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Sample records for vhl gene product

  1. Small activating RNA induced expression of VHL gene in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moo Rim; Park, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chang Woo; Lee, Myeong Youl; Han, Sang-Bae; Li, Long-Cheng; Kang, Jong Soon

    2018-02-06

    Recent studies have reported that chemically synthesized double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), also known as small activating RNA (saRNAs), can specifically induce gene expression by targeting promoter sequences by a mechanism termed RNA activation (RNAa). In the present study, we designed 4 candidate saRNAs targeting the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene promoter. Among these saRNAs, dsVHL-821 significantly inhibited cell growth by up-regulating VHL at both the mRNA and protein levels in renal cell carcinoma 769-P cells. Functional analysis showed that dsVHL-821 induced apoptosis by increasing p53, decreasing Bcl-xL, activating caspase 3/7 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase in a dose-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that dsVHL-821 increased the enrichment of Ago2 and RNA polymerase II at the dsVHL-821 target site. In addition, Ago2 depletion significantly suppressed dsVHL-821-induced up-regulation of VHL gene expression and related effects. Single transfection of dsVHL-821 caused long-lasting (14 days) VHL up-regulation. Furthermore, the activation of VHL by dsVHL-821 was accompanied by an increase in dimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me2) and acetylation of histone 4 (H4ac) and a decrease in dimethylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and lysine 27 (H3K27me2) in the dsVHL-821 target region. Taken together, these results demonstrate that dsVHL-821, a novel saRNA for VHL, induces the expression of the VHL gene by epigenetic changes, leading to inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis, and suggest that targeted activation of VHL by dsVHL-821 may be explored as a novel treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endemic polycythemia in Russia: mutation in the VHL gene.

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    Ang, Sonny O; Chen, Hua; Gordeuk, Victor R; Sergueeva, Adelina I; Polyakova, Lydia A; Miasnikova, Galina Y; Kralovics, Robert; Stockton, David W; Prchal, Josef T

    2002-01-01

    Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is an autosomal recessive condition that is endemic in the Russian mid-Volga River region of Chuvashia. We previously found that CP patients may have increased serum erythropoietin (EPO) levels, ruled out linkage to both the EPO and EPO receptor (EPOR) gene loci, and hypothesized that the defect may lie in the oxygen homeostasis pathway. We now report a study of five multiplex Chuvash families which confirms that CP is associated with significant elevations of serum EPO levels and rules out a location for the CP gene on chromosome 11 as had been reported by other investigators or a mutation of the HIF-1 alpha gene. Using a genome-wide screen, we localized a region on chromosome 3 with a LOD score >2. After sequencing three candidate genes, we identified a C to T transition at nucleotide 598 (an R200W mutation) in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. The VHL protein (pVHL) downregulates the alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 alpha), the main regulator of hypoxia adaptation, by targeting the protein for degradation. In the simplest scenario, disruption of pVHL function causes a failure to degrade HIF-1 alpha resulting in accumulation of HIF-1 alpha, upregulation of downstream target genes such as EPO, and the clinical manifestation of polycythemia. These findings strongly suggest that CP is a congenital disorder of oxygen homeostasis.

  3. VHL Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Website References Search Patients / What is VHL? / Manifestations People who have VHL disease may experience tumors ... very important to check regularly for possible VHL manifestations throughout a person’s lifetime. Most of these VHL ...

  4. [Prenatal exclusion of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome in a Mexican family carrying a novel VHL gene mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Camacho, Oscar Francisco; Benitez-Granados, Jesús; Zenteno, Juan Carlos

    2014-03-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant and familial multisystemic syndrome that is caused by the inactivation of the VHL gene and it is characterized by diverse types of high vasculated tumours of benign and malign nature. In this work we describe the clinical characteristics and the prenatal diagnosis of a woman with VHL. Describe the first exclusion prenatal case by DNA analysis of the VHL syndrome in Latinoamerican population. Analysis of a Mexican familial pedigree showed 5 affected subjects with VHL on 3 consecutive generations. The proband was a 7 weeks pregnancy woman who was referred to our service for familiar and personal history of this disease. Maternal DNA was obtained from peripheral blood leukocytes, while fetal DNA was isolated from amniotic liquid cells on the 15th week. The maternal and fetal DNA analysis were done by the Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) and the direct nucleotide sequence of the VHL gene. A novel mutation (c. 161_168 dup GGAGGCCG) in the VHL gene was identified in maternal DNA. Fetal DNA analysis indicated that the fetus inherited the wild-type allele from the mother. A novel VHL gene mutation was identified in a familial case of the disease, expanding the mutational spectrum in this disorder. The molecular prenatal testing in the affected woman at 15 weeks of gestation, demonstrated that the fetus did nor inherited the mutated allele. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of prenatal-molecular exclusion on VHL syndrome in Latinoamerica population.

  5. VHL and HIF-1α: gene variations and prognosis in early-stage clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessi, Francesca; Mazzanti, Chiara Maria; Tomei, Sara; Di Cristofano, Claudio; Minervini, Andrea; Menicagli, Michele; Apollo, Alessandro; Masieri, Lorenzo; Collecchi, Paola; Minervini, Riccardo; Carini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Generoso

    2014-03-01

    Von Hipple-Lindau gene (VHL) inactivation represents the most frequent abnormality in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression is regulated by O2 level. In normal O2 conditions, VHL binds HIF-1α and allows HIF-1α proteasomal degradation. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been found located in the oxygen-dependent degradation domain at codon 582 (C1772T, rs11549465, Pro582Ser). In hypoxia, VHL/HIF-1α interaction is abolished and HIF-1α activates target genes in the nucleus. This study analyzes the impact of genetic alterations and protein expression of VHL and the C1772T SNP of HIF-1α gene (HIF-1α) on prognosis in early-stage ccRCC (pT1a, pT1b, and pT2). Mutational analysis of the entire VHL sequence and the genotyping of HIF-1α C1772T SNP were performed together with VHL promoter methylation analysis and loss of heterozygosis (LOH) analysis at (3p25) locus. Data obtained were correlated with VHL and HIF-1α protein expression and with tumor-specific survival (TSS). VHL mutations, methylation status, and LOH were detected in 51, 11, and 12% of cases, respectively. Our results support the association between biallelic alterations and/or VHL silencing with a worse TSS. Moreover, we found a significant association between the HIF-1α C1772C genotype and a worse TSS. The same association was found when testing the presence of HIF-1α protein in the nucleus. Our results highlight the role of VHL/HIF-1α pathway in RCC and support the molecular heterogeneity of early-stage ccRCC. More important, we show the involvement of HIF-1α C1772T SNP in ccRCC progression.

  6. Playing Tag with HIF: The VHL Story

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    Sherri K. Leung

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumour suppressor gene product pVHL is the cause of inherited VHL disease and is associated with sporadic kidney cancer. pVHL is found in a multiprotein complex with elongins B/C, Cul2, and Rbx1 forming an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex called VEC. This modular enzyme targets the α subunits of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF for ubiquitin-mediated destruction. Consequently, tumour cells lacking functional pVHL overproduce the products of HIF-target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, which promotes angiogenesis. This likely accounts for the hypervascular nature of VHL-associated neoplasms. Although pVHL has been linked to the cell-cycle, differentiation, and the regulation of extracellular matrix assembly, microenvironment pH, and tissue invasiveness, this review will focus on the recent insights into the molecular mechanisms governing the E3 ubiquitin ligase function of VEC.

  7. Differences in regulation of tight junctions and cell morphology between VHL mutations from disease subtypes

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    Isanova Bella

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease, germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene cause clear cell renal carcinomas, hemangioblastomas, and pheochromocytomas. The VHL gene product is part of an ubiquitin E3 ligase complex and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-α is a key substrate, although additional VHL functions have been described. A genotype-phenotype relationship exists in VHL disease such that specific VHL mutations elicit certain subsets of these tumors. Here, we examine VHL genotype-phenotype correlations at the cellular level, focusing on the regulation of tight junctions and cell morphology. Methods Wild-type and various mutant VHL proteins representing VHL disease subtypes were stably expressed in 3 VHL-negative renal carcinoma cell lines. Using these cell lines, the roles of various VHL-associated cellular functions in regulation of cell morphology were investigated. Results As a whole, type 1 mutants varied greatly from type 2 mutants, demonstrating high levels of HIF-2α, cyclin D1 and α5 integrin, lower p27 levels, and a spindly, fibroblastic cellular appearance. Type 2 mutations demonstrated an epithelial morphology similar to wild-type VHL in the majority of the renal cell lines used. Knockdown of p27 in cells with wild-type VHL led to perturbations of both epithelial morphology and ZO-1 localization to tight junctions. ZO-1 localization correlated well with VHL disease subtypes, with greater mislocalization observed for genotypes associated with a higher risk of renal carcinoma. HIF-2α knockdown in 786-O partially restored ZO-1 localization, but did not restore an epithelial morphology. Conclusion VHL has both HIF-α dependent and HIF-α independent functions in regulating tight junctions and cell morphology that likely impact the clinical phenotypes seen in VHL disease.

  8. Characteristics of scientific production in Special Education in Virtual Health Library (VHL: a bibliometric study

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    Luciana Pizzani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize, through bibliometric approach, the scientific literature in this Special Education in the databases of the Virtual Health Library (VHL. The VHL is coordinated by BIREME - Specialized Center of the Pan American Health Organization whose objective is to promote the dissemination and use of scientific information in health. Method: The research methodology was performed by observing the following steps: a literature review on education special and bibliometrics, data collection from the site of BIREME about the presence of special education in the databases, organization, processing and bibliometric analysis of data collected using the software MS Excel and Vantage Point. Results: indicators produced allow signal that the predominant language of scientific production was the Portuguese and the majority of records were written individually, the themes addressed were psychology and developmental psychology. Conclusion: These bibliometric indicators characterizing the state of the art of scientific literature in Special Education at the various bases Data Bireme and also showed a field of interconnections between Health Sciences and Special Education.

  9. Rare presentation of familial paraganglioma without evidence of mutation in the SDH, RET and VHL genes: towards further genetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persu, Alexandre; Amyere, Mustapha; Gutierrez-Roelens, Ilse; Rustin, Pierre; Sempoux, Christine; Lecouvet, Frédéric E; Van Beers, Bernard E; Horsmans, Yves; De Plaen, Jean-François; MarcHamoir; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase and its anchoring subunits (SDH genes) are at the origin of hereditary head and neck paraganglioma (PGL) and a subset of apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma. We describe a family including three patients harbouring bilateral head and neck PGL diagnosed before 25 years of age. Multiple hypervascular hepatic lesions were subsequently discovered in two of them. In both, liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PGL. In addition, in one patient, MRI disclosed multiple target-like lesions of the spine, highly suggestive of metastatic PGL. Family history was compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance with possible maternal imprinting. Combined single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis followed by sequencing did not show any mutation of the coding parts of SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, RET or VHL genes. Screening of copy number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in the three affected family members showed no deletion or amplification of the SDH, RET and VHL genes. Furthermore, succinate dehydrogenase activity measured in a liver PGL sample was not significantly decreased in the affected patient as compared with controls, underscoring the exclusion of the SDH genes. To our knowledge, this is the first reported family of hereditary head and neck PGL with metastatic dissemination in the liver and the spine. A large body of evidence supports the absence of mutations in SDH, RET and VHL genes, which suggests the existence of a yet unknown gene at the origin of this particular form of familial PGL.

  10. Identification of 3 novel VHL germ-line mutations in Danish VHL patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Mette; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Sunde, Lone

    2012-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary cancer syndrome in which the patients develop retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas and clear-cell renal tumors. The autosomal dominant disease is caused by mutations in the VHL gene.......von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary cancer syndrome in which the patients develop retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytomas and clear-cell renal tumors. The autosomal dominant disease is caused by mutations in the VHL gene....

  11. Identification of Somatic Mutations in the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL Gene in a Patient With Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    Wen-Chung Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the known causal molecular events in renal cell carcinoma is somatic mutation in the von Hippel–Lindau (VHL gene. Our study describes a 51-year-old Taiwanese man who had bilateral renal cell carcinoma. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy without postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and is still alive after renal transplantation without tumor recurrence after > 5 years. To clarify his predisposition for bilateral tumors, we performed molecular genetic analysis of the VHL gene in this study. Polymerase chain reaction–single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing were performed on DNA of blood samples and paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from this patient. DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes tested negative for germline mutations. However, there were two heterozygous alleles in the promoter and 3′ untranslated regions of this gene. Nonetheless, the DNA from his tumors showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH in these two loci. In addition to the LOH, we identified some different somatic mutations in his tumor tissues: C287T and G460A in the right-sided tumor, and G244A and G390A in the left-sided tumor. The possible roles of these genetic polymorphisms and point mutations in his renal tumorigenesis are discussed. This report provides new insights into renal cell carcinoma that result from VHL gene alterations in Taiwan.

  12. Duplication of the VHL and IRAK2 genes in a patient with mental retardation/multiple congenital anomalies, epilepsy and ectomorphic habitus.

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    Chabchoub, E; Michils, G; Vermeesch, J R; De Cock, P; Lagae, L; Fryns, J P

    2010-01-01

    Partial 3p duplications are very rare. Often they are reported in translocations involving other chromosomes, whereas deletions encompassing the VHL gene in 3p25.3 predispose to Van-Hippel Lindau syndrome. We report here a paternally-inherited microduplication of 3p25.3 detected by array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) in a 17 year-old male patient presenting with mental retardation and multiple congenital anomalies (MR/MCA), epilepsy and ectomorphic habitus. He has no tumour and there is no history of familial cancer. We refined the duplication by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) to a 251 kb region encompassing the VHL and IRAK2 genes. The duplication is likely to be causal. Interestingly, duplication of IRAK2 can cause epilepsy. Disruption of the GHRL gene can explain the ectomorphic habitus. To our knowledge, this is the smallest 3p duplication encompassing the VHL region. Its prognosis is unknown and a long-term follow-up is essential for an early diagnosis of malignancy.

  13. Parallel Regulation of von Hippel-Lindau Disease by pVHL-Mediated Degradation of B-Myb and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α

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    Uematsu, Keiji; Byrne, Stuart D.; Hirano, Mie; Joo-Okumura, Akiko; Nishikimi, Akihiko; Shuin, Taro; Fukui, Yoshinori; Nakatsukasa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    pVHL, the protein product of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene, is a ubiquitin ligase that targets hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) for proteasomal degradation. Although HIF-α activation is necessary for VHL disease pathogenesis, constitutive activation of HIF-α alone did not induce renal clear cell carcinomas and pheochromocytomas in mice, suggesting the involvement of an HIF-α-independent pathway in VHL pathogenesis. Here, we show that the transcription factor B-Myb is a pVHL substrate that is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)- and/or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-dependent tyrosine 15 phosphorylation of B-Myb prevents its degradation. Mice injected with B-Myb knockdown 786-O cells developed dramatically larger tumors than those bearing control cell tumors. Microarray screening of B-Myb-regulated genes showed that the expression of HIF-α-dependent genes was not affected by B-Myb knockdown, indicating that B-Myb prevents HIF-α-dependent tumorigenesis through an HIF-α-independent pathway. These data indicate that the regulation of B-Myb by pVHL plays a critical role in VHL disease. PMID:27090638

  14. Identification of the Lipodepsipeptide MDN-0066, a Novel Inhibitor of VHL/HIF Pathway Produced by a New Pseudomonas Species.

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    Bastien Cautain

    Full Text Available Throughout recent history, metabolites of microbial origin have had an extraordinary impact on the welfare of humanity. In fact, natural products have largely been--and still are--considered an exceedingly valuable platform for the discovery of new drugs against diverse pathologies. Such value is partly due to their higher complexity and chemical diversity as compared to those of synthetic and combinatorial compounds. Mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau (vhl gene are responsible for VHL disease, congenital polycythemia, and are found in many sporadic tumor types. The primary cause of morbidity and mortality for these patients arises from progression of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC or end-stage renal disease. Inactivation of the Von Hippel-Lindau (vhl tumor suppressor gene arises in the majority of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC as well as in other types of cancer and is associated with a high degree of vascularization and poor prognosis. Loss of pVHL function thus represents a pathognomonic molecular defect for therapeutic exploitation. In this study, renal carcinoma cell lines with naturally occurring vhl mutations (RCC4 VA and their genetically matched wild-type vhl (RCC4 VHL counterparts were seeded onto 96-well plates and treated with a collection of 1,040 organic extracts obtained from 130 bacterial strains belonging to at least 25 genera of the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. This strategy allowed us to identify several extracts obtained from bacterial strain F-278,770T, the type strain of the recently proposed new species Pseudomonas granadensis, showing biological activities not associated with previously known bioactive metabolites. The fractionation and structural elucidation of one of these extracts led to the discovery of a new lipodepsipeptide (MDN-0066 with specific toxicity in pVHL deficient cells that is not detectable in cells with pVHL expression rescue. This specific toxicity is associated with

  15. Identification of the Lipodepsipeptide MDN-0066, a Novel Inhibitor of VHL/HIF Pathway Produced by a New Pseudomonas Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cautain, Bastien; de Pedro, Nuria; Schulz, Christian; Pascual, Javier; Sousa, Thiciana da S; Martin, Jesús; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Asensio, Francisco; González, Ignacio; Bills, Gerald F; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Vicente, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Throughout recent history, metabolites of microbial origin have had an extraordinary impact on the welfare of humanity. In fact, natural products have largely been--and still are--considered an exceedingly valuable platform for the discovery of new drugs against diverse pathologies. Such value is partly due to their higher complexity and chemical diversity as compared to those of synthetic and combinatorial compounds. Mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau (vhl) gene are responsible for VHL disease, congenital polycythemia, and are found in many sporadic tumor types. The primary cause of morbidity and mortality for these patients arises from progression of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) or end-stage renal disease. Inactivation of the Von Hippel-Lindau (vhl) tumor suppressor gene arises in the majority of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) as well as in other types of cancer and is associated with a high degree of vascularization and poor prognosis. Loss of pVHL function thus represents a pathognomonic molecular defect for therapeutic exploitation. In this study, renal carcinoma cell lines with naturally occurring vhl mutations (RCC4 VA) and their genetically matched wild-type vhl (RCC4 VHL) counterparts were seeded onto 96-well plates and treated with a collection of 1,040 organic extracts obtained from 130 bacterial strains belonging to at least 25 genera of the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. This strategy allowed us to identify several extracts obtained from bacterial strain F-278,770T, the type strain of the recently proposed new species Pseudomonas granadensis, showing biological activities not associated with previously known bioactive metabolites. The fractionation and structural elucidation of one of these extracts led to the discovery of a new lipodepsipeptide (MDN-0066) with specific toxicity in pVHL deficient cells that is not detectable in cells with pVHL expression rescue. This specific toxicity is associated with apoptosis

  16. Novel homozygous VHL mutation in exon 2 is associated with congenital polycythemia but not with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanikova, Lucie; Lorenzo, Felipe; Yang, Chunzhang; Vankayalapati, Hari; Drachtman, Richard; Divoky, Vladimir; Prchal, Josef T

    2013-05-09

    Germline von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene mutations underlie dominantly inherited familial VHL tumor syndrome comprising a predisposition for renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, cerebral hemangioblastoma, and endolymphatic sac tumors. However, recessively inherited congenital polycythemia, exemplified by Chuvash polycythemia, has been associated with 2 separate 3' VHL gene mutations in exon 3. It was proposed that different positions of loss-of-function VHL mutations are associated with VHL syndrome cancer predisposition and only C-terminal domain-encoding VHL mutations would cause polycythemia. However, now we describe a new homozygous VHL exon 2 mutation of the VHL gene:(c.413C>T):P138L, which is associated in the affected homozygote with congenital polycythemia but not in her, or her-heterozygous relatives, with cancer or other VHL syndrome tumors. We show that VHL(P138L) has perturbed interaction with hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)1α. Further, VHL(P138L) protein has decreased stability in vitro. Similarly to what was reported in Chuvash polycythemia and some other instances of HIFs upregulation, VHL(P138L) erythroid progenitors are hypersensitive to erythropoietin. Interestingly, the level of RUNX1/AML1 and NF-E2 transcripts that are specifically upregulated in acquired polycythemia vera were also upregulated in VHL(P138L) granulocytes.

  17. MUTATIONS IN THE VHL GENE FRIOM POTASSIUM BROMATE-INDUCED RAT CLEAR CELL RENAL TUMORS

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    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a rat renal carcinogen and a major drinking water disinfection by-product in water disinfected with ozone. Clear cell renal tumors, the most common form of human renal epithelial neoplasm, are rare in animals but are inducible by KBrO3 in F344 rats. ...

  18. LOSS OF JAK2 REGULATION VIA VHL-SOCS1 E3 UBIQUITIN HETEROCOMPLEX UNDERLIES CHUVASH POLYCYTHEMIA

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    Russell, Ryan C.; Sufan, Roxana I.; Zhou, Bing; Heir, Pardeep; Bunda, Severa; Sybingco, Stephanie S.; Greer, Samantha N.; Roche, Olga; Heathcote, Samuel A.; Chow, Vinca W.K.; Boba, Lukasz M.; Richmond, Terri D.; Hickey, Michele M.; Barber, Dwayne L.; Cheresh, David A.; Simon, M. Celeste; Irwin, Meredith S.; Kim, William Y.; Ohh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is a rare congenital form of polycythemia caused by homozygous R200W and H191D mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene whose gene product is the principal negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying some of the hallmark features of CP such as hypersensitivity to erythropoietin are unclear. Here, we show that VHL directly binds suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) to form a heterodimeric E3 ligase that targets phosphorylated (p)JAK2 for ubiquitin-mediated destruction. In contrast, CP-associated VHL mutants have altered affinity for SOCS1 and fail to engage and degrade pJAK2. Systemic administration of a highly selective JAK2 inhibitor, TG101209, reverses the disease phenotype in vhlR200W/R200W knock-in mice, a model that faithfully recapitulates human CP. These results reveal VHL as a SOCS1-cooperative negative regulator of JAK2 and provide compelling biochemical and preclinical evidence for JAK2- targeted therapy in CP patients. PMID:21685897

  19. Loss of JAK2 regulation via a heterodimeric VHL-SOCS1 E3 ubiquitin ligase underlies Chuvash polycythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ryan C; Sufan, Roxana I; Zhou, Bing; Heir, Pardeep; Bunda, Severa; Sybingco, Stephanie S; Greer, Samantha N; Roche, Olga; Heathcote, Samuel A; Chow, Vinca W K; Boba, Lukasz M; Richmond, Terri D; Hickey, Michele M; Barber, Dwayne L; Cheresh, David A; Simon, M Celeste; Irwin, Meredith S; Kim, William Y; Ohh, Michael

    2011-06-19

    Chuvash polycythemia is a rare congenital form of polycythemia caused by homozygous R200W and H191D mutations in the VHL (von Hippel-Lindau) gene, whose gene product is the principal negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying some of the hallmark abnormalities of Chuvash polycythemia, such as hypersensitivity to erythropoietin, are unclear. Here we show that VHL directly binds suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) to form a heterodimeric E3 ligase that targets phosphorylated JAK2 (pJAK2) for ubiquitin-mediated destruction. In contrast, Chuvash polycythemia-associated VHL mutants have altered affinity for SOCS1 and do not engage with and degrade pJAK2. Systemic administration of a highly selective JAK2 inhibitor, TG101209, reversed the disease phenotype in Vhl(R200W/R200W) knock-in mice, an experimental model that recapitulates human Chuvash polycythemia. These results show that VHL is a SOCS1-cooperative negative regulator of JAK2 and provide biochemical and preclinical support for JAK2-targeted therapy in individuals with Chuvash polycythemia.

  20. VHL genetic alteration in CCRCC does not determine de-regulation of HIF, CAIX, hnRNP A2/B1 and osteopontin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nyhan, Michelle J

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene inactivation is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) development. The VHL protein (pVHL) has been proposed to regulate the expression of several proteins including Hypoxia Inducible Factor-alpha (HIF-alpha), carbonic anhydrase (CA)IX, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2\\/B1 and osteopontin. pVHL has been characterized in vitro, however, clinical studies are limited. We evaluated the impact of VHL genetic alterations on the expression of several pVHL protein targets in paired normal and tumor tissue. METHODS: The VHL gene was sequenced in 23 CCRCC patients and VHL transcript levels were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Expression of pVHL\\'s protein targets were determined by Western blotting in 17 paired patient samples. RESULTS: VHL genetic alterations were identified in 43.5% (10\\/23) of CCRCCs. HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha and CAIX were up-regulated in 88.2% (15\\/17), 100% (17\\/17) and 88.2% (15\\/17) of tumors respectively and their expression is independent of VHL status. hnRNP A2\\/B1 and osteopontin expression was variable in CCRCCs and had no association with VHL genetic status. CONCLUSION: As expression of these proposed pVHL targets can be achieved independently of VHL mutation (and possibly by hypoxia alone), these data suggests that other pVHL targets may be more crucial in renal carcinogenesis.

  1. Dicty_cDB: VHL444 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available library) VHL444 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15033-1 VHL444P (Link to Original site) VHL444F 595 VHL444Z...VHL444Z 674 VHL444P 1249 - - Show VHL444 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHL444 (Link to dictyBase)...tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHL4-B/VHL444Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHL444P (Link to Original site) Representative...Representative DNA sequence >VHL444 (VHL444Q) /CSM/VH/VHL4-B/VHL444Q.Seq.d/ CACTGTTGGCCTACTGGTATAGTTACA...significant alignments: (bits) Value VHL444 (VHL444Q) /CSM/VH/VHL4-B/VHL444Q.Seq.d/ 2420 0.0 VHN389 (VHN389Q)

  2. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL inactivation in sporadic clear cell renal cancer: associations with germline VHL polymorphisms and etiologic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee E Moore

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal tumor heterogeneity studies have utilized the von Hippel-Lindau VHL gene to classify disease into molecularly defined subtypes to examine associations with etiologic risk factors and prognosis. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of VHL inactivation in clear cell renal tumors (ccRCC and to evaluate relationships between VHL inactivation subgroups with renal cancer risk factors and VHL germline single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. VHL genetic and epigenetic inactivation was examined among 507 sporadic RCC/470 ccRCC cases using endonuclease scanning and using bisulfite treatment and Sanger sequencing across 11 CpG sites within the VHL promoter. Case-only multivariate analyses were conducted to identify associations between alteration subtypes and risk factors. VHL inactivation, either through sequence alterations or promoter methylation in tumor DNA, was observed among 86.6% of ccRCC cases. Germline VHL SNPs and a haplotype were associated with promoter hypermethylation in tumor tissue (OR = 6.10; 95% CI: 2.28-16.35, p = 3.76E-4, p-global = 8E-5. Risk of having genetic VHL inactivation was inversely associated with smoking due to a higher proportion of wild-type ccRCC tumors [former: OR = 0.70 (0.20-1.31 and current: OR = 0.56 (0.32-0.99; P-trend = 0.04]. Alteration prevalence did not differ by histopathologic characteristics or occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. ccRCC cases with particular VHL germline polymorphisms were more likely to have VHL inactivation through promoter hypermethylation than through sequence alterations in tumor DNA, suggesting that the presence of these SNPs may represent an example of facilitated epigenetic variation (an inherited propensity towards epigenetic variation in renal tissue. A proportion of tumors from current smokers lacked VHL alterations and may represent a biologically distinct clinical entity from inactivated cases.

  3. Management Strategies and Outcomes for VHL-related Craniospinal Hemangioblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christ Ordookhanian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioblastomas are rare and benign tumors accounting for less than 2% of all central nervous system (CNS tumors. The vast majority of hemangioblastomas occur sporadically, whereas a small number of cases, especially in younger patients, are associated with Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL syndrome. It is thought that loss of tumor suppressor function of the VHL gene results in stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha with downstream activation of cellular proliferative and angiogenic genes that promote tumorigenesis. VHL-related hemangioblastomas predominantly occur in the cerebellum and spine. Lesions are often diagnosed on contrast-enhanced craniospinal MRIs, and the diagnosis of VHL occurs through assessment for germline VHL mutations. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality for symptomatic or worrisome lesions, with excellent local control rates and neurological outcomes. Stereotactic radiotherapy can be employed in patients who are deemed high risk for surgery, have multiple lesions, or have non-resectable lesions. Given the tendency for development of either new or multiple lesions, close radiographic surveillance is often recommended for asymptomatic lesions.

  4. Multiple Components of the VHL Tumor Suppressor Complex Are Frequently Affected by DNA Copy Number Loss in Pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Rowbotham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytomas (PCC are rare tumors that arise in chromaffin tissue of the adrenal gland. PCC are frequently inherited through predisposing mutations in genes such as the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor. VHL is part of the VHL elongin BC protein complex that also includes CUL2/5, TCEB1, TCEB2, and RBX1; in normoxic conditions this complex targets hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A for degradation, thus preventing a hypoxic response. VHL inactivation by genetic mechanisms, such as mutation and loss of heterozygosity, inhibits HIF1A degradation, even in the presence of oxygen, and induces a pseudohypoxic response. However, the described <10% VHL mutation rate cannot account for the high frequency of hypoxic response observed. Indeed, little is known about genetic mechanisms disrupting other complex component genes. Here, we show that, in a panel of 171 PCC tumors, 59.6% harbored gene copy number loss (CNL of at least one complex component. CNL significantly reduced gene expression and was associated with enrichment of gene targets controlled by HIF1. Interestingly, we show that VHL-related renal clear cell carcinoma harbored disruption of VHL alone. Our results indicate that VHL elongin BC protein complex components other than VHL could be important for PCC tumorigenesis and merit further investigation.

  5. The VHL-dependent regulation of microRNAs in renal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings Lesley H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commonest histological type of renal cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cc RCC, is associated with genetic and epigenetic changes in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumour suppressor. VHL inactivation leads to induction of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs and a hypoxic pattern of gene expression. Differential levels of specific microRNAs (miRNAs are observed in several tumours when compared to normal tissue. Given the central role of VHL in renal cancer formation, we examined the VHL-dependent regulation of miRNAs in renal cancer. Methods VHL-dependent miRNA expression in cc RCC was determined by microarray analysis of renal cell line RCC4 with mutated VHL (RCC4-VHL and reintroduced wild-type VHL (RCC4 + VHL. Five miRNAs highly upregulated in RCC4 + VHL and five miRNAs highly downregulated in RCC4 + VHL were studied further, in addition to miR-210, which is regulated by the HIF-VHL system. miRNA expression was also measured in 31 cc RCC tumours compared to adjacent normal tissue. Results A significant increase in miR-210, miR-155 and miR-21 expression was observed in the tumour tissue. miR-210 levels also showed a correlation with a HIF-regulated mRNA, carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX, and with VHL mutation or promoter methylation. An inverse correlation was observed between miR-210 expression and patient survival, and a putative target of miR-210, iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein (ISCU1/2, shows reciprocal levels of mRNA expression in the tumours. Conclusions We have identified VHL-regulated miRNAs and found that for some the regulation is HIF-dependent and for others it is HIF-independent. This pattern of regulation was also seen in renal cancer tissue for several of these miRNAs (miR-210, miR-155, let-7i and members of the miR-17-92 cluster when compared with normal tissue. miR-210 showed marked increases in expression in renal cancer and levels correlated with patient survival. The inverse correlation between miR-210

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α stabilizes the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease suppressor, Myb-related protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Fumihiko; Joo-Okumura, Akiko; Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Kamura, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitin ligase von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (pVHL) negatively regulates protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF-α). Loss of pVHL causes HIF-α accumulation, which contributes to the pathogenesis of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. In contrast, v-Myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2 (MYBL2; B-Myb), a transcription factor, prevents VHL pathogenesis by regulating gene expression of HIF-independent pathways. Both HIF-α and B-Myb are targets of pVHL-mediated polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here, we show that knockdown of HIF-2α induces downregulation of B-Myb in 786-O cells, which are deficient in pVHL, and this downregulation is prevented by proteasome inhibition. In the presence of pVHL and under hypoxia-like conditions, B-Myb and HIF-2α are both upregulated, and the upregulation of B-Myb requires expression of HIF-2α. We also show that HIF-2α and B-Myb interact in the nucleus, and this interaction is mediated by the central region of HIF-2α and the C-terminal region of B-Myb. These data indicate that oncogenic HIF-2α stabilizes B-Myb to suppress VHL pathogenesis.

  7. Dicty_cDB: VHL663 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHL663 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15767-1 VHL663P (Link... to Original site) VHL663F 574 VHL663Z 702 VHL663P 1256 - - Show VHL663 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHL663 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15767-1 Original site URL http://dict...WPDGFKYFFVDNQAGDSESAKSGKNLPIQRDIELNWNGEAYEYSNSNYFPINGQG FNDVSYPV--- ---SYATGKCEPDSSLCNDNNICTIDICVHEGILDGLPQG...ik rqelvgqmvlsifl*itklviqnlpnlvkifqfkeiss*igmekhmniviqitsqltdkv smm*aiq--- ---SYATGKCEPDSSLCNDNNICTIDICVHEGI

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHL434 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHL434 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16336-1 VHL434P (Link... to Original site) VHL434F 546 VHL434Z 778 VHL434P 1304 - - Show VHL434 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHL434 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16336-1 Original site URL http://dict...EVMSCNKFSSKRIGYLAASQSFNEGTDVIVLATHQIRKDFLS SNQSEAYLALNCLSNICTTDLARELANDILTLLSTQKTHILKRAITVLYKIFLRYPES-- - --...GFDISWASFKIVEVMSCNKFSSKRIGYLAASQSFNEGTDVIVLATHQIRKDFLS SNQSEAYLALNCLSNICTTDLARELANDILTLLSTQKTHILKRAITVLYKIFL

  9. Von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, Søs Marie Luise; Harbud, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    in the VHL gene. vHL is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Predisposed individuals are advised to undergo prophylactic examinations, as they are at lifelong risk of developing multiple cysts and tumours, especially in the cerebellum, the spinal cord, the retina (hemangioblastomas), the kidneys (renal...... are recommended to start in infancy with annual paediatric examinations and ophthalmoscopy until the age of five years. From five to 14 years, annual plasma-metanephrine and plasma-normetanephrine tests, as well as annual hearing examinations are added. Also, an MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) examination....../MRI of the abdomen, e) annual plasma-metanephrine, plasma-normetanephrine, and plasma-chromogranin A tests, and f) annual hearing examination at a department of audiology. It is advised that one doctor takes on the responsibility of coordination of and referral to the many examinations, and the communication...

  10. The homozygous VHL(D126N) missense mutation is associated with dramatically elevated erythropoietin levels, consequent polycythemia, and early onset severe pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Susmita; Lanikova, Lucie; Kapralova, Katarina; Acharya, Suchitra; Swierczek, Sabina; Lipton, Jeffrey M; Wolfe, Lawrence; Prchal, Josef T

    2014-11-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein is the principal negative regulator of hypoxia sensing mediated by transcription factors. Mutations in exon 3 of the VHL gene lead to Chuvash (VHL(R200W)) and Croatian (VHL(H191D)) polycythemias. Here, we describe an infant of Bangladesh ethnicity with a novel homozygous VHL(D126N) mutation with congenital polycythemia and dramatically elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, who developed severe fatal pulmonary hypertension. In contrast to Chuvash polycythemia, erythroid progenitors (BFU-Es) did not reveal a marked EPO hypersensitivity. Further, NF-E2 and RUNX1 transcripts that correlate with BFU-Es EPO hypersensitivity in polycythemic mutations were not elevated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A patient with bilateral pheochromocytoma as part of a Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL syndrome type 2C

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    Rinkes Inne

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is an autosomal dominant inherited disease. It is relatively recent that type 2C was identified as a separate group solely presenting with pheochromocytomas. As an illustration, an interesting case is presented of a pregnant woman with refractory hypertension. It proved to be the first manifestation of bilateral pheochromocytomas. The family history may indicate the diagnosis, but only identification of a germ line mutation in the DNA of a patient will confirm carriership. Case presentation A 27 year pregnant patient with intra uterine growth retardation presented with hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma. She underwent laparoscopic adrenelectomy and a missense mutation (Gly93Ser in exon 1 of the VHL gene on chromosome 3 (p25 – p26 was shown in the patient, her father and her daughter confirming the diagnosis of VHL. Conclusion In almost all VHL families molecular genetic analysis of DNA will demonstrate an inherited mutation. Because of the involvement in several organs, periodic clinical evaluation should take place in a well coordinated, multidisciplinary setting. VHL disease can be classified into several subtypes. VHL type 2C patients present with pheochromocytomas without evidence of haemangioblastomas in the central nervous system and/or retina and a low risk of renal cell carcinoma. Therefore, in such families, periodic clinical screening can be focussed on pheochromocytomas.

  12. Von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, Søs Marie Luise; Harbud, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    These clinical guidelines outline the criteria and recommendations for diagnostic and genetic work-up of families suspected of von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL), as well as recommendations for prophylactic surveillance for vHL patients. The guideline has been composed by the Danish Coordination Group...... for vHL which is comprised of Danish doctors and specialists interested in vHL. The recommendations are based on longstanding clinical experience, Danish original research, and extensive review of the international literature. vHL is a hereditary multi-tumour disease caused by germline mutations...... cell carcinoma), the adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma), the pancreas, as well as in other organs. As many different organs can be affected, several medical specialities often take part in both diagnosis and treatment of manifestations. vHL should be suspected in individuals with a family history...

  13. Potential value of EUS in pancreatic surveillance of VHL patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, Sophie Josephien; Brouwers, Adrienne H; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; van der Jagt, Eric J; Bongaerts, Alfons H; Koopmans, Klaas P; Kema, Ido; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Timmers, Henri Jlm; de Herder, Wouter; Sluiter, Wim; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Links, T P

    Background: Patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease are prone to develop pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). However, the best imaging technique for early detection of pNETs in VHL is currently unknown. In a head-to-head comparison, we evaluated endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and

  14. Von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, Søs Marie Luise; Harbud, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    These clinical guidelines outline the criteria and recommendations for diagnostic and genetic work-up of families suspected of von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL), as well as recommendations for prophylactic surveillance for vHL patients. The guideline has been composed by the Danish Coordination Group...... for vHL which is comprised of Danish doctors and specialists interested in vHL. The recommendations are based on longstanding clinical experience, Danish original research, and extensive review of the international literature. vHL is a hereditary multi-tumour disease caused by germline mutations...... of the disease, and/or in individuals with a vHL-associated manifestation; i.e. a hemangioblastoma in the retina or the central nervous system, familial or bilateral pheochromocytomas, familial, multiple, or early onset renal cell carcinomas, and in individuals with an endolymphatic sac tumour in the inner ear...

  15. Inactivation of Vhl in Osteochondral Progenitor Cells Causes High Bone Mass Phenotype and Protects Against Age-Related Bone Loss in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tujun; Xie, Yangli; Huang, Junlan; Luo, Fengtao; Yi, Lingxian; He, Qifen; Chen, Di; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that disruption of von Hippel–Lindau gene (Vhl) coincides with activation of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα) signaling in bone cells and plays an important role in bone development, homeostasis, and regeneration. It is known that activation of HIF1α signaling in mature osteoblasts is central to the coupling between angiogenesis and bone formation. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the coupling between skeletal angiogenesis and osteogenesis during bone remodeling are only partially elucidated. To evaluate the role of Vhl in bone homeostasis and the coupling between vascular physiology and bone, we generated mice lacking Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells (referred to as Vhl cKO mice) at postnatal and adult stages in a tamoxifen-inducible manner and changes in skeletal morphology were assessed by micro–computed tomography (µCT), histology, and bone histomorphometry. We found that mice with inactivation of Vhl in osteochondral progenitor cells at the postnatal stage largely phenocopied that of mice lacking Vhl in mature osteoblasts, developing striking and progressive accumulation of cancellous bone with increased microvascular density and bone formation. These were accompanied with a significant increase in osteoblast proliferation, upregulation of differentiation marker Runx2 and osteocalcin, and elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8. In addition, we found that Vhl deletion in osteochondral progenitor cells in adult bone protects mice from aging-induced bone loss. Our data suggest that the VHL-mediated signaling in osteochondral progenitor cells plays a critical role in bone remodeling at postnatal/adult stages through coupling osteogenesis and angiogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:23999831

  16. Chemokine receptor CXCR4 downregulated by von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor pVHL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staller, Peter; Sulitkova, Jitka; Lisztwan, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Organ-specific metastasis is governed, in part, by interactions between chemokine receptors on cancer cells and matching chemokines in target organs. For example, malignant breast cancer cells express the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and commonly metastasize to organs that are an abundant source...... regulates CXCR4 expression owing to its capacity to target hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) for degradation under normoxic conditions. This process is suppressed under hypoxic conditions, resulting in HIF-dependent CXCR4 activation. An analysis of clear cell renal carcinoma that manifests mutation of the VHL...... gene in most cases revealed an association of strong CXCR4 expression with poor tumour-specific survival. These results suggest a mechanism for CXCR4 activation during tumour cell evolution and imply that VHL inactivation acquired by incipient tumour cells early in tumorigenesis confers not only...

  17. Vhl deletion in osteoblasts boosts cellular glycolysis and improves global glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirckx, Naomi; Tower, Robert J; Mercken, Evi M; Vangoitsenhoven, Roman; Moreau-Triby, Caroline; Breugelmans, Tom; Nefyodova, Elena; Cardoen, Ruben; Mathieu, Chantal; Van der Schueren, Bart; Confavreux, Cyrille B; Clemens, Thomas L; Maes, Christa

    2018-02-12

    The skeleton has emerged as an important regulator of systemic glucose homeostasis, with osteocalcin and insulin representing prime mediators of the interplay between bone and energy metabolism. However, genetic evidence indicates that osteoblasts can influence global energy metabolism through additional, as yet unknown, mechanisms. Here, we report that constitutive or postnatally induced deletion of the hypoxia signaling pathway component von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) in skeletal osteolineage cells of mice led to high bone mass as well as hypoglycemia and increased glucose tolerance, not accounted for by osteocalcin or insulin. In vitro and in vivo data indicated that Vhl-deficient osteoblasts displayed massively increased glucose uptake and glycolysis associated with upregulated HIF-target gene expression, resembling the Warburg effect that typifies cancer cells. Overall, the glucose consumption by the skeleton was increased in the mutant mice, as revealed by 18F-FDG radioactive tracer experiments. Moreover, the glycemia levels correlated inversely with the level of skeletal glucose uptake, and pharmacological treatment with the glycolysis inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA), which restored glucose metabolism in Vhl-deficient osteogenic cells in vitro, prevented the development of the systemic metabolic phenotype in the mutant mice. Altogether, these findings reveal a novel link between cellular glucose metabolism in osteoblasts and whole-body glucose homeostasis, controlled by local hypoxia signaling in the skeleton.

  18. Role of VHL, HIF1A and SDH on the expression of miR-210: Implications for tumoral pseudo-hypoxic fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Anna; Bernardo-Castiñeira, Cristóbal; Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Inés; Pitiot, Ana S; Balbín, Milagros; Astudillo, Aurora; Valdés, Nuria; Scola, Bartolomé; Del Toro, Raquel; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Piruat, José I; Suarez, Carlos; Chiara, María-Dolores

    2017-01-24

    The hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and its microRNA target, miR-210, are candidate tumor-drivers of metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Neuroendocrine neoplasms such as paragangliomas (PGLs) are particularly appealing for understanding the cancer metabolic adjustments because of their associations with deregulations of metabolic enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene involved in HIF-1α stabilization. However, the role of miR-210 in the pathogenesis of SDH-related tumors remains an unmet challenge. Herein is described an in vivo genetic analysis of the role of VHL, HIF1A and SDH on miR-210 by using knockout murine models, siRNA gene silencing, and analyses of human tumors. HIF-1α knockout abolished hypoxia-induced miR-210 expression in vivo but did not alter its constitutive expression in paraganglia. Normoxic miR-210 levels substantially increased by complete, but not partial, VHL silencing in paraganglia of knockout VHL-mice and by over-expression of p76del-mutated pVHL. Similarly, VHL-mutated PGLs, not those with decreased VHL-gene/mRNA dosage, over-expressed miR-210 and accumulate HIF-1α in most tumor cells. Ablation of SDH activity in SDHD-null cell lines or reduction of the SDHD or SDHB protein levels elicited by siRNA-induced gene silencing did not induce miR-210 whereas the presence of SDH mutations in PGLs and tumor-derived cell lines was associated with mild increase of miR-210 and the presence of a heterogeneous, HIF-1α-positive and HIF-1α-negative, tumor cell population. Thus, activation of HIF-1α is likely an early event in VHL-defective PGLs directly linked to VHL mutations, but it is a late event favored but not directly triggered by SDHx mutations. This combined analysis provides insights into the mechanisms of HIF-1α/miR-210 regulation in normal and tumor tissues potentially useful for understanding the pathogenesis of cancer and other diseases sharing similar underpinnings.

  19. Role of VEGFA, CXCR4 and VHL mutation in tumour behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, Roeliene

    2014-01-01

    De ziekte van Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) is een zeldzaam kankersyndroom. Patiënten met deze ziekte krijgen zowel goedaardige als kwaadaardige tumoren in verschillende organen. VHL-patiënten hebben een niet goed werkend VHL-eiwit waardoor er meer CXCR4, een chemokine receptor, en VEGFA, een

  20. Vhl deletion in renal epithelia causes HIF-1?-dependent, HIF-2?-independent angiogenesis and constitutive diuresis

    OpenAIRE

    Schönenberger, Désirée; Rajski, Michal; Harlander, Sabine; Frew, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    One of the earliest requirements for the formation of a solid tumor is the establishment of an adequate blood supply. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) are highly vascularized tumors in which the earliest genetic event is most commonly the biallelic inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene, leading to constitutive activation of the HIF-1α and HIF-2α transcription factors, which are known angiogenic factors. However it remains unclear whether either or both HIF-1α or HIF-2α stabili...

  1. Surveillance in von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, E; Bisgaard, M L

    2010-01-01

    54 living vHL-mutation carriers, risks of intercurrent manifestations in-between surveillance examinations were determined and clinical consequences of surveillance findings evaluated. Current recommendations of annual ophthalmic and abdominal examinations corresponded to acceptably low intercurrent...... for the patient. Also, pre-symptomatic surveillance increased cumulative incidence of clinical vHL diagnosis from 46% to 72% and from 89% to 94% by age 30 and 50 years, respectively. The present results promote optimization of surveillance, expectantly improving clinical vHL outcomes....

  2. Von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, Søs Marie Luise; Harbud, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    cell carcinoma), the adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma), the pancreas, as well as in other organs. As many different organs can be affected, several medical specialities often take part in both diagnosis and treatment of manifestations. vHL should be suspected in individuals with a family history...

  3. Phospholamban Is Downregulated by pVHL-Mediated Degradation through Oxidative Stress in Failing Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunichi Yokoe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The E3 ubiquitin ligase, von Hippel–Lindau (VHL, regulates protein expression by polyubiquitination. Although the protein VHL (pVHL was reported to be involved in the heart function, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we show that pVHL was upregulated in hearts from two types of genetically dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM mice models. In comparison with the wild-type mouse, both DCM mice models showed a significant reduction in the expression of phospholamban (PLN, a potent inhibitor of sarco(endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, and enhanced interaction between pVHL and PLN. To clarify whether pVHL is involved in PLN degradation in failing hearts, we used carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP-lowering reagent, to mimic the heart failure condition in PLN-expressing HEK293 cells and found that CCCP treatment resulted in PLN degradation and increased interaction between PLN and pVHL. However, these effects were reversed with the addition of N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Furthermore, the co-transfection of VHL and PLN in HEK293 cells decreased PLN expression under oxidative stress, whereas knockdown of VHL increased PLN expression both under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Together, we propose that oxidative stress upregulates pVHL expression to induce PLN degradation in failing hearts.

  4. ERK5/BMK1 Is a Novel Target of the Tumor Suppressor VHL: Implication in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-González, Laura; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; del Campo, Antonio Rubio; Serrano-Oviedo, Leticia; Valero, María Llanos; Esparís-Ogando, Azucena; de la Cruz-Morcillo, Miguel Ángel; Melgar-Rojas, Pedro; García-Cano, Jesús; Cimas, Francisco José; Hidalgo, María José Ruiz; Prado, Alfonso; Callejas-Valera, Juan Luis; Nam-Cha, Syong Hyun; Giménez-Bachs, José Miguel; Salinas-Sánchez, Antonio S; Pandiella, Atanasio; del Peso, Luis; Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 1, is implicated in a wide range of biologic processes, which include proliferation or vascularization. Here, we show that ERK5 is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, in a process mediated by the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, through a prolyl hydroxylation-dependent mechanism. Our conclusions derive from transient transfection assays in Cos7 cells, as well as the study of endogenous ERK5 in different experimental systems such as MCF7, HMEC, or Caki-2 cell lines. In fact, the specific knockdown of ERK5 in pVHL-negative cell lines promotes a decrease in proliferation and migration, supporting the role of this MAPK in cellular transformation. Furthermore, in a short series of fresh samples from human clear cell renal cell carcinoma, high levels of ERK5 correlate with more aggressive and metastatic stages of the disease. Therefore, our results provide new biochemical data suggesting that ERK5 is a novel target of the tumor suppressor VHL, opening a new field of research on the role of ERK5 in renal carcinomas. PMID:23730213

  5. ERK5/BMK1 Is a Novel Target of the Tumor Suppressor VHL: Implication in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arias-González

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5, also known as big mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK 1, is implicated in a wide range of biologic processes, which include proliferation or vascularization. Here, we show that ERK5 is degraded through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, in a process mediated by the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL gene, through a prolyl hydroxylation-dependent mechanism. Our conclusions derive from transient transfection assays in Cos7 cells, as well as the study of endogenous ERK5 in different experimental systems such as MCF7, HMEC, or Caki-2 cell lines. In fact, the specific knockdown of ERK5 in pVHL-negative cell lines promotes a decrease in proliferation and migration, supporting the role of this MAPK in cellular transformation. Furthermore, in a short series of fresh samples from human clear cell renal cell carcinoma, high levels of ERK5 correlate with more aggressive and metastatic stages of the disease. Therefore, our results provide new biochemical data suggesting that ERK5 is a novel target of the tumor suppressor VHL, opening a new field of research on the role of ERK5 in renal carcinomas.

  6. VHL type 2B mutations retain VBC complex form and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Hacker

    Full Text Available von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by a spectrum of hypervascular tumors, including renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma, and pheochromocytoma, which occur with VHL genotype-specific differences in penetrance. VHL loss causes a failure to regulate the hypoxia inducible factors (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha, resulting in accumulation of both factors to high levels. Although HIF dysregulation is critical to VHL disease-associated renal tumorigenesis, increasing evidence points toward gradations of HIF dysregulation contributing to the degree of predisposition to renal cell carcinoma and other manifestations of the disease.This investigation examined the ability of disease-specific VHL missense mutations to support the assembly of the VBC complex and to promote the ubiquitylation of HIF. Our interaction analysis supported previous observations that VHL Type 2B mutations disrupt the interaction between pVHL and Elongin C but maintain partial regulation of HIF. We additionally demonstrated that Type 2B mutant pVHL forms a remnant VBC complex containing the active members ROC1 and Cullin-2 which retains the ability to ubiquitylate HIF-1alpha.Our results suggest that subtypes of VHL mutations support an intermediate level of HIF regulation via a remnant VBC complex. These findings provide a mechanism for the graded HIF dysregulation and genetic predisposition for cancer development in VHL disease.

  7. Difference in CXCR4 expression between sporadic and VHL-related hemangioblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, Roeliene C; van Marion, Denise M S; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; de Groot, Jan C; Hoving, Eelco W; Oosting, Sjoukje F; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Derks, Rosalie P H; Cornelissen, Chantal; van der Luijt, Rob B; Links, Thera P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system hemangioblastomas occur sporadically and in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease due to a VHL germline mutation. This mutation leads to enhanced transcription of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), its ligand (CXCL12) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). We

  8. Prevalence, birth incidence, and penetrance of von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Galanakis, Michael Carter Bisgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2017-01-01

    . We further used national health registers to identify individuals who fulfilled the clinical diagnostic vHL criteria based on their registered diagnostic codes, but had not been diagnosed with vHL. We also assessed the medical histories of first-degree relatives to identify familial cases. This study...

  9. Pulmonary artery pressure and iron deficiency in patients with upregulation of hypoxia sensing due to homozygous VHL(R200W) mutation (Chuvash polycythemia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Craig A; Aliyu, Zakari Y; Dham, Niti; Nouraie, Mehdi; Sachdev, Vandana; Sidenko, Stanislav; Miasnikova, Galina Y; Polyakova, Lydia A; Sergueeva, Adelina I; Okhotin, Daniel J; Bushuev, Vladimir; Remaley, Alan T; Niu, Xiaomei; Castro, Oswaldo L; Gladwin, Mark T; Kato, Gregory J; Prchal, Josef T; Gordeuk, Victor R

    2012-02-01

    Patients with Chuvash polycythemia, (homozygosity for the R200W mutation in the von Hippel Lindau gene (VHL)), have elevated levels of hypoxia inducible factors HIF-1 and HIF-2, often become iron-deficient secondary to phlebotomy, and have elevated estimated pulmonary artery pressure by echocardiography. The objectives of this study were to provide a comprehensive echocardiographic assessment of cardiovascular physiology and to identify clinical, hematologic and cardiovascular risk factors for elevation of tricuspid regurgitation velocity in children and adults with Chuvash polycythemia. This cross-sectional observational study of 120 adult and pediatric VHL(R200W) homozygotes and 31 controls at outpatient facilities in Chuvashia, Russian Federation included echocardiography assessment of pulmonary artery pressure (tricuspid regurgitation velocity), cardiac volume, and systolic and diastolic function, as well as hematologic and clinical parameters. We determined the prevalence and risk factors for elevation of tricuspid regurgitation velocity in this population and its relationship to phlebotomy. The age-adjusted mean ± SE tricuspid regurgitation velocity was higher in VHL(R200W) homozygotes than controls with normal VHL alleles (2.5±0.03 vs. 2.3±0.05 m/sec, P=0.005). The age-adjusted left ventricular diastolic diameter (4.8±0.05 vs. 4.5±0.09 cm, P=0.005) and left atrial diameter (3.4±0.04 vs. 3.2±0.08 cm, P=0.011) were also greater in the VHL(R200W) homozygotes, consistent with increased blood volume, but the elevation in tricuspid regurgitation velocity persisted after adjustment for these variables. Among VHL(R200W) homozygotes, phlebotomy therapy was associated with lower serum ferritin concentration, and low ferritin independently predicted higher tricuspid regurgitation velocity (standardized beta=0.29; P=0.009). Children and adults with Chuvash polycythemia have higher estimated right ventricular systolic pressure, even after adjustment for

  10. Loss of the Birt-Hogg-Dubé gene product folliculin induces longevity in a hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Hakam; Fabretti, Francesca; Bharill, Puneet; Rinschen, Markus M; Brinkkötter, Sibylle; Frommolt, Peter; Burst, Volker; Schermer, Bernhard; Benzing, Thomas; Müller, Roman-Ulrich

    2013-08-01

    Signaling through the hypoxia-inducible factor hif-1 controls longevity, metabolism, and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) protein levels are regulated through an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitin ligase complex. Mutations in the VHL gene, encoding a core component of this complex, cause a multitumor syndrome and renal cell carcinoma in humans. In the nematode, deficiency in vhl-1 promotes longevity mediated through HIF-1 stabilization. However, this longevity assurance pathway is not yet understood. Here, we identify folliculin (FLCN) as a novel interactor of the hif-1/vhl-1 longevity pathway. FLCN mutations cause Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome in humans, another tumor syndrome with renal tumorigenesis reminiscent of the VHL disease. Loss of the C. elegans ortholog of FLCN F22D3.2 significantly increased lifespan and enhanced stress resistance in a hif-1-dependent manner. F22D3.2, vhl-1, and hif-1 control longevity by a mechanism distinct from insulin-like signaling. Daf-16 deficiency did not abrogate the increase in lifespan mediated by flcn-1. These findings define FLCN as a player in HIF-dependent longevity signaling and connect organismal aging, stress resistance, and regulation of longevity with the formation of renal cell carcinoma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  11. Human Papillomavirus 16 E6 Contributes HIF-1α Induced Warburg Effect by Attenuating the VHL-HIF-1α Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Guo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in women worldwide, especially in the developing countries. It is a major metabolic character of cancer cells to consume large quantities of glucose and derive more energy by glycolysis even in the presence of adequate oxygen, which is called Warburg effect that can be exaggerated by hypoxia. The high risk subtype HPV16 early oncoprotein E6 contributes host cell immortalization and transformation through interacting with a number of cellular factors. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α, a ubiquitously expressed transcriptional regulator involved in induction of numerous genes associated with angiogenesis and tumor growth, is highly increased by HPV E6. HIF-1α is a best-known target of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL as an E3 ligase for degradation. In the present work, we found that HPV16 E6 promotes hypoxia induced Warburg effect through hindering the association of HIF-1α and VHL. This disassociation attenuates VHL-mediated HIF-1α ubiquitination and causes HIF-1α accumulation. These results suggest that oncoprotein E6 plays a major role in the regulation of Warburg effect and can be a valuable therapeutic target for HPV-related cancer.

  12. The phenotype of polycythemia due to Croatian homozygous VHL (571C>G:H191D) mutation is different from that of Chuvash polycythemia (VHL 598C>T:R200W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasic, Nikica Ljubas; Piterkova, Lucie; Huff, Chad; Bilic, Ernest; Yoon, Donghoon; Miasnikova, Galina Y; Sergueeva, Adelina I; Niu, Xiaomei; Nekhai, Sergei; Gordeuk, Victor; Prchal, Josef T

    2013-04-01

    Mutations of VHL (a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factors) have position-dependent distinct cancer phenotypes. Only two known inherited homozygous VHL mutations exist and they cause polycythemia: Chuvash R200W and Croatian H191D. We report a second polycythemic Croatian H191D homozygote distantly related to the first propositus. Three generations of both families were genotyped for analysis of shared ancestry. Biochemical and molecular tests were performed to better define their phenotypes, with an emphasis on a comparison with Chuvash polycythemia. The VHL H191D mutation did not segregate in the family defined by the known common ancestors of the two subjects, suggesting a high prevalence in Croatians, but haplotype analysis indicated an undocumented common ancestor ∼six generations ago as the founder of this mutation. We show that erythropoietin levels in homozygous VHL H191D individuals are higher than in VHL R200W patients of similar ages, and their native erythroid progenitors, unlike Chuvash R200W, are not hypersensitive to erythropoietin. This observation contrasts with a report suggesting that polycythemia in VHL R200W and H191D homozygotes is due to the loss of JAK2 regulation from VHL R200W and H191D binding to SOCS1. In conclusion, our studies further define the hematologic phenotype of VHL H191D and provide additional evidence for phenotypic heterogeneity associated with the positional effects of VHL mutations.

  13. Cigarette smoking, von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations and sporadic renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Oosterwijk, E.; Hulsbergen van de; Kaa, C.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether smoking is associated with mutations in the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene in 337 cases of sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) among 120 852 people followed for 11.3 years; the findings suggest that smoking causes RCC independently of VHL gene mutations. © 2006 Cancer Research.

  14. VHL loss in renal cell carcinoma leads to up-regulation of CUB domain-containing protein 1 to stimulate PKC{delta}-driven migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razorenova, Olga V; Finger, Elizabeth C; Colavitti, Renata; Chernikova, Sophia B; Boiko, Alexander D; Chan, Charles K F; Krieg, Adam; Bedogni, Barbara; LaGory, Edward; Weissman, Irving L; Broome-Powell, Marianne; Giaccia, Amato J

    2011-02-01

    A common genetic mutation found in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) is the loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, which results in stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), and contributes to cancer progression and metastasis. CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) was shown to promote metastasis in scirrhous and lung adenocarcinomas as well as in prostate cancer. In this study, we established a molecular mechanism linking VHL loss to induction of the CDCP1 gene through the HIF-1/2 pathway in renal cancer. Also, we report that Fyn, which forms a complex with CDCP1 and mediates its signaling to PKCδ, is a HIF-1 target gene. Mechanistically, we found that CDCP1 specifically regulates phosphorylation of PKCδ, but not of focal adhesion kinase or Crk-associated substrate. Signal transduction from CDCP1 to PKCδ leads to its activation, increasing migration of CC-RCC. Furthermore, patient survival can be stratified by CDCP1 expression at the cell surface of the tumor. Taken together, our data indicates that CDCP1 protein might serve as a therapeutic target for CC-RCC.

