WorldWideScience

Sample records for vhf radiotelephone station

  1. 47 CFR 22.719 - Additional channel policy for rural radiotelephone stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applied for or been granted an authorization for other rural radiotelephone channel pairs in the same area... grade of service (blocking probability), and the applicant demonstrates that there will still be...

  2. Final environmental assessment for vegetation control at VHF stations, microwave stations, electrical substations, and pole yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-13

    Southwestern Power Adm. operates very high frequency (VHF) and microwave radio stations, electrical substations, and pole yards for electric power transmission throughout AR, MO, and OK. Vegetation growth at the stations must be suppressed for safety of operation and personnel. Southwestern has been using a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control for this purpose; Federally- mandated reductions in staff and budgetary resources require Southwestern to evaluate all potentially efficient methods for vegetation control. Three alternatives were examined: no action, mechanical/manual control, and (proposed) a combination of mechanical/manual and herbicide control. Environmental impacts on air and water quality, wetlands, wildlife, endangered species, archaeological and other resources, farmland, human health, transportation, etc. were evaluated.

  3. 2-D inner-shelf current observations from a single VHF WEllen RAdar (WERA) station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgaris, G.; Kumar, N.; Gurgel, K.-W.; Warner, J.C.; List, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of High Frequency (HF) radars used worldwide operate at medium to high frequencies (8 to 30 MHz) providing spatial resolutions ranging from 3 to 1.5 km and ranges from 150 to 50 km. This paper presents results from the deployment of a single Very High Frequency (VHF, 48 MHz) WEllen RAdar (WERA) radar with spatial resolution of 150 m and range 10-15 km, used in the nearshore off Cape Hatteras, NC, USA. It consisted of a linear array of 12 antennas operating in beam forming mode. Radial velocities were estimated from radar backscatter for a variety of wind and nearshore wave conditions. A methodology similar to that used for converting acoustically derived beam velocities to an orthogonal system is presented for obtaining 2-D current fields from a single station. The accuracy of the VHF radar-derived radial velocities is examined using a new statistical technique that evaluates the system over the range of measured velocities. The VHF radar velocities showed a bias of 3 to 7 cm/s over the experimental period explainable by the differences in radar penetration and in-situ measurement height. The 2-D current field shows good agreement with the in-situ measurements. Deviations and inaccuracies are well explained by the geometric dilution analysis. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  4. Forming and detection of digital watermarks in the System for Automatic Identification of VHF Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Шишкін

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forming and detection algorithms for digital watermarks are designed for automatic identification of VHF radiotelephone transmissions in the maritime and aeronautical mobile services. An audible insensitivity and interference resistance of embedded digital data are provided by means of OFDM technology jointly with normalized distortions distribution and data packet detection by the hash-function. Experiments were carried out on the base of ship’s radio station RT-2048 Sailor and USB ADC-DAC module of type Е14-140M L-CARD in the off-line processing regime in Matlab medium

  5. 47 CFR 80.911 - VHF transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.911 VHF..., measured at the power input terminals to the transmitter, and the output power of the transmitter, terminated in a matching artificial load, must be measured at the end of 10 minutes of continuous operation...

  6. VHF and L-band scintillation characteristics over an Indian low latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of simultaneous VHF (244 MHz and L-band (1.5 GHz scintillations recorded at a low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E, during the low sunspot activity year of March 2004 to March 2005, suggest that the occurrence of scintillations is mainly due to two types, namely the Plasma Bubble Induced (PBI, which maximizes during the post sunset hours of winter and equinoctial months, and the Bottom Side Sinusoidal (BSS type, which maximizes during the post-midnight hours of the summer solstice months. A detailed study on the spectral characteristics of the scintillations at both the frequencies show that the post-sunset scintillations are strong with fast fading (≈40 fad/min and are multiple in nature in scattering, giving rise to steep spectral slopes, whereas the post-midnight scintillations, which occur mostly on the VHF signal with low fading rate (≈4 fad/min, are of the BSS type, often showing typical Fresnel oscillations with reduced roll off spectral slopes, indicating that the type of irregularity resembles a thin screen structure giving rise to weak scattering. Using the onset times of several similar scintillation patches across the two satellite (FLEETSAT 73° E, INMARSAT 65° E ray paths (sub-ionospheric points are separated by 82 km, the East ward movement of the irregularity patches is found to vary from 150 to 250 m/s during the post sunset hours and decrease slowly during the post midnight hours. Further, the east-west extent of the PBI type of irregularities is found to vary from 100 to 500 km, while that of the BSS type extend up to a few thousand kilometers. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities; Auroral ionosphere; Electric fields and currents

  7. 46 CFR 169.669 - Radiotelephone equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiotelephone equipment. 169.669 Section 169.669 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS... of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.669 Radiotelephone equipment. A separate circuit from the...

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHF264 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF264 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF264P (Link to Original site) VHF...264F 606 VHF264Z 693 VHF264P 1279 - - Show VHF264 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-C/VHF264Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...264P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF264 (VHF264Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-C/VHF...DRRKNIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGDMRYMSCRADEQERGITIKSSSVSLHFEMPKEDKLPAGCTS

  9. Dicty_cDB: VHF181 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF181 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF181P (Link to Original site) VHF...181F 610 VHF181Z 416 VHF181P 1006 - - Show VHF181 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF1-D/VHF181Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...181P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF181 (VHF181Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-D/VHF...VKYKMVNFTIDQIRAIMDRRENIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKVSG DMRYMSCRADEQERGITIKSSSVSLHF

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHF777 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF777 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16283-1 VHF777P (Link to Original site) VHF...777F 474 VHF777Z 669 VHF777P 1123 - - Show VHF777 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF7-D/VHF777Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...777P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF777 (VHF777Q) /CSM/VH/VHF7-D/VHF...PNIIGVEHYKVATDVQKILXRI*itsryychfryg*fi *rpksncipcs*dstflittirscprxhqygr*ir*tlrlyq

  11. Dicty_cDB: VHF354 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF354 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF354P (Link to Original site) VHF...354F 617 VHF354Z 721 VHF354P 1318 - - Show VHF354 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-C/VHF354Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...354P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF354 (VHF354Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-C/VHF...no Acid sequence LSSAKKVKYKMVNFTIDQIRAIMDRRENIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGD

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHF590 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF590 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16306-1 VHF590P (Link to Original site) VHF...590F 115 VHF590Z 603 VHF590P 698 - - Show VHF590 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-D/VHF590Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...590P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF590 (VHF590Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-D/VHF5...qlphvlrqlk*sqnfhkkylkkvqeqqq--- ---rwifhrwccfqsthdamyflyqxfgslsw*snlxrpkist*xfyhifghfw*rls*l ss*ipi*lqkwysyv

  13. Dicty_cDB: VHF536 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF536 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16531-1 VHF536P (Link to Original site) VHF...536F 255 VHF536Z 685 VHF536P 920 - - Show VHF536 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-B/VHF536Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...536P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF536 (VHF536Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-B/VHF5...ti*mlhliskvmtvh*mslslfyggyfl*lsi*llwnysig qvvvcliksikxerllkstmt--- ---*erlcl*ilxlvsichf

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHF730 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF730 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15767-1 VHF730P (Link to Original site) VHF...730F 569 VHF730Z 718 VHF730P 1267 - - Show VHF730 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF7-B/VHF730Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...730P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF730 (VHF730Q) /CSM/VH/VHF7-B/VHF...QEKRIPVLNSMDANDSINKKA RISWPDGFKYFFVDNQAGDSESAKSGKNLPIQRDIELNWNGEAYEYSNSNYFPINGQXFN DVSYPV--- ---lhvvvvkxvhtlpvnvnqivhf

  15. Dicty_cDB: VHF649 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF649 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11031-1 VHF649P (Link to Original site) VHF...649F 562 VHF649Z 671 VHF649P 1213 - - Show VHF649 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF6-C/VHF649Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...649P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF649 (VHF649Q) /CSM/VH/VHF6-C/VHF...PNTPPTIKIELPSQSILKPSGQLKK*x* Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: i*qlvchlsivlfhhqviyphvlklekhf

  16. Dicty_cDB: VHF527 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF527 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF527P (Link to Original site) VHF...527F 571 VHF527Z 456 VHF527P 1007 - - Show VHF527 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-B/VHF527Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...527P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF527 (VHF527Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-B/VHF...AKKVKYKMVNFTIDQIRAIMDRRENIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGDMRYMSCRADEQXRGITIKSSSVSLHF

  17. Dicty_cDB: VHF294 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF294 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16441-1 VHF294P (Link to Original site) VHF...294F 573 VHF294Z 215 VHF294P 768 - - Show VHF294 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-D/VHF294Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...294P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF294 (VHF294Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-D/VHF2...ssfst*scisfttfry*gfsdctfr*fhfn**RFWFNMEQCII QWVMFYS--- ---DCHVSIKKFFKWWQRLDRWCCXXXSCXXXSWWFWFPTFLRIQISNXXY*k

  18. Dicty_cDB: VHF690 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF690 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11064-1 VHF690P (Link to Original site) VHF...690F 199 VHF690Z 419 VHF690P 598 - - Show VHF690 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF6-D/VHF690Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...690P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF690 (VHF690Q) /CSM/VH/VHF6-D/VHF6...vllksqsknqyl*hlikslidfinif*hgmhqiyhqrkkn*nq *k--- ---rrwfpr*rernhhfqlc*sts*rgcryw

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHF273 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF273 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11514-1 VHF273P (Link to Original site) VHF...273F 644 VHF273Z 678 VHF273P 1302 - - Show VHF273 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-D/VHF273Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...273P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF273 (VHF273Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-D/VHF...ctr*ccnvkdwchyssrl*syrs*ts*nrsifidr*iftsh*kdw**s llwfsnetr*skmcchcnwckhflwscckfstrnrrtwssssys*kywslly*fhrhlg

  20. Dicty_cDB: VHF243 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF243 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16423-1 VHF243P (Link to Original site) VHF...243F 580 VHF243Z 334 VHF243P 894 - - Show VHF243 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-B/VHF243Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...243P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF243 (VHF243Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-B/VHF2...AATCNAGATATTCCAGATTGGTTTGAAAAGATGG TACA sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence ifihadkff*RISHF

  1. Dicty_cDB: VHF134 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF134 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF134P (Link to Original site) VHF...134F 533 VHF134Z 404 VHF134P 917 - - Show VHF134 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF1-B/VHF134Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...134P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF134 (VHF134Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-B/VHF1...cid sequence LSSAKKVKYKMVNFTIDQIRAIMDRRENIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGDMRYMSCRADEQERGITIKSSSVSLHFEMPKE

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHF892 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF892 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF892P (Link to Original site) VHF...892F 140 VHF892Z 417 VHF892P 537 - - Show VHF892 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF8-D/VHF892Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...892P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF892 (VHF892Q) /CSM/VH/VHF8-D/VHF8... Translated Amino Acid sequence TIKSSSVSLHFEMPXEDKLPAGCTSHEFLINLIDSPSHVDFS--- ---ELTASPNILEPIYLVEITAPENAIGGI

  3. Dicty_cDB: VHF479 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF479 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11426-1 VHF479P (Link to Original site) VHF...479F 629 VHF479Z 691 VHF479P 1300 - - Show VHF479 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF4-D/VHF479Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...479P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF479 (VHF479Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-D/VHF...EKNPQEWRWSGGFFVDSISDYVVKSRNTERPDHDSLLF HVNIKEKQGTHFIRIPLSSKESPPYIIQNDTQFKISFFQRDSPENIDYIEPKEKLCYGWD EPSAEYVL

  4. Dicty_cDB: VHF754 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF754 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16531-1 VHF754P (Link to Original site) VHF...754F 526 VHF754Z 624 VHF754P 1130 - - Show VHF754 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF7-C/VHF754Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...754P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF754 (VHF754Q) /CSM/VH/VHF7-C/VHF...ixnkmqwlkmlqvk*killk*ekvvslgiiftipf--- ---flvsichfnchc*itfccsrwnnlxllxfldsryllqw*

  5. Dicty_cDB: VHF461 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF461 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11551-1 VHF461P (Link to Original site) VHF...461F 646 VHF461Z 261 VHF461P 887 - - Show VHF461 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF4-C/VHF461Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...461P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF461 (VHF461Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-C/VHF4...TTAAATTATTAAAAATAGTAAATAAAAAAAA sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence fyfifenfkthfhiiffl

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHF781 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF781 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16440-1 VHF781P (Link to Original site) VHF...781F 452 VHF781Z 680 VHF781P 1112 - - Show VHF781 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF7-D/VHF781Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...781P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF781 (VHF781Q) /CSM/VH/VHF7-D/VHF...vlkmmmlkf*xixftr*r Frame C: glldinkleeiik*rfhlfylfl*rlllayhfhkilfqlisktaligsnfnhyiqikmim y*l*iqdqrmf*kdqqmvv

  7. Dicty_cDB: VHF435 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF435 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF435P (Link to Original site) VHF...435F 616 VHF435Z 703 VHF435P 1299 - - Show VHF435 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF4-B/VHF435Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...435P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF435 (VHF435Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-B/VHF...AKKVKYKMVNFTIDQIRAIMDRRENIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGDMRYMSCRADEQERGITIKSSSVSLHF

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHF553 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF553 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16433-1 VHF553P (Link to Original site) VHF...553F 122 VHF553Z 533 VHF553P 635 - - Show VHF553 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-C/VHF553Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...553P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF553 (VHF553Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-C/VHF5...ed Amino Acid sequence syhfylfiy*IIIYLLNYYLLSCVNYLPINFNILYIY--- ---YVINLTLDGDNVNGFPKTVTVKPAPSXEQXYAEGEGLVKVF

  9. Dicty_cDB: VHF163 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF163 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11129-1 VHF163P (Link to Original site) VHF1...63F 611 VHF163Z 654 VHF163P 1245 - - Show VHF163 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF1-C/VHF163Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF1...63P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF163 (VHF163Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-C/VHF1...nt alignments: (bits) Value VHF163 (VHF163Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-C/VHF163Q.Seq.d/ 2357 0.0 VHM584 (VHM584Q) /CSM/VH

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHF444 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (Link to library) VHF444 (Link to dictyBase) - G20601 DDB0204337 Contig-U12392-1 VHF444P (Link to Original...site) VHF444F 579 VHF444Z 213 VHF444P 772 - - Show VHF444 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF444 (Link...tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF4-B/VHF444Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF444P (Link to Original site) Representative...Representative DNA sequence >VHF444 (VHF444Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-B/VHF444Q.Seq.d/ CAAAAGAAATAAATAATTATGCCATCA...significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF444 (VHF444Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-B/VHF444Q.Seq.d/ 1479 0.0 VHA836 (VHA836Q)

  11. Dicty_cDB: VHF338 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF338 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14303-1 VHF338P (Link to Original site) VHF3...38F 208 VHF338Z 685 VHF338P 873 - - Show VHF338 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF338Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF3...38P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF338 (VHF338Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF3...significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF338 (VHF338Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF338Q.Seq.d/ 1296 0.0 VHK267 (VHK267Q

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHF394 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF394 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF394P (Link to Original site) VHF3...94F 563 VHF394Z 417 VHF394P 960 - - Show VHF394 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-D/VHF394Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF3...94P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF394 (VHF394Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-D/VHF3...nt alignments: (bits) Value VHF394 (VHF394Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-D/VHF394Q.Seq.d/ 1776 0

  13. Dicty_cDB: VHF340 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF340 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11939-1 VHF340P (Link to Original site) VHF3...40F 113 VHF340Z 506 VHF340P 599 - - Show VHF340 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF340Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF3...40P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF340 (VHF340Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF3...Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF340 (VHF340Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF3

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHF329 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF329 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF329P (Link to Original site) VHF3...29F 618 VHF329Z 633 VHF329P 1231 - - Show VHF329 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF329Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF3...29P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF329 (VHF329Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF3...s CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF329 (VHF329Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3

  15. Dicty_cDB: VHF187 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF187 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16363-1 VHF187P (Link to Original site) VHF1...87F 549 VHF187Z 707 VHF187P 1236 - - Show VHF187 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF1-D/VHF187Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF1...87P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF187 (VHF187Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-D/VHF1...* Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF187 (VHF1

  16. Dicty_cDB: VHF368 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF368 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12673-1 VHF368P (Link to Original site) VHF3...68F 597 VHF368Z 746 VHF368P 1323 - - Show VHF368 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-C/VHF368Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF3...68P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF368 (VHF368Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-C/VHF3...ikfpknkii*nki k*nkiky Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF368 (VHF3

  17. Dicty_cDB: VHF348 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF348 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13926-1 VHF348P (Link to Original site) VHF3...48F 539 VHF348Z 473 VHF348P 992 - - Show VHF348 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF348Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF3...48P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF348 (VHF348Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF3...ksxvlmliltck Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF3

  18. Dicty_cDB: VHF312 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF312 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15897-1 VHF312P (Link to Original site) VHF3...12F 543 VHF312Z 483 VHF312P 1006 - - Show VHF312 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-A/VHF312Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF3...12P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF312 (VHF312Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-A/VHF3... 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for VHF31

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHF375 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF375 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF375P (Link to Original site) VHF3...75F 432 VHF375Z 670 VHF375P 1082 - - Show VHF375 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-D/VHF375Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF3...75P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF375 (VHF375Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-D/VHF3...pperekv*pqksqiltnstknskqfkshxsfqr*xsnlkk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF3

  20. Dicty_cDB: VHF190 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F0-ATPase putative regulatory protein IF1 (if1) mRNA, complete cds; nuclear gene for mitochondrial produc...VH (Link to library) VHF190 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12594-1 - (Link to Original site) VHF1...90F 581 - - - - - - Show VHF190 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF190 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF1-D/VHF190Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF190 (VHF190Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-D/VHF190Q.Seq.d/ ATTTTTCATTTTAAAAA

  1. Dicty_cDB: VHF331 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF331 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - - (Link to Original site) VHF3...31F 609 - - - - - - Show VHF331 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF331 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID... - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF3...31Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF3...31 (VHF331Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-B/VHF331Q.Seq.d/ AACTCTCGAGTGCAAAAAAAGTAAAGTACAAAATGGTTAATTTCA

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHF709 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF709 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15897-1 - (Link to Original site) - - VHF...709Z 602 - - - - Show VHF709 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF709 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF7-A/VHF709Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF709 (VHF709Q) /CSM/VH/VHF7-A/VHF709Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXCGTCCAA...vestir Frame B: ---sknfttrsrlqlccsfnglxpr**rw*tnrqhyhg*cksiwsssfnlsryyw*yrcs ilpqiq*kwchhsnlpiw*wsflyhf

  3. Dicty_cDB: VHF236 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF236 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14303-1 - (Link to Original site) - - VHF...236Z 611 - - - - Show VHF236 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF236 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-B/VHF236Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF236 (VHF236Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-B/VHF236Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXTGCCATT...VQKISQELKHLT*tfvsylvlk Frame B: ---plvicc*ninvlhfveilsxhglay*xhcfplvlv*fqilsrmiqs

  4. Dicty_cDB: VHF140 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF140 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15309-1 - (Link to Original site) - - VHF...140Z 518 - - - - Show VHF140 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF140 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF1-B/VHF140Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF140 (VHF140Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-B/VHF140Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXCCGATAA...EDYINMQIKQLENSENSQELIQKLNEHLSEYKASVEEIKHNVQNN Frame C: ---iixvtlmlflqngilhfigviil

  5. Dicty_cDB: VHF507 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF507 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11594-1 - (Link to Original site) - - VHF...507Z 541 - - - - Show VHF507 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF507 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-A/VHF507Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF507 (VHF507Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-A/VHF507Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXTACCAAT...nvhsmiwihvglxlvigx*sncfvttsfikst mmvllcstftmllkpsixwivvsmkkyf*clemnxhfw*sviki*knv

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHF321 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF321 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 - (Link to Original site) VHF...321F 617 - - - - - - Show VHF321 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF321 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-A/VHF321Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF321 (VHF321Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-A/VHF321Q.Seq.d/ AACTCTCGAGTGCAAAA...VIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGDMRYMSCRADEQERGITIKSSSVSLHFEMPKEDKLPAGCTSHEFLINLIDSPGHVDFS SEVTAALRVTDGALVVIDC

  7. Dicty_cDB: VHF866 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF866 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16600-1 - (Link to Original site) - - VHF...866Z 388 - - - - Show VHF866 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF866 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF8-C/VHF866Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF866 (VHF866Q) /CSM/VH/VHF8-C/VHF866Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXAAGCAGC...Frame C: ---qhnnifklafptiknftgvpmxfvmtnegdnlgnftvkthfakffstyyscgeaghh yfdsccn*y*qkqgckfhs*h*xkssrr*lcfxqnwfi

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHF155 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF155 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - VHF155P (Link to Original site) VHF155F 587 VHF1...55Z 643 VHF155P 1210 - - Show VHF155 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF155 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF1...-C/VHF155Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF155P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF155 (VHF155Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-C/VHF155Q.Seq.d/ ATTCTCGATACTGGAA

  9. Dicty_cDB: VHF392 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF392 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - VHF392P (Link to Original site) VHF392F 568 VHF3...92Z 375 VHF392P 923 - - Show VHF392 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF392 (Link ...to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3...-D/VHF392Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF392P (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF392 (VHF392Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-D/VHF392Q.Seq.d/ AACTCTCGAGTGCAAAA

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHF366 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF366 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12131-1 | Contig-U13633-1 VHF3...66P (Link to Original site) VHF366F 590 VHF366Z 544 VHF366P 1114 - - Show VHF366 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3...131-1 | Contig-U13633-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-C/VHF3...66Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF366P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF366 (VHF3...66Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-C/VHF366Q.Seq.d/ AATAATTTATTATTATTATTAATAAGTAATAGAAATAAAAGATGGAACCAATTCCAGATA

  11. Dicty_cDB: VHF310 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF310 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 - (Link to Original site) - - VHF3...10Z 625 - - - - Show VHF310 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF310 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-A/VHF310Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF310 (VHF310Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-A/VHF310Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXTCGTCAA...omology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF310 (VHF310Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-A/VHF3

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHF315 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF315 (Link to dictyBase) - G20600 DDB0169270 Contig-U12450-1 VHF3...15P (Link to Original site) VHF315F 216 VHF315Z 353 VHF315P 549 - - Show VHF315 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF3...ontig-U12450-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-A/VHF3...15Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF315P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF315 (VHF315Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3...-A/VHF315Q.Seq.d/ ATTAAAAAACTTCTTACTTGGACACCCCTTTTATATATATAAATAAAAACTTCTAAATAT AAATCCCA

  13. Dicty_cDB: VHF381 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF381 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16508-1 - (Link to Original site) - - VHF3...81Z 645 - - - - Show VHF381 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF381 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF3-D/VHF381Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF381 (VHF381Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-D/VHF381Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXCAACCAA...ignments: (bits) Value VHF381 (VHF381Q) /CSM/VH/VHF3-D/VHF381Q.Seq.d/ 1223 0.0 VHP767 (VHP767Q) /CSM/VH/VHP7

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHF210 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF210 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12400-1 | Contig-U16431-1 VHF...210P (Link to Original site) VHF210F 613 VHF210Z 636 VHF210P 1229 - - Show VHF210 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...400-1 | Contig-U16431-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-A/VHF...210Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF210P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF210 (VHF...210Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-A/VHF210Q.Seq.d/ AATAAAATGATAAGATCATCAATAAAAAATAAAATAACAACAACAAAAAGTTTATCATGT

  15. Dicty_cDB: VHF575 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF575 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15481-1 | Contig-U15981-1 VHF...575P (Link to Original site) VHF575F 586 VHF575Z 397 VHF575P 963 - - Show VHF575 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...81-1 | Contig-U15981-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-D/VHF...575Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF575P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF575 (VHF...575Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-D/VHF575Q.Seq.d/ ATAATAATACAAAGAAGAAATGAAAAATATAAATAATAAAATTTTAAAGATTTTTATTCT

  16. Dicty_cDB: VHF296 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF296 (Link to dictyBase) - G23392 DDB0187414 Contig-U12449-1 VHF...296P (Link to Original site) VHF296F 241 VHF296Z 482 VHF296P 703 - - Show VHF296 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...ontig-U12449-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-D/VHF...296Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF296P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF296 (VHF296Q) /CSM/VH/VHF...2-D/VHF296Q.Seq.d/ GATTATCAGAAAGATTACATTATGAAATTATACCAGATTGTATTAAAATTATTGAAAGCT CAAAACAA

  17. Dicty_cDB: VHF436 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF436 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - VHF436P (Link to Original site) VHF436F 618 VHF...436Z 699 VHF436P 1297 - - Show VHF436 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF436 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF...4-B/VHF436Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF436P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF436 (VHF436Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-B/VHF436Q.Seq.d/ AACTCTCGAGTGCAAA

  18. Dicty_cDB: VHF158 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF158 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - VHF158P (Link to Original site) VHF158F 608 VHF...158Z 693 VHF158P 1281 - - Show VHF158 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF158 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF...1-C/VHF158Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF158P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF158 (VHF158Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-C/VHF158Q.Seq.d/ AACTCTCGAGTGCAAA

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHF847 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF847 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15351-1 | Contig-U16514-1 VHF...847P (Link to Original site) VHF847F 478 VHF847Z 709 VHF847P 1167 - - Show VHF847 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...351-1 | Contig-U16514-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF8-B/VHF...847Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF847P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF847 (VHF...847Q) /CSM/VH/VHF8-B/VHF847Q.Seq.d/ TATGATGTTCCACTTATAATTCAAACGGTTGCCAATAATAAATCAACAAAACTCANTCTT

  20. Dicty_cDB: VHF272 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF272 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15754-1 VHF272P (Link to Original site) VHF...272F 515 VHF272Z 603 VHF272P 1098 - - Show VHF272 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-C/VHF272Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...272P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF272 (VHF272Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-C/VHF...id sequence (All Frames) Frame A: ixfssq**wnkkd*mihy*eiligrigvpm*vidngqlfvkimvvnhgptfhtimldhvh idgqrivlvdfvidfkifv*v*hf

  1. 47 CFR 80.1007 - Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. 80.1007 Section 80.1007 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1007 Bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone installation. Use of the bridge-to-bridge...

  2. A system for mapping sources of VHF and electric field pulses from in-cloud lightning at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ewen M.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1991-01-01

    The literature concerning VHF radiation and wideband electric fields from in-cloud lightning is reviewed. VHF location systems give impressive radio images of lightning in clouds with high spatial and temporal resolution. Using systems based on long and short baseline time-or-arrival and interferometry, workers have detected VHF sources that move at speeds of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 8) m/s. The more slowly moving sources appear to be associated with channel formation but the physical basis for the higher speeds is not clear. In contrast, wideband electric fields are directly related to physical parameters such as current and tortuosity. A long baseline system is described to measure simultaneously VHF radiation and wideband electric fields at five stations at Kennedy Space Center. All signals are detected over remote, isolated ground planes with fiber optics for data transmission. The modification of this system to map rapidly varying dE/dt pulses is discussed.

  3. Dicty_cDB: VHF476 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF476 (VHF476Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-D/VHF476Q.Seq.d/ 198 2e-...46 own update 2003.10.17 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value...e 2008.10.29 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value (Q54AX5) R

  4. Ionosphere VHF scintillations over Vaddeswaram (Geographic Latitude 16.31°N, Geographic Longitude 80.30°E, Dip 18°N), a latitude Indian station - A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmanandam, P. S.; Uma, G.; Pant, T. K.

