cr(VI)-reducing ability. Of the 80 Streptomyces-like strains isolated, 20 strains were found to be resistant to 50 mg/l of Cr(VI). In addition, two strains isolated from the estuarine sediment of Tokyo Bay were found to be resistant to a concentration of 150 mg/l of Cr(VI). Furthermore, one Cr(VI)-reducing strain was found to remove 60 mg/l of Cr(VI) within 1 week and was identified as Streptomyces thermocarboxydus based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The comparative evaluation with the type strain S. thermocarboxydus NBRC 16323 showed that our isolated strain had higher ability to grow at 27 °C and reduce Cr(VI) at a NaCl concentration of 6.0 % at 27 °C compared with the type strain NBRC 16323. These results indicate that our isolated strain have a potential ability to remove Cr(VI) from contaminated, highly saline sources without heating.

  3. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms to U(VI) immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Ahmed, Bulbul; Kennedy, David W; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J; Fredrickson, Jim K; Isern, Nancy G; Majors, Paul D; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells with minimal EPS, we show that (i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contribute significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; (ii) bEPS can be considered a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at lower initial U(VI) concentrations; and (iii) the U(VI) reduction efficiency is dependent upon the initial U(VI) concentration and decreases at lower concentrations. To quantify the relative contributions of sorption and reduction to U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(VI). We found that, when reduced, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated the reactivity of laEPS, while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, possibly facilitated U(VI) reduction.

  4. Alopecia With Endocrine Therapies in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Vishal; Wu, Shenhong; Dickler, Maura N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whereas the frequency of alopecia to cytotoxic chemotherapies has been well described, the incidence of alopecia during endocrine therapies (i.e., anti-estrogens, aromatase inhibitors) has not been investigated. Endocrine agents are widely used in the treatment and prevention of many solid tumors, principally those of the breast and prostate. Adherence to these therapies is suboptimal, in part because of toxicities. We performed a systematic analysis of the literature to ascertain the incidence and risk for alopecia in patients receiving endocrine therapies. Methods. An independent search of citations was conducted using the PubMed database for all literature as of February 2013. Phase II–III studies using the terms “tamoxifen,” “toremifene,” “raloxifene,” “anastrozole,” “letrozole,” “exemestane,” “fulvestrant,” “leuprolide,” “flutamide,” “bicalutamide,” “nilutamide,” “fluoxymesterone,” “estradiol,” “octreotide,” “megestrol,” “medroxyprogesterone acetate,” “enzalutamide,” and “abiraterone” were searched. Results. Data from 19,430 patients in 35 clinical trials were available for analysis. Of these, 13,415 patients had received endocrine treatments and 6,015 patients served as controls. The incidence of all-grade alopecia ranged from 0% to 25%, with an overall incidence of 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.3%–5.9%). The highest incidence of all-grade alopecia was observed in patients treated with tamoxifen in a phase II trial (25.4%); similarly, the overall incidence of grade 2 alopecia by meta-analysis was highest with tamoxifen (6.4%). The overall relative risk of alopecia in comparison with placebo was 12.88 (p Alopecia is a common yet underreported adverse event of endocrine-based cancer therapies. Their long-term use heightens the importance of this condition on patients' quality of life. These findings are critical for pretherapy counseling, the identification of risk

  5. Increased STAT1 signaling in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    Full Text Available Proteomic profiling of the estrogen/tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7 cell line and its partially sensitive (MCF-7/LCC1 and fully resistant (MCF-7/LCC9 variants was performed to identify modifiers of endocrine sensitivity in breast cancer. Analysis of the expression of 120 paired phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated epitopes in key oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways revealed that STAT1 and several phosphorylated epitopes (phospho-STAT1(Tyr701 and phospho-STAT3(Ser727 were differentially expressed between endocrine resistant and parental controls, confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. The STAT1 inhibitor EGCG was a more effective inhibitor of the endocrine resistant MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC9 lines than parental MCF-7 cells, while STAT3 inhibitors Stattic and WP1066 were equally effective in endocrine-resistant and parental lines. The effects of the STAT inhibitors were additive, rather than synergistic, when tested in combination with tamoxifen in vitro. Expression of STAT1 and STAT3 were measured by quantitative immunofluorescence in invasive breast cancers and matched lymph nodes. When lymph node expression was compared to its paired primary breast cancer expression, there was greater expression of cytoplasmic STAT1 (∼3.1 fold, phospho-STAT3(Ser727 (∼1.8 fold, and STAT5 (∼1.5 fold and nuclear phospho-STAT3(Ser727 (∼1.5 fold in the nodes. Expression levels of STAT1 and STAT3 transcript were analysed in 550 breast cancers from publicly available gene expression datasets (GSE2990, GSE12093, GSE6532. When treatment with tamoxifen was considered, STAT1 gene expression was nearly predictive of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, log-rank p = 0.067, while STAT3 gene expression was predictive of DMFS (log-rank p<0.0001. Analysis of STAT1 and STAT3 protein expression in a series of 546 breast cancers also indicated that high expression of STAT3 protein was associated with improved survival (DMFS, p = 0.006. These results suggest