  15. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  16. Prevalence of von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations in sporadic renal cell carcinoma: results from The Netherlands cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwelingen, K.P. van; Dijk, B.A. van; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Schouten, L.J.; Gorissen, H.; Schalken, J.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Oosterwijk, E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biallelic von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene defects, a rate-limiting event in the carcinogenesis, occur in approximately 75% of sporadic clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). We studied the VHL mutation status in a large population-based case group. METHODS: Cases were identified within the

  17. A mutation at IVS1 + 5 of the von Hippel-Lindau gene resulting in intron retention in transcripts is not pathogenic in a patient with a tongue cancer?: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asakawa Takeshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome predisposing the patient to a variety of malignant and benign neoplasms, most frequently hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and pancreatic tumors. VHL is caused by mutations of the VHL tumor suppressor gene on the short arm of chromosome 3, and clinical manifestations develop if both alleles are inactivated according to the two-hit hypothesis. VHL mutations are more frequent in the coding region and occur occasionally in the splicing region of the gene. Previously, we reported that the loss of heterozygosity (LOH of the VHL gene is common in squamous cell carcinoma tissues of the tongue. Case Presentation We describe a case of squamous cell carcinoma in the tongue caused by a point mutation in the splicing region of the VHL gene and discuss its association with VHL disease. Sequence analysis of DNA extracted from the tumor and peripheral blood of the patient with squamous cell carcinoma revealed a heterozygous germline mutation (c. 340 + 5 G > C in the splice donor sequence in intron 1 of the VHL gene. RT-PCR analysis of the exon1/intron1 junction in RNA from tumor tissue detected an unspliced transcript. Analysis of LOH using a marker with a heterozygous mutation of nucleotides (G or C revealed a deletion of the mutant C allele in the carcinoma tissues. Conclusions The fifth nucleotide G of the splice donor site of the VHL gene is important for the efficiency of splicing at that site. The development of tongue cancer in this patient was not associated with VHL disease because the mutation occurred in only a single allele of the VHL gene and that allele was deleted in tumor cells.

  18. Body Mass Index and von Hippel-Lindau Gene Mutations in Clear-cell Renal Cancer: Results of the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, K.M.; Schouten, L.J.; Hudak, E.; Verhage, B.; Dijk, B.A.C. van; Hulsbergen - Kaa, C.A. van de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Oosterwijk, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Body mass index (BMI) is an important risk factor for clear-cell renal cancer (cc-RCC). A common molecular alteration in cc-RCC is loss-of-function of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. We evaluated the association between BMI and VHL mutations in cc-RCC by using data from the Netherlands

  19. Development of synchronous VHL syndrome tumors reveals contingencies and constraints to tumor evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Rosalie; Horswell, Stuart; Rowan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    with a germline VHL mutation. We report that tumors arising in this context are clonally independent and harbour distinct secondary events exemplified by loss of chromosome 3p, despite an identical genetic background and tissue microenvironment. We propose that divergent mutational and copy number anomalies......Background : Genomic analysis of multi-focal renal cell carcinomas from an individual with a germline VHL mutation offers a unique opportunity to study tumor evolution. Results : We perform whole exome sequencing on four clear cell renal cell carcinomas removed from both kidneys of a patient...... are contingent upon the nature of 3p loss of heterozygosity occurring early in tumorigenesis. However, despite distinct 3p events, genomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical analyses reveal evidence for convergence upon the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. Four germline tumors in this young patient...

  20. VHL negatively regulates SARS coronavirus replication by modulating nsp16 ubiquitination and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Chen, Shuliang; Hou, Panpan; Wang, Min; Chen, Yu; Guo, Deyin

    2015-04-03

    Eukaryotic cellular and most viral RNAs carry a 5'-terminal cap structure, a 5'-5' triphosphate linkage between the 5' end of the RNA and a guanosine nucleotide (cap-0). SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nonstructural protein nsp16 functions as a methyltransferase, to methylate mRNA cap-0 structure at the ribose 2'-O position of the first nucleotide to form cap-1 structures. However, whether there is interplay between nsp16 and host proteins was not yet clear. In this report, we identified several potential cellular nsp16-interacting proteins from a human thymus cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid screening. VHL, one of these proteins, was proven to interact with nsp16 both in vitro and in vivo. Further studies showed that VHL can inhibit SARS-CoV replication by regulating nsp16 ubiquitination and promoting its degradation. Our results have revealed the role of cellular VHL in the regulation of SARS-CoV replication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated homocysteine, glutathione and cysteinylglycine concentrations in patients homozygous for the Chuvash polycythemia VHL mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergueeva, Adelina I.; Miasnikova, Galina Y.; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Levina, Alla A.; Debebe, Zufan; Ammosova, Tatiana; Niu, Xiaomei; Romanova, Elena A.; Nekhai, Sergei; DiBello, Patricia M.; Jacobsen, Donald W.; Prchal, Josef T.; Gordeuk, Victor R.

    2010-01-01

    In Chuvash polycythemia, homozygous von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) 598C>T leads to increased hypoxia inducible factor-1α and 2α, thromboses and lower systemic blood pressures. Circulating homocysteine, glutathione, γ-glutamyltransferase and cysteinylglycine concentrations were higher in 34 VHL598C>T homozygotes than in 37 normal controls and cysteine was lower. Multivariate analysis showed elevated homocysteine independently associated with higher mean systemic blood pressures and elevated glutathione was associated with lower pressures to a similar degree. Among VHL598C>T homozygotes, homocysteine was elevated with low and normal folate concentrations, consistent with a possible defect in the remethylation pathway. The elevated glutathione and γ-glutamyltranserase levels correlated positively with cysteinylglycine, consistent with possible upregulation of a glutathione synthetic enzyme and γ-glutamyltransferase. Cysteinylglycine correlated inversely with cysteine, consistent with possible reduced cysteinyldipeptidase activity. We conclude that up-regulated hypoxia-sensing may influence multiple steps in thiol metabolism. The effects of the resultant elevated levels of homocysteine and glutathione on systemic blood pressure may largely balance each other out. PMID:18223282

  2. Crystal Structure of the Cul2-Rbx1-EloBC-VHL Ubiquitin Ligase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardote, Teresa A F; Gadd, Morgan S; Ciulli, Alessio

    2017-06-06

    Cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) function in the ubiquitin proteasome system to catalyze the transfer of ubiquitin from E2 conjugating enzymes to specific substrate proteins. CRLs are large dynamic complexes and attractive drug targets for the development of small-molecule inhibitors and chemical inducers of protein degradation. The atomic details of whole CRL assembly and interactions that dictate subunit specificity remain elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of a pentameric CRL2VHL complex, composed of Cul2, Rbx1, Elongin B, Elongin C, and pVHL. The structure traps a closed state of full-length Cul2 and a new pose of Rbx1 in a trajectory from closed to open conformation. We characterize hotspots and binding thermodynamics at the interface between Cul2 and pVHL-EloBC and identify mutations that contribute toward a selectivity switch for Cul2 versus Cul5 recognition. Our findings provide structural and biophysical insights into the whole Cul2 complex that could aid future drug targeting. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation of the HIF2α degradation-related HIF2α-VHL complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaotian; Su, Xiaoru; Yu, Jiong; Liu, Jingqi; Shi, Xiaowei; Pan, Qiaoling; Yang, Jinfeng; Chen, Jiajia; Li, Lanjuan; Cao, Hongcui

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF2α), prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2), and the von Hippel Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) are three principal proteins in the oxygen-sensing pathway. Under normoxic conditions, a conserved proline in HIF2α is hydroxylated by PHD2 in an oxygen-dependent manner, and then pVHL binds and promotes the degradation of HIF2α. However, the crystal structure of the HIF2α-pVHL complex has not yet been established, and this has limited research on the interaction between HIF and pVHL. Here, we constructed a structural model of a 23-residue HIF2α peptide (528-550)-pVHL-ElonginB-ElonginC complex by using homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. We also applied these methods to HIF2α mutants (HYP531PRO, F540L, A530 V, A530T, and G537R) to reveal structural defects that explain how these mutations weaken the interaction with pVHL. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations were used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) structural model of the HIF2α-VHL complex. Subsequently, MolProbity, an active validation tool, was used to analyze the reliability of the model. Molecular mechanics energies combined with the generalized Born and surface area continuum solvation (MM-GBSA) and solvated interaction energy (SIE) methods were used to calculate the binding free energy between HIF2a and pVHL, and the stability of the simulation system was evaluated by using root mean square deviation (RMSD) analysis. We also determined the secondary structure of the system by using the definition of secondary structure of proteins (DSSP) algorithm. Finally, we investigated the structural significance of specific point mutations known to have clinical implications. We established a reliable structural model of the HIF2α-pVHL complex, which is similar to the crystal structure of HIF1α in 1LQB. Furthermore, we compared the structural model of the HIF2α-pVHL complex and the HIF2α (HYP531P, F540L, A530V, A530T, and G537

  4. Dicty_cDB: VHL343 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available region, section 4; and merlin (NF2) gene, exons 2 through 16 and complete cds. 34 4.0 3 AC133850 |AC133850.1...ence. 34 4.0 6 AY123429 |AY123429.1 Papio anubis anubis neurofibromatosis type 2

  5. pVHL co-ordinately regulates CXCR4/CXCL12 and MMP2/MMP9 expression in human clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struckmann, K; Mertz, Kd; Steu, S

    2008-01-01

    Loss of pVHL function, characteristic for clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), causes increased expression of CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which triggers expression of metastasis-associated MMP2/MMP9 in different human cancers. The impact of pVHL on MMP2/MMP9 expression and their relationship...

  6. Microtubular stability affects pVHL-mediated regulation of HIF-1alpha via the p38/MAPK pathway in hypoxic cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous research found that structural changes of the microtubule network influence glycolysis in cardiomyocytes by regulating the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α during the early stages of hypoxia. However, little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanism of the changes of HIF-1α caused by microtubule network alternation. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL, as a ubiquitin ligase, is best understood as a negative regulator of HIF-1α. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In primary rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cardiac cells, microtubule-stabilization was achieved by pretreating with paclitaxel or transfection of microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4 overexpression plasmids and microtubule-depolymerization was achieved by pretreating with colchicine or transfection of MAP4 siRNA before hypoxia treatment. Recombinant adenovirus vectors for overexpressing pVHL or silencing of pVHL expression were constructed and transfected in primary rat cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells. With different microtubule-stabilizing and -depolymerizing treaments, we demonstrated that the protein levels of HIF-1α were down-regulated through overexpression of pVHL and were up-regulated through knockdown of pVHL in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Importantly, microtubular structure breakdown activated p38/MAPK pathway, accompanied with the upregulation of pVHL. In coincidence, we found that SB203580, a p38/MAPK inhibitor decreased pVHL while MKK6 (Glu overexpression increased pVHL in the microtubule network altered-hypoxic cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that pVHL plays an important role in the regulation of HIF-1α caused by the changes of microtubular structure and the p38/MAPK pathway participates in the process of pVHL change following microtubule network alteration in hypoxic cardiomyocytes.

  7. Weaver gene 3'UTR novel mutations: Associations with production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... Our recent report on a parallel increase in the milk yield of weaver gene mutation suggests that weaver gene is a candidate marker for ... potential DNA markers of milk production (Shan et al.,. 2002). Thus, weaver gene is an ..... weaver gene that played multiple roles in dairy and wool producing traits.

  8. Weaver gene 3'UTR novel mutations: Associations with production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weaver gene 3'UTR novel mutations: Associations with production traits and milk composition in dairy goat. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Our recent report on a parallel increase in the milk yield of weaver gene mutation suggests that weaver gene is a candidate marker for quantitative traits in farm animals with ...

  9. Correlating Information Contents of Gene Ontology Terms to Infer Semantic Similarity of Gene Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Gan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful applications of the gene ontology to the inference of functional relationships between gene products in recent years have raised the need for computational methods to automatically calculate semantic similarity between gene products based on semantic similarity of gene ontology terms. Nevertheless, existing methods, though having been widely used in a variety of applications, may significantly overestimate semantic similarity between genes that are actually not functionally related, thereby yielding misleading results in applications. To overcome this limitation, we propose to represent a gene product as a vector that is composed of information contents of gene ontology terms annotated for the gene product, and we suggest calculating similarity between two gene products as the relatedness of their corresponding vectors using three measures: Pearson’s correlation coefficient, cosine similarity, and the Jaccard index. We focus on the biological process domain of the gene ontology and annotations of yeast proteins to study the effectiveness of the proposed measures. Results show that semantic similarity scores calculated using the proposed measures are more consistent with known biological knowledge than those derived using a list of existing methods, suggesting the effectiveness of our method in characterizing functional relationships between gene products.

  10. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-08

    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  11. Deduced products of C4-dicarboxylate transport regulatory genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum are homologous to nitrogen regulatory gene products.

    OpenAIRE

    Ronson, C W; Astwood, P M; Nixon, B T; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    We have sequenced two genes dctB and dctD required for the activation of the C4-dicarboxylate transport structural gene dctA in free-living Rhizobium leguminosarum. The hydropathic profile of the dctB gene product (DctB) suggested that its N-terminal region may be located in the periplasm and its C-terminal region in the cytoplasm. The C-terminal region of DctB was strongly conserved with similar regions of the products of several regulatory genes that may act as environmental sensors, includ...

  12. Somatic mutation analysis of the SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and RET genes in the clinical assessment of sporadic and hereditary pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alexander; Hoffmann, Michael M; Neumann, Hartmut P H; Erlic, Zoran

    2012-08-01

    Systemic analysis of somatic mutations of other susceptibility genes in syndromic tumors as well as apparently sporadic tumors in well-characterized specimens is lacking. Its clinical relevance has not been studied. Our objective was to determine the frequency of second allele inactivation in syndromic tumors and determine the frequency and potential clinical impact of somatic mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the known susceptibility genes in syndromic and sporadic tumors. Nine tumor specimens from clinically characterized VHL mutation, five from SDHB mutation, four from SDHD mutation, two from RET mutation carriers, and eight from apparently sporadic cases were analyzed. Tumor DNA mutation screening of the SDHx, VHL, and RET genes and LOH analyses of the SDHx and VHL genes were performed. The Yates-corrected chi-squared test was used for comparison of the clinical data and the molecular-genetic results. Second allele inactivation in tumors was identified in 83% of VHL, 80% of SDHB, and 50% of SDHD specimen. High prevalence of VHL (6/6, p=0.024) and SDHB (7/7, p=0.018) somatic mutations has been identified in the sporadic group compared to all others. In the group of the VHL tumors the SDHB somatic events were significantly lower (2/6; p=0.045). In 18/19 (95%) of cases, we were able to demonstrate the presence of at least two concomitant affected susceptibility genes. We conclude that LOH is the most prevalent second allele-inactivating event. SDHB and VHL somatic mutation might play a role in the sporadic forms of tumor development. There is no clinical impact of mutation screening or LOH analysis of tumor specimens.

  13. A two-cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product inclusion body formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dual cassette reporter system capable of assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding. The present invention further relates to vectors and host cells comprising the dual cassette reporter system. In addition the invention relates to the use...... of the dual cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding....

  14. Kidney Tumor in a von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) Patient With Intensely Increased Activity on 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Sadowski, Samira M; Bagci, Ulas; Patronas, Nicholas J

    2016-12-01

    Renal and pancreatic cysts and tumors are the most common visceral manifestations of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, a heritable multisystem cancer syndrome characterized by development of a variety of malignant and benign tumors. We report a case of a VHL patient with multiple renal cystic and complex cystic/solid lesions. The patient underwent Ga-DOTA-TATE-PET/CT showing intensely increased activity by a solid lesion which demonstrated enhancement on both CT and MRI scans, raising high suspicion for malignancy. The presented case indicates application of SSTR-imaging using Ga-DOTA-conjugated peptides in VHL-patients and emphasizes the need for cautious interpretation of renal parenchyma Ga-DOTATATE activity.

  15. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...... truncated, cytosolic targeted, fumarases (Fum1s and FumRs) from S. cerevisiae and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively, and the cytosolic soluble fumarate reductase (Frds1) from S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of these genes in their native strain backgrounds has been reported to lead to alterations...... in the intracellular cytosolic dicarboxylate concentrations. It was found that all the transformant strains had enhanced yield and productivities of citrate compared with the wild-type strain. The transformants also had the ability to produce citrate in trace-manganese-contaminated medium, where the wild type...

  16. Impact of Cytotoxin-Associated Gene Product-A Positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Available data on the possible association between Helicobacter Pylori (H. pylori) infection and diabetes mellitus (DM) are contradictory. The prevalence of cytotoxin associated gene product A (cagA) positive H. pylori is high in Egypt. This study aims to examine its association with type 2 DM, and its effect on ...

  17. Regulatory Oversight of Cell and Gene Therapy Products in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Anthony; Agbanyo, Francisca; Wang, Jian; Rosu-Myles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Health Canada regulates gene therapy products and many cell therapy products as biological drugs under the Canadian Food and Drugs Act and its attendant regulations. Cellular products that meet certain criteria, including minimal manipulation and homologous use, may be subjected to a standards-based approach under the Safety of Human Cells, Tissues and Organs for Transplantation Regulations. The manufacture and clinical testing of cell and gene therapy products (CGTPs) presents many challenges beyond those for protein biologics. Cells cannot be subjected to pathogen removal or inactivation procedures and must frequently be administered shortly after final formulation. Viral vector design and manufacturing control are critically important to overall product quality and linked to safety and efficacy in patients through concerns such as replication competence, vector integration, and vector shedding. In addition, for many CGTPs, the value of nonclinical studies is largely limited to providing proof of concept, and the first meaningful data relating to appropriate dosing, safety parameters, and validity of surrogate or true determinants of efficacy must come from carefully designed clinical trials in patients. Addressing these numerous challenges requires application of various risk mitigation strategies and meeting regulatory expectations specifically adapted to the product types. Regulatory cooperation and harmonisation at an international level are essential for progress in the development and commercialisation of these products. However, particularly in the area of cell therapy, new regulatory paradigms may be needed to harness the benefits of clinical progress in situations where the resources and motivation to pursue a typical drug product approval pathway may be lacking.

  18. Production of transgenic rice with agronomically useful genes: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C C; Vijaya Laxmi, G

    2000-12-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Yield enhancement to increase rice production is one of the essential strategies to meet the demand for food of the growing population. Both abiotic and biotic features limit adversely the productivity of rice growing areas. Conventional breeding has been an effective means for developing high yielding varieties, however; it is associated with its own limitations. It is envisaged that recent trends in biotechnology can contribute to the agronomic improvement of rice in terms of yield and nutritional quality as a supplement to traditional breeding methods. Genetic transformation of rice has demonstrated numerous important opportunities resulting in the genetic improvement of existing elite rice varieties and production of new plant types. Significant advances have been made in the genetic engineering of rice since the first transgenic rice plant production in the late 1980s. Several gene transfer protocols have been employed successfully for the introduction of foreign genes to rice. In more than 60 rice cultivars belonging to indica, japonica, javanica, and elite African cultivars, the protocol has been standardized for transgenic rice production. Selection and use of appropriate promoters, selectable markers, and reporter genes has been helpful for development of efficient protocols for transgenic rice in a number of rice cultivars. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in transgenic rice for the transfer of agronomically useful genes, emphasizing the application and future prospects of transgenic rice production for the genetic improvement of this food crop.

  19. Epigenetic engineering of ribosomal RNA genes enhances protein production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Santoro

    Full Text Available Selection of mammalian high-producer cell lines remains a major challenge for the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes encode the major component of the ribosome but many rRNA gene copies are not transcribed due to epigenetic silencing by the nucleolar remodelling complex (NoRC [6], which may limit the cell's full production capacity. Here we show that the knockdown of TIP5, a subunit of NoRC, decreases the number of silent rRNA genes, upregulates rRNA transcription, enhances ribosome synthesis and increases production of recombinant proteins. However, general enhancement of rRNA transcription rate did not stimulate protein synthesis. Our data demonstrates that the number of transcriptionally competent rRNA genes limits efficient ribosome synthesis. Epigenetic engineering of ribosomal RNA genes offers new possibilities for improving biopharmaceutical manufacturing and provides novel insights into the complex regulatory network which governs the translation machinery in normal cellular processes as well as in pathological conditions like cancer.

  20. Id-1 gene and gene products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2014-08-19

    A method for treatment of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises targeting and modulating Id-1 gene expression, if any, for the Id-1 gene, or gene products in breast or other epithelial cancers in a patient by delivering products that modulate Id-1 gene expression. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that cancer cells are invasive and metastatic.

  1. SREBP pathway genes as candidate markers in country ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max F. Rothschild

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Country hams are dry-cured products from the Southeastern region of the USA. This high value product initially requires quality fresh meat to avoid later processing problems. The marker SREBF1, is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis and anti-oxidative enzyme transcription. The SREBF1 gene and its regulating genes, SCAP and MBTPS1, were investigated for associations with several meat quality traits in country hams. After single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP identification, PCR-RFLP tests were designed for one polymorphism in each of the three investigated genes. Meat quality and physical traits were collected on 299 fresh hams. Significant associations were found with ham yield (MBTPS1, P<0.05 and SREBF1xMBTPS1, P<0.05 and ham circumference (MBTPS1, P<0.05 and SREBF1x MBTPS1, P<0.01, Hunter A colour score on fresh meat (SREBF1, P<0.05, Hunter B colour score on cured meat (MBTPS1, P<0.05 and SREBF1xMBTPS1, P<0.01, moisture (SCAPxMBTPS1, P<0.05 and salt percentage (SREBF1xSCAP, P<0.05. Our findings provide initial evidence that SNPs in SREBF1, SCAP and MBTPS1 are associated with some country ham quality traits. Breeders could use these gene tests to improve their animals, which would in turn improve country ham processing and other desired production goals.

  2. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2017-03-21

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  3. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  4. Identification of Drosophila Gene Products Required for Phagocytosis of Candidaalbicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis is a highly conserved aspect of innate immunity. We used Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells as a model system to study the phagocytosis of Candida albicans, the major fungal pathogen of humans, by screening an RNAi library representing 7,216 fly genes conserved among metazoans. After rescreening the initial genes identified and eliminating certain classes of housekeeping genes, we identified 184 genes required for efficient phagocytosis of C. albicans. Diverse biological processes are represented, with actin cytoskeleton regulation, vesicle transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation being prominent. Secondary screens using Escherichia coli and latex beads revealed several genes specific for C. albicans phagocytosis. Characterization of one of those gene products, Macroglobulin complement related (Mcr, shows that it is secreted, that it binds specifically to the surface of C. albicans, and that it promotes its subsequent phagocytosis. Mcr is closely related to the four Drosophila thioester proteins (Teps, and we show that TepII is required for efficient phagocytosis of E. coli (but not C. albicans or Staphylococcus aureus and that TepIII is required for the efficient phagocytosis of S. aureus (but not C. albicans or E. coli. Thus, this family of fly proteins distinguishes different pathogens for subsequent phagocytosis.

  5. The FHIT gene product: tumor suppressor and genome "caretaker".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Catherine E; Saldivar, Joshua C; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Huebner, Kay

    2014-12-01

    The FHIT gene at FRA3B is one of the earliest and most frequently altered genes in the majority of human cancers. It was recently discovered that the FHIT gene is not the most fragile locus in epithelial cells, the cell of origin for most Fhit-negative cancers, eroding support for past claims that deletions at this locus are simply passenger events that are carried along in expanding cancer clones, due to extreme vulnerability to DNA damage rather than to loss of FHIT function. Indeed, recent reports have reconfirmed FHIT as a tumor suppressor gene with roles in apoptosis and prevention of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Other recent works have identified a novel role for the FHIT gene product, Fhit, as a genome "caretaker." Loss of this caretaker function leads to nucleotide imbalance, spontaneous replication stress, and DNA breaks. Because Fhit loss-induced DNA damage is "checkpoint blind," cells accumulate further DNA damage during subsequent cell cycles, accruing global genome instability that could facilitate oncogenic mutation acquisition and expedite clonal expansion. Loss of Fhit activity therefore induces a mutator phenotype. Evidence for FHIT as a mutator gene is discussed in light of these recent investigations of Fhit loss and subsequent genome instability.

  6. SOMATIC MUTATIONS OF THE VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENE IN NONFAMILIAL CLEAR-CELL RENAL-CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOSTER, K; PROWSE, A; van den Berg, Anke; FLEMING, S; HULSBEEK, MMF; CROSSEY, PA; RICHARDS, FM; CAIRNS, P; FERGUSONSMITH, MA; BUYS, CHCM; MAHER, ER

    1994-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies have suggested that somatic mutations of a tumour suppressor gene or genes on chromosome 3p are a critical event in the pathogenesis of non-familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Germline mutations of the von Hippel - Lindau (VHL) disease gene predispose to early

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus BKRF4 Gene Product Is Required for Efficient Progeny Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, H M Abdullah Al; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sato, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Fumi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Murata, Takayuki

    2017-09-13

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of human gammaherpesvirus, infects mainly B cells. EBV has two alternative life cycles, latent and lytic, and is reactivated occasionally from the latent stage to the lytic cycle. To combat EBV-associated disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV lytic replication cycle is also important. Here, we focused on an EBV lytic gene, BKRF4. Using our anti-BKRF4 antibody, we revealed that the BKRF4 gene product is expressed during the lytic cycle with late kinetics. To characterize the role of BKRF4, we constructed BKRF4-knockout mutants using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. While disruption of the BKRF4 gene had almost no effect on viral protein expression and DNA synthesis, it significantly decreased progeny virion levels in HEK293 and Akata cells. Furthermore, we show that BKRF4 is involved not only in production of progeny virions but also in increasing the infectivity of the virus particles. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that BKRF4 interacted with a virion protein, BGLF2. We showed that the C-terminal region of BKRF4 was critical for this interaction and for efficient progeny production. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that BKRF4 partially colocalized with BGLF2 in the nucleus and perinuclear region. Finally, we showed that BKRF4 is a phosphorylated, possible tegument protein and that the EBV protein kinase BGLF4 may be important for this phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggest that BKRF4 is involved in the production of infectious virions.IMPORTANCE While the latent genes of EBV have been studied extensively, the lytic genes are less well characterized. This study focused on one such lytic gene, BKRF4, which is conserved only among gammaherpesviruses (ORF45 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or murine herpesvirus-68). After preparing the BKRF4 knockout virus using B95-8 EBV-BAC, we demonstrated that the BKRF4 gene was involved in infectious progeny

  8. Production of papillomavirus-based gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher B; Thompson, Cynthia D

    2007-12-01

    Papillomaviruses are a diverse group of pathogens that infect the skin and mucosal tissues of humans and various animal species. The viral genome is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule approximately 8-kb in length. The non-enveloped papillomavirus capsid is composed of a virally encoded major coat protein, L1, and a minor coat protein, L2. L1 and L2 co-assemble when expressed in mammalian cells, and can promiscuously encapsidate essentially any papillomavirus-based gene transfer vectors (also known as pseudoviruses). This unit outlines the production and propagative amplification of papillomaviral vectors. The system represents a highly tractable method for converting pre-existing mammalian expression plasmids into infectious virus stocks. The resulting vectors have utility for in vitro, as well as in vivo gene delivery applications. (c) 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Manipulating the regulatory genes for teicoplanin production in Actinoplanes teichomyceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbal, Lilia; Zaburannyy, Nestor; Ostash, Bohdan; Shulga, Sergiy; Fedorenko, Victor

    2012-05-01

    Actinoplanes teichomyceticus produces the lipoglycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin, which is considered a last line of defense against multidrug resistant Gram-positive cocci. Different strategies have been employed to generate industrial producers of teicoplanin, however they do not include manipulations of teicoplanin biosynthetic genes due to a poorly developed genetic "toolkit" for this strain. Through this work, we extend the choice of vectors that can be conjugally transferred and maintained in A. teichomyceticus. Antibiotic producing properties and stability of the transconjugants have been examined. As an illustration of the utility of pSG5-based vector pKC1139, we improved teicoplanin production by the wild type strain via manipulations of two regulatory genes from the teicoplanin biosynthetic cluster, tcp28 and tcp29.

  10. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  11. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene therapy (CGT) products with recommendations for developing... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated...

  12. Familial pheochromocytoma associated with a novel mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, D.J.; Avishai, N.; Meiner, V.; Abeliovich, D.; Filon, D. [Hadassah Univ. Hospital and the Hebrew Univ.-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    We report a three generation, 25 member kindred with familial pheochromocytoma. Seven subjects of generations I and II had pheochromocytoma, in five of the seven, the tumors were bilateral, and in two of the seven, the tumors were both adrenal and extraadrenal. One patient also had a carotid body chemodectoma, and one patient had a malignant adrenal tumor and abdominal paraganglioma. In the patient with the chemodectoma, a cerebellar hemagioblastoma became manifest 25 yr after his initial diagnosis with pheochromocytoma, leading only then to a clinical diagnosis of von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). A mutational analysis of the VHL gene revealed a novel nucleotide 709 G{r_arrow}T transversion present in all affected subjects and in four presymptomatic children. In familial pheochromocytoma the diagnosis of VHL should be considered, even when the formal criteria for diagnosis of the syndrome are lacking. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) improves lutein production in Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruijuan; Lin, Xiangzhi

    2014-03-01

    Vitreoscilla hemoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein that promotes oxygen delivery and reduces oxygen consumption under low oxygen conditions to increase the efficiency of cell respiration and metabolism. In this study, we introduced a Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene ( vgb) into Chlorella vulgaris by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation (ATMT). PCR analysis confirmed that the vgb gene was successfully integrated into the Chlorella vulgaris genome. Analysis of biomass obtained in shake flasks revealed transformant biomass concentrations as high as 3.28 g/L, which was 38.81% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Lutein content of transformants also increased slightly. Further experiments recovered a maximum lutein yield of 2.91 mg/L from the transformants, which was 36.77% higher than that of the wild-type strain. The above results suggest that integrated expression of the vgb gene may improve cell growth and lutein yield in Chlorella vulgaris, with applications to lutein production from Chlorella during fermentation.

  14. Functional annotation of human cytomegalovirus gene products: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eVan Damme

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Human Cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic double-stranded DNA virus with one of the largest viral genomes known. The 235kB genome is divided in a unique long (UL and a unique short (US region which are flanked by terminal and internal repeats. The expression of HCMV genes is highly complex and involves the production of protein coding transcripts, polyadenylated long non-coding RNAs, polyadenylated anti-sense transcripts and a variety of non-polyadenylated RNAs such as microRNAs. Although the function of many of these transcripts is unknown, they are suggested play a direct or regulatory role in the delicately orchestrated processes that ensure HCMV replication and life-long persistence. This review focuses on annotating the complete viral genome based on three sources of information. First, previous reviews were used as a template for the functional keywords to ensure continuity; second, the Uniprot database was used to further enrich the functional database; and finally, the literature was manually curated for novel functions of HCMV gene products. Novel discoveries were discussed in light of the viral life cycle. This functional annotation highlights still poorly understood regions of the genome but most importantly it can give insight in functional clusters and/or may be helpful in the analysis of transcriptomics and proteomics studies.

  15. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  16. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  17. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2016-11-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  18. Carotenoid and vitamin intake, von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations and sporadic renal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Oosterwijk, E.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether dietary carotenoid and vitamin intake and supplemental vitamin use were inversely associated with RCC risk and with Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-gene mutations in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS)

  19. Carotenoid and vitamin intake, von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations and sporadic renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Oosterwijk, E.; Hulsbergen van de; Kaa, C.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schalken, J.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether dietary carotenoid and vitamin intake and supplemental vitamin use were inversely associated with RCC risk and with Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-gene mutations in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS)

  20. Expression regulation of design process gene in product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Fang, Lusheng; Li, Bo

    2011-01-01

    is proposed and analyzed, as well as its three categories i.e., the operator gene, the structural gene and the regulator gene. Second, the trigger mechanism that design objectives and constraints trigger the operator gene is constructed. Third, the expression principle of structural gene is analyzed...... with the example of design management gene. Last, the regulation mode that the regulator gene regulates the expression of the structural gene is established and it is illustrated by taking the design process management gene as an example. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.......To improve the design process efficiency, this paper proposes the principle and methodology that design process gene controls the characteristics of design process under the framework of design process reuse and optimization based on design process gene. First, the concept of design process gene...

  1. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications.

  2. Production and clinical development of nanoparticles for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is a promising strategy for specific treatment of numerous gene-associated human diseases by intentionally altering the gene expression in pathological cells. A successful clinical application of gene-based therapy depends on an efficient gene delivery system. Many efforts have been attempted to improve the safety and efficiency of gene-based therapies. Nanoparticles have been proved to be the most promising vehicles for clinical gene therapy due to their tunable size, shape, surface, and biological behaviors. In this review, the clinical development of nanoparticles for gene delivery will be particularly highlighted. Several promising candidates, which are closest to clinical applications, will be briefly reviewed. Then, the recent developments of nanoparticles for clinical gene therapy will be identified and summarized. Finally, the development of nanoparticles for clinical gene delivery in future will be prospected.

  3. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM CAMELS DIFFER IN COAGULASE PRODUCTION, GENOTYPE AND METHICILLIN RESISTANCE GENE PROFILES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziad Jaradat; Akram Al Aboudi; Mahmoud Shatnawi; Qotaibah Ababneh

    2013-01-01

    .... The primary purpose of this research was to isolate S. aureus from camels' meat and nasal swabs and to characterize the isolates for coagulase production and the presence of methicillin gene using PCR-RFLP of coagulase gene...

  4. Development of a gene synthesis platform for the efficient large scale production of small genes encoding animal toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ana Filipa; Brás, Joana L A; Guerreiro, Catarina I P D; Vincentelli, Renaud; Fontes, Carlos M G A

    2016-12-01

    Gene synthesis is becoming an important tool in many fields of recombinant DNA technology, including recombinant protein production. De novo gene synthesis is quickly replacing the classical cloning and mutagenesis procedures and allows generating nucleic acids for which no template is available. In addition, when coupled with efficient gene design algorithms that optimize codon usage, it leads to high levels of recombinant protein expression. Here, we describe the development of an optimized gene synthesis platform that was applied to the large scale production of small genes encoding venom peptides. This improved gene synthesis method uses a PCR-based protocol to assemble synthetic DNA from pools of overlapping oligonucleotides and was developed to synthesise multiples genes simultaneously. This technology incorporates an accurate, automated and cost effective ligation independent cloning step to directly integrate the synthetic genes into an effective Escherichia coli expression vector. The robustness of this technology to generate large libraries of dozens to thousands of synthetic nucleic acids was demonstrated through the parallel and simultaneous synthesis of 96 genes encoding animal toxins. An automated platform was developed for the large-scale synthesis of small genes encoding eukaryotic toxins. Large scale recombinant expression of synthetic genes encoding eukaryotic toxins will allow exploring the extraordinary potency and pharmacological diversity of animal venoms, an increasingly valuable but unexplored source of lead molecules for drug discovery.

  5. Modification of the TRX2 gene dose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae affects hexokinase 2 gene regulation during wine yeast biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Matallana, Emilia

    2012-05-01

    In the industrial yeast biomass production process, cells undergo an oxidative and other stresses which worsen the quality of the produced biomass. The overexpression of the thioredoxin codifying gene TRX2 in a wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain increases resistance to oxidative stress and industrial biomass production yield. We observed that variations in the TRX2 gene dose in wine yeast strains are relevant to determine the fermentative capacity throughout the industrial biomass production process. So, we studied the molecular changes using a transcriptomic approach under these conditions. The results provide an overview of the different metabolic pathways affected during industrial biomass production by TRX2 gene manipulation. The oxidative stress-related genes, like those related with the glutathione metabolism, presented outstanding variations. The data also allowed us to propose new thioredoxin targets in S. cerevisiae, such as hexokinase 2, with relevance for industrial fermentation performance.

  6. Alcohol consumption and mutations or promoter hypermethylation of the von Hippel-Lindau gene in renal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Dijk, B.A.C. van; Oosterwijk, E.; Engeland, M. van; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kester, A.; Vogel, S de; Schalken, J.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with a decreased risk for renal cell cancer in several studies. We investigated whether alcohol is associated with (epi)genetic changes of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene in renal cell cancer. The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) on Diet and Cancer started in

  7. Alcohol consumption and mutations or promoter hypermethylation of the von Hippel-Lindau gene in renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Dijk, B.A.C.van; Oosterwijk, E.; Engeland, M. van; Hulsbergen - Kaa, C.A. van de; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kester, A.; Vogel, S. de; Schalken, J.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with a decreased risk for renal cell cancer in several studies. We investigated whether alcohol is associated with (epi)genetic changes of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene in renal cell cancer. The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) on Diet and Cancer started in

  8. Bacteriocin production and gene sequencing analysis from vaginal Lactobacillus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyancheva, Galina; Marzotto, Marta; Dellaglio, Franco; Torriani, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The human vagina is a complex and dynamic ecosystem containing an abundance of microorganisms. In women of childbearing age, this system is dominated by Lactobacillus spp. In the present work, seventeen newly isolated vaginal strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and were investigated for their antimicrobial properties. Twelve of the isolated Lactobacillus strains showed activity against one or more microorganisms. Six and five of them produced substances that inhibited the growth of two different Klebsiella strains and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Two lactobacilli strains were active against an Escherichia coli strain, one isolate was active against an Enterococus faecalis strain and another lactobacilli strain showed antimicrobial activity against a Candida parapsilosis strain. The nature of the active compounds was additionally studied, and the presence of bacteriocin-like substances was proved. The genes related to the bacteriocin production in three of the newly isolated strains were identified and sequenced. The presence of gassericin A operon in the genome of the species Lactobacillus crispatus was described for the first time. The presence of antimicrobial activity contributes to their possible use as potential probiotic strains after further research.

  9. Increased glycopeptide production after overexpression of shikimate pathway genes being part of the balhimycin biosynthetic gene cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thykær, Jette; Nielsen, Jens; Wohlleben, W.

    2010-01-01

    Amycolatopsis balhimycina produces the vancomycin-analogue balhimycin. The strain therefore serves as a model strain for glycopeptide antibiotic production. Previous characterisation of the balhimycin biosynthetic cluster had shown that the border sequences contained both, a putative 3-deoxy......-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (dahp), and a prephenate dehydrogenase (pdh) gene. In a metabolic engineering approach for increasing the precursor supply for balhimycin production, the dahp and pdh genes from the biosynthetic cluster were overexpressed both individually and together and the resulting strains...... production levels similar to the parent strain. Based on these results the relation between primary and secondary metabolism with regards to Dahp and Pdh is discussed....

  10. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  11. Form gene clustering method about pan-ethnic-group products based on emotional semantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengkai; Ding, Jingjing; Gao, Minzhuo; Ma, Danping; Liu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    The use of pan-ethnic-group products form knowledge primarily depends on a designer's subjective experience without user participation. The majority of studies primarily focus on the detection of the perceptual demands of consumers from the target product category. A pan-ethnic-group products form gene clustering method based on emotional semantic is constructed. Consumers' perceptual images of the pan-ethnic-group products are obtained by means of product form gene extraction and coding and computer aided product form clustering technology. A case of form gene clustering about the typical pan-ethnic-group products is investigated which indicates that the method is feasible. This paper opens up a new direction for the future development of product form design which improves the agility of product design process in the era of Industry 4.0.

  12. Requirements for Clinical Trials with Gene Therapy and Transplant Products in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to describe and summarize the regulation of gene and cell therapy products in Switzerland and its legal basis. Product types are briefly described, as are Swiss-specific terminologies such as the term "transplant product," which means products manufactured from cells, tissues, or even whole organs. Although some parts of this chapter may show a guideline character, they are not legally binding, but represent the current thinking of Swissmedic, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products. As so far the experience with marketing approval of gene therapy and cell therapy products in Switzerland is limited, this chapter focuses on the regulation of clinical trials conducted with these products. Quality, nonclinical, and clinical aspects are summarized separately for gene therapy products and transplant products.

  13. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here.

  14. Prolactin as a Candidate Gene Controlling Molting and Egg Production of Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Susanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of molting is a crucial problem in the local ducks that need to be handled from many aspects including genetic aspect. Handling of molting genetically can be done quickly and accurately when the control genes have been found. The search for marker genes of molting can be conducted in poultry through broodiness naturally, because its physiological processes are related to the continuity of egg production. This paper describes the mechanism of molting, the relationship of molting with prolactin hormone and the association of prolactin gene polymorphism with molting and egg production. Molting and egg production were influenced by the prolactin hormone, that may be controlled by the prolactin gene. High concentration of prolactin hormone will inhibit the function of pituitary gland, decreasing production of gonadotrophin hormone (follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone hence ovulation ceased. This will stop egg production and at the same time molting proccess occurred.

  15. Electronic Northern Analysis of Genes and Modeling of Gene Networks Underlying Bovine Milk Fat Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Bhaskar; Ambwani, Tanuj Kumar; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is one of the most important economic traits in dairy animals. Yet, the biological machinery involved in milk fat synthesis remains poorly understood. In the present study, expression profiling of 45 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and secretion was performed using a computational approach to identify those genes that are differentially expressed in mammary tissue. Transcript abundance was observed for genes associated with nine bioprocesses, namely, fatty acid import into cells, xenobiotic and cholesterol transport, acetate and fatty acid activation and intracellular transport, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation, triacylglycerol synthesis, sphingolipid synthesis, lipid droplet formation, ketone body utilization, and regulation of transcription in mammary, skin, and muscle tissue. Relative expression coefficient of the genes was derived based on the transcript abundance across the three tissue types to determine the genes that were preferentially expressed during lactation. 13 genes (ACSS1, ACSS2, ADFP, CD36, FABP3, FASN, GPAM, INSIG1, LPL, SCD5, SPTLC1, SREBF1, and XDH) showed higher expression in the mammary tissue of which 6 (ADFP, FASN, GPAM, LPL, SREBF1, and XDH) showed higher expression during adulthood. Further, interaction networks were mapped for these genes to determine the nature of interactions and to identify the major genes in the milk fat biosynthesis and secretion pathways.

  16. Electronic Northern Analysis of Genes and Modeling of Gene Networks Underlying Bovine Milk Fat Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Ganguly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is one of the most important economic traits in dairy animals. Yet, the biological machinery involved in milk fat synthesis remains poorly understood. In the present study, expression profiling of 45 genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and secretion was performed using a computational approach to identify those genes that are differentially expressed in mammary tissue. Transcript abundance was observed for genes associated with nine bioprocesses, namely, fatty acid import into cells, xenobiotic and cholesterol transport, acetate and fatty acid activation and intracellular transport, fatty acid synthesis and desaturation, triacylglycerol synthesis, sphingolipid synthesis, lipid droplet formation, ketone body utilization, and regulation of transcription in mammary, skin, and muscle tissue. Relative expression coefficient of the genes was derived based on the transcript abundance across the three tissue types to determine the genes that were preferentially expressed during lactation. 13 genes (ACSS1, ACSS2, ADFP, CD36, FABP3, FASN, GPAM, INSIG1, LPL, SCD5, SPTLC1, SREBF1, and XDH showed higher expression in the mammary tissue of which 6 (ADFP, FASN, GPAM, LPL, SREBF1, and XDH showed higher expression during adulthood. Further, interaction networks were mapped for these genes to determine the nature of interactions and to identify the major genes in the milk fat biosynthesis and secretion pathways.

  17. RBM20 Regulates Circular RNA Production From the Titin Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Mohsin A. F.; Reckman, Yolan J.; Aufiero, Simona; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten M. G.; van der Made, Ingeborg; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Koolbergen, Dave R.; Rasmussen, Torsten B.; van der Velden, Jolanda; Creemers, Esther E.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding motif protein 20 (RBM20) is essential for normal splicing of many cardiac genes, and loss of RBM20 causes dilated cardiomyopathy. Given its role in splicing, we hypothesized an important role for RBM20 in forming circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of noncoding RNA molecules. To

  18. Cell surface expression system for the display of heterologous gene products using chimeric flagellin fusions of bacillus halodurans isolate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available N-terminal sequencing gave rise to homology to flagellin protein, product of the hag gene. protein, product of the hag gene. Gene was cloned by using degenerate primers and inverse PCR. The gene sequence as well as the up- and down- stream regions...

  19. Identification of the Three Genes Involved in Controlling Production of a Phytotoxin Tropolone in Burkholderia plantarii

    OpenAIRE

    Miwa, Shunpei; Kihira, Eri; Yoshioka, Akinori; Nakasone, Kaoru; OKAMOTO, Sho; Hatano, Masaki; Igarashi, Masayuki; Eguchi, Yoko; Kato, Akinori; Ichikawa, Natsuko; Sekine, Mitsuo; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kanesaki, Yu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Utsumi, Ryutaro

    2016-01-01

    Tropolone, a phytotoxin produced by Burkholderia plantarii, causes rice seedling blight. To identify genes involved in tropolone synthesis, we systematically constructed mutations in the genes encoding 55 histidine kinases and 72 response regulators. From the resulting defective strains, we isolated three mutants, KE1, KE2, and KE3, in which tropolone production was repressed. The deleted genes of these mutants were named troR1, troK, and troR2, respectively. The mutant strains did not cause ...

  20. Male-and female-specific variants of doublesex gene products have ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    specific variants of doublesex gene products have different roles to play towards regulation of Sex combs reduced expression and sex comb morphogenesis in Drosophila. Thangjam Ranjita Devi B V Shyamala. Brief communication Volume 38 ...

  1. Nonlinear Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Dose Effect on Penicillin Production by Penicillium chrysogenum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Jeroen G.; Ebbendorf, Bjorg; Woszczynska, Marta; Boer, Remon; Bovenberg, Roel A. L.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Industrial penicillin production levels by the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum increased dramatically by classical strain improvement. High-yielding strains contain multiple copies of the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster that encodes three key enzymes of the beta-lactam biosynthetic

  2. Escherichia coli yjjPB genes encode a succinate transporter important for succinate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Keita; Nanatani, Kei; Hara, Yoshihiko; Yamakami, Suguru; Yahagi, Daiki; Chinen, Akito; Tokura, Mitsunori; Abe, Keietsu

    2017-09-01

    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli produces succinate from glucose via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. To date, however, no genes encoding succinate exporters have been established in E. coli. Therefore, we attempted to identify genes encoding succinate exporters by screening an E. coli MG1655 genome library. We identified the yjjPB genes as candidates encoding a succinate transporter, which enhanced succinate production in Pantoea ananatis under aerobic conditions. A complementation assay conducted in Corynebacterium glutamicum strain AJ110655ΔsucE1 demonstrated that both YjjP and YjjB are required for the restoration of succinate production. Furthermore, deletion of yjjPB decreased succinate production in E. coli by 70% under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that YjjPB constitutes a succinate transporter in E. coli and that the products of both genes are required for succinate export.

  3. Identification of Escherichia coli region III flagellar gene products and description of two new flagellar genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, D H; Matsumura, P

    1984-01-01

    Region III flagellar genes in Escherichia coli are involved with the assembly and rotation of the flagella, as well as taxis. We subcloned the flaB operon from a lambda fla transducing phage onto plasmid pMK2004. Two additional genes were found at the flaB locus, and we subdivided the flaB gene into flaB1, flaBII, and flaBIII. The cheY suppressor mutations which have previously been mapped to flaB were further localized to flaB11 (Parkinson et al., J. Bacteriol. 155:265-274, 1983). Until now,...

  4. [Advances on biosynthetic gene clusters of natural product from marine symbiotic microbe--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Xu, Jun

    2008-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that the true producers of numerous natural products isolated from marine invertebrates were the microbial epibiont and symbiont which are deemed as not-yet-cultivated microbe. Cloning of the biosynthetic genes responsible for a specific nature product not only provides direct genetic evidence of the origin of the compounds but also establishes the feasibility of mass production of the compounds by heterologous expression. This paper reviews the progresses on the biosynthetic gene clusters of nature products from the symbiotic bacteria including marine sponge, ascidian, bryozoan, deep-sea tube worm and deep-sea sediments.

  5. Mobile antibiotic resistance – the spread of genes determining the resistance of bacteria through food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Godziszewska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more antibiotics have become ineffective in the treatment of bacterial nfections. The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is associated with circulation of genes in the environment. Determinants of antibiotic resistance may be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. It has been shown that conjugation is one of the key mechanisms responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance genes, which is highly efficient and allows the barrier to restrictions and modifications to be avoided. Some conjugative modules enable the transfer of plasmids even between phylogenetically distant bacterial species. Many scientific reports indicate that food is one of the main reservoirs of these genes. Antibiotic resistance genes have been identified in meat products, milk, fruits and vegetables. The reason for such a wide spread of antibiotic resistance genes is the overuse of antibiotics by breeders of plants and animals, as well as by horizontal gene transfer. It was shown, that resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements, which are isolated from food products, can easily be transferred to another niche. The antibiotic resistance genes have been in the environment for 30 000 years. Their removal from food products is not possible, but the risks associated with the emergence of multiresistant pathogenic strains are very large. The only option is to control the emergence, selection and spread of these genes. Therefore measures are sought to prevent horizontal transfer of genes. Promising concepts involve the combination of developmental biology, evolution and ecology in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance.

  6. Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bility fbr 4 - 1l-week food intake to bc 0.2 + 0.057, while Sharp et aL. (1984) estimated a realized (within-litter) heritability fbr. 4 - 6-week tood intake, adjusted for 4-week body weight, to be. 0. l5 + 0.021 . Non-additive gene action may thus be involved in the expression of ADI of Phase I of the /n (a) selection group, as.

  7. Reduced production of diacetyl by overexpressing BDH2 gene and ILV5 gene in yeast of the lager brewers with one ILV2 allelic gene deleted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ting-Ting; Li, Ping; Chen, Shi-Jia; Chen, Ye-Fu; Guo, Xue-Wu; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2017-03-01

    Diacetyl causes an unwanted buttery off-flavor in lager beer. The production of diacetyl is reduced by modifying the metabolic pathway of yeast in the beer fermentation process. In this study, BDH2 and ILV5 genes, coding diacetyl reductase and acetohydroxy acid reductoisomerase, respectively, were expressed using a PGK1 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which deleted one ILV2 allelic gene. Diacetyl contents and fermentation performances were examined and compared. Results showed that the diacetyl content in beer was remarkably reduced by 16.52% in QI2-KP (one ILV2 allelic gene deleted), 55.65% in QI2-B2Y (overexpressed BDH2 gene and one ILV2 allelic gene deleted), and 69.13% in QI2-I5Y (overexpressed ILV5 gene and one ILV2 allelic gene deleted) compared with the host strain S2. The fermentation ability of mutant strains was similar to that of S2. Results of the present study can lead to further advances in this technology and its broad application in scientific investigations and industrial beer production.

  8. Coregulation of terpenoid pathway genes and prediction of isoprene production in Bacillus subtilis using transcriptomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Becky M.; Xue, Junfeng; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Wiley, H. S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Linggi, Bryan E.

    2013-06-19

    The isoprenoid pathway converts pyruvate to isoprene and related isoprenoid compounds in plants and some bacteria. Currently, this pathway is of great interest because of the critical role that isoprenoids play in basic cellular processes as well as the industrial value of metabolites such as isoprene. Although the regulation of several pathway genes has been described, there is a paucity of information regarding the system level regulation and control of the pathway. To address this limitation, we examined Bacillus subtilis grown under multiple conditions and then determined the relationship between altered isoprene production and the pattern of gene expression. We found that terpenoid genes appeared to fall into two distinct subsets with opposing correlations with respect to the amount of isoprene produced. The group whose expression levels positively correlated with isoprene production included dxs, the gene responsible for the commitment step in the pathway, as well as ispD, and two genes that participate in the mevalonate pathway, yhfS and pksG. The subset of terpenoid genes that inversely correlated with isoprene production included ispH, ispF, hepS, uppS, ispE, and dxr. A genome wide partial least squares regression model was created to identify other genes or pathways that contribute to isoprene production. This analysis showed that a subset of 213 regulated genes was sufficient to create a predictive model of isoprene production under different conditions and showed correlations at the transcriptional level. We conclude that gene expression levels alone are sufficiently informative about the metabolic state of a cell that produces increased isoprene and can be used to build a model which accurately predicts production of this secondary metabolite across many simulated environmental conditions.

  9. Production of Cloned Pigs with Targeted Attenuation of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordignon, Vilceu; El-Beirouthi, Nayla; Gasperin, Bernardo G.; Albornoz, Marcelo S.; Martinez-Diaz, Mario A.; Schneider, Carine; Laurin, Denyse; Zadworny, David; Agellon, Luis B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that RNA interference (RNAi) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technologies can be used to attenuate the expression of specific genes in tissues of swine, a large animal species. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a secreted glycoprotein known for its major role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and transport, was selected as the target gene for this study. Three synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting the porcine apoE mRNA were tested in porcine granulosa cells in primary culture and reduced apoE mRNA abundance ranging from 45–82% compared to control cells. The most effective sequence was selected for cloning into a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector under the control of RNA polymerase III (U6) promoter. Stably transfected fetal porcine fibroblast cells were generated and used to produce embryos with in vitro matured porcine oocytes, which were then transferred into the uterus of surrogate gilts. Seven live and one stillborn piglet were born from three gilts that became pregnant. Integration of the shRNA expression vector into the genome of clone piglets was confirmed by PCR and expression of the GFP transgene linked to the expression vector. Analysis showed that apoE protein levels in the liver and plasma of the clone pigs bearing the shRNA expression vector targeting the apoE mRNA was significantly reduced compared to control pigs cloned from non-transfected fibroblasts of the same cell line. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying RNAi and SCNT technologies for introducing stable genetic modifications in somatic cells for eventual attenuation of gene expression in vivo in large animal species. PMID:23737990

  10. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as markers of epithelial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves [El Cerrito, CA; Campisi, Judith [Berkeley, CA

    2011-10-04

    A method for detection and prognosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises detecting expression, if any, for both an Id-1 and an Id-2 genes, or the ratio thereof, of gene products in samples of breast tissue obtained from a patient. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are invasive and metastatic, whereas Id-2 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are localized and noninvasive in the breast tissue.

  11. Major genes and QTL influencing wool production and quality: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvis Ian

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The opportunity exists to utilise our knowledge of major genes that influence the economically important traits in wool sheep. Genes with Mendelian inheritance have been identified for many important traits in wool sheep. Of particular importance are genes influencing pigmentation, wool quality and the keratin proteins, the latter of which are important for the morphology of the wool fibre. Gene mapping studies have identified some chromosomal regions associated with variation in wool quality and production traits. The challenge now is to build on this knowledge base in a cost-effective way to deliver molecular tools that facilitate enhanced genetic improvement programs for wool sheep.

  12. Mitochondrial Gene Therapy: Advances in Mitochondrial Gene Cloning, Plasmid Production, and Nanosystems Targeted to Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduarda; Batista, Cátia; Sousa, Fani; Queiroz, João; Costa, Diana

    2017-03-06

    Mitochondrial gene therapy seems to be a valuable and promising strategy to treat mitochondrial disorders. The use of a therapeutic vector based on mitochondrial DNA, along with its affinity to the site of mitochondria, can be considered a powerful tool in the reestablishment of normal mitochondrial function. In line with this and for the first time, we successfully cloned the mitochondrial gene ND1 that was stably maintained in multicopy pCAG-GFP plasmid, which is used to transform E. coli. This mitochondrial-gene-based plasmid was encapsulated into nanoparticles. Furthermore, the functionalization of nanoparticles with polymers, such as cellulose or gelatin, enhances their overall properties and performance for gene therapy. The fluorescence arising from rhodamine nanoparticles in mitochondria and a fluorescence microscopy study show pCAG-GFP-ND1-based nanoparticles' cell internalization and mitochondria targeting. The quantification of GFP expression strongly supports this finding. This work highlights the viability of gene therapy based on mitochondrial DNA instigating further in vitro research and clinical translation.

  13. Inferring the Genes Underlying Flavonoid Production in Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astola, L.J.; Gomes Roldan, V.; Molenaar, J.

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant secondary metabolites that are extensively studied for their proposed positive effects on human health. They are the end products of a cascade of enzymatic reactions that convert initially toxic substances to glycosylated forms. To determine which enzymes are precisely

  14. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O'Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  15. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpass, Gloria E., E-mail: gloria.malpass@gmail.com [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Arimilli, Subhashini, E-mail: sarimill@wakehealth.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Prasad, G.L., E-mail: prasadg@rjrt.com [R and D Department, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27102 (United States); Howlett, Allyn C., E-mail: ahowlett@wakehealth.edu [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes.

  16. Identification and distribution of products from novel tryptopyrokinin genes in the locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redeker, Jana; Bläser, Marcel; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard

    2017-04-22

    A recent analysis of the genome of Locusta migratoria indicated the presence of four novel insect neuropeptide genes encoding for multiple tryptopyrokinin peptides (tryptoPKs); hitherto only known from pyrokinin or capa genes. In our study, mature products of tryptoPK genes 1 and 2 were identified by mass spectrometry; precursor sequences assigned to the tryptoPK genes 3 and 4 are likely partial sequences of a single precursor. The expression of tryptoPK genes 1 and 2 is restricted to two cells in the subesophageal ganglion, exhibiting not only a unique neuropeptidome but also a very distinctive axonal projection. Comparative neuroendocrinology revealed that homologous cells in other insects also produce tryptoPKs but use other genes to generate this pattern. Since capa and pyrokinin genes are discussed as ancestors of the tryptoPK genes, we completed the hitherto only partially known precursor sequences of these genes by means of transcriptome analyses. The distribution of mature products of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the CNS is compared with that of tryptoPKs. In addition, a novel pyrokinin-like precursor is described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathology and biology associated with the fragile FHIT gene and gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldivar, Joshua C; Shibata, Hidetaka; Huebner, Kay

    2010-04-01

    More than 12 years and >800 scientific publications after the discovery of the first gene at a chromosome fragile site, the FHIT gene at FRA3B, there are still questions to pursue concerning the selective advantage conferred to cells by loss of expression of FHIT, the most frequent target of allele deletion in precancerous lesions and cancers. These questions are considered in light of recent investigations of genetic and epigenetic alterations to the locus and in a retrospective consideration of biological roles of the Fhit protein discovered through functional studies. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The paf gene product modulates asexual development in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedüs, Nikoletta; Sigl, Claudia; Zadra, Ivo; Pócsi, Istvan; Marx, Florentine

    2011-06-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum secretes a low molecular weight, cationic and cysteine-rich protein (PAF). It has growth inhibitory activity against the model organism Aspergillus nidulans and numerous zoo- and phytopathogenic fungi but shows only minimal conditional antifungal activity against the producing organism itself. In this study we provide evidence for an additional function of PAF which is distinct from the antifungal activity against putative ecologically concurrent microorganisms. Our data indicate that PAF enhances conidiation in P. chrysogenum by modulating the expression of brlA, the central regulatory gene for mitospore development. A paf deletion strain showed a significant impairment of mitospore formation which sustains our hypothesis that PAF plays an important role in balancing asexual differentiation in P. chrysogenum. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Genes, language, cognition, and culture: towards productive inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-04-01

    The Queen Mary conference on “Integrating Genetic and Cultural Evolutionary Approaches to Language,” and the papers in this special issue, clearly illustrate the excitement and potential of trans-disciplinary approaches to language as an evolved biological capacity (phylogeny) and an evolving cultural entity (glossogeny). Excepting the present author, the presenters/authors are mostly young rising stars in their respective fields, and include scientists with backgrounds in linguistics, animal communication, neuroscience, evolutionary biology, anthropology, and computer science. On display was a clear willingness to engage with different approaches and terminology and a commitment to shared standards of scientific rigor, empirically driven theory, and logical argument. Because the papers assembled here, together with the introduction, speak for themselves, I will focus in this “extro-duction” on some of the terminological and conceptual difficulties which threaten to block this exciting wave of scientific progress in understanding language evolution, in both senses of that term. In particular I will first argue against the regrettably widespread practice of opposing cultural and genetic explanations of human cognition as if they were dichotomous. Second, I will unpack the debate concerning “general-purpose” and “domain-specific” mechanisms, which masquerades as a debate about nativism but is nothing of the sort. I believe that framing discussions of language in these terms has generated more heat than light, and that a modern molecular understanding of genes, development, behavior, and evolution renders many of the assumptions underlying this debate invalid.

  20. The FRIABLE1 gene product affects cell adhesion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Neumetzler

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion in plants is mediated predominantly by pectins, a group of complex cell wall associated polysaccharides. An Arabidopsis mutant, friable1 (frb1, was identified through a screen of T-DNA insertion lines that exhibited defective cell adhesion. Interestingly, the frb1 plants displayed both cell and organ dissociations and also ectopic defects in organ separation. The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246. Unlike other cell adhesion deficient mutants, frb1 mutants do not have reduced levels of adhesion related cell wall polymers, such as pectins. Instead, FRB1 affects the abundance of galactose- and arabinose-containing oligosaccharides in the Golgi. Furthermore, frb1 mutants displayed alteration in pectin methylesterification, cell wall associated extensins and xyloglucan microstructure. We propose that abnormal FRB1 action has pleiotropic consequences on wall architecture, affecting both the extensin and pectin matrices, with consequent changes to the biomechanical properties of the wall and middle lamella, thereby influencing cell-cell adhesion.