    2017-10-01

    This research reports the 250 MHz amplitude ionosphere scintillations recorded at Vaddeswaram (Geographic Latitude 16.31°N, Geographic Longitude 80.30°E, Dip 18°N), a low-latitude station in India. Though amplitude scintillations were recorded for four continuous days (05-08 November 2011), the presence of intense and long-duration scintillations on 06 November 2011 instigated us to verify the ionosphere background conditions. This research, therefore, is also used important databases including, diurnal variations of h‧F (virtual height of the F-layer) and the vertical drifts as measured by an advanced digital ionosonde radar located at an Indian equatorial station i.e. Trivandrum (Geographic Latitude 8.5°N, Geographic Longitude 77°E, Dip 0.5°N), equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) ground strength measured using magnetometers and the total electron content (TEC) maps provided by the International GPS Service (IGS) to study the background ionosphere conditions. The interesting observations are higher E × B drifts, the occurrence of long-duration range-type spread F signatures at Trivandrum and, thereafter, intense scintillations over Vaddeswaram. It was found a secondary peak at around 1600 LT in EEJ strength followed by a higher upward drift velocity (more than 60 m/s) with a significant raise of the F region up to 470 km over the magnetic equator on 06 November 2011. The possible physical mechanisms of these important observational results are discussed in the light of available literature.

  5. 47 CFR 22.1037 - Application requirements for offshore stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1037 Application requirements... 30 days before filing the application: (1) The name, business address, channel coordinator, and... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for offshore stations...

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHF729 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF729 (VHF729Q) /CSM/VH/VHF...4-A/CHC421Q.Seq.d/ 139 9e-33 own update 2002.12.27 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value... 139 2e-29 1 dna update 2008.10.31 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value

  7. From ultrafast spectroscopy to bidirectional molecular switches: DHA/VHF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidhammer, U.; De Waele, V.; Buntinx, G.; Riedle, E.

    The photoconversion from dihydroazulene (DHA) to vinylheptafulvene (VHF) is governed by two mechanisms: The ring opening proceeds on the excited energy surface on the picosecond time scale. It is followed by an intemal conversion to the VHF ground state that is accelerated by the presence of a conical intersection in the case of cyclopenta-DHA. This conical intersection hinders the photoinduced back reaction from the final VHF products. However, we successfully photoconverted the cyanophenyl-VHF-cis back to the DHA with a second delayed pulse. This opens the route to the development of bistable DHAs.

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHF823 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value VHF823 (VHF823Q) /CSM/VH/VH...186Q.Seq.d/ 86 1e-16 own update 2009. 4. 4 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value...-13 1 dna update 2008.10.31 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value

  9. 47 CFR 22.727 - Power limits for conventional rural radiotelephone transmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... radiotelephone transmitters. 22.727 Section 22.727 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... this section. (a) Maximum ERP. The effective radiated power (ERP) of central office and rural... circumstances. Frequency range (MHz) Maximum ERP (watts) 152-153 1400 157-159 150 454-455 3500 459-460 150 (b...

  10. Arctic and Antarctic polar mesosphere summer echoes observed with oblique incidence HF radars: analysis using simultaneous MF and VHF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ogawa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSEs have been well studied using vertical incidence VHF radars at northern high-latitudes. In this paper, two PMSE events detected with the oblique incidence SuperDARN HF radars at Hankasalmi, Finland (62.3° N and Syowa Station, Antarctica (69.0° S, are analyzed, together with simultaneous VHF and medium-frequency (MF radar data. Altitude resolutions of the HF radars in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere are too poor to know exact PMSE altitudes. However, a comparison of Doppler velocity from the HF radar and neutral wind velocity from the MF radar shows that PMSEs at the HF band appeared at altitudes within 80-90km, which are consistent with those from previous vertical incidence HF-VHF radar results. The HF-VHF PMSE occurrences exhibit a semidiurnal behavior, as observed by other researchers. It is found that in one event, PMSEs occurred when westward semidiurnal winds with large amplitude at 85-88km altitudes attained a maximum. When the HF-VHF PMSEs were observed at distances beyond 180km from MF radar sites, the MF radars detected no appreciable signatures of echo enhancement. Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; waves and tides

  11. Arctic and Antarctic polar mesosphere summer echoes observed with oblique incidence HF radars: analysis using simultaneous MF and VHF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ogawa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSEs have been well studied using vertical incidence VHF radars at northern high-latitudes. In this paper, two PMSE events detected with the oblique incidence SuperDARN HF radars at Hankasalmi, Finland (62.3° N and Syowa Station, Antarctica (69.0° S, are analyzed, together with simultaneous VHF and medium-frequency (MF radar data. Altitude resolutions of the HF radars in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere are too poor to know exact PMSE altitudes. However, a comparison of Doppler velocity from the HF radar and neutral wind velocity from the MF radar shows that PMSEs at the HF band appeared at altitudes within 80-90km, which are consistent with those from previous vertical incidence HF-VHF radar results. The HF-VHF PMSE occurrences exhibit a semidiurnal behavior, as observed by other researchers. It is found that in one event, PMSEs occurred when westward semidiurnal winds with large amplitude at 85-88km altitudes attained a maximum. When the HF-VHF PMSEs were observed at distances beyond 180km from MF radar sites, the MF radars detected no appreciable signatures of echo enhancement.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; thermospheric dynamics; waves and tides

  12. Dicty_cDB: VHF145 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF145 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15430-1 VHF145E (Link...) Clone ID VHF145 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15430-1 Ori...ology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AC116984 |AC116984.2 Dictyos... theta DNA for complete sequence of nucleomorph chromosome 2. 48 2e-07 2 ES451909 | PREDICTED: similar to PI...al 16.0 %: nuclear 8.0 %: vacuolar 8.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum 4.0 %: cytoskeletal >> prediction for VHF145

  13. Broadband Grounded Vertical Antennas for 30-180 MHZ (VHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    antennas are well known for their broadband gain (monocone, bicone ) but are never combined with a monopole. An eccentric combination of broadband...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Broadband Grounded Vertical Antennas For 30-180 MZH (VHF) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...18 Attorney Docket No. 102536 1 of 17 BROADBAND GROUNDED VERTICAL ANTENNAS FOR 30-180 MHZ (VHF) STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST

  14. 47 CFR 22.709 - Rural radiotelephone service application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... call signs, if any, of any fixed points of communication. (c) No landline facilities. Each application... authority to operate a new interoffice station or to add transmitters or points of communications to an... center frequency of each channel requested, the maximum effective radiated power, the effective radiated...

  15. 47 CFR 80.268 - Technical requirements for radiotelephone installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Equipment Authorization for Compulsory Ships § 80... radio ground waves over seawater. The installation and construction of the required antenna must ensure... between masts or other supports subject to whipping, a safety link must be installed which under heavy...

  16. Anechoic chamber for VHF and UHF bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Takao; Sugiura, Akira; Harima, Katsushige; Masuzawa, Hiroshi

    1995-06-01

    Built in 1969, the anechoic chamber of CRL has been used to the fullest by researchers in many fields such as EMI, EMC, antenna design, standard of electric field intensity, and type approval testing. In particular, in the early days of space development in Japan, many satellite-born antennas were developed in this anechoic chamber. However, a quarter of a century has passed since its construction and deteriorated performance due to superannuation sometimes caused difficulties in experiments conducted in the chamber. In 1993, CRL constructed a Measuring Facility for Radio Research (MFRR) and the anechoic chamber for VHF-UHF bands was remodeled as one of the sub-facilities of MFRR. The remodeling work included full replacement of the electromagnetic shielding, absorbers and measurement system. Since the remodeled anechoic chamber is being used not only for EMI tests but also for other purposes, a full-anechoic chamber has been adopted. In addition the chamber has been designed for the frequency range between 30 MHz and 10 GHz. After the remodeling work, the performance of the chamber is greatly improved. The average shielding factor is better than 85 dB for all frequency ranges and the unwanted reflection characteristic is -30 dB for frequencies above 1 GHZ. This paper summarizes the remodeling work, and the specifications and performance of the remodeled anechoic chamber.

  17. Ultimate VHF Broadband Interferometer Zen KAWASAKI and Manabu AKITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Z.; Akita, M.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRGOU) has been developing an interferometer for thunderstorm monitoring during these two decades. When LRGOU initiated this project, many related scientists claimed that LRGOU's system was a time of arrival and it must be a sophisticated TOA system. However the key technology of the system were broad band and digital data processing, and it is named the VHF broad band digital interferometer (BDITF), because the phase difference of Fourier components played the very important role. Then the BDITF finally has been realized as a quasi-real time lightning monitoring system, and LRGOU has been operating their BDITFs around Osaka area. Since the BDITF captures the VHF impulses associated with lightning discharges by amplitude triggering, it occasionally misses one of the bi-directional leader progressions because of relatively small amplitude VHF impulses mainly emitted by positive leader tips. All of high density of VHF pulses associated with recoil leaders may not be recorded. Then the ordinary BDITF is able to be accepted as the practical operational system, but from the aspect of science it has been sioriously expected to be improved its performance. To overcome the difficulty New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMIMT) and LRGOU have started the joint project, and a continuous recording system for digital signals is adopted [M. Stock et al, and M Akita et al,]. The field campaigns have been conducting in New Mexico and in Japan, and successful observations are accomplished. The algorithm to identify individual VHF pulses associated with lightning discharges from back ground noise and/or artificial noise, the dispersion of phase differences for all Fourier components is examined. In case by of small dispersion it is concluded that analyzed VHF pulse has high possibility to be emitted by lightning discharges. This interpretation means that the recorded VHF pulse shape might maintain without deformation during

  18. VHF/UHF radar observations of tropical mesoscale convective systems over southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishore Kumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Several campaigns have been carried out to study the convective systems over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, using VHF and UHF radars. The height-time sections of several convective systems are investigated in detail to study reflectivity, turbulence and vertical velocity structure. Structure and dynamics of the convective systems are the main objectives of these campaigns. The observed systems are classified into single- and multi-cell systems. It has been observed that most of the convective systems at this latitude are multi-cellular in nature. Simultaneous VHF and UHF radar observations are used to classify the observed precipitating systems as convective, intermediary and stratiform regions. Composite height profiles of vertical velocities in these regions were obtained and the same were compared with the profiles obtained at other geographical locations. These composite profiles of vertical velocity in the convective regions have shown their peaks in the mid troposphere, indicating that the maximum latent heat is being released at those heights. These profiles are very important for numerical simulations of the convective systems, which vary significantly from one geographical location to the other. Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Mesoscale meteorology; Convective processes – Radio science (Remote sensing

  19. VHF signal power suppression in stratiform and convective precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. McDonald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that VHF clear-air radar return strengths are reduced during periods of precipitation. This study aims to examine whether the type of precipitation, stratiform and convective precipitation types are identified, has any impact on the relationships previously observed and to examine the possible mechanisms which produce this phenomenon. This study uses a combination of UHF and VHF wind-profiler data to define periods associated with stratiform and convective precipitation. This identification is achieved using an algorithm which examines the range squared corrected signal to noise ratio of the UHF returns for a bright band signature for stratiform precipitation. Regions associated with convective rainfall have been defined by identifying regions of enhanced range corrected signal to noise ratio that do not display a bright band structure and that are relatively uniform until a region above the melting layer.

    This study uses a total of 68 days, which incorporated significant periods of surface rainfall, between 31 August 2000 and 28 February 2002 inclusive from Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1° W. Examination suggests that both precipitation types produce similar magnitude reductions in VHF signal power on average. However, the frequency of occurrence of statistically significant reductions in VHF signal power are very different. In the altitude range 2-4 km stratiform precipitation is related to VHF signal suppression approximately 50% of the time while in convective precipitation suppression is observed only 27% of the time. This statistical result suggests that evaporation, which occurs more often in stratiform precipitation, is important in reducing the small-scale irregularities in humidity and thereby the radio refractive index. A detailed case study presented also suggests that evaporation reducing small-scale irregularities in humidity may contribute to the observed VHF signal

  20. VHF signal power suppression in stratiform and convective precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. McDonald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that VHF clear-air radar return strengths are reduced during periods of precipitation. This study aims to examine whether the type of precipitation, stratiform and convective precipitation types are identified, has any impact on the relationships previously observed and to examine the possible mechanisms which produce this phenomenon. This study uses a combination of UHF and VHF wind-profiler data to define periods associated with stratiform and convective precipitation. This identification is achieved using an algorithm which examines the range squared corrected signal to noise ratio of the UHF returns for a bright band signature for stratiform precipitation. Regions associated with convective rainfall have been defined by identifying regions of enhanced range corrected signal to noise ratio that do not display a bright band structure and that are relatively uniform until a region above the melting layer. This study uses a total of 68 days, which incorporated significant periods of surface rainfall, between 31 August 2000 and 28 February 2002 inclusive from Aberystwyth (52.4° N, 4.1° W. Examination suggests that both precipitation types produce similar magnitude reductions in VHF signal power on average. However, the frequency of occurrence of statistically significant reductions in VHF signal power are very different. In the altitude range 2-4 km stratiform precipitation is related to VHF signal suppression approximately 50% of the time while in convective precipitation suppression is observed only 27% of the time. This statistical result suggests that evaporation, which occurs more often in stratiform precipitation, is important in reducing the small-scale irregularities in humidity and thereby the radio refractive index. A detailed case study presented also suggests that evaporation reducing small-scale irregularities in humidity may contribute to the observed VHF signal suppression.

  1. From VHF to UHF CMOS-MEMS Monolithically Integrated Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teva, Jordi; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Uranga, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of microresonators exhibiting resonance frequencies in the VHF and UHF bands, fabricated using the available layers of the standard and commercial CMOS technology, AMS-0.35mum. The resonators are released in a post-CMOS process cons...

  2. Phase and coherence analysis of VHF scintillation over Christmas Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Shume

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This short paper presents phase and coherence data from the cross-wavelet transform applied on longitudinally separated very high frequency (VHF equatorial ionospheric scintillation observations over Christmas Island. The phase and coherence analyses were employed on a pair of scintillation observations, namely, the east-looking and west-looking VHF scintillation monitors at Christmas Island. Our analysis includes 3 years of peak season scintillation data from 2008, 2009 (low solar activity, and 2011 (moderate solar activity. In statistically significant and high spectral coherence regions of the cross-wavelet transform, scintillation observations from the east-looking monitor lead those from the west-looking monitor by about 20 to 60 (40 ± 20 min (most frequent lead times. Using several years (seasons and solar cycle of lead (or lag and coherence information of the cross-wavelet transform, we envisage construction of a probability model for forecasting scintillation in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere.

  3. PMSE Observations With the Tri-Static EISCAT VHF Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I.; Tjulin, A.; Häggström, I.

    2013-12-01

    The polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) are generated in the ionosphere at roughly 80 to 90 altitude by electron irregularities in the presence of charged solid particles and PMSE are most likely observed when ice particles form onto nanodust. PMSE formation is an important part in understanding mesospheric processes, but is also an interesting example for dusty plasma phenomena occurring in space. To investigate the phenomena that lead to formation of PMSE it is helpful to study the radar reflectivity of the mesosphere at different angles. PMSE were previously studied at different aspect angles in order to better understand the scattering process. Another way is observing PMSE from multiple sites simultaneously. During this summer the EISCAT radars that are located in Northern Scandinavia could for the first time be used for tri-static observations in the VHF band and we carried out observations during three subsequent days in June 2013. The radar signal was transmitted in zenith direction with the EISCAT VHF antenna near Tromsø (69.59 deg N, 19.23 deg E) and the scattered signal was measured from Tromsø, Kiruna (67.86 deg N, 20.44 deg E) and Sodankylä (67.36 deg N, 26.63 deg E). Zenith observations were simultaneously carried out with the Tromsø UHF radar (933 MHz). Other groups have previously reported the observations of PMSE simultaneously with the EISCAT VHF and UHF radars, but with a much lower occurrence rate for the UHF. UHF observations made during this campaign are dominated by incoherent scatter. The VHF system in Tromsø detected PMSE for a large fraction of the observation time. The VHF receivers in Kiruna and Sodankylä were pointed at typical PMSE heights above the Tromsø transmitter and detected radar reflections at the same time and altitude as the Tromsø radar. These observations are among the first tri-static observations of PMSE. Preliminary results from the campaign will be presented and discussed.

  4. The first operation and results of the Chung-Li VHF radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. K.; Kuo, F. S.; Chu, Y. S.; Fu, I. J.; Rottger, J.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    The Chung-Li Very High Frequency (VHF) radar is used in the dual-mode operations, applying Doppler beam-swinging as well as the spaced-antenna-drift method. The design of the VHF radar is examined. Results of performance tests are discussed.

  5. Very Compact and Broadband Active Antenna for VHF Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Taachouche

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An active receiving antenna with small size consisting of a monopole loaded with a transistor bipolar is presented in this paper. A transistor is used in order to miniaturize the receiving active antenna size in VHF band. The vertical size of the structure is equal to λ/175, where λ is the wavelength at the lower frequency of the bandwidth. Despite the very small size of the antenna, the frequency bandwidth is very wide and the gain is suitable for FM application with sensitive receivers.

  6. Miniaturization for ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorber in the VHF band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuyen, Bui Xuan; Tung, Bui Son; Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Kim, Ki Won; Chen, Liang-Yao; Lam, Vu Dinh; Lee, Youngpak

    2017-03-01

    An efficient resolution for ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) is proposed and demonstrated in the VHF radio band (30-300 MHz). By adjusting the lumped capacitors and the through vertical interconnects, the absorber is miniaturized to be only λ/816 and λ/84 for its thickness and periodicity with respect to the operating wavelength (at 102 MHz), respectively. The detailed simulation and calculation show that the MPA can maintain an absorption rate over 90% in a certain range of incident angle and with a wide variation of capacitance. Additionally, we utilized the advantages of the initial single-band structure to realize a nearly perfect dual-band absorber in the same range. The results were confirmed by both simulation and experiment at oblique incidence angles up to 50°. Our work is expected to contribute to the actualization of future metamaterial-based devices working at radio frequency.

  7. Extraction of forest stand parameters from CARABAS VHF SAR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Fredrik [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Centre for Image Analysis

    1999-10-01

    Methods for extracting stand-wise forest parameters from CARABAS VHF SAR images have been developed and evaluated. CARABAS is a unique airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), developed by the Swedish Defence Research Establishment. It differs a lot from ordinary microwave radars by using wavelengths between 3.3 and 15 m, making the image intensity highly correlated to stem volume. Furthermore, by providing its own illumination source, the sensor operates independently of daylight and weather conditions. Empirical regression models have been developed for relating backscattering amplitude to stem volume, stem diameter, and tree height. To make comparison between CARABAS image data and forest parameters effective, a fully automatic geo-coding algorithm was developed. Image texture features have also been investigated. By using the variogram as a discriminating feature, CARABAS images and aerial images were segmented into homogeneous regions. Furthermore, a method for discriminating recently clear felled areas from forested areas, combining information from Almaz-1 SAR images and SPOT panchromatic data has also been developed, serving as a comparison to the main work of this thesis. For forest stands at near-horizontal ground, the results for estimating stem volume, stem diameter, and tree height from CARABAS image data are very satisfactory. The root mean square errors for the estimates are comparable to subjective ground-based inventories for dense forest stands. The methods and algorithms described in this thesis have been developed towards an operational remote sensing tool. Altogether, significant potential for mapping of forest characteristics exists using the CARABAS VHF SAR sensor 57 refs, 14 figs, 7 tabs

  8. 75 FR 74719 - Auction of VHF Commercial Television Station Construction Permits Scheduled for February 15, 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... does an FCC construction permit or license constitute a guarantee of business success. Applicants... reminded, however, that events occurring after the short-form filing deadline, such as the acquisition of... control of an applicant, resulting from a merger for example, will be considered a major modification to...

  9. 75 FR 57947 - Auction of VHF Commercial Television Station Construction Permits Scheduled for February 15, 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... transaction data. The proposed minimum opening bid amounts are $200,000 for each construction permit available...; Comment Sought on Competitive Bidding Procedures for Auction 90 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... bidding procedures for Auction 90. DATES: Comments are due on or before September 30, 2010, and reply...

  10. Letter to the Editor: Complete maps of the aspect sensitivity of VHF atmospheric radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the MU radar at Shigaraki, Japan (34.85°N, 136.10°E, we measure the power distribution pattern of VHF radar echoes from the mid-troposphere. The large number of radar beam-pointing directions (320 allows the mapping of echo power from 0° to 40° from zenith, and also the dependence on azimuth, which has not been achieved before at VHF wavelengths. The results show how vertical shear of the horizontal wind is associated with a definite skewing of the VHF echo power distribution, for beam angles as far as 30° or more from zenith, so that aspect sensitivity cannot be assumed negligible at any beam-pointing angle that most existing VHF radars are able to use. Consequently, the use of VHF echo power to calculate intensity of atmospheric turbulence, which assumes only isotropic backscatter at large beam zenith angles, will sometimes not be valid.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence; instruments and techniques

  11. Design and Development of VHF Antennas for Space Borne Signal of Opportunity Receivers for Cubesat Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Design and Development of VHF Antennas for Space Borne Signal of Opportunity Receivers for Cubesat Platforms. Space borne microwave remote sensors at VHF/UHF frequencies are important instruments to observe reflective properties of land surfaces through thick and heavy forestation on a global scale. One of the most cost effective ways of measuring land reflectivity at VHF/UHF frequencies is to use signals transmitted by existing communication satellites (operating at VHF/UHF band) as a signal of opportunity (SoOp) signal and passive receivers integrated with airborne/space borne platforms operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). One of the critical components of the passive receiver is two antennas (one to receive only direct signal and other to receive only reflected signal) which need to have ideally high (>30dB) isolation. However, because of small size of host platforms and broad beam width of dipole antennas, achieving adequate isolation between two channels is a challenging problem and need to be solved for successful implementation of space borne SoOp technology for remote sensing. In this presentation a novel enabling VHF antenna technology for Cubesat platforms is presented to receive direct as well as reflected signal with needed isolation. The novel scheme also allows enhancing the gain of individual channels by factor of 2 without use of reflecting ground plane

  12. PENUMBUHAN LAPISAN TIPIS SILIKON MIKROKRISTAL TERHIDROGENASI DENGAN TEKNIK HWC-VHF-PECVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Usman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Telah dikembangkan teknik HWC-VHF-PECVD (Hot Wire Cell Very High Frequency Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition untuk menumbuhkan lapisan tipis silikon mikrokristal terhidrogenasi (mc-Si:H. Dari hasil penumbuhan lapisan tipis yang dilakukan, teknik HWC-VHF-PECVD memperlihatkan laju deposisi yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan laju deposisi lapisan tipis yang diperoleh dari teknik PECVD maupun teknik VHF-PECVD konvensional. Berdasarkan hasil pengukuran XRD dan SEM, lapisan yang diperoleh pada temperatur filamen yang rendah masih berstruktur amorf. Indikasi yang mengarah pada pembentukan lapisan tipis berstruktur mikrokristalin mulai terlihat pada temperatur filamen ≥ 500oC, dimana puncak-puncak di fraksi spektrum XRD untuk orientasi kristalin tertentu mulai terbentu, sejalan dengan pembentukan butiran-butiran kristalin dari hasil foto SEM permukaan lapisan-lapisan tersebut.

  13. Design VHF Antennas for Space Borne Receivers for SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Manohar

    2017-01-01

    Space borne microwave remote sensors at VHF/UHF frequencies are important instruments to observe reflective properties of land surfaces through thick and heavy forestation on a global scale. One of the most cost effective ways of measuring land reflectivity at VHF/UHF frequencies is to use signals transmitted by existing communication satellites (operating at VHF/UHF band) as a signal of opportunity (SoOp) signal and passive receivers integrated with airborne/space borne platforms operating in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). One of the critical components of the passive receiver is two antennas (one to receive only direct signal and other to receive only reflected signal) which need to have ideally high (>30dB) isolation. However, because of small size of host platforms and broad beam width of dipole antennas, achieving adequate isolation between two channels is a challenging problem and need to be solved for successful implementation of space borne SoOp technology for remote sensing. In this presentation a novel enabling VHF antenna technology for Cubesat platforms is presented to receive direct as well as reflected signal with needed isolation. The novel scheme also allows enhancing the gain of individual channels by factor of 2 without use of reflecting ground plane.

  14. A VHF Class E DC-DC Converter with Self-Oscillating Gate Driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Toke Meyer; Christensen, Søren K.; Knott, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and design of a DC-DC converter topology which is operational at frequencies in the Very High Frequency (VHF) band ranging from 30 MHz − 300 MHz. The presented topology, which consists of a class E inverter, class E rectifier, and self-oscillating gate driver, is...

  15. First wind shear observation in PMSE with the tristatic EISCAT VHF radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I.; Häggström, I.; Tjulin, A.; Rostami, S.; Anyairo, C. C.; Dalin, P.

    2016-11-01

    The Polar Summer Mesosphere has the lowest temperatures that occur in the entire Earth system. Water ice particles below the optically observable size range participate there in the formation of strong radar echoes (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes, PMSE). To study PMSE we carried out observations with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) VHF and EISCAT UHF radar simultaneously from a site near Tromsø (69.58°N, 19.2272°E) and observed VHF backscattering also with the EISCAT receivers in Kiruna (67.86°N, 20.44°E) and Sodankylä (67.36°N, 26.63°E). This is one of the first tristatic measurements with EISCAT VHF, and we therefore describe the observations and geometry in detail. We present observations made on 26 June 2013 from 7:00 to 13:00 h UT where we found similar PMSE patterns with all three VHF receivers and found signs of wind shear in PMSE. The observations suggest that the PMSE contains sublayers that move in different directions horizontally, and this points to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability possibly playing a role in PMSE formation. We find no signs of PMSE in the UHF data. The electron densities that we derive from observed incoherent scatter at UHF are at PMSE altitudes close to the noise level but possibly indicate reduced electron densities directly above the PMSE.

  16. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail H Collins

    Full Text Available Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS and very high frequency (VHF radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  17. An analysis on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth using transionospheric VHF signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, Zhen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel-dupre, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    An analysis was perfonned on the mid-latitude scintillation and coherence frequency bandwidth (Fcoh) using transionospheric VHF signal data. The data include 1062 events spanning from November 1997 to June 2002. Each event records FORTE satellite received VHF signals from LAPP located at Los Alamos, New Mexico. Fcohs were derived to study scintillation characteristics on diurnal and seasonal variations, as well as changes due to solar and geomagnetic activities. Comparisons to the VHFIUHF coherence frequency bandwidth studies previously reported at equatorial and mid-latitude regions are made using a 4th power frequency dependence relationship. Furthennore, a wideband ionospheric scintillation model, WBMOD, was used to estimate Fcohs and compared with our VHF Fcoh values. Our analysis indicates mid-latitude scintillation characteristics that are not previously revealed. At the VHF bottom frequency range (3035 MHz), distinguished smaller Fcohs are found in time period from sunset to midnight, in wann season from May to August, and in low solar activity years. The effects of geomagnetic storm activity on Fcoh are characterized by a sudden transition at a Kp index of 50-60. Comparisons with median Fcohs estimated from other studies validated our VHF Fcohs for daytime while an order of magnitude larger Fcohs are found for nighttime, implying a time-dependent issue in applying the 4th order power relationship. Furthermore, comparisons with WBMOD-estimated Fcohs indicated generally matched median scintillation level estimates while differences do exist for those events undergoing high geomagnetic stonn activity which may imply underestimates of scintillation level by the WBMOD in the mid-latitude regions.