  6. Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Teresa L; Wilcox, Crystal L; Arnes, Luis; Panea, Casandra; Golden, Jeffrey A; May, Catherine Lee; Sussel, Lori

    2011-11-01

    Nkx2.2 and Arx are essential pancreatic transcription factors. Nkx2.2 is necessary for the appropriate specification of the islet alpha, beta, PP and epsilon cell lineages, whereas Arx is required to form the correct ratio of alpha, beta, delta and PP cells. To begin to understand the cooperative functions of Nkx2.2 and Arx in the development of endocrine cell lineages, we generated progenitor cell-specific deletions of Arx on the Nkx2.2 null background. The analysis of these mutants demonstrates that expansion of the ghrelin cell population in the Nkx2.2 null pancreas is not dependent on Arx; however, Arx is necessary for the upregulation of ghrelin mRNA levels in Nkx2.2 mutant epsilon cells. Alternatively, in the absence of Arx, delta cell numbers are increased and Nkx2.2 becomes essential for the repression of somatostatin gene expression. Interestingly, the dysregulation of ghrelin and somatostatin expression in the Nkx2.2/Arx compound mutant (Nkx2.2(null);Arx(Δpanc)) results in the appearance of ghrelin+/somatostatin+ co-expressing cells. These compound mutants also revealed a genetic interaction between Nkx2.2 and Arx in the regulation of the PP cell lineage; the PP cell population is reduced when Nkx2.2 is deleted but is restored back to wildtype numbers in the Nkx2.2(null);Arx(Δpanc) mutant. Moreover, conditional deletion of Arx in specific pancreatic cell populations established that the functions of Arx are necessary in the Neurog3+ endocrine progenitors. Together, these experiments identify novel genetic interactions between Nkx2.2 and Arx within the endocrine progenitor cells that ensure the correct specification and regulation of endocrine hormone-producing cells. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (pbehaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  8. Development and Validation of a Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire: Impact of ac Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Zidan, Marwan; Moltz, Kathleen; Adhikari, Amita; Buggs-Saxton, Colleen; Zidan, Hanaa; Abushanab, Dania; Lteif, Aida; Edwin, Chandra

    2016-12-01

    While there is general agreement that patient education is essential for compliance, no objective tools exist to assess knowledge in children and parents of children with endocrine disorders. We aimed to design and validate a Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire (PEKAQ) for congenital hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, isolated growth hormone deficiency, Graves' disease, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We evaluated baseline knowledge of children and parents of children with these disorders and assessed impact of educational intervention. At baseline, 77 children (12-18 years) and 162 parents of children 1-18 years participated in this prospective intervention study. Educational handouts for five targeted disorders were designed. Following one-on-one educational intervention, 55 children and 123 parents participated. Baseline and post-intervention knowledge scores were compared using McNemar's test. Adequate multi-rater Kappa measure of agreement was achieved for children's (0.70) and parent's (0.75) PEKAQs. Flesch Reading Ease Score for both PEKAQs (15 questions each) was 65. Post-intervention, significantly higher proportion of parents and children answered majority of questions correctly (pknowledge score was an independent predictor of child's score. To our knowledge, this is the first validated PEKAQ that can be used widely in pediatric endocrinology clinics. We noted significant improvement in knowledge of children and parents of children with endocrine disorders.

  9. Adsorption Properties of Bentonite with In Situ Immobilized Polyaniline Towards Anionic Forms of Cr(VI, Mo(VI, W(VI, V(V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna RYABCHENKO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A new composite material bentonite-PANI was synthesized by in situ immobilization of polyaniline (PANI on the surface of natural mineral bentonite. It was established as a result of the modification of bentonite a surface area and an interlayer distance of mineral decrease and particles of bentonite transformed of irregular shape with different porosity on irregularly shaped particles of smaller size. It has been found that the total Cr(VI ions extraction took place under the acid conditions (pH=1 – 2 and W(VI ions have been well adsorbed in the pH range from 1 to 8 by the composite bentonite-PANI unlike the initial mineral. Whereas adsorption of oxo anions of V(V and Mo(VI made up some 50%. It is proved that the in situ immobilization of bentonite by polyaniline leads to increasing the value of adsorption capacity towards the investigated ions compared with the initial mineral. It was established that the adsorption properties of the synthesized composite with respect to the studied oxo ions were worse than the adsorption properties of composite vermiculite-PANI, similar to the composite Sokyryntsyy clinoptilolite-PANI and better than composites of polyaniline with Podilskyy saponite and Karelian shungite.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.6976

  10. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXIV: Thermal behavior and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarylpropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1, 2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi{2}CU{4}Br{2} and Z-Vi{2}Cu{4}R{2} [Vi @? (2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)-(C{6}H{4}Me-4), R @? 2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4} or 4-MeC{6}H{4}C@?C] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were