  1. Role of Vibrio polysaccharide (vps) genes in VPS production, biofilm formation and Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jiunn C N; Syed, Khalid A; Klose, Karl E; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2010-09-01

    Biofilm formation enhances the survival and persistence of the facultative human pathogen Vibrio cholerae in natural ecosystems and its transmission during seasonal cholera outbreaks. A major component of the V. cholerae biofilm matrix is the Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS), which is essential for development of three-dimensional biofilm structures. The vps genes are clustered in two regions, the vps-I cluster (vpsU, vpsA-K, VC0916-27) and the vps-II cluster (vpsL-Q, VC0934-39), separated by an intergenic region containing the rbm gene cluster that encodes biofilm matrix proteins. In-frame deletions of the vps clusters and genes encoding matrix proteins drastically altered biofilm formation phenotypes. To determine which genes within the vps gene clusters are required for biofilm formation and VPS synthesis, we generated in-frame deletion mutants for all the vps genes. Many of these mutants exhibited reduced capacity to produce VPS and biofilms. Infant mouse colonization assays revealed that mutants lacking either vps clusters or rbmA (encoding secreted matrix protein RbmA) exhibited a defect in intestinal colonization compared to the wild-type. Understanding the roles of the various vps gene products will aid in the biochemical characterization of the VPS biosynthetic pathway and elucidate how vps gene products contribute to VPS biosynthesis, biofilm formation and virulence in V. cholerae.

  2. A mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in Brassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, S.B. (Univ. of Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada)); Williams, P.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA)); Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Murofushi, Noboru (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Mander, L.N. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

    1990-07-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode (ein/ein)) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A{sub 3} (GA{sub 3}) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3} were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using ({sup 2}H)GA{sub 1} as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1}, and the rate of GA{sub 19} metabolism were simultaneously analyzed. Levels of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 20} were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1} were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA{sub 1} biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} to ({sup 3}H) GA{sub 1} was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA{sub 1} biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A{sub 1} and A{sub 3}.

  3. Enterotoxin gene profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk and dairy products in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, D M; Gallina, S; Bellio, A; Chiesa, F; Civera, T; Decastelli, L

    2014-02-01

    Staphylococcal foodborne intoxication, occurring after consumption of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food, is considered one of the most common forms of bacterial foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Milk and dairy products account for 5% of all the incriminated foods in staphylococcal outbreaks, referring to Europe. The distribution of genes encoding for enterotoxins in Staphylococcus aureus strains is highly variable, with some carried on stable regions of the chromosome and others carried on mobile genetic elements. The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of genes encoding for SEs in Staph. aureus strains isolated from milk and dairy products. In the period from January 2010 to June 2011, a total of 1245 dairy samples (848 of raw milk and 397 of dairy products) were collected and analysed for detection of genes encoding for 11 SEs and SEls (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SER SElJ and SElP) according to the procedures of the Italian National Reference Laboratory for coagulase-positive Staphylococci including Staph. aureus. Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated in 481 (39%) samples. Of the 481 isolates of Staph. aureus tested, 255 (53%) were positive for one or more SE genes, and thirty-five different enterotoxin gene profiles were distinguished among the isolates. ser gene, found in 134 (28%) of the isolates, was the most frequent, followed by sed (25%) and selj genes (25%). The identification of new SEs increased the isolation frequency of enterotoxigenic staphylococci, thus suggesting that the pathogenic potential of Staph. aureus may be of greater importance than previously thought. Further studies are needed to quantify the expression of these new enterotoxins, and to assess their contribution to foodborne disease burden. The analyses targeted 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins genes and 35 different enterotoxin gene profiles were distinguished among the isolates. A total of 255 Staph. aureus isolates were positive for one or more SE

  4. Production of the 2400 kb Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene transcript; transcription time and cotranscriptional splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, C.N.; Worton, R.G. [Univ. of Toronto and the Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    The largest known gene in any organism is the human DMD gene which has 79 exons that span 2400 kb. The extreme nature of the DMD gene raises questions concerning the time required for transcription and whether splicing begins before transcription is complete. DMD gene transcription is induced as cultured human myoblasts differentiate to form multinucleated myotubes, providing a system for studying the kinetics of transcription and splicing. Using quantitative RT-PCR, transcript accumulation was monitored from four different regions within the gene following induction of expression. By comparing the accumulation of transcripts from the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends of the gene we have shown that approximately 12 hours are required to transcribe 1770 kb of the gene, extrapolating to a time of 16 hours for the transcription unit expressed in muscle. Comparison of accumulation profiles for spliced and total transcript demonstrated that transcripts are spliced at the 5{prime} end before transcription is complete, providing strong evidence for cotranscriptional splicing of DMD gene transcripts. Finally, the rate of transcript accumulation was reduced at the 3{prime} end of the gene relative to the 5{prime} end, perhaps due to premature termination of transcription complexes as they traverse this enormous transcription unit. The lag between transcription initiation and the appearance of complete transcripts could be important in limiting transcript production in dividing cells and to the timing of mRNA appearance in differentiating muscle.

  5. Prolactin as a Candidate Gene Controlling Molting and Egg Production of Duck

    OpenAIRE

    Triana Susanti

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of molting is a crucial problem in the local ducks that need to be handled from many aspects including genetic aspect. Handling of molting genetically can be done quickly and accurately when the control genes have been found. The search for marker genes of molting can be conducted in poultry through broodiness naturally, because its physiological processes are related to the continuity of egg production. This paper describes the mechanism of molting, the relationship of molting with...

  6. GeneViTo: Visualizing gene-product functional and structural features in genomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promponas Vasilis J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of increasing amounts of sequence data from completely sequenced genomes boosts the development of new computational methods for automated genome annotation and comparative genomics. Therefore, there is a need for tools that facilitate the visualization of raw data and results produced by bioinformatics analysis, providing new means for interactive genome exploration. Visual inspection can be used as a basis to assess the quality of various analysis algorithms and to aid in-depth genomic studies. Results GeneViTo is a JAVA-based computer application that serves as a workbench for genome-wide analysis through visual interaction. The application deals with various experimental information concerning both DNA and protein sequences (derived from public sequence databases or proprietary data sources and meta-data obtained by various prediction algorithms, classification schemes or user-defined features. Interaction with a Graphical User Interface (GUI allows easy extraction of genomic and proteomic data referring to the sequence itself, sequence features, or general structural and functional features. Emphasis is laid on the potential comparison between annotation and prediction data in order to offer a supplement to the provided information, especially in cases of "poor" annotation, or an evaluation of available predictions. Moreover, desired information can be output in high quality JPEG image files for further elaboration and scientific use. A compilation of properly formatted GeneViTo input data for demonstration is available to interested readers for two completely sequenced prokaryotes, Chlamydia trachomatis and Methanococcus jannaschii. Conclusions GeneViTo offers an inspectional view of genomic functional elements, concerning data stemming both from database annotation and analysis tools for an overall analysis of existing genomes. The application is compatible with Linux or Windows ME-2000-XP operating

  7. Genetic Resources for Advanced Biofuel Production Described with the Gene Ontology

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    Trudy eTorto-Alalibo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO: http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat, can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.

  8. Prevalence of von Hippel-Lindau gene mutations in sporadic renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalken Jack A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biallelic von Hippel-Lindau (VHL gene defects, a rate-limiting event in the carcinogenesis, occur in approximately 75% of sporadic clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC. We studied the VHL mutation status in a large population-based case group. Methods Cases were identified within the Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer, which includes 120,852 men and women. After 11.3 years of follow-up, 337 incident cases with histologically confirmed epithelial cancers were identified. DNA was isolated from paraffin material collected from 51 pathology laboratories and revised by one pathologist, leaving material from 235 cases. VHL mutational status was assessed by SSCP followed by direct sequencing, after testing SSCP as a screening tool in a subsample. Results The number of mutations was significantly higher for clear-cell RCC compared to other histological types. We observed 131 mutations in 114 out of 187 patients (61% with clear-cell RCC. The majority of mutations were truncating mutations (47%. The mean tumor size was 72.7 mm for mutated tumors compared to 65.3 mm for wildtype tumors (p = 0.06. No statistically significant differences were observed for nuclear grade, TNM distribution or stage. In other histological types, we observed 8 mutations in 7 out of 48 patients (15%, 1 mutation in 1 of 6 oncocytoma, 3 mutations in 2 of 7 chromophobe RCC, 2 mutations in 2 of 30 papillary RCC, no mutations in 1 collecting duct carcinoma and 2 mutations in 2 of 4 unclassified RCC. Conclusion VHL mutations were detected in 61% of sporadic clear-cell RCC. VHL mutated and wildtype clear-cell RCC did not differ with respect to most parameters.

  9. Investigation of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Luana Martins; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Different strains of Lactococcus lactis are capable of producing the bacteriocin nisin. However, genetic transfer mechanisms allow the natural occurrence of genes involved in nisin production in members of other bacterial genera, such as Enterococcus spp. In a previous study, nisA was identified in eight enterococci capable of producing antimicrobial substances. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of genes involved in nisin production in Enterococcus spp. strains, as well as nisin expression. The nisA genes from eight Enterococcus spp. strains were sequenced and the translated amino acid sequences were compared to nisin amino-acid sequences previously described in databases. Although containing nisin structural and maturation related genes, the enterococci strains tested in the present study did not present the immunity related genes (nisFEG and nisI). The translated sequences of nisA showed some point mutations, identical to those presented by Lactococcus strains isolated from goat milk. All enterococci were inhibited by nisin, indicating the absence of immunity and thus that nisin cannot be expressed. This study demonstrated for the first time the natural occurrence of nisin structural genes in Enterococcus strains and highlights the importance of providing evidence of a link between the presence of bacteriocin genes and their expression.

  10. The ERCC1 and ERCC4 (XPF) genes and gene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Mandira; Boulware, Karen S; Wood, Richard D

    2015-09-15

    The ERCC1 and ERCC4 genes encode the two subunits of the ERCC1-XPF nuclease. This enzyme plays an important role in repair of DNA damage and in maintaining genomic stability. ERCC1-XPF nuclease nicks DNA specifically at junctions between double-stranded and single-stranded DNA, when the single-strand is oriented 5' to 3' away from a junction. ERCC1-XPF is a core component of nucleotide excision repair and also plays a role in interstrand crosslink repair, some pathways of double-strand break repair by homologous recombination and end-joining, as a backup enzyme in base excision repair, and in telomere length regulation. In many of these activities, ERCC1-XPF complex cleaves the 3' tails of DNA intermediates in preparation for further processing. ERCC1-XPF interacts with other proteins including XPA, RPA, SLX4 and TRF2 to perform its functions. Disruption of these interactions or direct targeting of ERCC1-XPF to decrease its DNA repair function might be a useful strategy to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to some DNA damaging agents. Complete deletion of either ERCC1 or ERCC4 is not compatible with viability in mice or humans. However, mutations in the ERCC1 or ERCC4 genes cause a remarkable array of rare inherited human disorders. These include specific forms of xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne syndrome, Fanconi anemia, XFE progeria and cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glutamic acid promotes monacolin K production and monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster expression in Monascus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chan; Liang, Jian; Yang, Le; Chai, Shiyuan; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glutamic acid on production of monacolin K and expression of the monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster. When Monascus M1 was grown in glutamic medium instead of in the original medium, monacolin K production increased from 48.4 to 215.4?mg?l?1, monacolin K production increased by 3.5 times. Glutamic acid enhanced monacolin K production by upregulating the expression of mokB-mokI; on day 8, the expression level of mokA tended to decrease by Reverse Transc...

  12. Biofilm formation, phenotypic production of cellulose and gene expression in Salmonella enterica decrease under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, A; Miranda, J M; Vázquez, B; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2016-12-05

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is one of the main food-borne pathogens. This microorganism combines an aerobic life outside the host with an anaerobic life within the host. One of the main concerns related to S. enterica is biofilm formation and cellulose production. In this study, biofilm formation, morphotype, cellulose production and transcription of biofilm and quorum sensing-related genes of 11 S. enterica strains were tested under three different conditions: aerobiosis, microaerobiosis, and anaerobiosis. The results showed an influence of oxygen levels on biofilm production. Biofilm formation was significantly higher (PCellulose production and RDAR (red, dry, and rough) were expressed only in aerobiosis. In microaerobiosis, the strains expressed the SAW (smooth and white) morphotype, while in anaerobiosis the colonies appeared small and red. The expression of genes involved in cellulose synthesis (csgD and adrA) and quorum sensing (sdiA and luxS) was reduced in microaerobiosis and anaerobiosis in all S. enterica strains tested. This gene expression levels were less reduced in S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis compared to the tested serotypes. There was a relationship between the expression of biofilm and quorum sensing-related genes. Thus, the results from this study indicate that biofilm formation and cellulose production are highly influenced by atmospheric conditions. This must be taken into account as contamination with these bacteria can occur during food processing under vacuum or modified atmospheres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulatory structures for gene therapy medicinal products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Bettina; Celis, Patrick; Carr, Melanie; Reinhardt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account the complexity and technical specificity of advanced therapy medicinal products: (gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineered products), a dedicated European regulatory framework was needed. Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, the "ATMP Regulation" provides tailored regulatory principles for the evaluation and authorization of these innovative medicines. The majority of gene or cell therapy product development is carried out by academia, hospitals, and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, acknowledging the particular needs of these types of sponsors, the legislation also provides incentives for product development tailored to them. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and, in particular, its Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) provide a variety of opportunities for early interaction with developers of ATMPs to enable them to have early regulatory and scientific input. An important tool to promote innovation and the development of new medicinal products by micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises is the EMA's SME initiative launched in December 2005 to offer financial and administrative assistance to smaller companies. The European legislation also foresees the involvement of stakeholders, such as patient organizations, in the development of new medicines. Considering that gene therapy medicinal products are developed in many cases for treatment of rare diseases often of monogenic origin, the involvement of patient organizations, which focus on rare diseases and genetic and congenital disorders, is fruitful. Two such organizations are represented in the CAT. Research networks play another important role in the development of gene therapy medicinal products. The European Commission is funding such networks through the EU Sixth Framework Program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and characterization of genes related to the production of organic acids in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Aki

    2012-05-01

    Organic acids contribute to the flavor of many foods and drinks including alcoholic beverages. To study the cellular processes affecting organic acid production, here we screened collections of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants and identified 36 yeast mutants forming a yellow halo on YPD plates containing bromocresol purple, indicating that the pH of the medium had been lowered. The disrupted genes encoded TCA cycle enzymes, transcription factors, signal transducers, and ubiquitin-related proteins. Acetate, pyruvate, and succinate are produced by yeast fermentation in rich medium, and their production was affected by mutations of the genes GTR1, GTR2, LIP5, LSM1, PHO85, PLM2, RTG1, RTG2 and UBP3, and also succinate dehydrogenase-related genes including EMI5, SDH1, SDH2, SDH4, TCM62 and YDR379C-A. Among the genes identified, overexpression of only LIP5 affected the production of acetate in S. cerevisiae. However, overexpression of EMI5, LIP5, RTG2 and UBP3 had a significant effect on the production of acetate, citrate, lactate, and succinate in the bottom-fermenting yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of the S. cerevisiae disruptants involved in organic acid production showed that azaserine, citrate, ethionine, and sulfite are useful compounds by which mutants with altered organic acid production might be selected. Taken together, these results suggest that the regulation of many organic acids might be simultaneously achieved by activation or inactivation of a single gene. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MO-DE-207B-05: Predicting Gene Mutations in Renal Cell Carcinoma Based On CT Imaging Features: Validation Using TCGA-TCIA Datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X; Zhou, Z; Thomas, K; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The goal of this work is to investigate the use of contrast enhanced computed tomographic (CT) features for the prediction of mutations of BAP1, PBRM1, and VHL genes in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: For this study, we used two patient databases with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The first one consisted of 33 patients from our institution (UT Southwestern Medical Center, UTSW). The second one consisted of 24 patients from the Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA), where each patient is connected by a unique identi?er to the tissue samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). From the contrast enhanced CT image of each patient, tumor contour was first delineated by a physician. Geometry, intensity, and texture features were extracted from the delineated tumor. Based on UTSW dataset, we completed feature selection and trained a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to predict mutations of BAP1, PBRM1 and VHL genes. We then used TCIA-TCGA dataset to validate the predictive model build upon UTSW dataset. Results: The prediction accuracy of gene expression of TCIA-TCGA patients was 0.83 (20 of 24), 0.83 (20 of 24), and 0.75 (18 of 24) for BAP1, PBRM1, and VHL respectively. For BAP1 gene, texture feature was the most prominent feature type. For PBRM1 gene, intensity feature was the most prominent. For VHL gene, geometry, intensity, and texture features were all important. Conclusion: Using our feature selection strategy and models, we achieved predictive accuracy over 0.75 for all three genes under the condition of using patient data from one institution for training and data from other institutions for testing. These results suggest that radiogenomics can be used to aid in prognosis and used as convenient surrogates for expensive and time consuming gene assay procedures.

  16. Functional Reconstitution of a Fungal Natural Product Gene Cluster by Advanced Genome Editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Jakob; Valiante, Vito; Nødvig, Christina Spuur

    2017-01-01

    is not produced among different isolates. Combining computational analysis with targeted gene editing, we could link a single nucleotide insertion in the polyketide synthase of the trypacidin biosynthetic pathway and reconstitute its production in a nonproducing strain. Thus, we present a CRISPR/Cas9-based tool...

  17. Direct cellobiose production from cellulose using sextuple beta-glucosidase gene deletion Neurospora crassa mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct cellobiose production from cellulose by a genetically modified fungus—Neurospora crassa, was explored in this study. A library of N. crassa sextuple beta-glucosidase (bgl) gene deletion strains was constructed. Various concentrations of cellobiose were detected in the culture broth of the N. ...

  18. Silibinin regulates gene expression, production and secretion of mucin from cultured airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kil-Dong; Lee, Hyun Jae; Lim, Seung Pyong; Sikder, Asaduzzaman; Lee, Su Yel; Lee, Choong Jae

    2012-09-01

    We investigated whether silibinin significantly affects gene expression, production and secretion of mucin from cultured airway epithelial cells. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with silibinin for 30 min and then stimulated with epidermal growth factor (EGF), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or TNF-α for 24 h. The MUC5AC mucin gene expression and mucin protein production were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of silibinin on TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB p65 was also examined. Confluent primary rat tracheal surface epithelial (RTSE) cells were pretreated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for 5 min and then treated for 30 min in the presence of silibinin to assess the effect on mucin secretion using ELISA. The results were as follows: (i) silibinin inhibited the expression of the MUC5AC mucin gene induced by EGF, PMA or TNF-α from NCI-H292 cells; (ii) silibinin also inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin protein induced by the same inducers from NCI-H292 cells; (iii) silibinin inhibited the activation of NF-κB p65 by TNF-α in NCI-H292 cells; (iv) silibinin significantly decreased ATP-induced mucin secretion from cultured RTSE cells. This result suggests that silibinin can regulate gene expression, production and secretion of mucin by directly acting on airway epithelial cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Dystrophin Dp116: A yet to Be Investigated Product of the Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Matsuo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD gene is one of the largest genes in the human genome. The gene exhibits a complex arrangement of seven alternative promoters, which drive the expression of three full length and four shorter isoforms. Dp116, the second smallest product of the DMD gene, is a Schwann cell-specific isoform encoded by a transcript corresponding to DMD exons 56–79, starting from a promoter/exon S1 within intron 55. The physiological roles of Dp116 are poorly understood, because of its extensive homology with other isoforms and its expression in specific tissues. This review summarizes studies on Dp116, focusing on clinical findings and alternative activation of the upstream translation initiation codon that is predicted to produce Dp118.

  20. Improving the Safety of Cell Therapy Products by Suicide Gene Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eDi Stasi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T-cell therapy can involve donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the administration of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TILs expanded ex-vivo, or more recently the use of T cell receptor (TCR or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR redirected T cells. However cellular therapies can pose significant risks, including graft-versus-host-disease and other on and off-target effects, and therefore strategies need to be implemented to permanently reverse any sign of toxicity. A suicide gene is a genetically encoded molecule that allows selective destruction of adoptively transferred cells. Suicide gene addition to cellular therapeutic products can lead to selective ablation of gene-modified cells, preventing collateral damage to contiguous cells and/or tissues. The ‘ideal’ suicide gene would ensure the safety of gene modified cellular applications by granting irreversible elimination of ‘all’ and ‘only’ the cells responsible for the unwanted toxicity. This review presents the suicide gene safety systems reported to date, with a focus on the state-of-the-art and potential applications regarding two of the most extensively validated suicide genes, including the clinical setting: herpes-simplex-thymidine-kinase (HSV-TK and inducible-caspase-9 (iCasp9.

  1. Improving the safety of cell therapy products by suicide gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin S; Lamb, Lawrence S; Goldman, Frederick; Di Stasi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy can involve donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the administration of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte expanded ex-vivo, or more recently the use of T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells. However, cellular therapies can pose significant risks, including graft-vs.-host-disease and other on and off-target effects, and therefore strategies need to be implemented to permanently reverse any sign of toxicity. A suicide gene is a genetically encoded molecule that allows selective destruction of adoptively transferred cells. Suicide gene addition to cellular therapeutic products can lead to selective ablation of gene-modified cells, preventing collateral damage to contiguous cells and/or tissues. The "ideal" suicide gene would ensure the safety of gene modified cellular applications by granting irreversible elimination of "all" and "only" the cells responsible for the unwanted toxicity. This review presents the suicide gene safety systems reported to date, with a focus on the state-of-the-art and potential applications regarding two of the most extensively validated suicide genes, including the clinical setting: herpes-simplex-thymidine-kinase and inducible-caspase-9.

  2. An allele of an ancestral transcription factor dependent on a horizontally acquired gene product.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Deborah Chen

    Full Text Available Changes in gene regulatory circuits often give rise to phenotypic differences among closely related organisms. In bacteria, these changes can result from alterations in the ancestral genome and/or be brought about by genes acquired by horizontal transfer. Here, we identify an allele of the ancestral transcription factor PmrA that requires the horizontally acquired pmrD gene product to promote gene expression. We determined that a single amino acid difference between the PmrA proteins from the human adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B and the broad host range S. enterica serovar Typhimurium rendered transcription of PmrA-activated genes dependent on the PmrD protein in the former but not the latter serovar. Bacteria harboring the serovar Typhimurium allele exhibited polymyxin B resistance under PmrA- or under PmrA- and PmrD-inducing conditions. By contrast, isogenic strains with the serovar Paratyphi B allele displayed PmrA-regulated polymyxin B resistance only when experiencing activating conditions for both PmrA and PmrD. We establish that the two PmrA orthologs display quantitative differences in several biochemical properties. Strains harboring the serovar Paratyphi B allele showed enhanced biofilm formation, a property that might promote serovar Paratyphi B's chronic infection of the gallbladder. Our findings illustrate how subtle differences in ancestral genes can impact the ability of horizontally acquired genes to confer new properties.

  3. Production of retrovirus vector for gene therapy; Idenshi chiryo no tameno retoro uirusu bekuta no seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, H. [Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan)

    2000-12-05

    At present, retrovirus vector is used widely in clinical field in gene transducing methods. While vector cell secretes retrovirus vector being impossible self-replication into culture solution, production of vector in long term is possible by reason of not dying by gemmation of virus. At present, production of retrovirus vector is executed by monostratal culture of vector producing cell in lab-scale. In another hand, the development of efficient mass-production technology is expected for needs of mass volume for one patient and enlargement for adaptation disease. (translated by NEDO)

  4. Modern plant metabolomics: advanced natural product gene discoveries, improved technologies, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Lloyd W; Lei, Zhentian; Nikolau, Basil J; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-02-01

    Plant metabolomics has matured and modern plant metabolomics has accelerated gene discoveries and the elucidation of a variety of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. This review covers the approximate period of 2000 to 2014, and highlights specific examples of the discovery and characterization of novel genes and enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of natural products such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Additional examples of the integration of metabolomics with genome-based functional characterizations of plant natural products that are important to modern pharmaceutical technology are also reviewed. This article also provides a substantial review of recent technical advances in mass spectrometry imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, integrated LC-MS-SPE-NMR for metabolite identifications, and X-ray crystallography of microgram quantities for structural determinations. The review closes with a discussion on the future prospects of metabolomics related to crop species and herbal medicine.

  5. Correlation of Methane Production and Functional Gene Transcriptional Activity in a Peat Soil ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Thomas E.; Prosser, James I.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription dynamics of subunit A of the key gene in methanogenesis (methyl coenzyme M reductase; mcrA) was studied to evaluate the relationship between process rate (methanogenesis) and gene transcription dynamics in a peat soil ecosystem. Soil methanogen process rates were determined during incubation of peat slurries at temperatures from 4 to 37°C, and real-time quantitative PCR was applied to quantify the abundances of mcrA genes and transcripts; corresponding transcriptional dynamics were calculated from mcrA transcript/gene ratios. Internal standards suggested unbiased recovery of mRNA abundances in comparison to DNA levels. In comparison to those in pure-culture studies, mcrA transcript/gene ratios indicated underestimation by 1 order of magnitude, possibly due to high proportions of inactive or dead methanogens. Methane production rates were temperature dependent, with maxima at 25°C, but changes in abundance and transcription of the mcrA gene showed no correlation with temperature. However, mcrA transcript/gene ratios correlated weakly (regression coefficient = 0.76) with rates of methanogenesis. Methanogen process rates increased over 3 orders of magnitude, while the corresponding maximum transcript/gene ratio increase was only 18-fold. mcrA transcript dynamics suggested steady-state expression in peat soil after incubation for 24 and 48 h, similar to that in stationary-phase cultures. mcrA transcript/gene ratios are therefore potential in situ indicators of methanogen process rate changes in complex soil systems. PMID:19749064

  6. Scarless and sequential gene modification in Pseudomonas using PCR product flanked by short homology regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Rubing

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lambda Red recombination system has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in various bacteria and fungi. The procedure consists of electroporating a polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragment containing antibiotic cassette flanked by homology regions to the target locus into a strain that can express the lambda Red proteins (Gam, Bet, Exo. Results Here a scarless gene modification strategy based on the Red recombination system has been developed to modify Pseudomonas genome DNA via sequential deletion of multiple targets. This process was mediated by plasmid pRKaraRed encoding the Red proteins regulated by PBAD promoter, which was functional in P. aeruginosa as well as in other bacteria. First the target gene was substituted for the sacB-bla cassette flanked by short homology regions (50 bp, and then this marker gene cassette could be replaced by the PCR fragment flanking itself, generating target-deleted genome without any remnants and no change happened to the surrounding region. Twenty genes involved in the synthesis and regulation pathways of the phenazine derivate, pyocyanin, were modified, including one single-point mutation and deletion of two large operons. The recombination efficiencies ranged from 88% to 98%. Multiple-gene modification was also achieved, generating a triple-gene deletion strain PCA (PAO1, ΔphzHΔphzMΔphzS, which could produce another phenazine derivate, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA, efficiently and exclusively. Conclusions This lambda Red-based technique can be used to generate scarless and sequential gene modification mutants of P. aeruginosa efficiently, using one-step PCR product flanked by short homology regions. Single-point mutation, scarless deletion of genes can be achieved easily in less than three days. This method may give a new way to construct genetically modified P. aeruginosa strains more efficiently and advance the regulatory network study of this organism.

  7. Decarboxylase gene expression and cadaverine and putrescine production by Serratia proteamaculans in vitro and in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Francesca; Pennacchia, Carmela; Di Pasqua, Rosangela; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2013-08-01

    Studies of the molecular basis of microbial metabolic activities that are important for the changes in food quality are valuable in order to help in understanding the behavior of spoiling bacteria in food. The growth of a psychrotrophic Serratia proteamaculans strain was monitored in vitro and in artificially inoculated raw beef. Two growth temperatures (25°C and 4°C) were tested in vitro, while growth at 15°C and 4°C was monitored in beef. During growth, the expression of inducible lysine and ornithine-decarboxylase genes was evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), while the presence of cadaverine and putrescine was quantified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The expression of the decarboxylase genes, and the consequent production of cadaverine and putrescine were shown to be influenced by the temperature, as well as by the complexity of the growth medium. Generally, the maximum gene expression and amine production took place during the exponential and early stationary phase, respectively. In addition, lower temperatures caused slower growth and gene downregulation. Higher amounts of cadaverine compared to putrescine were found during growth in beef with the highest concentrations corresponding to microbial loads of ca. 9CFU/g. The differences found in gene expression evaluated in vitro and in beef suggested that such activities are more reliably investigated in situ in specific food matrices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 1,3-Propanediol production by new recombinant Escherichia coli containing genes from pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przystałowska, Hanna; Zeyland, Joanna; Szymanowska-Powałowska, Daria; Szalata, Marlena; Słomski, Ryszard; Lipiński, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO) is an organic compound, which is a valuable intermediate product, widely used as a monomer for synthesizing biodegradable polymers, increasing their strength; as well as an ingredient of textile, cosmetic and medical products. 1,3-PDO is mostly synthesized chemically. Global companies have developed technologies for 1,3-PDO synthesis from petroleum products such as acrolein and ethylene oxide. A potentially viable alternative is offered by biotechnological processes using microorganisms capable of synthesizing 1,3-PDO from renewable substrates (waste glycerol, a by-product of biofuel production, or glucose). In the present study, genes from Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were introduced into Escherichia coli bacteria to enable the synthesis of 1,3-PDO from waste glycerol. These strains belong to the best 1,3-PDO producers, but they are pathogenic, which restricts their application in industrial processes. The present study involved the construction of two gene expression constructs, containing a total of six heterologous glycerol catabolism pathway genes from C. freundii ATCC 8090 and K. pneumoniae ATCC 700721. Heterologous genes encoding glycerol dehydratase (dhaBCE) and the glycerol dehydratase reactivation factor (dhaF, dhaG) from C. freundii and gene encoding 1,3-PDO oxidoreductase (dhaT) from K. pneumoniae were expressed in E. coli under the control of the T7lac promoter. An RT-PCR analysis and overexpression confirmed that 1,3-PDO synthesis pathway genes were expressed on the RNA and protein levels. In batch fermentation, recombinant E. coli bacteria used 32.6gl(-1) of glycerol to produce 10.6 gl(-1) of 1,3-PDO, attaining the efficiency of 0.4 (mol₁,₃-PDO molglycerol(-1)). The recombinant E. coli created is capable of metabolizing glycerol to produce 1,3-PDO, and the efficiency achieved provides a significant research potential of the bacterium. In the face of shortage of fossil fuel supplies and climate warming

  9. Dairy Product Consumption Interacts with Glucokinase (GCK Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine S. Da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dairy product intake and a person’s genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis parameters. A validated food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and glucokinase (GCK genotypes were analyzed in 210 healthy participants. An interaction between rs1799884 in GCK and dairy intake on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was identified. Secondly, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 were grown in a high-glucose medium and incubated with either 1-dairy proteins: whey, caseins, and a mixture of whey and casein; and 2-four amino acids (AA or mixtures of AA. The expression of GCK-related genes insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and fatty acid synthase (FASN was increased with whey protein isolate or hydrolysate. Individually, leucine increased IRS-1 expression, whereas isoleucine and valine decreased FASN expression. A branched-chain AA mixture decreased IRS-1 and FASN expression. In conclusion, carriers of the A allele for rs1799884 in the GCK gene may benefit from a higher intake of dairy products to maintain optimal insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the results show that whey proteins affect the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism.

  10. New insights about antibiotic production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a gene expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionco, Bárbara; Tavares, Eliandro R.; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F.; do Carmo, Anderson O.; Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Chideroli, Roberta T.; Simionato, Ane S.; Navarro, Miguel O. P.; Chryssafidis, Andreas L.; Andrade, Galdino

    2017-09-01

    The bacterial resistance for antibiotics is one of the most important problems in public health and only a small number of new products are in development. Antagonistic microorganisms from soil are a promising source of new candidate molecules. Products of secondary metabolism confer adaptive advantages for their producer, in the competition for nutrients in the microbial community. The biosynthesis process of compounds with antibiotic activity is the key to optimize their production and the transcriptomic study of microorganisms is of great benefit for the discovery of these metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain growing in the presence of copper chloride produces a bioactive organometallic compound, which has a potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. The objective of this study was to verify overexpressed genes and evaluate their relation to the organometallic biosynthesis in this microorganism. P. aeruginosa LV strain was cultured in presence and absence of copper chloride. Two methods were used for transcriptomic analysis, genome reference-guided assembly and de novo assembly. The genome referenced analysis identified nine upregulated genes when bacteria were exposed to copper chloride, while the De Novo Assembly identified twelve upregulated genes. Nineteen genes can be related to an increased microbial metabolism for the extrusion process of exceeding intracellular copper. Two important genes are related to the biosynthesis of phenazine and tetrapyrroles compounds, which can be involved in the bioremediation of intracellular copper and biosynthesis of the organometallic compound. Additional studies are being carried out to further prove the function of the described genes and relate them to the biosynthetic pathway of the organometallic compound.

  11. New Insights about Antibiotic Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Gionco

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial resistance for antibiotics is one of the most important problems in public health and only a small number of new products are in development. Antagonistic microorganisms from soil are a promising source of new candidate molecules. Products of secondary metabolism confer adaptive advantages for their producer, in the competition for nutrients in the microbial community. The biosynthesis process of compounds with antibiotic activity is the key to optimize their production and the transcriptomic study of microorganisms is of great benefit for the discovery of these metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain growing in the presence of copper chloride produces a bioactive organometallic compound, which has a potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. The objective of this study was to verify overexpressed genes and evaluate their relation to the organometallic biosynthesis in this microorganism. P. aeruginosa LV strain was cultured in presence and absence of copper chloride. Two methods were used for transcriptomic analysis, genome reference-guided assembly and de novo assembly. The genome referenced analysis identified nine upregulated genes when bacteria were exposed to copper chloride, while the De Novo Assembly identified 12 upregulated genes. Nineteen genes can be related to an increased microbial metabolism for the extrusion process of exceeding intracellular copper. Two important genes are related to the biosynthesis of phenazine and tetrapyrroles compounds, which can be involved in the bioremediation of intracellular copper and we suggesting that may involve in the biosynthesis of the organometallic compound. Additional studies are being carried out to further prove the function of the described genes and relate them to the biosynthetic pathway of the organometallic compound.

  12. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM CAMELS DIFFER IN COAGULASE PRODUCTION, GENOTYPE AND METHICILLIN RESISTANCE GENE PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Jaradat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and rapid typing of S. aureus is crucial to the control of its infections and minimizing its leakage to the food chain. The primary purpose of this research was to isolate S. aureus from camels’ meat and nasal swabs and to characterize the isolates for coagulase production and the presence of methicillin gene using PCR-RFLP of coagulase gene. A total of 264 camel’s meat and nasal swabs were collected from abattoirs or meat markets and were used in the study. Ninety two percent of samples showed typical colonies of S. aureus on Baird-Parker agar with a mean count 2.5 × 104 ± 1.8 × 104 CFU g-1. Upon confirmation of the isolates using S. aureus specific thermonuclease gene (nuc PCR primers, only 64 isolates contained the specific product and thus were confirmed as S. aureus. However, when tested for the presence of coagulase gene, only 48 of them were positive while the other 16 were coagulase negative. Coagulase gene-RFLP revealed 19 distinct patterns when the gene was digested with Alu I and Cfo I. The typing revealed that the 48 classified isolates were genetically diverse and comprised a heterogeneous population with 14 genotypes at a 44.4% similarity level. When the coagulase positive isolates were tested for the presence of methicillin resistance (mec A gene, 37 of the isolates were positive while the other 11 isolates were negative. The high heterogeneity among S. aureus isolates might be due to cross contamination between camel carcasses in slaughter houses and from handlers and their utensils.

  13. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM CAMELS DIFFER IN COAGULASE PRODUCTION, GENOTYPE AND METHICILLIN RESISTANCE GENE PROFILES

    OpenAIRE

    Ziad Jaradat; Akram Al Aboudi; Mahmoud Shatnawi; Qotaibah Ababneh

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and rapid typing of S. aureus is crucial to the control of its infections and minimizing its leakage to the food chain. The primary purpose of this research was to isolate S. aureus from camels’ meat and nasal swabs and to characterize the isolates for coagulase production and the presence of methicillin gene using PCR-RFLP of coagulase gene. A total of 264 camel’s meat and nasal swabs were collected from abattoirs or meat markets and were used in the study. Ninety two percent of sam...

  14. Sequencing rare marine actinomycete genomes reveals high density of unique natural product biosynthetic gene clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Michelle A.; Alanjary, Mohammad M.; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Korobeynikov, Anton; Podell, Sheila; Patin, Nastassia; Lincecum, Tommie; Jensen, Paul R.; Ziemert, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Traditional natural product discovery methods have nearly exhausted the accessible diversity of microbial chemicals, making new sources and techniques paramount in the search for new molecules. Marine actinomycete bacteria have recently come into the spotlight as fruitful producers of structurally diverse secondary metabolites, and remain relatively untapped. In this study, we sequenced 21 marine-derived actinomycete strains, rarely studied for their secondary metabolite potential and under-represented in current genomic databases. We found that genome size and phylogeny were good predictors of biosynthetic gene cluster diversity, with larger genomes rivalling the well-known marine producers in the Streptomyces and Salinispora genera. Genomes in the Micrococcineae suborder, however, had consistently the lowest number of biosynthetic gene clusters. By networking individual gene clusters into gene cluster families, we were able to computationally estimate the degree of novelty each genus contributed to the current sequence databases. Based on the similarity measures between all actinobacteria in the Joint Genome Institute's Atlas of Biosynthetic gene Clusters database, rare marine genera show a high degree of novelty and diversity, with Corynebacterium, Gordonia, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora and Pseudonocardia genera representing the highest gene cluster diversity. This research validates that rare marine actinomycetes are important candidates for exploration, as they are relatively unstudied, and their relatives are historically rich in secondary metabolites. PMID:27902408

  15. Sequencing rare marine actinomycete genomes reveals high density of unique natural product biosynthetic gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Michelle A; Alanjary, Mohammad M; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Korobeynikov, Anton; Podell, Sheila; Patin, Nastassia; Lincecum, Tommie; Jensen, Paul R; Ziemert, Nadine; Moore, Bradley S

    2016-12-01

    Traditional natural product discovery methods have nearly exhausted the accessible diversity of microbial chemicals, making new sources and techniques paramount in the search for new molecules. Marine actinomycete bacteria have recently come into the spotlight as fruitful producers of structurally diverse secondary metabolites, and remain relatively untapped. In this study, we sequenced 21 marine-derived actinomycete strains, rarely studied for their secondary metabolite potential and under-represented in current genomic databases. We found that genome size and phylogeny were good predictors of biosynthetic gene cluster diversity, with larger genomes rivalling the well-known marine producers in the Streptomyces and Salinispora genera. Genomes in the Micrococcineae suborder, however, had consistently the lowest number of biosynthetic gene clusters. By networking individual gene clusters into gene cluster families, we were able to computationally estimate the degree of novelty each genus contributed to the current sequence databases. Based on the similarity measures between all actinobacteria in the Joint Genome Institute's Atlas of Biosynthetic gene Clusters database, rare marine genera show a high degree of novelty and diversity, with Corynebacterium, Gordonia, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora and Pseudonocardia genera representing the highest gene cluster diversity. This research validates that rare marine actinomycetes are important candidates for exploration, as they are relatively unstudied, and their relatives are historically rich in secondary metabolites.

  16. Identification of Drosophila gene products required for phagocytosis of Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon L Stroschein-Stevenson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis is a highly conserved aspect of innate immunity. We used Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells as a model system to study the phagocytosis of Candida albicans, the major fungal pathogen of humans, by screening an RNAi library representing 7,216 fly genes conserved among metazoans. After rescreening the initial genes identified and eliminating certain classes of housekeeping genes, we identified 184 genes required for efficient phagocytosis of C. albicans. Diverse biological processes are represented, with actin cytoskeleton regulation, vesicle transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation being prominent. Secondary screens using Escherichia coli and latex beads revealed several genes specific for C. albicans phagocytosis. Characterization of one of those gene products, Macroglobulin complement related (Mcr, shows that it is secreted, that it binds specifically to the surface of C. albicans, and that it promotes its subsequent phagocytosis. Mcr is closely related to the four Drosophila thioester proteins (Teps, and we show that TepII is required for efficient phagocytosis of E. coli (but not C. albicans or Staphylococcus aureus and that TepIII is required for the efficient phagocytosis of S. aureus (but not C. albicans or E. coli. Thus, this family of fly proteins distinguishes different pathogens for subsequent phagocytosis.

  17. The FHIT gene product: tumor suppressor and genome ‘caretaker’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Catherine E.; Saldivar, Joshua C.; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Huebner, Kay

    2014-01-01

    The FHIT gene at FRA3B is one of the earliest and most frequently altered genes in the majority of human cancers. It was recently discovered that the FHIT gene is not the most fragile locus in epithelial cells, the cell of origin for most Fhit negative cancers, eroding support for past claims that deletions at this locus are simply passenger events that are carried along in expanding cancer clones, due to extreme vulnerability to DNA damage rather than to loss of FHIT function. Indeed, recent reports have reconfirmed FHIT as a tumor suppressor gene with roles in apoptosis and prevention of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Other recent works have identified a novel role for the FHIT gene product, Fhit, as a genome ‘caretaker.’ Loss of this caretaker function leads to nucleotide imbalance, spontaneous replication stress, and DNA breaks. Because Fhit loss-induced DNA damage is “checkpoint blind,” cells accumulate further DNA damage during subsequent cell cycles, accruing global genome instability that could facilitate oncogenic mutation acquisition and expedite clonal expansion. Loss of Fhit activity therefore induces a mutator phenotype. Evidence for FHIT as a mutator gene is discussed in light of these recent investigations of Fhit loss and subsequent genome instability. PMID:25283145

  18. Isolation, identification and the presence of enterotoxin A gene in Staphylococcus aureus from meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sepidarkish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causes of food-born illnesses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in meat products and to detect the presence of S. aureus enterotoxin A (SEA gene. Totally 150 meat products were collected and analyzed using standard culture techniques to detect S. aureus. PCR assay by specific primers was performed on the isolates to identify SEA gene. According to the results, 19 (12.6% of the samples were found positive for S. aureus. Highest prevalence rate was determined in smoked fish (30%, followed by fried morsels (16.6%, Salami and Ham (13.3%, and Shensel chicken (3.3%. S. aureus was not observed in any of Sausage samples. Statistical analysis showed that there is statistically significance association between the prevalence of S. aureus and  meat products. Moreover, results did not show SEA gene in any of the isolates. This study concluded a remarkable occurrence of S. aureus in meat products.

  19. Enhanced C30 carotenoid production in Bacillus subtilis by systematic overexpression of MEP pathway genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dan; Abdallah, Ingy I; de Haan, Ilse E M; Sibbald, Mark J J B; Quax, Wim J

    2015-07-01

    Creating novel biosynthetic pathways and modulating the synthesis of important compounds are one of the hallmarks of synthetic biology. Understanding the key parameters controlling the flux of chemicals throughout a metabolic pathway is one of the challenges ahead. Isoprenoids are the most functionally and structurally diverse group of natural products from which numerous medicines and relevant fine chemicals are derived. The well-characterized and broadly used production organism Bacillus subtilis forms an ideal background for creating and studying novel synthetic routes. In comparison to other bacteria, B. subtilis emits the volatile compound isoprene, the smallest representative of isoprenoids, in high concentrations and thus represents an interesting starting point for an isoprenoid cell factory. In this study, the effect of systematic overexpression of the genes involved in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway on isoprenoid production in B. subtilis was investigated. B. subtilis strains harboring a plasmid containing C30 carotenoid synthetic genes, crtM and crtN, were combined with pHCMC04G plasmids carrying various synthetic operons of the MEP pathway genes. The levels of produced carotenoids, diaponeurosporene and diapolycopene, were used as indication of the role of the various enzymes on the flux of the MEP pathway. It was shown that the production of carotenoids can be increased significantly by overexpressing the MEP pathway enzymes. More broadly, the strains developed in this study can be used as a starting point for various isoprenoid cell factories.

  20. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Gloria E; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, G L; Howlett, Allyn C

    2014-09-01

    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1h or 5h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glutamic acid promotes monacolin K production and monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster expression in Monascus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Liang, Jian; Yang, Le; Chai, Shiyuan; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of glutamic acid on production of monacolin K and expression of the monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster. When Monascus M1 was grown in glutamic medium instead of in the original medium, monacolin K production increased from 48.4 to 215.4 mg l-1, monacolin K production increased by 3.5 times. Glutamic acid enhanced monacolin K production by upregulating the expression of mokB-mokI; on day 8, the expression level of mokA tended to decrease by Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction. Our findings demonstrated that mokA was not a key gene responsible for the quantity of monacolin K production in the presence of glutamic acid. Observation of Monascus mycelium morphology using Scanning Electron Microscope showed glutamic acid significantly increased the content of Monascus mycelium, altered the permeability of Monascus mycelium, enhanced secretion of monacolin K from the cell, and reduced the monacolin K content in Monascus mycelium, thereby enhancing monacolin K production.

  2. The SKP1-like gene family of Arabidopsis exhibits a high degree of differential gene expression and gene product interaction during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Dezfulian

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes several families of polypeptides that are known or predicted to participate in the formation of the SCF-class of E3-ubiquitin ligase complexes. One such gene family encodes the Skp1-like class of polypeptide subunits, where 21 genes have been identified and are known to be expressed in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis based on deduced polypeptide sequence organizes the family of ASK proteins into 7 clades. The complexity of the ASK gene family, together with the close structural similarity among its members raises the prospect of significant functional redundancy among select paralogs. We have assessed the potential for functional redundancy within the ASK gene family by analyzing an expanded set of criteria that define redundancy with higher resolution. The criteria used include quantitative expression of locus-specific transcripts using qRT-PCR, assessment of the sub-cellular localization of individual ASK:YFP auto-fluorescent fusion proteins expressed in vivo as well as the in planta assessment of individual ASK-F-Box protein interactions using bimolecular fluorescent complementation techniques in combination with confocal imagery in live cells. The results indicate significant functional divergence of steady state transcript abundance and protein-protein interaction specificity involving ASK proteins in a pattern that is poorly predicted by sequence-based phylogeny. The information emerging from this and related studies will prove important for defining the functional intersection of expression, localization and gene product interaction that better predicts the formation of discrete SCF complexes, as a prelude to investigating their molecular mode of action.

  3. Stable disruption of ethanol production by deletion of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Yoshihiro; Furusawa, Chikara; Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    We analyzed the effects of the deletions of genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The decrease in ethanol production by ADH1 deletion alone could be partially compensated by the upregulation of other isozyme genes, while the deletion of all known ADH isozyme genes stably disrupted ethanol production. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of bacteriophage-coded gene products during infection of Escherichia coli with amber mutants of T3 and T7 defective in gene 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Hausmann, R

    1973-01-01

    During nonpermissive infection by a T7 amber mutant in gene 1 (phage RNA polymerase-deficient), synthesis of the products of the phage genes 3 (endonuclease), 3, 5 (lysozyme), 5 (DNA polymerase), and 17 (serum blocking power) was shown to occur at about half the rate as during wild-type infection...

  5. Genome-Wide Discovery of Genes Required for Capsule Production by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kelvin G K; Phan, Minh-Duy; Forde, Brian M; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ulett, Glen C; Sweet, Matthew J; Beatson, Scott A; Schembri, Mark A

    2017-10-24

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections and possesses an array of virulence factors for colonization, survival, and persistence. One such factor is the polysaccharide K capsule. Among the different K capsule types, the K1 serotype is strongly associated with UPEC infection. In this study, we completely sequenced the K1 UPEC urosepsis strain PA45B and employed a novel combination of a lytic K1 capsule-specific phage, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to identify the complement of genes required for capsule production. Our analysis identified known genes involved in capsule biosynthesis, as well as two additional regulatory genes (mprA and lrhA) that we characterized at the molecular level. Mutation of mprA resulted in protection against K1 phage-mediated killing, a phenotype restored by complementation. We also identified a significantly increased unidirectional Tn5 insertion frequency upstream of the lrhA gene and showed that strong expression of LrhA induced by a constitutive Pcl promoter led to loss of capsule production. Further analysis revealed loss of MprA or overexpression of LrhA affected the transcription of capsule biosynthesis genes in PA45B and increased sensitivity to killing in whole blood. Similar phenotypes were also observed in UPEC strains UTI89 (K1) and CFT073 (K2), demonstrating that the effects were neither strain nor capsule type specific. Overall, this study defined the genome of a UPEC urosepsis isolate and identified and characterized two new regulatory factors that affect UPEC capsule production.IMPORTANCE Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans and are primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Many UPEC strains express a polysaccharide K capsule that provides protection against host innate immune factors and contributes to survival and

  6. Effects of Copper on Hemocyte Apoptosis, ROS Production, and Gene Expression in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Li, Kexu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chenggui; Shen, Yuchun

    2017-10-01

    Copper, a common chemical contaminant in aquatic environment, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at high concentrations. In the present study, we evaluated the apoptotic cell ratio and ROS production in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to 1 or 5 mg L-1 Cu for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. The expression changes of antioxidant biomarker genes, i.e., copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT), apoptosis-related genes, i.e., caspase-3 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), and a specific biomarker gene of heavy metal pollution, i.e., metallothionein (MT), were also determined in hemocytes. Significant increases in ROS production were observed in both treatment groups at each time points. The apoptotic cell ratios were significantly increased at 6-48 h among shrimp exposed to 1 mg L-1 Cu and at each time points in 5 mg L-1 Cu group. These results indicated that Cu would induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hemocyte of L. vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the relative expression levels of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, caspase-3, IAP, and MT were upregulated in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of these genes in stress response against Cu exposure.

  7. TITER AND PRODUCT AFFECTS THE DISTRIBUTION OF GENE EXPRESSION AFTER INTRAPUTAMINAL CONVECTION-ENHANCED DELIVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Marina E.; Hurley, Samuel A.; Joers, Valerie; Tromp, Do P.M.; Swanson, Christine R.; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Bondarenko, Viktorya; Cummisford, Kyle; Sonnemans, Marc; Hermening, Stephan; Blits, Bas; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficacy and safety of intracerebral gene therapy for brain disorders, like Parkinson’s disease, depends on appropriate distribution of gene expression. Objectives To assess if the distribution of gene expression is affected by vector titer and protein type. Methods Four adult macaque monkeys seronegative for adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) received in the right and left ventral postcommisural putamen 30μl inoculation of a high or low titer suspension of AAV5 encoding glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Inoculations were performed using convection enhanced delivery and intraoperative MRI (IMRI). Results IMRI confirmed targeting and infusion cloud irradiating from the catheter tip into surrounding area. Postmortem analysis six weeks after surgery revealed GFP and GDNF expression ipsilateral to the injection side that had a titer-dependent distribution. GFP and GDNF expression was also observed in fibers in the Substantia Nigra (SN) pars reticulata (pr), demonstrating anterograde transport. Few GFP-positive neurons were present in the SN pars compacta (pc), possibly by direct retrograde transport of the vector. GDNF was present in many SNpc and SNpr neurons. Conclusions After controlling for target and infusate volume, intracerebral distribution of gene product is affected by vector titer and product biology. PMID:24943657

  8. Titer and product affect the distribution of gene expression after intraputaminal convection-enhanced delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Marina E; Hurley, Samuel A; Joers, Valerie; Tromp, Do P M; Swanson, Christine R; Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Bondarenko, Viktorya; Cummisford, Kyle; Sonnemans, Marc; Hermening, Stephan; Blits, Bas; Alexander, Andrew L

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of intracerebral gene therapy for brain disorders like Parkinson's disease depends on the appropriate distribution of gene expression. To assess whether the distribution of gene expression is affected by vector titer and protein type. Four adult macaque monkeys seronegative for adeno-associated virus 5 (AAV5) received a 30-µl inoculation of a high- or a low-titer suspension of AAV5 encoding glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the right and left ventral postcommissural putamen. The inoculations were conducted using convection-enhanced delivery and intraoperative MRI (IMRI). IMRI confirmed targeting and infusion cloud irradiation from the catheter tip into the surrounding area. A postmortem analysis 6 weeks after surgery revealed GFP and GDNF expression ipsilateral to the injection site that had a titer-dependent distribution. GFP and GDNF expression was also observed in fibers in the substantia nigra (SN) pars reticulata (pr), demonstrating anterograde transport. Few GFP-positive neurons were present in the SN pars compacta (pc), possibly by direct retrograde transport of the vector. GDNF was present in many neurons of the SNpc and SNpr. After controlling for target and infusate volume, the intracerebral distribution of the gene product was affected by the vector titer and product biology.

  9. Genome Wide Association Analysis Reveals New Production Trait Genes in a Male Duroc Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejun Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, 796 male Duroc pigs were used to identify genomic regions controlling growth traits. Three production traits were studied: food conversion ratio, days to 100 KG, and average daily gain, using a panel of 39,436 single nucleotide polymorphisms. In total, we detected 11 genome-wide and 162 chromosome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism trait associations. The Gene ontology analysis identified 14 candidate genes close to significant single nucleotide polymorphisms, with growth-related functions: six for days to 100 KG (WT1, FBXO3, DOCK7, PPP3CA, AGPAT9, and NKX6-1, seven for food conversion ratio (MAP2, TBX15, IVL, ARL15, CPS1, VWC2L, and VAV3, and one for average daily gain (COL27A1. Gene ontology analysis indicated that most of the candidate genes are involved in muscle, fat, bone or nervous system development, nutrient absorption, and metabolism, which are all either directly or indirectly related to growth traits in pigs. Additionally, we found four haplotype blocks composed of suggestive single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the growth trait-related quantitative trait loci and further narrowed down the ranges, the largest of which decreased by ~60 Mb. Hence, our results could be used to improve pig production traits by increasing the frequency of favorable alleles via artificial selection.

  10. Genes Linked to Production of Secondary Metabolites in Talaromyces atroroseus Revealed Using CRISPR-Cas9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Petersen, Thomas Isbrandt; Rasmussen, Kasper Bøwig

    2017-01-01

    -based genome editing to identify a new gene in T. atroroseus responsible for production of polyketide-nonribosomal peptide hybrid products, hence, linking fungal secondary metabolites to their genetic origin in a species where no genetic engineering has previously been performed.......The full potential of fungal secondary metabolism has until recently been impeded by the lack of universal genetic tools for most species. However, the emergence of several CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing systems adapted for several genera of filamentous fungi have now opened the doors for future...

  11. Induction of mitotic gene conversion by browning reaction products and its modulation by naturally occurring agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosin, M P; Stich, H F; Powrie, W D; Wu, C H

    1982-05-01

    Mitotic gene conversion in the D7 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was significantly enhanced by exposure to non-enzymatic browning reaction products. These products were formed during the heating of sugar (caramelization reaction) or sugar-amino acid mixtures (Maillard reaction) at temperatures normally used during the cooking of food. Several modulating factors of this convertogenic activity were identified. These factors included two main groups: (1) trace metals which are widely distributed in the environment; and (2) several cellular enzymatic systems. The convertogenic activities of a heated glucose-lysine mixture and a commercial caramel powder were completely suppresses when yeast were concurrently exposed to these products and to either FeIII or CuII. Equimolar concentrations of MnII or sodium selenite had no effect on the convertogenic activity of the products of either model system. Horse-radish peroxidase, beef liver catalase and rat liver S9 preparations each decreased the frequency of gene conversion induced by the caramel powder and the heated glucose-lysine products. This modulating activity of the enzymes was lost if they were heat-inactivated. These studies indicate the presence of a variety of protective mechanisms which can modify genotoxic components in complex food mixtures.

  12. Efficient Production of Papillomavirus Gene Delivery Vectors in Defined In?Vitro Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Cerqueira; Cynthia D Thompson; Day, Patricia M.; Pang, Yuk-Ying S.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Papillomavirus capsids can package a wide variety of nonviral DNA plasmids and deliver the packaged genetic material to cells, making them attractive candidates for targeted gene delivery vehicles. However, the papillomavirus vectors generated by current methods are unlikely to be suitable for clinical applications. We have developed a chemically defined, cell-free, papillomavirus-based vector production system that allows the incorporation of purified plasmid DNA (pseudogenome) into high-tit...

  13. Genetic resources for methane production from biomass described with gene ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang ePurwantini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 is a valuable fuel, constituting 70-95% of natural gas, and a potent greenhouse gas. Release of CH4 into the atmosphere contributes to climate change. Biological CH4 production or methanogenesis is mostly performed by methanogens, a group of strictly anaerobic archaea. The direct substrates for methanogenesis are H2 plus CO2, acetate, formate, methylamines, methanol, methyl sulfides, and ethanol or a secondary alcohol plus CO2. In numerous anaerobic niches in nature, methanogenesis facilitates mineralization of complex biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins generated by primary producers. Thus, methanogens are critical players in the global carbon cycle. The same process is used in anaerobic treatment of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, reducing the biological pollutants in the wastes and generating methane. It also holds potential for commercial production of natural gas from renewable resources. This process operates in digestive systems of many animals, including cattle, and humans. In contrast, in deep-sea hydrothermal vents methanogenesis is a primary production process, allowing chemosynthesis of biomaterials from H2 plus CO2. In this report we present Gene Ontology (GO terms that can be used to describe processes, functions and cellular components involved in methanogenic biodegradation and biosynthesis of specialized coenzymes that methanogens use. Some of these GO terms were previously available and the rest were generated in our Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO project. A recently discovered non-canonical CH4 production process is also described. We have performed manual GO annotation of selected methanogenesis genes, based on experimental evidence, providing gold standards for machine annotation and automated discovery of methanogenesis genes or systems in diverse genomes. Most of the GO-related information presented in this report is available at the MENGO website (http://www.mengo.biochem.vt.edu/.

  14. Recombinant Streptomyces clavuligerus strain including cas2 gene production and analysis its antibiotic overproduction by bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hojati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptomyces clavuligerus is one of the most important strain that produce clavulanic acid that wildly used in combination of strong but sensitive to β-lactamase antibiotics in clinics. The cas2 is one of the important genes in the biosynthesis pathway of clavulanic acid. Materials and Methods: The recombinant construct pMTcas2 which contain cas2 gene is obtained from Isfahan University. Recombinant plasmid extracts from streptomyces lividans and confirm by enzyme digestion. The streptomyces clavuligerus protoplast was prepared and transformation was done by using polyethylene glycol. Transformation was confirmed by plasmid extraction and PCR using cas2 specific primers. Finally, bioassay method was used to survey the effect of extra copy of cas2 on clavulanic acid production. Result: Plasmid extraction was initially carried out and the structure of plasmid was confirmed by digestion. The typical white colony was seen on protoplast recovery culture containing thiostrepton antibiotic and gray spores were detected after one week. Plasmid extraction was done from transformed strain and transformation was confirmed by PCR. The results of the bioassay show that amplification of the cas2 gene in multicopy plasmids resulted in a 4.1 fold increase in clavulanic acid production. Conclusion: The bioassay was done and the diameters of zone of inhibition in control and sample were compared. The results of the bioassay show that amplification of the cas2 gene in multicopy plasmids resulted in a 4.1 fold increase in clavulanic acid production. Overproduction of clavulanic acid decreases the cost of its dependent drug production.