  18. Molecular Switching in Confined Spaces: Effects of Encapsulating the DHA/VHF Photo-Switch in Cucurbiturils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Å.; Rasmussen, Brian; Andersen, Nicolaj N.

    2017-01-01

    complexes, the kinetics of the thermal VHF-to-DHA back-reaction is accelerated, while in CB8 inclusion complexes, the kinetics is slowed down as compared to the free photo-switch. The effect of the CB encapsulation of the photo-switch can be effectively canceled by introducing a guest that binds the CB more...... strongly. According to DFT calculations, a stabilization of the reactive s-cis VHF conformer relative to the s-trans VHF appears to be a contributing factor responsible for the accelerated back-reaction when encapsulated in CB7....

  19. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  20. Investigation into the Effects of VHF and UHF Band Radiation on Hewlett-Packard (HP) Cesium Beam Frequency Standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickens, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents an investigation into reports which have indicated that exposure to VHF and UHF band radiation has adverse effects on the frequency stability of HP cesium beam frequency standards...

  1. Investigation into the effects of VHF and UHF band radiation on Hewlett-Packard (HP) Cesium Beam Frequency Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    This paper documents an investigation into reports which have indicated that exposure to VHF and UHF band radiation has adverse effects on the frequency stability of HP cesium beam frequency standards. Tests carried out on the basis of these reports show that sources of VHF and UHF radiation such as two-way hand held police communications devices do cause reproducible adverse effects. This investigation examines reproducible effects and explores possible causes.

  2. Broadband VHF observations for lightning impulses from a small satellite SOHLA-1 (Maido 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, H.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.; Hidekazu, H.; Aoki, T.

    2009-12-01

    Lightning Research Group of Osaka University (LRG-OU) has been developing VHF Broadband Digital Interferometer (DITF) to image precise lightning channels and monitor lightning activity widely. The feature of broadband DITF is its ultrawide bandwidth (from 25MHz to 100MHz) and implicit redundancy for estimating VHF source location. LRG-OU considers an application of the broadband DITF to the spaceborne measurement system and joins the SOHLA (Space Oriented Higashi-Osaka Leading Associate) satellite project. The SOHLA satellite project represents a technology transfer program to expand the range of the space development community in Japan. The objective is to get SMEs (Small and Medium sized manufacturing Enterprises) involved in small space projects and new space technologies. Under the cooperative agreement, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) intends to contribute to socio-economic development by returning its R&D results to society, and SOHLA tries to revitalize the local economy through the commercialization of versatile small satellites. According to the agreement, JAXA provides SOHLA its technical information on small satellites and other technical assistance for the development of the small satellites, SOHLA-1. The prime objective of the SOHLA-1 program is to realize low-cost and short term development of a microsatellite which utilizes the components and bus technologies of JAXA’s MicroLabSat. SOHLA-1 is a spin-stabilized microsatellite of MicroLabSat heritage (about 50 kg). The spin axis is fixed to inertial reference frame. The spin axis (z-axis) lies in the plane containing the solar direction and the normal to the orbital plane. LRG-OU takes responsibility for a science mission of SOHLA-1. To examine the feasibility of the DITF receiving VHF lightning impulses in space, LRG-OU proposes the BMW (Broadband Measurement of Waveform for VHF Lightning Impulses). BMW consists of a single pair of an antenna, a band-pass filter, an amplifier, and an

  3. Comparison study of Lightning VHF interferometric and LF time-of-arival maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, A.; Stock, M.; Kawasaki, Z.; Ushio, T.

    2016-12-01

    Lightning discharges radiate broad band frequency electromagnetic waves from ULF to UHF. Using sensors which detect this radiation is an effective technique to detect lightning flashes, even if they are in a cloud. If multiple sensors are present, a lightning flash can be located using various techniques. At low frequencies, the power radiated by lightning is very high, but because the wavelengths are long, the location resolution is somewhat low. At very high frequencies, the wavelengths are much shorter allowing for much better location resolution, but the power radiation is also much lower, making it more difficult to detect. The VHF band is a good compromise between good location resolution, and good detection efficiency. One technique to locate VHF signals from lightning is interferometry. Using this technique, the signals arriving at three or more VHF broadband antennas are coherently combined to produce an image of the lightning flash. The current generation broadband lightning interferometer being developed in Japan by RAIRAN and the University of Osaka called Lightning Interferometer via VHF Emission (LIVE). Currently, LIVE is installed in Kaizuka, a city to the south of Osaka, near Osaka Bay to observe Japanese summer lightning. In the current study, we are comparing the high detail, 2-dimensional lightning maps produced by LIVE to the lower detail, 3-dimensional maps produced by a low frequency time-of-arrival system called the Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorms (BOLT). In order to better compare the data, a new GPS timing device is being developed for LIVE to allow high absolute timing accuracy without sacrificing one of the 4 high speed digitizer channels. The objectives of the study are to better understand Japanese summer lightning, and to prepare for a future campaign as part of the GLM validation study.

  4. Bias-Voltage Stabilizer for HVHF Amplifiers in VHF Pulse-Echo Measurement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojong Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of high-voltage–high-frequency (HVHF amplifiers on echo-signal quality is greater with very-high-frequency (VHF, ≥100 MHz ultrasound transducers than with low-frequency (LF, ≤15 MHz ultrasound transducers. Hence, the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier must be stabilized to ensure stable echo-signal amplitudes. We propose a bias-voltage stabilizer circuit to maintain stable DC voltages over a wide input range, thus reducing the harmonic-distortion components of the echo signals in VHF pulse-echo measurement systems. To confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we measured and compared the deviations in the gain of the HVHF amplifier with and without a bias-voltage stabilizer. Between −13 and 26 dBm, the measured gain deviations of a HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer are less than that of an amplifier without a bias-voltage stabilizer. In order to confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we compared the pulse-echo responses of the amplifiers, which are typically used for the evaluation of transducers or electronic components used in pulse-echo measurement systems. From the responses, we observed that the amplitudes of the echo signals of a VHF transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer were higher than those of the transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier alone. The second, third, and fourth harmonic-distortion components of the HVHF amplifier with the bias-voltage stabilizer were also lower than those of the HVHF amplifier alone. Hence, the proposed scheme is a promising method for stabilizing the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier, and improving the echo-signal quality of VHF transducers.

  5. First wind shear observation in PMSE with the tristatic EISCAT VHF radar

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Ingrid; Häggström, I.; Tjulin, A; Rostami, S; Anyairo, CC; Dalin, P

    2016-01-01

    (c) American Geophysical Union, reprinted with permission. Article also available at source: https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA023080 The Polar Summer Mesosphere has the lowest temperatures that occur in the entire Earth system. Water ice particles below the optically observable size range participate there in the formation of strong radar echoes (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes, PMSE). To study PMSE we carried out observations with the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) VHF and EIS...

  6. Bias-Voltage Stabilizer for HVHF Amplifiers in VHF Pulse-Echo Measurement Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojong; Park, Chulwoo; Kim, Jungsuk; Jung, Hayong

    2017-10-23

    The impact of high-voltage-high-frequency (HVHF) amplifiers on echo-signal quality is greater with very-high-frequency (VHF, ≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers than with low-frequency (LF, ≤15 MHz) ultrasound transducers. Hence, the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier must be stabilized to ensure stable echo-signal amplitudes. We propose a bias-voltage stabilizer circuit to maintain stable DC voltages over a wide input range, thus reducing the harmonic-distortion components of the echo signals in VHF pulse-echo measurement systems. To confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we measured and compared the deviations in the gain of the HVHF amplifier with and without a bias-voltage stabilizer. Between -13 and 26 dBm, the measured gain deviations of a HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer are less than that of an amplifier without a bias-voltage stabilizer. In order to confirm the feasibility of the bias-voltage stabilizer, we compared the pulse-echo responses of the amplifiers, which are typically used for the evaluation of transducers or electronic components used in pulse-echo measurement systems. From the responses, we observed that the amplitudes of the echo signals of a VHF transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier with a bias-voltage stabilizer were higher than those of the transducer triggered by the HVHF amplifier alone. The second, third, and fourth harmonic-distortion components of the HVHF amplifier with the bias-voltage stabilizer were also lower than those of the HVHF amplifier alone. Hence, the proposed scheme is a promising method for stabilizing the bias voltage of an HVHF amplifier, and improving the echo-signal quality of VHF transducers.

  7. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  8. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  9. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Tongda, Nanjing (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Zhuge, L.J. [Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Analysis and Testing Center, Suzhou (China); Wu, X.M. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-01-23

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO{sub x} are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf{sup 2+} and Hf{sup 4+}. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO{sub 2}, HfO and ErO{sub x}, which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO{sub 2} in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  10. VHF radar observation of atmospheric winds, associated shears and C2n at a tropical location: interdependence and seasonal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Jain

    Full Text Available The turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n is an important parameter of the atmosphere. VHF radars have been used extensively for the measurements of C2n. Presently, most of such observations are from mid and high latitudes and only very limited observations are available for equatorial and tropical latitudes. Indian MST radar is an excellent tool for making high-resolution measurements of atmospheric winds, associated shears and turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n. This radar is located at Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, a tropical station in India. The objective of this paper is to bring out the height structure of C2n for different seasons using the long series of data (September 1995 – August 1999 from Indian MST radar. An attempt is also made to understand such changes in the height structure of C2n in relation to background atmospheric parameters such as horizontal winds and associated shears. The height structure of C2n, during the summer monsoon and post-monsoon season, shows specific height features that are found to be related to Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ winds. It is important to examine the nature of the radar back-scatterers and also to understand the causative mechanism of such scatterers. Aspect sensitivity of the received radar echo is examined for this purpose. It is observed that radar back-scatterers at the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric heights are more anisotropic, with horizontal correlation length of 10–20 m, as compared to those observed at lower and middle tropospheric heights.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; tropical meteorology; turbulence

  11. Measurements methodology for evaluation of Digital TV operation in VHF high-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudwell Chaves de Almeida, M.; Vladimir Gonzalez Castellanos, P.; Alfredo Cal Braz, J.; Pereira David, R.; Saboia Lima de Souza, R.; Pereira da Soledade, A.; Rodrigues Nascimento Junior, J.; Ferreira Lima, F.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental setup of field measurements carried out for evaluating the operation of the ISDB-TB (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting, Terrestrial, Brazilian version) standard digital TV in the VHF-highband. Measurements were performed in urban and suburban areas in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Besides the direct measurements of received power and environmental noise, a measurement procedure involving the injection of Gaussian additive noise was employed to achieve the signal to noise ratio threshold at each measurement site. The analysis includes results of static reception measurements for evaluating the received field strength and the signal to noise ratio thresholds for correct signal decoding.

  12. Luminous phenomena and electromagnetic VHF wave emission originated from earthquake-related radon exhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, A.; Tobo, I.; Omori, Y.; Muto, J.; Nagahama, H.

    2013-12-01

    Anomalous luminous phenomena and electromagnetic wave emission before or during earthquakes have been reported (e.g., the 1965 Matsushiro earthquake swarm). However, their mechanism is still unsolved, in spite of many models for these phenomena. Here, we propose a new model about luminous phenomena and electromagnetic wave emission during earthquake by focusing on atmospheric radon (Rn-222) and its daughter nuclides (Po-218 and Po-214). Rn-222, Po-218 and Po-214 are alpha emitters, and these alpha particles ionize atmospheric molecules. A light emission phenomenon, called 'the air luminescence', is caused by de-excitation of the ionized molecules of atmospheric nitrogen due to electron impact ionization from alpha particles. The de-excitation is from the second positive system of neutral nitrogen molecules and the first negative system of nitrogen molecule ion. Wavelengths of lights by these transitions include the visible light wavelength. So based on this mechanism, we proposed a new luminous phenomenon model before or during earthquake: 1. The concentration of atmospheric radon and its daughter nuclides increase anomalously before or during earthquakes, 2. Nitrogen molecules and their ions are excited by alpha particles emitted from Rn-222, Po-218 and Po-214, and air luminescence is generated by their de-excitation. Similarly, electromagnetic VHF wave emission can be explained by ionizing effect of radon and its daughter nuclides. Boyarchuk et al. (2005) proposed a model that electromagnetic VHF wave emission is originated when excited state of neutral clusters changes. Radon gas ionizes atmosphere and forms positively and negatively charged heavy particles. The process of ion hydration in ordinary air can be determined by the formation of complex chemically active structures of the various types of ion radicals. As a result of the association of such hydration radical ions, a neutral cluster, which is dipole quasi-molecules, is formed. A neutral cluster

  13. Observations of Mesospheric Turbulence by Rocket Probe and VHF Radar, Part 2.4A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royrvik, O.; Smith, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    Data from the Jicamarca VHF radar and from a Languir probe fine-structure on a Nike Orion rocket launched from Punto Lobos, Peru, have been compared. A single mesospheric scattering layer was observed by the radar. The Langmuir probe detected irregularities in the electron-density profile in a narrow region between 85.2 and 86.6 km. It appears from a comparison between these two data sets that turbulence in the neutral atmosphere is the mechanism generating the refractive index irregularities.

  14. An HF and lower VHF spectrum assessment system exploiting instantaneously wideband capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rod I.; Singh, Malkiat; Earl, Fred

    2017-09-01

    We report on a spectral environment evaluation and recording (SEER) system, for instantaneously wideband spectral capture and characterization in the HF and lower VHF band, utilizing a direct digital receiver coupled to a data recorder. The system is designed to contend with a wide variety of electromagnetic environments and to provide accurately calibrated spectral characterization and display from very short (ms) to synoptic scales. The system incorporates a novel RF front end involving automated gain and equalization filter selection which provides an analogue frequency-dependent gain characteristic that mitigates the high dynamic range found across the HF and lower VHF spectrum. The system accurately calibrates its own internal noise and automatically subtracts this from low variance, external spectral estimates, further extending the dynamic range over which robust characterization is possible. Laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that the implementation of these concepts has been effective. Sensitivity to varying antenna load impedance of the internal noise reduction process has been examined. Examples of software algorithms to provide extraction and visualization of spectral behavior over narrowband, wideband, short, and synoptic scales are provided. Application in HF noise spectral density monitoring, spectral signal strength assessment, and electromagnetic interference detection is possible with examples provided. The instantaneously full bandwidth collection provides some innovative applications, and this is demonstrated by the collection of discrete lightning emissions, which form fast ionograms called "flashagrams" in power-delay-frequency plots.

  15. Measurements and simulation of ionospheric scattering on VHF and UHF radar signals: Channel scattering function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Neil C.; Cannon, Paul S.; Groves, Keith M.

    2009-02-01

    The design and operation of transionospheric VHF and UHF radars requires knowledge of amplitude and phase scintillation due to ionospheric scattering. Phase coherence is of particular importance where long coherent integration periods and large bandwidths are required. A thin phase screen, parabolic equation based, Trans-Ionospheric Radio Propagation Simulator (TIRPS) is described. Modeled channel scattering functions (CSFs) are compared to experimental VHF and UHF data derived from the Advanced Research Projects Agency Long-range Tracking and Instrumentation Radar on Kwajalein Island (9.4°N, 166.8°E). TIRPS quantitatively reproduces the experimental results, including the quasi-parabolic profile observed in the measured CSFs under strong turbulence conditions. Variations in the simulated CSF with ionospheric phase screen parameters are also presented. Under conditions of high integrated strength of turbulence (CkL), a low phase spectral index (p = 1), indicating relatively dense small-scale irregularities, produces pronounced range spreading. Conversely, when the spectral index is high (p = 4), indicative of strong focusing/defocusing by large-scale irregularities, there is increased Doppler spreading and, when the outer scale of irregularities is large, a greater likelihood of asymmetry of the CSF about the zero Doppler axis.

  16. PMSE strength during enhanced D region electron densities: Faraday rotation and absorption effects at VHF frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Jorge L.; Röttger, Jürgen; Rapp, Markus

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we study the effects of absorption and Faraday rotation on measurements of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). We found that such effects can produce significant reduction of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when the D region electron densities (Ne) are enhanced, and VHF radar systems with linearly polarized antennas are used. In particular we study the expected effects during the strong solar proton event (SPE) of July 2000, also known as the Bastille day flare event. During this event, a strong anti-correlation between the PMSE SNR and the D-region Ne was found over three VHF radar sites at high latitudes: Andøya, Kiruna, and Svalbard. This anti-correlation has been explained (a) in terms of transport effects due to strong electric fields associated to the SPE and (b) due to a limited amount of aerosol particles as compared to the amount of D-region electrons. Our calculations using the Ne profiles used by previous researchers explain most, if not all, of the observed SNR reduction in both time (around the SPE peak) and altitude. This systematic effect, particularly the Faraday rotation, should be recognized and tested, and possibly avoided (e.g., using circular polarization), in future observations during the incoming solar maximum period, to contribute to the understanding of PMSE during enhanced D region Ne.

  17. Observation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how a teacher integrates science observations into the writing center. At the observation station, students explore new items with a science theme and use their notes and questions for class writings every day. Students are exposed to a variety of different topics and motivated to write in different styles all while…

  18. Molecular Switching in Confined Spaces: Effects of Encapsulating the DHA/VHF Photo-Switch in Cucurbiturils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Å; Rasmussen, Brian; Andersen, Nicolaj N; Sauer, Stephan P A; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Beeren, Sophie R; Pittelkow, Michael

    2017-09-18

    Confinement of reactive chemical species uniquely affects chemical reactivity by restricting the physical space available and by restricting access to interactions with the solvent. In Nature, for example, confined protein binding pockets govern processes following photoisomerization reactions and the isomerizations themselves. Here we describe the first example of a dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo-switch functioning in water, and we show how its switching behavior is strongly influenced by supramolecular interactions with a series of cucurbit[n]uril (CB) host molecules. In CB7 inclusion complexes, the kinetics of the thermal VHF-to-DHA back-reaction is accelerated, while in CB8 inclusion complexes, the kinetics is slowed down as compared to the free photo-switch. The effect of the CB encapsulation of the photo-switch can be effectively canceled by introducing a guest that binds the CB more strongly. According to DFT calculations, a stabilization of the reactive s-cis VHF conformer relative to the s-trans VHF appears to be a contributing factor responsible for the accelerated back-reaction when encapsulated in CB7. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Complementary code and digital filtering for detection of weak VHF radar signals from the mesoscale. [SOUSY-VHF radar, Harz Mountains, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G.; Ruster, R.; Czechowsky, P.

    1983-01-01

    The SOUSY-VHF-Radar operates at a frequency of 53.5 MHz in a valley in the Harz mountains, Germany, 90 km from Hanover. The radar controller, which is programmed by a 16-bit computer holds 1024 program steps in core and controls, via 8 channels, the whole radar system: in particular the master oscillator, the transmitter, the transmit-receive-switch, the receiver, the analog to digital converter, and the hardware adder. The high-sensitivity receiver has a dynamic range of 70 dB and a video bandwidth of 1 MHz. Phase coding schemes are applied, in particular for investigations at mesospheric heights, in order to carry out measurements with the maximum duty cycle and the maximum height resolution. The computer takes the data from the adder to store it in magnetic tape or disc. The radar controller is programmed by the computer using simple FORTRAN IV statements. After the program has been loaded and the computer has started the radar controller, it runs automatically, stopping at the program end. In case of errors or failures occurring during the radar operation, the radar controller is shut off caused either by a safety circuit or by a power failure circuit or by a parity check system.

  20. Frequency Reuse, Cell Separation, and Capacity Analysis of VHF Digital Link Mode 3 TDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2003-01-01

    The most recent studies by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation industry have indicated that it has become increasingly difficult to make new VHF frequency or channel assignments to meet the aviation needs for air-ground communications. FAA has planned for several aggressive improvement measures to the existing systems, but these measures would not meet the projected voice communications needs beyond 2009. FAA found that since 1974 there has been, on the average, a 4 percent annual increase in the number of channel assignments needed to satisfy the air-ground communication traffic (approximately 300 new channel assignments per year). With the planned improvement measures, the channel assignments are expected to reach a maximum number of 16615 channels by about 2010. Hence, the FAA proposed the use of VDL Mode 3 as a new integrated digital voice and data communications systems to meet the future air traffic demand. This paper presents analytical results of frequency reuse; cell separation and capacity estimation of VDL Mode 3 TDMA systems that FAA has planned to implement the future VHF air-ground communications system by the year 2010. For TDMA, it is well understood that the frequency reuse factor is a crucial parameter for capacity estimation. Formulation of this frequency reuse factor is shown, taking into account the limitation imposed by the requirement to have a sufficient Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio. Several different values for the Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio were utilized corresponding to the current analog VHF DSB-AM systems, and the future digital VDL Mode 3. The required separation of Co-Channel cells is computed for most of the Frequency Protected Service Volumes (FPSV's) currently in use by the FAA. Additionally, the ideal cell capacity for each FPSV is presented. Also, using actual traffic for the Detroit air space, a FPSV traffic distribution model is used to generate a typical cell for channel capacity

  1. Layered Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes Observed with the Tri-Static Eiscat VHF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I.; Anyairo, C.; Häggström, I.; Tjulin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE) are strong radar echoes that are typically observed at 50 to 500 MHz. They are often discussed in the context of dusty plasma studies and linked to e.g. the existence of charged ice particles, neutral atmospheric turbulence and atmospheric stratification. The PMSE are observed at mesospheric temperature minimum when ice particles form, though the exact path of formation is still a topic for research. Mesospheric smoke particles that are assumed to form after or during the meteor ablation process possibly contribute to the formation of the ice particles. For understanding the formation of the radar echoes their variation with scattering angle is an important parameter. We analyze PMSE observations with the tri-static EISCAT VHF radar (224 MHz) during one day in June when PMSE were observed almost continuously from 7:00 to 13:00 UT. The radar signal was transmitted and received in zenith direction with the EISCAT VHF antenna near Tromsø. The receivers in Kiruna and Sodankylä were pointed at typical PMSE heights above the Tromsø transmitter and detected radar reflections at the same time and altitude as the Tromsø radar. The altitude of the PMSE changed with time and the extension of the echoes in altitude was smaller toward the end of the observation. These observations are among the first tri-static observations of PMSE. The observations suggest that the scattering process underlying the PMSE occurs over a broad range of scattering angles. Based on the observations we will show that the spectral width of the received echoes is most likely determined by the variations within the observed volume rather than by the scattering process. The observed frequency shifts suggest a layer structure and horizontal motions that vary with altitude. UHF (933 MHz) radar observations were carried out in parallel, they display predominantly incoherent scatter and an electron density typical for the altitude. Some other studies, have in

  2. Disturbance-induced responses of VHF and satellite tagged harbour seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe May; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1. The response of individual harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to controlled and sporadic disturbances when hauled out in the Anholt seal reserve, Denmark, was studied. Sporadic disturbances from pedestrians, boats, low-flying aeroplanes and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were observed...... in or near the reserve. VHF and satellite transmitters were attached to eight harbour seals to determine post-disturbance and undisturbed behaviour during the pre-breeding period (25 April to 21 May 2008). 2. Both disturbed and undisturbed seals mostly returned to the haul-out site from dusk and throughout...... within 40 km from the haul-out site. The maximum extent of post-disturbance trips, however, varied among individuals and disturbance types, and was strongly correlated with the duration of trips. 3. Disturbed and undisturbed seals used the same areas, suggesting that these areas represent normal foraging...

  3. Graphene-based tunable non-foster circuit for VHF applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a negative impedance converter (NIC based on graphene field effect transistors (GFETs for VHF applications. The NIC is designed following Linvill’s open circuit stable (OCS topology. The DC modelling parameters of GFET are extracted from a device measured by Meric et al. [IEEE Electron Devices Meeting, 23.2.1 (2010] Estimated parasitics are also taken into account. Simulation results from Keysight Advanced Design System (ADS show good NIC performance up to 200 MHz and the value of negative capacitance is directly proportional to the capacitive load. In addition, it has been shown that by varying the supply voltage the value of negative capacitance can also be tuned. The NIC stability has been tested up to 2 GHz (10 times the maximum operation frequency using Nyquist stability criterion to ensure there are no oscillation issues.

  4. Simultaneous observation of sporadic E with a rapid-run ionosonde and VHF coherent backscatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maruyama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK 2 rocket campaign, ionograms were recorded every minute at the Yamagawa Radio Observatory at about 90km west of the region monitored by a VHF (very high frequency coherent backscatter radar. Sporadic E-layer parameters, which include the critical (foEs and blanketing (fbEs frequencies, the layer height (h'Es, and the width of the range spread of sporadic E-traces, were compared with RTI (range-time-intensity plots of VHF quasi-periodic (QP and continuous coherent backscatter echoes. A close relationship was found between the appearance of QP echoes in the RTI plots and the level of spatial inhomogeneity in sporadic E plasma, signified here by the difference between foEs and fbEs. During QP echo events, foEs increased while fbEs decreased, so that the difference foEs-fbEs was enhanced, indicating the development of strong spatial structuring in electron density within a sporadic E-layer. On the other hand, increases in sporadic E range spreading also correlated with the occurrence of QP echoes but the degree of correlation varied from event to event. Continuous radar echoes were observed in association with low altitude sporadic E-layers, located well below 100 km and at times as low as 90 km. During the continuous echo events, both foEs and fbEs were less variable, and the difference foEs-fbEs was small and not as dynamic as in the QP echoes. On the other hand, the Es-layer spread intensified during continuous echoes, which means that some patchiness or corrugation in those low altitude layers is also necessary for the continuous backscatter echoes to take place.

  5. Simultaneous observation of sporadic E with a rapid-run ionosonde and VHF coherent backscatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maruyama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK 2 rocket campaign, ionograms were recorded every minute at the Yamagawa Radio Observatory at about 90km west of the region monitored by a VHF (very high frequency coherent backscatter radar. Sporadic E-layer parameters, which include the critical (foEs and blanketing (fbEs frequencies, the layer height (h'Es, and the width of the range spread of sporadic E-traces, were compared with RTI (range-time-intensity plots of VHF quasi-periodic (QP and continuous coherent backscatter echoes. A close relationship was found between the appearance of QP echoes in the RTI plots and the level of spatial inhomogeneity in sporadic E plasma, signified here by the difference between foEs and fbEs. During QP echo events, foEs increased while fbEs decreased, so that the difference foEs-fbEs was enhanced, indicating the development of strong spatial structuring in electron density within a sporadic E-layer. On the other hand, increases in sporadic E range spreading also correlated with the occurrence of QP echoes but the degree of correlation varied from event to event. Continuous radar echoes were observed in association with low altitude sporadic E-layers, located well below 100 km and at times as low as 90 km. During the continuous echo events, both foEs and fbEs were less variable, and the difference foEs-fbEs was small and not as dynamic as in the QP echoes. On the other hand, the Es-layer spread intensified during continuous echoes, which means that some patchiness or corrugation in those low altitude layers is also necessary for the continuous backscatter echoes to take place.

  6. Recent Comparisons of VHF Lightning Mapping Using Interferometry and Time-of-Arrival Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojou, J.; Cummins, K. L.