  11. As duas naturezas de Lévi-Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Descola

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se aqui a complexidade do status do par conceitual natureza e cultura no pensamento de Lévi-Strauss. Ao mesmo tempo ferramenta de análise, cena filosófica dos primórdios e antinomia a superar, revisita-se os diferentes usos e significados na obra de Lévi-Strauss do conceito de natureza e sua relação com o de cultura. Mostra-se como é possível reconhecer na obra de Lévi-Strauss dois conceitos de natureza: por um lado, uma natureza que se opõe à cultura num programa científico formulado em termos classicamente dualistas e, por outro, uma teoria do conhecimento decididamente monista que considera o espírito como parte e produto desse mesmo mundo. Argumenta-se que se o dualismo entre cultura e natureza fundou o pensamento estruturalista de Lévi-Strauss, é na própria obra deste que encontramos os argumentos e meios de superá-lo. A vocação do estruturalismo na antropologia de hoje, no entanto, é de ir mais longe neste caminho do que foi o próprio fundador.

  12. Anesthetic Challenges in an Adult with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Jacqueline; Jansen, Nicholas

    2014-06-15

    The mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of lysosomal storage diseases with many skeletal and airway features that pose a challenge to anesthetists. We present the anesthetic management of a woman with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI undergoing cervical spine surgery and review the perioperative issues that may arise with this disease.

  13. Resúmenes Presentaciones de Pósteres VI ECAP

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Arana, Editor Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de las presentaciones de pósteres del VI Encuentro Científico de la Amazonía Peruana, desarrollado el 27 y 28 de octubre de 2016 en la ciudad de Iquitos, Perú.

  14. Mechanism for partial oxidation of Cyclohexene by Chromium (VI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media has been studied. The reaction products were analysed using classical method, IR and GC/MS analyses. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium are cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, cyclohex-2-en-1-one, ...

  15. Removal of Cr(VI) from groundwater by Fe(0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanjiao; Liu, Rui

    2017-11-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the treatment of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) by iron powder (Fe(0)) columns of simulated permeable reactive barriers with and without calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Two columns filled with Fe(0) were used as Cr(VI) removal equipment running at a flow velocity of 10 ml/min at room temperature. After 200 days running of the two columns, the results showed that Fe(0) was an effective material for Cr(VI) reduction with an average removal rate of above 84.6%. The performance of Column 2 with CaCO3 was better than Column 1 without CaCO3 in terms of average Cr(VI) removal rate. The presence of CaCO3 buffered the increasing pH caused by Fe(0) corrosion in Column 2 and enhanced the removal rate of Column 2. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of Fe(0) in the three stages of running of the two columns illustrated that the coat layer of Column 1 was a little thicker than that of Column 2. Energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results showed that the surface of Fe(0) of Column 2 contained more chromium elements. Raman spectroscopy found that all iron oxide was generated on the Fe(0) surface of Column 1 and Column 2 and chromium class objects were only detected on Fe(0) surface in Column 2.

  16. Vi har beskæftigelseskrise, ikke uddannelseskrise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou; Skou Grindsted, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Universiteterne er for dårlige, og kandidaternes kompetencer er forkerte, derfor ender mange i arbejdsløshed, mener Danmarks Akkrediteringsinstitution, Produktivitetskommissionen og DI. Men for få år siden var der mangel på højtuddannet arbejdskraft, så måske har vi et beskæftigelsesproblem snarere...

  17. Revolutsioonilisest ja igavikulisest VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalil / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaali idee sünnist. 1990.a. toimus esimene triennaal nimega Põhja- ja Baltimaade Arhitektuuritriennaal. Niguliste kirikus toimunud VI Tallinna arhitektuuritriennaalist. Korraldajaks Irina Raud. Tunnuslauseks "Feeling Architecture". Triennaali avanud ja lõpetanud Peter Davey ja teiste esinejate ettekannetest. Eestlastest esinesid Juhan Maiste ja Vilen Künnapu

  18. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium (chromium (VI) ion from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    taye

    2015-04-01

    Apr 1, 2015 ... An experimental effluent analysis was conducted in conjunction with bioremediation process from ... Hexavalent Chromium (Cr (VI) is a by-product released .... Agriculture waste either saw dust or rice husk was procured from. Sabon Gari market, Zaria, Nigeria and brought to the Laboratory for analysis.

  19. Upper Limits on O VI Emission from Voyager Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The data processing is described in Murthy et al. (1999) and resulted in 426 obser- vations of the ... We detect no O VI emission in any of 426 UVS observations of the diffuse radiation field but do set upper limits on such ... Assuming that the emitting gas has a solar abundance of helium atoms and that the hydrogen and ...

  20. Finite difference simulation of biological chromium (VI) reduction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... precipitates of reduced chromium produce toxic sludge that may be difficult to remediate (Gonzalez et al., 2003; Blowes, 2002). Recent studies have shown the possibility of using locally isolated organisms to treat Cr(VI) contaminated groundwater and/or soil. The treatment can be implemented ex situ ...