  15. Resveratrol inhibits mucin gene expression, production and secretion from airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Yel; Lee, Hyun Jae; Sikder, Md Asaduzzaman; Shin, Hyun-Dae; Kim, Jang-Hyun; Chang, Gyu Tae; Seok, Jeong Ho; Lee, Choong Jae

    2012-07-01

    The study investigated whether resveratrol significantly affects mucin gene expression, production and secretion from airway epithelial cells. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with resveratrol for 30 min and then stimulated with EGF (epidermal growth factor), PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) for 24 h, respectively. The MUC5AC gene expression and mucin protein production were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. The effect of resveratrol on TNF-α- or PMA-induced activation of NF-κB p65 was also examined. Confluent primary rat tracheal surface epithelial (RTSE) cells were pretreated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for 5 min and then treated for 30 min in the presence of resveratrol to assess the effect on mucin secretion using ELISA. The results were as follows: (1) resveratrol inhibited the expression of MUC5AC gene induced by EGF or PMA or TNF-α from NCI-H292 cells; (2) resveratrol also inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin protein induced by the same inducers from NCI-H292 cells; (3) resveratrol inhibited the activation of NF-κB p65 by TNF-α or PMA in NCI-H292 cells; (4) resveratrol significantly decreased ATP-induced mucin secretion from cultured RTSE cells. This result suggests that resveratrol can regulate mucin gene expression, production and secretion, by directly acting on airway epithelial cells. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Development of the First World Health Organization Lentiviral Vector Standard: Toward the Production Control and Standardization of Lentivirus-Based Gene Therapy Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Stepto, Hannah; Schneider, Christian K

    2017-01-01

    Gene therapy is a rapidly evolving field. So far, there have been >2,400 gene therapy products in clinical trials and four products on the market. A prerequisite for producing gene therapy products is ensuring their quality and safety. This requires appropriately controlled and standardized production and testing procedures that result in consistent safety and efficacy. Assuring the quality and safety of lentivirus-based gene therapy products in particular presents a great challenge because they are cell-based multigene products that include viral and therapeutic proteins as well as modified cells. In addition to the continuous refinement of a product, changes in production sites and manufacturing processes have become more and more common, posing challenges to developers regarding reproducibility and comparability of results. This paper discusses the concept of developing a first World Health Organization International Standard, suitable for the standardization of assays and enabling comparison of cross-trial and cross-manufacturing results for this important vector platform. The standard will be expected to optimize the development of gene therapy medicinal products, which is especially important, given the usually orphan nature of the diseases to be treated, naturally hampering reproducibility and comparability of results. PMID:28747142

  17. Influence of Glycine and Arginine on Cylindrospermopsin Production and aoa Gene Expression in Aphanizomenon ovalisporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Barón-Sola

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arginine (Arg and glycine (Gly seem to be the only substrates accepted by the amidinotransferase that catalyze the first step of the synthesis pathway of the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN, leading to guanidinoacetate (GAA. Here, the effect of these amino acids on the production of CYN in cultures of the cylindrospermopsin-producing strain, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum UAM-MAO, has been studied. Arg clearly increased CYN content, the increment appearing triphasic along the culture. On the contrary, Gly caused a decrease of CYN, observable from the first day on. Interestingly, the transcript of the gene ntcA, key in nitrogen metabolism control, was also enhanced in the presence of Arg and/or Gly, the trend of the transcript oscillations being like that of aoa/cyr. The inhibitory effect of Gly in CYN production seems not to result from diminishing the activity of genes considered involved in CYN synthesis, since Gly, as Arg, enhance the transcription of genes aoaA-C and cyrJ. On the other hand, culture growth is affected by Arg and Gly in a similar way to CYN production, with Arg stimulating and Gly impairing it. Taken together, our data show that the influence of both Arg and Gly on CYN changes seems not to be due to a specific effect on the first step of CYN synthesis; it rather appears to be the result of changes in the physiological cell status.

  18. Influence of Glycine and Arginine on Cylindrospermopsin Production and aoa Gene Expression in Aphanizomenon ovalisporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón-Sola, Ángel; Fernández Del Campo, Francisca; Sanz-Alférez, Soledad

    2017-11-01

    Arginine (Arg) and glycine (Gly) seem to be the only substrates accepted by the amidinotransferase that catalyze the first step of the synthesis pathway of the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN), leading to guanidinoacetate (GAA). Here, the effect of these amino acids on the production of CYN in cultures of the cylindrospermopsin-producing strain, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum UAM-MAO, has been studied. Arg clearly increased CYN content, the increment appearing triphasic along the culture. On the contrary, Gly caused a decrease of CYN, observable from the first day on. Interestingly, the transcript of the gene ntcA , key in nitrogen metabolism control, was also enhanced in the presence of Arg and/or Gly, the trend of the transcript oscillations being like that of aoa / cyr . The inhibitory effect of Gly in CYN production seems not to result from diminishing the activity of genes considered involved in CYN synthesis, since Gly, as Arg, enhance the transcription of genes aoaA-C and cyrJ. On the other hand, culture growth is affected by Arg and Gly in a similar way to CYN production, with Arg stimulating and Gly impairing it. Taken together, our data show that the influence of both Arg and Gly on CYN changes seems not to be due to a specific effect on the first step of CYN synthesis; it rather appears to be the result of changes in the physiological cell status.

  19. Diversity of Streptococcus thermophilus in bacteriocin production; inhibitory spectrum and occurrence of thermophilin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Marzotto, Marta; Cremonese, Silvia; Rizzotti, Lucia; Torriani, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    The bacteriocin-producing Streptococcus thermophilus strains that can dominate in natural dairy ecosystems, may also enhance safety in products obtained from natural cultures. In this study, we sought to identify bacteriocin production and bacteriocin genes in 75 strains of dairy and plant origin. The strains were tested for antimicrobial activity against pathogens or pathogen models, spoiling bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria associated with dairy products. All strains moderately inhibited Staphylococcus aureus P310, none inhibited Listeria innocua LMG 11387(T) or Clostridium tyrobutyricum LMG 1285(T). In addition, 14 were active against one or more indicators in addition to S. aureus P310. Inhibition of other starter bacteria was more common than the inhibition of unwanted microorganisms. The involvement of a proteinaceous compound was ascertained in all cases. Results suggested that the selection of bacteriocinogenic S. thermophilus strains for use in biopreservation must take into account the effects exerted on other lactic acid bacteria. PCR detection of thermophilin genes proved unreliable in predicting antimicrobial activity. For S. thermophilus PRI36 and PRI45, with relevant inhibitory features, the identity of the bacteriocin genes present in the thermophilin 9 cluster was defined, thus revealing novel variants for this genome region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the Expression of Basigin Gene Products Within the Pineal Gland of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Derek; van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J; Ochrietor, Judith D

    2017-08-01

    The expression of Basigin gene products and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) has been investigated within the mammalian neural retina and suggests a role for these proteins in cellular metabolism within that tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of these same proteins in the pineal gland of the mouse brain. Mouse pineal gland and neural retina RNA and protein were subjected to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In addition, paraffin-embedded sections of each tissue were analyzed for expression of Basigin gene products and MCT1 via immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that MCT1 and Basigin variant-2, but not Basigin variant-1, are expressed within the mouse pineal gland. The expression of Basigin variant-2 and MCT1 was localized to the capsule surrounding the gland. The position and relative amounts of the gene products suggest that they play a much less prominent role within the pineal gland than in the neural retina.

  1. The transport of antibiotic resistance genes and residues in groundwater near swine production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.

    2008-12-01

    The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.

  2. Production of cyanophycin in Rhizopus oryzae through the expression of a cyanophycin synthetase encoding gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meussen, Bas J; Weusthuis, Ruud A; Sanders, Johan P M; Graaff, Leo H de

    2012-02-01

    Cyanophycin or cyanophycin granule peptide is a protein that results from non-ribosomal protein synthesis in microorganisms such as cyanobacteria. The amino acids in cyanophycin can be used as a feedstock in the production of a wide range of chemicals such as acrylonitrile, polyacrylic acid, 1,4-butanediamine, and urea. In this study, an auxotrophic mutant (Rhizopus oryzae M16) of the filamentous fungus R. oryzae 99-880 was selected to express cyanophycin synthetase encoding genes. These genes originated from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803, Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120, and a codon optimized version of latter gene. The genes were under control of the pyruvate decarboxylase promoter and terminator elements of R. oryzae. Transformants were generated by the biolistic transformation method. In only two transformants both expressing the cyanophycin synthetase encoding gene from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 was a specific enzyme activity detected of 1.5 mU/mg protein. In one of these transformants was both water-soluble and insoluble cyanophycin detected. The water-soluble fraction formed the major fraction and accounted for 0.5% of the dry weight. The water-insoluble CGP was produced in trace amounts. The amino acid composition of the water-soluble form was determined and constitutes of equimolar amounts of arginine and aspartic acid.

  3. Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen production in Aspergillus niger: evaluating the strategy of gene fusion to native glucoamylase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, ER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology and Biotechnology October 2012/ Vol. 96, No.2 Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen production in Aspergillus niger: evaluating the strategy of gene fusion to native glucoamylase ER James a,c & WH van Zyl b & PJ van Zyl c & JF Görgens..., Pretoria 0001, South Africa Abstract This study demonstrates the potential of Aspergillus niger as a candidate expression system for virus- like particle production using gene fusion. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) production, targeted...

  4. Comparative study among clinical and commensal isolates of Enterococcus faecalis for presence of esp gene and biofilm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Giridhara P M; Lingadevaru, Umapathy B; Lingegowda, Ravikumar K

    2011-05-28

    Because of increasing difficulty in treating enterococcal infections, effort is being devoted to understanding factors that are responsible for causing nosocomial infection, with a focus toward targeting these factors with new therapeutics. Evidence has emerged that the esp gene mediates biofilm formation in vitro, which helps the organism colonize and cause infection. This study was conducted over a four-year period in a tertiary-care hospital. There were 200 clinical pathogenic strains isolated from nosocomial infections and 100 commensals from stool specimens of healthy individuals. The study compared the production of biofilm and detection of the esp gene among clinical and commensal isolates. Among 200 clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis 65 (32.5%) isolates were positive for biofilm production and 60 (30%) for the esp gene by PCR. Among 100 commensal isolates, 16 (8%) and 14 (7%) were positive for biofilm formation and the esp gene, respectively. Five clinical and two commensal isolates produced biofilm without any amplification of the esp gene. The study shows a significant difference in production of biofilm and presence of the esp gene between clinical and commensal isolates (P esp gene correlates with biofilm production, it may not be the only factor determining the formation of biofilm since few isolates produced biofilm without the esp gene. Strains isolated from indwelling medical devices showed high production of biofilm and esp gene.

  5. Nuclear expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is involved in tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristofano, Claudio; Minervini, Andrea; Menicagli, Michele; Salinitri, Giuseppe; Bertacca, Gloria; Pefanis, Gerasimos; Masieri, Lorenzo; Lessi, Francesca; Collecchi, Paola; Minervini, Riccardo; Carini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Cavazzana, Andrea

    2007-12-01

    The most frequent genomic abnormality in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (cc-RCC) is inactivation of Von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL). pVHL19 is a ligase promoting proteosomal degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha); pVHL30 is associated with microtubules. VHL exert its oncogenetic action both directly and through HIF-1alpha activation. TNM classification is unable to define a correct prognostic evaluation of intracapsular cc-RCC. The nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking in VHL/HIF-1alpha pathway could be relevant in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of renal carcinogenesis. This study analyzes VHL/HIF-1alpha proteins in a large series of intracapsular cc-RCCs, correlating their expression and cellular localization with prognosis. Two anti-pVHL (clones Ig32 and Ig33) and 1 anti-HIF-1alpha were used on tissue microarrays from 136 intracapsular cc-RCCs (mean follow-up: 74 mo). Clone 32 recognizes both pVHLs, whereas clone 33 only pVHL30. Results were matched with clinicopathologic variables and tumor-specific survival (TSS). A strong cytoplasmic positivity was found for all antibodies in the largest part of cases, associated to a strong nuclear localization in the case of HIF-1alpha. All pVHL-negative cases were associated with high HIF-1alpha expression. pVHL negativity and HIF-1alpha nuclear positivity significantly correlated with shorter TSS. In multivariate analysis both pVHL negativity and HIF-1alpha nuclear expression were independent predictors of TSS. The localization of the proteins well matches with their role and with the supposed tumor molecular pathways. The correlation with prognosis of VHL/HIF-1alpha alterations confirms the relevance of their molecular pathway and of the cellular trafficking of their products in the pathogenesis of renal cancer.

  6. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and

  7. Enhancement of natamycin production on Streptomyces gilvosporeus by chromosomal integration of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene (vgb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Zong, Gongli; Zhu, Xiqiang; Ling, Peixue

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen deficiency is a critical factor during the fermentation production of natamycin. In order to alleviate oxygen limitation and enhance the yield of natamycin, the vgb gene, encoding Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) was inserted into pSET152 with its native promoter and integrated into the chromosome of Streptomyces gilvosporeus (S. gilvosporeus). The expression of VHb was determined by Western blotting. The activity of expressed VHb was confirmed by the observation of VHb-specific CO-difference spectrum with a maximal absorption at 419 nm for the recombinant. Integration of the empty plasmid pSET152 did not affect natamycin production of S. gilvosporeus. While the vgb-harboring strain exhibited high natamycin productivity, reaching 3.31 g/L in shake flasks and 8.24 g/L in 1-L fermenters. Compared to the wild strain, expression of VHb, increased the natamycin yield of the strain bearing vgb by 131.3 % (jar fermenter scale) and 175 % (shake flask scale), respectively, under certain oxygen-limiting condition. Addition of an extra copy of the vgb gene in S. gilvosporeus-vgb2 did not enhance the natamycin production obviously. These results provided a superior natamycin-producing strain which can be directly used in industry and a useful strategy for increasing yields of other metabolites in industrial strains.

  8. Identification of Linkages between EDCs in Personal Care Products and Breast Cancer through Data Integration Combined with Gene Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeri; Kim, Jongwoon; Kim, Youngjun

    2017-09-30

    Approximately 1000 chemicals have been reported to possibly have endocrine disrupting effects, some of which are used in consumer products, such as personal care products (PCPs) and cosmetics. We conducted data integration combined with gene network analysis to: (i) identify causal molecular mechanisms between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) used in PCPs and breast cancer; and (ii) screen candidate EDCs associated with breast cancer. Among EDCs used in PCPs, four EDCs having correlation with breast cancer were selected, and we curated 27 common interacting genes between those EDCs and breast cancer to perform the gene network analysis. Based on the gene network analysis, ESR1, TP53, NCOA1, AKT1, and BCL6 were found to be key genes to demonstrate the molecular mechanisms of EDCs in the development of breast cancer. Using GeneMANIA, we additionally predicted 20 genes which could interact with the 27 common genes. In total, 47 genes combining the common and predicted genes were functionally grouped with the gene ontology and KEGG pathway terms. With those genes, we finally screened candidate EDCs for their potential to increase breast cancer risk. This study highlights that our approach can provide insights to understand mechanisms of breast cancer and identify potential EDCs which are in association with breast cancer.

  9. Relationships of growth hormone gene and milk protein polymorphisms to milk production traits in Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaki, M; Prandi, A; Corradini, C; Sneyers, M; Gengler, N; Massart, S; Fazzini, U; Burny, A; Portetelle, D; Renaville, R

    1997-02-01

    The importance of milk proteins and the positive effect of administration of growth hormone (GH) on milk production, and the presence in some dairy cattle lines of greater GH concentrations prompted us to examine the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphism at the GH gene using the restriction enzyme TaqI and to investigate associations between this polymorphism in Simmental cows and bulls, as well as milk protein variants in Simmental cows, and milk production traits. Blood and milk were sampled from 279 Italian Simmental cows and semen was collected from 148 bulls of the same breed. Two fragment bands, denoted A and B, of 6200 and 5200 bp respectively, were examined and three patterns, AA, AB and BB, were found in both animal samples. All variants previously reported in other studies, for kappa, beta, and alpha s1-caseins, and beta-lactoglobulin, were found in the cows' samples. For the cows' samples, a BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Predictor) analysis of results was performed using a REML (Restricted Maximum Likelihood) program and known heritabilities, whereas for bulls we have performed a General Linear Model analysis. The effect of GH gene polymorphism, using TaqI restriction enzyme, on milk production traits was not significant, but bulls of BB pattern had a higher breeding value for milk yield than AA bulls (P milk with 1.53 +/- 0.70 g/kg less fat than cows of AA genotype. In addition, breeding values for milk protein content were significantly higher in BB bulls, with 0.87 +/- 0.32 and 0.71 +/- 0.34 g/kg more milk protein than AA and AB bulls respectively. Thus, our results revealed a GH gene polymorphism and indicated significant effects of milk protein polymorphisms on milk production traits in the Italian Simmental breed.

  10. Transcriptome and Gene Ontology (GO) Enrichment Analysis Reveals Genes Involved in Biotin Metabolism That Affect L-Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Hyeon; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-03-09

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is widely used for amino acid production. In the present study, 543 genes showed a significant change in their mRNA expression levels in L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum ATCC21300 than that in the wild-type C. glutamicum ATCC13032. Among these 543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 28 genes were up- or downregulated. In addition, 454 DEGs were functionally enriched and categorized based on BLAST sequence homologies and gene ontology (GO) annotations using the Blast2GO software. Interestingly, NCgl0071 (bioB, encoding biotin synthase) was expressed at levels ~20-fold higher in the L-lysine-producing ATCC21300 strain than that in the wild-type ATCC13032 strain. Five other genes involved in biotin metabolism or transport--NCgl2515 (bioA, encoding adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase), NCgl2516 (bioD, encoding dithiobiotin synthetase), NCgl1883, NCgl1884, and NCgl1885--were also expressed at significantly higher levels in the L-lysine-producing ATCC21300 strain than that in the wild-type ATCC13032 strain, which we determined using both next-generation RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. When we disrupted the bioB gene in C. glutamicum ATCC21300, L-lysine production decreased by approximately 76%, and the three genes involved in biotin transport (NCgl1883, NCgl1884, and NCgl1885) were significantly downregulated. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of C. glutamicum for industrial amino acid production.

  11. Improvements in algal lipid production: a systems biology and gene editing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Avik; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Negi, Sangeeta; Chang, Jo-Shu; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2017-08-09

    In the wake of rising energy demands, microalgae have emerged as potential sources of sustainable and renewable carbon-neutral fuels, such as bio-hydrogen and bio-oil. For rational metabolic engineering, the elucidation of metabolic pathways in fine detail and their manipulation according to requirements is the key to exploiting the use of microalgae. Emergence of site-specific nucleases have revolutionized applied research leading to biotechnological gains. Genome engineering as well as modulation of the endogenous genome with high precision using CRISPR systems is being gradually employed in microalgal research. Further, to optimize and produce better algal platforms, use of systems biology network analysis and integration of omics data is required. This review discusses two important approaches: systems biology and gene editing strategies used on microalgal systems with a focus on biofuel production and sustainable solutions. It also emphasizes that the integration of such systems would contribute and compliment applied research on microalgae. Recent advances in microalgae are discussed, including systems biology, gene editing approaches in lipid bio-synthesis, and antenna engineering. Lastly, it has been attempted here to showcase how CRISPR/Cas systems are a better editing tool than existing techniques that can be utilized for gene modulation and engineering during biofuel production.

  12. Enhancement of cloned gene product synthesis via autoselection in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napp, S.J.; Da Silva, N.A. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae autoselection strains with mutations in the ura3, fur1, and urid-k genes have been obtained through a sequential isolation procedure. The effects of medium enrichment on growth and cloned gene product synthesis were examined in batch culture for two autoselection strains. The plasmid gene product [beta]-galactosidase was under the control of the yeast GAL1 promoter, and two methods of induction were employed; one strain was induced via temperature shift while the other was induced by galactose addition. Three nutrient media were investigated: a lean selective medium (SD), a richer semidefined medium (SDC), and a rich complex medium (YPD). Plasmid instability and mutation reversion were not problems for the autoselection strains, even in uracil-containing medium. Short-term plasmid stabilities were approximately 90% in all three media tested. During continuous culture of the autoselection temperature-sensitive strain, long-term plasmid stability was excellent and [beta]-galactosidase expression remained high after more than 25 residence times under inducing conditions. In contrast, both [beta]-galactosidase specific activity and plasmid stability decreased linearly with time for an analogous nonautoselection strain. The introduced fur1 and urid-k mutations were very stable; after more than 50 generation of growth in complex medium, stability values of 99-100% were measured.

  13. Combined gene cluster engineering and precursor feeding to improve gougerotin production in Streptomyces graminearus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingjuan; Wei, Junhong; Li, Lei; Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2013-12-01

    Gougerotin is a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces graminearus . It is a specific inhibitor of protein synthesis and exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. Generation of an overproducing strain is crucial for the scale-up production of gougerotin. In this study, the natural and engineered gougerotin gene clusters were reassembled into an integrative plasmid by λ-red-mediated recombination technology combined with classic cloning methods. The resulting plasmids pGOU and pGOUe were introduced into S. graminearus to obtain recombinant strains Sgr-GOU and Sgr-GOUe, respectively. Compared with the wild-type strain, Sgr-GOU led to a maximum 1.3-fold increase in gougerotin production, while Sgr-GOUe resulted in a maximum 2.1-fold increase in gougerotin production. To further increase the yield of gougerotin, the effect of different precursors on its production was investigated. All precursors, including cytosine, serine, and glycine, had stimulatory effect on gougerotin production. The maximum gougerotin yield was achieved with Sgr-GOUe in the presence of glycine, and it was approximately 2.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. The strategies used in this study can be extended to other Streptomyces for improving production of industrial important antibiotics.

  14. The PKS4 gene in Fusarium graminearum is essential for zearalenone production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysøe, E.; Klemsdal, S. S.; Bone, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Zearalenones are produced by several Fusarium species and can cause reproductive problems in animals. Some aurofusarin mutants of Fusarium pseudograminearum produce elevated levels of zearalenone (ZON), one of the estrogenic mycotoxins comprising the zearalenones. An analysis of transcripts from......4. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the PKS4 replacement mutant did not produce ZON. Thus, PKS4 encodes an enzyme required for the production of ZON in F. graminearum. Barley root infection studies revealed no alteration in the pathogenicity of the PKS4 mutant compared...... protocol was used to replace the central part of the PKS4 gene with a hygB resistance gene through double homologous recombination in an F. graminearum strain producing a high level of ZON. PCR and Southern analysis of transformants were used to identify isolates with single insertional replacements of PKS...

  15. Effects of gene disruptions in the nisin gene cluster of Lactococcus lactis on nisin production and producer immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ra, Runar; Beerthuyzen, Marke M.; Vos, Willem M. de; Saris, Per E.J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    1999-01-01

    The lantibiotic nisin is produced by several strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The chromosomally located gene cluster nisABTCIPRKFEG is required for biosynthesis, development of immunity, and regulation of gene expression. In-frame deletions in the nisB and nisT genes, and disruption of

  16. Phytoalexin detoxification genes and gene products: Implication for the evolution of host specific traits for pathogenicity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanEtten, H.

    1997-06-01

    The overall objectives of this research were to determine which differences among PDA genes were associated with different levels of virulence on pea and to clone and characterize a MAK gene. The authors also proposed to characterize the pisatin detoxifying system in pea pathogens in addition to N. haematococca to assess whether pathogens of a common host had evolved similar pathogenicity genes.

  17. Directed natural product biosynthesis gene cluster capture and expression in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2015-03-24

    Bacilli are ubiquitous low G+C environmental Gram-positive bacteria that produce a wide assortment of specialized small molecules. Although their natural product biosynthetic potential is high, robust molecular tools to support the heterologous expression of large biosynthetic gene clusters in Bacillus hosts are rare. Herein we adapt transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to design a single genomic capture and expression vector for antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis. After validating this direct cloning plug-and-playa approach with surfactin, we genetically interrogated amicoumacin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis 1779. Its heterologous expression allowed us to explore an unusual maturation process involving the N-acyl-asparagine pro-drug intermediates preamicoumacins, which are hydrolyzed by the asparagine-specific peptidase into the active component amicoumacin A. This work represents the first direct cloning based heterologous expression of natural products in the model organism B. subtilis and paves the way to the development of future genome mining efforts in this genus.

  18. Directed natural product biosynthesis gene cluster capture and expression in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Zhongrui; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Weipeng; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto; Moore, Bradley S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Bacilli are ubiquitous low G+C environmental Gram-positive bacteria that produce a wide assortment of specialized small molecules. Although their natural product biosynthetic potential is high, robust molecular tools to support the heterologous expression of large biosynthetic gene clusters in Bacillus hosts are rare. Herein we adapt transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to design a single genomic capture and expression vector for antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis. After validating this direct cloning ``plug-and-play'' approach with surfactin, we genetically interrogated amicoumacin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis 1779. Its heterologous expression allowed us to explore an unusual maturation process involving the N-acyl-asparagine pro-drug intermediates preamicoumacins, which are hydrolyzed by the asparagine-specific peptidase into the active component amicoumacin A. This work represents the first direct cloning based heterologous expression of natural products in the model organism B. subtilis and paves the way to the development of future genome mining efforts in this genus.

  19. Enhanced citric acid production by a yeast Yarrowia lipolytica over-expressing a pyruvate carboxylase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei-Juan; Chen, Xi; Wang, Yu-Kuan; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-08-01

    In this study, after the expression of a pyruvate carboxylase gene (PYC) cloned from Meyerozyma guilliermondii in a marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, a transformant PG86 obtained had much higher PYC activity than Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b. At the same time, the PYC gene expression and citric acid (CA) production by the transformant PG86 were also greatly enhanced. When glucose concentration in the medium was 60.0 g L(-1), CA concentration formed by the transformant PG86 was 34.02 g L(-1), leading to a CA yield of 0.57 g g(-1) of glucose. During a 10-L fed-batch fermentation, the final concentration of CA was 101.0 ± 1.3 g L(-1), the yield was 0.89 g g(-1) of glucose, the productivity was 0.42 g L(-1) h(-1) and only 5.93 g L(-1) reducing sugar was left in the fermented medium within 240 h of the fed-batch fermentation. HPLC analysis showed that most of the fermentation products were CA.

  20. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-08-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences.

  1. Gut symbiotic bacteria stimulate insect growth and egg production by modulating hexamerin and vitellogenin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Beom; Park, Kyoung-Eun; Lee, Seung Ah; Jang, Seong Han; Eo, Ho Jeong; Jang, Ho Am; Kim, Chan-Hee; Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Matsuura, Yu; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Futahashi, Ryo; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that gut symbionts modulate insect development and reproduction. However, the mechanisms by which gut symbionts modulate host physiologies and the molecules involved in these changes are unclear. To address these questions, we prepared three different groups of the insect Riptortus pedestris: Burkholderia gut symbiont-colonized (Sym) insects, Burkholderia-non-colonized (Apo) insects, and Burkholderia-depleted (Sym(Burk-)) insects, which were fed tetracycline. When the hemolymph proteins of three insects were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the hexamerin-α, hexamerin-β and vitellogenin-1 proteins of Sym-adults were highly expressed compared to those of Apo- and Sym(Burk-)-insects. To investigate the expression patterns of these three genes during insect development, we measured the transcriptional levels of these genes. The hexamerin-β gene was specifically expressed at all nymphal stages, and its expression was detected 4-5 days earlier in Sym-insect nymphs than that in Apo- and Sym(Burk-)-insects. However, the hexamerin-α and vitellogenin-1 genes were only expressed in adult females, and they were also detected 6-7 days earlier and were 2-fold higher in Sym-adult females than those in the other insects. Depletion of hexamerin-β by RNA interference in 2nd instar Sym-nymphs delayed adult emergence, whereas hexamerin-α and vitellogenin-1 RNA interference in 5th instar nymphs caused loss of color of the eggs of Sym-insects. These results demonstrate that the Burkholderia gut symbiont modulates host development and egg production by regulating production of these three hemolymph storage proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased biomass production of industrial bakers' yeasts by overexpression of Hap4 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Sánchez, Rafael; Codón, Antonio C; Rincón, Ana M; Benítez, Tahía

    2010-10-15

    HAP4 encodes a transcriptional activator of respiration-related genes and so, redirection from fermentation to respiration flux should give rise to an increase in biomass production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformants that overexpress HAP4. With this aim, three bakers' yeasts, that is, V1 used for lean doughs, its 2-deoxy-D-glucose resistant derivative DOG21, and V3 employed for sweet doughs, were transformed with integrative cassettes that carried HAP4 gene under the control of constitutive promoter pTEF2; in addition VTH, DTH and 3TH transformants were selected and characterized. Transformants showed increased expression of HAP4 and respiration-related genes such as QCR7 and QCR8 with regard to parental, and similar expression of SUC2 and MAL12; these genes are relevant in bakers' industry. Invertase (Suc2p) and maltase (Mal12p) activities, growth and sugar consumption rates in laboratory (YPD) or industrial media (MAB) were also comparable in bakers' strains and their transformants, but VTH, DTH and 3TH increased their final biomass production by 9.5, 5.0 and 5.0% respectively as compared to their parentals in MAB. Furthermore, V1 and its transformant VTH had comparable capacity to ferment lean doughs (volume increase rate and final volume) while V3 and its transformant 3TH fermented sweet doughs in a similar manner. Therefore transformants possessed increased biomass yield and appropriate characteristics to be employed in bakers' industry because they lacked drug resistant markers and bacterial DNA, and were genetically stable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Ryan D; Hsu, Alan C-Y; Nichol, Kristy S; Jones, Bernadette; Knight, Darryl A; Wark, Peter A B; Hansbro, Philip M; Hirota, Jeremy A

    2017-01-01

    The airway epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier that protects the pulmonary system from inhaled environmental insults. Uric acid has been detected in the respiratory tract and can function as an antioxidant or damage associated molecular pattern. We have demonstrated that human airway epithelial cells are a source of uric acid. Our hypothesis is that uric acid production by airway epithelial cells is induced by environmental stimuli associated with chronic respiratory diseases. We therefore examined how airway epithelial cells regulate uric acid production. Allergen and cigarette smoke mouse models were performed using house dust mite (HDM) and cigarette smoke exposure, respectively, with outcome measurements of lung uric acid levels. Primary human airway epithelial cells isolated from clinically diagnosed patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were grown in submerged cultures and compared to age-matched healthy controls for uric acid release. HBEC-6KT cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, were grown under submerged monolayer conditions for mechanistic and gene expression studies. HDM, but not cigarette smoke exposure, stimulated uric acid production in vivo and in vitro. Primary human airway epithelial cells from asthma, but not COPD patients, displayed elevated levels of extracellular uric acid in culture. In HBEC-6KT, production of uric acid was sensitive to the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) inhibitor, allopurinol, and the ATP Binding Cassette C4 (ABCC4) inhibitor, MK-571. Lastly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ elevated extracellular uric acid levels and XDH gene expression in HBEC-6KT cells. Our results suggest that the active production of uric acid from human airway epithelial cells may be intrinsically altered in asthma and be further induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Huff

    Full Text Available The airway epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier that protects the pulmonary system from inhaled environmental insults. Uric acid has been detected in the respiratory tract and can function as an antioxidant or damage associated molecular pattern. We have demonstrated that human airway epithelial cells are a source of uric acid. Our hypothesis is that uric acid production by airway epithelial cells is induced by environmental stimuli associated with chronic respiratory diseases. We therefore examined how airway epithelial cells regulate uric acid production.Allergen and cigarette smoke mouse models were performed using house dust mite (HDM and cigarette smoke exposure, respectively, with outcome measurements of lung uric acid levels. Primary human airway epithelial cells isolated from clinically diagnosed patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD were grown in submerged cultures and compared to age-matched healthy controls for uric acid release. HBEC-6KT cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, were grown under submerged monolayer conditions for mechanistic and gene expression studies.HDM, but not cigarette smoke exposure, stimulated uric acid production in vivo and in vitro. Primary human airway epithelial cells from asthma, but not COPD patients, displayed elevated levels of extracellular uric acid in culture. In HBEC-6KT, production of uric acid was sensitive to the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH inhibitor, allopurinol, and the ATP Binding Cassette C4 (ABCC4 inhibitor, MK-571. Lastly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ elevated extracellular uric acid levels and XDH gene expression in HBEC-6KT cells.Our results suggest that the active production of uric acid from human airway epithelial cells may be intrinsically altered in asthma and be further induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production in human airway epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Ryan D.; Hsu, Alan C-Y.; Nichol, Kristy S.; Jones, Bernadette; Knight, Darryl A.; Wark, Peter A. B.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The airway epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier that protects the pulmonary system from inhaled environmental insults. Uric acid has been detected in the respiratory tract and can function as an antioxidant or damage associated molecular pattern. We have demonstrated that human airway epithelial cells are a source of uric acid. Our hypothesis is that uric acid production by airway epithelial cells is induced by environmental stimuli associated with chronic respiratory diseases. We therefore examined how airway epithelial cells regulate uric acid production. Materials and methods Allergen and cigarette smoke mouse models were performed using house dust mite (HDM) and cigarette smoke exposure, respectively, with outcome measurements of lung uric acid levels. Primary human airway epithelial cells isolated from clinically diagnosed patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were grown in submerged cultures and compared to age-matched healthy controls for uric acid release. HBEC-6KT cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, were grown under submerged monolayer conditions for mechanistic and gene expression studies. Results HDM, but not cigarette smoke exposure, stimulated uric acid production in vivo and in vitro. Primary human airway epithelial cells from asthma, but not COPD patients, displayed elevated levels of extracellular uric acid in culture. In HBEC-6KT, production of uric acid was sensitive to the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) inhibitor, allopurinol, and the ATP Binding Cassette C4 (ABCC4) inhibitor, MK-571. Lastly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ elevated extracellular uric acid levels and XDH gene expression in HBEC-6KT cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the active production of uric acid from human airway epithelial cells may be intrinsically altered in asthma and be further induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:28863172

  6. Improved production of L-lysine by disruption of stationary phase-specific rmf gene in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Akira; Takikawa, Rie; Koseki, Chie; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Yasueda, Hisashi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Kazuhiko; Sugimoto, Shin-Ichi

    2005-04-20

    Growth and rate, at which fermentation products are formed in cells, generally decreases during the stationary phase as a result of changes in gene expression. We focused on the rmf gene, which encodes the ribosome modulation factor protein, as a target for strain modification in order to improve the rate of L-lysine production in Escherichia coli. Increased expression of the rmf gene during the stationary phase was confirmed under various cultivation conditions using DNA macroarray analysis. Mutants with disrupted rmf were then generated from an L-lysine-producing E. coli strain. The rates of L-lysine accumulation and production were significantly increased in disruptants that were cultivated with excess phosphate. By contrast, a higher biomass was generated in disruptants that were grown under limited phosphate conditions. These results demonstrate that disruption of the rmf gene significantly affects L-lysine production and growth in E. coli.

  7. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi

    2010-06-29

    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  8. High-level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, R.; Wang, J.; Meijnen, J.P.; Visser, H.; Sandmann, G.; Berg, van den J.A.; Ooyen, van A.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially ß-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these

  9. Genes encoding novel lipid transporters and their use to increase oil production in vegetative tissues of plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Changcheng; Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Shanklin, John

    2017-12-26

    The present invention discloses a novel gene encoding a transporter protein trigalactosyldiacylglycerol-5 (TGD5), mutations thereof and their use to enhance TAG production and retention in plant vegetative tissue.

  10. Self-association of the WT1 tumor suppressor gene product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruening, W.; Nakagama, H.: Bardessy, N. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Wilms` tumor (WT), an embryonal malignancy of the kidney, occurs most frequently in children under the age of 5 years, affecting {approximately}1 in 10,000 individuals. The WT1 tumor suppressor gene, residing at 11p13, is structurally altered in {approximately}10-15% of WT cases. Individuals with germline mutations within the WT1 gene suffer from predisposition to WT and developmental defects of the urogenital system. Patients with heterozygous deletions of the WT1 gene, or mutations predicted to cause inactivation of one WT1 allele, suffer relatively mild genital system defects (notably hypospadias and cryptorchidism in males) and a predisposition to WT. These results suggest that developing genital system development is sensitive to the absolute concentrations of the WT1 gene products. Patients with missense mutations within the WT1 gene, however, can suffer from a much more severe disorder known as Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS). This syndrome is characterized by intersex disorders, renal nephropathy, and a predisposition to WTs. The increased severity of the developmental defects associated with DDS, compared to those individuals with mild genital system anomalies and WTs, suggests that mutations defined in patients with DDS behave in a dominant-negative fashion. We have identified a novel WT1 mutation in a patient with DDS. This mutation, predicted to produce a truncated WT1 polypeptide encompassing exons 1, 2, and 3, defines a domain capable of behaving as an antimorph. We have also demonstrated that WT1 can self-associate in vivo using yeast two-hybrid systems. Deletion analysis have mapped the interacting domains to the amino terminus of the WT1 polypeptide, within exons 1 and 2. These results provide a molecular mechanism to explain how WT1 mutations can function in a dominant-negative fashion to eliminate wild-type WT1 activity, leading to DDS.

  11. Effect of gene disruptions of the TCA cycle on production of succinic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Y; Kuroyanagi, T; Shimosaka, M; Muratsubaki, H; Enomoto, K; Kodaira, R; Okazaki, M

    1999-01-01

    Succinate is the main taste component produced by yeasts during sake (Japanese rice wine) fermentation. The pathway leading to accumulation of succinate was examined in liquid culture in the presence of a high concentration (15%) of glucose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using a series of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which various genes that encode the expression of enzymes required in TCA cycle were disrupted. When cultured in YPD medium containing 15% glucose under aerobic conditions, the KGD1 (alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) gene disrupted mutant produced a lower level of succinate than the wild-type strain, while the SDH1 (succinate dehydrogenase) gene-disrupted mutant produced an increased level of succinate. On the other hand, the FUM1 (fumarase) gene disrupted mutant produced significantly higher levels of fumarate but did not form malate at all. These results indicate that succinate, fumarate and malate are mainly synthesized through the TCA cycle (oxidative direction) even in the presence of glucose at a concentration as high as 15%. When the growth condition was shifted from aerobic to anaerobic, the increased level of succinate in SDH1 disruptants was no longer observed, whereas the decreased level of succinate in the KGD1 diruptant was still observed. A double mutant of the two fumarate reductase isozyme genes (OSM1 and FRDS) showed a succinate productivity of 50% as compared to the parent when cells were incubated in glucose-buffered solution. These results indicate that succinate could be synthesized through two pathways, namely, alpha-ketoglutarate oxidation via the TCA cycle and fumarate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

  12. Functional analysis of the gene cluster involved in production of the bacteriocin circularin A by Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC 25752

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, R; Jonker, M; Nauta, A; Kuipers, OP; Kok, J

    2003-01-01

    A region of 12 kb flanking the structural gene of the cyclic antibacterial peptide circularin A of Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC 25752 was sequenced, and the putative proteins involved in the production and secretion of circularin A were identified. The genes are tightly organized in overlapping

  13. Decentralised manufacturing of cell and gene therapy products: Learning from other healthcare sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Richard P; Ruck, Steven; Rafiq, Qasim A; Medcalf, Nicholas

    2017-12-24

    Decentralised or 'redistributed' manufacturing represents an attractive choice for production of some cell and gene therapies (CGTs), in particular personalised therapies. Decentralised manufacturing splits production into various locations or regions and in doing so, imposes organisational changes on the structure of a company. This confers a significant advantage by democratising supply, creating jobs without geographical restriction to the central hub and allowing a more flexible response to external pressures and demands. This comes with challenges that need to be addressed including, a reduction in oversight, decision making and control by central management which can be critical in maintaining quality in healthcare product manufacturing. The unwitting adoption of poor business strategies at an early stage in development has the potential to undermine the market success of otherwise promising products. To maximise the probability of realising the benefits that decentralised manufacturing of CGTs has to offer, it is important to examine alternative operational paradigms to learn from their successes and to avoid their failures. Whilst no other situation is quite the same as CGTs, some illustrative examples of established manufacturing paradigms are described. Each of these shares a unique attribute with CGTs which aids understanding of how decentralised manufacturing might be implemented for CGTs in a similar manner. In this paper we present a collection of paradigms that can be drawn on in formulating a roadmap to success for decentralised production of CGTs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Vaccine antigen production in transgenic plants: strategies, gene constructs and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Francesco; Manuela Rigano, M; Barbante, Alessandra; Basso, Barbara; Walmsley, Amanda M; Castiglione, Stefano

    2003-01-30

    Stable integration of a gene into the plant nuclear or chloroplast genome can transform higher plants (e.g. tobacco, potato, tomato, banana) into bioreactors for the production of subunit vaccines for oral or parental administration. This can also be achieved by using recombinant plant viruses as transient expression vectors in infected plants. The use of plant-derived vaccines may overcome some of the major problems encountered with traditional vaccination against infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases and tumours. They also offer a convenient tool against the threat of bio-terrorism. State of the art, experimental strategies, safety and perspectives are discussed in this article.

  15. Bayesian Computational Approaches for Gene Regulation Studies of Bioethanol and Biohydrogen Production. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberg, Lee; McCue, Lee Anne; Van Roey, Patrick

    2014-04-17

    The project developed mathematical models and first-version software tools for the understanding of gene regulation across multiple related species. The project lays the foundation for understanding how certain alpha-proteobacterial species control their own genes for bioethanol and biohydrogen production, and sets the stage for exploiting bacteria for the production of fuels. Enabling such alternative sources of fuel is a high priority for the Department of Energy and the public.

  16. Induction of hematopoietic microchimerism by gene-modified BMT elicits antigen-specific B and T cell unresponsiveness toward gene therapy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Martinet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene therapy is a promising treatment option for hemophilia and other protein deficiencies. However, immune responses against the transgene product represent an obstacle to safe and effective gene therapy, urging for the implementation of tolerization strategies. Induction of a hematopoietic chimerism via bone marrow transplantation (BMT is a potent means for inducing immunological tolerance in solid organ transplantation. Objectives: We reasoned here that the same viral vector could be used firstly to transduce BM cells for inducing chimerism-associated transgene-specific immune tolerance and, secondly, for correcting protein deficiencies by vector-mediated systemic production of the deficient coagulation factor.Methods: Evaluation of strategies to induce B and T cell tolerance was performed using ex vivo gene transfer with lentiviral vectors encoding coagulation factor IX (FIX or the SIINFEKL epitope of ovalbumin. Following induction of microchimerism via BMT, animals were challenged with in vivo gene transfer with lentiviral vectors.Results: The experimental approach prevented humoral immune response against FIX, resulting in persistence of therapeutic levels of circulating FIX after lentiviral-mediated gene transfer in vivo. In an ovalbumin model, we also demonstrated that this approach effectively tolerized the CD8+ T cell compartment in an antigen-specific manner.Conclusions: These results provide the proof-of-concept that inducing a microchimerism by gene-modified BMT is a powerful tool to provide transgene-specific B and T cell tolerance in a gene therapy setting.

  17. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiao; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Borodina, Irina

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because...... overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in anaerobic fermentation of glucose in mineral medium in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol yield was further improved by twofold by the additional overexpression of BAT2, encoding the cytoplasmic branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase....... Overexpression of ILV6, encoding the regulatory subunit of Ilv2, in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain decreased isobutanol production yield by threefold. In aerobic cultivations in shake flasks in mineral medium, the isobutanol yield of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain...

  18. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-05-03

    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  19. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Nielsen, Kristian F; Borodina, Irina; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C; Karhumaa, Kaisa

    2011-07-28

    Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because of its relative tolerance to alcohols, robustness in industrial fermentations, and the possibility for future combination of isobutanol production with fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. The yield of isobutanol was improved from 0.16 to 0.97 mg per g glucose by simultaneous overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in anaerobic fermentation of glucose in mineral medium in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol yield was further improved by twofold by the additional overexpression of BAT2, encoding the cytoplasmic branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase. Overexpression of ILV6, encoding the regulatory subunit of Ilv2, in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain decreased isobutanol production yield by threefold. In aerobic cultivations in shake flasks in mineral medium, the isobutanol yield of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain were 3.86 and 0.28 mg per g glucose, respectively. They increased to 4.12 and 2.4 mg per g glucose in yeast extract/peptone/dextrose (YPD) complex medium under aerobic conditions, respectively. Overexpression of genes ILV2, ILV3, ILV5, and BAT2 in valine metabolism led to an increase in isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Additional overexpression of ILV6 in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain had a negative effect, presumably by increasing the sensitivity of Ilv2 to valine inhibition, thus weakening the positive impact of overexpression of ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 on isobutanol production. Aerobic cultivations of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain showed that supplying amino acids in cultivation media gave a substantial improvement in isobutanol production

  20. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karhumaa Kaisa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because of its relative tolerance to alcohols, robustness in industrial fermentations, and the possibility for future combination of isobutanol production with fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. Results The yield of isobutanol was improved from 0.16 to 0.97 mg per g glucose by simultaneous overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in anaerobic fermentation of glucose in mineral medium in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol yield was further improved by twofold by the additional overexpression of BAT2, encoding the cytoplasmic branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase. Overexpression of ILV6, encoding the regulatory subunit of Ilv2, in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain decreased isobutanol production yield by threefold. In aerobic cultivations in shake flasks in mineral medium, the isobutanol yield of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain were 3.86 and 0.28 mg per g glucose, respectively. They increased to 4.12 and 2.4 mg per g glucose in yeast extract/peptone/dextrose (YPD complex medium under aerobic conditions, respectively. Conclusions Overexpression of genes ILV2, ILV3, ILV5, and BAT2 in valine metabolism led to an increase in isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Additional overexpression of ILV6 in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain had a negative effect, presumably by increasing the sensitivity of Ilv2 to valine inhibition, thus weakening the positive impact of overexpression of ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 on isobutanol production. Aerobic cultivations of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain showed that supplying amino acids in cultivation media

  1. A genetic strategy to measure circulating Drosophila insulin reveals genes regulating insulin production and secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbin Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a major regulator of metabolism in metazoans, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS suggest a genetic basis for reductions of both insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion, phenotypes commonly observed in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. To identify molecular functions of genes linked to T2DM risk, we developed a genetic tool to measure insulin-like peptide 2 (Ilp2 levels in Drosophila, a model organism with superb experimental genetics. Our system permitted sensitive quantification of circulating Ilp2, including measures of Ilp2 dynamics during fasting and re-feeding, and demonstration of adaptive Ilp2 secretion in response to insulin receptor haploinsufficiency. Tissue specific dissection of this reduced insulin signaling phenotype revealed a critical role for insulin signaling in specific peripheral tissues. Knockdown of the Drosophila orthologues of human T2DM risk genes, including GLIS3 and BCL11A, revealed roles of these Drosophila genes in Ilp2 production or secretion. Discovery of Drosophila mechanisms and regulators controlling in vivo insulin dynamics should accelerate functional dissection of diabetes genetics.

  2. Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases: Identifying the cryptic gene clusters and decoding the natural product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mangal; Chaudhary, Sandeep; Sareen, Dipti

    2017-03-01

    Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) present in bacteria and fungi are the major multi-modular enzyme complexes which synthesize secondary metabolites like the pharmacologically important antibiotics and siderophores. Each of the multiple modules of an NRPS activates a different amino or aryl acid, followed by their condensation to synthesize a linear or cyclic natural product. The studies on NRPS domains, the knowledge of their gene cluster architecture and tailoring enzymes have helped in the in silico genetic screening of the ever-expanding sequenced microbial genomic data for the identification of novel NRPS/PKS clusters and thus deciphering novel non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs). Adenylation domain is an integral part of the NRPSs and is the substrate selecting unit for the final assembled NRP. In some cases, it also requires a small protein, the MbtH homolog, for its optimum activity. The presence of putative adenylation domain and MbtH homologs in a sequenced genome can help identify the novel secondary metabolite producers. The role of the adenylation domain in the NRPS gene clusters and its characterization as a tool for the discovery of novel cryptic NRPS gene clusters are discussed.

  3. Re-examination of regulatory opinions in Europe: possible contribution for the approval of the first gene therapy product Glybera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsumi Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first commercially approved human gene therapy in the Western world is Glybera (alipogene tiparvovec, which is an adenoassociated viral vector encoding the lipoprotein lipase gene. Glybera was recommended for marketing authorization by the European Medicines Agency in 2012. The European Medicines Agency had only ever reviewed three marketing authorization applications for gene therapy medicinal products. Unlike in the case of Glybera, the applications of the first two products, Cerepro and Contusugene Ladenovec Gendux/Advexin, both of which were for cancer diseases, were withdrawn. In this report, we studied the European public assessment reports of the three gene therapy products. During the assessment process, Glybera was re-examined and reviewed for a fourth time. We therefore researched the re-examination procedure of the European Union regulatory process. Approximately 25% of the new medicinal products initially given negative opinions from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use were ultimately approved after re-examination from 2009 to 2013. The indications of most medicines were changed during the re-examination procedure, and the products were later approved with a mode of approval. These results suggested that the re-examination system in the European Union contributed to the approval of both several new drugs and the first gene therapy product.

  4. Identification of the bacteriophage T4 unf ( = alc) gene product, a protein involved in the shutoff of host transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R E; Haas, N; Snustad, D P

    1984-10-01

    The introduction of plasmid pR386 into E. coli cells renders them restrictive to the growth of phage T4 unf ( = alc) mutants. This system has been used to isolate Unf+ revertants, which, along with the mutant parental strains, have been used to identify the unf gene product by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Synthesis of the unf gene product, a polypeptide of just over 18,000 daltons in size, begins within 1 min after infection and terminates at about 12 min after infection at 30 degrees. Gene dosage experiments suggest that the unf protein functions catalytically.

  5. Enhanced transient recombinant protein production in CHO cells through the co-transfection of the product gene with Bcl-xL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zustiak, Matthew P.; Jose, Lisa; Xie, Yueqing; Zhu, Jianwei; Betenbaugh, Micheal J.

    2014-01-01

    Transient gene expression is gaining popularity as a method to rapidly produce recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. Although significant improvements have been made, in terms of expression, more improvements are needed to compete with the yields achievable in stable gene expression. Much progress has come from optimization of transfection media and parameters, as well as altering culturing conditions to enhance productivity. Recent studies have included using cell lines engineered for apoptosis resistance through the constitutive expression of an anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-xL. In this study we examine an alternative method of using the benefits of anti-apoptotic gene expression to enhance the transient expression of biotherapeutics, namely, through the co-transfection of bcl-xL and the product-coding gene. CHO-S cells were co-transfected with the product-coding gene and a vector containing Bcl-xL using polyethylenimine. Cells co-transfected with Bcl-xL showed reduced levels of apoptosis, increased specific productivity, and an overall increase in product yield of approximately 100%. Similar results were produced by employing another anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 delta in CHO cells, or through the co-transfection with bcl-xL using HEK-293E cells. This work provides an alternative method for increasing yields of therapeutic proteins in TGE applications without generating a prior stable cell line and subsequent screening which are both time and resource consuming. PMID:24604826

  6. Essential Oils Modulate Gene Expression and Ochratoxin A Production in Aspergillus carbonarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle El Khoury

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin, mainly produced on grapes by Aspergillus carbonarius, that causes massive health problems for humans. This study aims to reduce the occurrence of OTA by using the ten following essential oils (E.Os: fennel, cardamom, anise, chamomile, celery, cinnamon, thyme, taramira, oregano and rosemary at 1 µL/mL and 5 µL/mL for each E.O.As a matter of fact, their effects on the OTA production and the growth of A. carbonarius S402 cultures were evaluated, after four days at 28 °C on a Synthetic Grape Medium (SGM. Results showed that A. carbonarius growth was reduced up to 100%, when cultured with the E.Os of cinnamon, taramira, and oregano at both concentrations and the thyme at 5 µL/mL. As for the other six E.Os, their effect on A. carbonarius growth was insignificant, but highly important on the OTA production. Interestingly, the fennel E.O at 5 µL/mL reduced the OTA production up to 88.9% compared to the control, with only 13.8% of fungal growth reduction. We further investigated the effect of these E.Os on the expression levels of the genes responsible for the OTA biosynthesis (acOTApks and acOTAnrps along with the acpks gene as well as the two regulatory genes laeA and vea, using the quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR method. The results revealed that these six E.Os reduced the expression of the five studied genes, where the ackps was downregulated by 99.2% (the highest downregulation in this study with 5 µL/mL of fennel E.O.As for the acOTApks, acOTAnrps, veA and laeA, their reduction levels ranged between 10% and 96% depending on the nature of the E.O and its concentration in the medium.

  7. Cellulose production and cellulose synthase gene detection in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Maria José; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mas, Albert; Mateo, Estibaliz

    2015-02-01

    The ability of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) to produce cellulose has gained much industrial interest due to the physical and chemical characteristics of bacterial cellulose. The production of cellulose occurs in the presence of oxygen and in a glucose-containing medium, but it can also occur during vinegar elaboration by the traditional method. The vinegar biofilm produced by AAB on the air-liquid interface is primarily composed of cellulose and maintains the cells in close contact with oxygen. In this study, we screened for the ability of AAB to produce cellulose using different carbon sources in the presence or absence of ethanol. The presence of cellulose in biofilms was confirmed using the fluorochrome Calcofluor by microscopy. Moreover, the process of biofilm formation was monitored under epifluorescence microscopy using the Live/Dead BacLight Kit. A total of 77 AAB strains belonging to 35 species of Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter were analysed, and 30 strains were able to produce a cellulose biofilm in at least one condition. This cellulose production was correlated with the PCR amplification of the bcsA gene that encodes cellulose synthase. A total of eight degenerated primers were designed, resulting in one primer pair that was able to detect the presence of this gene in 27 AAB strains, 26 of which formed cellulose.

  8. Identification of the glutaminase genes of Aspergillus sojae involved in glutamate production during soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kotaro; Koyama, Yasuji; Hanya, Yoshiki

    2013-01-01

    Glutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate, enhances the umami taste in soy sauce. The Aspergillus sojae genome contains 10 glutaminase genes. In this study, we estimated that approximately 60% of the glutamate in soy sauce is produced through the glutaminase reaction. To determine which glutaminase is involved in soy sauce glutamate production, we prepared soy sauces using single and multiple glutaminase gene disruptants of A. sojae. The glutamate concentration in soy sauce prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptant was approximately 60% lower than that in the control strain, whereas it was decreased by approximately 20-30% in the ΔgahA-ΔgahB disruptant. However, the glutamate concentration was unchanged in the soy sauces prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔggtA-Δgls and ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptants. These results indicate that four glutaminases are involved in glutamate production in soy sauce, and that the peptidoglutaminase activities of GahA and GahB increase the glutamate concentration in soy sauce.

  9. Lactic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a Rhizopus oryzae lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skory, Christopher D

    2003-01-01

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expressed in yeast. A L(+)-LDH gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adh1 promoter and terminator and then placed in a 2 micro -containing yeast-replicating plasmid. The resulting construct, pLdhA68X, was transformed and tested by fermentation analyses in haploid and diploid yeast containing similar genetic backgrounds. Both recombinant strains utilized 92 g glucose/l in approximately 30 h. The diploid isolate accumulated approximately 40% more lactic acid with a final concentration of 38 g lactic acid/l and a yield of 0.44 g lactic acid/g glucose. The optimal pH for lactic acid production by the diploid strain was pH 5. LDH activity in this strain remained relatively constant at 1.5 units/mg protein throughout the fermentation. The majority of carbon was still diverted to the ethanol fermentation pathway, as indicated by ethanol yields between 0.25-0.33 g/g glucose. S. cerevisiae mutants impaired in ethanol production were transformed with pLdhA68X in an attempt to increase the lactic acid yield by minimizing the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol. Mutants with diminished pyruvate decarboxylase activity and mutants with disrupted alcohol dehydrogenase activity did result in transformants with diminished ethanol production. However, the efficiency of lactic acid production also decreased.

  10. Fermentative hydrogen production from Jerusalem artichoke by Clostridium tyrobutyricum expressing exo-inulinase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Liying; Huang, He

    2017-08-11

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC25755 has been reported as being able to produce significant quantities of hydrogen. In this study, the exo-inulinase encoding gene cloned from Paenibacillus polymyxa SC-2 was into the expression plasmid pSY6 and expressed in the cells of C. tyrobutyricum. The engineered C. tyrobutyricum strain efficiently fermented the inulin-type carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without any pretreatment being necessary for the production of hydrogen. A comparatively high hydrogen yield (3.7 mol/mol inulin-type sugar) was achieved after 96 h in a batch process with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), with an overall volumetric productivity rate of 620 ± 60 mL/h/L when the initial total sugar concentration of the inulin extract was increased to 100 g/L. Synthesis of inulinase in the batch SSF culture was closely associated with strain growth until the end of the exponential phase, reaching a maximum activity of 28.4 ± 0.26 U/mL. The overall results show that the highly productive and abundant biomass crop Jerusalem artichoke can be a good substrate for hydrogen production, and that the application of batch SSF for its conversion has the potential to become a cost-effective process in the near future.

  11. Laccase production and differential transcription of laccase genes in Cerrena sp. in response to metal ions, aromatic compounds and nutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Jie eYang; Guozeng eWang; Tzi Bun eNg; Juan eLin; Xiuyun eYe

    2016-01-01

    Laccases can oxidize a wide range of aromatic compounds and are industrially valuable. Laccases often exist in gene families and may differ from each other in expression and function. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for transcription profiling of eight laccase genes in Cerrena sp. strain HYB07 with validated reference genes. A high laccase activity of 280.0 U/mL was obtained after submerged fermentation for 5 d. Laccase production and laccase gene transcriptio...

  12. Simultaneous Targeting of Multiple Gene Homeologs to Alter Seed Oil Production in Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Moreno, J A; Durrett, T P

    2017-07-01

    The ability to transform Camelina sativa easily with biosynthetic enzymes derived from other plants has made this oil seed crop an ideal platform for the production of unusual lipids valuable for different applications. However, in addition to expressing transgenic enzymes, the suppression of endogenous enzyme activity to reduce competition for common substrates or cofactors is also required to enhance the production of target compounds. As camelina possesses a relatively undifferentiated hexaploid genome, up to three gene homeologs can code for any particular enzymatic activity, complicating efforts to alter endogenous biosynthetic pathways. New genome editing technologies, such as that offered by the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein) system, offer the capability to introduce mutations into specifically targeted genomic sites. Here, by using a carefully designed guide RNA identical to all three homeologs, we demonstrate the ability of the CRISPR/Cas genome editing system to introduce mutations in all three CsDGAT1 or CsPDAT1 homeologous genes important for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in developing seeds. Sequence analysis from transgenic T1 plants revealed that each CsDGAT1 or each CsPDAT1 homeolog was altered by multiple mutations, resulting in a genetic mosaic in the plants. Interestingly, seed harvested from both CsDGAT1- and CsPDAT1-targeted lines was often shrunken and wrinkled. Further, lipid analysis revealed that many lines produced seed with reduced oil content and altered fatty acid composition, consistent with the role of the targeted genes in seed oil biosynthesis. The CRISPR/Cas system therefore represents a useful method to alter endogenous biosynthetic pathways efficiently in polyploid species such as camelina. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen production in Aspergillus niger: evaluating the strategy of gene fusion to native glucoamylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Er; van Zyl, Wh; van Zyl, Pj; Görgens, Jf

    2012-10-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of Aspergillus niger as a candidate expression system for virus-like particle production using gene fusion. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) production, targeted through the secretory pathway in A. niger, resulted in completely assembled and properly folded HBsAg. This was achieved by implementing a gene fusion strategy using the highly expressed catalytic domain of the native glucoamylase gene (GlaA ( G2 )) fused to the HBsAg S gene. The inducible glucoamylase promoter (GlaA ( p )) was used to control transcription in the A. niger D15 host. The gene fusion strategy was designed for cleavage of the fused product by the KEX2-like protease, resulting in intracellular accumulation of HBsAg and extracellular secretion of glucoamylase. Immunodetection using a monoclonal HBsAg antibody could not detect the fused GlaA ( G2 ) ::S product in intracellular and extracellular fractions, indicating that full assembly and maturation of HBsAg occurred after cleavage of the fused product in the Golgi complex. Several breakdown products showing an immunoreactive response to the glucoamylase polyclonal antibody indicated a level of intracellular degradation. The choice of carbon source used in cultivation significantly affected HBsAg production levels through induction of the glucoamylase promoter. The highest specific HBsAg production was observed during growth on inducing substrates of starch and its degradation products (maltodextrin and maltose), although residual glucose accumulation in the mid-exponential phase reduced HBsAg production. HBsAg production in starch-based cultures may be improved further by optimization of the rates of starch hydrolysis by glucoamylase and subsequent glucose consumption by the host.