    2005-12-01

    As part of Vaisala's technology and applications test bed in the Dallas-Fort Worth area in Texas, we have been operating two overlapping Total Lightning detection networks. One network employs VHF Interferometry (both 2- and 3-timensional instrumentation) and the other employs VHF 3-dimensional Time-Of-Arrival (TOA) techniques. For the first time, these two technologies can be compared and contrasted in a common region where they both exhibit good performance. The aim of the work presented is to evaluate the spatial and temporal "description" of lightning flashes provided by these two techniques, and to compare and contrast the relative strengths of these two approaches for Total Lightning mapping. This study employs data acquired during the summer of 2005. The analysis set includes data obtained by these two networks, as well as cloud-to-ground location data from the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The spatial extent and vertical profile of sources from individual in-cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes are compared for various storm conditions, with both technologies clearly contributing supplemental information not provided by the other. Leader propagation velocities show a substantially unimodal distribution centered at about 105 m/s for TOA-derived sources, whereas the velocity distribution for sources detected using interferometry exhibit a bimodal distribution with the second mode at about 107 m/s. The most-probable interval-between-sources for TOA-derived sources seems to be a few milliseconds, whereas interferometry produces large populations with intervals near 100 microseconds and 100 milliseconds.

  7. 78 FR 42102 - Termination of Radiotelephone Medium Frequency 2182 kHz Watchkeeping, 2187.5 kHz Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    .... Shore stations that operated in this MF band, and ships subject to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea Ch. IV, Reg. 5 (SOLAS) were required to maintain a watch on this frequency. Beginning in 1987, the International Telecommunications Union Radio Regulations and SOLAS were amended to...

  8. VHF volume-imaging radar observation of aspect-sensitive scatterers tilted in mountain waves above a convective boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin stable atmospheric layers cause VHF radars to receive increased echo power from near zenith. Layers can be tilted from horizontal, for instance by gravity waves, and the direction of VHF "glinting" is measurable by spatial domain interferometry or many-beam Doppler beam swinging (DBS. This paper uses the Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, Shigaraki, Japan as a volume-imaging radar with 64-beam DBS, to show tilting of layers and air flow in mountain waves. Tilt of aspect-sensitive echo power from horizontal is nearly parallel to air flow, as assumed in earlier measurements of mountain-wave alignment. Vertical-wind measurements are self-consistent from different beam zenith angles, despite the combined effects of aspect sensitivity and horizontal-wind gradients.

  9. Analysis of the VHF-UHF electromagnetic radiation of lightning: Application to a model of the negative stepped leader propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taudiere, Isabelle

    1991-03-01

    The space and time characteristics of the VHF-UHF radiation from lightning are analyzed on the bases of 300 MHz emission sources, localized in three dimensions by interferometric measurements. The main phases that contribute to the development of intracloud lightning are examined in detail, also using electric field measurements at the lower frequency. This research is complemented by an experimental and theoretical analysis of long discharge (8m) radio emissions generated with both polarities in the laboratory. These investigations revealed that the VHF radiation is associated with the channel reillumination phase accompanying each step in the negative spark. The outcome of this work is the creation of a simple model for the propagation of the negative leader. The current and the radiated field during this phase of the discharge are computed from an equivalent electric circuit using the physical laws governing the variation of resistance. The extrapolation of these results to the case of the stepped leader of natural lightning is discussed.

  10. Meteor head echo altitude distributions and the height cutoff effect studied with the EISCAT HPLA UHF and VHF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Westman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Meteor head echo altitude distributions have been derived from data collected with the EISCAT VHF (224MHz and UHF (930MHz high-power, large-aperture (HPLA radars. At the high-altitude end, the distributions cut off abruptly in a manner reminiscent of the trail echo height ceiling effect observed with classical meteor radars. The target dimensions are shown to be much smaller than both the VHF and the UHF probing wavelengths, but the cutoff heights for the two systems are still clearly different, the VHF cutoff being located several km above the UHF one. A single-collision meteor-atmosphere interaction model is used to demonstrate that meteors in the (1.3–7.2µg mass range will ionise such that critical electron density at 224MHz is first reached at or around the VHF cutoff altitude and critical density at 930MHz will be reached at the UHF cutoff altitude. The observed seasonal variation in the cutoff altitudes is shown to be a function of the seasonal variation of atmospheric density with altitude. Assuming that the electron density required for detection is in the order of the critical density, the abrupt altitude cutoffs can be explained as a consequence of the micrometeoroid joint size-speed distribution dropping off so fast at the large-mass, high-velocity end that above a certain altitude the number of detectable events becomes vanishingly small. Conversely, meteors at the low-mass end of the distribution will be gradually retarded such that the ionisation they generate never reaches critical density. These particles will remain unobservable.Key words. Radio science (instruments and techniques – Interplatery physics (interplanetary dust – General or miscellaneous (new fields

  11. VHF digital ultrasound three-dimensional scanning in the diagnosis of myopic regression after corneal refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Ameline, Barbara; Puech, Michel; Montefiore, Guy; Laroche, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    To perform VHF digital ultrasound scanning and analysis of a case of high-myopic undercorrection in an eye that had undergone multiple surgical interventions for the correction of an initial refraction of -12.00 diopters (D). A 49-year-old woman was evaluated after undergoing three surgical interventions for correction of an initial refraction of -12.00 D in the left eye. Automated lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) was followed by arcuate keratotomy (for induced astigmatism) and surface photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The residual ametropia on presentation was -6.75 -3.50 x 95 degrees. VHF digital ultrasound scanning and analysis was performed. On ultrasound, the ALK interface was clearly visible. Residual stromal thickness beneath the cap was at least 275 microm. The absence of Bowman's layer indicated the region of PRK. New stroma and nascent stromal layers were differentiated within the flap. Neo stromal deposition and central epithelial hyperplasia were determined to be responsible for the myopic shift, as opposed to biomechanical changes. In this case, refraction, slit-lamp examination, and topography were unable to provide a diagnosis for regression following multiple corneal refractive procedures. By providing layered anatomical mapping, VHF digital ultrasound scanning was able to exclude a diagnosis of ectasia and provide anatomical diagnostic information to explain the clinical observations.

  12. Disturbances in VHF/UHF telemetry links as a possible effect of the 2003 Hokkaido Tokachi-oki earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nagamoto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The data on radio telemetry links (for water information at VHF/UHF in Hokkaido are used to investigate the rate of disturbances on radio links (or connection failure and its association with a huge earthquake, Tokachi-oki earthquake on 26 September 2003. Especially, the telemetry links at the Tokachi region closest to the earthquake epicenter, showed a significant increase in disturbances on radio links two weeks to a few days before the earthquake on the basis of analysis during a long interval from 1 June 2002 to 3 November 2007 (over 5 years. We suggest that these severe disturbances in VHF/UHF telemetry links are attributed to the generation of seismogenic VHF/UHF radio noises (emissions. Based on this idea, we have estimated that the intensity of these seismogenic emissions is on the order of 10–19 dB μV/m. Finally, the present result was compared with other physical parameters already obtained for this earthquake.

  13. First results from an iron lidar and a VHF radar at Davis, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebken, F.; Morris, R. J.; Hoeffner, J.; Kaifler, B.; Viehl, T.

    2012-12-01

    We present temperature measurements at Davis, Antarctica (69°S, 78°E), and compare with simultaneous and co-located radar measurements of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE). The mobile scanning iron lidar of the IAP in Kuehlungsborn was installed at Davis in December 2010. It measures iron densities, vertical winds, and temperatures in the iron layer, i. e. from approximately 80 to 100 km. It is based on probing the Doppler broadened resonance line of iron atoms at 386 nm and can operate under daylight conditions. Typical values for temperature uncertainty, altitude and time resolution are 3-5 K, 1 km, and 1 hour, respectively. The lidar also measures neutral air densities and temperatures in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. At Davis the lidar has up to now achieved approximately 2700 hours of data which is presumably the largest nearly continuous data set in Antarctica. The mesopause altitude changes throughout the summer season by several kilometers, significantly different from the northern hemisphere summer. Depending on altitude, temperatures can be warmer or colder compared to the NH summer. Temperatures at Davis near 86 km are rather similar to the NH, but they are much colder at higher altitudes. The thermal structure around the mesopause at Davis is closely related to the general circulation in the stratosphere, namely to the transition from winter to summer conditions. Different from expectations we sometimes find the mesopause significantly higher and colder(!) compared to the NH. Furthermore, we find large thermal tides in the summer months with amplitudes of up to 6-7~K, which is much larger than expected from models. The Australien Antarctic Division operates a 55 MHz VHF radar at Davis since February 2003. We report first simultaneous measurements of PMSE and temperatures by the Fe lidar. PMSE are strong radar echoes related to ice particles and therefore require atmospheric temperatures being lower than the frost point temperature

  14. Long-period unstable gravity-waves and associated VHF radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    Full Text Available VHF atmospheric radar is used to measure the wind velocity and radar echo power related to long-period wind perturbations, including gravity waves, which are observed commonly in the lower stratosphere and tropopause region, and sometimes in the troposphere. These wind structures have been identified previously as either inertia-gravity waves, often associated with jet streams, or mountain waves. At heights of peak wind shear, imbalances are found between the echo powers of a symmetric pair of radar beams, which are expected to be equal. The largest of these power differences are found for conditions of simultaneous high wind shear and high aspect sensitivity. It is suggested that the effect might arise from tilted specular reflectors or anisotropic turbulent scatterers, a result of, for example, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities generated by the strong wind shears. This radar power-difference effect could offer information about the onset of saturation in long-period waves, and the formation of thin layers of turbulence.

  15. Anisotropy of Doppler spectral parameters in the VHF radar observations at MU and White Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nastrom

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant differences are found between the mean spectral widths from beams in the meridional plane and in the zonal plane at both the MU and the White Sands VHF radars. The spectral width in the beam directed perpendicular to the prevailing wind is greater than that in the beam parallel to the wind. The magnitudes of the differences in spectral width show a linear relationship with wind speed, with the greatest differences at the greatest wind speeds. The differences in spectral width show a positive correlation with the differences in backscattered power. The anisotropy in backscattered power is well-known and is usually attributed to aspect sensitivity effects. However, the anisotropy in spectral width does not appear to be due to the same mechanism, and while several hypotheses to account for this are considered, including finite range-volume effects, effects from the tilting of isentropic layers, and anisotropic turbulence effects, it is seen that each of these suggestions has its shortcomings.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques

  16. Anisotropy of Doppler spectral parameters in the VHF radar observations at MU and White Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Nastrom

    Full Text Available Significant differences are found between the mean spectral widths from beams in the meridional plane and in the zonal plane at both the MU and the White Sands VHF radars. The spectral width in the beam directed perpendicular to the prevailing wind is greater than that in the beam parallel to the wind. The magnitudes of the differences in spectral width show a linear relationship with wind speed, with the greatest differences at the greatest wind speeds. The differences in spectral width show a positive correlation with the differences in backscattered power. The anisotropy in backscattered power is well-known and is usually attributed to aspect sensitivity effects. However, the anisotropy in spectral width does not appear to be due to the same mechanism, and while several hypotheses to account for this are considered, including finite range-volume effects, effects from the tilting of isentropic layers, and anisotropic turbulence effects, it is seen that each of these suggestions has its shortcomings.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulence; instruments and techniques

  17. Range imaging observations of PMSE using the EISCAT VHF radar: Phase calibration and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Fernandez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel phase calibration technique for use with the multiple-frequency Range IMaging (RIM technique is introduced based on genetic algorithms. The method is used on data collected with the European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT VHF radar during a 2002 experiment with the goal of characterizing the vertical structure of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE over northern Norway. For typical Doppler measurements, the initial phases of the transmitter and receiver are not required to be the same. The EISCAT receiver systems exploit this fact, allowing a multi-static configuration. However, the RIM method relies on the small phase differences between closely spaced frequencies. As a result, the high-resolution images produced by the RIM method can be significantly degraded if not properly calibrated. Using an enhanced numerical radar simulator, in which data from multiple sampling volumes are simultaneously generated, the proposed calibration method is validated. Subsequently, the method is applied to preliminary data from the EISCAT radar, providing first results of RIM images of PMSE. Data using conventional analysis techniques, and confirmed by RIM, reveal an often-observed double-layer structure with higher stability in the lower layer. Moreover, vertical velocity oscillations exhibit a clear correlation with the apparent motion of the layers shown in the echo power plots.

  18. Frequency domain interferometry mode observations of PMSE using the EISCAT VHF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Chilson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 1997 investigations into the nature of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE were conducted using the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT VHF radar in Norway. The radar was operated in a frequency domain interferometry (FDI mode over a period of two weeks to study the frequency coherence of the returned radar signals. The operating frequencies of the radar were 224.0 and 224.6 MHz. We present the first results from the experiment by discussing two 4-h intervals of data collected over two consecutive nights. During the first of the two days an enhancement of the FDI coherence, which indicates the presence of distinct scattering layers, was found to follow the lower boundary of the PMSE. Indeed, it is not unusual to observe that the coherence values are peaked around the heights corresponding to both the lower- and upper-most boundaries of the PMSE layer and sublayers. A Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism is offered as one possible explanation for the layering structure. Additionally, our analysis using range-time-pseudocolor plots of signal-to-noise ratios, spectrograms of Doppler velocity, and estimates of the positions of individual scattering layers is shown to be consistent with the proposition that upwardly propagating gravity waves can become steepened near the mesopause.Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere · Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics · Radio Science (Interferometry

  19. Frequency domain interferometry mode observations of PMSE using the EISCAT VHF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Chilson

    Full Text Available During the summer of 1997 investigations into the nature of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE were conducted using the European incoherent scatter (EISCAT VHF radar in Norway. The radar was operated in a frequency domain interferometry (FDI mode over a period of two weeks to study the frequency coherence of the returned radar signals. The operating frequencies of the radar were 224.0 and 224.6 MHz. We present the first results from the experiment by discussing two 4-h intervals of data collected over two consecutive nights. During the first of the two days an enhancement of the FDI coherence, which indicates the presence of distinct scattering layers, was found to follow the lower boundary of the PMSE. Indeed, it is not unusual to observe that the coherence values are peaked around the heights corresponding to both the lower- and upper-most boundaries of the PMSE layer and sublayers. A Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism is offered as one possible explanation for the layering structure. Additionally, our analysis using range-time-pseudocolor plots of signal-to-noise ratios, spectrograms of Doppler velocity, and estimates of the positions of individual scattering layers is shown to be consistent with the proposition that upwardly propagating gravity waves can become steepened near the mesopause.

    Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere · Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics · Radio Science (Interferometry

  20. Study of CNT growth using nanocatalyst Ag precursor by HWC-VHF-PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliyana, Ajeng; Rosikin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto, E-mail: toto@fi.itb.ac.id [Physics of Electronics Material Research Division, Physics Programme, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, West Java (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    The study of CNT growth has been done by using silver (Ag) nanocatalyst as a guide precursor on corning glass 7059 substrate. The silver catalyst was prepared by the evaporation method by varying deposition time for 50, 25, and 14 seconds. The silver films were then annealed at temperature of 400°C for 4 hours. From Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) results the grain sizes are 65 nm, 57 nm, and 33 nm, and also the atomic compositions are 6,06%, 4,52%, and 3,73% for 14, 25 and 50 seconds samples, respectively. The 33 nm samples were then used for CNT growth by using Hot Wire Cell (HWC) – Very High Frequency (VHF) – Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) at 275 ° C deposition temperature and pressure of 300 mTorr. The rf power was varied from 8 to 20 watts, with deposition time for 60 minutes. The methane (CH4) 99.999% was used as Carbon sources. Hydrogen gas (H2) was used to etch the oxide layer formed during the pre-deposition process. The diameter and length for the CNT are 125 nm and 1.650 to 2.989 nm respectively.

  1. On the VHF source retrieval errors associated with Lightning Mapping Arrays (LMAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    A common method for retrieving the lightning Very High Frequency (VHF) radio source (x, y, z, t) emission is to minimize a (reduced) chi-squared function that indicates how well the model arrival times associated with the model source represent the arrival time measurements at each Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) site. The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is usually employed to find the minimum of the chi-squared function, and the model source producing this minimum is considered to be the optimal source solution. Because the chi-squared mathematical surface is nonlinear, it is important to feed the LM algorithm an accurate initial guess (xo, yo, zo, to) in parameter space to avoid parameter searches that terminate at a relative minima of the chi-squared surface. Source initialization is commonly performed using a linear retrieval algorithm first introduced in Koshak and Solakiewicz (1996), and further applied in Koshak et al. (2004). Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical inferences both show that source retrieval errors (particularly source altitude errors) increase with horizontal source range. In the present study, the effect of modifying certain elements of the retrieval (i. e., the LMA site locations, the number of sites employed, and the retrieval algorithm characteristics) are examined to assess and quantify associated improvements in retrieval results.

  2. Signal processing techniques for phase-coded HF-VHF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Baskaradas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available HF-VHF radar techniques are easy to employ and commonly used in geophysical applications. They include deep radio soundings, used for probing the ionosphere, stratosphere-mesosphere measurement, weather forecast and radio-glaciology. Fast algorithms and powerful processors facilitate the development of several kinds of low power radars, but the reduction of the transmitted power has to be compensated by on-line processing of an encoded signal to maintain a favorable signal-to-noise ratio suitable for detection. Moreover, radars have to reconstruct return echoes with different travel times due to various origins (multi-path, adjacent objects, etc.. Such needs can be accomplished by means of signal phase coding and one of the most attractive is the reversal phase code. The composite echo signal must be processed to extract the physical information useful for the measurement considered. In this paper some algorithms used for on-line processing of phase-coded signals will be described, both in time and frequency domain.

  3. Linked Station Neighbors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — This file that is a subset of the Linked-Station Set file. This file specifies, for each U.S. or impeding Canadian station part of a linked station set, the set of...

  4. Effect of solar and magnetic activity on VHF scintillations near the equatorial anomaly crest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Singh

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The VHF amplitude scintillation recorded during the period January 1991 to December 1993 in the declining phase of a solar cycle and April 1998 to December 1999 in the ascending phase of the next solar cycle at Varanasi (geogr. lat.=25.3°, long.=83.0°, dip=37°N have been analyzed to study the behavior of ionospheric irregularities during active solar periods and magnetic storms. It is shown that irregularities occur at arbitrary times and may last for <30min. A rise in solar activity increases scintillations during winter (November-February and near equinoxes (March-April; September-October, whereas it depresses the scintillations during the summer (May-July. In general, the role of magnetic activity is to suppress scintillations in the pre-midnight period and to increase it in the post-midnight period during equinox and winter seasons, whilst during summer months the effect is reversed. The pre-midnight scintillation is sometimes observed when the main phase of Dst corresponds to the pre-midnight period. The annual variation shows suppression of scintillations on disturbed days, both during pre-midnight and post-midnight period, which becomes more effective during years of high solar activity. It is observed that for magnetic storms for which the recovery phase starts post-midnight, the probability of occurrence of irregularities is enhanced during this time. If the magnetic storm occurred during daytime, then the probability of occurrence of scintillations during the night hours is decreased. The penetration of magnetospheric electric fields to the magnetic equator affects the evolution of low-latitude irregularities. A delayed disturbance dynamo electric field also affects the development of irregularities.

  5. Simulation of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Murawski, Robert; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Raghavan, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an operational plan for the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in which the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is envisioned to evolve into digital messaging that will take on an ever increasing role in controller to pilot communications, significantly changing the way the National Airspace System (NAS) is operating. According to FAA, CPDLC represents the first phase of the transition from the current analog voice system to an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliant system in which digital communication becomes the alternate and perhaps primary method of routine communication. The CPDLC application is an Air Traffic Service (ATS) application in which pilots and controllers exchange messages via an addressed data link. CPDLC includes a set of clearance, information, and request message elements that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. These message elements encompass altitude assignments, crossing constraints, lateral deviations, route changes and clearances, speed assignments, radio frequency assignments, and various requests for information. The pilot is provided with the capability to respond to messages, to request clearances and information, to report information, and to declare/rescind an emergency. A 'free text' capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats. This paper presents simulated results of the aeronautical telecommunication application Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3 (VDL Mode 3). The objective of this simulation study was to determine the impact of CPDLC traffic loads, in terms of timely message delivery and capacity of the VDL Mode 3 subnetwork. The traffic model is based on and is used for generating air/ground messages with different priorities. Communication is modeled for the en route domain of the Cleveland

  6. Seasonal and diurnal changes in wind variability from Flatland VHF profiler observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastrom, G.D. [Saint Cloud State Univ., MN (United States). Dept. of Earth Sci.; Clark, W.L. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; Zandt, T.E. van [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; Warnock, J.M. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.

    1996-02-01

    Climatological results are presented on the hourly variance of the wind observed in the mid-troposphere (3 to 9 km MSL). This quantity roughly indicates the energy in the atmospheric wind field for variations with periods roughly less than 1 hour. Observations are from the Flatland VHF research wind profiler, located near Champaign/Urbana, Illinois, well away from significant orographic features. The period of record covers two years, September 1990 through August 1992. The values of the variance of the winds along vertical and oblique (15 degrees from zenith in the cardinal directions) beams are presented versus height, season, time-of-day, and beam pointing direction. It is found that the hourly variance values have approximately lognormal frequency distribution. The mean hourly variance is significantly larger for the oblique wind observations than for the vertical. Mean wind variances also tend to be larger in the east/west steering plane than in the north/south plane. The mean variance generally increases with height, but faster than would be expected if it were due solely to the decrease in atmospheric density, implying the presence of local source/sinks of wind energy. The rate of change with height is noticeably different for the vertical and oblique beams, being much less for the vertical beam, in some seasons even decreasing with height. With respect to season, the mean hourly variance is smallest in the summer and largest in the winter. With respect to diurnal changes, the variance is maximum during the afternoon for spring, summer, and autumn, with the maximum up to a factor of two larger than the minimum. In winter, the diurnal change is much smaller, with little indication of an afternoon maximum. (orig.)

  7. VHF radar observations of turbulent structures in the polar mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Czechowsky

    Full Text Available The mobile SOUSY VHF Radar was operated in the summer of 1987 during the MAC/SINE campaign in northern Norway to study the polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE. Measurements of the spectral width indicate that two types of structures occur. In general mesospheric layers are bifurcated exhibiting a narrow spectral width and a well-defined aspect sensitivity. However, for about 10% of the observation time cells of enhanced turbulence characterized by extremely broad spectral widths appear predominantly in the upper sublayer above 86 km. Identification and separation of beam and shear broadening allows a determination of the turbulence-induced component of the spectral width. This case study reveals that during several events these cloud-like structures of enhanced turbulence move with an apparent velocity of several tens of meters per second which is almost identical with the phase trace velocity of simultaneously observed waves. Since, at that time, the Richardson number was less than a quarter, it was concluded that these turbulent cells were generated by a Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism. The horizontal extent of these structures was calculated to be less than 40 km. A general relation between spectral width and echo power was not detected. The turbulent component of the spectral width was used to calculate typical values of the energy dissipation rate at times where narrow spectral width dominates and during periods of enhanced turbulence. In addition, the outer scale of the inertial subrange (buoyancy scale was estimated. For the first time the occurrence and motion of this type of structures of enhanced spectral width is analyzed and discussed in detail.

  8. VHF radar observations of turbulent structures in the polar mesopause region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Czechowsky

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The mobile SOUSY VHF Radar was operated in the summer of 1987 during the MAC/SINE campaign in northern Norway to study the polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE. Measurements of the spectral width indicate that two types of structures occur. In general mesospheric layers are bifurcated exhibiting a narrow spectral width and a well-defined aspect sensitivity. However, for about 10% of the observation time cells of enhanced turbulence characterized by extremely broad spectral widths appear predominantly in the upper sublayer above 86 km. Identification and separation of beam and shear broadening allows a determination of the turbulence-induced component of the spectral width. This case study reveals that during several events these cloud-like structures of enhanced turbulence move with an apparent velocity of several tens of meters per second which is almost identical with the phase trace velocity of simultaneously observed waves. Since, at that time, the Richardson number was less than a quarter, it was concluded that these turbulent cells were generated by a Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism. The horizontal extent of these structures was calculated to be less than 40 km. A general relation between spectral width and echo power was not detected. The turbulent component of the spectral width was used to calculate typical values of the energy dissipation rate at times where narrow spectral width dominates and during periods of enhanced turbulence. In addition, the outer scale of the inertial subrange (buoyancy scale was estimated. For the first time the occurrence and motion of this type of structures of enhanced spectral width is analyzed and discussed in detail.

  9. The relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter amplitude and Doppler velocity: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity has been undertaken with data collected from 8 years operation of the Wick site of the Sweden And Britain Radar-auroral Experiment (SABRE. The results indicate three different regimes within the statistical data set; firstly, for Doppler velocities <200 m s–1, the backscatter intensity (measured in decibels remains relatively constant. Secondly, a linear relationship is observed between the backscatter intensity (in decibels and Doppler velocity for velocities between 200 m s–1 and 700 m s–1. At velocities greater than 700 m s–1 the backscatter intensity saturates at a maximum value as the Doppler velocity increases. There are three possible geophysical mechanisms for the saturation in the backscatter intensity at high phase speeds: a saturation in the irregularity turbulence level, a maximisation of the scattering volume, and a modification of the local ambient electron density. There is also a difference in the dependence of the backscatter intensity on Doppler velocity for the flow towards and away from the radar. The results for flow towards the radar exhibit a consistent relationship between backscatter intensity and measured velocities throughout the solar cycle. For flow away from the radar, however, the relationship between backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity varies during the solar cycle. The geometry of the SABRE system ensures that flow towards the radar is predominantly associated with the eastward electrojet, and flow away is associated with the westward electrojet. The difference in the backscatter intensity variation as a function of Doppler velocity is attributed to asymmetries between the eastward and westward electrojets and the geophysical parameters controlling the backscatter amplitude.

  10. Statistics of 150-km echoes over Jicamarca based on low-power VHF observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we summarize the statistics of the so-called 150-km echoes obtained with a low-power VHF radar operation at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (11.97 S, 76.87 W, and 1.3 dip angle at 150-km altitude in Peru. Our results are based on almost four years of observations between August 2001 and July 2005 (approximately 150 days per year. The majority of the observations have been conducted between 08:00 and 17:00 LT. We present the statistics of occurrence of the echoes for each of the four seasons as a function of time of day and altitude. The occurrence frequency of the echoes is ~75% around noon and start decreasing after 15:00 LT and disappear after 17:00 LT in all seasons. As shown in previous campaign observations, the 150-echoes appear at a higher altitude (>150 km in narrow layers in the morning, reaching lower altitudes (~135 km around noon, and disappear at higher altitudes (>150 km after 17:00 LT. We show that although 150-km echoes are observed all year long, they exhibit a clear seasonal variability on altitudinal coverage and the percentage of occurrence around noon and early in the morning. We also show that there is a strong day-to-day variability, and no correlation with magnetic activity. Although our results do not solve the 150-km riddle, they should be taken into account when a reasonable theory is proposed.

  11. The relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter amplitude and Doppler velocity: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity has been undertaken with data collected from 8 years operation of the Wick site of the Sweden And Britain Radar-auroral Experiment (SABRE. The results indicate three different regimes within the statistical data set; firstly, for Doppler velocities <200 m s–1, the backscatter intensity (measured in decibels remains relatively constant. Secondly, a linear relationship is observed between the backscatter intensity (in decibels and Doppler velocity for velocities between 200 m s–1 and 700 m s–1. At velocities greater than 700 m s–1 the backscatter intensity saturates at a maximum value as the Doppler velocity increases. There are three possible geophysical mechanisms for the saturation in the backscatter intensity at high phase speeds: a saturation in the irregularity turbulence level, a maximisation of the scattering volume, and a modification of the local ambient electron density. There is also a difference in the dependence of the backscatter intensity on Doppler velocity for the flow towards and away from the radar. The results for flow towards the radar exhibit a consistent relationship between backscatter intensity and measured velocities throughout the solar cycle. For flow away from the radar, however, the relationship between backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity varies during the solar cycle. The geometry of the SABRE system ensures that flow towards the radar is predominantly associated with the eastward electrojet, and flow away is associated with the westward electrojet. The difference in the backscatter intensity variation as a function of Doppler velocity is attributed to asymmetries between the eastward and westward electrojets and the geophysical parameters controlling the backscatter amplitude.