  14. Increased exopolysaccharide production in Lactococcuc lactis due to increased levels of expression of the NIZO B40 eps gene cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boels, I.C.; Kranenburg, van R.; Kanning, M.W.; Chong, B.F.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2003-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) play an important role in the rheology and texture of fermented food products. This is the first report demonstrating that homologous overexpression of a complete eps gene cluster in Lactococcus lactis leads to increased EPS production levels. A ninefold-elevated EPS plasmid

  15. Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Knapp, Charles W; Correa Galeote, David; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated 'hot spots.' The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR), cutting room (CR) and commercial meat products (MP). Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

  16. Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Lavilla Lerma

    Full Text Available The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated 'hot spots.' The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR, cutting room (CR and commercial meat products (MP. Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4 and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

  17. Diversity, Distribution and Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Goat and Lamb Slaughterhouse Surfaces and Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Knapp, Charles W.; Correa Galeote, David; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated ‘hot spots.’ The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR), cutting room (CR) and commercial meat products (MP). Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination. PMID:25479100

  18. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens TpeL Toxin Gene Carriage, Production, Cytotoxic Contributions, and Trypsin Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Large clostridial toxins (LCTs) are produced by at least four pathogenic clostridial species, and several LCTs are proven pivotal virulence factors for both human and veterinary diseases. TpeL is a recently identified LCT produced by Clostridium perfringens that has received relatively limited study. In response, the current study surveyed carriage of the tpeL gene among different C. perfringens strains, detecting this toxin gene in some type A, B, and C strains but not in any type D or E strains. This study also determined that all tested strains maximally produce, and extracellularly release, TpeL at the late-log or early-stationary growth stage during in vitro culture, which is different from the maximal late-stationary-phase production reported previously for other LCTs and for TpeL production by C. perfringens strain JIR12688. In addition, the present study found that TpeL levels in culture supernatants can be repressed by either glucose or sucrose. It was also shown that, at natural production levels, TpeL is a significant contributor to the cytotoxic activity of supernatants from cultures of tpeL-positive strain CN3685. Lastly, this study identified TpeL, which presumably is produced in the intestines during diseases caused by TpeL-positive type B and C strains, as a toxin whose cytotoxicity decreases after treatment with trypsin; this finding may have pathophysiologic relevance by suggesting that, like beta toxin, TpeL contributes to type B and C infections in hosts with decreased trypsin levels due to disease, diet, or age. PMID:25824828

  19. The allele frequency of two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor gene in the Taiwanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Wang

    2011-10-01

    Conclusion: We found that the G allele frequency at these two loci in the Taiwanese population is much lower than that in people from Western countries. This phenomenon may be attributed to ethnic effects.

  20. The BnGRF2 gene (GRF2-like gene from Brassica napus) enhances seed oil production through regulating cell number and plant photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hong-Li; Zhan, Gao-Miao; Li, Rong-Jun; Deng, Lin-Bin; Wang, Xin-Fa; Liu, Gui-Hua; Wang, Han-Zhong

    2012-06-01

    Seed yield and oil content are two important agricultural characteristics in oil crop breeding, and a lot of functional gene research is being concentrated on increasing these factors. In this study, by differential gene expression analyses between rapeseed lines (zy036 and 51070) which exhibit different levels of seed oil production, BnGRF2 (Brassica napus growth-regulating factor 2-like gene) was identified in the high oil-producing line zy036. To elucidate the possible roles of BnGRF2 in seed oil production, the cDNA sequences of the rapeseed GRF2 gene were isolated. The Blastn result showed that rapeseed contained BnGRF2a/2b which were located in the A genome (A1 and A3) and C genome (C1 and C6), respectively, and the dominantly expressed gene BnGRF2a was chosen for transgenic research. Analysis of 35S-BnGRF2a transgenic Arabidopsis showed that overexpressed BnGRF2a resulted in an increase in seed oil production of >50%. Moreover, BnGRF2a also induced a >20% enlargement in extended leaves and >40% improvement in photosynthetic efficiency because of an increase in the chlorophyll content. Furthermore, transcriptome analyses indicated that some genes associated with cell proliferation, photosynthesis, and oil synthesis were up-regulated, which revealed that cell number and plant photosynthesis contributed to the increased seed weight and oil content. Because of less efficient self-fertilization induced by the longer pistil in the 35S-BnGRF2a transgenic line, Napin-BnGRF2a transgenic lines were further used to identify the function of BnGRF2, and the results showed that seed oil production also could increase >40% compared with the wild-type control. The results suggest that improvement to economically important characteristics in oil crops may be achieved by manipulation of the GRF2 expression level.

  1. L-lactic acid production from D-xylose with Candida sonorensis expressing a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase encoding gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivuranta, Kari T; Ilmén, Marja; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Ruohonen, Laura; Suominen, Pirkko; Penttilä, Merja

    2014-08-08

    Bioplastics, like polylactic acid (PLA), are renewable alternatives for petroleum-based plastics. Lactic acid, the monomer of PLA, has traditionally been produced biotechnologically with bacteria. With genetic engineering, yeast have the potential to replace bacteria in biotechnological lactic acid production, with the benefits of being acid tolerant and having simple nutritional requirements. Lactate dehydrogenase genes have been introduced to various yeast to demonstrate this potential. Importantly, an industrial lactic acid producing process utilising yeast has already been implemented. Utilisation of D-xylose in addition to D-glucose in production of biochemicals such as lactic acid by microbial fermentation would be beneficial, as it would allow lignocellulosic raw materials to be utilised in the production processes. The yeast Candida sonorensis, which naturally metabolises D-xylose, was genetically modified to produce L-lactic acid from D-xylose by integrating the gene encoding L-lactic acid dehydrogenase (ldhL) from Lactobacillus helveticus into its genome. In microaerobic, CaCO3-buffered conditions a C. sonorensis ldhL transformant having two copies of the ldhL gene produced 31 g l-1 lactic acid from 50 g l-1 D-xylose free of ethanol.Anaerobic production of lactic acid from D-xylose was assessed after introducing an alternative pathway of D-xylose metabolism, i.e. by adding a xylose isomerase encoded by XYLA from Piromyces sp. alone or together with the xylulokinase encoding gene XKS1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains were further modified by deletion of the endogenous xylose reductase encoding gene, alone or together with the xylitol dehydrogenase encoding gene. Strains of C. sonorensis expressing xylose isomerase produced L-lactic acid from D-xylose in anaerobic conditions. The highest anaerobic L-lactic acid production (8.5 g l-1) was observed in strains in which both the xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase encoding genes had been

  2. Cellulosic Ethanol Production by Recombinant Cellulolytic Bacteria Harbouring pdc and adh II Genes of Zymomonas mobilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sobana Piriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol fermenting genes such as pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adh II were cloned from Zymomonas mobilis and transformed into three different cellulolytic bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae JV, Proteus mirabilis JV and Erwinia chrysanthemi and their cellulosic ethanol production capability was studied. Recombinant E. cloacae JV was found to produce 4.5% and 3.5% (v/v ethanol, respectively, when CMC and 4% NaOH pretreated bagasse were used as substrates, whereas recombinant P. mirabilis and E. chrysanthemi with the same substrates could only produce 4%, 3.5%, 1%, and 1.5 % of ethanol, respectively. The recombinant E. cloacae strain produced twofold higher percentage of ethanol than the wild type. The recombinant E. cloacae strain could be improved further by increasing its ethanol tolerance capability through media optimization and also by combining multigene cellulase expression for enhancing ethanol production from various types of lignocellulosic biomass so that it can be used for industrial level ethanol production.

  3. Yeast genes involved in sulfur and nitrogen metabolism affect the production of volatile thiols from Sauvignon Blanc musts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Michael J; Gardner, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two volatile thiols, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), and 3-mercaptohexyl-acetate (3MHA), reminiscent of grapefruit and passion fruit respectively, are critical varietal aroma compounds in Sauvignon Blanc (SB) wines. These aromatic thiols are not present in the grape juice but are synthesized and released by the yeast during alcoholic fermentation. Single deletion mutants of 67 candidate genes in a laboratory strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for their thiol production after fermentation of SB grape juice. None of the deletions abolished production of the two volatile thiols. However, deletion of 17 genes caused increases or decreases in production by as much as twofold. These 17 genes, mostly related to sulfur and nitrogen metabolism in yeast, may act by altering the regulation of the pathway(s) of thiol production or altering substrate supply. Deleting subsets of these genes in a wine yeast strain gave similar results to the laboratory strain for sulfur pathway genes but showed strain differences for genes involved in nitrogen metabolism. The addition of two nitrogen sources, urea and di-ammonium phosphate, as well as two sulfur compounds, cysteine and S-ethyl-L-cysteine, increased 3MH and 3MHA concentrations in the final wines. Collectively these results suggest that sulfur and nitrogen metabolism are important in regulating the synthesis of 3MH and 3MHA during yeast fermentation of grape juice.

  4. Temperature influences β-carotene production in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing carotenogenic genes from Phaffia rhodozyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Zhan, Wubing; Li, Yongfu; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma is a prominent microorganism able to synthesize carotenoid. Here, three carotenogenic cDNAs of P. rhodozyma CGMCC 2.1557, crtE, crtYB and crtI, were cloned and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVSc1. The recombinant Sc-EYBI cells could synthesize 258.8 ± 43.8 μg g(-1) dry cell weight (DCW) of β-carotene when growing at 20 °C, about 59-fold higher than in those growing at 30 °C. Additional expression of the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase from S. cerevisiae (Sc-EYBIH) increased the β-carotene level to 528.8 ± 13.3 μg g(-1) DCW as cells growing at 20 °C, 27-fold higher than cells growing at 30 °C, although cells grew faster at 30 °C than at 20 °C. Consistent with the much higher β-carotene level in cells growing at 20 °C, transcription level of three crt genes and cHMG1 gene in cells growing at 20 °C was a little higher than in those growing at 30 °C. Meanwhile, expression of three carotenogenic genes and accumulation of β-carotene promoted cell growth. These results reveal the influence of temperature on β-carotene biosynthesis and may be helpful for improving β-carotene production in recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  5. Relationship between gene polymorphism and milk production traits in Teleorman Black Head sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gras MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study is a preliminary step of a larger national program aimed to develop a strategy for “in situ” preservation of Teleorman Black Head sheep population. In this paper we estimated the effect of β-lactoglobulin, casein and prolactin on some quantitative and qualitative milk traits in this local sheep population. Material and methods. Genotyping methodology included PCR for CSN3 (A and B alleles and PCR-RFLP for LGB (A and B alleles and PRL (T and C alleles, respectively. Repeated milking and milk composition analysis were used for the polymorphism effect estimation. Results. No association between CSN3 polymorphism and milk traits was found. Effect of LGB on production traits was quite constant. Genotype AA performed better than BB. PRL marker effect showed small differences than LGB. Concerning milk, fat and protein yield, AA genotype for PRL had a smaller positive impact than AA genotype for LGB. Regarding fat and protein content, PRL showed a negative effect for AA and positive for BB genotype, respectively. Conclusions. Positive association between LGB and milk yield and composition recommend this candidate gene like marker for a future MAS program. Although PRL gene is also associated with an increased milk quantity, inverse response over milk composition must be considered in MAS strategy. Our study demonstrated that both LGB and PRL markers could became an advent of MAS utilization in Romanian dairy sheep breeding industry.

  6. Functional analysis of the Borrelia burgdorferi bba64 gene product in murine infection via tick infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni G Patton

    Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted to humans from the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. During the borrelial tick-to-mammal life cycle, B. burgdorferi must adapt to many environmental changes by regulating several genes, including bba64. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the bba64 gene product is necessary for mouse infectivity when B. burgdorferi is transmitted by an infected tick bite, but not via needle inoculation. In this study we investigated the phenotypic properties of a bba64 mutant strain, including 1 replication during tick engorgement, 2 migration into the nymphal salivary glands, 3 host transmission, and 4 susceptibility to the MyD88-dependent innate immune response. Results revealed that the bba64 mutant's attenuated infectivity by tick bite was not due to a growth defect inside an actively feeding nymphal tick, or failure to invade the salivary glands. These findings suggested there was either a lack of spirochete transmission to the host dermis or increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response. Further experiments showed the bba64 mutant was not culturable from mouse skin taken at the nymphal bite site and was unable to establish infection in MyD88-deficient mice via tick infestation. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BBA64 functions at the salivary gland-to-host delivery interface of vector transmission and is not involved in resistance to MyD88-mediated innate immunity.

  7. Prokaryotic Expression of Rice Ospgip1 Gene and Bioinformatic Analysis of Encoded Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-jun CHEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the reference sequences of pgip genes in GenBank, a fragment of 930 bp covering the open reading frame (ORF of rice Ospgip1 (Oryza sativa polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 1 was amplified. The prokaryotic expression product of the gene inhibited the growth of Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rice sheath blight, and reduced its polygalacturonase activity. Bioinformatic analysis showed that OsPGIP1 is a hydrophobic protein with a molecular weight of 32.8 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI of 7.26. The protein is mainly located in the cell wall of rice, and its signal peptide cleavage site is located between the 17th and 18th amino acids. There are four cysteines in both the N- and C-termini of the deduced protein, which can form three disulfide bonds (between the 56th and 63rd, the 278th and 298th, and the 300th and 308th amino acids. The protein has a typical leucine-rich repeat (LRR domain, and its secondary structure comprises α-helices, β-sheets and irregular coils. Compared with polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs from other plants, the 7th LRR is absent in OsPGIP1. The nine LRRs could form a cleft that might associate with proteins from pathogenic fungi, such as polygalacturonase.

  8. Heterologous expression of leader-less pga gene in Pichia pastoris: intracellular production of prokaryotic enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresová, Helena; Marková, Zdena; Valesová, Renáta; Sklenár, Jan; Kyslík, Pavel

    2010-02-03

    Penicillin G acylase of Escherichia coli (PGAEc) is a commercially valuable enzyme for which efficient bacterial expression systems have been developed. The enzyme is used as a catalyst for the hydrolytic production of beta-lactam nuclei or for the synthesis of semi-synthetic penicillins such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and cephalexin. To become a mature, periplasmic enzyme, the inactive prepropeptide of PGA has to undergo complex processing that begins in the cytoplasm (autocatalytic cleavage), continues at crossing the cytoplasmic membrane (signal sequence removing), and it is completed in the periplasm. Since there are reports on impressive cytosolic expression of bacterial proteins in Pichia, we have cloned the leader-less gene encoding PGAEc in this host and studied yeast production capacity and enzyme authenticity. Leader-less pga gene encoding PGAEcunder the control of AOX1 promoter was cloned in Pichia pastoris X-33. The intracellular overproduction of heterologous PGAEc(hPGAEc) was evaluated in a stirred 10 litre bioreactor in high-cell density, fed batch cultures using different profiles of transient phases. Under optimal conditions, the average volumetric activity of 25900 U l-1 was reached. The hPGAEc was purified, characterized and compared with the wild-type PGAEc. The alpha-subunit of the hPGAEc formed in the cytosol was processed aberrantly resulting in two forms with C- terminuses extended to the spacer peptide. The enzyme exhibited modified traits: the activity of the purified enzyme was reduced to 49%, the ratios of hydrolytic activities with cephalexin, phenylacetamide or 6-nitro-3-phenylacetylamidobenzoic acid (NIPAB) to penicillin G increased and the enzyme showed a better synthesis/hydrolysis ratio for the synthesis of cephalexin. Presented results provide useful data regarding fermentation strategy, intracellular biosynthetic potential, and consequences of the heterologous expression of PGAEc in P. pastoris X-33. Aberrant processing of the

  9. Heterologous expression of leader-less pga gene in Pichia pastoris: intracellular production of prokaryotic enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyslík Pavel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillin G acylase of Escherichia coli (PGAEc is a commercially valuable enzyme for which efficient bacterial expression systems have been developed. The enzyme is used as a catalyst for the hydrolytic production of β-lactam nuclei or for the synthesis of semi-synthetic penicillins such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and cephalexin. To become a mature, periplasmic enzyme, the inactive prepropeptide of PGA has to undergo complex processing that begins in the cytoplasm (autocatalytic cleavage, continues at crossing the cytoplasmic membrane (signal sequence removing, and it is completed in the periplasm. Since there are reports on impressive cytosolic expression of bacterial proteins in Pichia, we have cloned the leader-less gene encoding PGAEc in this host and studied yeast production capacity and enzyme authenticity. Results Leader-less pga gene encoding PGAEcunder the control of AOX1 promoter was cloned in Pichia pastoris X-33. The intracellular overproduction of heterologous PGAEc(hPGAEc was evaluated in a stirred 10 litre bioreactor in high-cell density, fed batch cultures using different profiles of transient phases. Under optimal conditions, the average volumetric activity of 25900 U l-1 was reached. The hPGAEc was purified, characterized and compared with the wild-type PGAEc. The α-subunit of the hPGAEc formed in the cytosol was processed aberrantly resulting in two forms with C- terminuses extended to the spacer peptide. The enzyme exhibited modified traits: the activity of the purified enzyme was reduced to 49%, the ratios of hydrolytic activities with cephalexin, phenylacetamide or 6-nitro-3-phenylacetylamidobenzoic acid (NIPAB to penicillin G increased and the enzyme showed a better synthesis/hydrolysis ratio for the synthesis of cephalexin. Conclusions Presented results provide useful data regarding fermentation strategy, intracellular biosynthetic potential, and consequences of the heterologous expression of PGAEc

  10. Deleting multiple lytic genes enhances biomass yield and production of recombinant proteins by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Zhenmin; Zhao, Ruili; Jin, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiangdong

    2014-08-31

    Bacillus subtilis is widely used in agriculture and industrial biotechnology; however, cell autolysis significantly decreases its yield in liquid cultures. Numerous factors mediate the lysis of B. subtilis, such as cannibalism factors, prophages, and peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases. The aim of this work was to use molecular genetic techniques to develop a new strategy to prevent cell lysis and enhance biomass as well as the production of recombinant proteins. Five genes or genetic elements representing three different functional categories were studied as follows: lytC encoding PG hydrolases, the prophage genes xpf and yqxG-yqxH-cwlA (yGlA), and skfA and sdpC that encode cannibalism factors. Cell lysis was reduced and biomass was enhanced by deleting individually skfA, sdpC, xpf, and lytC. We constructed the multiple deletion mutant LM2531 (skfA sdpC lytC xpf) and found that after 4 h of culture, its biomass yield was significantly increased compared with that of prototypical B. subtilis 168 (wild-type) strain and that 15% and 92% of the cells were lysed in cultures of LM2531 and wild-type, respectively. Moreover, two expression vectors were constructed for producing recombinant proteins (β-galactosidase and nattokinase) under the control of the P43 promoter. Cultures of LM2531 and wild-type transformants produced 13741 U/ml and 7991 U/ml of intracellular β-galactosidase, respectively (1.72-fold increase). Further, the level of secreted nattokinase produced by strain LM2531 increased by 2.6-fold compared with wild-type (5226 IU/ml vs. 2028 IU/ml, respectively). Our novel, systematic multigene deletion approach designed to inhibit cell lysis significantly increased the biomass yield and the production of recombinant proteins by B. subtilis. These findings show promise for guiding efforts to manipulate the genomes of other B. subtilis strains that are used for industrial purposes.

  11. Metabolic analyses elucidate non-trivial gene targets for amplifying dihydroartemisinic acid production in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ashish; Conway, Matthew F.; Johnnie, Joseph; Qureshi, Tabish M.; Lige, Bao; Derrick, Anne M.; Agbo, Eddy C.; Sriram, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables metabolic engineering of industrial microbes to synthesize value-added molecules. In this, a major challenge is the efficient redirection of carbon to the desired metabolic pathways. Pinpointing strategies toward this goal requires an in-depth investigation of the metabolic landscape of the organism, particularly primary metabolism, to identify precursor and cofactor availability for the target compound. The potent antimalarial therapeutic artemisinin and its precursors are promising candidate molecules for production in microbial hosts. Recent advances have demonstrated the production of artemisinin precursors in engineered yeast strains as an alternative to extraction from plants. We report the application of in silico and in vivo metabolic pathway analyses to identify metabolic engineering targets to improve the yield of the direct artemisinin precursor dihydroartemisinic acid (DHA) in yeast. First, in silico extreme pathway (ExPa) analysis identified NADPH-malic enzyme and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) as mechanisms to meet NADPH demand for DHA synthesis. Next, we compared key DHA-synthesizing ExPas to the metabolic flux distributions obtained from in vivo 13C metabolic flux analysis of a DHA-synthesizing strain. This comparison revealed that knocking out ethanol synthesis and overexpressing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP (gene YNL241C) or the NADPH-malic enzyme ME2 (YKL029C) are vital steps toward overproducing DHA. Finally, we employed in silico flux balance analysis and minimization of metabolic adjustment on a yeast genome-scale model to identify gene knockouts for improving DHA yields. The best strategy involved knockout of an oxaloacetate transporter (YKL120W) and an aspartate aminotransferase (YKL106W), and was predicted to improve DHA yields by 70-fold. Collectively, our work elucidates multiple non-trivial metabolic engineering strategies for improving DHA yield in yeast. PMID:23898325

  12. Metabolic analyses elucidate nontrivial gene targets for amplifying dihydroartemisinic acid production in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish eMisra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology enables metabolic engineering of industrial microbes to synthesize value-added molecules. In this, a major challenge is the efficient redirection of carbon to the desired metabolic pathways. Pinpointing strategies toward this goal requires an in-depth investigation of the metabolic landscape of the organism, particularly primary metabolism, to identify precursor and cofactor availability for the target compound. The potent antimalarial therapeutic artemisinin and its precursors are promising candidate molecules for production in microbial hosts. Recent advances have demonstrated the production of artemisinin precursors in engineered yeast strains as an alternative to extraction from plants. We report the application of in silico and in vivo metabolic pathway analyses to identify metabolic engineering targets to improve the yield of the direct artemisinin precursor dihydroartemisinic acid (DHA in yeast. First, in silico extreme pathway analysis identified NADPH-malic enzyme and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP as mechanisms to meet NADPH demand for DHA synthesis. Next, we compared key DHA-synthesizing extreme pathways to the metabolic flux distributions obtained from in vivo 13C metabolic flux analysis of a DHA-synthesizing strain. This comparison revealed that knocking out ethanol synthesis and overexpressing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the oxidative PPP (gene YNL241C or the NADPH-malic enzyme ME2 (YKL029C are vital steps toward overproducing DHA. Finally, we employed in silico flux balance analysis and minimization of metabolic adjustment on a yeast genome-scale model to identify gene knockouts for improving DHA yields. The best strategy involved knockout of an oxaloacetate transporter (YKL120W and an aspartate aminotransferase (YKL106W, and was predicted to improve DHA yields by 70-fold. Collectively, our work elucidates multiple nontrivial metabolic engineering strategies for improving DHA yield in yeast.

  13. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  14. Identification of genes related to high royal jelly production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) using microarray analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Hongyi; Liu, Xiaoyan; Pan, Jiao; Li, Wenfeng; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Shenglu; Miao, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Nenggan; Su, Songkun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract China is the largest royal jelly producer and exporter in the world, and high royal jelly-yielding strains have been bred in the country for approximately three decades. However, information on the molecular mechanism underlying high royal jelly production is scarce. Here, a cDNA microarray was used to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to obtain an overview on the changes in gene expression levels between high and low royal jelly producing bees. We developed a...

  15. Identification of Genetic Associations and Functional Polymorphisms of SAA1 Gene Affecting Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shaohua; Gao, Yahui; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2016-01-01

    Our initial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene was differentially expressed in the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high versus low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. To further validate the genetic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of SAA1 gene involved in regulating milk production traits in dairy cattle, we herein performed a study through genotype-phenotype associations. Six identified SNPs were signif...

  16. Adp53 (Gendicine) 12 Years in Clinic - The First Approved Gene Therapy Product for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Li, Jianglong; Li, Dinggang; Liu, Jiliang; Li, Xiuqin; Li, Wei; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Michael J; Chandler, Lois; Lin, Hong; Hu, Aiguo; Xu, Wei; Lam, Dominic Man-Kit

    2018-01-16

    Gendicine (Recombinant Human p53 Adenovirus, AdRSV-p53), developed by Shenzhen SiBiono GeneTech Company, was approved by CFDA in 2003. It has been used in clinical oncology for 12 years since it entered the market in 2004. As the first-in-class product for cancer gene therapy, Gendicine met its expectation and demonstrated with ample clinical data that it is safe and effective for treating cancer. SiBiono manufactured 41 batches in compliant with CFDA QC/QA requirements. Total 169,571 vials (1.0x1012 vector particles per vial) were used in more than 50,000 patients, among them about 5,000 were international form over 50 nations outside China. Comparing with the first-line standard therapies, intratumor injection of Gendicine combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy resulted in response rate significantly higher than chemo or radiotherapy alone. The approved indication for Gendicine is Head & Neck Cancer, including NPC. However, Gendicine has been successfully applied for various types and at different disease stage cancers. Furthermore, Gendicine combination regimen has brought long-term benefits to the treated patients with 5-8 year progression-free survival significantly longer than standard therapy alone. Gendicine is a type of biological therapy and is minimally invasive via intratumor injection, intra-cavity or vascular infusion. No serious adverse event reported on Gendicine, except the vector-associated transient fever, which occurred in 50-60% patients treated. The fever, ranged 38-39.50C, took place within 24 hours after Gendicine administration and persisted a few hours. In this review, 30 clinical studies on Gendicine combination regimen with published data and 10 studies with long-term survival follow-up data are summarized and reported. Various types of cancer and a few special clinical cases treated with Gendicine are analyzed. Gendicine's manufacture accomplishments and clinical experience may cast some lights for the international gene therapy

  17. Laccase production and differential transcription of laccase genes in Cerrena sp. in response to metal ions, aromatic compounds and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eYang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccases can oxidize a wide range of aromatic compounds and are industrially valuable. Laccases often exist in gene families and may differ from each other in expression and function. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used for transcription profiling of eight laccase genes in Cerrena sp. strain HYB07 with validated reference genes. A high laccase activity of 280.0 U/mL was obtained after submerged fermentation for 5 d. Laccase production and laccase gene transcription at different fermentation stages and in response to various environmental cues were revealed. HYB07 laccase activity correlated with transcription levels of its predominantly expressed laccase gene, Lac7. Cu2+ ions were indispensible for efficient laccase production by HYB07, mainly through Lac7 transcription induction, and no aromatic compounds were needed. HYB07 laccase synthesis and biomass accumulation were highest with non-limiting carbon and nitrogen. Glycerol and inorganic nitrogen sources adversely impacted Lac7 transcription, laccase yields and fungal growth. The present study would further our understanding of transcription regulation of laccase genes, which may in turn facilitate laccase production as well as elucidation of their physiological roles.

  18. Efficient Production of Papillomavirus Gene Delivery Vectors in Defined In Vitro Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cerqueira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Papillomavirus capsids can package a wide variety of nonviral DNA plasmids and deliver the packaged genetic material to cells, making them attractive candidates for targeted gene delivery vehicles. However, the papillomavirus vectors generated by current methods are unlikely to be suitable for clinical applications. We have developed a chemically defined, cell-free, papillomavirus-based vector production system that allows the incorporation of purified plasmid DNA (pseudogenome into high-titer papillomavirus L1/L2 capsids. We investigated the incorporation of several DNA forms into a variety of different papillomavirus types, including human and animal types. Our results show that papillomavirus capsids can package and transduce linear or circular DNA under defined conditions. Packaging and transduction efficiencies were surprisingly variable across capsid types, DNA forms, and assembly reaction conditions. The pseudoviruses produced by these methods are sensitive to the same entry inhibitors as cell-derived pseudovirions, including neutralizing antibodies and heparin. The papillomavirus vector production systems developed in this study generated as high as 1011 infectious units/mg of L1. The pseudoviruses were infectious both in vitro and in vivo and should be compatible with good manufacturing practice (GMP requirements.

  19. Efficient Production of Papillomavirus Gene Delivery Vectors in Defined In Vitro Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Carla; Thompson, Cynthia D; Day, Patricia M; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T

    2017-06-16

    Papillomavirus capsids can package a wide variety of nonviral DNA plasmids and deliver the packaged genetic material to cells, making them attractive candidates for targeted gene delivery vehicles. However, the papillomavirus vectors generated by current methods are unlikely to be suitable for clinical applications. We have developed a chemically defined, cell-free, papillomavirus-based vector production system that allows the incorporation of purified plasmid DNA (pseudogenome) into high-titer papillomavirus L1/L2 capsids. We investigated the incorporation of several DNA forms into a variety of different papillomavirus types, including human and animal types. Our results show that papillomavirus capsids can package and transduce linear or circular DNA under defined conditions. Packaging and transduction efficiencies were surprisingly variable across capsid types, DNA forms, and assembly reaction conditions. The pseudoviruses produced by these methods are sensitive to the same entry inhibitors as cell-derived pseudovirions, including neutralizing antibodies and heparin. The papillomavirus vector production systems developed in this study generated as high as 1011 infectious units/mg of L1. The pseudoviruses were infectious both in vitro and in vivo and should be compatible with good manufacturing practice (GMP) requirements.

  20. Elevated CO2 increases photosynthesis, biomass and productivity, and modifies gene expression in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda Pereira; Gaspar, Marilia; Da Silva, Emerson Alves; Ulian, Eugênio César; Waclawovsky, Alessandro Jaquiel; Nishiyama, Milton Yutaka; Dos Santos, Renato Vicentini; Teixeira, Marcelo Menossi; Souza, Glaucia Mendes; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira

    2008-08-01

    Because of the economical relevance of sugarcane and its high potential as a source of biofuel, it is important to understand how this crop will respond to the foreseen increase in atmospheric [CO(2)]. The effects of increased [CO(2)] on photosynthesis, development and carbohydrate metabolism were studied in sugarcane (Saccharum ssp.). Plants were grown at ambient (approximately 370 ppm) and elevated (approximately 720 ppm) [CO(2)] during 50 weeks in open-top chambers. The plants grown under elevated CO(2) showed, at the end of such period, an increase of about 30% in photosynthesis and 17% in height, and accumulated 40% more biomass in comparison with the plants grown at ambient [CO(2)]. These plants also had lower stomatal conductance and transpiration rates (-37 and -32%, respectively), and higher water-use efficiency (c.a. 62%). cDNA microarray analyses revealed a differential expression of 35 genes on the leaves (14 repressed and 22 induced) by elevated CO(2). The latter are mainly related to photosynthesis and development. Industrial productivity analysis showed an increase of about 29% in sucrose content. These data suggest that sugarcane crops increase productivity in higher [CO(2)], and that this might be related, as previously observed for maize and sorghum, to transient drought stress.

  1. Manganese peroxidase of Agaricus bisporus: grain bran-promoted production and gene characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankinen, Pauliina; Hildén, Kristiina; Aro, Nina; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Hatakka, Annele

    2005-01-01

    The main manganese peroxidase (MnP) isoenzyme of Agaricus bisporus ATCC 62459 produced in lignocellulose-containing cultures was isolated, cloned and sequenced. In liquid medium, where MnP was previously detected only in trace amounts, the production of MnP was enhanced by rye and wheat bran supplements. The pI (3.25) and N-terminal amino acid sequence (25 aa) of the enzyme from bran-containing cultures were identical to those reported from compost-isolated MnP1. MnP1 is a 328-aa long polypeptide preceded by a 26-aa leader peptide. The nucleotide sequence and putative amino acid sequence of MnP1 reveal its similarity to Pleurotus ostreatus MnP3 (62.5%), Lepista irina versatile peroxidase (VP) (61.8%) and Pleurotus eryngii VPs VPL2 and VPL1 (61.9% and 61.2%, respectively). The intron-exon structure resembles that of P. ostreatus MnP1 and P. eryngii VPL1. Despite the sequence similarity to VPs, in the A. bisporus MnP1 sequence, alanine (A163) is present instead of tryptophane (W164), distinguishing it from the veratryl alcohol oxidising P. eryngii VPLs. The MnP sequence can be used as a tool to examine the pattern of ligninolytic gene expression during the growth and fruiting of A. bisporus to optimise compost composition, fungal growth and mushroom production.

  2. Early Determination of Animals with Favorable Genes in Milk Production for Profitable Private Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela E. Ilie

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. The use of milk protein polymorphisms as detectable molecular markers has been studied intensively because of their effect on the yield and processing properties of milk and its products. Thus, molecular markers are promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. Kappa-casein (CSN3 and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG are two of the most important proteins in the milk of mammals that play a crucial role in the milk quality and coagulation, an essential process for cheese and butter. The A and B variant of k-casein and β-lactoglobulin were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 108 Romanian Simmental and 60 Holstein Friesian cattle.

  3. Gene Transfer and Modulation for the Production of Food with Enhanced Quali-Quantitative Values: Potentials, Promises and Achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Karbarz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview of the research and achievements of applications of molecular tools based on gene transfer and gene modulation (gene knock-down and knock-out, aimed at enhancing food production, improving food properties and producing various valuable compounds for human nutrition. Selected cases of genetically manipulated plants (biofortification and allergene silencing and animals (fish and livestock are examined. Promises and accomplishments are considered when giving topic examples of the potentials offered by some applications of molecular biology for obtaining goods, among them milk, with enhanced value, and of their impact on society at large.

  4. Photosynthetic electron transport controls nitrogen assimilation in cyanobacteria by means of posttranslational modification of the glnB gene product.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsinoremas, N F; Castets, A M; Harrison, M A; Allen, J F; Tandeau de Marsac, N

    1991-01-01

    A glnB gene is identified in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942, and its gene product is found to be covalently modified as a result of imbalance in electron transfer in photosynthesis, where photosystem II is favored over photosystem I. The gene was cloned and sequenced and found to encode a polypeptide of 112 amino acid residues, whose sequence shows a high degree of similarity to the Escherichia coli regulatory protein, PII. In E. coli, PII is involved in signal transduction in ...

  5. Characterization and Horizontal Transfer of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes and Integrons in Bacteria Isolated from Cooked Meat Products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Jiang, Xiaobing; Liang, Yu; Zhu, Yanping; Tian, Jinhe; Ying, Hao; Wang, Xuannian; Shi, Lei

    2017-11-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and the presence and transferability of corresponding resistance genes and integrons in bacteria isolated from cooked meat samples in the People's Republic of China. A total of 150 isolates (22 species belonging to 15 genera) were isolated from 49 samples. Resistance of these isolates to antimicrobials was commonly observed; 42.7, 36.0, and 25.3% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, and ampicillin, respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in 41 (27.3%) of the isolates. Sixteen resistance genes, i.e., blaTEM-1 and blaCTX-M-14 (β-lactams), aac(3)-IIa (gentamicin), strA and strB (streptomycin), qnrB and qnrS (fluoroquinolone), sul1, sul2, and sul3 (sulfamethoxazole), cat1 and cat2 (chloramphenicol), and tetM, tetA, tetS, and tetB (tetracycline), were found in 54 isolates. One isolate of Pseudomonas putida carried qnrB, and sequence analysis of the PCR product revealed 96% identity to qnrB2. The qnr genes were found coresiding and were cotransferred with bla genes in two isolates. Twelve isolates were positive for the class 1 integrase gene, and four isolates carried the class 2 integrase gene. However, no class 3 integrase gene was detected. One isolate of Proteus mirabilis carried dfrA32-ereA-aadA2, and this unusual array could be transferred to Escherichia coli. Nonclassic class 1 integrons lacking qacEΔ1 and sul1 genes were found in 2 of the 12 intI1-positive isolates. Our results revealed the presence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in cooked meats and the presence and transferability of resistance genes in some isolates, suggesting that cooked meat products may act as reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria and may facilitate the spread of resistance genes.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms exposed to imipenem exhibit changes in global gene expression and beta-lactamase and alginate production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Niels; Schuster, Martin; Hentzer, Morten

    2004-01-01

    . As expected, the most strongly induced gene was ampC, which codes for chromosomal beta-lactamase. We also found that genes coding for alginate biosynthesis were induced by exposure to imipenem. Alginate production is correlated to the development of impaired lung function, and P. aeruginosa strains isolated...... from chronically colonized lungs of CF patients are nearly always mucoid due to the overproduction of alginate. Exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem caused structural changes in the biofilm, e.g., an increased biofilm volume. Increased levels of alginate production may be an unintended...

  7. 1,3-Propanediol production by Escherichia coli expressing genes from the Klebsiella pneumoniae dha regulon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I-Teh Tong; Hans H. Liao; Cameron, D.C. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The dha regulon in Klebsiella pneumoniae enables the organism to grown anaerobically on glycerol and produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). Escherichia coli, which does not have a dha system, is unable to grow anaerobically on glycerol without an exogenous electron acceptor and does not produce 1,3-PD. A genomic library of K. pneumoniae ATCC 25955 constructed in E. coli AG1 was enriched for the ability to grow anaerobically on glycerol and dihydoxyacetone and was screened for the production of 1, 3-PD. The cosmid pTC1 (42.5 kn total with an 18.2-kb major insert) was isolated from a 1,3-PD-producing strain of E. coli and found to possess enzymatic activities associated with four genes of the dha regulon: glycersol dehydratase (dhaB), 1,3-PD oxidoreductase (dhaT), glycerol dehydrogenase (dhaD), and dihydroxyacetone kinase (dhaK). All four activities were inducible by the presence of glycerol. When E. coli AG1/pTC1 was grown on complex medium plus glycerol, the yield of 1, 3-PD from glycerol was 0.46 mol/mol. The major fermentation by-products were formate, acetate, and D-lactate. 1,3-PD is an intermediate in organic synthesis and polymer production. The 1,3-PD fermentation provides a useful model system for studying the interaction of a biochemical pathway in a foreign host and for developing strategies for metabolic pathway engineering.

  8. ANALYSIS OF CYP19 GENE POLYMORPHISM AS FACTOR AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trakovická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the animal CYP19/PvuII genotypes, evaluate the genetic structure of population and estimate the effect of genotypes on long-life milk production traits in Slovak Simmental cattle. Blood samples were obtained from in total 150 Slovak Simmental cows originating from four different farms localized on eastern Slovakia. The polymorphism in CYP19 gene was detected using PCR-RFLP method and PvuII restriction enzyme. In cows population was identified the presence of all three genotypes: AA (74.7%, AB (21.3%, and BB (4%. The A allele was more frequent (0.85±0.02 than B (0.15±0.02. In population was found deviations from HWE. The level of locus polymorphism in the analysed population was only low (PIC=0.212. The activity of CYP19/PvuII alleles were unbalanced (Ne=1.33 and the higher proportion of homozygous animals caused the decrease of observed heterozygosity (He=0.21. Based on F – statistic results the most of the genetic variation was distributed within all analysed individuals (FIT 0.155. Evaluation of CYP19/PvuII genotype effect on milk production traits was carried out with linear models (GLM procedure. Based on the selected effect we were able to estimate the variability of analysed traits on in average 85%. The CYP19/PvuII genotype affected significantly the variability of milk and protein yield (P<0.05. The higher production of both traits was found in individuals with BB genotype. Statistically significant influence was detected also for sire (P<0.05, breeder (P<0.0001 and total number of completed lactations (P<0.0001.

  9. Penicillin production in industrial strain Penicillium chrysogenum P2niaD18 is not dependent on the copy number of biosynthesis genes

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemons, Sandra; Koutsantas, Katerina; Becker, Kordula; Dahlmann, Tim; K?ck, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Background Multi-copy gene integration into microbial genomes is a conventional tool for obtaining improved gene expression. For Penicillium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin, many production strains carry multiple copies of the penicillin biosynthesis gene cluster. This discovery led to the generally accepted view that high penicillin titers are the result of multiple copies of penicillin genes. Here we investigated strain P2niaD18, a production line t...

  10. Effect of Chrysin on Gene Expression and Production of MUC5AC Mucin from Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Dae; Lee, Hyun Jae; Sikder, Md Asaduzzaman; Park, Su Hyun; Ryu, Jiho; Hong, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ju-Ock; Seok, Jeong Ho; Lee, Choong Jae

    2012-10-01

    We investigated whether chrysin affected MUC5AC mucin production and gene expression induced by phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) from human airway epithelial cells. Confluent NCI-H292 cells were pretreated with varying concentrations of chrysin for 30 minutes, and were then stimulated with PMA and EGF for 24 hours, respectively. MUC5AC mucin gene expression and mucin protein production were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Concentrations of 10µM and 100µM chrysin were found to inhibit the production of MUC5AC mucin protein induced by PMA; A concentration of 100µM chrysin also inhibited the production of MUC5AC mucin protein induced by EGF; 100µM chrysin inhibited the expression of MUC5AC mucin gene induced by PMA or EGF. The cytotoxicity of chrysin was checked by lactate dehydrogenase assay, and there was no cytotoxic effect observed for chrysin. These results suggest that chrysin can inhibit mucin gene expression and the production of mucin protein by directly acting on airway epithelial cells.

  11. Dynamics of plc gene transcription and alpha-toxin production during growth of Clostridium perfringens strains with contrasting alpha-toxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Schramm, Andreas; Rudi, Knut; Højberg, Ole

    2009-10-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate transcription dynamics of the alpha-toxin-encoding plc gene relative to two housekeeping genes (gyrA and rplL) in batch cultures of three Clostridium perfringens strains with low, intermediate, and high levels of alpha-toxin production, respectively. The plc transcript level was always low in the low alpha-toxin producing strain. For the two other strains, plc transcription showed an inducible pattern and reached a maximum level in the late exponential growth phase. The transcription levels were however inversely correlated to alpha-toxin production for the two strains. We propose that this discrepancy is due to differences in plc translation rates between the strains and that strain-specific translational rates therefore must be determined before alpha-toxin production can be extrapolated from transcript levels in C. perfringens.

  12. Dynamics of plc gene transcription and α-toxin production during growth of Clostridium perfringens strains with contrasting α-toxin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Schramm, Andreas; Rudi, Knut

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate transcription dynamics of the α-toxin-encoding plc gene relative to two housekeeping genes (gyrA and rplL) in batch cultures of three Clostridium perfringens strains with low, intermediate, and high levels of α-toxin production, respectively. The plc....... We propose that this discrepancy is due to differences in plc translation rates between the strains and that strain-specific translational rates therefore must be determined before α-toxin production can be extrapolated from transcript levels in C. perfringens....... transcript level was always low in the low α-toxin producing strain. For the two other strains, plc transcription showed an inducible pattern and reached a maximum level in the late exponential growth phase. The transcription levels were however inversely correlated to α-toxin production for the two strains...

  13. Cloning of affecting pyruvate decarboxylase gene in the production bioethanol of agricultural waste in the E.coli bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masome Zeinali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethanol made by a biomass is one of the useful strategies in terms of economic and environmental and as a clean and safe energy to replace fossil fuels considered and examined. Materials and methods: In this study, key enzyme in the production of ethanol (Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis bacteria was isolated and cloned at E. coli bacteria by freeze and thaw method. For gene cloning, we used specific primers of pdc and PCR reaction and then pdc gene isolated and pET 28a plasmid double digested with (Sal I and Xho I enzymes. Digestion Products were ligated by T4 DNA ligase in 16 °C for 16 hours. Results: Results of bacteria culture showed that a few colonies containing pET 28a plasmid could grow. Result of colony pcr of pdc gene with specific primers revealed 1700 bp bands in 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of PCR with T7 promotor forward primer and pdc revers primer have proved the accurate direction of integration of pdc gene into plasmid and revealed 1885 bp band. Double digestion of recombinant plasmid with SalI and XhoI enzymes revealed same bands. Finally, RT showed the expected band of 1700 bp that implies the desired gene expression in the samples. Discussion and conclusion: Due to the increased production of ethanol via pyruvate decarboxylase gene cloning in expression plasmids with a strong promoter upstream of the cloning site can conclude that, pyruvate decarboxylase cloning as a key gene would be useful and according to beneficial properties of E. coli bacteria, transfering the gene to bacteria appears to be reasonable.

  14. Providencia stuartii genes activated by cell-to-cell signaling and identification of a gene required for production or activity of an extracellular factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, P N; Ding, X; Baca-DeLancey, R R; Siddiqui, S

    1999-12-01

    By utilizing reporter transposons, five Providencia stuartii genes that are activated by the accumulation of self-produced extracellular signals have been identified. These genes have been designated cma for conditioned medium activated. The presence of conditioned medium from stationary-phase cultures grown in rich media resulted in the premature activation of each gene in cells at early log phase, with activation values ranging from 6- to 26-fold. Preparation of conditioned medium from an M9 salts medium and fractionation by gel filtration chromatography resulted in fractions within the included volume which activated three of the cma fusions. In addition, depending on the reporter fusion, peak activity was found in different fractions. The partially purified factors activated in a dose-dependent manner. Characterization of the factors activating the cma fusions indicated that they were stable to heat, alkali, and acid. Furthermore, for each cma fusion, factor activity was not reproduced by the addition of homoserine lactone, homocysteine thiolactone, pyruvate, Casamino Acids, or alpha-ketoglutarate. The identities of three cma genes have been determined and revealed physiological roles in amino acid biosynthesis and nutrient import. To begin to address the pathways for production of or response to the extracellular factors, we have identified a locus, aarA, that is required for the activation of four cma fusions. The AarA product was required for factor activity in extracellular supernatants, indicating a possible role in biosynthesis or export.

  15. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear male sterility is common in flowering plants, but its application in hybrid breeding and seed production is limited because of the inability to propagate a pure male sterile line for commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we characterized a rice nuclear gene essential for sporophytic male fertility and constructed a male sterility system that can propagate the pure male sterile seeds on a large scale. This system is fundamentally advantageous over the current cytoplasmic male steril...

  16. Overexpression of the Squalene Epoxidase Gene Alone and in Combination with the 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Gene Increases Ganoderic Acid Production in Ganoderma lingzhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Huai; Jiang, Lu-Xi; Li, Na; Yu, Xuya; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2017-06-14

    The squalene epoxidase (SE) gene from the biosynthetic pathway of ganoderic acid (GA) was cloned and overexpressed in Ganoderma lingzhi. The strain that overexpressed the SE produced approximately 2 times more GA molecules than the wild-type (WT) strain. Moreover, SE overexpression upregulated lanosterol synthase gene expression in the biosynthetic pathway. These results indicated that SE stimulates GA accumulation. Then, the SE and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMGR) genes were simultaneously overexpressed in G. lingzhi. Compared with the individual overexpression of SE or HMGR, the combined overexpression of the two genes further enhanced individual GA production. The overexpressing strain produced maximum GA-T, GA-S, GA-Mk, and GA-Me contents of 90.4 ± 7.5, 35.9 ± 5.4, 6.2 ± 0.5, and 61.8 ± 5.8 μg/100 mg dry weight, respectively. These values were 5.9, 4.5, 2.4, and 5.8 times higher than those produced by the WT strain. This is the first example of the successful manipulation of multiple biosynthetic genes to improve GA content in G. lingzhi.

  17. Role of plnB gene in the regulation of bacteriocin production in Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-XM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangmei; Shang, Nan; Zhang, Xu; Gui, Meng; Li, Pinglan

    2013-06-12

    Homologues of plnB gene have been shown to participate in regulation of bacteriocin production through quorum sensing system in other organisms, to investigate the possible role of plnB gene in Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-XM1, we cloned and insertionally inactivated the plnB gene. The plnB knockout mutant ΔplnB21 showed loss of bacteriocin production, its Bac⁺ phenotype could not be restored even after the addition of PlnA. Furthermore, reverse transcription-PCR analysis from total RNA preparations showed that the bacteriocin structural genes of the plnEF and plnJK were not transcribed in the plnB knockout mutant compared with the wild-type strain. It was therefore concluded that plnB is invovled in a quorum sensing based bacteriocin production. This is the first demonstration of a role for plnB by gene knockout in L. paraplantarum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  19. Identification of genes related to high royal jelly production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) using microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Hongyi; Liu, Xiaoyan; Pan, Jiao; Li, Wenfeng; Li, Zhiguo; Zhang, Shaowu; Chen, Shenglu; Miao, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Nenggan; Su, Songkun

    2017-01-01

    China is the largest royal jelly producer and exporter in the world, and high royal jelly-yielding strains have been bred in the country for approximately three decades. However, information on the molecular mechanism underlying high royal jelly production is scarce. Here, a cDNA microarray was used to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) to obtain an overview on the changes in gene expression levels between high and low royal jelly producing bees. We developed a honey bee gene chip that covered 11,689 genes, and this chip was hybridised with cDNA generated from RNA isolated from heads of nursing bees. A total of 369 DEGs were identified between high and low royal jelly producing bees. Amongst these DEGs, 201 (54.47%) genes were up-regulated, whereas 168 (45.53%) were down-regulated in high royal jelly-yielding bees. Gene ontology (GO) analyses showed that they are mainly involved in four key biological processes, and pathway analyses revealed that they belong to a total of 46 biological pathways. These results provide a genetic basis for further studies on the molecular mechanisms involved in high royal jelly production.

  20. Identification of genes related to high royal jelly production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera using microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyi Nie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract China is the largest royal jelly producer and exporter in the world, and high royal jelly-yielding strains have been bred in the country for approximately three decades. However, information on the molecular mechanism underlying high royal jelly production is scarce. Here, a cDNA microarray was used to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs to obtain an overview on the changes in gene expression levels between high and low royal jelly producing bees. We developed a honey bee gene chip that covered 11,689 genes, and this chip was hybridised with cDNA generated from RNA isolated from heads of nursing bees. A total of 369 DEGs were identified between high and low royal jelly producing bees. Amongst these DEGs, 201 (54.47% genes were up-regulated, whereas 168 (45.53% were down-regulated in high royal jelly-yielding bees. Gene ontology (GO analyses showed that they are mainly involved in four key biological processes, and pathway analyses revealed that they belong to a total of 46 biological pathways. These results provide a genetic basis for further studies on the molecular mechanisms involved in high royal jelly production.

  1. Variation in siderophore biosynthetic gene distribution and production across environmental and faecal populations of Escherichia coli.

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    Laura J Searle

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for Escherichia coli growth and survival in the host and the external environment, but its availability is generally low due to the poor solubility of its ferric form in aqueous environments and the presence of iron-withholding proteins in the host. Most E. coli can increase access to iron by excreting siderophores such as enterobactin, which have a very strong affinity for Fe3+. A smaller proportion of isolates can generate up to 3 additional siderophores linked with pathogenesis; aerobactin, salmochelin, and yersiniabactin. However, non-pathogenic E. coli are also able to synthesise these virulence-associated siderophores. This raises questions about their role in the ecology of E. coli, beyond virulence, and whether specific siderophores might be linked with persistence in the external environment. Under the assumption that selection favours phenotypes that confer a fitness advantage, we compared siderophore production and gene distribution in E. coli isolated either from agricultural plants or the faeces of healthy mammals. This population-level comparison has revealed that under iron limiting growth conditions plant-associated isolates produced lower amounts of siderophores than faecal isolates. Additionally, multiplex PCR showed that environmental isolates were less likely to contain loci associated with aerobactin and yersiniabactin synthesis. Although aerobactin was linked with strong siderophore excretion, a significant difference in production was still observed between plant and faecal isolates when the analysis was restricted to strains only able to synthesise enterobactin. This finding suggests that the regulatory response to iron limitation may be an important trait associated with adaptation to the non-host environment. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to produce multiple siderophores facilitates E. coli gut colonisation and plays an important role in E. coli commensalism.

  2. A clone-based transcriptomics approach for the identification of genes relevant for itaconic acid production in Aspergillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, A.; Luijk, N. van; Beek, M. ter; Caspers, M.; Punt, P.; Werf, M. van der

    2011-01-01

    Several Aspergillus species are well-known for the production of a variety of organic acids. In this study, a cloned based transcriptomics approach was used to identify genes crucial in the biosynthesis pathway for one of these acids, itaconic acid. From a number of different Aspergillus terreus

  3. Tissue-specific production of limonene in Camelina sativa with the Arabidopsis promoters of genes BANYULS and FRUITFULL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghi, Monica; Xie, De Yu

    2016-01-01

    Main conclusion: Arabidopsis promoters of genesBANYULSandFRUITFULLare transcribed in Camelina. They triggered the transcription oflimonene synthaseand induced higher limonene production in seeds and fruits thanCaMV 35Spromoter.Camelina sativa (Camelina) is an oilseed crop of relevance for the

  4. Enhanced pest resistance and increased phenolic production in maize callus transgenically expressing a maize chalcone isomerase -3 like gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant losses in maize production are due to damage by insects and ear rot fungi. A gene designated as chalcone-isomerase-like, located in a quantitative trait locus for resistance to Fusarium ear rot fungi, was cloned from a Fusarium ear rot resistant inbred and transgenically expressed in mai...

  5. Prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from dairy farms and traditional dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Wuni, Alhassan; Akabanda, Fortune

    2017-01-01

    Background: B. cereus are of particular interest in food safety and public health because of their capacity to cause food spoilage and disease through the production of various toxins. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance profile...

  6. Analysis of genetic structure in Slovak Pinzgau cattle using five candidate genes related to milk production traits

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    Miluchova Martina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was to identify genetic structure of five candidate genes for milk production in Slovak Pinzgau breed. A total of 86 mothers of bulls of Slovak Pinzgau cattle were use in this study. To genotype of cows for candidate genes we used PCR methods (PCR-RFLP, ARMS-PCR, multiplex PCR-RFLP. On the basis of PCR analyses we established genotype structure of cattle population and calculated allelic frequencies. Effectiveness of allele incidence and genetic diversity was evaluated with following parameters: theoretical heterozygosity (He exp, experimental heterozygosity (He obs, polymorphism information content (PIC, expected homozygosity (E, effective number of alleles (ENA, level of possible variability realization (V%. Slovak Pinzgau cattle exhibit the high values of heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, effective number of alleles and level of possible variability realization for genes CSN2, CSN3 and LALBA. In opposite, for genes CSN1S1 and LGB show high values of homozygosity.

  7. Gene expression studies for the analysis of domoic acid production in the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissonneault, Katie Rose; Henningsen, Brooks M; Bates, Stephen S; Robertson, Deborah L; Milton, Sean; Pelletier, Jerry; Hogan, Deborah A; Housman, David E

    2013-11-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Hasle (Hasle) (Ps-n) is distinctive among the ecologically important marine diatoms because it produces the neurotoxin domoic acid. Although the biology of Ps-n has been investigated intensely, the characterization of the genes and biochemical pathways leading to domoic acid biosynthesis has been limited. To identify transcripts whose levels correlate with domoic acid production, we analyzed Ps-n under conditions of high and low domoic acid production by cDNA microarray technology and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) methods. Our goals included identifying and validating robust reference genes for Ps-n RNA expression analysis under these conditions. Through microarray analysis of exponential- and stationary-phase cultures with low and high domoic acid production, respectively, we identified candidate reference genes whose transcripts did not vary across conditions. We tested eleven potential reference genes for stability using RT-qPCR and GeNorm analyses. Our results indicated that transcripts encoding JmjC, dynein, and histone H3 proteins were the most suitable for normalization of expression data under conditions of silicon-limitation, in late-exponential through stationary phase. The microarray studies identified a number of genes that were up- and down-regulated under toxin-producing conditions. RT-qPCR analysis, using the validated controls, confirmed the up-regulation of transcripts predicted to encode a cycloisomerase, an SLC6 transporter, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glutamate dehydrogenase, a small heat shock protein, and an aldo-keto reductase, as well as the down-regulation of a transcript encoding a fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a-c binding protein, under these conditions. Our results provide a strong basis for further studies of RNA expression levels in Ps-n, which will contribute to our understanding of genes involved in the production and release of domoic acid, an important neurotoxin that affects human

  8. Model-driven in Silico glpC Gene Knockout Predicts Increased Succinate Production from Glycerol in Escherichia Coli

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    Bashir Sajo Mienda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic engineered targeting for increased succinate production in Escherichia coli using glycerol as a low cost carbon source has attracted global attention in recent years. Succinate production in engineered E. coli has progressed significantly using an experimental trial and error approach. The use of a model-guided, targeted metabolic gene knockout prediction for increased succinate production from glycerol under anaerobic conditions in E. coli still remains largely underexplored. In this study, we applied a model-driven, targeted glpC/b2243 in silico metabolic gene knockout using E. coli genome scale model iJO1366 under the OptFlux software platform with the aim of predicting high succinate flux. The results indicated that the mutant model lacking the glpC/b2243 gene will demonstrate increased succinate flux that is 30% higher than its wild-type control model. We can hypothesize that an additional NADH molecule was generated following the deletion of the gene and/or the alternatively preferred GldA-DhaKLM fermentative route for glycerol metabolism in E. coli may have been activated. Although the exact metabolic mechanism involved in increasing the succinate flux still remains obscure; the current study informs other studies that a model-driven, metabolic glpC/b2243 gene knockout could be applicable in filling our knowledge gap using a comprehensive experimental inquiry in the future; leading to a better understanding of the underlying metabolic function of this gene in relation to succinate production in E. coli from glycerol.

  9. PhyA gene product of Aspergillus ficuum and Peniophora lycii produces dissimilar phytases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Abul H J; Sethumadhavan, Kandan

    2003-04-04

    PhyA gene products of Aspergillus ficuum (AF) and Peniophora lycii (PL) as expressed in industrial strains of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively, were purified to homogeneity and then characterized for both physical and biochemical properties. The PL phytase is 26 amino acid residues shorter than the AF phytase. Dynamic light scattering studies indicate that the active AF phytase is a monomer while the PL phytase is a dimer. While both of the phytases retained four identical glycosylatable Asn residues, unique glycosylation sites, six for PL and seven for AF phytase, were observed. Global alignment of both the phytases has shown 38% sequence homology between the two proteins. At 58 degrees C and pH 5.0, the PL phytase gave a specific activity of 22,000 nKat/mg as opposed to about 3000 nKat/mg for AF phytase. However, the AF phytase is more thermostable than its counterpart PL phytase at 65 degrees C. Also, AF phytase is more stable at pH 7.5 than the PL phytase. The two phytases differed in K(m) for phytate, K(i) for myo-inositol hexasulfate (MIHS), and pH optima profile. Despite similarities in the active site sequences, the two phytases show remarkable differences in turnover number, pH optima profile, stability at higher temperature, and alkaline pH. These biochemical differences indicate that phytases from ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi may have evolved to degrade phytate in different environments.

  10. CDX2 hox gene product in a rat model of esophageal cancer

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    Rizzetto Christian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barrett's mucosa is the precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The molecular mechanisms behind Barrett's carcinogenesis are largely unknown. Experimental models of longstanding esophageal reflux of duodenal-gastric contents may provide important information on the biological sequence of the Barrett's oncogenesis. Methods The expression of CDX2 hox-gene product was assessed in a rat model of Barrett's carcinogenesis. Seventy-four rats underwent esophago-jejunostomy with gastric preservation. Excluding perisurgical deaths, the animals were sacrificed at various times after the surgical treatment (Group A: 30 weeks. Results No Cdx2 expression was detected in either squamous epithelia of the proximal esophagus or squamous cell carcinomas. De novo Cdx2 expression was consistently documented in the proliferative zone of the squamous epithelium close to reflux ulcers (Group A: 68%; Group B: 64%; Group C: 80%, multilayered epithelium and intestinal metaplasia (Group A: 9%; Group B: 41%; Group C: 60%, and esophageal adenocarcinomas (Group B: 36%; Group C: 35%. A trend for increasing overall Cdx2 expression was documented during the course of the experiment (p = 0.001. Conclusion De novo expression of Cdx2 is an early event in the spectrum of the lesions induced by experimental gastro-esophageal reflux and should be considered as a key step in the morphogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  11. CDX2 hox gene product in a rat model of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Dall'Olmo, Luigi; Segat, Daniela; Fassan, Matteo; Mescoli, Claudia; Dazzo, Emanuela; Castoro, Carlo; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Rizzetto, Christian; Baroni, Maurizio David; Zaninotto, Giovanni; Ancona, Ermanno; Rugge, Massimo

    2009-08-07

    Barrett's mucosa is the precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The molecular mechanisms behind Barrett's carcinogenesis are largely unknown. Experimental models of longstanding esophageal reflux of duodenal-gastric contents may provide important information on the biological sequence of the Barrett's oncogenesis. The expression of CDX2 hox-gene product was assessed in a rat model of Barrett's carcinogenesis. Seventy-four rats underwent esophago-jejunostomy with gastric preservation. Excluding perisurgical deaths, the animals were sacrificed at various times after the surgical treatment (Group A: 30 weeks). No Cdx2 expression was detected in either squamous epithelia of the proximal esophagus or squamous cell carcinomas. De novo Cdx2 expression was consistently documented in the proliferative zone of the squamous epithelium close to reflux ulcers (Group A: 68%; Group B: 64%; Group C: 80%), multilayered epithelium and intestinal metaplasia (Group A: 9%; Group B: 41%; Group C: 60%), and esophageal adenocarcinomas (Group B: 36%; Group C: 35%). A trend for increasing overall Cdx2 expression was documented during the course of the experiment (p = 0.001). De novo expression of Cdx2 is an early event in the spectrum of the lesions induced by experimental gastro-esophageal reflux and should be considered as a key step in the morphogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  12. Discovery, taxonomic distribution, and phenotypic characterization of a gene required for 3-methylhopanoid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Paula V.; Summons, Roger E.