  12. Cut-off low monitoring by the French VHF-ST-radar network during the ESTIME campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, J.-L.; Bertin, F.; Campistron, B.; Klaus, V.; Pointin, Y.; van Baelen, J.; Wilson, R.

    2000-05-01

    In order to investigate mesoscale strato-tropospheric exchanges, the field campaign `Echanges Stratosphère-Troposphère: Investigations à Moyenne Echelle' was conducted in France from late 1993 to mid 1995 and focused on cut-off low events. It involved the French research network of five VHF (Very High Frequency) ST (Strato-Tropospheric) radars deployed in southern France. Observations corresponding to three Intensive Observing Periods are reported here. The radar data analyzed and discussed are time-height diagrams of the aspect ratio (AR), that is, the vertical to oblique beam-returned power ratio, used for monitoring three cut-off low events. In order to discuss the validity of the method, 506 h of radar AR data were compared with time-height diagrams of the static stability and the humidity obtained from synoptic European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts model analyses. A dataset corresponding to 297 h of observations is analyzed and discussed here. It is concluded that the AR is a good tracer to document cut-off low events, including tropopause folding identification and the detection of tropospheric air masses of enhanced stability, in dry or weakly humid cases. On the other hand, although the effects of the specific humidity and its gradients on VHF radar echo power could not be extensively investigated, our results suggest that the same parameter cannot be used at mid- and lower-tropospheric levels when the effects of specific humidity significantly reinforce the moist static stability. It is important to take into account these insights in the context of future observing campaigns in which a network of VHF-ST-radars will be involved, and where their role will be to observe and to document the evolution of upper-level features or potential vorticity streamers, or more generally stratospheric-tropospheric exchanges.

  13. Lightning VHF radiation location system based on short-baseline TDOA technique — Validation in rocket-triggered lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuling; Qie, Xiushu; Liu, Mingyuan; Cao, Dongjie; Wang, Dongfang

    2013-07-01

    A lightning VHF radiation location system based on short-baseline time-difference of arrival (TDOA) technology is newly developed. Based on the orthogonal 10 m-baseline antenna array with four identical broadband flat plane antennas, this system receives the lightning broadband VHF radiation signals and calculates TDOA between antennas in order to determine the location of lightning radiation sources in two dimensions (elevation and azimuth). To reduce noise and improve estimation accuracy of time delay, a general correlation time delay estimation algorithm based on direct correlation method and wavelet transform is proposed. Moreover, parabolic interpolation algorithm is used in the fractional delay estimation to improve the time resolution of the positioning system. In this paper, a rocket-triggered lightning discharge and a cloud lightning discharge are analyzed respectively, combining with simultaneous observations of high-speed camera and fast/slow electric field changes. The results indicate that the TDOA location system could effectively map the lightning radiation sources in 2 dimensions and are in a good agreement with the high-speed video camera images.

  14. Radar efficiency and the calculation of decade-long PMSE backscatter cross-section for the Resolute Bay VHF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Swarnalingam

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Resolute Bay VHF radar, located in Nunavut, Canada (75.0° N, 95.0° W and operating at 51.5 MHz, has been used to investigate Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE since 1997. PMSE are a unique form of strong coherent radar echoes, and their understanding has been a challenge to the scientific community since their discovery more than three decades ago. While other high latitude radars have recorded strong levels of PMSE activities, the Resolute Bay radar has observed relatively lower levels of PMSE strengths. In order to derive absolute measurements of PMSE strength at this site, a technique is developed to determine the radar efficiency using cosmic (sky noise variations along with the help of a calibrated noise source. VHF radars are only rarely calibrated, but determination of efficiency is even less common. Here we emphasize the importance of efficiency for determination of cross-section measurements. The significant advantage of this method is that it can be directly applied to any MST radar system anywhere in the world as long as the sky noise variations are known. The radar efficiencies for two on-site radars at Resolute Bay are determined. PMSE backscatter cross-section is estimated, and decade-long PMSE strength variations at this location are investigated. It was noticed that the median of the backscatter cross-section distribution remains relatively unchanged, but over the years a great level of variability occurs in the high power tail of the distribution.

  15. Meteoroid Fragmentation as Revealed in Head- and Trail-Echoes Observed with the Arecibo UHF and VHF Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, J. D.; Malhorta, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report recent 46.8/430 MHz (VHF/UHF) radar meteor observations at Arecibo Observatory (AO) that reveal many previously unreported features in the radar meteor return - including flare-trails at both UHF and VHF - that are consistent with meteoroid fragmentation. Signature features of fragmentation include strong intra-pulse and pulse-to-pulse fading as the result of interference between or among multiple meteor head-echo returns and between head-echo and impulsive flare or "point" trail-echoes. That strong interference fading occurs implies that these scatterers exhibit well defined phase centers and are thus small compared with the wavelength. These results are consistent with and offer advances beyond a long history of optical and radar meteoroid fragmentation studies. Further, at AO, fragmenting and flare events are found to be a large fraction of the total events even though these meteoroids are likely the smallest observed by the major radars. Fragmentation is found to be a major though not dominate component of the meteors observed at other HPLA radars that are sensitive to larger meteoroids.

  16. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xunming [University of Toledo; Fan, Qi Hua

    2011-12-31

    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  17. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  18. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  19. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  20. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  1. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  2. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  3. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  4. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  5. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  6. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also...... includes some alpine stations located outside the Arctic. The INTERACT research stations provide an ideal platform for circumarctic research and monitoring. Activities span from small short term research projects to larger long term monitoring programmes. The stations are thus visited by many researchers...... and research groups. Therefore, INTERACT has produced a catalogue of research stations including descriptions of the physical setting, facilities and services offered at the stations. It is our hope that this catalogue will help researchers identify research stations that suit their specific needs. The 2015...

  7. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  8. Space Station operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation of the success of the Space Station will be based on the service provided to the customers by the Station crew, the productivity of the crew, and the costs of operation. Attention is given to details regarding Space Station operations, a summary of operational philosophies and requirements, logistics and resupply operations, prelaunch processing and launch operations, on-orbit operations, aspects of maintainability and maintenance, habitability, and questions of medical care. A logistics module concept is considered along with a logistics module processing timeline, a habitability module concept, and a Space Station rescue mission.

  9. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Hekinan thermal power station is situated at the port of Kinuura in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Unit 1 began commercial operation in October 1991, Unit 2 in June 1992 and Unit 3 in April 1993. This brochure gives the specification of the main facilities of the power station, shows its layout; illustrates its pollution control equipment, gives specifications of its flue gas treatment systems and of its large steam turbine, describes its coal handling facilities and gives their specifications, and mentions the power station`s automated control system.

  10. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  11. Radar observations of ionospheric irregularities at Syowa Station, Antarctica: a brief overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ogawa

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available We briefly overview the radar observations that have been made for 30 years at Syowa Station, Antarctica for studying small-scale electron-density irregularities in the southern high-latitude E- and F-region ionosphere. Some observational results (i.e., long-term variations of radio aurora, Doppler spectra with narrow spectral widths and low Doppler velocities, and simultaneous observations of radar and optical auroras from VHF radars capable of detecting 1.3- to 3-m scale irregularities are presented. A new 50-MHz radar system equipped with phased-antenna arrays began operation in February 1995 to observe two-dimensional behaviours of E-region irregularities. An HF radar experiment also began in February 1995 to explore decameter-scale E- and F-region irregularities in the auroral zone and polar cap. These two radars will contribute to a better understanding of the ionospheric irregularities and ionospheric physics at southern high latitudes.

  12. First simultaneous lidar observations of sodium layers and VHF radar observations of E-region field-aligned irregularities at the low-latitude station Gadanki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sridharan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of atmospheric sodium (Na made by a resonance lidar and E-region field-aligned-irregularities (FAI made by the Indian MST radar, both located at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E and horizontal winds acquired by a SKiYMET meteor radar at Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E are used to investigate the relationship among sodium layer, FAI and neutral winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. The altitudes and descent rates of higher altitude (~95 km Na layer and FAI agree quite well. The descending structures of the higher altitude Na layer and FAI are found to be closely related to the diurnal tidal phase structure in zonal winds observed over Trivandrum. At lower altitudes, the descent rate of FAI is larger than that of Na layer and zonal tidal phase. These observations support the hypothesis that the metallic ion layers are formed by the zonal wind shear associated with tidal winds and subsequently get neutralized to manifest in the form of descending Na layers. The descending FAI echoing layers are manifestation of the instabilities setting in on the ionization layer. In the present observations, the altitudes of occurrence of Na layer and FAI echoes being low, we surmise that it is quite possible that the FAI echoes are due to the descent of already formed irregularities at higher altitudes.

  13. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  14. Station Climatic Summaries, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    274 MALAYSIA SINGAPORE APRT 486940 8505 (OCDS) ................................................... 278 NORTH KOREA CHANGJON/ONSEIRI 470610 6809 (CB...526 BURSA 171160 8709 (OCDS) ................................................... 528 CIGLI/IZMIR 172180...SUMMARY * STATION: SINGAPORE AIRPORT, MALAYSIA STATION #: 486940 ICAO ID: WSSS LOCATION: 01022N, 10400E ELEVATION (FEET): 21 LST - GMT +8 PREPARED BY

  15. "Inventive" Learning Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Learning stations can be used for myriad purposes--to teach concepts, integrate subject matter, build interest, and allow for inquiry--the possibilities are limited only by the imagination of the teacher and the supplies available. In this article, the author shares suggestions and a checklist for setting up successful learning stations. In…

  16. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  17. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... penetration of wind power is present, is considered as special case. The distribution grid in Denmark is built using larger secondary distribution transformers (e.g. 630 kVA) which in general allows higher flexibility for the installation of Central Stations, compared to Bornholm’s distribution grid...... kWh battery-EV is not feasible in Bornholm at the 0.4 kV level, due to predominantly small size secondary distribution transformers, in the range of 100 - 200 kVA. This is possible at the 10kV level (MV level), if the Fast Charging station is equipped with its own dedicated transformer. With DC...

  18. [STEM on Station Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  19. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  20. The Epi Info Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) Application: A Resource for Outbreak Data Management and Contact Tracing in the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Ilana J; Knudsen, Erik; McNamara, Lucy A; Agnihotri, Sachin; Rollin, Pierre E; Islam, Asad

    2016-10-15

    The Epi Info Viral Hemorrhagic Fever application (Epi Info VHF) was developed in response to challenges managing outbreak data during four 2012 filovirus outbreaks. Development goals included combining case and contact data in a relational database, facilitating data-driven contact tracing, and improving outbreak data consistency and use. The application was first deployed in Guinea, when the West Africa Ebola epidemic was detected, in March 2014, and has been used in 7 African countries and 2 US states. Epi Info VHF enabled reporting of compatible data from multiple countries, contributing to international Ebola knowledge. However, challenges were encountered in accommodating the epidemic's unexpectedly large magnitude, addressing country-specific needs within 1 software product, and using the application in settings with limited Internet access and information technology support. Use of Epi Info VHF in the West Africa Ebola epidemic highlighted the fundamental importance of good data management for effective outbreak response, regardless of the software used. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Statistical characteristics of low-latitude ionospheric field-aligned irregularities obtained with the Piura VHF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a summary of the statistical characteristics of echoes from ionospheric (E- and F-region field-aligned irregularities obtained with the Piura VHF radar. This radar is located at ~ 7.0° dip latitude, just outside the equatorial electrojet (EEJ region. Our results are based on (1 intermittent observations made between 1991 and 1999 just few days a year, and (2 continuous observations made between January 2000 and June 2001. During most of the intermittent observations, simultaneous measurements of EEJ and equatorial spread F (ESF irregularities were performed with the Jicamarca VHF radar. From the continuous measurements, we have obtained the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of a variety of parameters (percentage of occurrence, signal-to-noise ratio and/or Doppler velocities from the lower and upper E-region irregularities and also from F-region irregularities over Piura. For example, we have found that (1 the E-region echoes are stronger and occur more frequently during local summer (i.e. between December and March; (2 between May and June, the E-region echoes are weaker and occur less frequently; moreover, during these months, a semidiurnal wave with large amplitudes is observed in the meridional wind (> 100 ms- 1; (3 there is vertical wavelength of about 20 km in the Doppler velocity, particularly after midnight; (4 the lower (upper E-region Doppler velocities are influenced mainly by meridional winds (equatorial F-region vertical drifts. In addition, we have observed that the seasonal and daily occurrences of Piura F-region irregularities are similar to the occurrence of topside ESF irregularities over Jicamarca. The likelihood of occurrence of F-region irregularities over Piura and, therefore, topside ESF over Jicamarca is greater when there are no E-region irregularities over Piura. On the other hand, there is more probability of observing bottomtype/bottomside ESF irregularities over Jicamarca when E-region irregularities

  2. PMSE observations with the EISCAT VHF- and UHF-radars: Ice particles and their effect on ambient electron densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Rapp, Markus

    2013-11-01

    It is now well understood that the occurrence of PMSE is closely connected to the presence of ice particles. These ice particles modify the ambient electron density by electron attachment which occasionally leads to large electron density depletions which have also been called ‘biteouts’. There has been some debate in the literature regarding the relative depth of such depletions which is usually expressed by the parameter Λ=|ZA|NA/ne. Here, |ZA|NA is the charge number density of ice particles and ne is the electron density. In this paper, we present, for the first time, the statistical distribution of Λ using measurements with the EISCAT VHF- and UHF-radars. Based on 25 h of simultaneous observations, we derived a total of 757 Λ values based on 15 min of data each. In each of these cases, PMSE were observed with the EISCAT VHF-radar but not with the UHF-radar and the UHF-measurement were hence used to determine the electron density profile. From these 757 cases, there are 699 cases with Λ⪡1, and only 33 cases with Λ>0.5 (21 cases with Λ>1). A correlation analysis of Λ versus PMSE volume reflectivities further reveals that there is no strong dependence between the two parameters. This is in accordance with current PMSE-theory based on turbulence in combination with a large Schmidt-number. The maxima of Λ from each profile show a negative relationship with the undisturbed electron densities deduced at the same altitudes. This reveals that the variability of Λ mainly depends on the variability of the electron densities. In addition, variations of aerosol number densities may also play a role. Although part of the observations were conducted during the HF heating experiments, the so-called overshoot effects did not significantly bias our statistical results. In order to avoid missing biteouts because of a superposition of coherent and incoherent scatter in the UHF-data, we finally calculated spectral parameters n by applying a simple fit to auto

  3. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alicia; Deshpande, Manohar; O'Neill, Peggy; Miles, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earth's surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil. This presentation describes a new and less expensive technique for SM as well as RZSM direct measurement using Signal of Opportunity transmitters. Being less expensive and needing only passive simple RF receiver, the SoOp concept has the potential for being used for space borne applications, thus providing global SM and RZSM measurements. This study will describe

  4. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  5. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  6. TV Analog Station Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract from the Consolidated Database System (CDBS) licensed by the Media Bureau. It consists of Analog Television Stations (see Rule Part47 CFR...

  7. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  8. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  9. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  10. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  11. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  12. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  13. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  14. Station Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following plan is the result of a recent initiative in Region 5 to produce general management guidance based on stated objectives for individual field stations....

  15. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  16. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  17. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  18. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  19. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  20. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  1. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  2. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  3. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  4. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  5. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  6. Comparison of wind measurements in the troposphere and mesosphere by VHF/MF radars and in-situ techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Engler

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Radar wind observations at frequencies between 1.98 and 53.5 MHz obtained at polar latitudes were compared to in-situ wind measurements by radiosondes at tropospheric altitudes and to winds from falling spheres at mesospheric altitudes. Comparisons are shown for several campaigns of radiosonde and falling sphere observations. The radar wind directions agree well to the radiosonde and falling sphere observations and are highly correlated. The winds estimated from radar measurements are less than the radiosonde data by about 15% for spaced antenna observations and by about 10% for the Doppler beam swinging experiment. At mesospheric altitudes the spaced antenna winds obtained from the wide-beam Andenes MF radar are underestimated in the order of 35% and winds from the narrow-beam Saura MF radar are underestimated by about 20% compared to falling sphere winds at altitudes between 70 and 80 km. Furthermore, the relation between wind measurements using narrow-beam and wide-beam antenna arrangements for the MF radars is discussed and VHF radar observations are compared to the wide-beam MF radar.

  7. Comparison of wind measurements in the troposphere and mesosphere by VHF/MF radars and in-situ techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, N.; Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Strelnikov, B.

    2008-11-01

    Radar wind observations at frequencies between 1.98 and 53.5 MHz obtained at polar latitudes were compared to in-situ wind measurements by radiosondes at tropospheric altitudes and to winds from falling spheres at mesospheric altitudes. Comparisons are shown for several campaigns of radiosonde and falling sphere observations. The radar wind directions agree well to the radiosonde and falling sphere observations and are highly correlated. The winds estimated from radar measurements are less than the radiosonde data by about 15% for spaced antenna observations and by about 10% for the Doppler beam swinging experiment. At mesospheric altitudes the spaced antenna winds obtained from the wide-beam Andenes MF radar are underestimated in the order of 35% and winds from the narrow-beam Saura MF radar are underestimated by about 20% compared to falling sphere winds at altitudes between 70 and 80 km. Furthermore, the relation between wind measurements using narrow-beam and wide-beam antenna arrangements for the MF radars is discussed and VHF radar observations are compared to the wide-beam MF radar.

  8. Observation of polar mesosphere summer echoes with calibrated VHF radars at 69° in the Northern and Southern hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latteck, R.; Singer, W.; Morris, R. J.; Holdsworth, D. A.; Murphy, D. J.

    2007-07-01

    Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) observed in the northern and southern hemisphere were studied using continuous measurements obtained by calibrated VHF radars located at Andenes (69.3°N) and Davis (68.6°S) during the boreal summer 2004 and the austral summer 2004/2005. The PMSE observed at Davis have a lower peak volume reflectivity of approximately 4 . 10-11 m-1 compared with their counterparts (7 . 10-10 m-1) observed at Andenes. The duration of the PMSE season is correlated with the dynamical and thermal state of the mesopause region supported by recent studies using meridional winds and temperatures. PMSE occurred less frequently but with greater variability above Davis. The diurnal variation of PMSE occurrence has a maximum around 11-16 LT in both hemispheres, and a minimum occurs during late evening with a longer duration in the southern hemisphere. The mean PMSE season at both sites started around 34 days before solstice, but the duration of the Davis PMSE season is about 9 days shorter than at Andenes. The maximum occurrence height of PMSE at Davis is 86 km which is about 1 km higher than at Andenes.

  9. Comparison of wind measurements in the troposphere and mesosphere by VHF/MF radars and in-situ techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engler, N.; Singer, W.; Latteck, R.; Strelnikov, B. [Rostock Univ., Kuehlungsborn (Germany). Leibniz Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    2008-07-01

    Radar wind observations at frequencies between 1.98 and 53.5 MHz obtained at polar latitudes were compared to in-situ wind measurements by radiosondes at tropospheric altitudes and to winds from falling spheres at mesospheric altitudes. Comparisons are shown for several campaigns of radiosonde and falling sphere observations. The radar wind directions agree well to the radiosonde and falling sphere observations and are highly correlated. The winds estimated from radar measurements are less than the radiosonde data by about 15% for spaced antenna observations and by about 10% for the Doppler beam swinging experiment. At mesospheric altitudes the spaced antenna winds obtained from the wide-beam Andenes MF radar are underestimated in the order of 35% and winds from the narrow-beam Saura MF radar are underestimated by about 20% compared to falling sphere winds at altitudes between 70 and 80 km. Furthermore, the relation between wind measurements using narrow-beam and wide-beam antenna arrangements for the MF radars is discussed and VHF radar observations are compared to the wide-beam MF radar. (orig.)

  10. Calculating the azimuth of mountain waves, using the effect of tilted fine-scale stable layers on VHF radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is described, based on standard VHF wind-profiler data, where imbalances of echo power between four off-vertical radar beams, caused by mountain waves, can be used to calculate the orientation of the wave pattern. It is shown that the mountain wave azimuth (direction of the horizontal component of the wavevector, is given by the vector [ W (PE - P W ,W (PN - P S ]; PN, PS, PE, PW are radar echo powers, measured in dB, in beams pointed away from vertical by the same angle towards north, south, east and west respectively, and W is the vertical wind velocity. The method is applied to Aberystwyth MST radar data, and the calculated wave vector usually, but not always, points into the low-level wind direction. The mean vertical wind at Aberystwyth, which may also be affected by tilted aspect-sensitive layers, is investigated briefly using the entire radar output 1990-1997. The mean vertical-wind profile is inconsistent with existing theories, but a new mountain-wave interpretation is proposed.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides; instruments and techniques.

  11. Effect of power on growth of nanocrystalline silicon films deposited by VHF PECVD technique for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Sucheta; Verma, Payal; Savelyev, Dmitry A.; Khonina, Svetlana N.; Sudhakar, S.; Kumar, Sushil

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of the effect of power on the deposition of nanocrystalline silicon thin films were carried out using a gaseous mixture of silane and hydrogen in the 60MHz assisted VHF plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. The power was varied from 10 to 50 watt maintaining all other parameters constant. Corresponding layer properties w.r.t. material microstructure, optical, hydrogen content and electrical transport are studied in detail. The structural properties have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The presence of nano-sized crystals and their morphology have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The role of bonded hydrogen content in the films have been studied from the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was observed from the results that with increase in power, crystalline volume fraction increases and crystallite size changes from 4 to 9 nm. The optical band gap varies from 1.7 to 2.1eV due to quantum confinement effect and which further can be explained with reduced hydrogen content. These striking features of nc-Si films can be used to fabricate stable thin film solar cells.

  12. Case study of stratospheric gravity waves of convective origin over Arctic Scandinavia. VHF radar observations and numerical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechou, A. [La Reunion Univ., St. Denis Messag, Ile de La Reunion (France). Lab. de l' Atmosphere et des Cyclones; Arnault, J.; Dalin, P.; Kirkwood, S. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden)

    2013-03-01

    Orography is a well-known source of gravity and inertia-gravity waves in the atmosphere. Other sources, such as convection, are also known to be potentially important but the large amplitude of orographic waves over Scandinavia has generally precluded the possibility to study such other sources experimentally in this region. In order to better understand the origin of stratospheric gravity waves observed by the VHF radar ESRAD (Esrange MST radar) over Kiruna, in Arctic Sweden (67.88 N, 21.10 E), observations have been compared to simulations made using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with and without the effects of orography and clouds. This case study concerns gravity waves observed from 00:00 UTC on 18 February to 12:00 UTC on 20 February 2007. We focus on the wave signatures in the static stability field and vertical wind deduced from the simulations and from the observations as these are the parameters which are provided by the observations with the best height coverage. As is common at this site, orographic gravity waves were produced over the Scandinavian mountains and observed by the radar. However, at the same time, southward propagation of fronts in the Barents Sea created short-period waves which propagated into the stratosphere and were transported, embedded in the cyclonic winds, over the radar site. (orig.)

  13. Development of a Coherent Bistatic Vegetation Model for Signal of Opportunity Applications at VHF UHF-Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurum, Mehmet; Deshpande, Manohar; Joseph, Alicia T.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Lang, Roger H.; Eroglu, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    A coherent bistatic vegetation scattering model, based on a Monte Carlo simulation, is being developed to simulate polarimetric bi-static reflectometry at VHF/UHF-bands (240-270 MHz). The model is aimed to assess the value of geostationary satellite signals of opportunity to enable estimation of the Earth's biomass and root-zone soil moisture. An expression for bistatic scattering from a vegetation canopy is derived for the practical case of a ground-based/low altitude platforms with passive receivers overlooking vegetation. Using analytical wave theory in conjunction with distorted Born approximation (DBA), the transmit and receive antennas effects (i.e., polarization, orientation, height, etc.) are explicitly accounted for. Both the coherency nature of the model (joint phase and amplitude information) and the explicit account of system parameters (antenna, altitude, polarization, etc) enable one to perform various beamforming techniques to evaluate realistic deployment configurations. In this paper, several test scenarios will be presented and the results will be evaluated for feasibility for future biomass and root-zone soil moisture application using geostationary communication satellite signals of opportunity at low frequencies.

  14. Nighttime enhancements in total electron content near Arecibo and their association with VHF scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersley, L.; Aarons, J.; Klobuchar, J.A.

    1980-08-01

    From the analysis of 16 months of transionospheric propagation data taken near Arecibo it has been found that there are associations between nighttime enhancements and quasi-periodic fluctuations in total electron content and the occurrence of amplitude scintillations. A postmidnight peak is found in the occurrence of electron content increases, maximum wave activity, and largest scintillation index, with some evidence to suggest a second premidnight peak in winter and reduced probability of the features being found at equinox. An analysis of the large-scale variations of the total content data for three stations has shown that the postsunset minimum in electron content propagates at high speed toward the northeast, while the premidnight minimum advances toward the south with the main postmidnight maximum having northward component of motion. The results are discussed in terms of the known dynamical features of the ionosphere at Arecibo and in particular the effects of the neutral wind on the bottpmside ionosphere. It appears that conditions conducive to the production of nighttime enhancements in total electron content may also allow the penetration of medium scale gravity waves through the lower thermosphere with an unstable breakdown process giving rise to the development of scintillation-producing irregularities.

  15. Telephony Earth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adrian J.; Kay, Stan

    The Telephony Earth Station (TES), a digital full-mesh SCPC (single channel per carrier) system designed for satellite voice and data transmission is described. As compared to companded FM, the advanced speech compression and forward error correction techniques used by TES better achieve the quality, power, and bandwidth ideal for each application. In addition, the TES offers a fully demand-assigned voice call setup, handles point-to-point data channels, supports a variety of signaling schemes, and does not require any separate pilot receivers at the station, while keeping costs low through innovative technology and packaging. The TES can be used for both C-band and Ku-band (domestic or international) applications, and is configurable either as an VSAT (very small aperture terminal) using an SSPA, or as a larger station depending on the capacity requirements. A centralized DAMA processor and network manager is implemented using a workstation.

  16. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  17. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  18. The organized Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Leong W.

    Space Station organization designers should consider the onboard stowage system to be an integral part of the environment structured for productive working conditions. In order to achieve this, it is essential to use an efficient inventory control system able to track approximately 50,000 items over a 90-day period, while maintaining peak crew performance. It is noted that a state-of-the-art bar-code inventory management system cannot satisfy all Space Station requirements, such as the location of a critical missing item.

  19. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Miles, L.

    2017-01-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earths surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil.

  20. Spatial variability of the aspect sensitivity of VHF radar echoes in the troposphere and lower stratosphere during jet stream passages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Yoe

    Full Text Available The aspect sensitivity of SOUSY-VHF-radar oblique-beam echoes from the troposphere and lower stratosphere has been examined for a number of jet stream passages during the years 1990 - 1992. When the core of the jet is overhead or nearly so, vertical profiles of the aspect sensitivity display two notable features. First, the distinction between mainly isotropic and strongly aspect-sensitive echoes in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, respectively, often reported for measurements made during calm conditions, does not necessarily prevail in the vicinity of the jet stream. Second, echoes obtained at altitudes near the height of the horizontal wind maximum are found to be more aspect sensitive for beams directed parallel to the horizontal flow or nearly so, than for other beam directions. It is demonstrated that time-averaged horizontal wind speeds estimated from the radar data, taking into account the reduced effective oblique-beam zenith angle resulting from aspect sensitivity, may exceed uncorrected wind speeds by as much as 10 m s-1 in these circumstances. Implications for wind profiling and for describing the backscattering process are discussed. Doppler spectral widths examined for one jet stream passage are found to be narrower in a beam aligned with the horizontal wind at heights near the wind speed maximum than corresponding widths measured in a beam projected at right angles to the jet. The narrowest spectra thus coincide with the most aspect-sensitive echoes, consistent with the hypothesis that such returns result from specular backscattering processes.

  1. Calculating the azimuth of mountain waves, using the effect of tilted fine-scale stable layers on VHF radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    Full Text Available A simple method is described, based on standard VHF wind-profiler data, where imbalances of echo power between four off-vertical radar beams, caused by mountain waves, can be used to calculate the orientation of the wave pattern. It is shown that the mountain wave azimuth (direction of the horizontal component of the wavevector, is given by the vector [ W (PE - P W ,W (PN - P S ]; PN, PS, PE, PW are radar echo powers, measured in dB, in beams pointed away from vertical by the same angle towards north, south, east and west respectively, and W is the vertical wind velocity. The method is applied to Aberystwyth MST radar data, and the calculated wave vector usually, but not always, points into the low-level wind direction. The mean vertical wind at Aberystwyth, which may also be affected by tilted aspect-sensitive layers, is investigated briefly using the entire radar output 1990-1997. The mean vertical-wind profile is inconsistent with existing theories, but a new mountain-wave interpretation is proposed.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides; instruments and techniques.

  2. Space Station Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  3. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  4. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operating procedures (SOPs) for future construction and maintenance efforts. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for...Runway Construction .......................................................... 22 Appendix B: Rammsonde Instructions...13. Snow accumulation at Summit Station in the Bamboo Forest. .......................................... 13 Figure 14. Strength of Summit skiway

  6. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  7. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  8. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  9. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  10. Observations of mesosphere summer echoes with calibrated VHF radars at latitudes between 54°N and 69°N in summer 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latteck, R.; Singer, W.; Kirkwood, S.; Jönsson, L. O.; Eriksson, Håkan

    2005-08-01

    Mesosphere Summer Echoes (MSE) have been observed with 50-MHz VHF radars at middle (MSE) and polar latitudes (PMSE) for more than 20 years. The occurrence and seasonal variation of these radar echoes as well as their dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity are mostly studied basing on relative signal strength measurements (signal-to-noise ratios). The latitudinal dependence of the appearance and intensity of mesospheric summer echoes is still an open question as the widely used relative signal strength observations are determined by the atmospheric properties as well as by the individual radar characteristics. The use of absolutely calibrated echo powers allows a system in-depended comparison of mesospheric summer echoes observed at different sites by different systems. We present two different radar calibration methods. One applies a noise source to calibrate the receive path of the radar only, a second uses the radar signal itself to calibrate the complete transmitting and receiving path of the radar system. Both techniques and the same calibration hardware have been applied to the ALWIN VHF radar at Andenes/Norway (69°N), the ESRAD radar at Kiruna/Sweden (68deg;N) and OSWIN radar at Kühlungsborn/Germany (54°N). The sensitivity of the different radar systems and the seasonal and diurnal variation of the occurrence of mesospheric summer echoes at different locations are discussed on the basis of radar backscatter cross-sections.

  11. SISTEMA WEB DE GEOLOCALIZACIÓN Y MONITOREO DE LA TORTUGA PODOCNEMIS LEWYANA EN EL RÍO SINÚ, MEDIANTE EL USO DE ANTENAS VHF Y DISPOSITIVOS GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Macea Anaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como finalidad el diseño e implementación de una aplicación para el monitoreo de las Tortugas de Río Podocnemis Lewyana, utilizando las tecnologías GPS (Global Positioning System y VHF (Very High Frequency. La aplicación permite apoyar los procesos de conservación y recuperación de la especie en el Departamento de Córdoba, en las poblaciones de Caño Viejo y Cotocá Arriba del municipio Santa Cruz de Lorica, Colombia. El uso de esa herramienta está dirigido a biólogos y personas de las comunidades rurales dedicadas a conservar dicha especie. En el desarrollo del proyecto se utilizaron 18 Tortugas de Río para su monitoreo. El resultado del trabajo es la aplicación Web Podocnemis-Soft. Su funcionamiento se basa en un dispositivo GPS y VHF, ubicado en una o varias de las tortugas Podocnemis Lewyana; los dispositivos envían los datos de la ubicación de la tortuga hasta un servidor para su procesamiento y posterior visualización de la información.

  12. Relationship between propagation direction of gravity waves in OH and OI airglow images and VHF radar echo occurrence during the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Onoma

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available We report simultaneous observations of atmospheric gravity waves (AGW in OI (557.7nm and OH airglow images and VHF radar backscatter from field-aligned irregularities (FAI in the E-region during the SEEK-2 (Sporadic-E Experiment over Kyushu 2 campaign period from 29 July to 9 August 2002. An all-sky imager was operated at Nishino-Omote (30.5 N, 130.1 E, Japan. On 14 nights, 17 AGW events were detected in OI and OH airglow images. AGW propagated mostly toward the northeast or southeast. From comparison with the E-region FAI occurrence, which is detected by a nearby VHF radar (31.57MHz, we found that AGW tended to propagate southeastward during FAI events. This result suggests that the interaction between AGW and E-region plasma plays an important role in generating FAI. Furthermore, polarization electric fields generated directly by AGW may contribute to the FAI generation.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (Airglow and aurora, Ionosphere (Ionospheric irregularities, Mid-latitude ionosphere

  13. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  14. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  15. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  16. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  17. Build Your Own Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will be used to educate elementary students on the purposes and components of the International Space Station and then allow them to build their own space stations with household objects and then present details on their space stations to the rest of the group.

  18. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  19. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  20. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  1. Korea Geodetic VLBI Station Sejong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Moon, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Joo, H. e.; Oh, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Sejong VLBI station has been constructed by the National Geographic Information Institute (NGII) in the Republic of Korea. It took approximately four years from 2008 to the end of 2011. In February 2012, we successfully carried out a fringe-test with the Kashima 11-m antenna of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) in Japan. In March, the Sejong station was accepted as an IVS network station by acceptance of the IVS Directing Board which was held at the 7th IVS General Meeting in Spain. This report summarizes activities of the Sejong station as a new IVS Network Station.

  2. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  3. Innovative Railway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  4. Development Of VHF (240-270 MHz) Antennas For SoOp (Signal Of Opportunity) Receiver For 6u Cubesat Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Miles, L.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this research is to design, fabricate, and test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a truly global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system (Figure 1) over a variety of land covers with limited density restrictions. In SoOp methodology, signals transmitted by already existing transmitters (known as transmitters of opportunity, in this case the Military Satellite Communication (MilSatCom) System's UHF Follow-On program) are utilized to measure properties of reflecting targets by recording reflected signals using a simple passive microwave receiver.

  5. An ambiguity-function-based method for analysis of Doppler decompressed radar signals applied to EISCAT measurements of oblique UHF-VHF meteor echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannberg, G.; Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Westman, A.

    1996-05-01

    Binary phase modulation using Barker codes as the modulating sequences is often used as a pulse compression technique in incoherent scatter radar measurements of the ionospheric E region. Demodulation of the compressed signal is usually accomplished by matched filtering techniques. If the target has appreciable velocity, the resulting Doppler shift detunes the scattered signal relative to the filter, and the target response spreads over a large range interval. The paper describes the development of a new data analysis method, based on an ambiguity function description of radar total-power measurements, which uses the characteristic Doppler decompression signatures to identify, extract, and analyze high-velocity events from conventional Barker-coded power profile type incoherent scatter (IS) measurements. Data sets recorded with the European Incoherent Scatter UHF (931 MHz) and VHF (224 MHz) radars during the 1990-1991 Geminid and 1993 Perseid showers are shown to contain many events which are associated with individual meteors crossing the radar beams over a wide range of aspect angles, including a few near-radial cases. Line-of-sight velocities and effective cross sections are derived for some of the best dual radar events. The cross sections are very small and increase with decreasing wavelength, something not observed before. It is suggested that this is indicative of a scattering mechanism different from the one operating at near-normal incidence at VHF, and Rayleigh scatter from compact "balls" of plasma contained within the meteor coma is proposed as a possible candidate, in qualitative agreement with the observations. Finally, some signal-processing related aspects of the method are discussed. It is shown that most IS radars should be able to apply it to their existing programs with very little effort and without having to compromise the performance in normal E region applications. The method could therefore become a powerful tool for studies of meteor

  6. High-resolution observation of field-aligned irregularities in the ionosphere using multi-frequency range imaging of VHF atmospheric radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Shyong; Furumoto, Jun-ichi; Su, Ching-Lun; Chu, Yen-Hsyang

    Field-aligned irregularity (FAI) in the ionosphere is a topic of interest to atmospheric radar community. In addition to the field-aligned characteristic, quasi-periodic (QP) appearance of FAI echoes has been observed frequently by very-high-frequency (VHF) atmospheric radar. The occurrence range of QP FAI echoes changes with time, and the slope of range versus time can be positive or negative, depending on occurrence time of the echoes. Several mechanisms responsible for the QP FAI echoes have been proposed, e.g., modulation in altitude by a passing atmospheric gravity wave, semidiurnal neutral-wind variation, and so on. Owing to the finite pulse length of radar in observation, the range resolution of measurement is limited within hundreds of meters. In view of this, the range imaging (RIM) using multiple frequencies has been employed to improve the range resolution of measurement. The multi-frequency technique transmits a set of slightly different frequencies sequentially during each radar pulse, and the radar returns at different transmitting frequencies are received, respectively. With adaptive retrieval algorithms for these radar returns, it is capable of resolving the echo structures at meter scale in the range direction. RIM has been employed in the lower atmosphere successfully. In this study, the performance of RIM for FAI was first carried out with the Middle and Upper atmosphere Radar (46 MHz; 34.85(°) N, 136.10(°) N; Japan) and the Chung-Li VHF radar (52 MHz; 24.9(°) N, 121.1(°) E; Taiwan). Some initial results of high-resolution FAI echoes within the range gate will be shown.

  7. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  8. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were used to create the station history plots which display the travel times, the distance time curve and events location on a world seismicity map with Zaria as the center. KEY WORDS: History, Events, Station, Teleseismic, Travel time. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) 2005: 309-315.

  9. Latitudinal GRBR-TEC estimation in Southeast Asia region based on the two-station method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watthanasangmechai, Kornyanat; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Saito, Akinori; Tsugawa, Takuya; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Supnithi, Pornchai; Yatini, Clara Yono

    2014-10-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is an important parameter for revealing latitudinal ionospheric structures, such as the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in Southeast Asia. Understanding the EIA is beneficial for studying equatorial spread F. To reveal the structures, the absolute TEC as a function of latitude must be accurately determined. In early 2012, we expanded a GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) network to provide latitudinal coverage in the Thailand-Indonesia sector. We employed the GRBR network to receive VHF and UHF signals from polar low-Earth-orbit satellites. The TEC offset is an unknown parameter in the absolute TEC estimation process. We propose a new technique based on the two-station method to estimate the offset for the latitudinal TEC estimation, and it works better than the original method for a sparse network. The TEC estimation system requires two iterations to minimize the root-mean-square error (RMSE). Once the RMSE reaches the global minimum, the absolute TECs are estimated simultaneously over five GRBR stations. GPS-TECs from local stations are used as the initial guess of the offset estimation. The height of the ionospheric pierce point is determined from the ionosonde hmF2. As a result, the latitudinal GRBR-TEC was successfully estimated from the polar orbit satellites. The two EIA humps were clearly captured by the GRBR-TEC. The result was well verified with the TEC reconstructed from the C/NOFS density data and the ionosonde bottomside data. This is a significant step showing that the GRBR is a useful tool for the study of low-latitude ionospheric features.

  10. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  11. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  12. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  13. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 80.519 Section 80.519... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a.... In lieu of the identification of the station by voice, the official call sign may be transmitted by...

  14. 47 CFR 73.787 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 73.787 Section 73.787... International Broadcast Stations § 73.787 Station identification. (a) A licensee of an international broadcast station shall make station identification announcement (call letters and location), at the beginning and...

  15. VT Data - Electric Charging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Locations of Electric Charging Stations provided by the NREL national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy....

  16. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  17. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  18. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  19. Relation of decorrelated transionospheric GPS signal fluctuations from two stations in the northern anomaly crest region with equatorial ionospheric dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, K. S.; Paul, A.

    2017-05-01

    The ionosphere around the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and beyond exhibits rapid temporal as well as spatial development of ionization density irregularities during postsunset hours. A GPS campaign was conducted during September 2012 and April 2013 from the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics, Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; magnetic dip: 32°N), and North Bengal University (NBU), Siliguri (26.72°N, 88.39°E geographic, magnetic dip: 39.49°N) in India in order to assess and quantify differences, if any, in the nature of carrier to noise ratio (C/N0) fluctuations observed on the same satellite link around the same time interval from these stations. Significant decorrelation of the received signals was found when tracking the same satellite vehicle (SV) link from these stations during periods of scintillations. Low values of correlation coefficient of C/N0 at L1 frequency recorded on the same SV link at these two stations were found to correspond with high irregularity characteristic velocities. North-south spatial displacement rates of the impact of ionospheric irregularities were calculated based on coordinated GPS observations which followed an increasing trend with irregularity characteristic velocities measured at VHF. Values of characteristic velocities in excess of 36 m/s were also found to result in large receiver position deviations 3.5-4.0 m during periods of scintillations. Information related to time lag associated with occurrence of scintillations on the same SV link observed from two stations could be useful for improving performance of transionospheric satellite-based position determination techniques.

  20. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  1. Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 9 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics , and Research (EPOLAR) Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis Co ld...and Research (EPOLAR) ERDC/CRREL TR-16-9 July 2016 Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis Terry D. Melendy Cold Regions Research and Engineering...snapshot at the current operating costs . We collected alternative skiway concepts, such as those at the NEEM camp, from the NEEM logistics and project

  2. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  3. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  4. Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Ryoji; Kurihara, Shinobu; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Jiro; Tanabe, Tadashi; Mukai, Yasuko; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station is operated by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. This report summarizes activities of the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI station in 2012. More than 200 sessions were observed with the Tsukuba 32-m and other GSI antennas in accordance with the IVS Master Schedule of 2012. We have started installing the observing facilities that will be fully compliant with VLBI2010 for the first time in Japan.

  5. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  6. Hey! What's Space Station Freedom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    1992-01-01

    This video, 'Hey! What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  7. VHF scintillations, orientation of the anisotropy of F-region irregularities and direction of plasma convection in the polar cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Tereshchenko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Scintillation data recorded at the polar cap station Barentsburg are shown to occasionally exhibit two or more peaks in the latitudinal profiles of the amplitude dispersion. Comparison with concurrent SuperDARN radar convection maps indicates that multiple peaks occur when Barentsburg is located within the area of strong changes in the plasma flow direction. When parameters of the ionospheric irregularities are inferred from the scintillation data, the orientation of the irregularity anisotropy in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field is found to coincide well with the E×B flow direction, individually for each peak of the scintillation data. The differences were found to be mostly less than 20° for a data set comprised of 104 events. The conclusion is made that analysis of scintillation data allows one to infer the direction of plasma flow with a certain degree of detail.

  8. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect... existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital Class A TV station will not be...

  9. The variability of the occurrence of the Field Aligned Irregularities in the middle-latitude F region using the VHF radar observation at Daejon, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S. J.; Kil, H.; Tae-yong, Y.; Kwak, Y. S.; Lee, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    The VHF radar observations at Daejeon in South Korea reveal the highly variable nature of the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) in the middle-latitude F-region. Medium-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) are suggested as the source of FAIs, however, the occurrence climatology of the FAIs cannot be fully explained by the existence of the MSTIDs. Moreover, the occurrence climatology of the FAIs with respect to local time (pre-midnight and post-midnight) likely to have separate onset mechanisms. We investigate the role of the ionospheric disturbances(MSTIDs, Equatorial Plasma Bubbles(EPBs)) in the creation of the FAIs using the radar data at Daejon , the total electron content maps over Japan acquired during 2010-2015. and the measurements of the ion density by Swarm (2014,2015). We assess the causal linkage of the occurrence of the FAIs by examining the correlative occurrence of MSTIDs in middle latitude F-region and EPB in low latitude F-region.

  10. Observations of VHF emissions from 50-mA electron beam injections in the ionosphere that are associated with beam-induced discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, R. T.; Kellogg, P. J.; Monson, S. J.; Franz, R. C.; Nemzek, R. J.; Anderson, H. R.; Potter, D. W.; Denig, W. F.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Earle, G. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of strong VHF plasma waves with amplitudes in excess of 0.1 mV/m (Hz)1/2 associated with 50 mA electron beam injections in the ionosphere. Data from three swept-frequency receivers carried on two daughter payloads are analyzed to determine the emission spectra of the electron beam for various energies and currents. These results were obtained from the rocket-borne experiment SCEX 3, NASA flight 39.002 UE, launched February 1, 1990. The accelerator payload also carried photometers, which measured luminosity at wavelengths of 391.4 and 380.5 nm. Several times during electron gun activity the measured luminosity increased much faster than proportional to the beam current. This nonlinear increase is evidence that a discharge is occurring in the vicinity of the accelerator payload. It is inferred from the uniform distribution of the luminosity around the accelerator payload that the observed discharge extends significantly outside the beam cylinder.

  11. Development of a passive VHF radar system using software-defined radio for equatorial plasma instability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuysuz, B.; Urbina, J.; Lind, F. D.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, a bistatic passive radar receiver system named "Coherent-scatter Atmospheric Passive Radar Imager (CAPRI)" is described. It is primarily designed to study the dynamics of the upper atmosphere by utilizing "transmitters of opportunity" as the RF target illuminators. CAPRI is constructed using the open source software-defined radio toolkit, GNU Radio, to meet the signal processing requirements in combination with the open source hardware, Universal Software Radio Peripheral 2, for data acquisition. The resultant system is highly flexible, and we present the details of the design as well as a performance analysis. CAPRI will be deployed in Peru, near the magnetic equator, for long-term operations in the area. FM stations near Lima, Peru, will be utilized with the targets of interest being the equatorial electrojet and the spread F. The results will then be compared to the Jicamarca Unattended Long-term investigations of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere (JULIA) radar data, and CAPRI will be used to improve the simultaneous time and spatial coverage in the region in a more cost-effective manner.

  12. 47 CFR 95.119 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station identification is the call sign assigned to the GMRS station or system. (c) A unit number may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.119 Section 95.119... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.119 Station identification. (a) Except as provided in...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 73.1201 Section 73.1201... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1201 Station identification. (a) When regularly required. Broadcast station identification announcements shall be made: (1) At the beginning and ending of each time...

  14. 47 CFR 25.206 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 25.206 Section 25.206... Technical Standards § 25.206 Station identification. The requirement for transmission of station identification is waived for all radio stations licensed under this part with the exception of satellite uplinks...

  15. 47 CFR 95.1305 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1305 Section 95.1305... SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1305 Station identification. A MURS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  16. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section 97.119... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a... keyed by an automatic device used only for identification, the speed must not exceed 20 words per minute...

  17. 47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1127 Section 95.1127... SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification. A WMTS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  18. 47 CFR 95.1205 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1205 Section 95.1205... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1205 Station identification. A station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  19. 47 CFR 95.1005 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1005 Section 95.1005... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1005 Station identification. An LPRS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  20. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper simulation results are discussed and analysed, and then problems observed in the simulation and possible solutions.

  1. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  2. DGPS ground station integrity monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Trent A.; Vangraas, Frank

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of a unique Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) ground station integrity monitor which can offer improved availability over conventional code-differential monitoring systems. This monitoring technique, called code/carrier integrity monitoring (CCIM), uses the highly stable integrated Doppler measurement to smooth the relatively noisy code-phase measurements. The pseudorange correction is therefore comprised of the integrated Doppler measurement plus the CCIM offset. The design and operational results of a DGPS ground station integrity monitor are reported. A robust integrity monitor is realized which is optimized for applications such as the Special Category I (SCAT-I) defined in the RTCA Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards.

  3. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-11-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation ( Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation ( Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  4. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  5. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  6. Space station molecular sieve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Rousseau, J.

    1986-01-01

    An essential function of a space environmental control system is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere to control the partial pressure of this gas at levels lower than 3 mm Hg. The use of regenerable solid adsorbents for this purpose was demonstrated effectively during the Skylab mission. Earlier sorbent systems used zeolite molecular sieves. The carbon molecular sieve is a hydrophobic adsorbent with excellent potential for space station application. Although carbon molecular sieves were synthesized and investigated, these sieves were designed to simulate the sieving properties of 5A zeolite and for O2/N2 separation. This program was designed to develop hydrophobic carbon molecular sieves for CO2 removal from a space station crew environment. It is a first phase effort involved in sorbent material development and in demonstrating the utility of such a material for CO2 removal on space stations. The sieve must incorporate the following requirements: it must be hydrophobic; it must have high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide at the low partial pressure of the space station atmosphere; and it must be chemiclly stable and will not generate contaminants.

  7. Delay distributions in railway stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Hansen, I.A.; Hooghiemstra, G.; Lopuhaa, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    The estimation of the precise arrival and departure times of trains at stations is done by means of a software tool that extracts the occupation and clearance times of each train per track section of the Dutch Railways‘ network. The software tool was applied to the whole automatically collected set

  8. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  9. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  10. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  11. Total Stations : the Surveyor's Workhorse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, M.J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    A total station is an angle measuring device, also known as a theodolite, integrated with an electronic distance measurement (EDM) unit. The integration provides the ability to measure horizontal and vertical angles as well as slope distances using the same device at the same time, which benefits

  12. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital...

  13. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  14. vhfRNAi: a web-platform for analysis of host genes involved in viral infections discovered by genome wide RNAi screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anamika; Qureshi, Abid; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-06-27

    Knockdown of host genes using high-throughput genome-wide RNA interference screens has identified numerous host factors that affect viral infections, which would be helpful in understanding host-virus interactions. We have developed a vhfRNAi web resource based on genome-wide RNAi experiments for viruses. It contains experimental details of 12 249 entries (host factors + restriction factors) for 18 viruses. Simultaneously, this resource encompasses analysis of overlapping genes, genome wide association studies, gene ontology (GO), pathogen interacting proteins, interaction networks and pathway enrichment. Using overlap analysis, it was found that Influenza A virus shared overlapping host genes with the majority of viruses including Hepatitis C virus and Dengue virus 2. In the genome wide association studies analysis, 429 diseases/traits were mapped, of which obesity-related traits were the most common. GO analysis revealed that the major categories belonged to metabolic processes, molecule transport, signal transduction, proteolysis, etc. In the pathogen interacting protein analysis, protein interaction data from different resources can be explored for further understanding of host-virus biology. By pathway enrichment analysis, a total of 8955 genes were mapped on 303 pathways with most of the hits coming from metabolic pathways. We have found 491 genes that are not essential for the host but essential for the virus and can be targeted to inhibit the virus. These may be explored as potential candidates for drug targets. The resource is freely accessible at and will be useful in understanding host-virus biology as well as identification of targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics.

  15. WHU VHF radar observations of the diurnal tide and its variability in the lower atmosphere over Chongyang (114.14° E, 29.53° N, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal tide (DT and its variability in the lower atmosphere over Chongyang (114.14° E, 29.53° N were studied based on the newly established Wuhan University (WHU VHF radar observations with the height intervals of 0.145 km (below 9 km and 0.58 km (above 9 km in the whole year of 2012. We find that the DT was the dominant tidal component and showed remarkable height and season variations. A prominent seasonally dependent height variability characteristic is that maximum DT amplitude usually occurs around 6 km in the winter and spring months, which might be due to the tidal wave energy concentration arising from the reflections from the strong eastward tropospheric jet around 13 km and the ground surface. Our results suggest that the background wind is a crucial cause for height variability and seasonal variability of DT. In April 2012, a notable strengthening of DT is observed. Meanwhile, the significant higher harmonics of tides, i.e., the semidiurnal, terdiurnal, and even quarterdiurnal tides, can also be observed, which has seldom been reported. Interestingly, these four tidal components displayed consistent short-term variability, implying that they were excited by the same dramatically varying tidal source. In addition, we identified two symptoms of the coupling of DT and planetary waves (PWs, which can also lead to the short-term DT variability. One is the sum and difference interactions between DT and PWs, causing the tidal amplitude short-term variability as a consequence of the energy exchange among the interacting waves. The other one is the modulation of DT by PWs, leading to that the amplitude of DT varies with the periods of the PWs.

  16. Heat flux and thermal conduction in O+ and H+ ion flows deduced from EISCAT-VHF radar observations in the high-latitude topside ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Taieb, Charley

    1994-06-01

    With two periods of EISCAT-VHF radar observations, magnetically quiet and moderately disturbed, we have calculated the H+ and O+ heat fluxes in using formulae of Wu and Taieb (1993), accounting not only for temperature gradients but also for pressure gradients, velocity gradients, and diffusion-thermal effects. They correspond to different physical processes that are calculated and compared between them. Then, the general features of the H+ and O+ ion thermal conductions are studied during the two periods of observation in the high-latitude topside ionosphere. The analysis of the two periods of measurements revealed the following trends, to be confirmed by further observations: (1) During the two periods the H+ heat flux Q2 is always upward in the altitude range from 600 km up to about 1000 km. It is larger during the quiet period than during the disturbed period. (2) The most important dominant mechanism for H+ heat flux is the diffusion-thermal effect due to the H+-O+ collision, with a correcting term due to the H+ temperature gradient. (3) The O+ heat flux is always downward in the same altitude range during the two periods of observations. The absolute value during the disturbed period is slightly larger than that during the quiet period. (4) The dominant mechanism for O+ heat flux is its temperature gradient, corrected by the coupling with the H+ ion. (5) The O+ thermal conduction is less important during the quiet period than during the disturbed period, while for the H+ thermal conduction it is the contrary. (6) The H+ thermal conduction increases with altitude below about 1000 km.

  17. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  18. The International Space Station Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza; Engle, Mike

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an engineering project unlike any other. The vehicle is inhabited and operational as it is constructed. The habitability resources available to the crew are the sleep quarters, the galley, the waste and hygiene compartment, and exercise equipment. These items are mainly in the Russian Service Module and their placement is awkward for the crew to use and work around. ISS assembly will continue with the truss build and the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Prior to the addition of the International Partner Laboratories. Node 2 will be added. The Node 2 module will provide additional stowage volume and room for more crew sleep quarters. The purpose of the ISS is to perform research and a major area of emphasis is on the effects of long duration space flight on humans, as result of this research the habitability requirements for the International Space Station crews will be determined.