    2012-08-01

    Hopanoids methylated at the C-3 position are a subset of bacterial triterpenoids that are readily preserved in modern and ancient sediments and in petroleum. The production of 3-methylhopanoids by extant aerobic methanotrophs and their common occurrence in modern and fossil methane seep communities, in conjunction with carbon isotope analysis, has led to their use as biomarker proxies for aerobic methanotrophy. In addition, these lipids are also produced by aerobic acetic acid bacteria and, lacking carbon isotope analysis, are more generally used as indicators for aerobiosis in ancient ecosystems. However, recent genetic studies have brought into question our current understanding of the taxonomic diversity of methylhopanoid-producing bacteria and have highlighted that a proper interpretation of methylhopanes in the rock record requires a deeper understanding of their cellular function. In this study, we identified and deleted a gene, hpnR, required for methylation of hopanoids at the C-3 position in the obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the taxonomic distribution of HpnR extends beyond methanotrophic and acetic acid bacteria. Phenotypic analysis of the M. capsulatus hpnR deletion mutant demonstrated a potential physiological role for 3-methylhopanoids; they appear to be required for the maintenance of intracytoplasmic membranes and cell survival in late stationary phase. Therefore, 3-methylhopanoids may prove more useful as proxies for specific environmental conditions encountered during stationary phase rather than a particular bacterial group.

  13. MILK PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAIT CAUSED BY LOC514211 GENE MUTATION IN DAIRY COWS

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    A. S. Anggraeni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The SNP (rs 42688595 in LOC514211 is uncharacterized gene and located in chromosome 13 in Bos taurus, had significant effects on milk yield and milk quality that have been identified from Chinese and British dairy cows using GWAS (Genome-wide Association Study based on 60k SNP-Chip in the previous study. The objective of this study was to confirm the effects of the SNP in LOC514211 on productive traits in another population of Chinese Holstein dairy cow. Four hundred and seventy dairy cows were use in this study, genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of dairy cow, PCR-RFLP was applied to genotype of these DNA samples. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was performed by the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of SAS 9.13 to identify the association of SNP with milk and reproductive traits. Results showed that SNP in LOC514211 was polymorphic in this herd of dairy cow and was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, and had significant differences among genotype in milk yield, milk quality and reproductive traits, which were similar with the results of previous GWAS study based SNP-Chips. Inconclusion, indicated that this SNP in LOC514211 might be potential markers for both milk and reproductive traits.

  14. Effects of the rol C gene on hairy root: induction development and tropane alkaloid production by Atropa belladonna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, V; Laurain-Mattar, D; Fliniaux, M A

    2000-09-01

    Two series of Atropa belladonna hairy root lines were obtained, the first one transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring rol C and npt II genes, and the other transformed with rol ABC and npt II genes. Thirteen hairy root lines were obtained and selected on hormone-free medium. The transformation was confirmed by PCR analysis, and these root lines were first examinated for their growth rate. Then hyoscyamine and scopolamine production was measured after 3 and 4 weeks of culture to evaluate the possible role of rol C gene in tropane alkaloid formation. The rol C gene alone played a significant role in the hairy root growth rate (17-fold increase). However this effect was much lower than that induced by the rol ABC genes together (75-fold increase). In contrast, the rol C gene alone was as efficient as the rol ABC genes together (mean value of total alkaloids: 0.36% dry weight, i.e., 12-fold times more than in untransformed roots) to stimulate the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids in A. belladonna hairy root cultures.

  15. Cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases and Caenorhabditis elegans homologues dominate gene products expressed in adult Haemonchus contortus intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, D P; Roth, J; Myler, P J

    2001-09-03

    Proteins expressed by nematode intestinal cells are potential targets for parasite control by immune or chemical based strategies. To expand our knowledge on nematode intestinal proteins, expressed sequence tags were generated for 131 cDNA clones from the intestine of adult female Haemonchus contortus. An estimated 55 distinct protein genes or gene families were identified. Predicted proteins represented diverse functions. Several predicted polypeptides were related to H. contortus proteins implicated in inducing protective immunity against challenge infections of this parasite. The dominant intestinal transcripts were represented by cathepsin B-like cysteine protease genes (cbl) (17% of protein coding expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analyzed). An estimated 11 previously undescribed cbl genes were identified, doubling the recognized members of this gene family. Multiple C-type lectin sequences were identified. Other notable sequences included a predicted Y-box binding protein, serine/threonine kinases and a cyclin E-like sequence. Predicted protein homologues were found in Caenorhabditis elegans for all but one H. contortus sequence (99%), while fewer homologues from other parasitic nematodes were found. Many of the proteases, lipase and C-type lectin homologues in C. elegans had apparent signal peptides, suggesting that they are secreted. Several gene products had no obvious similarity outside the phylum Nematoda. The ESTs identified intestinal genes with potential application to immune control, understanding of basic intestinal regulatory processes and refinement of nematode genomic resources.

  16. Overexpression of the methanol dehydrogenase gene mxaF in Methylobacterium sp. MB200 enhances L-serine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, H; Wu, B; Shen, P

    2015-10-01

    Increase in L-serine production is of interest for industry. Here, we describe a metabolic engineering approach to increase the production of L-serine in a methylotrophic bacterium. mxaF, the gene encoding the large subunit of a methanol dehydrogenase, was cloned from Methylobacterium sp. MB200 through transposon mutagenesis. Deletion of mxaF gene prevented the strain to grow on methanol, suggesting that mxaF is involved in methanol metabolism. Overexpression of mxaF gene in the strain MB200 resulted in a fivefold increase in methanol dehydrogenase activity compared to the wild-type. Resting cell assays showed that the recombinant strain accumulated 6·6 mg ml(-1) L-serine in 72 h with 30 mg ml(-1) wet cells from 50 mg ml(-1) glycine and 50 mg ml(-1) methanol, representing a 1·5-fold increment for L-serine production in contrast to the wild-type strain. These results demonstrate that the potential for improving the production of L-serine can be achieved by overexpressing mxaF gene in methylotrophic bacteria. The amount of L-serine produced each year worldwide is relatively small compared with the amounts of the other amino acids and hence it is in great demand. Here, we describe a metabolic engineering approach to increase the production of L-serine in a methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium sp. MB200. The result demonstrates that raising the output of L-serine can be achieved by overexpressing mxaF gene in methylotrophic bacteria. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Deletion of genes involved in glutamate metabolism to improve poly-gamma-glutamic acid production in B. amyloliquefaciens LL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; He, Yulian; Gao, Weixia; Feng, Jun; Cao, Mingfeng; Yang, Chao; Song, Cunjiang; Wang, Shufang

    2015-02-01

    Here, we attempted to elevate poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) production by modifying genes involved in glutamate metabolism in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens LL3. Products of rocR, rocG and gudB facilitate the conversion from glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate in Bacillus subtillis. The gene odhA is responsible for the synthesis of a component of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl coenzyme A. In-frame deletions of these four genes were performed. In shake flask experiments the gudB/rocG double mutant presented enhanced production of γ-PGA, a 38 % increase compared with wild type. When fermented in a 5-L fermenter with pH control, the γ-PGA yield of the rocR mutant was increased to 5.83 g/L from 4.55 g/L for shake flask experiments. The gudB/rocG double mutant produced 5.68 g/L γ-PGA compared with that of 4.03 g/L for the wild type, a 40 % increase. Those results indicated the possibility of improving γ-PGA production by modifying glutamate metabolism, and identified potential genetic targets to improve γ-PGA production.

  18. Linking gene regulation and the exo-metabolome: A comparative transcriptomics approach to identify genes that impact on the production of volatile aroma compounds in yeast

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    Bauer Florian F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Omics' tools provide novel opportunities for system-wide analysis of complex cellular functions. Secondary metabolism is an example of a complex network of biochemical pathways, which, although well mapped from a biochemical point of view, is not well understood with regards to its physiological roles and genetic and biochemical regulation. Many of the metabolites produced by this network such as higher alcohols and esters are significant aroma impact compounds in fermentation products, and different yeast strains are known to produce highly divergent aroma profiles. Here, we investigated whether we can predict the impact of specific genes of known or unknown function on this metabolic network by combining whole transcriptome and partial exo-metabolome analysis. Results For this purpose, the gene expression levels of five different industrial wine yeast strains that produce divergent aroma profiles were established at three different time points of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic wine must. A matrix of gene expression data was generated and integrated with the concentrations of volatile aroma compounds measured at the same time points. This relatively unbiased approach to the study of volatile aroma compounds enabled us to identify candidate genes for aroma profile modification. Five of these genes, namely YMR210W, BAT1, AAD10, AAD14 and ACS1 were selected for overexpression in commercial wine yeast, VIN13. Analysis of the data show a statistically significant correlation between the changes in the exo-metabome of the overexpressing strains and the changes that were predicted based on the unbiased alignment of transcriptomic and exo-metabolomic data. Conclusion The data suggest that a comparative transcriptomics and metabolomics approach can be used to identify the metabolic impacts of the expression of individual genes in complex systems, and the amenability of transcriptomic data to direct applications of

  19. Direct ethanol production from cellulosic materials by Zymobacter palmae carrying Cellulomonas endoglucanase and Ruminococcus β-glucosidase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Motoki; Okamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Hideshi

    2013-06-01

    In order to reduce the cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, we conferred the ability to ferment cellulosic materials directly on Zymobacter palmae by co-expressing foreign endoglucanase and β-glucosidase genes. Z. palmae is a novel ethanol-fermenting bacterium capable of utilizing a broad range of sugar substrates, but not cellulose. Therefore, the six genes encoding the cellulolytic enzymes (CenA, CenB, CenD, CbhA, CbhB, and Cex) from Cellulomonas fimi were introduced and expressed in Z. palmae. Of these cellulolytic enzyme genes cloned, CenA degraded carboxymethylcellulose and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) efficiently. The extracellular CenA catalyzed the hydrolysis of barley β-glucan and PASC to liberate soluble cello-oligosaccharides, indicating that CenA is the most suitable enzyme for cellulose degradation among those cellulolytic enzymes expressed in Z. palmae. Furthermore, the cenA gene and β-glucosidase gene (bgl) from Ruminococcus albus were co-expressed in Z. palmae. Of the total endoglucanase and β-glucosidase activities, 57.1 and 18.1 % were localized in the culture medium of the strain. The genetically engineered strain completely saccharified and fermented 20 g/l barley β-glucan to ethanol within 84 h, producing 79.5 % of the theoretical yield. Thus, the production and secretion of CenA and BGL enabled Z. palmae to efficiently ferment a water-soluble cellulosic polysaccharide to ethanol.

  20. Coagulase gene polymorphism of Staphylococcus aureus isolates: A study on dairy food products and other foods in Tehran, Iran

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    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase is considered as a major determinant factor for the identification of Staphylococcus aureus strains. The 3′-end coding region of the coagulase (coa gene contains a series of 81-bp tandem repeats, which differ in the number and location of enzymatic restriction sites among different isolates. coa PCR-RFLP has been used widely to type S. aureus isolates in epidemiological studies. The current study was conducted to investigate the coagulase gene polymorphisms in S. aureus isolated from various food samples using an in house PCR-RFLP method. A total of 100 strains of S. aureus were isolated from food samples. Isolates were typed by PCR-RFLP analysis using NdeI restriction digestion of the coagulase gene PCR products. Results showed that amplification of coagulase genes from S. aureus produced different PCR products. The isolates were grouped into 18 genotypes using RFLP analysis results of the genes. In this study, the S. aureus isolates have been shown to include more than one coagulase genotype, but only had a few coa genotypes predominated.

  1. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Delftia tsuruhatensis MTQ3 and the Identification of Functional NRPS Genes for Siderophore Production

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    Haimeng Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are a group of rhizosphere bacteria that promote plant growth. Delftia tsuruhatensis MTQ3 is a member of PGPR that produces siderophores. The draft genome sequence of MTQ3 has been reported. Here, we analyzed the genome sequence of MTQ3 and performed a comparative genome analysis of four sequenced Delftia strains, revealing genetic relationships among these strains. In addition, genes responsible for bacteriocin and nonribosomal peptide synthesis were detected in the genomes of each strain. To reveal the functions of NRPS genes in siderophore production in D. tsuruhatensis MTQ3, three NRPS genes were knocked out to obtain the three mutants MTQ3-Δ1941, MTQ3-Δ1945, and MTQ3-Δ1946, which were compared with the wild-type strain. In qualitative and quantitative analyses using CAS assay, the mutants failed to produce siderophores. Accordingly, the NRPS genes in MTQ3 were functionally related to siderophore production. These results clarify one mechanism by which plant growth is promoted in MTQ3 and have important applications in agricultural production.

  2. SxtA and sxtG Gene Expression and Toxin Production in the Mediterranean Alexandrium minutum (Dinophyceae

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    Federico Perini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is known for the production of potent neurotoxins affecting the health of human seafood consumers via paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the toxin content and the expression level of the genes involved in paralytic shellfish toxin (PST production. The algal cultures were grown both in standard f/2 medium and in phosphorus/nitrogen limitation. In our study, LC-HRMS analyses of PST profile and content in different Mediterranean A. minutum strains confirmed that this species was able to synthesize mainly the saxitoxin analogues Gonyautoxin-1 (GTX1 and Gonyautoxin-4 (GTX4. The average cellular toxin content varied among different strains, and between growth phases, highlighting a decreasing trend from exponential to stationary phase in all culture conditions tested. The absolute quantities of intracellular sxtA1 and sxtG mRNA were not correlated with the amount of intracellular toxins in the analysed A. minutum suggesting that the production of toxins may be regulated by post-transcriptional mechanisms and/or by the concerted actions of alternative genes belonging to the PST biosynthesis gene cluster. Therefore, it is likely that the sxtA1 and sxtG gene expression could not reflect the PST accumulation in the Mediterranean A. minutum populations under the examined standard and nutrient limiting conditions.

  3. Exploring the role of sigma factor gene expression on production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: sigma factor H and FMN as example

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    Hironori eTaniguchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are known to cope with environmental changes by using alternative sigma factors binding to RNA polymerase core enzyme. Sigma factor is one of the targets to modify transcription regulation in bacteria and to influence production capacities. In this study, the effect of overexpressing each annotated sigma factor gene in C. glutamicum WT was assayed using an IPTG inducible plasmid system and different IPTG concentrations. It was revealed that growth was severely decreased when sigD or sigH were overexpressed with IPTG concentrations higher than 50 μM. Overexpression of sigH led to an obvious phenotypic change, a yellow-colored supernatant. HPLC analysis revealed that riboflavin was excreted to the medium when sigH was overexpressed and DNA microarray analysis confirmed increased expression of riboflavin biosynthesis genes. In addition, genes for enzymes related to the pentose phosphate pathway and for enzymes dependent on FMN, FAD or NADPH as cofactor were upregulated when sigH was overexpressed. To test if sigH overexpression can be exploited for production of riboflavin-derived FMN or FAD, the endogenous gene for bifunctional riboflavin kinase/FMN adenyltransferase was co-expressed with sigH from a plasmid. Balanced expression of sigH and ribF improved accumulation of riboflavin (19.8 ± 0.3 μM and allowed for its conversion to FMN (33.1 ± 1.8 μM in the supernatant. While a proof-of-concept was reached, conversion was not complete and titers were not high. This study revealed that inducible and gradable overexpression of sigma factor genes is an interesting approach to switch gene expression profiles and to discover untapped potential of bacteria for chemical production.

  4. Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer as Origin of Putrescine Production in Oenococcus oeni RM83▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcobal, Ángela; de las Rivas, Blanca; Moreno-Arribas, M. Victoria; Muñoz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 17.2-kb chromosomal DNA fragment containing the odc gene encoding ornithine decarboxylase has been determined in the putrescine producer Oenococcus oeni RM83. This DNA fragment contains 13 open reading frames, including genes coding for five transposases and two phage proteins. This description might represent the first evidence of a horizontal gene transfer event as the origin of a biogenic amine biosynthetic locus. PMID:17056681

  5. Growth-related gene product {alpha}: A chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A.E.; Pope, R.M. [Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago IL (United States)]|[Veteran`s Administration Lakeside Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Shah, M.R.; Hosaka, S. [Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is critical in the inflammation seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To determine whether the chemokine growth-related gene product {alpha} (gro{alpha}) plays a role in this process, we examined synovial tissue (ST), synovial fluid (SF), and plasma samples from 102 patients with arthritis. RA SF contained more antigenic gro{alpha} (mean 5.3 {+-} 1.9 ng/ml) than did SFs from either osteoarthritis (OA) or other forms of arthritis (mean 0.1 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). RA plasma contained more gro{alpha} (mean 4.3 {+-} 1.8 ng/ml) than normal plasma (mean 0.1 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). RA ST fibroblasts (1.2 x 10{sup 5}/cells/ml RPMI 1640/24 h) produced antigenic gro{alpha} (mean 0.2 {+-} 0.1 ng/ml), and this production was increased significantly upon incubation with TNF-{alpha} (mean 1.3 {+-} 0.3 ng/ml) or IL-1{beta} (mean 2.3 {+-} 0.6 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). Cells from RA SF also produced gro{alpha}: neutrophils (PMNs) (10{sup 7} cells/ml/24 h) produced 3.7 {+-} 0.7 ng/ml. RA SF mononuclear cells produced gro{alpha}, particularly upon incubation with LPS or PHA. Immunoreactive ST gro{alpha} was found in greater numbers of RA compared with either OA or normal lining cells, as well as in RA compared with OA subsynovial macrophages (p < 0.05). IL-8 accounted for a mean of 36% of the RA SF chemotactic activity for PMNs, while epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 accounted for 34%, and gro{alpha} for 28%, of this activity. Combined neutralization of all three chemokines in RA SFs resulted in a mean decrease of 50% of the chemotactic activity for PMNs present in the RA SFs. These results indicate that gro{alpha} plays an important role in the ingress of PMNs into the RA joint. 54 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. TranscriptomeBrowser: a powerful and flexible toolbox to explore productively the transcriptional landscape of the Gene Expression Omnibus database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Lopez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As public microarray repositories are constantly growing, we are facing the challenge of designing strategies to provide productive access to the available data. METHODOLOGY: We used a modified version of the Markov clustering algorithm to systematically extract clusters of co-regulated genes from hundreds of microarray datasets stored in the Gene Expression Omnibus database (n = 1,484. This approach led to the definition of 18,250 transcriptional signatures (TS that were tested for functional enrichment using the DAVID knowledgebase. Over-representation of functional terms was found in a large proportion of these TS (84%. We developed a JAVA application, TBrowser that comes with an open plug-in architecture and whose interface implements a highly sophisticated search engine supporting several Boolean operators (http://tagc.univ-mrs.fr/tbrowser/. User can search and analyze TS containing a list of identifiers (gene symbols or AffyIDs or associated with a set of functional terms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As proof of principle, TBrowser was used to define breast cancer cell specific genes and to detect chromosomal abnormalities in tumors. Finally, taking advantage of our large collection of transcriptional signatures, we constructed a comprehensive map that summarizes gene-gene co-regulations observed through all the experiments performed on HGU133A Affymetrix platform. We provide evidences that this map can extend our knowledge of cellular signaling pathways.

  7. TranscriptomeBrowser: a powerful and flexible toolbox to explore productively the transcriptional landscape of the Gene Expression Omnibus database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Fabrice; Textoris, Julien; Bergon, Aurélie; Didier, Gilles; Remy, Elisabeth; Granjeaud, Samuel; Imbert, Jean; Nguyen, Catherine; Puthier, Denis

    2008-01-01

    As public microarray repositories are constantly growing, we are facing the challenge of designing strategies to provide productive access to the available data. We used a modified version of the Markov clustering algorithm to systematically extract clusters of co-regulated genes from hundreds of microarray datasets stored in the Gene Expression Omnibus database (n = 1,484). This approach led to the definition of 18,250 transcriptional signatures (TS) that were tested for functional enrichment using the DAVID knowledgebase. Over-representation of functional terms was found in a large proportion of these TS (84%). We developed a JAVA application, TBrowser that comes with an open plug-in architecture and whose interface implements a highly sophisticated search engine supporting several Boolean operators (http://tagc.univ-mrs.fr/tbrowser/). User can search and analyze TS containing a list of identifiers (gene symbols or AffyIDs) or associated with a set of functional terms. As proof of principle, TBrowser was used to define breast cancer cell specific genes and to detect chromosomal abnormalities in tumors. Finally, taking advantage of our large collection of transcriptional signatures, we constructed a comprehensive map that summarizes gene-gene co-regulations observed through all the experiments performed on HGU133A Affymetrix platform. We provide evidences that this map can extend our knowledge of cellular signaling pathways.

  8. Alternative splicing and differential subcellular localization of the rat FGF antisense gene product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casson Alan G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GFG/NUDT is a nudix hydrolase originally identified as the product of the fibroblast growth factor-2 antisense (FGF-AS gene. While the FGF-AS RNA has been implicated as an antisense regulator of FGF-2 expression, the expression and function of the encoded GFG protein is largely unknown. Alternative splicing of the primary FGF-AS mRNA transcript predicts multiple GFG isoforms in many species including rat. In the present study we focused on elucidating the expression and subcellular distribution of alternatively spliced rat GFG isoforms. Results RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed tissue-specific GFG mRNA isoform expression and subcellular distribution of GFG immunoreactivity in cytoplasm and nuclei of a wide range of normal rat tissues. FGF-2 and GFG immunoreactivity were co-localized in some, but not all, tissues examined. Computational analysis identified a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS in the N-terminus of three previously described rGFG isoforms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and subcellular fractionation analysis revealed that all rGFG isoforms bearing the MTS were specifically targeted to mitochondria whereas isoforms and deletion mutants lacking the MTS were localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Mutation and deletion analysis confirmed that the predicted MTS was necessary and sufficient for mitochondrial compartmentalization. Conclusion Previous findings strongly support a role for the FGF antisense RNA as a regulator of FGF2 expression. The present study demonstrates that the antisense RNA itself is translated, and that protein isoforms resulting form alternative RNA splicing are sorted to different subcellular compartments. FGF-2 and its antisense protein are co-expressed in many tissues and in some cases in the same cells. The strong conservation of sequence and genomic organization across animal species suggests important functional significance to the physical association of these transcript

  9. Evolution and origin of HRS, a protein interacting with Merlin, the Neurofibromatosis 2 gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelyanchuk, Leonid V; Pertseva, Julia A; Burns, Sarah S; Chang, Long-Sheng

    2009-10-08

    Hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) is an endosomal protein required for trafficking receptor tyrosine kinases from the early endosome to the lysosome. HRS interacts with Merlin, the Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) gene product, and this interaction may be important for Merlin's tumor suppressor activity. Understanding the evolution, origin, and structure of HRS may provide new insight into Merlin function. We show that HRS homologs are present across a wide range of Metazoa with the yeast Vps27 protein as their most distant ancestor. The phylogenetic tree of the HRS family coincides with species evolution and divergence, suggesting a unique function for HRS. Sequence alignment shows that various protein domains of HRS, including the VHS domain, the FYVE domain, the UIM domain, and the clathrin-binding domain, are conserved from yeast to multicellular organisms. The evolutionary transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms was accompanied by the appearance of a binding site for Merlin, which emerges in the early Metazoa after its separation from flatworms. In addition to the region responsible for growth suppression, the Merlin-binding and STAM-binding domains of HRS are conserved among multicellular organisms. The residue equivalent to tyrosine-377, which is phosphorylated in the human HRS protein, is highly conserved throughout the HRS family. Three additional conserved boxes lacking assigned functions are found in the HRS proteins of Metazoa. While boxes 1 and 3 may constitute the Eps-15-and Snx1-binding sites, respectively, box 2, containing the residue equivalent to tyrosine-377, is likely to be important for HRS phosphorylation. While several functional domains are conserved throughout the HRS family, the STAM-binding, Merlin-binding, and growth suppression domains evolved in the early Metazoa around the time the Merlin protein emerged. As these domains appear during the transition to multicellularity, their functional roles

  10. Evolution and Origin of HRS, a Protein Interacting with Merlin, the Neurofibromatosis 2 Gene Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. Omelyanchuk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocyte growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS is an endosomal protein required for trafficking receptor tyrosine kinases from the early endosome to the lysosome. HRS interacts with Merlin, the Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2 gene product, and this interaction may be important for Merlin’s tumor suppressor activity. Understanding the evolution, origin, and structure of HRS may provide new insight into Merlin function. We show that HRS homologs are present across a wide range of Metazoa with the yeast Vps27 protein as their most distant ancestor. The phylogenetic tree of the HRS family coincides with species evolution and divergence, suggesting a unique function for HRS. Sequence alignment shows that various protein domains of HRS, including the VHS domain, the FYVE domain, the UIM domain, and the clathrin-binding domain, are conserved from yeast to multicellular organisms. The evolutionary transition from unicellular to multicellular organisms was accompanied by the appearance of a binding site for Merlin, which emerges in the early Metazoa after its separation from flatworms. In addition to the region responsible for growth suppression, the Merlin-binding and STAM-binding domains of HRS are conserved among multicellular organisms. The residue equivalent to tyrosine-377, which is phosphorylated in the human HRS protein, is highly conserved throughout the HRS family. Three additional conserved boxes lacking assigned functions are found in the HRS proteins of Metazoa. While boxes 1 and 3 may constitute the Eps-15- and Snx1-binding sites, respectively, box 2, containing the residue equivalent to tyrosine-377, is likely to be important for HRS phosphorylation. While several functional domains are conserved throughout the HRS family, the STAM-binding, Merlin-binding, and growth suppression domains evolved in the early Metazoa around the time the Merlin protein emerged. As these domains appear during the transition to multicellularity

  11. Improved production of enzymes, which are expressed under the Pho regulon promoter, in the rmf gene (encoding ribosome modulation factor) disruptant of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Akira; Koseki, Chie; Matsui, Kazuhiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    2006-04-01

    Using a DNA macroarray, we investigated the effects of rmf gene (encoding ribosome modulation factor) disruption on gene expression profiles in Escherichia coli. This strain showed a phosphate-starvation-like response in gene expression even under phosphate sufficient conditions; significant upregulation of the Pho regulon genes was observed. Further, the production of alkaline phosphatase, a product of the Pho regulon gene, phoA, increased in the rmf disruptant under a Pi sufficient condition. Furthermore, production of PhoC acid phosphatase/nucleoside pyrophosphate phosphotransferase derived from Morganella morganii also increased significantly in the rmf disruptant. We concluded that host modification by the rmf gene disruption has potential benefit in industrial enzyme production using Escherichia coli.

  12. Identification of Genetic Associations and Functional Polymorphisms of SAA1 Gene Affecting Milk Production Traits in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua; Gao, Yahui; Zhang, Shengli; Zhang, Qin; Sun, Dongxiao

    2016-01-01

    Our initial RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that the Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene was differentially expressed in the mammary glands of lactating Holstein cows with extremely high versus low phenotypic values of milk protein and fat percentage. To further validate the genetic effect and potential molecular mechanisms of SAA1 gene involved in regulating milk production traits in dairy cattle, we herein performed a study through genotype-phenotype associations. Six identified SNPs were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits (0.00002milk production traits in dairy cows. Subsequently, both luciferase assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) clearly demonstrated that the allele A of g.-963C>A increased the promoter activity by binding the PARP factor while allele C did not. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the secondary structure of SAA protein changed by the substitution A/G in the locus c. +2510A>G. Our findings were the first to reveal the significant associations of the SAA1 gene with milk production traits, providing basis for further biological function validation, and two identified SNPs, g.-963C>A and c. +2510A>G, may be considered as genetic markers for breeding in dairy cattle.

  13. Identifying genes that impact on aroma profiles produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the production of higher alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styger, Gustav; Jacobson, Dan; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-08-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, many volatile aroma compounds are formed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including esters, fatty acids, and higher alcohols. While the metabolic network that leads to the formation of these compounds is reasonably well mapped, surprisingly little is known about specific enzymes involved in specific reactions, the regulation of the network, and the physiological roles of individual pathways within the network. Furthermore, different yeast strains tend to produce significantly different aroma profiles. These differences are of tremendous biotechnological interest, since producers of alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer are searching for means to diversify and improve their product range. Various factors such as the redox, energy, and nutritional balance of a cell have previously been suggested to directly or indirectly affect and regulate the network. To gain a better understanding of the regulations and physiological role of this network, we screened a subset of the EUROSCARF strain deletion library for genes that, when deleted, would impact most significantly on the aroma profile produced under fermentative conditions. The 10 genes whose deletion impacted most significantly on higher alcohol production were selected and further characterized to assess their mode of action within or on this metabolic network. This is the first description of a large-scale screening approach using aroma production as the primary selection criteria, and the data suggest that many of the identified genes indeed play central and direct roles within the aroma production network of S. cerevisiae.

  14. Acetate ester production by Chinese yellow rice wine yeast overexpressing the alcohol acetyltransferase-encoding gene ATF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, C; Qi, Y; Dai, L; Ma, H; Guo, X; Xiao, D

    2014-11-27

    Acetate ester, which are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction, are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as Chinese yellow rice wine. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase) is currently believed to be the key enzyme responsible for the production of acetate ester. In order to determine the precise role of the ATF2 gene in acetate ester production, an ATF2 gene encoding a type of AATase was overexpressed and the ability of the mutant to form acetate esters (including ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate) was investigated. The results showed that after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with EY2 (pUC-PIA2K) increased to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9-fold increase relative to the parent cell RY1), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms that the ATF2 gene plays an important role in the production of acetate ester production during Chinese yellow rice wine fermentation, thereby offering prospects for the development of yellow rice wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capabilities.

  15. Knockout targeting of the Drosophila nap1 gene and examination of DNA repair tracts in the recombination products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankenau, Susanne; Barnickel, Thorsten; Marhold, Joachim; Lyko, Frank; Mechler, Bernard M; Lankenau, Dirk-Henner

    2003-02-01

    We used ends-in gene targeting to generate knockout mutations of the nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1) gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Three independent targeted null-knockout mutations were produced. No wild-type NAP1 protein could be detected in protein extracts. Homozygous Nap1(KO) knockout flies were either embryonic lethal or poorly viable adult escapers. Three additional targeted recombination products were viable. To gain insight into the underlying molecular processes we examined conversion tracts in the recombination products. In nearly all cases the I-SceI endonuclease site of the donor vector was replaced by the wild-type Nap1 sequence. This indicated exonuclease processing at the site of the double-strand break (DSB), followed by replicative repair at donor-target junctions. The targeting products are best interpreted either by the classical DSB repair model or by the break-induced recombination (BIR) model. Synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), which is another important recombinational repair pathway in the germline, does not explain ends-in targeting products. We conclude that this example of gene targeting at the Nap1 locus provides added support for the efficiency of this method and its usefulness in targeting any arbitrary locus in the Drosophila genome.

  16. The genetic effects of the dopamine D1 receptor gene on chicken egg production and broodiness traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Hua

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elevation of egg production and the inhibition of incubation behavior are the aims of modern poultry production. Prolactin (PRL gene is confirmed to be critical for the onset and maintenance of these reproductive behaviors in birds. Through PRL, dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1 was also involved in the regulation of chicken reproductive behavior. However, the genetic effects of this gene on chicken egg production and broodiness have not been studied extensively. The objective of this research was to evaluate the genetic effects of the DRD1 gene on chicken egg production and broodiness traits. Results In this study, the chicken DRD1 gene was screened for the polymorphisms by cloning and sequencing and 29 variations were identified in 3,342 bp length of this gene. Seven single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs among these variations, including a non-synonymous mutation (A+505G, Ser169Gly, were located in the coding region and were chosen to analyze their association with chicken egg production and broodiness traits in 644 Ningdu Sanhuang individuals. Two SNPs, G+123A and C+1107T, were significantly associated with chicken broody frequency (P DRD1 mRNA was observed and the expression difference was compared between broodiness and non-broodiness chickens. The DRD1 mRNA was predominantly expressed in subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat of non-broodiness chicken, and then in heart, kidney, oviduct, glandular stomach, hypothalamus, and pituitary. In subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat, the level of non-broodiness was 26 to 28 times higher than that of broodiness. In pituitary, it was 5-fold higher. In heart, oviduct, and kidney, a 2-3 times decrease from non-broodiness to broodiness was displayed. In glandular stomach and hypothalamus, the level seen in non-broodiness and broodiness was almost the same. Conclusion The polymorphisms of the DRD1 gene and their haplotypes were associated with chicken broody frequency and some egg production

  17. De Novo Assembly, Gene Annotation, and Marker Discovery in Stored-Product Pest Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) Using Transcriptome Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dan-Dan; Chen, Er-Hu; Ding, Tian-Bo; Chen, Shi-Chun; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background As a major stored-product pest insect, Liposcelis entomophila has developed high levels of resistance to various insecticides in grain storage systems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and environmental stress have not been characterized. To date, there is a lack of genomic information for this species. Therefore, studies aimed at profiling the L. entomophila transcriptome would provide a better understanding of the biological functions at the molecular levels. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied Illumina sequencing technology to sequence the transcriptome of L. entomophila. A total of 54,406,328 clean reads were obtained and that de novo assembled into 54,220 unigenes, with an average length of 571 bp. Through a similarity search, 33,404 (61.61%) unigenes were matched to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant (Nr) protein database. These unigenes were further functionally annotated with gene ontology (GO), cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. A large number of genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance were manually curated, including 68 putative cytochrome P450 genes, 37 putative glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, 19 putative carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE) genes, and other 126 transcripts to contain target site sequences or encoding detoxification genes representing eight types of resistance enzymes. Furthermore, to gain insight into the molecular basis of the L. entomophila toward thermal stresses, 25 heat shock protein (Hsp) genes were identified. In addition, 1,100 SSRs and 57,757 SNPs were detected and 231 pairs of SSR primes were designed for investigating the genetic diversity in future. Conclusions/Significance We developed a comprehensive transcriptomic database for L. entomophila. These sequences and putative molecular markers would further promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance

  18. De novo assembly, gene annotation, and marker discovery in stored-product pest Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein using transcriptome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a major stored-product pest insect, Liposcelis entomophila has developed high levels of resistance to various insecticides in grain storage systems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and environmental stress have not been characterized. To date, there is a lack of genomic information for this species. Therefore, studies aimed at profiling the L. entomophila transcriptome would provide a better understanding of the biological functions at the molecular levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied Illumina sequencing technology to sequence the transcriptome of L. entomophila. A total of 54,406,328 clean reads were obtained and that de novo assembled into 54,220 unigenes, with an average length of 571 bp. Through a similarity search, 33,404 (61.61% unigenes were matched to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant (Nr protein database. These unigenes were further functionally annotated with gene ontology (GO, cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COG, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. A large number of genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance were manually curated, including 68 putative cytochrome P450 genes, 37 putative glutathione S-transferase (GST genes, 19 putative carboxyl/cholinesterase (CCE genes, and other 126 transcripts to contain target site sequences or encoding detoxification genes representing eight types of resistance enzymes. Furthermore, to gain insight into the molecular basis of the L. entomophila toward thermal stresses, 25 heat shock protein (Hsp genes were identified. In addition, 1,100 SSRs and 57,757 SNPs were detected and 231 pairs of SSR primes were designed for investigating the genetic diversity in future. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed a comprehensive transcriptomic database for L. entomophila. These sequences and putative molecular markers would further promote our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying

  19. From metagenomic gene discovery to enzymatic breakdown of crosslinks in agricultural fibers for functional products

    Science.gov (United States)

    From the rumen microflora, more than twenty novel genes involved in the hydrolysis of glucuronoarabinoxylans have been discovered and isolated. The specific genes functioning in the breakdown of crosslinkages have been cloned and expressed in E. coli, and the active enzymes purified and extensively ...

  20. The Aspergillus flavus homeobox gene, hbx1, is required for development and aflatoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeobox proteins are a class of transcription factors that are well conserved in many eukaryotes including fungi. Homeobox proteins regulate the expression of target genes, especially those involved in development. Studies in several filamentous fungi have shown that homeobox genes are required for...

  1. Environmental effects on resistance gene expression in milk stage popcorn kernels and associations with mycotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2015-05-01

    Like other forms of maize, popcorn is subject to increased levels of contamination by a variety of different mycotoxins under stress conditions, although levels generally are less than dent maize under comparable stress. Gene array analysis was used to determine expression differences of disease resistance-associated genes in milk stage kernels from commercial popcorn fields over 3 years. Relatively lower expression of resistance gene types was noted in years with higher temperatures and lower rainfall, which was consistent with prior results for many previously identified resistance response-associated genes. The lower rates of expression occurred for genes such as chitinases, protease inhibitors, and peroxidases; enzymes involved in the synthesis of cell wall barriers and secondary metabolites; and regulatory proteins. However, expression of several specific resistance genes previously associated with mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin in dent maize, was not affected. Insect damage altered the spectrum of resistance gene expression differences compared to undamaged ears. Correlation analyses showed expression differences of some previously reported resistance genes that were highly associated with mycotoxin levels and included glucanases, protease inhibitors, peroxidases, and thionins.

  2. Design and recombinant production of combinatorial peptide libraries for gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Raad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy can be defined as the intro­duction of exogenous nucleic acids into cells with the intention of altering gene expression to prevent, halt or reverse a pathological process. It forms an attractive approach for therapeutic intervention of a wide range of diseases, including genetic

  3. Characterization of integrons and resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from meat and dairy products in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2014-10-17

    Foodborne pathogens are a leading cause of illness and death, especially in developing countries. The problem is exacerbated if bacteria attain multidrug resistance. Little is currently known about the extent of antibiotic resistance in foodborne pathogens and the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance in Africa. Therefore, the current study was carried out to characterize, at the molecular level, the mechanism of multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) collected from different street venders, butchers, retail markets and slaughterhouses in Egypt. Forty-seven out of 69 isolates (68.1%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The incidence of multidrug-resistant isolates was higher in meat products (37, 69.8%) than in dairy products (10, 62.5%). The multidrug-resistant serovars included, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (24 isolates, 34.8%), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, (15 isolates, 21.8%), S. enterica serovar Infantis (7 isolates, 10.1%) and S. enterica non-typable serovar (1 isolate, 1.4%). The highest resistance was to ampicillin (95.7%), then to kanamycin (93.6%), spectinomycin (93.6%), streptomycin (91.5%) and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (91.5%). PCR and DNA sequencing were used to screen and characterize integrons and antibiotic resistance genes and 39.1% and 8.7% of isolates were positive for class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. β-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 75.4% of isolates and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 27.5% of isolates. Finally, the florphenicol resistance gene, floR, was identified in 18.8% of isolates. PCR screening identified S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 in both meat and dairy products. This is the first study to report many of these resistance genes in dairy products. This study highlights the high incidence of multidrug-resistant S. enterica in

  4. Production of DNA microarray and expression analysis of genes from Xylella fastidiosa in different culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane de Fátima Travensolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA Microarray was developed to monitor the expression of many genes from Xylella fastidiosa, allowing the side by-side comparison of two situations in a single experiment. The experiments were performed using X. fastidiosa cells grown in two culture media: BCYE and XDM2. The primers were synthesized, spotted onto glass slides and the array was hybridized against fluorescently labeled cDNAs. The emitted signals were quantified, normalized and the data were statistically analyzed to verify the differentially expressed genes. According to the data, 104 genes were differentially expressed in XDM2 and 30 genes in BCYE media. The present study showed that DNA microarray technique efficiently differentiate the expressed genes under different conditions.DNA Microarray foi desenvolvida para monitorar a expressão de muitos genes de Xylella fastidiosa, permitindo a comparação de duas situações distintas em um único experimento. Os experimentos foram feitos utilizando células de X. fastidiosa cultivada em dois meios de cultura: BCYE e XDM2. Pares de oligonucleotídeos iniciadores foram sintetizados, depositados em lâminas de vidro e o arranjo foi hibridizado contra cDNAs marcados fluorescentemente. Os sinais emitidos foram quantificados, normalizados e os dados foram estatisticamente analisados para verificar os genes diferencialmente expressos. De acordo com nossos dados, 104 genes foram diferencialmente expressos para o meio de cultura XDM2 e 30 genes para o BCYE. No presente estudo, nós demonstramos que a técnica de DNA microarrays eficientemente diferencia genes expressos sob diferentes condições de cultivo.

  5. Management of Gene Variants of Unknown Significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alosi, Daniela; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Hemmingsen, Sophie Nowak

    2017-01-01

    (IHC); 3) Assessment of the variant’s impact on protein structure and function, using multiple databases, in silico algorithms, and reports of functional studies. Results: Only one family member had clinical signs of vHL with early-onset RCC. IHC analysis showed no VHL protein expressed in the tumor...

  6. Global gene expression in muscle from fasted/refed trout reveals up-regulation of genes promoting myofibre hypertrophy but not myofibre production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescan, Pierre-Yves; Le Cam, Aurelie; Rallière, Cécile; Montfort, Jérôme

    2017-06-07

    Compensatory growth is a phase of rapid growth, greater than the growth rate of control animals, that occurs after a period of growth-stunting conditions. Fish show a capacity for compensatory growth after alleviation of dietary restriction, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are unknown. To learn more about the contribution of genes regulating hypertrophy (an increase in muscle fibre size) and hyperplasia (the generation of new muscle fibres) in the compensatory muscle growth response in fish, we used high-density microarray analysis to investigate the global gene expression in muscle of trout during a fasting-refeeding schedule and in muscle of control-fed trout displaying normal growth. The compensatory muscle growth signature, as defined by genes up-regulated in muscles of refed trout compared with control-fed trout, showed enrichment in functional categories related to protein biosynthesis and maturation, such as RNA processing, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, ribosome biogenesis, translation and protein folding. This signature was also enriched in chromatin-remodelling factors of the protein arginine N-methyl transferase family. Unexpectedly, functional categories related to cell division and DNA replication were not inferred from the molecular signature of compensatory muscle growth, and this signature contained virtually none of the genes previously reported to be up-regulated in hyperplastic growth zones of the late trout embryo myotome and to potentially be involved in production of new myofibres, notably genes encoding myogenic regulatory factors, transmembrane receptors essential for myoblast fusion or myofibrillar proteins predominant in nascent myofibres. Genes promoting myofibre growth, but not myofibre formation, were up-regulated in muscles of refed trout compared with continually fed trout. This suggests that a compensatory muscle growth response, resulting from the stimulation of hypertrophy but not the stimulation of hyperplasia

  7. Functional genomics reveals that a compact terpene synthase gene family can account for terpene volatile production in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J; Green, Sol A; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J D; Matich, Adam J; Wang, Mindy Y; Atkinson, Ross G

    2013-02-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple 'Royal Gala' expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies.

  8. Functional Genomics Reveals That a Compact Terpene Synthase Gene Family Can Account for Terpene Volatile Production in Apple1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Niels J.; Green, Sol A.; Chen, Xiuyin; Bailleul, Estelle J.D.; Matich, Adam J.; Wang, Mindy Y.; Atkinson, Ross G.

    2013-01-01

    Terpenes are specialized plant metabolites that act as attractants to pollinators and as defensive compounds against pathogens and herbivores, but they also play an important role in determining the quality of horticultural food products. We show that the genome of cultivated apple (Malus domestica) contains 55 putative terpene synthase (TPS) genes, of which only 10 are predicted to be functional. This low number of predicted functional TPS genes compared with other plant species was supported by the identification of only eight potentially functional TPS enzymes in apple ‘Royal Gala’ expressed sequence tag databases, including the previously characterized apple (E,E)-α-farnesene synthase. In planta functional characterization of these TPS enzymes showed that they could account for the majority of terpene volatiles produced in cv Royal Gala, including the sesquiterpenes germacrene-D and (E)-β-caryophyllene, the monoterpenes linalool and α-pinene, and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. Relative expression analysis of the TPS genes indicated that floral and vegetative tissues were the primary sites of terpene production in cv Royal Gala. However, production of cv Royal Gala floral-specific terpenes and TPS genes was observed in the fruit of some heritage apple cultivars. Our results suggest that the apple TPS gene family has been shaped by a combination of ancestral and more recent genome-wide duplication events. The relatively small number of functional enzymes suggests that the remaining terpenes produced in floral and vegetative and fruit tissues are maintained under a positive selective pressure, while the small number of terpenes found in the fruit of modern cultivars may be related to commercial breeding strategies. PMID:23256150

  9. Ectopic Expression of CDF3 Genes in Tomato Enhances Biomass Production and Yield under Salinity Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renau-Morata, Begoña; Molina, Rosa V.; Carrillo, Laura; Cebolla-Cornejo, Jaime; Sánchez-Perales, Manuel; Pollmann, Stephan; Domínguez-Figueroa, José; Corrales, Alba R.; Flexas, Jaume; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús; Medina, Joaquín; Nebauer, Sergio G.

    2017-01-01

    Cycling Dof Factor (CDF) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in multiple processes related to plant growth and development. A member of this family, CDF3, has recently been linked in Arabidopsis to the regulation of primary metabolism and abiotic stress responses, but its role in crop production under stress is still unknown. In this study, we characterized tomato plants overexpressing the CDF3 genes from Arabidopsis and tomato and analyzed their effects on growth and yield under salinity, additionally gaining deeper insights into the molecular function of these TFs. Our results provide evidence for higher biomass production and yield in the 35S::AtCDF3 and 35S::SlCDF3 plants, likely due to a higher photosynthetic capacity resulting in increased sucrose availability. Transcriptome analysis revealed that CDF3 genes regulate a set of genes involved in redox homeostasis, photosynthesis performance and primary metabolism that lead to enhanced biomass production. Consistently, metabolomic profiling revealed that CDF3 evokes changes in the primary metabolism triggering enhanced nitrogen assimilation, and disclosed that the amount of some protective metabolites including sucrose, GABA and asparagine were higher in vegetative tissues of CDF3 overexpressing plants. Altogether these changes improved performance of 35S::AtCDF3 and 35S::SlCDF3 plants under salinity conditions. Moreover, the overexpression of CDF3 genes modified organic acid and sugar content in fruits, improving variables related to flavor perception and fruit quality. Overall, our results associate the CDF3 TF with a role in the control of growth and C/N metabolism, and highlight that overexpression of CDF3 genes can substantially improve plant yield. PMID:28515731

  10. Isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene expression in relation to patulin production by Penicillium expansum under different temperature and atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, N; Vlaemynck, G; Van Pamel, E; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Van Coillie, E

    2016-03-02

    Penicillium expansum growth and patulin production occur mainly at post-harvest stage during the long-term storage of apples. Low temperature in combination with reduced oxygen concentrations is commonly applied as a control strategy to extend apple shelf life and supply the market throughout the year. Our in vitro study investigated the effect of temperature and atmosphere on expression of the idh gene in relation to the patulin production by P. expansum. The idh gene encodes the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase enzyme, a key enzyme in the patulin biosynthesis pathway. First, a reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) method was optimized to measure accurately the P. expansum idh mRNA levels relative to the mRNA levels of three reference genes (18S, β-tubulin, calmodulin), taking into account important parameters such as PCR inhibition and multiple reference gene stability. Subsequently, two P. expansum field isolates and one reference strain were grown on apple puree agar medium (APAM) under three conditions of temperature and atmosphere: 20 °C - air, 4 °C - air and 4 °C - controlled atmosphere (CA; 3% O2). When P. expansum strains reached a 0.5 and 2.0 cm colony diameter, idh expression and patulin concentrations were determined by means of the developed RT-qPCR and an HPLC-UV method, respectively. The in vitro study showed a clear reduction in patulin production and down-regulation of the idh gene expression when P. expansum was grown under 4 °C - CA. The results suggest that stress (low temperature and oxygen level) caused a delay of the fungal metabolism rather than a complete inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. A good correlation was found between the idh expression and patulin production, corroborating that temperature and atmosphere affected patulin production by acting at the transcriptional level of the idh gene. Finally, a reliable RT-qPCR can be considered as an alternative tool to investigate the effect of control strategies on the toxin formation in

  11. Effects of expression of hemA and hemB genes on production of porphyrin in Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Yongzhe; Kiatpapan, Pornpimon; Yamashita, Mitsuo; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2004-12-01

    The genus Propionibacterium has a wide range of probiotic activities that are exploited in dairy and fermentation systems such as cheeses, propionic acid, and tetrapyrrole compounds. In order to improve production of tetrapyrrole compounds, we expressed the hemA gene, which encodes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and the hemB gene, which encodes porphobilinogen (PBG) synthase from Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii IFO12424, either monocistronically or polycistronically in strain IFO12426. The recombinant strains accumulated larger amounts of ALA and PBG, with resultant 28- to 33-fold-higher production of porphyrinogens, such as uroporphyrinogen and coproporphyrinogen, than those observed in strain IFO12426, which harbored the shuttle vector pPK705.

  12. Gene detection and toxin production evaluation of hemolysin BL of Bacillus cereus isolated from milk and dairy products marketed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre L.S. Reis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereusis an ubiquitous, spore-forming bacteria that can survive pasteurization and the majority of the heating processes used in the dairy industry. Besides, it is a pathogen responsible for different types of food poisoning. One type of foodborne disease caused by B.cereusis the diarrheal syndrome, which is caused by the ingestion of vegetative cells producing toxins in the small intestine. One virulence factor for the diarrheal syndrome is the toxin hemolysin BL (HBL, a three-component protein formed by the L1, L2 and B components. In order to evaluate the presence of diarrheal strains isolated from milk and dairy products, 63 B. cereus isolates were obtained from 260 samples of UHT milk, pasteurized milk and powdered milk, sold in commercial establishments and from different brands. The isolates were subjected to the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for the detection of the encoding genes for the L1, L2 and B components and the toxin production capacity were evaluated with an immunoassay. A total of 23 [36.5%] isolates were identified carrying simultaneously the three tested genes, from which, 20 [86.9%] showed toxigenic capacity. 26 [41.3%] isolates did not carry any of genes tested and the other 14 [22.2%] were positive for one or two of them. The results showed a high toxigenic capacity among the B. cereus isolates able to produce the HBL, indicating a potential risk for consumers.

  13. Production of individualized V gene databases reveals high levels of immunoglobulin genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Martin M.; Phad, Ganesh E.; Bernat, Néstor Vázquez; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Sumida, Noriyuki; Persson, Mats A. A.; Martin, Marcel; Hedestam, Gunilla B. Karlsson

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of immunoglobulin genetics is required to advance our understanding of B cell biology. Validated immunoglobulin variable (V) gene databases are close to completion only for human and mouse. We present a novel computational approach, IgDiscover, that identifies germline V genes from expressed repertoires to a specificity of 100%. IgDiscover uses a cluster identification process to produce candidate sequences that, once filtered, results in individualized germline V gene databases. IgDiscover was tested in multiple species, validated by genomic cloning and cross library comparisons and produces comprehensive gene databases even where limited genomic sequence is available. IgDiscover analysis of the allelic content of the Indian and Chinese-origin rhesus macaques reveals high levels of immunoglobulin gene diversity in this species. Further, we describe a novel human IGHV3-21 allele and confirm significant gene differences between Balb/c and C57BL6 mouse strains, demonstrating the power of IgDiscover as a germline V gene discovery tool.

  14. Heterologous expression of Mus musculus immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1 in Escherichia coli results in itaconate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiira S Vuoristo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Itaconic acid, a C5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential biobased building block for the polymer industry. It is obtained from the citric acid cycle by decarboxylation of cis-aconitic acid. This reaction is catalysed by CadA in the native itaconic acid producer Aspergillus terreus. Recently, another enzyme encoded by the mammalian immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1, was found to decarboxylate cis-aconitate to itaconate in vitro. We show that heterologous expression of irg1 enabled itaconate production in E. coli with production titres up to 560 mg/L.

  15. Heterologous expression of Mus musculus immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1) in Escherichia coli results in itaconate production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoristo, Kiira S.; Mars, Astrid E.; van Loon, Stijn; Orsi, Enrico; Eggink, Gerrit; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2015-01-01

    Itaconic acid, a C5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential biobased building block for the polymer industry. It is obtained from the citric acid cycle by decarboxylation of cis-aconitic acid. This reaction is catalyzed by CadA in the native itaconic acid producer Aspergillus terreus. Recently, another enzyme encoded by the mammalian immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1), was found to decarboxylate cis-aconitate to itaconate in vitro. We show that heterologous expression of irg1 enabled itaconate production in Escherichia coli with production titres up to 560 mg/L. PMID:26347730

  16. Microbial production of indolylglucosinolate through engineering of a multi-gene pathway in a versatile yeast expression platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Buron, Line Due; Salomonsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of cruciferous vegetables, such as, broccoli and cabbages, is associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer. This phenomenon has been attributed to specific glucosinolates among the ∼30 glucosinolates that are typically present as natural...... products characteristic of cruciferous plants. Accordingly, there has been a strong interest to produce these compounds in microbial cell factories as it will allow production of selected beneficial glucosinolates. We have developed a versatile platform for stable expression of multi-gene pathways...

  17. Oxalic acid production by citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger overexpressing the oxaloacetate hydrolase gene oahA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Honda, Yuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used worldwide in the industrial production of citric acid. However, under specific cultivation conditions, citric acid-producing strains of A. niger accumulate oxalic acid as a by-product. Oxalic acid is used as a chelator, detergent, or tanning agent. Here, we sought to develop oxalic acid hyperproducers using A. niger as a host. To generate oxalic acid hyperproducers by metabolic engineering, transformants overexpressing the oahA gene, encoding oxaloacetate hydrolase (OAH; EC 3.7.1.1), were constructed in citric acid-producing A. niger WU-2223L as a host. The oxalic acid production capacity of this strain was examined by cultivation of EOAH-1 under conditions appropriate for oxalic acid production with 30 g/l glucose as a carbon source. Under all the cultivation conditions tested, the amount of oxalic acid produced by EOAH-1, a representative oahA-overexpressing transformant, exceeded that produced by A. niger WU-2223L. A. niger WU-2223L and EOAH-1 produced 15.6 and 28.9 g/l oxalic acid, respectively, during the 12-day cultivation period. The yield of oxalic acid for EOAH-1 was 64.2 % of the maximum theoretical yield. Our method for oxalic acid production gave the highest yield of any study reported to date. Therefore, we succeeded in generating oxalic acid hyperproducers by overexpressing a single gene, i.e., oahA, in citric acid-producing A. niger as a host.

  18. Effects of carbon, nitrogen and ambient pH on patulin production and related gene expression in Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yuanyuan; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2015-08-03

    Patulin, a potent mycotoxin which can cause serious health concerns, is mainly produced in foods by Penicillium expansum. Environmental factors play important roles in regulating biosynthesis of mycotoxins; however, information about the effects of environmental factors on patulin production and the involved mechanisms in P. expansum is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of different carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sources, and ambient pH on patulin production in three P. expansum strains T01, M1 and Pe21, and the expression profile of 15 genes involved in patulin biosynthetic pathway. It was found that C and N sources and pH had great influence on patulin production in P. expansum. In general, patulin production of all three P. expansum strains showed similar trends under different C and N sources and pH conditions, though there were some differences in the optimal conditions among these strains. Glucose-containing sugars, complex N sources, and acidic conditions were favorable conditions for patulin production. The results of RT-qPCR showed that the relative expressions of most of the patulin genes were up-regulated under patulin-permissive conditions, indicating that patulin biosynthesis was mainly regulated at transcriptional level by these environmental factors. These findings will provide useful information to better understand the regulation mechanisms of patulin biosynthesis, and be helpful in developing effective means for controlling patulin contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. DHA Production in Escherichia coli by Expressing Reconstituted Key Genes of Polyketide Synthase Pathway from Marine Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun-Feng; Chen, Wen-Chao; Xiao, Kang; Xu, Lin; Wang, Lian; Wan, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The gene encoding phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase), pfaE, a component of the polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway, is crucial for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6ω3), along with the other pfa cluster members pfaA, pfaB, pfaC and pfaD. DHA was produced in Escherichia coli by co-expressing pfaABCD from DHA-producing Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H with one of four pfaE genes from bacteria producing arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4ω6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3) or DHA, respectively. Substitution of the pfaE gene from different strain source in E. coli did not influence the function of the PKS pathway producing DHA, although they led to different DHA yields and fatty acid profiles. This result suggested that the pfaE gene could be switchable between these strains for the production of DHA. The DHA production by expressing the reconstituted PKS pathway was also investigated in different E. coli strains, at different temperatures, or with the treatment of cerulenin. The highest DHA production, 2.2 mg of DHA per gram of dry cell weight or 4.1% of total fatty acids, was obtained by co-expressing pfaE(EPA) from the EPA-producing strain Shewanella baltica with pfaABCD in DH5α. Incubation at low temperature (10-15°C) resulted in higher accumulation of DHA compared to higher temperatures. The addition of cerulenin to the medium increased the proportion of DHA and saturated fatty acids, including C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0, at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids, including C16:1 and C18:1. Supplementation with 1 mg/L cerulenin resulted in the highest DHA yield of 2.4 mg/L upon co-expression of pfaE(DHA) from C. psychrerythraea.

  20. FUM gene expression profile and fumonisin production by Fusarium verticillioides inoculated in Bt and non-Bt maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Oliveira Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the levels of fumonisins produced by F. verticillioides and FUM gene expression on Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis and non-Bt maize, post harvest, during different periods of incubation. Transgenic hybrids 30F35 YG, 2B710 Hx and their isogenic (30F35 and 2B710 were collected from the field and a subset of 30 samples selected for the experiments. Maize samples were sterilized by gamma radiation at a dose of 20 kGy. Samples were then inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides and analysed under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity for fumonisin B1 and B2 (FB¬1 and FB2 production and FUM1, FUM3, FUM6, FUM7, FUM8, FUM13, FUM14, FUM15 and FUM19 expression. 2B710 Hx and 30F35 YG kernel samples were virtually intact when compared to the non-Bt hybrids that came from the field. Statistical analysis showed that FB¬1 production was significantly lower in 30F35 YG and 2B710 Hx than in the 30F35 and 2B710 hybrids (P 0.05. The kernel injuries observed in the non-Bt samples have possibly facilitated F. verticillioides penetration and promoted FB1 production under controlled conditions. FUM genes were expressed by F. verticillioides in all of the samples. However, there was indication of lower expression of a few FUM genes in the Bt hybrids; and a weak association between FB1 production and the relative expression of some of the FUM genes were observed in the 30F35 YG hybrid.

  1. Retroviral and Lentiviral Safety Analysis of Gene-Modified T Cell Products and Infused HIV and Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Katherine T; Jadlowsky, Julie K; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Suhoski-Davis, Megan; Gonzalez, Vanessa E; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Gupta, Minnal; Lacey, Simon F; Plesa, Gabriela; Chew, Anne; Melenhorst, J Joseph; Levine, Bruce L; June, Carl H

    2018-01-03

    Replication-competent retrovirus/lentivirus (RCR/L) and insertional oncogenesis are potential safety risks with integrating viruses in gene-modified cell therapies. As such, the Food and Drug Administration guidances outline RCR/L-monitoring methods throughout the entire gene therapy treatment cycle. We present data for 17 vector lots, 375 manufactured T cell products, and 308 patients post-infusion across both HIV and oncology indications, showing no evidence of RCR/L. Given our data, a Poisson probability model estimates that a single patient, or a group of patients, would need to be followed for at least 52.8 years to observe one positive RCR/L event, highlighting the unlikelihood of RCR/L development. Additionally, we estimate the median time for lentivirus-modified T cell products to fall below the 1% vector sequence threshold in peripheral or whole blood that would trigger vector integration site analysis. These estimated times are 1.4 months in hematologic malignancies, 0.66 month in solid tumors, and 0.92 month in HIV. Based on these considerable safety data in HIV and oncology and recent Biologics License Applications filed for lentiviral-modified T cell products for hematologic malignancies, this may be an opportune time to re-evaluate the current guidelines for T cell gene therapy product testing and long-term patient monitoring. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Jun and Fos related gene products bind to and modulate the GPE I, a strong enhancer element of the rat glutathione transferase P gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oridate, N; Nishi, S; Inuyama, Y; Sakai, M

    1994-10-18

    The rat glutathione transferase P gene has a strong enhancer element, termed GPE I, which is composed of a dyad of palindromicly oriented TPA (phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13-acetate) responsive element (TRE)-like sequences. TRE is a binding sequence of the transcription factor AP-1, which consists of several closely related proteins belonging to the Jun and Fos family. The gel retardation experiments show that all the heterodimers formed between the Jun and Fos related gene products bind to the GPE I as well as to the TRE. In spite of the fact that the GPE I has a stronger activity than the TRE, the binding affinities of these heterodimers to the GPE I are much lower than to the TRE. Co-transfection studies of the reporter construct containing the GPE I and expression constructs of each of the Jun and Fos family cDNAs indicate that FosB and delta FosB repress transcription through the GPE I enhancer. These results suggests that some of Jun/Fos family may regulate the rat GST-P gene expression through the GPE I in vivo.

  3. EpsA is an essential gene in exopolysaccharide production in L actobacillus johnsonii FI9785

    OpenAIRE

    Dertli, Enes; Mayer, Melinda J.; Colquhoun, Ian J.; Narbad, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Summary L actobacillus johnsonii FI9785 has an eps gene cluster which is required for the biosynthesis of homopolymeric exopolysaccharides (EPS)?1 and heteropolymeric EPS?2 as a capsular layer. The first gene of the cluster, epsA , is the putative transcriptional regulator. In this study we showed the crucial role of epsA in EPS biosynthesis by demonstrating that deletion of epsA resulted in complete loss of both EPS?1 and EPS?2 on the cell surface. Plasmid complementation of the epsA gene fu...