  19. Fortaleza Station Report for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Pereira de Lucena, A. Macilio; Sombra da Silva, Adeildo

    2013-01-01

    This is a brief report about the activities carried out at the Fortaleza geodetic VLBI station (ROEN: R´adio Observat´orio Espacial do Nordeste), located in Eus´ebio, CE, Brazil, during the period from January until December 2012. The observing activities were resumed in May after the major maintenance that comprised the azimuth bearing replacement. The total observational experiments consisted of 103 VLBI sessions and continuous GPS monitoring recordings.

  20. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  1. Do cities deserve more railway stations? The choice of a departure railway station in a multiple-station region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting the use of rail is an important element in sustainable transport policy. One of the most important decisions to make in planning the railway network is on the number of stations to provide. Stations are the access points to rail services and while each additional station increases rail's

  2. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  3. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  4. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with Fixed...

  5. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space station licensee has assessed and limited the amount of debris released in a planned manner during... space station becoming a source of debris by collisions with large debris or other operational space... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent persons...

  7. 47 CFR 95.835 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service System Requirements § 95.835 Station identification. No RTU or CTS is required to transmit a station identification announcement. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.835 Section 95.835...

  8. 47 CFR 90.735 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....735 Station identification. (a) Except for nationwide systems authorized in the 220-222 MHz band, station identification is required pursuant to § 90.425 of this part. (b) Trunked systems shall employ an... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 90.735 Section 90.735...

  9. 47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 90.647 Section 90.647..., 851-869 Mhz, 896-901 Mhz, and 935-940 Mhz Bands § 90.647 Station identification. (a) Conventional... at 30 minute intervals. Such station identification shall be made on the lowest frequency in the base...

  10. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 87.107 Section 87.107... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.107 Station identification. (a) Aircraft... an airport to another location in that airport may be identified by a station identification...

  11. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are exempt...

  12. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 22.313 Section 22.313... Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.313 Station identification. The licensee... identified in accordance with the requirements of this section. (a) Station identification is not required...

  13. Space teleoperations technology for Space Station evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Gerald J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space teleoperations technology for space station evolution are presented. Topics covered include: shuttle remote manipulator system; mobile servicing center functions; mobile servicing center technology; flight telerobotic servicer-telerobot; flight telerobotic servicer technology; technologies required for space station assembly; teleoperation applications; and technology needs for space station evolution.

  14. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Hannah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  15. Space Station Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

  16. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  17. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  18. International Space Station technology demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the capability to test and demonstrate, and otherwise assist in the development and validation, of a wide range of advanced technologies. Technology tests and demonstrations for advanced communication systems, closed-loop environmental control systems, advanced power storage and generation systems, advanced electric and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and others are being assessed for inclusion in an ISS Pre-Planned Program Improvement (P3I), Technology/Improvement Roadmap. The P3I roadmap is an integrated set of technology and improvement requirements for: (1) ISS subsystem upgrades and improvements (addressing maintenance, logistics, sustainability, and enhancement functions), (2) payload hardware technology infusion, (3) ISS/Exploration technology development and tests (dual use/benefits), and (4) Engineering Research and Technology payloads. As examples of the International Space Station's technology testbed capabilities, implementation approaches for three types of propulsion technology demonstrations and research are described: (1) electric and electromagnetic propulsion technologies and systems (NASA Lewis Research Center), (2) technologies and sub-systems for a variable specific impulse (Isp), magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), (Advanced Propulsion Lab, Sonny Carter Training Facility, Houston, Tx), and (3) candidates for innovative, deep space propulsion technology research and demonstrations (projections based on NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, Propulsion Research and other R.&D activities.).

  19. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  20. International Space Station: Expedition 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of the International Space Station (ISS) presents an inside look at the groundwork and assembly of the ISS. Footage includes both animation and live shots of a Space Shuttle liftoff. Phil West, Engineer; Dr. Catherine Clark, Chief Scientist ISS; and Joe Edwards, Astronaut, narrate the video. The first topic of discussion is People and Communications. Good communication is a key component in our ISS endeavor. Dr. Catherine Clark uses two soup cans attached by a string to demonstrate communication. Bill Nye the Science Guy talks briefly about science aboard the ISS. Charlie Spencer, Manager of Space Station Simulators, talks about communication aboard the ISS. The second topic of discussion is Engineering. Bonnie Dunbar, Astronaut at Johnson Space Flight Center, gives a tour of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). She takes us inside Node 2 and the U.S. Lab Destiny. She also shows where protein crystal growth experiments are performed. Audio terminal units are used for communication in the JEM. A demonstration of solar arrays and how they are tested is shown. Alan Bell, Project Manager MRMDF (Mobile Remote Manipulator Development Facility), describes the robot arm that is used on the ISS and how it maneuvers the Space Station. The third topic of discussion is Science and Technology. Dr. Catherine Clark, using a balloon attached to a weight, drops the apparatus to the ground to demonstrate Microgravity. The bursting of the balloon is observed. Sherri Dunnette, Imaging Technologist, describes the various cameras that are used in space. The types of still cameras used are: 1) 35 mm, 2) medium format cameras, 3) large format cameras, 4) video cameras, and 5) the DV camera. Kumar Krishen, Chief Technologist ISS, explains inframetrics, infrared vision cameras and how they perform. The Short Arm Centrifuge is shown by Dr. Millard Reske, Senior Life Scientist, to subject astronauts to forces greater than 1-g. Reske is interested in the physiological effects of

  1. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  2. The US Space Station programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Manned Space Station (MSS) involves NASA, and other countries, in the operation, maintenance and expansion of a permanent space facility. The extensive use of automation and robotics will advance those fields, and experimentation will be carried out in scientific and potentially commercial projects. The MSS will provide a base for astronomical observations, spacecraft assembly, refurbishment and repair, transportation intersection, staging for interplanetary exploration, and storage. Finally, MSS operations will be performed semi-autonomously from ground control. Phase B analysis is nearing completion, and precedes hardware development. Studies are being performed on generic advanced technologies which can reliably and flexibly be incorporated into the MSS, such as attitude control and stabilization, power, thermal, environmental and life support control, auxiliary propulsion, data management, etc. Guidelines are also being formulated regarding the areas of participation by other nations.

  3. Space Station Biological Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  4. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  5. Sistema de adquisición de datos para la medición de parámetros radioeléctricos en antenas lineales en la banda de TV de VHF y UHF System of acquisition of information for measurement of radioelectric parameters in linear antennas in the band of VHF and UHF’s television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Celemín

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este proyecto desarrolla un sistema de adquisición y procesamiento de datos para la medición y ajuste de parámetros radioeléctricos de antenas lineales en las bandas de VHF y UHF. Como señal de prueba se utilizan algunas de las señales de televisión que se encuentran en el espectro radioeléctrico, provenientes de los transmisores que radian señales de canales nacionales. El receptor implementado incluye un sintonizador comercial de televisión que toma como muestra la señal portadora de video. Esta señal es amplificada, filtrada, almacenada y acondicionada, para ser leída por el puerto serial de un computador personal y procesada empleando un programa en Visual Basic, con una interfaz gráfica que permite una interacción amigable con el usuario. Desde acá se interactúa con un microcontrolador que controla el mecanismo de posicionamiento de la antena receptora por medio de una estructura electromecánica, que le permite ejecutar movimientos en dos grados de libertad: en azimut y en elevación. Con esto se logra un sistema capaz de determinar automáticamente el apuntamiento óptimo de la antena de acuerdo al máximo nivel de recepción de señal. Así mismo, se determinan parámetros propios de la antena tales como: el patrón de radiación (tanto en el plano horizontal como vertical, la ganancia directiva de la antena, la ganancia en cada uno de los puntos que conforman el plano principal, y otros parámetros de interés para el análisis de las características reales de antenas lineales.This project develops a data acquisition and processing system for measuring and adjusting lineal-antenna radioelectric parameters in VHF and UHF. Television signals are used as test signal. They can be found in radio electric spectrum, as they come from commercial transmitters that broadcast signals of national channels. The achieved receptor includes a television commercial tuner for obtaining video signal. Later, this signal is conditioning to

  6. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  7. Raising the AIQ of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Henry; Heer, Ewald

    1987-01-01

    Expert systems and robotics technologies are to be significantly advanced during the Space Station program. Artificial intelligence systems (AI) on the Station will include 'scars', which will permit upgrading the AI capabilities as the Station evolves to autonomy. NASA-Ames is managing the development of the AI systems through a series of demonstrations, the first, controlling a single subsystem, to be performed in 1988. The capabilities being integrated into the first demonstration are described; however, machine learning and goal-driven natural language understanding will not reach a prototype stage until the mid-1990s. Steps which will be taken to endow the computer systems with the ability to move from heuristic reasoning to factual knowledge, i.e., learning from experience, are explored. It is noted that the development of Space Station expert systems depends on the development of experts in Station operations, which will not happen until the Station has been used extensively by crew members.

  8. Sediment Quality Characterization Naval Station San Diego

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    silversides (Menidia beryllina), the bioluminescent dinoflagellate (Gonyaulax polyhedra), the bioluminescent bacteria (Photo- I bacterium phosphoreum ), and...also observed in the diatom at Stations NSB-2, NSB-4, and NSB-5. None of the station sediments produced an IC50 in the bacteria Photobacterium ... phosphoreum (Microtox), 42 while IC 0,,, were observed in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyhedra (QwikSed) at all six stations. Figures 15 through 17 are

  9. Space Station end effector strategy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Jensen, Robert L.; Willshire, Kelli F.; Satterthwaite, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study are presented for terminology definition, identification of functional requirements, technolgy assessment, and proposed end effector development strategies for the Space Station Program. The study is composed of a survey of available or under-developed end effector technology, identification of requirements from baselined Space Station documents, a comparative assessment of the match between technology and requirements, and recommended strategies for end effector development for the Space Station Program.

  10. METALLOGRAPHIC SAMPLE PREPARATION STATION-CONSTRUCTIVE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM Florin Timotei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to present the issues involved in the case of the constructive conception of a station for metallographic sample preparation. This station is destined for laboratory work. The metallographic station is composed of a robot ABB IRB1600, a metallographic microscope, a gripping device, a manipulator, a laboratory grinding and polishing machine. The robot will be used for manipulation of the sample preparation and the manipulator take the sample preparation for processing.

  11. Ionospheric plasma by VHF waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... chart recorder at Varanasi during 1991 to 1999. The amplitude fluctuations having peak to peak variations>1 dB have been con- sidered for the present analysis. At Varanasi scintillations are frequently observed during nighttime, hence only nocturnal variation of irregularities in different months and sea- sons are studied.

  12. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  13. MODELING OF PATTERN FORMING PROCESS OF AUTOMATIC RADIO DIRECTION FINDER OF PHASE VHF IN THE DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT OF LabVIEW APPLIED PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Aslanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is developed the model demonstrating the forming process of pattern of antenna system of aerodrome quasidopler automatic radiodirection-finder station in the development environment of LabVIEW applied programs of National Instrument company. 

  14. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they are...

  15. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 2 of 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This publication includes 92 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the second quarter of 2017. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  16. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data through Quarter 4 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-31

    This publication includes 86 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the fourth quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  17. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Retail Stations, Data Through Quarter 3 of 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Chris [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-07

    This publication includes 80 composite data products (CDPs) produced in Spring 2016 for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the third quarter of 2016. These CDPs include data from retail stations only.

  18. East Baton Rouge Fire Stations, UTM15 NAD83, LAGIC (2002) [ebr_fire_stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset consists of twenty-nine (29) geocoded points representing fire stations in East Baton Rouge parish, Louisiana. Thirty (30) fire station, disctrict, and...

  19. Space Station Freedom - What if...?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jerry

    1992-10-01

    The use of novel structural designs and the Energia launch system of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program is evaluated by means of a concept analysis. The analysis assumes that: (1) Energia is used for all cargo and logistics resupply missions; (2) the shuttles are launched from the U.S.; and (3) an eight-person assured crew return vehicle is available. This launch/supply scenario reduces the deployment risk from 30 launches to a total of only eight launches reducing the cost by about 15 billion U.S. dollars. The scenario also significantly increases the expected habitable and storage volumes and decreases the deployment time by three years over previous scenarios. The specific payloads are given for Energia launches emphasizing a proposed design for the common module cluster that incorporates direct structural attachment to the truss at midspan. The design is shown to facilitate the accommodation of additional service hangars and to provide a more efficient program for spacecraft habitable space.

  20. Space station induced electromagnetic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.

    1988-01-01

    Several mechanisms which can cause electric (E) and magnetic (B) field contaminations of the Space Station environment are identified. The level of E and B fields generated by some of them such as the motion of the vehicle across the ambient magnetic field B(0) and the 20-kHz leakage currents and charges can be controlled by proper design considerations. On the other hand, there are some mechanisms which are inherent to the interaction of large vehicles with the plasma and probably their contributions to E and B fields cannot be controlled; these include plasma waves in the wake and ram directions and the effects of the volume current generated by the ionization of neutrals. The interaction of high-voltage solar arrays with plasma is yet another rich source of E and B fields and it is probably uncontrollable. Wherever possible, quantitative estimates of E and B are given. A set of recommendations is included for further study in areas where indepth knowledge is seriously lacking.

  1. development development of base transceiver station selection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    save cost and reduce the number of people who are at risk of radiation in BTSs located places as compared to each ... Keywords: Keywords: absolute radio frequency channel number; base transceiver station; collocation; radiation; spectral ..... [5] Singh R.K., “Assessment of Electromagnetic Radiation from Base Station ...

  2. Connection Facility Layout Model of Subway Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the key node of public transportation system, subway station has many functions such as attracting and distributing passengers and guiding the transfer from various traffic modes to subway. However, the poor facility scale and layout around subway stations in practice usually cause the inconvenience of transfer and low transfer efficiency, which causes the declination of travel efficiency and even loose of subway passengers. Taking subway stations as the study objects, this paper has emphasis on the connection characters between various traffic modes and subway stations. Considering the attraction region, the total transfer time, transfer distance, and connection cost were selected to form the efficiency index of connection layout of subway stations. Data envelopment analysis (DEA model is applied in the quantization of traffic resource consumption and output. At last, connection facility layout model of subway stations was established with the aim of improving the transfer efficiency. Meaningful results were obtained from the connection layout model of subway stations, which guide the planning and designing of the transfer facilities around subway stations.

  3. STS-97 Onboard Photograph - International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station in orbit was taken from the Space Shuttle Endeavour prior to docking. Most of the Station's components are clearly visible in this photograph. They are the Node 1 or Unity Module docked with the Functional Cargo Block or Zarya (top) that is linked to the Zvezda Service Module. The Soyuz spacecraft is at the bottom.

  4. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  5. The white SR spectrum experimental station

    CERN Document Server

    Ancharov, A I; Tolochko, B P; Sukhorukov, A V; Baru, S E; Savinov, G A; Kosov, A V; Sheromov, M A; Sikka, S K; Momin, S N

    2000-01-01

    A new experimental station for working with white synchrotron radiation is described. Radiation from the bending magnet of the VEPP-4 storage ring is used. The station is destined for study of structures at high pressure by energy-dispersive and Laue diffraction methods.

  6. Welding/brazing for Space Station repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David W.; Babel, H. W.; Conaway, H. R.; Hooper, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on welding/brazing for space station repair are presented. Topics covered include: fabrication and repair candidates; debris penetration of module panel; welded repair patch; mechanical assembly of utility fluid line; space station utility systems; Soviet aerospace fabrication - an overview; and processes under consideration.

  7. Solar radiation observation stations updated to 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.A.; Cristina, J.R.; Williams, B.B.

    1979-04-01

    The type of sensing and recording equipment for 420 stations in the US are listed alphabetically by states. The stations are divided according to whether or not they are in the basic National Weather Service, NOAA, network. Reports of summarized solar radiation data are listed in an appendix. (MHR)

  8. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM... forth in § 73.211. If a station has an ERP and an antenna HAAT such that it cannot be classified using...

  9. 49 CFR 236.814 - Station, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station, control. 236.814 Section 236.814..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.814 Station, control. The place where the control machine of a traffic control system is located. ...

  10. Present trends in HVDC converter station design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Lennart; Asplund, Gunnar; Bjorklund, Hans; Flisberg, Gunnar [ABB Power Systems AB, Ludvika (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    HVDC converter station technology has developed rapidly to satisfy increasing requirements during past 10 - 15 years, but there has not been any dramatic changes since thyristor valves were introduced in the mid 70s. This paper describes some recent and expected future developments, that will substantiality change and simplify future converter stations. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  11. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealing...

  12. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealing...

  13. 47 CFR 80.1181 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 80.1181 Section 80.1181... MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations On-Board Communications § 80.1181 Station identification...; or (2) The communications are likely to be received aboard another vessel. (b) Identification, when...

  14. 47 CFR 95.1507 - Station Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station Identification. 95.1507 Section 95.1507 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... Identification. A DSRCS On-Board Unit is not required to transmit an FCC station identification announcement. ...

  15. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  16. Progressive autonomy. [for space station systems operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the evolution of a space station in terms of the progression of autonomy, as systems perspectives and architectural concepts permit. The distinction between automation and autonomy is considered along with the evolution of autonomy, and the evolution of automation in station operations. Attention is given to the startup of a complex technological system, aspects of station control, questions of crew operational support, factors regarding the habitability of a space station, system design philosophy for autonomy, evolvability, latent capability, stage commonality, and multiple modularity. It is concluded that an evolutionary space station operating over a period of 10-20 years with a great increase in capability over that time will require a design philosophy which is more flexible and open-ended than for previous space systems.

  17. A Simple Space Station Rescue Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Early in the development of the Space Station it was determined that there is a need to have a vehicle which could be used in the event that the Space Station crew need to quickly depart and return to Earth when the Space Shuttle is not available. Unplanned return missions might occur because of a medical emergency, a major Space Station failure, or if there is a long-term interruption in the delivery of logistics to the Station. The rescue vehicle ms envisioned as a simple capsule-type spacecraft which would be maintained in a dormant state at the Station for several years and be quickly activated by the crew when needed. During the assembly phase for the International Space Station, unplanned return missions will be performed by the Russian Soyuz vehicle, which can return up to three people. When the Station assembly is complete there will be a need for rescue capability for up to six people. This need might be met by an additional Soyuz vehicle or by a new vehicle which might come from a variety of sources. This paper describes one candidate concept for a Space Station rescue vehicle. The proposed rescue vehicle design has the blunt-cone shape of the Apollo command module but with a larger diameter. The rescue vehicle would be delivered to the Station in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. The spacecraft design can accommodate six to eight people for a one-day return mission. All of the systems for the mission including deorbit propulsion are contained within the conical spacecraft and so there is no separate service module. The use of the proven Apollo re-entry shape would greatly reduce the time and cost for development and testing. Other aspects of the design are also intended to minimize development cost and simplify operations. This paper will summarize the evolution of rescue vehicle concepts, the functional requirements for a rescue vehicle, and describe the proposed design.

  18. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the master...

  19. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  20. Normal heights for GNSS reference station antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, J.; Morozova, K.; Reiniks, M.; Normand, M.

    2017-10-01

    The GNSS reference station ellipsoidal heights are of the mm precision quality due to their continuous operation and monitoring of their coordinates in the international terrestrial reference frame. The GNSS reference station data is mostly used for rover positioning. The reference stations are very important also as a fitting points for the geoid modelling developments. Unfortunately, the importance of the referencing of antenna heights to the national levelling network are sometimes neglected. Usually the antennas are fixed on the roof of high buildings in urban environment. It is quite difficult to make a high precision levelling procedures and sometimes the direct geodetic measurements of antenna normal heights are not performed. Actually, for the most of Latvian GNSS reference network antennas the normal heights are not tied to the national levelling network. The aim of this research is to use the collected data of GNSS/levelling points for the determination of the normal heights of continuously operating reference station antennas.

  1. Resident Station Contact Information for Application Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA provides a web service and downloadable file for SSA Resident Station locations, telephone numbers, and hours of operation. (Note: If you think an office might...

  2. Space station synergetic RAM-logistics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejulio, Edmund T.; Leet, Joel H.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Maintenance Planning and Analysis (MP&A) Study is a step in the overall Space Station Program to define optimum approaches for on-orbit maintenance planning and logistics support. The approach used in the MP&A study and the analysis process used are presented. Emphasis is on maintenance activities and processes that can be accomplished on orbit within the known design and support constraints of the Space Station. From these analyses, recommendations for maintainability/maintenance requirements are established. The ultimate goal of the study is to reduce on-orbit maintenance requirements to a practical and safe minimum, thereby conserving crew time for productive endeavors. The reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) and operations performance evaluation models used were assembled and developed as part of the MP&A study and are described. A representative space station system design is presented to illustrate the analysis process.

  3. Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge : Station Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify and...

  4. [Station Safety Plan: Louisa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Louisa National Wildlife Refuge Safety plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers and public. This plan seeks to identify and...

  5. Decommissioning strategy for Trawsfynydd power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.M.; Ellis, A.T. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Following the decision to close Trawsfynydd power station, Nuclear Electric adapted its generic decommissioning plans to suit the particular local circumstances. This resulted in an early reduced height safestore strategy which is described in the paper. (Author).

  6. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  7. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  8. CDMP COOP Station History Indexing Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 66-page document entitled 'Station history COOP Rework via WSSRD and stragglers NC4 & NC3: Keying Rules,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC's...

  9. Weather Station: Hawaii: Oahu: Coconut Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) automatic weather station (AWS) records hourly measurements of precipitation, air temperature, wind speed and...

  10. Space Station data management system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.

    1987-01-01

    Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

  11. Space Station Displays and Controls Technology Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Greg C.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space station displays and controls technology evolution are presented. Topics covered include: a historical perspective; major development objectives; current development activities; key technology areas; and technology evolution issues.

  12. Photovoltaic central-station power conditioner subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bahrami, K.; Bulawka, A.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of applying new advanced circuit topologies and semiconductors with improved switching characteristics to the design and development of central-station power conditioning subsystems is assessed. State-of-the-art large power conditioners suitable for photovoltaic central-station application are reviewed. Advanced topology power conditioning subsystems, when compared to available production hardware, promise improved performance, significant cost reduction, and lower cost-to-efficiency ratios.

  13. Description of Measurements on Biogas Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Novosád

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on performance analysis for three biogas stations situated within the territory of the Czech Republic. This paper contains basic details of the individual biogas stations as well as description of their types. It also refers to the general description of the measurement gauge involved, with specifications of its potential use. The final part of this paper deals with the analysis of course data obtained, with special regard to voltage, current, active power and reactive power data.

  14. Semigraphical model of railway stations operation

    OpenAIRE

    Верлан, Анатолий Иванович

    2014-01-01

    Semigraphical model of railway stations operation for technical and operational evaluation of their technology is presented in the paper. The paper is aimed at improving the model structure to simplify the mechanical engineer's interaction with a computer at the stage of a formal description of the model. In the simulation, railway station is considered as a complex system, in which maintenance of facilities by technical means and executors is carried out by performing manufacturing operation...

  15. Predictive Attitude Maintenance For A Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, Philip D.

    1989-01-01

    Paper provides mathematical basis for predictive management of angular momenta of control-moment gyroscopes (CMG's) to control attitude of orbiting space station. Numerical results presented for pitch control of proposed power-tower space station. Based on prior orbit history and mathematical model of density of atmosphere, predictions made of requirements on dumping and storage of angular momentum in relation to current loading state of CMG's and to acceptable attitude tolerances.

  16. Potable Water Supply Feasibility Study for Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Final comprehensive environmental evaluation report. British Antarctic Survey. 2007. Proposed construction...Troll in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica to a permanent station. PolarPower.org. 2010. Examples: Princess Elisabeth Antarctica Station

  17. 2K radiological image display station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shyhliang A.; Huang, H. K.; Taira, Ricky K.; Breant, Claudine M.

    1993-09-01

    We intend to design a 2K display station which can be used in most of the radiology sections. This paper describes how we collected the basic viewing requirements and defined the criteria for designing the 2K display station. Based on the design criteria, hardware components are selected and software modules are implemented. The hardware components in the display station consist of a SUN 470 computer, two 21' diagonal 2K MegaScan monitors, and a 2.6- Gbyte formatted storage concepts parallel transfer disk. The software modules include a communication software module, a local database module, a local storage management module, and an image display module. The station provides features such as dual-cine, region- of-interest, caliper measurement, image retrieval, and diagnostic report. Four stations have been used in genitourinary radiology, pediatric radiology in-patient and out-patient, and neuroradiology since January 1992. The stations are used for morning and afternoon radiology rounds and frequently for consultations between radiologists and clinicians.

  18. High accuracy station moving method for total station in submarine construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Shaosong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] When we measure submarine pressure hulls using a total station, it is essential to set several stations in order to complete the measurement of the whole cabin due to the complicated measuring environment. However, there are many restrictions related to the total station itself when moving stations, and it is also difficult to ensure measuring accuracy and satisfy the requirements of submarine measurement in complicated environments.[Methods] As such, a new station moving method is presented which can automatically establish standing relationships by measuring common points at every measuring position.[Results] This method can significantly improve accuracy and efficiency.[Conclusions] The experiment shows that the results of the new station moving method can meet sub-pixel precision and satisfy submarine measurement requirements with high accuracy.

  19. Alkaline RFC Space Station prototype - 'Next step Space Station'. [Regenerative Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, I. M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell, a candidate technology for the Space Station's energy storage system, is described. An advanced development program was initiated to design, manufacture, and integrate a regenerative fuel cell Space Station prototype (RFC SSP). The RFC SSP incorporates long-life fuel cell technology, increased cell area for the fuel cells, and high voltage cell stacks for both units. The RFC SSP's potential for integration with the Space Station's life support and propulsion systems is discussed.