  4. The Effect of IL-4 Gene Polymorphisms on Cytokine Production in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and in Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis (CP is an inflammatory disease of the teeth-supporting tissues in which genetic predisposition, dental plaque bacteria, and immune mechanisms all play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of IL-4 gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis and to investigate the association between polymorphisms and cytokines production after bacterial stimulation. Sixty-two subjects (47 CP patients and 15 healthy controls with detected two polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene (-590C/T and intron 3 VNTR were examined. Production of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, and VEGF was studied after in vitro stimulation of isolated peripheral blood by mitogens (Pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A, dental plaque bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, and Heat Shock Protein (HSP 70 by the Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis system. The results were correlated with IL-4 genotypes in patients with CP and healthy controls. The mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of CP patients with selected IL-4 polymorphisms significantly altered the production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 after stimulation by HSP 70 or selected bacteria (from P<0.001 to P<0.05. IL-4 gene polymorphisms may influence the function of mononuclear cells to produce not only interleukin-4 but also other cytokines, especially in patients with CP.

  5. Mutations of the Corynebacterium glutamicum NCgl1221 gene, encoding a mechanosensitive channel homolog, induce L-glutamic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jun; Hirano, Seiko; Ito, Hisao; Wachi, Masaaki

    2007-07-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotroph that secretes L-glutamic acid in response to biotin limitation; this process is employed in industrial L-glutamic acid production. Fatty acid ester surfactants and penicillin also induce L-glutamic acid secretion, even in the presence of biotin. However, the mechanism of L-glutamic acid secretion remains unclear. It was recently reported that disruption of odhA, encoding a subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, resulted in L-glutamic acid secretion without induction. In this study, we analyzed odhA disruptants and found that those which exhibited constitutive L-glutamic acid secretion carried additional mutations in the NCgl1221 gene, which encodes a mechanosensitive channel homolog. These NCgl1221 gene mutations lead to constitutive L-glutamic acid secretion even in the absence of odhA disruption and also render cells resistant to an L-glutamic acid analog, 4-fluoroglutamic acid. Disruption of the NCgl1221 gene essentially abolishes L-glutamic acid secretion, causing an increase in the intracellular L-glutamic acid pool under biotin-limiting conditions, while amplification of the wild-type NCgl1221 gene increased L-glutamate secretion, although only in response to induction. These results suggest that the NCgl1221 gene encodes an L-glutamic acid exporter. We propose that treatments that induce L-glutamic acid secretion alter membrane tension and trigger a structural transformation of the NCgl1221 protein, enabling it to export L-glutamic acid.

  6. Evaluation of gene expression and alginate production in response to oxygen transfer in continuous culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Díaz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h(-1 and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h(-1, the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h(-1 showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization. Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain

  7. Improving the measurement of semantic similarity between gene ontology terms and gene products: insights from an edge- and IC-based hybrid method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explicit comparisons based on the semantic similarity of Gene Ontology terms provide a quantitative way to measure the functional similarity between gene products and are widely applied in large-scale genomic research via integration with other models. Previously, we presented an edge-based method, Relative Specificity Similarity (RSS, which takes the global position of relevant terms into account. However, edge-based semantic similarity metrics are sensitive to the intrinsic structure of GO and simply consider terms at the same level in the ontology to be equally specific nodes, revealing the weaknesses that could be complemented using information content (IC. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Here, we used the IC-based nodes to improve RSS and proposed a new method, Hybrid Relative Specificity Similarity (HRSS. HRSS outperformed other methods in distinguishing true protein-protein interactions from false. HRSS values were divided into four different levels of confidence for protein interactions. In addition, HRSS was statistically the best at obtaining the highest average functional similarity among human-mouse orthologs. Both HRSS and the groupwise measure, simGIC, are superior in correlation with sequence and Pfam similarities. Because different measures are best suited for different circumstances, we compared two pairwise strategies, the maximum and the best-match average, in the evaluation. The former was more effective at inferring physical protein-protein interactions, and the latter at estimating the functional conservation of orthologs and analyzing the CESSM datasets. In conclusion, HRSS can be applied to different biological problems by quantifying the functional similarity between gene products. The algorithm HRSS was implemented in the C programming language, which is freely available from http://cmb.bnu.edu.cn/hrss.

  8. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  9. Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Genes from Lactobacillus Isolated from Traditional Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huiling; Pan, Lin; Li, Lina; Lu, Jie; Kwok, Laiyu; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Wenyi

    2017-03-01

    Lactobacilli are widely used as starter cultures or probiotics in yoghurt, cheese, beer, wine, pickles, preserved food, and silage. They are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). However, recent studies have shown that some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains carry antibiotic resistance genes and are resistant to antibiotics. Some of them may even transfer their intrinsic antibiotic resistance genes to other LAB or pathogens via horizontal gene transfer, thus threatening human health. A total of 33 Lactobacillus strains was isolated from fermented milk collected from different areas of China. We analyzed (1) their levels of antibiotic resistance using a standardized dilution method, (2) their antibiotic resistance gene profiles by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gene-specific primers, and (3) the transferability of some of the detected resistance markers by a filter mating assay. All Lactobacillus strains were found to be resistant to vancomycin, but susceptible to gentamicin, linezolid, neomycin, erythromycin, and clindamycin. Their susceptibilities to tetracycline, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, rifampicin, and chloramphenicol was different. Results from our PCR analysis revealed 19 vancomycin, 10 ciprofloxacin, and 1 tetracycline-resistant bacteria that carried the van(X), van(E), gyr(A), and tet(M) genes, respectively. Finally, no transferal of the monitored antibiotic resistance genes was observed in the filter mating assay. Taken together, our study generated the antibiotic resistance profiles of some milk-originated lactobacilli isolates and preliminarily assessed their risk of transferring antibiotic gene to other bacteria. The study may provide important data concerning the safe use of LAB. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Both decrease in ACL1 gene expression and increase in ICL1 gene expression in marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica expressing INU1 gene enhance citric acid production from inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Madzak, Catherine; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    In this study, some of the ATP-citrate lyase genes (ACL1) were deleted and the copy number of the iso-citrate lyase gene (ICL1) was increased in the marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b displaying the recombinant inulinase. It was found that lipid content and iso-citric acid in the transformant 30 obtained were greatly reduced and citric acid production was greatly enhanced. It was also found that the ACL1 gene expression and ATP-citrate lyase activity in the transformant 30 were declined and the ICL1 gene expression and iso-citrate lyase activity were promoted. During the 2-l fermentation, 84.0 g/l of citric acid and 1.8 g/l of iso-citric acid in the fermented medium were attained from 10.0 % of inulin by the transformant 30 within 214 h. The results showed that only 0.36 % of the residual reducing sugar and 1.0 % of the residual total sugar were left in the fermented medium, suggesting that 89.6 % of the total sugar was used for citric acid production and cell growth by the transformant 30.

  11. Normal Collagen and Bone Production by Gene-targeted Human Osteogenesis Imperfecta iPSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyle, David R; Khan, Iram F; Ren, Gaoying; Wang, Pei-Rong; Kho, Jordan; Schwarze, Ulrike; Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by dominant mutations in the type I collagen genes. In principle, the skeletal abnormalities of OI could be treated by transplantation of patient-specific, bone-forming cells that no longer express the mutant gene. Here, we develop this approach by isolating mesenchymal cells from OI patients, inactivating their mutant collagen genes by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene targeting, and deriving induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) that were expanded and differentiated into mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs). Gene-targeted iMSCs produced normal collagen and formed bone in vivo, but were less senescent and proliferated more than bone-derived MSCs. To generate iPSCs that would be more appropriate for clinical use, the reprogramming and selectable marker transgenes were removed by Cre recombinase. These results demonstrate that the combination of gene targeting and iPSC derivation can be used to produce potentially therapeutic cells from patients with genetic disease. PMID:22031238

  12. Distinct and overlapping roles of Nipah virus P gene products in modulating the human endothelial cell antiviral response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Lo

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in up to 75% of infected humans. Like other paramyxoviruses, NiV employs co-transcriptional mRNA editing during transcription of the phosphoprotein (P gene to generate additional mRNAs encoding the V and W proteins. The C protein is translated from the P mRNA, but in an alternative reading frame. There is evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies to show that the P gene products play a role in NiV pathogenesis. We have developed a reverse genetic system to dissect the individual roles of the NiV P gene products in limiting the antiviral response in primary human microvascular lung endothelial cells, which represent important targets in human NiV infection. By characterizing growth curves and early antiviral responses against a number of recombinant NiVs with genetic modifications altering expression of the proteins encoded by the P gene, we observed that multiple elements encoded by the P gene have both distinct and overlapping roles in modulating virus replication as well as in limiting expression of antiviral mediators such as IFN-β, CXCL10, and CCL5. Our findings corroborate observations from in vivo hamster infection studies, and provide molecular insights into the attenuation and the histopathology observed in hamsters infected with C, V, and W-deficient NiVs. The results of this study also provide an opportunity to verify the results of earlier artificial plasmid expression studies in the context of authentic viral infection.

  13. Distinct and overlapping roles of Nipah virus P gene products in modulating the human endothelial cell antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Michael K; Peeples, Mark E; Bellini, William J; Nichol, Stuart T; Rota, Paul A; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2012-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in up to 75% of infected humans. Like other paramyxoviruses, NiV employs co-transcriptional mRNA editing during transcription of the phosphoprotein (P) gene to generate additional mRNAs encoding the V and W proteins. The C protein is translated from the P mRNA, but in an alternative reading frame. There is evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies to show that the P gene products play a role in NiV pathogenesis. We have developed a reverse genetic system to dissect the individual roles of the NiV P gene products in limiting the antiviral response in primary human microvascular lung endothelial cells, which represent important targets in human NiV infection. By characterizing growth curves and early antiviral responses against a number of recombinant NiVs with genetic modifications altering expression of the proteins encoded by the P gene, we observed that multiple elements encoded by the P gene have both distinct and overlapping roles in modulating virus replication as well as in limiting expression of antiviral mediators such as IFN-β, CXCL10, and CCL5. Our findings corroborate observations from in vivo hamster infection studies, and provide molecular insights into the attenuation and the histopathology observed in hamsters infected with C, V, and W-deficient NiVs. The results of this study also provide an opportunity to verify the results of earlier artificial plasmid expression studies in the context of authentic viral infection.

  14. Escherichia coli genome-scale metabolic gene knockout of lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA), increases succinate production from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienda, Bashir Sajo

    2017-11-06

    Genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) of Escherichia coli has been published with applications in predicting metabolic engineering capabilities on different carbon sources and directing biological discovery. The use of glycerol as an alternative carbon source is economically viable in biorefinery. The use of GEM for predicting metabolic gene deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) for increasing succinate production in Escherichia coli from glycerol carbon source remained largely unexplored. Here, I hypothesized that metabolic gene knockout of ldhA in E. coli from glycerol could increase succinate production. A proof-of-principle strain was constructed and designated as E. coli BMS5 (ΔldhA), by predicting increased succinate production in E. coli GEM and confirmed the predicted outcomes using wet cell experiments. The mutant GEM (ΔldhA) predicted 11% increase in succinate production from glycerol compared to its wild-type model (iAF1260), and the E. coli BMS5 (ΔldhA) showed 1.05 g/l and its corresponding wild-type produced .05 g/l (23-fold increase). The proof-of-principle strain constructed in this study confirmed the aforementioned hypothesis and further elucidated the fact that E. coli GEM can prospectively and effectively predict metabolic engineering interventions using glycerol as substrate and could serve as platform for new strain design strategies and biological discovery.

  15. GABA production and structure of gadB/gadC genes in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains from human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, R A; Poluektova, E U; Dyachkova, M S; Klimina, K M; Kovtun, A S; Averina, O V; Orlova, V S; Danilenko, V N

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate. Fifty eight strains were able to produce GABA. The most efficient GABA-producers were Bifidobacterium strains (up to 6 g/L). Time profiles of cell growth and GABA production as well as the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on GABA production were studied for L. plantarum 90sk, L. brevis 15f, B. adolescentis 150 and B. angulatum GT102. DNA of these strains was sequenced; the gadB and gadC genes were identified. The presence of these genes was analyzed in 14 metagenomes of healthy individuals. The genes were found in the following genera of bacteria: Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Alistipes, Odoribacter, Prevotella), Proteobacterium (Esherichia), Firmicutes (Enterococcus), Actinobacteria (Bifidobacterium). These data indicate that gad genes as well as the ability to produce GABA are widely distributed among lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (mainly in L. plantarum, L. brevis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. dentium) and other gut-derived bacterial species. Perhaps, GABA is involved in the interaction of gut microbiota with the macroorganism and the ability to synthesize GABA may be an important feature in the selection of bacterial strains - psychobiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impacts of environmental stress on growth, secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and metabolite production of xerotolerant/xerophilic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Angel; Schmidt-Heydt, Markus; Rodríguez, Alicia; Parra, Roberto; Geisen, Rolf; Magan, Naresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the impact that single and interacting environmental stress factors have on tolerance mechanisms, molecular ecology and the relationship with secondary metabolite production by a group of mycotoxigenic species of economic importance. Growth of these fungi (Aspergillus flavus, A.ochraceus, A.carbonarius, Penicillium nordicum and P. verrucosum) is influenced by water and temperature interactions and type of solute used to induce water stress. Such abiotic stresses are overcome by the synthesis of increased amounts of low molecular weight sugar alcohols, especially glycerol and erythritol, to enable them to remain active under abiotic stress. This is accompanied by increased expression of sugar transporter genes, e.g., in A. flavus, which provides the nutritional means of tolerating such stress. The optimum conditions of water activity (a w) × temperature stress for growth are often different from those for secondary metabolite production. The genes for toxin production are clustered together and their relative expression is influenced by abiotic interacting stress factors. For example., A. flavus synthesises aflatoxins under water stress in non-ionic solutes. In contrast, P. nordicum specifically occupies a high salt (0.87 a w = 22% NaCl) niche such as cured meats, and produces ochratoxin A (OTA). There is differential and temporal expression of the genes in the secondary metabolite clusters in response to a w × temperature stress. We have used a microarray and integrated data on growth, relative expression of key genes in the biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolite production and toxin production using a mixed growth model. This was used to correlate these factors and predict the toxin levels produced under different abiotic stress conditions. This system approach to integrate these different data sets and model the relationships could be a powerful tool for predicting the relative toxin production under extreme stress conditions

  17. Model-guided identification of novel gene amplification targets for improving succinate production in Escherichia coli NZN111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xingxing; Li, Ningchuan; Chen, Qian; Hua, Qiang

    2017-10-16

    Reconstruction and application of genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have facilitated metabolic engineering by providing a platform on which systematic computational analysis of metabolic networks can be performed. In this study, a GEM of Escherichia coli NZN111 was employed by the analysis of production and growth coupling (APGC) algorithm to identify genetic strategies for the overproduction of succinate. Through in silico simulation and reaction expression analysis, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC), encoded by gapA, pgk, tpiA, and ppc, respectively, were selected for experimental overexpression. The results showed that overexpressing any of these could improve both growth and succinate production. Specifically, overexpression of GAPDH or PGK showed a significant effect with up to 24% increase in succinate production. These results indicate that the APGC algorithm can be effectively used to guide genetic manipulation for strain design by identifying genome-wide gene amplification targets.

  18. Improved production of homo-D-lactic acid via xylose fermentation by introduction of xylose assimilation genes and redirection of the phosphoketolase pathway to the pentose phosphate pathway in L-Lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenji; Yoshida, Shogo; Yamada, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-12-01

    The production of optically pure d-lactic acid via xylose fermentation was achieved by using a Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain whose l-lactate dehydrogenase gene was deficient and whose phosphoketolase genes were replaced with a heterologous transketolase gene. After 60 h of fermentation, 41.2 g/liter of d-lactic acid was produced from 50 g/liter of xylose.

  19. Cockayne Syndrome exhibits dysregulation of p21 and other gene products that may be independent of transcription coupled repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Hefner, E.; Laposa, R.R.; Karentz, D.

    2007-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a progressive childhood neurodegenerative disorder associated with a DNA repair defect caused by mutations in either of two genes, CSA and CSB. These genes are involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA damage from ultraviolet (UV) light, other bulky chemical adducts and reactive oxygen in transcriptionally active genes (transcription coupled repair, TCR). For a long period it has been assumed that the symptoms of CS patients are all due to reduced TCR of endogenous DNA damage in the brain, together with unexplained unique sensitivity of specific neural cells in the cerebellum. Not all the symptoms of CS patients are however easily related to repair deficiencies, so we hypothesize that there are additional pathways relevant to the disease, particularly those that are downstream consequences of a common defect in the E3 ubiquitin ligase associated with the CSA and CSB gene products. We have found that the CSB defect results in altered expression of anti-angiogenic and cell cycle genes and proteins at the level of both gene expression and protein lifetime. We find an over-abundance of p21 due to reduced protein turnover, possibly due to the loss of activity of the CSA/CSB E3 ubiquitylation pathway. Increased levels of p21 can result in growth inhibition, reduced repair from the p21-PCNA interaction, and increased generation of reactive oxygen. Consistent with increased reactive ozygen levels we find that CS-A and -B cells grown under ambient oxygen show increased DNA breakage, as compared to xeroderma pigmentosum cells. Thus the complex symptoms of CS may be due to multiple, independent downstream targets of the E3 ubiquitylation system that results in increased DNA damage, reduced transcription coupled repair, and inhibition of cell cycle progression and growth. PMID:17055654

  20. Enterotoxin production, enterotoxin gene distribution, and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from milk of cows with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leane; Rodrigues, Ana C; Hulland, Carol; Ruegg, Pamela L

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate enterotoxin production, enterotoxin gene distribution, and genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus in milk obtained from cows with subclinical mastitis. Milk samples obtained from 350 cows (1,354 mammary glands) on 11 Wisconsin dairy farms. Of 252 S aureus isolates obtained from 146 cows, 83 isolates (from 66 cows with subclinical mastitis) were compared genotypically by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and via PCR identification of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) and classical S aureus enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see). Among the 83 S aureus isolates, ≥ 1 enterotoxin genes were identified in 8 (9.6%). Enterotoxin gene distribution was as follows: TSST-1, 7 isolates (8.4%); sec, 5 isolates (6.0%); and sed, 2 isolates (2.4%). Enterotoxin genes sea, seb, and see were not identified. Twelve pulsotypes and 5 subtypes were identified among the 83 isolates; 5 of the 12 pulsotypes were represented by only 1 isolate. In cows of 1 herd, only a single S aureus pulsotype was detected; in cows on most other farms, a variety of pulsotypes were identified. One pulsotype was recovered from 4 farms (n = 23 cows) and another from 5 other farms (16). Isolates with an enterotoxin gene were represented by 6 pulsotypes. S aureus classical enterotoxins and TSST-1 were rarely recovered from milk samples obtained from cows with subclinical mastitis in Wisconsin. Diverse pulsotypes of S aureus were detected within and among farms, indicating that different strains of S aureus cause subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

  1. GhCaM7-like, a calcium sensor gene, influences cotton fiber elongation and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Lu, Lili; Yang, Zhaoen; Wu, Zhixia; Qin, Wenqiang; Yu, Daoqian; Ren, Zhongying; Li, Yi; Wang, Lingling; Li, Fuguang; Yang, Zuoren

    2016-12-01

    Calcium signaling regulates many developmental processes in plants. Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most conserved calcium sensors and has a flexible conformation in eukaryotes. The molecular functions of CaM are unknown in cotton, which is a major source of natural fiber. In this study, a Gossypium hirsutum L.CaM7-like gene was isolated from upland cotton. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the GhCaM7-like gene was highly conserved as compared with Arabidopsis AtCaM7. The GhCaM7-like gene showed a high expression level in elongating fibers. Expression of β-glucuronidase was observed in trichomes on the stem, leaf and root in transgenic Arabidopsis plants of a PROGhCaM7-like:GUS fusion. Silencing of the GhCaM7-like gene resulted in decreased fiber length, but also caused reduction in stem height, leaf dimensions, seed length and 100-seed weight, in comparison with those of the control. Reduced expression of the GhCaM7-like gene caused decreased Ca2+ influx in cells of the leaf hypodermis and stem apex, and down-regulation of GhIQD1 (IQ67-domain containing protein), GhAnn2 (Annexins) and GhEXP2 (Expansin). These results indicate that the GhCaM7-like gene plays a vital role in calcium signaling pathways, and may regulate cotton fiber elongation and biomass production by affecting Ca2+ signatures and downstream signaling pathways of CaM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. VH Replacement Footprint Analyzer-I, a Java-Based Computer Program for Analyses of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes and Potential VH Replacement Products in Human and Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Lange, Miles D; Zhang, Zhixin

    2014-01-01

    VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated secondary recombination between a rearranged VH gene and an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS, TACTGTG) at the 3' end of VH gene coding region, a short stretch of nucleotides from the previous rearranged VH gene can be retained in the newly formed VH-DH junction as a "footprint" of VH replacement. Such footprints can be used as markers to identify Ig heavy chain (IgH) genes potentially generated through VH replacement. To explore the contribution of VH replacement products to the antibody repertoire, we developed a Java-based computer program, VH replacement footprint analyzer-I (VHRFA-I), to analyze published or newly obtained IgH genes from human or mouse. The VHRFA-1 program has multiple functional modules: it first uses service provided by the IMGT/V-QUEST program to assign potential VH, DH, and JH germline genes; then, it searches for VH replacement footprint motifs within the VH-DH junction (N1) regions of IgH gene sequences to identify potential VH replacement products; it can also analyze the frequencies of VH replacement products in correlation with publications, keywords, or VH, DH, and JH gene usages, and mutation status; it can further analyze the amino acid usages encoded by the identified VH replacement footprints. In summary, this program provides a useful computation tool for exploring the biological significance of VH replacement products in human and mouse.

  3. Transient gene expression optimization and expression vector comparison to improve HIV-1 VLP production in HEK293 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenmayor, Javier; Cervera, Laura; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Gòdia, Francesc

    2017-11-04

    Transient gene expression (TGE) has been used at small and medium scale for the production of biologicals in sufficient quantities to perform pre-clinical and characterization studies. Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-mediated transfection offers a low toxicity and non-expensive method for cell transfection. DNA and PEI concentration for transient gene expression has been extensively optimized in order to increase product titers. However, the possibility to extrapolate the optimal concentrations found for a specific bioprocess when expression vectors or cell lines need to be changed has not been investigated.In this work, the combination of three different HEK293 cell lines with three different vectors was studied for the production of HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs). The concentration of DNA and PEI was optimized for the nine combinations. The obtained results were very similar in all cases (DNA = 2.34 ± 0.18 μg/mL and PEI = 5.81 ± 0.18 μg/mL), revealing that transfection efficiency is not dependent on the cell line or vector type, but on DNA and PEI quantities. Furthermore, two of the cell lines tested stably expressed a protein able to recognize specific origins of replication: HEK293T/SV40 and HEK293E/oriP. Origins of replication were included in the vector sequences in order to test their capacity to increase production titers. HEK293T/SV40 resulted in a decrease of cell density and productivity of 2.3-fold compared to a control plasmid. On the other hand, HEK293E/OriP platform enabled a threefold improvement in HIV-1 VLP production keeping the same cell densities and viabilities compared to a control plasmid.

  4. Global analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters reveals vast potential of secondary metabolite production in Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Grijseels, Sietske; Prigent, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    sequenced the genomes of 9 Penicillium species and, together with 15 published genomes, we investigated the secondary metabolism of Penicillium and identified an immense, unexploited potential for producing secondary metabolites by this genus. A total of 1,317 putative biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were...... identified, and polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase based BGCs were grouped into gene cluster families and mapped to known pathways. The grouping of BGCs allowed us to study the evolutionary trajectory of pathways based on 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) synthases. Finally, we cross...... diversity of Penicillia and highlights the potential of these species as a source of new antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals....

  5. Gene Sequence Based Clustering Assists in Dereplication of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea Strains with Identical Inhibitory Activity and Antibiotic Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vynne, Nikolaj Grønnegaard; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Some microbial species are chemically homogenous, and the same secondary metabolites are found in all strains. In contrast, we previously found that five strains of P. luteoviolacea were closely related by 16S rRNA gene sequence but produced two different antibiotic profiles. The purpose of the p......Some microbial species are chemically homogenous, and the same secondary metabolites are found in all strains. In contrast, we previously found that five strains of P. luteoviolacea were closely related by 16S rRNA gene sequence but produced two different antibiotic profiles. The purpose...... of the present study was to determine whether such bioactivity differences could be linked to genotypes allowing methods from phylogenetic analysis to aid in selection of strains for biodiscovery. Thirteen P. luteoviolacea strains divided into three chemotypes based on production of known antibiotics and four...... correlation to chemotypes and inhibition profiles, while clustering based on concatenated 16S rRNA, gyrB, and recA gene sequences resulted in three clusters, two of which uniformly consisted of strains of identical chemotype and inhibition profile. A major time sink in natural products discovery is the effort...

  6. The wine yeast strain-dependent expression of genes implicated in sulfide production in response to nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Ferreira, Ana; Barbosa, Catarina; Jimenez-Marti, Elena; Del Olmo, Marcel Li; Mendes-Faia, Arlete

    2010-09-01

    Sulfur metabolism in S. cerevisiae is well established, but the mechanisms underlying the formation of sulfide remain obscure. Here we investigated by real time RT-PCR the dependence of expression levels of MET3, MET5/ECM17, MET10, MET16 and MET17 along with SSU1 on nitrogen availability in two wine yeast strains that produce divergent sulfide profiles. MET3 was the most highly expressed of the genes studied in strain PYCC4072, and SSU1 in strain UCD522. Strains behaved differently according to the sampling times, with UCD522 and PYCC4072 showing the highest expression levels at 120h and 72h, respectively. In the presence of 267mg assimilable N/l, the genes were more highly expressed in strain UCD522 than in PYCC4072. MET5/ECM17 and MET17 were only weakly expressed in both strains under any condition tested. MET10 and SSU1 in both strains, but MET16 only in PYCC4072, were consistently up-regulated when sulfide production was inhibited. This study illustrates that strain genotype could be important in determining enzyme activities and therefore the rate of sulfide liberation. This linkage, for some yeast strains, of sulfide production to expression levels of genes associated to sulfate assimilation and sulfur amino acid biosynthesis could be relevant for defining new strategies for genetic improvement of wine yeasts.

  7. Effect of deletion of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase gene (bdhA) on acetoin production of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjiao; Zhao, Xiangying; Zhang, Jiaxiang; Zhao, Chen; Liu, Jianjun; Tian, Yanjun; Yang, Liping

    2017-09-14

    The present work aims to block 2,3-butanediol synthesis in acetoin fermentation of Bacillus subtilis. First, we constructed a recombinant strain BS168D by deleting the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase gene bdhA of the B. subtilis168, and there was almost no 2,3-butanediol production in 20 g/L of glucose media. The acetoin yield of BS168D reached 6.61 g/L, which was about 1.5 times higher than that of the control B. subtilis168 (4.47 g/L). Then, when the glucose concentration was increased to 100 g/L, the acetoin yield reached 24.6 g/L, but 2.4 g/L of 2,3-butanediol was detected at the end of fermentation. The analysis of 2,3-butanediol chiral structure indicated that the main 2,3-butanediol production of BS168D was meso-2,3-butanediol, and the bdhA gene was only responsible for (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol synthesis. Therefore, we speculated that there may exit another pathway relating to the meso-2,3-butanediol synthesis in the B. subtilis. In addition, the results of low oxygen condition fermentation showed that deletion of bdhA gene successfully blocked the reversible transformation between acetoin and 2,3-butanediol and eliminated the effect of dissolved oxygen on the transformation.

  8. Cloning of the xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Gluconobacter oxydans and improved production of xylitol from D-arabitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masakazu; Suzuki, Shun-ichi; Tonouchi, Naoto; Yokozeki, Kenzo

    2003-03-01

    Xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) was purified from the cytoplasmic fraction of Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC 621. The purified enzyme reduced D-xylulose to xylitol in the presence of NADH with an optimum pH of around 5.0. Based on the determined NH2-terminal amino acid sequence, the gene encoding xdh was cloned, and its identity was confirmed by expression in Escherichia coli. The xdh gene encodes a polypeptide composed of 262 amino acid residues, with an estimated molecular mass of 27.8 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence suggested that the enzyme belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Expression plasmids for the xdh gene were constructed and used to produce recombinant strains of G. oxydans that had up to 11-fold greater XDH activity than the wild-type strain. When used in the production of xylitol from D-arabitol under controlled aeration and pH conditions, the strain harboring the xdh expression plasmids produced 57 g/l xylitol from 225 g/l D-arabitol, whereas the control strain produced 27 g/l xylitol. These results demonstrated that increasing XDH activity in G. oxydans improved xylitol productivity.

  9. High-affinity glucose transport in Aspergillus nidulans is mediated by the products of two related but differentially expressed genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep V Forment

    Full Text Available Independent systems of high and low affinity effect glucose uptake in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Low-affinity uptake is known to be mediated by the product of the mstE gene. In the current work two genes, mstA and mstC, have been identified that encode high-affinity glucose transporter proteins. These proteins' primary structures share over 90% similarity, indicating that the corresponding genes share a common origin. Whilst the function of the paralogous proteins is little changed, they differ notably in their patterns of expression. The mstC gene is expressed during the early phases of germination and is subject to CreA-mediated carbon catabolite repression whereas mstA is expressed as a culture tends toward carbon starvation. In addition, various pieces of genetic evidence strongly support allelism of mstC and the previously described locus sorA. Overall, our data define MstC/SorA as a high-affinity glucose transporter expressed in germinating conidia, and MstA as a high-affinity glucose transporter that operates in vegetative hyphae under conditions of carbon limitation.

  10. Production of volatile phenols by kimchi Lactobacillus plantarum isolates and factors influencing their phenolic acid decarboxylase gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosimin, Aurelius Albert; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2015-12-01

    Potential of kimchi lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates to produce volatile phenols and factors affecting their phenolic acid decarboxylase (padA) gene expression profiles were investigated in this study. Twelve percent (12%) of 50 tested LAB isolates were found to decarboxylate hydroxycinnamic acids. All six isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and possessed the padA gene. The highest padA expression was achieved on the third day of incubation with ferulic acid, with a relative expression of 3.30±0.32. The effects of glucose, substrate, and product concentrations, and the pH of the medium were investigated using response surface methodology for the first time in this study. The expression profiles of the padA gene were diverse in various stress environments. The concentration of p-coumaric acid was the most significant factor being positively correlated with the expression levels of the padA gene, but other factors did not show any significant effects. High concentrations of substrates could confer antibacterial activity. Therefore, decarboxylation reaction was suggested as a bacterial response to overcome the antibacterial activity. The phenolic acid decarboxylase activities of L. plantarum isolates found in this study can provide insights for their potential application in the development of food-grade flavors and additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperexpression of a Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin-encoding gene in Escherichia coli: properties of the product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, A Z; Pfister, R M; Dean, D H

    1990-09-01

    Conditions for hyperexpression, in Escherichia coli, of the Bacillus thuringiensis var, kurstaki gene, cryIA9(c)73, encoding an insecticidal crystal protein, CryIA(c)73, were investigated by varying the promoter type, host cell, plasmid copy number, the second codon and number of terminators. The cryIA(c)73 gene was cloned into three E. coli expression vectors, pKK223-3 (Ptac promoter), pET-3a (P phi 10 promoter), and pUC19 (Ptac promoter). The level of cryIA(c)73 expression was measured by ELISA and compared to total cellular protein over growth periods of 24 and 48 h. Maximum expression levels of 284 microgram CryIA(C)73/ml (48% of cellular protein) were obtained in shake flasks with the Ptac promoter in E. coli JM103. Optimal conditions were found to be low-copy-number plasmid (pBR322 ori), 48 h of growth, in lon+ cells. A change of the gene's second codon to AAA can improve expression by two to three fold but is undetectable in the presence of a strong E. coli promoter. The cryIA(c)73 gene product, in E. coli, formed crystals with the same lattice structure as the native crystals formed in B. thuringiensis (as visualized by electron microscopy). Bioassay results (insect toxicity and specificity) of the crystal produced in E. coli were similar to that produced in B. thuringiensis.

  12. Homologous expression of aspartokinase (ask) gene in Streptomyces clavuligerus and its hom-deleted mutant: effects on cephamycin C production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcengiz, Gülay; Okay, Sezer; Ünsaldı, Eser; Taşkın, Bilgin; Liras, Paloma; Piret, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of homologous multiple copies of the ask gene, which encodes aspartokinase catalyzing the first step of the aspartate pathway, on cephamycin C biosynthesis in S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585 and its hom mutant was investigated. The intracellular pool levels of aspartate pathway amino acids accorded well with the Ask activity levels in TB3585 and AK39. When compared with the control strain carrying vector alone without any gene insert, amplification of the ask gene in the wild strain resulted in a maximum of 3.1- and 3.3-fold increase in specific, 1.7- and 1.9-fold increase in volumetric cephamycin C production when grown in trypticase soy broth (TSB) and a modified chemically defined medium (mCDM), respectively. However, expression of multicopy ask gene in a hom-deleted background significantly decreased cephamycin C yields when the cells were grown in either TSB or mCDM, most probably due to physiological disturbance resulting from enzyme overexpression and high copy number plasmid burden in an auxotrophic host, respectively. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  13. Targeted disruption of the mouse adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) gene and the production of APRT-deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, S.J.; Chen, J.; Tischfield, J.A. [Indiana Univ., School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT: EC 2.4.2.7), a ubiquitously expressed purine salvage enzyme, catalyzes the synthesis of AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate from existing adenine and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate. Deficiency of this enzyme in humans results in the accumulation of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine leading to crystalluria and nephrolithiasis. In order to facilitate our study of this rare, autosomal recessive disorder, we applied the advances in gene targeting technology and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell culture to the production of APRT-deficient mice. A positive-negative targeting strategy was used. The tageting vector contain 5.6 kb of the mouse APRT gene, a neomycin resistance gene in exon 3 as a positive selection marker, and a HSV thymidine kinase gene at the 3{prime} end of the homology as a negative selection marker. The vector was introduced into D3 ES cells by electroporation and the cells were selected for G418 and ganciclovir (GANC) resistance. G418-GANC resistant clones were screened by Southern blot. One of several correctly targeted clones was expanded and used for blastocyst microinjection to produce chimeric mice. Chimeric animals were bred and agouti progeny heterozygous for the targeted allele were obtained. Heterozygous animals have been bred to produce APRT-deficient animals. Matings are currently underway to determine the phenotype of APRT/HPRT-deficient animals.

  14. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  15. Citric acid production and citrate synthase genes in distinct strains of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citric acid is an important organic acid, multifunctional with a wide array of uses. The objectives of this study were the isolation and selection strains of the genus Aspergillus, investigating the solubilization of phosphate of these isolates, verifying the expression rate of genes involved in the identification of isolates, and ...

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ

    1991-01-01

    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post-infe...... potentiator (mip) gene of Legionella pneumophila....

  17. Expression of cocoa genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves cocoa butter production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1...

  18. Enhanced Production of Polysaccharide Through the Overexpression of Homologous Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Gene in a Submerged Culture of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sen-Lin; Liu, Rui; Ren, Meng-Fei; Li, Huan-Jun; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to improve polysaccharide production by engineering the biosynthetic pathway in Ganoderma lucidum through the overexpression of the homologous UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) gene. The effects of UGP gene overexpression on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) content, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, and transcription levels of 3 genes encoding the enzymes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, including phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UGP, and α-1,3-glucan synthase (GLS), were investigated. The maximum IPS content and EPS production in G. lucidum overexpressing the UGP gene were 24.32 mg/100 mg dry weight and 1.66 g/L, respectively, which were higher by 42% and 36% than those of the wild-type strain. The transcription levels of PGM, UGP, and GLS were up-regulated by 1.6, 2.6, and 2.4-fold, respectively, in the engineered strain, suggesting that increased polysaccharide biosynthesis may result from a higher expression of those genes.

  19. The Treacher Collins syndrome (TCOF1) gene product is involved in ribosomal DNA gene transcription by interacting with upstream binding factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Henning, Dale; So, Rolando B.; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by an abnormality of craniofacial development that arises during early embryogenesis. TCS is caused by mutations in the gene TCOF1, which encodes the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle. Even though the genetic alterations causing TCS have been uncovered, the mechanism underlying its pathogenesis and the function of treacle remain unknown. Here, we show that treacle is involved in ribosomal DNA gene transcription by interacting with upstream binding factor (UBF). Immunofluorescence labeling shows treacle and UBF colocalize to specific nucleolar organizer regions and cosegregate within nucleolar caps of actinomycin d-treated HeLa cells. Biochemical analysis shows the association of treacle and UBF with chromatin. Immunoprecipitation and the yeast two-hybrid system both suggest physical interaction of the two nucleolar phosphoproteins. Down-regulation of treacle expression using specific short interfering RNA results in inhibition of ribosomal DNA transcription and cell growth. A similar correlation is observed in Tcof+/- mouse embryos that exhibit craniofacial defects and growth retardation. Thus, treacle haploinsufficiency in TCS patients might result in abnormal development caused by inadequate ribosomal RNA production in the prefusion neural folds during the early stages of embryogenesis. The elucidation of a physiological function of treacle provides important information of relevance to the molecular dissection of the biochemical pathology of TCS. PMID:15249688

  20. Type I Interferon Gene Response Is Increased in Early and Established Rheumatoid Arthritis and Correlates with Autoantibody Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Delgado, Julio E; Bastián-Hernandez, Yadira; Macias-Segura, Noe; Santiago-Algarra, David; Castillo-Ortiz, Jose D; Alemán-Navarro, Ana L; Martínez-Tejada, Pedro; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Garcia-De Lira, Yolanda; Olguín-Calderón, Diana; Trouw, Leendert A; Ramos-Remus, Cesar; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory debilitating disease that affects the joints in the early and productive phases of an individual's life. Several cytokines have been linked to the disease pathogenesis and are known to contribute to the inflammatory state characteristic of RA. The participation of type I interferon (IFN) in the pathogenesis of the disease has been already described as well as the identity of the genes that are regulated by this molecule, which are collectively known as the type I IFN signature. These genes have several functions associated with apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, Th2 cell induction, B cell proliferation, etc. This article evaluated the expression of several genes of the IFN signature in different stages of disease and their correlation with the levels of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) anticarbamylated protein (Anti-CarP) antibodies. Samples from individuals with early and established RA, high-risk individuals (ACPA+ and ACPA-), and healthy controls were recruited at "Unidad de Artritis y Rheumatismo" (Rheumatism and Arthritis Unit) in Guadalajara Jalisco Mexico. Determinations of ACPA were made with Eurodiagnostica ACPA plus kit. Anti-CarP determinations were made according to previously described protocols. RNA was isolated, and purity and integrity were determined according to RNA integrity number >6. Gene expression analysis was made by RT-qPCR using specific primers for mRNAs of the type I IFN signature. Relative gene expression was calculated according to Livak and Schmitgen. Significant differences in gene expression were identified when comparing the different groups for MXA and MXB (P < 0.05), also when comparing established RA and ACPA- in both IFIT 1 and G15. An increased expression of ISG15 was identified (P < 0.05), and a clear tendency toward increase was identified for HERC5. EPSTRI1, IFI6, and IFI35 were found to be elevated in the chronic/established RA and

  1. Putative carotenoid genes expressed under the regulation of Shine-Dalgarno regions in Escherichia coli for efficient lycopene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weiyue; Xu, Xian; Jiang, Ling; Zhang, Zhidong; Li, Shuang; Huang, He

    2015-11-01

    Putative genes crtE, crtB, and crtI from Deinococcus wulumiqiensis R12, a novel species, were identified by genome mining and were co-expressed using the optimized Shine-Dalgarno (SD) regions to improve lycopene yield. A lycopene biosynthesis pathway was constructed by co-expressing these three genes in Escherichia coli. After optimizing the upstream SD regions and the culture medium, the recombinant strain EDW11 produced 88 mg lycopene g(-1) dry cell wt (780 mg lycopene l(-1)) after 40 h fermentation without IPTG induction, while the strain EDW without optimized SD regions only produced 49 mg lycopene g(-1) dry cell wt (417 mg lycopene l(-1)). Based on the optimization of the upstream SD regions and culture medium, the yield of the strain EDW11 reached a high level during microbial lycopene production until now.

  2. Structures and comparative characterization of biosynthetic gene clusters for cyanosporasides, enediyne-derived natural products from marine actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amy L; Nam, Sang-Jip; Fukuda, Takashi; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Kauffman, Christopher A; Jensen, Paul R; Fenical, William; Moore, Bradley S

    2013-03-20

    Cyanosporasides are marine bacterial natural products containing a chlorinated cyclopenta[a]indene core of suspected enediyne polyketide biosynthetic origin. Herein, we report the isolation and characterization of novel cyanosporasides C-F (3-6) from the marine actinomycetes Salinispora pacifica CNS-143 and Streptomyces sp. CNT-179, highlighted by the unprecedented C-2' N-acetylcysteamine functionalized hexose group of 6. Cloning, sequencing, and mutagenesis of homologous ~50 kb cyanosporaside biosynthetic gene clusters from both bacteria afforded the first genetic evidence supporting cyanosporaside's enediyne, and thereby p-benzyne biradical, biosynthetic origin and revealed the molecular basis for nitrile and glycosyl functionalization. This study provides new opportunities for bioengineering of enediyne derivatives and expands the structural diversity afforded by enediyne gene clusters.

  3. Identification of a Novel Gene Product That Promotes Survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Assunta; Smith, Danielle; Brammananth, Rajini; Topolska, Agnieszka; Billman-Jacobe, Helen; Nagley, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae include significant human pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae. Drug resistance in mycobacteria is increasingly common making identification of new antimicrobials a priority. Mycobacteria replicate intracellularly, most commonly within the phagosomes of macrophages, and bacterial proteins essential for intracellular survival and persistence are particularly attractive targets for intervention with new generations of anti-mycobacterial drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings We have identified a novel gene that, when inactivated, leads to accelerated death of M. smegmatis within a macrophage cell line in the first eight hours following infection. Complementation of the mutant with an intact copy of the gene restored survival to near wild type levels. Gene disruption did not affect growth compared to wild type M. smegmatis in axenic culture or in the presence of low pH or reactive oxygen intermediates, suggesting the growth defect is not related to increased susceptibility to these stresses. The disrupted gene, MSMEG_5817, is conserved in all mycobacteria for which genome sequence information is available, and designated Rv0807 in M. tuberculosis. Although homology searches suggest that MSMEG_5817 is similar to the serine:pyruvate aminotransferase of Brevibacterium linens suggesting a possible role in glyoxylate metabolism, enzymatic assays comparing activity in wild type and mutant strains demonstrated no differences in the capacity to metabolize glyoxylate. Conclusions/Significance MSMEG_5817 is a previously uncharacterized gene that facilitates intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Interference with the function of MSMEG_5817 may provide a novel therapeutic approach for control of mycobacterial pathogens by assisting the host immune system in clearance of persistent intracellular bacteria. PMID:22363734

  4. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2 gene variation on beef cattle production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Lindholm-Perry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI in steers (P<0.008. Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P<0.05 and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG and residual feed intake (RFI, respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, adjusted fat thickness (AFT, and marbling (P<0.05. Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit across

  5. Identification of a novel gene product that promotes survival of Mycobacterium smegmatis in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Pelosi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae include significant human pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae. Drug resistance in mycobacteria is increasingly common making identification of new antimicrobials a priority. Mycobacteria replicate intracellularly, most commonly within the phagosomes of macrophages, and bacterial proteins essential for intracellular survival and persistence are particularly attractive targets for intervention with new generations of anti-mycobacterial drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified a novel gene that, when inactivated, leads to accelerated death of M. smegmatis within a macrophage cell line in the first eight hours following infection. Complementation of the mutant with an intact copy of the gene restored survival to near wild type levels. Gene disruption did not affect growth compared to wild type M. smegmatis in axenic culture or in the presence of low pH or reactive oxygen intermediates, suggesting the growth defect is not related to increased susceptibility to these stresses. The disrupted gene, MSMEG_5817, is conserved in all mycobacteria for which genome sequence information is available, and designated Rv0807 in M. tuberculosis. Although homology searches suggest that MSMEG_5817 is similar to the serine:pyruvate aminotransferase of Brevibacterium linens suggesting a possible role in glyoxylate metabolism, enzymatic assays comparing activity in wild type and mutant strains demonstrated no differences in the capacity to metabolize glyoxylate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MSMEG_5817 is a previously uncharacterized gene that facilitates intracellular survival of mycobacteria. Interference with the function of MSMEG_5817 may provide a novel therapeutic approach for control of mycobacterial pathogens by assisting the host immune system in clearance of persistent intracellular bacteria.

  6. The Us2 Gene Product of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 modulates NF-κB activation by targeting TAK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuan; Huang, Changjing; Zhang, Yi; Lin, Yong; Wang, Xueyu; Li, Qian; Liu, Shi; Tang, Jingfeng; Zhou, Li

    2017-08-21

    HSV-2 is one of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens worldwide and HSV-2 infection triggers cytokine and chemokine production. However, little is known about which HSV-2 genes engage in the regulation of NF-κB signaling and what mechanisms are involved. In a screen of the unique short (Us) regions of HSV-2, we observed that HSV-2 Us2 activates NF-κB signaling. We additionally indicated that deficiencies of Us2 decrease HSV-2 WT mediated NF-κB activation and cytokine and chemokine production, and overexpression of Us2 showed opposite effects. Co-immunoprecipitations indicated that Us2 interacted with TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1), a serine/threonine kinase essential for NF-κB activation, and Us2 has the ability to regulate the TAK1-mediated pathway and induces TAK1 downstream signaling. Further studies verified that Us2 induced the phosphorylation of TAK1, resulting in the activation of TAK1 mediated downstream signaling. The role of Us2 in HSV-2 induced NF-κB pathways was also confirmed in the Us2-deficient mutant and HSV-2 WT infected mice. Our results indicate that HSV-2 Us2 gene product binds to TAK1 to positively regulate NF-κB signaling and, for the first time, provide insights into the molecular mechanism.

  7. Deletion of ldhA and aldH genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae to enhance 1,3-propanediol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifei; Ma, Chunling; Wang, Ruiming; Yang, Jianlou; Zheng, Haijie

    2016-10-01

    To improve 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production and reduce byproduct concentration during the fermentation of Klebsiella pneumonia. Klebsiella. pneumonia 2-1ΔldhA, K. pneumonia 2-1ΔaldH and K. pneumonia 2-1ΔldhAΔaldH mutant strains were obtained through deletion of the ldhA gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase required for lactate synthesis and the aldH gene encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase involved in the synthesis of ethanol. After fed-batch fermentation, the production of 1,3-PD from glycerol was enhanced and the concentrations of byproducts were reduced compared with the original strain K. pneumonia 2-1. The maximum yields of 1,3-PD were 85.7, 82.5 and 87.5 g/l in the respective mutant strains. Deletion of either aldH or ldhA promoted 1,3-PD production in K. pneumonia.

  8. Sodium houttuyfonate affects production of N-acyl homoserine lactone and quorum sensing-regulated genes expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiang eWu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS is a means of cell-to-cell communication that uses diffusible signaling molecules that are sensed by the population to determine population density, thus allowing co-ordinate gene regulation in response to population density. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, production of the QS signaling molecule, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL, co-ordinates expression of key factors of pathogenesis, including biofilm formation and toxin secretion. It is predicted that the inhibition of AHL sensing would provide an effective clinical treatment to reduce the expression of virulence factors and increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents. We previously demonstrated that sodium houttuyfonate (SH, commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases, can effectively inhibit QS-regulated processes, including biofilm formation. Here, using a model system, we demonstrate that SH causes the dose-dependent inhibition of AHL production, through down-regulation of the AHL biosynthesis gene, lasI. Addition of SH also resulted in down-regulation of expression of the AHL sensor and transcriptional regulator, LasR, and inhibited the production of the QS-regulated virulence factors, pyocyanin and LasA. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of SH may be due to its ability to disrupt QS in P. aeruginosa.

  9. De Novo Transcriptomic Analysis of an Oleaginous Microalga: Pathway Description and Gene Discovery for Production of Next-Generation Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, LingLin; Han, Juan; Sang, Min; Li, AiFen; Wu, Hong; Yin, ShunJi; Zhang, ChengWu

    2012-01-01

    Background Eustigmatos cf. polyphem is a yellow-green unicellular soil microalga belonging to the eustimatophyte with high biomass and considerable production of triacylglycerols (TAGs) for biofuels, which is thus referred to as an oleaginous microalga. The paucity of microalgae genome sequences, however, limits development of gene-based biofuel feedstock optimization studies. Here we describe the sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for a non-model microalgae species, E. cf. polyphem, and identify pathways and genes of importance related to biofuel production. Results We performed the de novo assembly of E. cf. polyphem transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In a single run, we produced 29,199,432 sequencing reads corresponding to 2.33 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 75,632 unigenes with a mean size of 503 bp and an N50 of 663 bp, ranging from 100 bp to >3,000 bp. Assembled unigenes were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology identifiers. These analyses identified the majority of carbohydrate, fatty acids, TAG and carotenoids biosynthesis and catabolism pathways in E. cf. polyphem. Conclusions Our data provides the construction of metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of carbohydrate, fatty acids, TAG and carotenoids in E. cf. polyphem and provides a foundation for the molecular genetics and functional genomics required to direct metabolic engineering efforts that seek to enhance the quantity and character of microalgae-based biofuel feedstock. PMID:22536352

  10. De novo transcriptomic analysis of an oleaginous microalga: pathway description and gene discovery for production of next-generation biofuels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingLin Wan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eustigmatos cf. polyphem is a yellow-green unicellular soil microalga belonging to the eustimatophyte with high biomass and considerable production of triacylglycerols (TAGs for biofuels, which is thus referred to as an oleaginous microalga. The paucity of microalgae genome sequences, however, limits development of gene-based biofuel feedstock optimization studies. Here we describe the sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for a non-model microalgae species, E. cf. polyphem, and identify pathways and genes of importance related to biofuel production. RESULTS: We performed the de novo assembly of E. cf. polyphem transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In a single run, we produced 29,199,432 sequencing reads corresponding to 2.33 Gb total nucleotides. These reads were assembled into 75,632 unigenes with a mean size of 503 bp and an N50 of 663 bp, ranging from 100 bp to >3,000 bp. Assembled unigenes were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG orthology identifiers. These analyses identified the majority of carbohydrate, fatty acids, TAG and carotenoids biosynthesis and catabolism pathways in E. cf. polyphem. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provides the construction of metabolic pathways involved in the biosynthesis and catabolism of carbohydrate, fatty acids, TAG and carotenoids in E. cf. polyphem and provides a foundation for the molecular genetics and functional genomics required to direct metabolic engineering efforts that seek to enhance the quantity and character of microalgae-based biofuel feedstock.

  11. Lupinus albus Conglutin Gamma Modifies the Gene Expressions of Enzymes Involved in Glucose Hepatic Production In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santiago, Ana E; Vargas-Guerrero, Belinda; García-López, Pedro M; Martínez-Ayala, Alma L; Domínguez-Rosales, José A; Gurrola-Díaz, Carmen M

    2017-06-01

    Lupinus albus seeds contain conglutin gamma (Cγ) protein, which exerts a hypoglycemic effect and positively modifies proteins involved in glucose homeostasis. Cγ could potentially be used to manage patients with impaired glucose metabolism, but there remains a need to evaluate its effects on hepatic glucose production. The present study aimed to analyze G6pc, Fbp1, and Pck1 gene expressions in two experimental animal models of impaired glucose metabolism. We also evaluated hepatic and renal tissue integrity following Cγ treatment. To generate an insulin resistance model, male Wistar rats were provided 30% sucrose solution ad libitum for 20 weeks. To generate a type 2 diabetes model (STZ), five-day-old rats were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg). Each animal model was randomized into three subgroups that received the following oral treatments daily for one week: 0.9% w/v NaCl (vehicle; IR-Ctrl and STZ-Ctrl); metformin 300 mg/kg (IR-Met and STZ-Met); and Cγ 150 mg/kg (IR-Cγ and STZ-Cγ). Biochemical parameters were assessed pre- and post-treatment using colorimetric or enzymatic methods. We also performed histological analysis of hepatic and renal tissue. G6pc, Fbp1, and Pck1 gene expressions were quantified using real-time PCR. No histological changes were observed in any group. Post-treatment G6pc gene expression was decreased in the IR-Cγ and STZ-Cγ groups. Post-treatment Fbp1 and Pck1 gene expressions were reduced in the IR-Cγ group but increased in STZ-Cγ animals. Overall, these findings suggest that Cγ is involved in reducing hepatic glucose production, mainly through G6pc inhibition in impaired glucose metabolism disorders.

  12. Penicillin production in industrial strain Penicillium chrysogenum P2niaD18 is not dependent on the copy number of biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemons, Sandra; Koutsantas, Katerina; Becker, Kordula; Dahlmann, Tim; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-02-16

    Multi-copy gene integration into microbial genomes is a conventional tool for obtaining improved gene expression. For Penicillium chrysogenum, the fungal producer of the beta-lactam antibiotic penicillin, many production strains carry multiple copies of the penicillin biosynthesis gene cluster. This discovery led to the generally accepted view that high penicillin titers are the result of multiple copies of penicillin genes. Here we investigated strain P2niaD18, a production line that carries only two copies of the penicillin gene cluster. We performed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), quantitative qRT-PCR, and penicillin bioassays to investigate production, deletion and overexpression strains generated in the P. chrysogenum P2niaD18 background, in order to determine the copy number of the penicillin biosynthesis gene cluster, and study the expression of one penicillin biosynthesis gene, and the penicillin titer. Analysis of production and recombinant strain showed that the enhanced penicillin titer did not depend on the copy number of the penicillin gene cluster. Our assumption was strengthened by results with a penicillin null strain lacking pcbC encoding isopenicillin N synthase. Reintroduction of one or two copies of the cluster into the pcbC deletion strain restored transcriptional high expression of the pcbC gene, but recombinant strains showed no significantly different penicillin titer compared to parental strains. Here we present a molecular genetic analysis of production and recombinant strains in the P2niaD18 background carrying different copy numbers of the penicillin biosynthesis gene cluster. Our analysis shows that the enhanced penicillin titer does not strictly depend on the copy number of the cluster. Based on these overall findings, we hypothesize that instead, complex regulatory mechanisms are prominently implicated in increased penicillin biosynthesis in production strains.

  13. Two Adjacent and Similar TetR Family Transcriptional Regulator Genes, SAV577 and SAV576, Co-Regulate Avermectin Production in Streptomyces avermitilis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Guo; Xuan Zhang; Zhi Chen; Ying Wen; Jilun Li

    2014-01-01

    Streptomyces avermitilis is an important bacterial species used for industrial production of avermectins, a family of broad-spectrum anthelmintic agents. We previously identified the protein SAV576, a TetR family transcriptional regulator (TFR), as a downregulator of avermectin biosynthesis that acts by controlling transcription of its major target gene SAV575 (which encodes cytochrome P450/NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase) and ave genes. SAV577, another TFR gene, encodes a SAV577 protein tha...

  14. Transcriptome sequencing and annotation of the microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta: pathway description and gene discovery for production of next-generation biofuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid; Haznedaroglu, Berat Z; Bibby, Kyle; Peccia, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    .... Here we describe the sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly for the non-model microalgae species, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and identify pathways and genes of importance related to biofuel production...

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for the Production of L-Valine Based on Transcriptome Analysis and in Silico Gene Knockout Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jin Hwan Park; Kwang Ho Lee; Tae Yong Kim; Sang Yup Lee

    2007-01-01

    The L-valine production strain of Escherichia coli was constructed by rational metabolic engineering and stepwise improvement based on transcriptome analysis and gene knockout simulation of the in silico...

  16. Overexpression of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes in Corynebacterium glutamicum enhances glucose metabolism and alanine production under oxygen deprivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shogo; Gunji, Wataru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toda, Hiroshi; Suda, Masako; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that Corynebacterium glutamicum strain ΔldhAΔppc+alaD+gapA, overexpressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gapA, shows significantly improved glucose consumption and alanine formation under oxygen deprivation conditions (T. Jojima, M. Fujii, E. Mori, M. Inui, and H. Yukawa, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87:159-165, 2010). In this study, we employ stepwise overexpression and chromosomal integration of a total of four genes encoding glycolytic enzymes (herein referred to as glycolytic genes) to demonstrate further successive improvements in C. glutamicum glucose metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In addition to gapA, overexpressing pyruvate kinase-encoding pyk and phosphofructokinase-encoding pfk enabled strain GLY2/pCRD500 to realize respective 13% and 20% improved rates of glucose consumption and alanine formation compared to GLY1/pCRD500. Subsequent overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-encoding gpi in strain GLY3/pCRD500 further improved its glucose metabolism. Notably, both alanine productivity and yield increased after each overexpression step. After 48 h of incubation, GLY3/pCRD500 produced 2,430 mM alanine at a yield of 91.8%. This was 6.4-fold higher productivity than that of the wild-type strain. Intracellular metabolite analysis showed that gapA overexpression led to a decreased concentration of metabolites upstream of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that the overexpression resolved a bottleneck in glycolysis. Changing ratios of the extracellular metabolites by overexpression of glycolytic genes resulted in reduction of the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio, which also plays an important role on the improvement of glucose consumption. Enhanced alanine dehydrogenase activity using a high-copy-number plasmid further accelerated the overall alanine productivity. Increase in glycolytic enzyme activities is a promising approach to make drastic progress in growth-arrested bioprocesses.

  17. Differential rubisco content and photosynthetic efficiency of rol gene integrated Vinca minor transgenic plant: Correlating factors associated with morpho-anatomical changes, gene expression and alkaloid productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Masood, Nusrat; Manika, N; Sharma, Abhishek; Verma, Neha; Luqman, Suaib; Mathur, Ajay K

    2017-12-01

    Transgenic plants obtained from a hairy root line (PVG) of Vinca minor were characterized in relation to terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) pathway gene expression and vincamine production. The hairy roots formed callus with green nodular protuberances when transferred onto agar-gelled MS medium containing 3.0mg/l zeatin. These meristematic zones developed into shoot buds on medium with 1.0mg/l 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 40mg/l ascorbic acid. These shoot buds subsequently formed rooted plants when shifted onto a hormone-free MS medium with 6% sucrose. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by the presence of rol genes of the Ri plasmid in them. The transgenic plants (TP) had elongated internodes and a highly proliferating root system. During glass house cultivation TP consistently exhibited slower growth rate, low chlorophyll content (1.02±0.08mg/gm fr. wt.), reduced carbon exchange rate (2.67±0.16μmolm-2s-1), less transpiration rate (2.30±0.20mmolm-2 s-1) and poor stomatal conductance (2.21±0.04mmolm-2 s-1) when compared with non-transgenic population. The activity of rubisco enzyme in the leaves of TP was nearly two folds less in comparison to non-transgenic controls (1.80milliunitsml-1mgprotein-1 against 3.61milliunits ml-1mgprotein-1, respectively). Anatomically, the TP had a distinct tetarch arrangement of vascular bundles in their stem and roots against a typical ployarched pattern in the non-transgenic plants. Significantly, the transgenic plants accumulated 35% higher amount of total TIAs (3.10±0.21% dry wt.) along with a 0.03% dry wt. content of its vasodilatory and nootropic alkaloid vincamine in their leaves. Higher productivity of alkaloids in TP was corroborated with more than four (RQ=4.60±0.30) and five (RQ=5.20±0.70) times over-expression of TIAs pathway genes tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) and strictosidine synthase (STR) that are responsible for pushing the metabolic flux towards TIAs synthesis in this medicinal herb

  18. Glass-fiber disks provide suitable medium to study polyol production and gene expression in Eurotium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Cameron; Bluhm, Burton H; Reuhs, Brad L; Woloshuk, Charles P

    2005-01-01

    Eurotium species often dominate the fungal population in stored grain and are responsible for spoilage. In this study we tested the usefulness of glass fiber disks to aid the analysis of growth, polyol content and gene expression in E. rubrum in response to various water activities. Growth measurements based on ergosterol content and conidial production indicated that E. rubrum grew as well at 0.86 aw as 0.98 aw. The rate of growth was considerably reduced at 0.83 aw and 0.78 aw. In contrast, under our conditions, Aspergillus flavus and A. nidulans were able to grow only in the highest water activity (0.98 aw). Mannitol was the predominant polyol in all three fungal species grown at 0.98 aw. When E. rubrum was grown at 0.86 aw or lower, glycerol comprised greater than 90% of the total polyols. After a shift from 0.86 aw to 0.98 aw, mannitol levels in E. rubrum increased to 89% of the total polyols within 24 h. Of six genes whose expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR, three were affected by water activity. Expression of putative hydrophobin and mannitol dehydrogenase genes was higher at 0.98 aw than at 0.86 aw. A putative triacylglycerol lipase gene was expressed at higher levels in 0.86 aw.. The results of this study indicate that the disk method is suitable to study the effects of water activity on growth, polyol biosynthesis and gene expression in E. rubrum. The results also indicate the potential competitiveness of E. rubrum over A. flavus and A. nidulans in low water environments associated with stored grain.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induction of novel gene products in human endothelial cells including a macrophage-specific chemotaxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, V M; Green, S; Sarma, V; Holzman, L B; Wolf, F W; O'Rourke, K; Ward, P A; Prochownik, E V; Marks, R M

    1990-02-15

    Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) profoundly affect endothelial cell function, promoting for example interaction with leukocytes and inducing a procoagulant phenotype. Changes of this nature are likely to be central to the proinflammatory effects of TNF. In order to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which TNF alters endothelial cell function we utilized differential plaque hybridization to identify TNF-responsive genes. Forty TNF-inducible cDNAs were identified which on cross-hybridization were found to arise from six unique genes. DNA sequencing of these cDNAs revealed two encoded known cytokine-induced genes, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 and neutrophil chemotactic factor. One of the cDNAs encodes a recently described monocyte-specific chemotactic factor not previously associated with endothelium. The production of a monocyte chemotaxin by cytokine-activated endothelium has important implications for understanding the role of the vessel wall in disease states such as atherosclerosis and may also in part explain the indirect angiogenic activity of TNF. The three other cDNAs are completely novel as judged by data bank searches of partial DNA sequences and remain unidentified. On exposure of endothelial cells to TNF there is a rapid and substantial increase in levels of mRNA encoding the six genes, which are further superinduced by cycloheximide. Thus these represent primary response genes as their induction does not depend on protein synthesis. Interleukin-1 beta and lipopolysaccharide are also potent inducers. Nuclear run-on studies revealed that in most cases induction by TNF is mediated largely at the transcriptional level.

  20. Induction and role of regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells in tolerance to the transgene product following hepatic in vivo gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ou; Dobrzynski, Eric; Wang, Lixin; Nayak, Sushrusha; Mingle, Bethany; Terhorst, Cox; Herzog, Roland W

    2007-08-15

    Gene replacement therapy is complicated by the risk of an immune response against the therapeutic transgene product, which in part is determined by the route of vector administration. Our previous studies demonstrated induction of immune tolerance to coagulation factor IX (FIX) by hepatic adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer. Using a regulatory T-cell (T(reg))-deficient model (Rag-2(-/-) mice transgenic for ovalbumin-specific T-cell receptor DO11.10), we provide first definitive evidence for induction of transgene product-specific CD4(+)CD25(+) T(regs) by in vivo gene transfer. Hepatic gene transfer-induced T(regs) express FoxP3, GITR, and CTLA4, and suppress CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells. T(regs) are detected as early as 2 weeks after gene transfer, and increase in frequency in thymus and secondary lymphoid organs during the following 2 months. Similarly, adoptive lymphocyte transfers from mice tolerized to human FIX by hepatic AAV gene transfer indicate induction of CD4(+)CD25(+)GITR(+) that suppresses antibody formation to FIX. Moreover, in vivo depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T(regs) leads to antibody formation to the FIX transgene product after hepatic gene transfer, which strongly suggests that these regulatory cells are required for tolerance induction. Our study reveals a crucial role of CD4(+)CD25(+) T(regs) in preventing immune responses to the transgene product in gene transfer.

  1. Design and construction of a first-generation high-throughput integrated molecular biology platform for production of optimized synthetic genes and improved industrial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular biological techniques for plasmid-based assembly and cloning of synthetic assembled gene open reading frames are essential for elucidating the function of the proteins encoded by the genes. These techniques involve the production of full-length cDNA libraries as a source of plasmid-bas...

  2. Engineering of ethanolic E. coli with the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhances ethanol production from both glucose and xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, Tony; Arnaldos, Marina; Kunkel, Stephanie A; Pagilla, Krishna R; Stark, Benjamin C

    2010-11-01

    Escherichia coli strain FBR5, which has been engineered to direct fermentation of sugars to ethanol, was further engineered, using three different constructs, to contain and express the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene (vgb). The three resulting strains expressed Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) at various levels, and the production of ethanol was inversely proportional to the VHb level. High levels of VHb were correlated with an inhibition of ethanol production; however, the strain (TS3) with the lowest VHb expression (approximately the normal induced level in Vitreoscilla) produced, under microaerobic conditions in shake flasks, more ethanol than the parental strain (FBR5) with glucose, xylose, or corn stover hydrolysate as the predominant carbon source. Ethanol production was dependent on growth conditions, but increases were as high as 30%, 119%, and 59% for glucose, xylose, and corn stover hydrolysate, respectively. Only in the case of glucose, however, was the theoretical yield of ethanol by TS3 greater than that achieved by others with FBR5 grown under more closely controlled conditions. TS3 had no advantage over FBR5 regarding ethanol production from arabinose. In 2 L fermentors, TS3 produced about 10% and 15% more ethanol than FBR5 for growth on glucose and xylose, respectively. The results suggest that engineering of microorganisms with vgb/VHb could be of significant use in enhancing biological production of ethanol.

  3. Prevalence, Virulence Genes, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Genetic Diversity ofStaphylococcus aureusfrom Retail Aquatic Products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Dongli; Wu, Qingping; Xu, Mingfang; Zhang, Jumei; Yu, Shubo

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes severe blood and tissue infections or even fatal illnesses. Although S. aureus has been extensively studied in livestock and poultry foods in China, limited information has been reported in aquatic products. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to characterize S. aureus in aquatic products purchased from retail markets in China. In total, 320 aquatic food samples were collected from 32 provincial capitals in China. The results showed that 119 samples (37.2%, 119/320) were positive for S. aureus by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The contamination levels of 78.2% of samples ranged from 0.3 to 10 MPN/g, and six samples exceeded 110 MPN/g. A total of 119 S. aureus isolates from positive samples were selected to evaluate virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics. All S. aureus isolates were evaluated for the presence of 11 virulence genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and α-hemolysin ( hlα , 84.9%), fibronectin-binding protein A ( fnbA , 79.0%), S. aureus enterotoxin E ( see , 53.8%), and Panton-Valentine leucocidin ( pvl , 50.4%) were identified as the major genes. These genes formed 56 different profiles, with the major profile identified as pvl - hlα - fnbA (28.6%). The antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates was analyzed through the disk diffusion method, and the results showed high resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracyclines, but susceptibility to linezolid and vancomycin. In addition, 26 sequence types (STs) were obtained via multilocus sequence typing, including seven novel STs, among which ST1 (20.2%), ST15 (18.5%), and ST188 (13.4%) were the most common STs. All the isolates were mecC negative, but nine isolates carrying mecA were evaluated by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing, all of which were SCC mec III or SCC mec IV types. Isolates of SCCmec III showed a high prevalence

  4. Identification of Escherichia coli DNA helicase I as the traI gene product of the F sex factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monem, M; Taucher-Scholz, G; Klinkert, M Q

    1983-08-01

    Active DNA helicase I (Mr 180,000) can be isolated from Escherichia coli F+ strains but not F- strains. The transfer of the F sex factor to F- strains by conjugation permits the purification of the enzyme from the transconjugant strains. We conclude from this that helicase I is coded for by a portion of the F factor. Results also obtained by using recombinant plasmids carrying different DNA fragments of the F factor transfer region suggest that DNA helicase I is identical to the product of traI, one of the transfer genes of the F factor.

  5. Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Madsen, Karina Marie; Seppala, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Standardization of molecular cloning greatly facilitates advanced DNA engineering, parts sharing, and collaborative efforts such as the iGEM competition. All of these attributes facilitate exploitation of the wealth of genetic information made available by genome and RNA sequencing. Standardization...... to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable...... and simplifies the experimental design of projects aimed at biosynthetic pathway construction or engineering....

  6. Improved poly-gamma-glutamic acid production by chromosomal integration of the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene (vgb) in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yishan; Li, Xia; Liu, Qingzhi; Hou, Zhongwen; Zhu, Xiqiang; Guo, Xueping; Ling, Peixue

    2010-06-01

    In order to alleviate oxygen limitation and improve the yield of poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) during fermentation, the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene (vgb) was integrated into the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis and expressed during gamma-PGA production. The activity of the expressed Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) was confirmed by CO-difference spectrum. Expression of VHb enhanced cell growth under high viscosity fermentation conditions 1.26-fold and increased the yield of gamma-PGA 2.07-fold. These results indicate that the expression of VHb could be advantageous in high viscosity fermentation media. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence, Virulence Genes, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Genetic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus from Retail Aquatic Products in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Xu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important food-borne opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes severe blood and tissue infections or even fatal illnesses. Although S. aureus has been extensively studied in livestock and poultry foods in China, limited information has been reported in aquatic products. Accordingly, in this study, we aimed to characterize S. aureus in aquatic products purchased from retail markets in China. In total, 320 aquatic food samples were collected from 32 provincial capitals in China. The results showed that 119 samples (37.2%, 119/320 were positive for S. aureus by both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The contamination levels of 78.2% of samples ranged from 0.3 to 10 MPN/g, and six samples exceeded 110 MPN/g. A total of 119 S. aureus isolates from positive samples were selected to evaluate virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characteristics. All S. aureus isolates were evaluated for the presence of 11 virulence genes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and α-hemolysin (hlα, 84.9%, fibronectin-binding protein A (fnbA, 79.0%, S. aureus enterotoxin E (see, 53.8%, and Panton-Valentine leucocidin (pvl, 50.4% were identified as the major genes. These genes formed 56 different profiles, with the major profile identified as pvl-hlα-fnbA (28.6%. The antimicrobial susceptibility of all isolates was analyzed through the disk diffusion method, and the results showed high resistance to β-lactams, macrolides and tetracyclines, but susceptibility to linezolid and vancomycin. In addition, 26 sequence types (STs were obtained via multilocus sequence typing, including seven novel STs, among which ST1 (20.2%, ST15 (18.5%, and ST188 (13.4% were the most common STs. All the isolates were mecC negative, but nine isolates carrying mecA were evaluated by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing, all of which were SCCmecIII or SCCmecIV types. Isolates of SCCmecIII showed a high prevalence and were

  8. Expression of genes encoding F-1-ATPase results in uncoupling of glycolysis from biomass production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Solem, Christian; Pedersen, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    of the genes encoding F-1-ATPase was found to decrease the intracellular energy level and resulted in a decrease in the growth rate. The yield of biomass also decreased, which showed that the incorporated F-1-ATPase activity caused glycolysis to be uncoupled from biomass production. The increase in ATPase...... threefold in nongrowing cells resuspended in buffer, but in steadily growing cells no increase in flux was observed. The latter result shows that glycolysis occurs close to its maximal capacity and indicates that control of the glycolytic flux under these conditions resides in the glycolytic reactions...

  9. Use of Tn5lac to study expression of genes required for production of the antibiotic TA.

    OpenAIRE

    Tolchinsky, S; Fuchs, N; Varon, M; Rosenberg, E

    1992-01-01

    The beta-galactosidase activities arising from Tn5lac insertions in several genes required for antibiotic TA production were measured under different growth conditions. In all of the non-TA-producing mutants, the beta-galactosidase specific activity was higher when the cells were grown in nutrient-limited 0.5CTS medium (0.5% Casitone plus alanine, serine, and glucose) than in rich 2CT medium (2% Casitone). One of the mutants, 420, had low beta-galactosidase specific activity in both media. Th...

  10. Overexpression and rapid purification of the orfE/rph gene product, RNase PH of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Andersen, J T; Poulsen, Peter

    1992-01-01

    acid residue protein which was recently identified as the phosphorolytic ribonuclease, RNase PH, that removes nucleotides from the 3' ends of tRNA precursors. In this paper we report the construction of a plasmid, which overexpresses the orfE and pyrE gene products substantially, as well....../min/mg, as characteristic for RNase PH. OrfE/RNase PH contains helix-turn-helix motifs resembling those in DNA-binding proteins, and it binds nonspecifically to DNA. On SDS gels, OrfE/RNase PH migrates as two distinct protein bands. This heterogeneity might be caused by post-translational modification other than...

  11. Results on single cell PCR for Huntington's gene and WAVE product analysis for preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, K C; Liu, M C; Lilleberg, S; Kipersztok, S; Williams, R S

    2001-10-22

    Triple repeat base pair amplification is the basis for a number of prevalent genetic diseases such as Huntington's, Fragile X, Myotonic Dystrophy and others. We have chosen to investigate the use of PCR to amplify a portion of the Huntington's gene in single cells in order to develop a clinical test system for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Amplification of CAG triple repeat sequences poses difficulties due to resistance of GC melting for amplification. Special PCR modifications are necessary to carry out the amplification of GC rich areas found in most triple base pair expansions. We have used a modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol to amplify the expanded repeat sequence of the Huntington's gene with satisfactory efficiency. Detection of the amplified expanded CAG repeats is shown to be possible using both agarose gel electrophoresis and high definition denaturing high pressure liquid (DHPLC) chromatography. The incidence of allele dropout (ADO) is documented.

  12. The Tangier disease gene product ABC1 controls the cellular apolipoprotein-mediated lipid removal pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Richard M.; Wade, David P.; Garvin, Michael R.; Wang, Xingbo; Schwartz, Karen; Porter, J. Gordon; Seilhamer, Jeffrey J.; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Oram, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The ABC1 transporter was identified as the defect in Tangier disease by a combined strategy of gene expression microarray analysis, genetic mapping, and biochemical studies. Patients with Tangier disease have a defect in cellular cholesterol removal, which results in near zero plasma levels of HDL and in massive tissue deposition of cholesteryl esters. Blocking the expression or activity of ABC1 reduces apolipoprotein-mediated lipid efflux from cultured cells, and increasing expression of ABC1 enhances it. ABC1 expression is induced by cholesterol loading and cAMP treatment and is reduced upon subsequent cholesterol removal by apolipoproteins. The protein is incorporated into the plasma membrane in proportion to its level of expression. Different mutations were detected in the ABC1 gene of 3 unrelated patients. Thus, ABC1 has the properties of a key protein in the cellular lipid removal pathway, as emphasized by the consequences of its defect in patients with Tangier disease. PMID:10525055

  13. The HP0256 gene product is involved in motility and cell envelope architecture of Helicobacter pylori

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Douillard, Francois P

    2010-04-08

    Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for gastritis, and peptic and duodenal ulcers. The bacterium displays 5-6 polar sheathed flagella that are essential for colonisation and persistence in the gastric mucosa. The biochemistry and genetics of flagellar biogenesis in H. pylori has not been fully elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the gene HP0256, annotated as hypothetical, was a FliJ homologue. In Salmonella, FliJ is a chaperone escort protein for FlgN and FliT, two proteins that themselves display chaperone activity for components of the hook, the rod and the filament. Results Ablation of the HP0256 gene in H. pylori significantly reduced motility. However, flagellin and hook protein synthesis was not affected in the HP0256 mutant. Transmission electron transmission microscopy revealed that the HP0256 mutant cells displayed a normal flagellum configuration, suggesting that HP0256 was not essential for assembly and polar localisation of the flagella in the cell. Interestingly, whole genome microarrays of an HP0256 mutant revealed transcriptional changes in a number of genes associated with the flagellar regulon and the cell envelope, such as outer membrane proteins and adhesins. Consistent with the array data, lack of the HP0256 gene significantly reduced adhesion and the inflammatory response in host cells. Conclusions We conclude that HP0256 is not a functional counterpart of FliJ in H. pylori. However, it is required for full motility and it is involved, possibly indirectly, in expression of outer membrane proteins and adhesins involved in pathogenesis and adhesion.

  14. ANALYSIS OF CYP19 GENE POLYMORPHISM AS FACTOR AFFECTING MILK PRODUCTION OF CATTLE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Trakovická; Nina Moravcíková; Martina Miluchová; Michal Gábor

    2015-01-01

      The aim of this study was to determine the animal CYP19/PvuII genotypes, evaluate the genetic structure of population and estimate the effect of genotypes on long-life milk production traits in Slovak Simmental cattle...

  15. Production of transgenic pigs over-expressing the antiviral gene Mx1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanmei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The myxovirus resistance gene (Mx1 has a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. It is therefore an interesting candidate gene to improve disease resistance in farm animals. In this study, we report the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT to produce transgenic pigs over-expressing the Mx1 gene. These transgenic pigs express approximately 15–25 times more Mx1 mRNA than non-transgenic pigs, and the protein level of Mx1 was also markedly enhanced. We challenged fibroblast cells isolated from the ear skin of transgenic and control pigs with influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus (CFSV. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA revealed a profound decrease of influenza A proliferation in Mx1 transgenic cells. Growth kinetics showed an approximately 10-fold reduction of viral copies in the transgenic cells compared to non-transgenic controls. Additionally, we found that the Mx1 transgenic cells were more resistant to CSFV infection in comparison to non-transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that the Mx1 transgene can protect against viral infection in cells of transgenic pigs and indicate that the Mx1 transgene can be harnessed to develop disease-resistant pigs.

  16. Arabidopsis ethylene-response gene ETR1: Similiarity of product to two-component regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Kwok, S.F.; Bleecker, A.B.; Meyerowitz, E.M. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1993-10-22

    Ethylene behaves as a hormone in plants, regulating such aspects of growth and development as fruit ripening, flower senescence, and abscission. Ethylene insensitivity is conferred by dominant mutations in the ETR1 gene early in the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana. The ETR1 gene was cloned by the method of chromosome walking. Each of the four known etr1 mutant alleles contains a missense mutation near the amino terminus of the predicted protein. Although the sequence of the amino-terminal half of the deduced ETR1 protein appears to be novel, the carboxyl-terminal half is similar in sequence to both components of the prokaryotic family of signal transducers known as the two-component systems. Thus, an early step in ethylene signal transduction in plants may involve transfer of phosphate as in prokaryotic two-component systems. The dominant etr1-1 mutant gene conferred ethylene insensitivity to wild-type Arabidopsis plants when introduced by transformation.

  17. A single ataxia telangiectasia gene with a product similar to PI-3 kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitsky, K.; Bar-Shira, A.; Gilad, S.; Rotman, G.; Ziv, Y.; Vanagaite, L.; Smith, S.; Uziel, T.; Sfez, S.; Ashkenazi, M. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)] [and others

    1995-06-23

    A gene, ATM, that is mutated in the autosomal recessive disorder ataxia telangiectasia (AT) was identified by positional cloning on chromosome 11q22-23. AT is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, cancer predisposition, radiation sensitivity, and cell cycle abnormalities. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, with four complementation groups that have been suspected to represent different genes. ATM, which has a transcript of 12 kilobases, was found to be mutated in AT patients from all complementation groups, indicating that it is probably the sole gene responsible for this disorder. A partial ATM complementary DNA clone of 5.9 kilobases encoded a putative protein that is similar to several yeast and mammalian phosphatidylinositol-3{prime} kinases that are involved in mitogenic signal transduction, meiotic recombination, and cell cycle control. The discovery of ATM should enhance understanding of AT and related syndromes and may allow the identification of AT heterozygotes, who are at increased risk of cancer. 54 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  19. Whole-Genome Microarray and Gene Deletion Studies Reveal Regulation of the Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production Cycle by the Stringent Response in Ralstonia eutropha H16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigham, CJ; Speth, DR; Rha, C; Sinskey, AJ

    2012-10-22

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production and mobilization in Ralstonia eutropha are well studied, but in only a few instances has PHB production been explored in relation to other cellular processes. We examined the global gene expression of wild-type R. eutropha throughout the PHB cycle: growth on fructose, PHB production using fructose following ammonium depletion, and PHB utilization in the absence of exogenous carbon after ammonium was resupplied. Our results confirm or lend support to previously reported results regarding the expression of PHB-related genes and enzymes. Additionally, genes for many different cellular processes, such as DNA replication, cell division, and translation, are selectively repressed during PHB production. In contrast, the expression levels of genes under the control of the alternative sigma factor sigma(54) increase sharply during PHB production and are repressed again during PHB utilization. Global gene regulation during PHB production is strongly reminiscent of the gene expression pattern observed during the stringent response in other species. Furthermore, a ppGpp synthase deletion mutant did not show an accumulation of PHB, and the chemical induction of the stringent response with DL-norvaline caused an increased accumulation of PHB in the presence of ammonium. These results indicate that the stringent response is required for PHB accumulation in R. eutropha, helping to elucidate a thus-far-unknown physiological basis for this process.

  20. Optimization to the Culture Conditions for Phellinus Production with Regression Analysis and Gene-Set Based Genetic Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongwei; Xin, Yuezhen; Wang, Xun; Sun, Beibei; Xia, Shengyu; Li, Hui; Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Phellinus is a kind of fungus and is known as one of the elemental components in drugs to avoid cancers. With the purpose of finding optimized culture conditions for Phellinus production in the laboratory, plenty of experiments focusing on single factor were operated and large scale of experimental data were generated. In this work, we use the data collected from experiments for regression analysis, and then a mathematical model of predicting Phellinus production is achieved. Subsequently, a gene-set based genetic algorithm is developed to optimize the values of parameters involved in culture conditions, including inoculum size, PH value, initial liquid volume, temperature, seed age, fermentation time, and rotation speed. These optimized values of the parameters have accordance with biological experimental results, which indicate that our method has a good predictability for culture conditions optimization.

  1. Intrinsic incompatibilities evolving as a by-product of divergent ecological selection: Considering them in empirical studies on divergence with gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmuni, J; Westram, A M

    2017-06-01

    The possibility of intrinsic barriers to gene flow is often neglected in empirical research on local adaptation and speciation with gene flow, for example when interpreting patterns observed in genome scans. However, we draw attention to the fact that, even with gene flow, divergent ecological selection may generate intrinsic barriers involving both ecologically selected and other interacting loci. Mechanistically, the link between the two types of barriers may be generated by genes that have multiple functions (i.e., pleiotropy), and/or by gene interaction networks. Because most genes function in complex networks, and their evolution is not independent of other genes, changes evolving in response to ecological selection can generate intrinsic barriers as a by-product. A crucial question is to what extent such by-product barriers contribute to divergence and speciation-that is whether they stably reduce gene flow. We discuss under which conditions by-product barriers may increase isolation. However, we also highlight that, depending on the conditions (e.g., the amount of gene flow and the strength of selection acting on the intrinsic vs. the ecological barrier component), the intrinsic incompatibility may actually destabilize barriers to gene flow. In practice, intrinsic barriers generated as a by-product of divergent ecological selection may generate peaks in genome scans that cannot easily be interpreted. We argue that empirical studies on divergence with gene flow should consider the possibility of both ecological and intrinsic barriers. Future progress will likely come from work combining population genomic studies, experiments quantifying fitness and molecular studies on protein function and interactions. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellingen, Kerim; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Vandenbussche, Filip; Prinsen, Els; Remans, Tony; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and mutant plants.

  3. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Conclusions Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and

  4. Expression of type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferse gene DGTT1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enhances lipid production in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Kao, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Zheng-Chia; Chow, Te-Jin; Chang, Hsin-Yueh; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Chen, Po-Ting; Su, Hsiang-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-03-01

    Microalgal strains of Scenedesmus obliquus have the great potential for the production of biofuels, CO2 fixation, and bioremediation. However, metabolic engineering of S. obliquus to improve their useful phenotypes are still not fully developed. In this study, S. obliquus strain CPC2 was genetically engineered to promote the autotrophic growth and lipid productivity. The overexpression plasmid containing the type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferse (DGAT) gene DGTT1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was constructed and transformed into S. obliquus CPC2, and the positive transformants were obtained. The expression of DGTT1 gene was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR analysis. Enhanced lipid content of the transformant S. obliquus CPC2-G1 by nearly two-fold was observed. The biomass concentration of the recombinant strains was also 29% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the recombinant strain CPC2-G1 was successfully grown in 40 L tubular type photobioreactor and open pond system in an outdoor environment. The lipid content, biomass concentration, and biomass productivity obtained from 40 L tubular PBR were 127.8% 20.0%, and 232.6% higher than those obtained from the wild-type strain. The major aim of this work is to develop a tool to genetically engineer an isolated S. obliquus strain for the desired purpose. This is the first report that genetic engineering of S. obliquus has been successful employed to improve both the microalgal cell growth and the lipid production. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. High hydrostatic pressure activates gene expression that leads to ethanol production enhancement in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae distillery strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravim, Fernanda; Lippman, Soyeon I.; da Silva, Lucas F.; Souza, Diego T.; Fernandes, A. Alberto R.; Masuda, Claudio A.; Broach, James R.

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a stress that exerts broad effects on microorganisms with characteristics similar to those of common environmental stresses. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic mechanisms that can enhance alcoholic fermentation of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from Brazilian spirit fermentation vats. Accordingly, we performed a time course microarray analysis on a S. cerevisiae strain submitted to mild sublethal pressure treatment of 50 MPa for 30 min at room temperature, followed by incubation for 5, 10 and 15 min without pressure treatment. The obtained transcriptional profiles demonstrate the importance of post-pressurisation period on the activation of several genes related to cell recovery and stress tolerance. Based on these results, we over-expressed genes strongly induced by HHP in the same wild yeast strain and identified genes, particularly SYM1, whose over-expression results in enhanced ethanol production and stress tolerance upon fermentation. The present study validates the use of HHP as a biotechnological tool for the fermentative industries. PMID:22915193

  6. Gene transfer by particle bombardment to embryogenic cultures of Picea abies and the production of transgenic plantlets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapham, David; Elfstrand, Malin; Sabala, Izabela; Arnold, Sara von [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Genetics; Demel, Petra; Koop, H.U. [Muenchen Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Botanisches Institut

    2000-07-01

    A particle inflow gun enabled efficient production of transgenic plantlets of Picea abies from embryogenic suspension cultures. In transient assays, the Zea ubiquitin promoter was 12-16 times as active as the 35S promoter. For stable transformation, the plasmid pAHC25 contained the bar gene and the gusA gene, both driven by the Zea ubiquitin promoter. Cells were maintained from 1 to 3 h before bombardment on proliferation medium supplemented with 0.25 M myoinositol and, from day 8, supplemented with Basta as selective agent. Embryogenic colonies resistant to Basta appeared from two months after bombardment. Of over 100 independent Basta-resistant sublines tested, 65% expressed the co-transformed reporter gene, even when it was not linked to the selectable marker. Over 80% of the sublines retained their embryogenic potential. Of 11 transformants analyzed, 4 contained transgenes in low copy number (1-3), the rest contained transgenes in up to 15-20 copies. Over 200 Basta-resistant sublines from four cell lines have been established, of which 138 are confirmed as transformed. Plantlets have been regenerated and grown on in pots.

  7. Centrosomal localization of the psoriasis candidate gene product, CCHCR1, supports a role in cytoskeletal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari H Tervaniemi

    Full Text Available CCHCR1 (Coiled-Coil α-Helical Rod protein 1, within the major psoriasis susceptibility locus PSORS1, is a plausible candidate gene with the psoriasis associated risk allele CCHCR1*WWCC. Although its expression pattern in psoriatic skin differs from healthy skin and its overexpression influences cell proliferation in transgenic mice, its role as a psoriasis effector gene has remained unsettled. The 5'-region of the gene contains a SNP (rs3130453 that controls a 5'-extended open reading frame and thus the translation of alternative isoforms. We have now compared the function of two CCHCR1 isoforms: the novel longer isoform 1 and the previously studied isoform 3. In samples of Finnish and Swedish families, the allele generating only isoform 3 shows association with psoriasis (P<10(-7. Both isoforms localize at the centrosome, a cell organelle playing a role in cell division. In stably transfected cells the isoform 3 affects cell proliferation and with the CCHCR1*WWCC allele, also apoptosis. Furthermore, cells overexpressing CCHCR1 show isoform- and haplotype-specific influences in the cell size and shape and alterations in the organization and expression of the cytoskeletal proteins actin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The isoform 1 with the non-risk allele induces the expression of keratin 17, a hallmark for psoriasis; the silencing of CCHCR1 reduces its expression in HEK293 cells. CCHCR1 also regulates EGF-induced STAT3 activation in an isoform-specific manner: the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is disturbed in isoform 3-transfected cells. The centrosomal localization of CCHCR1 provides a connection to the abnormal cell proliferation and offers a link to possible cellular pathways altered in psoriasis.

  8. Equation of State of Detonation Products for TNT by Aquarium Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong

    2017-06-01

    During explosive detonation, the detonation pressure (P) and temperature (T) will decay quickly with the expansion of detonation products, and the damage effect is determined by the thermodynamic state of detonation products under high pressure. The traditional and important method for calibrating the parameters of thermodynamic state is cylinder test, but the results showed that when the cylinder expanded to a certain distance, the cylinder wall would break up and the detonation products would jet out, which would affect the accuracy of the calibration parameters of thermodynamic state. In this paper, the aquarium technique was used to study the detonation product thermodynamic state of TNT explosive, obtaining the shock wave track under the water and the trace of the interface between water and detonation products in the specific position with the high speed rotating mirror camera. By thermodynamic calculation program BKW and VHL, the parameters of equation of state were obtained. Using the parameters and the dynamic software LS-DYNA, the underwater explosion of TNT was simulated. Comparison with experimental results shows that the thermodynamic state parameters which is calculated by VHL is more accurate than that of BKW. It is concluded that the aquarium test is a more effective method to calibrate the thermodynamic state than cylinder test.

  9. Aerobic sulfide production and cadmium precipitation by Escherichia coli expressing the Treponema denticola cysteine desulfhydrase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Lum, A M; Ozuna, S C; Clark, D S; Keasling, J D

    2001-08-01

    The cysteine desulfhydrase gene of Treponema denticola was over-expressed in Escherichia coli to produce sulfide under aerobic conditions and to precipitate metal sulfide complexes on the cell wall. When grown in a defined salts medium supplemented with cadmium and cysteine, E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase secreted sulfide and removed nearly all of the cadmium from solution after 48 h. A control strain produced significantly less sulfide and removed significantly less cadmium. Measurement of acid-labile sulfide and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that cadmium was precipitated as cadmium sulfide. Without supplemental cysteine, both the E. coli producing cysteine desulfhydrase and the control E. coli demonstrated minimal cadmium removal.

  10. Antibiotic pollution in the Katari subcatchment of the Titicaca Lake: Major transformation products and occurrence of resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archundia, D; Duwig, C; Lehembre, F; Chiron, S; Morel, M-C; Prado, B; Bourdat-Deschamps, M; Vince, E; Aviles, G Flores; Martins, J M F

    2017-01-15

    An increasing number of studies pointed out the ubiquitous presence of medical residues in surface and ground water as well as in soil compartments. Not only antibiotics can be found in the environment but also their transformation products about which little information is generally available. The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is particularly worrying as it can lead to sanitary and health problems. Studies about the dissemination of antibiotics and associated resistances in the Bolivian Altiplano are scarce. We provide baseline information on the occurrence of Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Trimethoprim (TMP) antibiotics as well as on the most common human SMX transformation products (TP) and on the occurrence of sulfonamide resistance genes. The studied water and soil compartments presented high levels of antibiotic pollution. This situation was shown to be mainly linked with uncontrolled discharges of treated and untreated wastewaters, resulting on the presence of antibiotics in the Titicaca Lake. SMX TPs were detected in surface waters and on soil sampled next to the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). SMX resistance genes sulI and sulII were widely detected in the basin hydrological network, even in areas unpolluted with antibiotics. Mechanisms of co-selection of antibiotic- and metal- resistance may be involved in the prevalence of ARG's in pristine areas with no anthropogenic activity and free of antibiotic pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing production of L-serine by increasing the glyA gene expression in Methylobacterium sp. MB200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peihong; Chao, Hongjun; Jiang, Chengjian; Long, Zhangde; Wang, Changhao; Wu, Bo

    2010-03-01

    Microbial fermentation using methylotrophic bacteria is one of the most promising methods for L-serine production. Here we describe the metabolic engineering of a Methylobacterium strain to increase the production of L-serine. The glyA gene, encoding serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT), was isolated from the genomic DNA of Methylobacterium sp. MB200, using a DNA fragment encoding Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 SHMT as a probe, and inserted into the vector pLAFR3. The resulting construct was transformed into Methylobacterium sp. MB200 using triparental mating. The genetic-engineered strain, designated as Methylobacterium sp. MB202, was shown to produce 11.4 + or - 0.6 mg/ml serine in resting cell reactions from 30 mg/ml wet cells, 20 mg/ml glycine, and 70 mg/ml methanol in 2 days, representing a 4.4-fold increase from that of the wild strain. The results demonstrated the potential for improving L-serine production by manipulating the glyA in bacteria and should facilitate the production of L-serine using Methylobacterium sp. strains.

  12. Dietary açai modulates ROS production by neutrophils and gene expression of liver antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-11-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver.

  13. Reduction of biogenic amines production by eliminating the PEP4 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation of Chinese rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuewu; Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Yazhou; Li, Lina; Wu, Deguang; Chen, Yefu; Pei, Huadong; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-07-01

    Biogenic amines in Chinese rice wine have a potential threat of toxicity to human health. In this study, PEP4 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was knocked out in order to evaluate its effect on biogenic amines production; the enzyme encodes proteinase A (PrA), an enzyme that is responsible for the production of free amino acids. It was found that compared to the wild type strain, the PrA activity and amino acid concentration decreased significantly, and the production of biogenic amines in this knockout strain decreased by 25.5%, from 180.1mg/L to 134.2mg/L. Especially, tyramine, cadaverine and histamine concentrations were also decreased by 57.5%, 24.6% and 54.3%, respectively. The main reason for the decrease of biogenic amines may be due to the low concentration of free amino acids. Our results provide a new strategy to minimize the biogenic amine production during fermentation of Chinese rice wine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Validation of PDE9A Gene Identified in GWAS Showing Strong Association with Milk Production Traits in Chinese Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Hua Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphodiesterase9A (PDE9A is a cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-specific enzyme widely expressed among the tissues, which is important in activating cGMP-dependent signaling pathways. In our previous genome-wide association study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (BTA-55340-no-rsb located in the intron 14 of PDE9A, was found to be significantly associated with protein yield. In addition, we found that PDE9A was highly expressed in mammary gland by analyzing its mRNA expression in different tissues. The objectives of this study were to identify genetic polymorphisms of PDE9A and to determine the effects of these variants on milk production traits in dairy cattle. DNA sequencing identified 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and six SNPs in 5′ regulatory region were genotyped to test for the subsequent association analyses. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, all these identified SNPs were statistically significant for one or more milk production traits (p < 0.0001~0.0077. Interestingly, haplotype-based association analysis revealed similar effects on milk production traits (p < 0.01. In follow-up RNA expression analyses, two SNPs (c.-1376 G>A, c.-724 A>G were involved in the regulation of gene expression. Consequently, our findings provide confirmatory evidences for associations of PDE9A variants with milk production traits and these identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to accelerate Chinese Holstein breeding program.

  15. Overexpression of the Wheat Expansin Gene TaEXPA2 Improved Seed Production and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Chen

    Full Text Available Expansins are cell wall proteins that are grouped into two main families, α-expansins and β-expansins, and they are implicated in the control of cell extension via the disruption of hydrogen bonds between cellulose and matrix glucans. TaEXPA2 is an α-expansin gene identified in wheat. Based on putative cis-regulatory elements in the TaEXPA2 promoter sequence and the expression pattern induced when polyethylene glycol (PEG is used to mimic water stress, we hypothesized that TaEXPA2 is involved in plant drought tolerance and plant development. Through transient expression of 35S::TaEXPA2-GFP in onion epidermal cells, TaEXPA2 was localized to the cell wall. Constitutive expression of TaEXPA2 in tobacco improved seed production by increasing capsule number, not seed size, without having any effect on plant growth patterns. The transgenic tobacco exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to water-deficiency stress than did wild-type (WT plants. We found that under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained a better water status. The accumulated content of osmotic adjustment substances, such as proline, in TaEXPA2 transgenic plants was greater than that in WT plants. Transgenic plants also displayed greater antioxidative competence as indicated by their lower malondialdehyde (MDA content, relative electrical conductivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation than did WT plants. This result suggests that the transgenic plants suffer less damage from ROS under drought conditions. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes as well as expression levels of several genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes were higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants under drought stress. Collectively, our results suggest that ectopic expression of the wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improves seed production and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.

  16. Overexpression of the Wheat Expansin Gene TaEXPA2 Improved Seed Production and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Xiangzhu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Expansins are cell wall proteins that are grouped into two main families, α-expansins and β-expansins, and they are implicated in the control of cell extension via the disruption of hydrogen bonds between cellulose and matrix glucans. TaEXPA2 is an α-expansin gene identified in wheat. Based on putative cis-regulatory elements in the TaEXPA2 promoter sequence and the expression pattern induced when polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to mimic water stress, we hypothesized that TaEXPA2 is involved in plant drought tolerance and plant development. Through transient expression of 35S::TaEXPA2-GFP in onion epidermal cells, TaEXPA2 was localized to the cell wall. Constitutive expression of TaEXPA2 in tobacco improved seed production by increasing capsule number, not seed size, without having any effect on plant growth patterns. The transgenic tobacco exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to water-deficiency stress than did wild-type (WT) plants. We found that under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained a better water status. The accumulated content of osmotic adjustment substances, such as proline, in TaEXPA2 transgenic plants was greater than that in WT plants. Transgenic plants also displayed greater antioxidative competence as indicated by their lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation than did WT plants. This result suggests that the transgenic plants suffer less damage from ROS under drought conditions. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes as well as expression levels of several genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes were higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants under drought stress. Collectively, our results suggest that ectopic expression of the wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improves seed production and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants. PMID:27073898

  17. Enhanced production of steviol glycosides in mycorrhizal plants: a concerted effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on transcription of biosynthetic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Singh, Ved Pal; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-04-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) produces steviol glycosides (SGs)--stevioside (stev) and rebaudioside-A (reb-A) that are valued as low calorie sweeteners. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) augments SGs production, though the effect of this interaction on SGs biosynthesis has not been studied at molecular level. In this study transcription profiles of eleven key genes grouped under three stages of the SGs biosynthesis pathway were compared. The transcript analysis showed upregulation of genes encoding 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway enzymes viz.,1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phospate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phospate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 2-C-methyl-D-erytrithol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase (MDS) in mycorrhizal (M) plants. Zn and Mn are imperative for the expression of MDS and their enhanced uptake in M plants could be responsible for the increased transcription of MDS. Furthermore, in the second stage of SGs biosynthesis pathway, mycorrhization enhanced the transcription of copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPPS) and kaurenoic acid hydroxylase (KAH). Their expression is decisive for SGs biosynthesis as CPPS regulates flow of metabolites towards synthesis of kaurenoid precursors and KAH directs these towards steviol synthesis instead of gibberellins. In the third stage glucosylation of steviol to reb-A by four specific uridine diphosphate (UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) occurs. While higher transcription of all the three characterized UGTs in M plants explains augmented production of SGs; higher transcript levels of UGT76G1, specifically improved reb-A to stev ratio implying increased sweetness. The work signifies that AM symbiosis upregulates the transcription of all eleven SGs biosynthesis genes as a result of improved nutrition and enhanced sugar concentration due to increased photosynthesis in M plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Overexpression of the primary sigma factor gene sigA improved carotenoid production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: Application to production of β-carotene and the non-native linear C50 carotenoid bisanhydrobacterioruberin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Taniguchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium glutamicum shows yellow pigmentation due to biosynthesis of the C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin and its glycosides. This bacterium has been engineered for production of various non-native cyclic C40 and C50 carotenoids such as β-carotene, astaxanthin or sarcinaxanthin. In this study, the effect of modulating gene expression more broadly by overexpression of sigma factor genes on carotenoid production by C. glutamicum was characterized. Overexpression of the primary sigma factor gene sigA improved lycopene production by recombinant C. glutamicum up to 8-fold. In C. glutamicum wild type, overexpression of sigA led to 2-fold increased accumulation of the native carotenoid decaprenoxanthin in the stationary growth phase. Under these conditions, genes related to thiamine synthesis and aromatic compound degradation showed increased RNA levels and addition of thiamine and the aromatic iron chelator protocatechuic acid to the culture medium enhanced carotenoid production when sigA was overexpressed. Deletion of the gene for the alternative sigma factor SigB, which is expected to replace SigA in RNA polymerase holoenzymes during transition to the stationary growth phase, also increased carotenoid production. The strategy of sigA overexpression could be successfully transferred to production of the non-native carotenoids β-carotene and bisanhydrobacterioruberin (BABR. Production of the latter is the first demonstration that C. glutamicum may accumulate a non-native linear C50 carotenoid instead of the native cyclic C50 carotenoid decaprenoxanthin.

  19. Prolonged production of NADPH oxidase-corrected granulocytes after gene therapy of chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malech, Harry L.; Maples, Phillip B.; Whiting-Theobald, Narda; Linton, Gilda F.; Sekhsaria, Sudhir; Vowells, Sarah J.; Li, Fei; Miller, Judi A.; DeCarlo, Ellen; Holland, Steven M.; Leitman, Susan F.; Carter, Charles S.; Butz, Robert E.; Read, Elizabeth J.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Schneiderman, Richard D.; Van Epps, Dennis E.; Spratt, S. Kaye; Maack, Christopher A.; Rokovich, Joseph A.; Cohen, Lawrence K.; Gallin, John I.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the potential for engraftment of autologous hematopoietic stem cells in human adults not subjected to myeloablative conditioning regimens. Five adult patients with the p47phox deficiency form of chronic granulomatous disease received intravenous infusions of autologous CD34+ peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) that had been transduced ex vivo with a recombinant retrovirus encoding normal p47phox. Although marrow conditioning was not given, functionally corrected granulocytes were detectable in peripheral blood of all five patients. Peak correction occurred 3–6 weeks after infusion and ranged from 0.004 to 0.05% of total peripheral blood granulocytes. Corrected cells were detectable for as long as 6 months after infusion in some individuals. Thus, prolonged engraftment of autologous PBSCs and continued expression of the transduced gene can occur in adults without conditioning. This trial also piloted the use of animal protein-free medium and a blood-bank-compatible closed system of gas-permeable plastic containers for culture and transduction of the PBSCs. These features enhance the safety of PBSCs directed gene therapy. PMID:9342375

  20. Prolonged production of NADPH oxidase-corrected granulocytes after gene therapy of chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malech, H L; Maples, P B; Whiting-Theobald, N; Linton, G F; Sekhsaria, S; Vowells, S J; Li, F; Miller, J A; DeCarlo, E; Holland, S M; Leitman, S F; Carter, C S; Butz, R E; Read, E J; Fleisher, T A; Schneiderman, R D; Van Epps, D E; Spratt, S K; Maack, C A; Rokovich, J A; Cohen, L K; Gallin, J I

    1997-10-28

    Little is known about the potential for engraftment of autologous hematopoietic stem cells in human adults not subjected to myeloablative conditioning regimens. Five adult patients with the p47(phox) deficiency form of chronic granulomatous disease received intravenous infusions of autologous CD34(+) peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) that had been transduced ex vivo with a recombinant retrovirus encoding normal p47(phox). Although marrow conditioning was not given, functionally corrected granulocytes were detectable in peripheral blood of all five patients. Peak correction occurred 3-6 weeks after infusion and ranged from 0.004 to 0.05% of total peripheral blood granulocytes. Corrected cells were detectable for as long as 6 months after infusion in some individuals. Thus, prolonged engraftment of autologous PBSCs and continued expression of the transduced gene can occur in adults without conditioning. This trial also piloted the use of animal protein-free medium and a blood-bank-compatible closed system of gas-permeable plastic containers for culture and transduction of the PBSCs. These features enhance the safety of PBSCs directed gene therapy.

  1. Engineering the Production of Major Catechins by Escherichia coli Carrying Metabolite Genes of Camellia sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Kabir Mustapha; Abdulkarim, S. M.; Radu, Son; Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    A mimicked biosynthetic pathway of catechin metabolite genes from C. sinensis, consisting of flavanone 3 hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR), was designed and arranged in two sets of constructs: (a) single promoter in front of F3H and ribosome-binding sequences both in front of DFR and LCR; (b) three different promoters with each in the front of the three genes and ribosome-binding sequences at appropriate positions. Recombinant E. coli BL (DE3) harbouring the constructs were cultivated for 65 h at 26°C in M9 medium consisting of 40 g/L glucose, 1 mM IPTG, and 3 mM eriodictyol. Compounds produced were extracted in ethyl acetate in alkaline conditions after 1 h at room temperature and identified by HPLC. Two of the four major catechins, namely, (−)-epicatechin (0.01 ) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (0.36 mg/L), and two other types ((+)-catechin hydrate (0.13 mg/L) and (−)-catechin gallate (0.04 mg/L)) were successfully produced. PMID:22645428

  2. Efficient production of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector, serotype DJ/8, carrying the GFP gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Haruo; Mizushima, Tomoko; Chijiwa, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Masato; Suemizu, Hiroshi

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish an efficient method for the preparation of an adeno-associated viral (AAV), serotype DJ/8, carrying the GFP gene (AAV-DJ/8-GFP). We compared the yields of AAV-DJ/8 vector, which were produced by three different combination methods, consisting of two plasmid DNA transfection methods (lipofectamine and calcium phosphate co-precipitation; CaPi) and two virus DNA purification methods (iodixanol and cesium chloride; CsCl). The results showed that the highest yield of AAV-DJ/8-GFP vector was accomplished with the combination method of lipofectamine transfection and iodixanol purification. The viral protein expression levels and the transduction efficacy in HEK293 and CHO cells were not different among four different combination methods for AAV-DJ/8-GFP vectors. We confirmed that the AAV-DJ/8-GFP vector could transduce to human and murine hepatocyte-derived cell lines. These results show that AAV-DJ/8-GFP, purified by the combination of lipofectamine and iodixanol, produces an efficient yield without altering the characteristics of protein expression and AAV gene transduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Saccharomyces Genome Database: Gene Product Annotation of Function, Process, and Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J Michael

    2015-12-02

    An ontology is a highly structured form of controlled vocabulary. Each entry in the ontology is commonly called a term. These terms are used when talking about an annotation. However, each term has a definition that, like the definition of a word found within a dictionary, provides the complete usage and detailed explanation of the term. It is critical to consult a term's definition because the distinction between terms can be subtle. The use of ontologies in biology started as a way of unifying communication between scientific communities and to provide a standard dictionary for different topics, including molecular functions, biological processes, mutant phenotypes, chemical properties and structures. The creation of ontology terms and their definitions often requires debate to reach agreement but the result has been a unified descriptive language used to communicate knowledge. In addition to terms and definitions, ontologies require a relationship used to define the type of connection between terms. In an ontology, a term can have more than one parent term, the term above it in an ontology, as well as more than one child, the term below it in the ontology. Many ontologies are used to construct annotations in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD), as in all modern biological databases; however, Gene Ontology (GO), a descriptive system used to categorize gene function, is the most extensively used ontology in SGD annotations. Examples included in this protocol illustrate the structure and features of this ontology. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Replication, gene expression and particle production by a consensus Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Neumann

    Full Text Available Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV genomes are clonally integrated in tumor tissues of approximately 85% of all Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC cases, a highly aggressive tumor of the skin which predominantly afflicts elderly and immunosuppressed patients. All integrated viral genomes recovered from MCC tissue or MCC cell lines harbor signature mutations in the early gene transcript encoding for the large T-Antigen (LT-Ag. These mutations selectively abrogate the ability of LT-Ag to support viral replication while still maintaining its Rb-binding activity, suggesting a continuous requirement for LT-Ag mediated cell cycle deregulation during MCC pathogenesis. To gain a better understanding of MCPyV biology, in vitro MCPyV replication systems are required. We have generated a synthetic MCPyV genomic clone (MCVSyn based on the consensus sequence of MCC-derived sequences deposited in the NCBI database. Here, we demonstrate that transfection of recircularized MCVSyn DNA into some human cell lines recapitulates efficient replication of the viral genome, early and late gene expression together with virus particle formation. However, serial transmission of infectious virus was not observed. This in vitro culturing system allows the study of viral replication and will facilitate the molecular dissection of important aspects of the MCPyV lifecycle.

  5. The pathogenic properties of a novel and conserved gene product, KerV, in proteobacteria.

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    Dingding An

    Full Text Available Identification of novel virulence factors is essential for understanding bacterial pathogenesis and designing antibacterial strategies. In this study, we uncover such a factor, termed KerV, in Proteobacteria. Experiments carried out in a variety of eukaryotic host infection models revealed that the virulence of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa kerV null mutant was compromised when it interacted with amoebae, plants, flies, and mice. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that KerV is a hypothetical methyltransferase and is well-conserved across numerous Proteobacteria, including both well-known and emerging pathogens (e.g., virulent Burkholderia, Escherichia, Shigella, Vibrio, Salmonella, Yersinia and Brucella species. Furthermore, among the 197 kerV orthologs analyzed in this study, about 89% reside in a defined genomic neighborhood, which also possesses essential DNA replication and repair genes and detoxification gene. Finally, infection of Drosophila melanogaster with null mutants demonstrated that KerV orthologs are also crucial in Vibrio cholerae and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis pathogenesis. Our findings suggested that KerV has a novel and broad significance as a virulence factor in pathogenic Proteobacteria and it might serve as a new target for antibiotic drug design.

  6. Targeted Sequencing Reveals Large-Scale Sequence Polymorphism in Maize Candidate Genes for Biomass Production and Composition.

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    Moses M Muraya

    Full Text Available A major goal of maize genomic research is to identify sequence polymorphisms responsible for phenotypic variation in traits of economic importance. Large-scale detection of sequence variation is critical for linking genes, or genomic regions, to phenotypes. However, due to its size and complexity, it remains expensive to generate whole genome sequences of sufficient coverage for divergent maize lines, even with access to next generation sequencing (NGS technology. Because methods involving reduction of genome complexity, such as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, assess only a limited fraction of sequence variation, targeted sequencing of selected genomic loci offers an attractive alternative. We therefore designed a sequence capture assay to target 29 Mb genomic regions and surveyed a total of 4,648 genes possibly affecting biomass production in 21 diverse inbred maize lines (7 flints, 14 dents. Captured and enriched genomic DNA was sequenced using the 454 NGS platform to 19.6-fold average depth coverage, and a broad evaluation of read alignment and variant calling methods was performed to select optimal procedures for variant discovery. Sequence alignment with the B73 reference and de novo assembly identified 383,145 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, of which 42,685 were non-synonymous alterations and 7,139 caused frameshifts. Presence/absence variation (PAV of genes was also detected. We found that substantial sequence variation exists among genomic regions targeted in this study, which was particularly evident within coding regions. This diversification has the potential to broaden functional diversity and generate phenotypic variation that may lead to new adaptations and the modification of important agronomic traits. Further, annotated SNPs identified here will serve as useful genetic tools and as candidates in searches for phenotype-altering DNA variation. In summary, we demonstrated that sequencing of captured DNA is a powerful

  7. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsena, W.; Sconocchia, G.; Cho, H. S.; Chang, C.-C.; Wang, X.; Klumkrathok, K.; Ferrone, S.; Leelayuwat, C.

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA), a ligand for the activating immunoreceptor natural killer group 2D (NKG2D), is expressed on stressed cells such as tumor cells. Study of expression of this molecule on tumor cells and patients’ sera is useful to define patients’ stages leading to proper selection of therapy. In this study, mouse anti-MICA monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced by DNA immunization using a gene gun. Screening of anti-MICA-producing mouse and hybridomas were performed by immunoblot and cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against MICA-positive HeLa and -negative Me1386 cell lines. MAbs were characterized against MICA-positive and -negative cell lines by immunoblot, cell ELISA and flow cytometry. The mAbs were also characterized for locus and allele specificities of MICA and MHC class I chain-related gene B (MICB) as well as for their ability to stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues by immunohistochemistry. Although all mouse immune sera were positive with MICA-positive cells by both immunoblot and cell ELISA methods, some hybridomas were positive only with one method. The mAbs had diverse specificities to detect MICA and MICB and different abilities to stain formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Thus, DNA immunization by gene gun is an effective method to generate immune mice for the production of mAbs with a variety of specificities against native and denatured forms of MIC proteins. PMID:18937790

  8. Large-Scale Production of Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Serotype-9 Carrying the Human Survival Motor Neuron Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashnonejad, Afrooz; Chermahini, Gholamhossein Amini; Li, Shaoyong; Ozkinay, Ferda; Gao, Guangping

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors are a suitable vector for gene therapy studies because of desired characteristics such as low immunogenicity, transfection of non-dividing and dividing cells, and long-term expression of the transgene. In this study, the large-scale production of single stranded (ss) and self-complementary (sc) AAV9 carrying the human survival motor neuron (SMN) gene (AAV9-SMN) suitable for in vivo gene therapy studies of SMA was described. SMN cDNA has been cloned into pAAV-CB6-PI and pAAVsc-CB6-PI with and without its specific UTRs, respectively. Both plasmids bear CMV enhancer/beta-actin (CB) promoter, CMV IE enhancer, and polyadenylation signal sequences. 2.5 μg of constructed pAAV-CB6-PI-SMN and pAAVsc-CB6-PI-SMN cause to, respectively, 4.853- and 2.321-fold increases in SMN protein levels in transfected cells compared to untransfected cells. Ss and scAAV9-SMN vectors were also produced from these plasmids by transient transfection of HEK293 cells using CaCl2 solution. The silver staining and electron microscopy analysis demonstrated good quality of both isolated vectors, ssAAV9-SMN and scAAV9-SMN, with the titers of 2.00E+13 and 1.00E+13 GC/ml. The results of this study show that, the plasmid containing UTR elements causes to twice more SMN gene expression in transfected cells. The quality control results show that both produced ss and scAAV9-SMN are suitable for in vivo studies.

  9. Bifunctional lacZ alpha-ccdB genes for selective cloning of PCR products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabant, P; Drèze, P L; Van Reeth, T; Szpirer, J; Szpirer, C

    1997-11-01

    The use of PCR-amplified DNA-fragments is a classical approach to generate recombinant DNA. To facilitate the cloning of PCR products, we have constructed two new pKIL vectors that allow selection of recombinants. The multiple cloning sites (MCS) of these plasmids contain two adjacent Aspel sites and a unique HindII site. Cleavage of these vectors with Aspel produce linearized molecules with a single thymidine nucleotide at the 3' ends allowing TA cloning of Taq-amplified fragments. On the other hand, cleavage with HindII can be used for the cloning of blunt-ended PCR products generated by other DNA polymerases. The LacZ alpha-CcdB fusion protein produced by these plasmids has retained both the CcdB killer activity and the ability to alpha-complement the truncated LacZ delta M15. This bifunctionality allowed us to show that small PCR products (< 1000 bp) that do not disrupt lacZ alpha efficiently do inactivate CcdB, which demonstrates that the CcdB-based selection is well adapted for cloning of PCR products, especially for small size fragments.

  10. Detection of Integrase Gene in E. coli Isolated from Pigs at Different Stages of Production System

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    Eulalia de la Torre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrons are one of the genetic elements involved in the acquisition of antibiotic resistance. The aim of the present research is to investigate the presence of integrons in commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli strains, isolated from pigs at different stages of production system and from the environment in an Argentinian farm. Five sows postpartum and five randomly chosen piglets from each litter were sampled by rectal swabs. They were sampled again at day 21 and at day 70. Environmental samples from the farm were also obtained. E. coli containing any integron class or combination of both integrons was detected by polymerase chain reaction in 100% of sows and in piglets at different stages of production: farrowing pen stage 68.1%;, weaning 60%, and growing/finishing 85.8%, showing an increase along the production system. From environmental samples 78.4% of E. coli containing any integron class was detected. We conclude that animals and farm environment can act as reservoirs for potential spread of resistant bacteria by means of mobile genetic elements as integrons, which has a major impact on production of food animals and that can reach man through the food chain, constituting a problem for public health.

  11. Production of cyanophycin in Rhizopus oryzae through the expression of a cyanophycin synthetase encoding gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meussen, B.J.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanophycin or cyanophycin granule peptide is a protein that results from non-ribosomal protein synthesis in microorganisms such as cyanobacteria. The amino acids in cyanophycin can be used as a feedstock in the production of a wide range of chemicals such as acrylonitrile, polyacrylic acid,

  12. Type II thioesterase gene (ECO-orf27) from Amycolatopsis orientalis influences production of the polyketide antibiotic, ECO-0501 (LW01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Huang, He; Zhu, Li; Luo, Minyu; Chen, Daijie

    2012-11-01

    ECO-orf27 associated with the cluster of ECO-0501 (LW01) from Amycolatopsis orientalis is deduced to encode a type II thioesterase. Disruption of ECO-orf27 reduced LW01 production by 95 %. Complementation of the disrupted mutant with intact ECO-orf27 restored the production of LW01 suggesting that ECO-orf27 is crucial for LW01 biosynthesis. ECO-TE I, the gene encoding type I thioesterase from LW01 polyketide synthases, cannot complement ECO-orf27 deficient mutant distinguishing ECO-orf27 from type I thioesterase gene. Type II thioesterase gene pikAV from Streptomyces venezuelae could complement ECO-orf27 in A. orientalis indicating that the two genes are equivalent in their function. Overexpression of ECO-orf27 resulted in a 20 % increase in LW01 production providing an alternative approach for yield improvement.

  13. IL-32θ gene expression in acute myeloid leukemia suppresses TNF-α production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man Sub; Kang, Jeong-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung; Kim, Jong Wan; Hong, Jintae; Yoon, Do-Young

    2015-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α is highly expressed in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and has been demonstrated to induce rapid proliferation of leukemic blasts. Thus suppressing the production of TNF-α is important because TNF-α can auto-regulate own expression through activation of NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In this study, we focused on the inhibitory effect of IL-32θ on TNF-α production in acute myeloid leukemia. Approximately 38% of patients with AML express endogenous IL-32θ, which is not expressed in healthy individuals. Furthermore, plasma samples were classified into groups with or without IL-32θ; then, we measured proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels. TNF-α production was not increased in patients with IL-32θ expression than that in the no-IL-32θ group. Using an IL-32θ stable expression system in leukemia cell lines, we found that IL-32θ attenuated phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced TNF-α production. IL-32θ inhibited phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, inhibitor of κB (IκB), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which are key positive regulators of TNF-α expression, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Moreover, the presence of IL-32θ attenuated TNF-α promoter activity and the binding of NF-κB with the TNF-α promoter. In addition, IL-32γ-induced TNF-α production has no correlation with inhibition of TNF-α via IL-32θ expression. Thus, IL-32θ may serve as a potent inhibitor of TNF-α in patients with AML. PMID:26516703

  14. Enhanced production of L-phenylalanine in Corynebacterium glutamicum due to the introduction of Escherichia coli wild-type gene aroH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanzhi; Zhang, Junli; Kang, Zhen; Du, Guocheng; Yu, Xiaobin; Wang, Tianwen; Chen, Jian

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic engineering is a powerful tool which has been widely used for producing valuable products. For improving L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) accumulation in Corynebacterium glutamicum, we have investigated the target genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways. The genes involved in the biosynthesis of L-Phe were found to be strictly regulated genes by feedback inhibition. As a result, overexpression of the native wild-type genes aroF, aroG or pheA resulted in a slight increase of L-Phe. In contrast, overexpression of aroF (wt) or pheA (fbr) from E. coli significantly increased L-Phe production. Co-overexpression of aroF (wt) and pheA (fbr) improved the titer of L-Phe to 4.46 ± 0.06 g l⁻¹. To further analyze the target enzymes in the aromatic amino acid synthesis pathway between C. glutamicum and E. coli, the wild-type gene aroH from E. coli was overexpressed and evaluated in C. glutamicum. As predicted, upregulation of the wild-type gene aroH resulted in a remarkable increase of L-Phe production. Co-overexpression of the mutated pheA (fbr) and the wild-type gene aroH resulted in the production of L-Phe up to 4.64 ± 0.09 g l⁻¹. Based on these results we conclude that the wild-type gene aroH from E. coli is an appropriate target gene for pathway engineering in C. glutamicum for the production of aromatic amino acids.

  15. In vitro production of bovine embryos: cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression patterns point to early atresia as beneficial for oocyte competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Razza, Eduardo; Pedersen, Hanne S.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro production (IW) of bovine embryos has become widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. Here, we review novel data on cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression, as determined by RNAseq on cellular material from pooled follicular fluids at the single animal level, a...

  16. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

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    Johansson Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0 into (Z-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadienoic ac