  20. From city’s station to station city. An integrative spatial approach to the (redevelopment of station areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Martins da Conceição

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its origin, the railway station has had a complicated relationship with the city, demanding periodical updates, particularly regarding spatial issues. With the aim of improving the liveability of station areas, current redevelopment projects are reconceptualising them as balanced transport ‘nodes’ and ‘places’ in the city. However, the proposed spatial solutions do not fully support the sought after economic, social and environmental performances. These intentions continue to be predominantly bounded with the (abstract planological level, not finding appropriate translation at the (concrete spatial design level. Further, the interdisciplinary nature of the highly complex planning and design processes of station areas, which should contribute to enhance the performance of their spaces, reinforces constraints and relegates architecture to a marginal role in this quest. It is thus necessary to understand how architecture can contribute to the improvement of the spatial performance of contemporary stations areas, supporting their current reconceptualization.To gain this understanding, the research explored the factors which influence the spatial definition and performance of European High Speed Train station areas, using “design research” and “research by design”. Via a theoretical integrative framework, synthesized from knowledge developed by architecture and other sciences, case studies of ‘through’ stations were analysed and compared. Six cases, encapsulating the most recurrent relative positions of the railway (infrastructure and the station building towards the(ir direct built environment, were chosen out of a large sample. For each category (cases with railway tracks at (a ground level, (b elevated level and (c underground level, two cases, featuring an adapted station building and a newly built one, were studied. Their physical and functional characteristics were mapped at several scales and moments (in history, as

  1. Evolution of the Space Station Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Shakeel; Burns, Susan H.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Canadarm2, was launched in 2001 and deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The Canadarm2 has been instrumental in ISS assembly and maintenance. Canadarm2 shares its heritage with the Space Shuttle Arm (Canadarm). This article explores the evolution from the Shuttle Canadarm to the Space Station Canadarm2 design, which incorporates a 7 degree of freedom design, larger joints, and changeable operating base. This article also addresses phased design, redundancy, life and maintainability requirements. The design of Canadarm2 meets unique ISS requirements, including expanded handling capability and the ability to be maintained on orbit. The size of ISS necessitated a mobile manipulator, resulting in the unique capability of Canadarm2 to relocate by performing a walk off to base points located along the Station, and interchanging the tip and base of the manipulator. This provides the manipulator with reach and access to a large part of the Station, enabling on-orbit assembly of the Station and providing support to Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Canadarm2 is evolving based on on-orbit operational experience and new functionality requirements. SSRMS functionality is being developed in phases to support evolving ISS assembly and operation as modules are added and the Station becomes more complex. Changes to sustaining software, hardware architecture, and operations have significantly enhanced SSRMS capability to support ISS mission requirements. As a result of operational experience, SSRMS changes have been implemented for Degraded Joint Operations, Force Moment Sensor Thermal Protection, Enabling Ground Controlled Operations, and Software Commutation. Planned Canadarm2 design modifications include: Force Moment Accommodation, Smart Safing, Separate Safing, and Hot Backup. In summary, Canadarm2 continues to evolve in support of new ISS requirements and improved operations. It is a tribute to the design that

  2. Hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.N.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-07-01

    A technical and economic assessment is being conducted of a hydrogen fuel dispensing station to develop an understanding of the infrastructure requirements for supplying hydrogen fuel for mobile applications. The study includes a process design of a conceptual small-scale, stand-alone, grassroots fuel dispensing facility (similar to the present-day gasoline stations) producing hydrogen by steam reforming of natural gas. Other hydrogen production processes (such as partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and water electrolysis) were reviewed to determine their suitability for manufacturing the hydrogen. The study includes an assessment of the environmental and other regulatory permitting requirements likely to be imposed on a hydrogen fuel dispensing station for transportation vehicles. The assessment concludes that a dispensing station designed to produce 0.75 million standard cubic feet of fuel grade (99.99%+ purity) hydrogen will meet the fuel needs of 300 light-duty vehicles per day. Preliminary economics place the total capital investment (in 1994 US dollars) for the dispensing station at $4.5 million and the annual operating costs at around $1 million. A discounted cash-flow analysis indicates that the fuel hydrogen product price (excluding taxes) to range between $1.37 to $2.31 per pound of hydrogen, depending upon the natural gas price, the plant financing scenario, and the rate of return on equity capital. A report on the assessment is due in June 1995. This paper presents a summary of the current status of the assessment.

  3. Artificial intelligence - NASA. [robotics for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents a vital common space support element needed to enable the civil space program and commercial space program to perform their missions successfully. It is pointed out that advances in AI stimulated by the Space Station Program could benefit the U.S. in many ways. A fundamental challenge for the civil space program is to meet the needs of the customers and users of space with facilities enabling maximum productivity and having low start-up costs, and low annual operating costs. An effective way to meet this challenge may involve a man-machine system in which artificial intelligence, robotics, and advanced automation are integrated into high reliability organizations. Attention is given to the benefits, NASA strategy for AI, candidate space station systems, the Space Station as a stepping stone, and the commercialization of space.

  4. Orbit keeping attitude control for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, D.; Bedell, H.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that on-orbit configuration variability is expected to be a characteristic of a space station. The implementation of such a chracteristic will present reboost and thruster control system designers with a number of new challenges. The primary requirement for the space station orbit reboost (or orbit keeping) system is to ensure system viability for extended duration and prevent an uncontrolled reentry as with Skylab. For a station in a low earth orbit, earodynamic drag will be sufficient to cause relatively quick orbit altitude decay. A propulsion system is, therefore, needed to counteract the aerodynamic drag forces and to boost the vehicle to the desired orbit altitudes. A description is given of a typical reboost operational procedure and propellant requirements. Attention is given to thruster control systems, and aspects of reboost guidance.

  5. Artist's Concept of International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Pictured is an artist's concept of the International Space Station (ISS) with solar panels fully deployed. In addition to the use of solar energy, the ISS will employ at least three types of propulsive support systems for its operation. The first type is to reboost the Station to correct orbital altitude to offset the effects of atmospheric and other drag forces. The second function is to maneuver the ISS to avoid collision with oribting bodies (space junk). The third is for attitude control to position the Station in the proper attitude for various experiments, temperature control, reboost, etc. The ISS, a gateway to permanent human presence in space, is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation by cooperation of sixteen countries.

  6. Operations research investigations of satellite power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Ballard, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A systems model reflecting the design concepts of Satellite Power Stations (SPS) was developed. The model is of sufficient scope to include the interrelationships of the following major design parameters: the transportation to and between orbits; assembly of the SPS; and maintenance of the SPS. The systems model is composed of a set of equations that are nonlinear with respect to the system parameters and decision variables. The model determines a figure of merit from which alternative concepts concerning transportation, assembly, and maintenance of satellite power stations are studied. A hybrid optimization model was developed to optimize the system's decision variables. The optimization model consists of a random search procedure and the optimal-steepest descent method. A FORTRAN computer program was developed to enable the user to optimize nonlinear functions using the model. Specifically, the computer program was used to optimize Satellite Power Station system components.

  7. Spallation neutron source target station issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Barnes, J.N.; Charlton, L.A. [and others

    1996-10-01

    In many areas of physics, materials and nuclear engineering, it is extremely valuable to have a very intense source of neutrons so that the structure and function of materials can be studied. One facility proposed for this purpose is the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS). This facility will consist of two parts: (1) a high-energy ({approximately}1 GeV) and high powered ({approximately} 1 MW) proton accelerator, and (2) a target station which converts the protons to low-energy ({le} 2 eV) neutrons and delivers them to the neutron scattering instruments. This paper deals with the second part, i.e., the design and development of the NSNS target station and the scientifically challenging issues. Many scientific and technical disciplines are required to produce a successful target station. These include engineering, remote handling, neutronics, materials, thermal hydraulics, and instrumentation. Some of these areas will be discussed.

  8. Space station design - Innovation and compromise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L. E.; Cohen, A.; Craig, M.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA manned space station will consist of three main elements: habitable modules, solar collectors, and their interconnecting hardware. The most arduous of the requirements to be met by this configuration is the simultaneous integration of terrestrial, solar, and celestial viewing instruments, since omnidirectional simultaneous viewing is made difficult by the station's large solar energy collection devices. The space station also imposes unique design conditions on individual subsystems, such as the power distribution and energy storage hardware. In particular, the thermal control subsystem must be designed to meet a variety of mission, payload, and housekeeping tasks that demand a large heat rejection capacity. Novel environmental control and life support subsystem technology will be indispensable.

  9. Smoke Control of Fires in Subway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Falin; Guo, Shin-Chang; Chuay, He-Yuan; Chien, Shen-Wen

    We investigate the effectiveness of the smoke control scheme of the Gong-Guan subway station (GGSS), a typical subway station of the Taipei Rapid Transit System and whose mechanical control systems are also standard in modern subway station design. Three-dimensional smoke flow fields under various kinds of fires are computed by computational fluid dynamics techniques and the results are illustrated on various cross-sectional planes. Results indicate that the stack effect plays a deterministic role in smoke control when a fire occurs near the stairwell; under such circumstances, no mechanical smoke control is necessary. When a fire occurs in other places, such as at the end or the center of the platform, the current mechanical control schemes of GGSS are effective; namely, the smoke can be well controlled, either it is confined to a small region or is evacuated from the station, leaving the four exits free of smoke so that the passengers can escape through them. The effect of the platform edge door (PED) on smoke control is also investigated. With the PED, the effectiveness of the present smoke control system for fires occurring on the chassis of a train, a serious fire in the subway station, increases. We also propose an innovative smoke control scheme with a PED, which turns out to be much more efficient in evacuating smoke than that currently used. This study provides both valuable information for the design of passenger evacuation routes in fires as well as criteria for the design of a smoke control system for subway stations.

  10. Smoke control of fires in subway stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Falin; Guo, Shin-Chang [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (Taiwan); Chuay, He-Yuan [SinoTech Engineering Consulting Co., 171 Nanking E. Road, 5 Sec., Taipei, Taiwan 105 (Taiwan); Chien, Shen-Wen [Department of Fire Science and Administration, National Central Police University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333 (Taiwan)

    2003-05-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of the smoke control scheme of the Gong-Guan subway station (GGSS), a typical subway station of the Taipei Rapid Transit System and whose mechanical control systems are also standard in modern subway station design. Three-dimensional smoke flow fields under various kinds of fires are computed by computational fluid dynamics techniques and the results are illustrated on various cross-sectional planes. Results indicate that the stack effect plays a deterministic role in smoke control when a fire occurs near the stairwell; under such circumstances, no mechanical smoke control is necessary. When a fire occurs in other places, such as at the end or the center of the platform, the current mechanical control schemes of GGSS are effective; namely, the smoke can be well controlled, either it is confined to a small region or is evacuated from the station, leaving the four exits free of smoke so that the passengers can escape through them. The effect of the platform edge door (PED) on smoke control is also investigated. With the PED, the effectiveness of the present smoke control system for fires occurring on the chassis of a train, a serious fire in the subway station, increases. We also propose an innovative smoke control scheme with a PED, which turns out to be much more efficient in evacuating smoke than that currently used. This study provides both valuable information for the design of passenger evacuation routes in fires as well as criteria for the design of a smoke control system for subway stations. (orig.)

  11. Darlington Station outage - a maintenance perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plourde, J.; Marczak, J.; Stone, M.; Myers, R.; Sutton, K. [Ontario Hydro, Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, Bowmanville, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Ontario Hydro's Darlington Nuclear Generating Station (4x881MW(e)net) has carried out its first station outage since full commercial operation. The outage presented challenges to the organization in terms of outage planning, support, management, and safe execution within the constraints of schedule, budget and resources. This paper will focus on the success of the outage maintenance program, identifying the major work programs - a vacuum structure and containment outage, an emergency service water system outage, an emergency coolant injection system outage, intake channel inspections, low pressure service water inspections, and significant outage maintenance work on each of the four reactor units. Planning for the outage was initiated early in anticipation of this important milestone in the station's life. Detailed safety reviews - nuclear, radiation, and conventional - were conducted in support of the planned maintenance program. System lineup and work protection were provided by the Station Operator work group. Work protection permitry was initiated well in advance of the outage. Station maintenance staff resources were bolstered in support of the outage to ensure program execution could be maintained within the schedule. Training programs were in place to ensure that expectations were clear and that high standards would be maintained. Materials management issues in support of maintenance activities were given high priority to ensure no delays to the planned work. Station management review and monitoring in preparation for and during the outage ensured that staff priorities remained focused. Lessons learned from the outage execution are being formalized in maintenance procedures and outage management procedures, and shared with the nuclear community. (author)

  12. 47 CFR 73.621 - Noncommercial educational TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noncommercial educational TV stations. 73.621... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.621 Noncommercial educational TV stations... telecommunications service in § 73.646 are applicable to noncommercial educational TV stations. (g) Non-program...

  13. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limited the probability of the space station becoming a source of debris by collisions with small debris... operator has assessed and limited the probability of the space station becoming a source of debris by collisions with large debris or other operational space stations. Where a space station will be launched into...

  14. 47 CFR 73.624 - Digital television broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital television broadcast stations. 73.624... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.624 Digital television broadcast stations. (a) Digital television (“DTV”) broadcast stations are assigned channels 6 MHz wide. Initial...

  15. Orbit lifetime characteristics for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryder, L.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M.

    The factors that influence the orbital lifetime characteristics of the NASA Space Station are discussed. These include altitude, attitude, launch date, ballistic coefficient, and the presence of large articulating solar arrays. Examples from previous program systems studies are presented that illustrate how each factor affects Station orbit lifetime. The effect of atmospheric density models on orbit lifetime predictions is addressed along with the uncertainty of these predictions using current trajectory analysis of the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft. Finally, nominal reboost altitude profiles and fuel requirement considerations are presented for implementing a reboost strategy based on planned Shuttle Orbiter rendezvous strategy and contingency considerations.

  16. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  17. Rawhide Energy Station, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    The staff of Platte River Power Authority's Rawhide Energy Station have been racking up operating stats and an environmental performance record that is the envy of other plant managers. In the past decade Rawhide has enjoyed an equivalent availability factor in the mid to high 90s and an average capacity factor approaching 90%. Still not content with this performance, Rawhide invested in new technology and equipment upgrades to further optimise performance, reduce emissions, and keep cost competitive. The Energy Station includes four GE France 7EA natural gas-fired turbines totalling 260 MW and a 274 MW coal-fired unit located in northeastern Colorado. 7 figs.

  18. SIRIO small earth station operation in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, V.; Fabiano, L.; Jing, Y.; Kuang, Z.; Wang, J.

    The main characteristics are described for the small earth station installed at Beijing to permit joint experimentation through the SIRIO satellite. The experimental facilities and data acquisition system are illustrated, including the transmitter/receiver, digitally controlled SCPC communication and thermal control sybsystem, from both the electrical and mechanical viewpoints. The measurement layout of the system includes a 1200 bps modem, two controllers (HP9845B and HP 85F), a DVM, relay actuator, chart recorder, and two counters. RS-232C and IEEE-488 links are used. Station environmental conditions, EIRP, G/T and other specifics are noted.

  19. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  20. Space station related investigations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienss, W.; Vallerain, E.

    1984-10-01

    Studies pertaining to the definition of Europe's role in the Space Station program are described, with consideration given to such elements as pressurized modules as laboratories for materials processing and life sciences, unpressurized elements, and service vehicles for on-orbit maintenance and repair activities. Candidate elements were selected against such criteria as clean interfaces, the satisfaction of European user needs, new technology items, and European financial capabilities; and their technical and programmatic implications were examined. Different scenarios were considered, ranging from a fully Space-Station-dependent case to a completely autonomous, free-flying man-tendable configuration. Recommendations on a collaboration between Europe and the United States are presented.

  1. Towards station-keeping using GPI controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    the low-frequency linear model of a ship, and for which a very simple simulation is presented to illustrate the behavior of the GPI controller, we present the extension of the method to include a wave-frequency model that we then use for station-keeping in extreme seas. Simulations are presented......In this paper, we propose to use a Generalized Proportional-Integral controller for station-keeping of a ship. For output feedback, this has the advantage of not requiring the use of an asymptotic Luenberger or Kalman observer. After describing the methodology for the simple case of controlling...

  2. Enlaces de datos En VHF (VDL dentro del contexto CNS/ATM para la prestación de los servicios de tránsito aéreo en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édgar Leonardo Gómez Gómez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el protocolo de comunicaciones por enlaces de datos en VHF (VDL, el cual, junto con técnicas de posicionamiento satelital, es uno de los pilares fundamentales dentro del concepto CNS/ATM planteado por la Organización de Aviación Civil Internacional (OACI, el cual busca la implantación de nuevas tecnologías para la prestación de los servicios de tránsito aéreo en las áreas de comunicaciones, navegación y vigilancia de aeronaves a nivel mundial. Se presenta el tipo de sistemas usados actualmente por la Unidad Administrativa Especial de Aeronáutica Civil (UAEAC para la prestación de estos servicios en Colombia, y se hace un comparativo para establecer las ventajas que tiene la implantación de las nuevas tecnologías planteadas en el concepto CNS/ATM, teniendo en cuenta las condiciones particulares de terreno y de flujo de tránsito aéreo que presenta Colombia. Además, se presentan los proyectos de implementación de subredes basadas en enlaces de datos VDL más relevantes a nivel mundial, los cuales permiten obtener resultados de pruebas de funcionamiento, como un paso fundamental hacia la consolidación a nivel mundial de este tipo de tecnología.

  3. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options: Study summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Space station needs, attributes, and architectural options that affect the future implementation and design of a space station system are examined. Requirements for candidate missions are used to define functional attributes of a space station. Station elements that perform these functions form the basic station architecture. Alternative ways to accomplish these functions are defined and configuration concepts are developed and evaluated. Configuration analyses are carried to the point that budgetary cost estimates of alternate approaches could be made. Emphasis is placed on differential costs for station support elements and benefits that accrue through use of the station.

  4. 76 FR 24538 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ..., 50-270, and 50-287] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3; Notice of Withdrawal of... the Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, located in York County, South Carolina; Renewed Facility...

  5. 78 FR 44603 - Byron Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, and Braidwood Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Exelon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... COMMISSION Byron Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, and Braidwood Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Exelon... operating licenses for the Byron Nuclear Station (Byron), Units 1 and 2, and the Braidwood Nuclear Station (Braidwood), Units 1 and 2. The NRC is considering an application for the renewal of operating licenses NPF...

  6. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  7. Space station integrated propulsion and fluid systems study. Space station program fluid management systems databook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, B.; Wilson, S.; Dennis, M.; Lydon, M.

    1988-01-01

    Commonality and integration of propulsion and fluid systems associated with the Space Station elements are being evaluated. The Space Station elements consist of the core station, which includes habitation and laboratory modules, nodes, airlocks, and trusswork; and associated vehicles, platforms, experiments, and payloads. The program is being performed as two discrete tasks. Task 1 investigated the components of the Space Station architecture to determine the feasibility and practicality of commonality and integration among the various propulsion elements. This task was completed. Task 2 is examining integration and commonality among fluid systems which were identified by the Phase B Space Station contractors as being part of the initial operating capability (IOC) and growth Space Station architectures. Requirements and descriptions for reference fluid systems were compiled from Space Station documentation and other sources. The fluid systems being examined are: an experiment gas supply system, an oxygen/hydrogen supply system, an integrated water system, the integrated nitrogen system, and the integrated waste fluids system. Definitions and descriptions of alternate systems were developed, along with analyses and discussions of their benefits and detriments. This databook includes fluid systems descriptions, requirements, schematic diagrams, component lists, and discussions of the fluid systems. In addition, cost comparison are used in some cases to determine the optimum system for a specific task.

  8. Establishment of Karadeniz Technical University Permanent GNSS Station as Reactivated of TRAB IGS Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazancı, Selma Zengin; Kayıkçı, Emine Tanır

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have gained great importance in terms of the benefi ts it provides such as precise geodetic point positioning, determining crustal deformations, navigation, vehicle monitoring systems and meteorological applications etc. As in Turkey, for this purpose, each country has set up its own GNSS station networks like Turkish National Permanent RTK Network analyzed precise station coordinates and velocities together with the International GNSS Service, Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network and Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network (TNPGN) stations not only are utilized as precise positioning but also GNSS meteorology studies so total number of stations are increased. This work is related to the reactivated of the TRAB IGS station which was established in Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering. Within the COST ES1206 Action (GNSS4SWEC) KTU analysis center was established and Trop-NET system developed by Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP, RIGTC) in order to troposphere monitoring. The project titled "Using Regional GNSS Networks to Strengthen Severe Weather Prediction" was accepted to the scientifi c and technological research council of Turkey (TUBITAK). With this project, we will design 2 new constructed GNSS reference station network. Using observation data of network, we will compare water vapor distribution derived by GNSS Meteorology and GNSS Tomography. At this time, KTU AC was accepted as E-GVAP Analysis Centre in December 2016. KTU reference station is aimed to be a member of the EUREF network with these studies.

  9. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... primary office or available to the Commission via secured access to the licensee's Internet web site. Logs... which may affect the proper operation of the station. The entry must be made, dated and in the case of a... occurrences which may appear to be of importance to safety of life or property at sea, must be entered...

  10. Technical Design Report, Second Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Anderson, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bechtol, D. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Bethea, Katie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Carden, W. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chae, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clark, A. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Counce, Deborah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Craft, K. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Richard M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curry, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dayton, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dean, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Doleans, Marc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dye, T. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Eason, Bob H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eckroth, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fincrock, C. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Fritts, S. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Gallmeier, Franz X. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gawne, Ken R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hartman, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hess, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Horak, Charlie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Iverson, Erik B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Lorelei L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jones, Larry C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, B. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Johnson, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Laughon, Gregory J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mahoney, Kelly L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mammosser, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Michilini, M. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Middendorf, Mark E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O' Neal, Ed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nemec, B. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Peters, Roy Cecil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reagan, G. [Barge Waggoner Sumner & Cannon, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rennich, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Riemer, Bernie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Saethre, Robert B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schubert, James Phillip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shishlo, Andrei P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, C. Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strong, William Herb [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tallant, Kathie M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tennant, David Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thibadeau, Barbara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trumble, S. [HDR, Inc., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Trotter, Steven M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Z. [Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Webb, Steven B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Derrick C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, Karen S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhao, Jinkui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Second Target Station (STS) is a proposed upgrade for SNS. It includes a doubling of the accelerator power and an additional instrument hall. The new instrument hall will receive a 467 kW 10 Hz beam. The parameters and preliminary design aspects of the STS are presented for the accelerator, target systems, instrument hall, instruments and civil construction aspects.

  11. Environmental Statement. Oswego Steam Station. Unit 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-12-27

    plants in shallow water margins of the west basin. Condition of the fish caught was good. Lamprey scars were observed on a few fish but other wounds...Adams, Res. Rept. No. 69 34.4-68, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., Department of Engineering Research, 1968 23 Oswego Steam Station Hydraulic Model Study

  12. Microgravity particle research on the Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squyres, S.W.; Mckay, C.P.; Schwartz, D.E.

    1987-12-01

    Science questions that could be addressed by a Space Station Microgravity Particle Research Facility for studying small suspended particles were discussed. Characteristics of such a facility were determined. Disciplines covered include astrophysics and the solar nebula, planetary science, atmospheric science, exobiology and life science, and physics and chemistry.

  13. 75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... (May 26, 1999). FRA is the lead Federal agency and the New York State Urban Development Corporation d/b/a the Empire State Development Corporation (ESDC) is the lead State agency. ESDC, its subsidiary Moynihan Station Development Corporation (MSDC), and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ...

  14. Simple Solutions for Space Station Audio Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Throughout this summer, a number of different projects were supported relating to various NASA programs, including the International Space Station (ISS) and Orion. The primary project that was worked on was designing and testing an acoustic diverter which could be used on the ISS to increase sound pressure levels in Node 1, a module that does not have any Audio Terminal Units (ATUs) inside it. This acoustic diverter is not intended to be a permanent solution to providing audio to Node 1; it is simply intended to improve conditions while more permanent solutions are under development. One of the most exciting aspects of this project is that the acoustic diverter is designed to be 3D printed on the ISS, using the 3D printer that was set up earlier this year. Because of this, no new hardware needs to be sent up to the station, and no extensive hardware testing needs to be performed on the ground before sending it to the station. Instead, the 3D part file can simply be uploaded to the station's 3D printer, where the diverter will be made.

  15. 47 CFR 32.2311 - Station apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (excluding mobile), installed for customer's use. Items included in this account shall remain herein until... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station apparatus. 32.2311 Section 32.2311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS...

  16. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of accidents experienced with railway transportation involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. These collisions can be averted by putting safety measures in place. Part of the measures can be achieved by using computerized railway station traffic control systems that use ...

  17. Benzene monitoring at CPPI service stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.S. [Bovar, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-03-01

    A study was conducted in which ambient airborne concentration levels of benzene were measured at a representative set of gasoline service stations in Toronto and Vancouver. Benzene is considered to be toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). It is a component in gasoline (0.1 to 4.7 per cent by volume) and is present in vehicle evaporative and exhaust emissions. Measurements were made every 18 days at each station for one year. The objective of the study was to assess the ambient and employee exposure levels of benzene at service stations and to determine whether the levels were typical of those published in the literature. In a 1986 PACE (Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment) survey of exposure to gasoline hydrocarbon vapours at Canadian service stations, airborne benzene concentration data was inconsistent with similar ambient and personal exposure data in the international literature. It was concluded that both the mean ambient benzene concentration and the personal exposure level measurements in this study were generally lower than similar measurements made in other countries. The same observation was made with respect to ambient and personal exposure levels measured in this study vis-a-vis those measured during the PACE study conducted in 1985/86. . 31 refs., 24 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Very Portable Remote Automatic Weather Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Warren

    1987-01-01

    Remote Automatic Weather Stations (RAWS) were introduced to Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management field units in 1978 following development, test, and evaluation activities conducted jointly by the two agencies. The original configuration was designed for semi-permanent installation. Subsequently, a need for a more portable RAWS was expressed, and one was...

  19. International Space Station Systems Engineering. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    cargo transfer vehicle that is launched on the Ariane V expendable rocket. The first ATV (named Jules Verne ) successfully completed its first...Griffin to the Subcommittee on Space, Aeronautics and Related Sciences, 15 November 2007 63 “ Jules Verne Refuels the International Space Station

  20. The space station integrated refuse management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1988-01-01

    The design and development of an Integrated Refuse Management System for the proposed International Space Station was performed. The primary goal was to make use of any existing potential energy or material properties that refuse may possess. The secondary goal was based on the complete removal or disposal of those products that could not, in any way, benefit astronauts' needs aboard the Space Station. The design of a continuous living and experimental habitat in space has spawned the need for a highly efficient and effective refuse management system capable of managing nearly forty-thousand pounds of refuse annually. To satisfy this need, the following four integrable systems were researched and developed: collection and transfer; recycle and reuse; advance disposal; and propulsion assist in disposal. The design of a Space Station subsystem capable of collecting and transporting refuse from its generation site to its disposal and/or recycling site was accomplished. Several methods of recycling or reusing refuse in the space environment were researched. The optimal solution was determined to be the method of pyrolysis. The objective of removing refuse from the Space Station environment, subsequent to recycling, was fulfilled with the design of a jettison vehicle. A number of jettison vehicle launch scenarios were analyzed. Selection of a proper disposal site and the development of a system to propel the vehicle to that site were completed. Reentry into the earth atmosphere for the purpose of refuse incineration was determined to be the most attractive solution.

  1. National FCEV and Hydrogen Fueling Station Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian; Melaina, Marc

    2016-06-09

    This presentation provides a summary of the FY16 activities and accomplishments for NREL's national fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) and hydrogen fueling station scenarios project. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2016 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 9, 2016, in Washington, D.C.

  2. Undervisningstimer og Elevpræstationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Myrup; Arendt, Kasper Skou

    2015-01-01

    undervisningstimer gavner eleverne, har der historisk set været tvivl om. Nyere forskning finder en klar positiv effekt af flere undervisningstimer på elevernes præstationer. Studierne tager dog udgangspunkt i et timetal, der er lavere, end det der har været gældende efter folkeskolereformen i 2014....

  3. Connecting strangers at a train station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Böttcher, Niels; Pellarin, Lars

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a virtual instrument or a performance space, placed at Høje Tåstrup train station in Denmark, which is meant to establish communicative connections between strangers, by letting users of the system create soundscapes together across the rails. We discuss mapping...

  4. Safety distances for hydrogen filling stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthijsen, A J C M; Kooi, E S

    2006-01-01

    In the context of spatial planning the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment asked the Centre for External Safety of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to advice on safe distances pertaining to hydrogen filling stations. The RIVM made use of

  5. Offshore Metocean Station for Energy Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Balluff

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy concepts are able to sustainably satisfy the world energy demand without any restrictions for the following generations. In these concepts the wind energy and wave / current energy are important factors as the description and the prognosis of waves and currents is a complex issue, especially offshore. For the estimation of the average annual wind speed and thus the energy production of offshore wind farms it is imperative to know the exact wind conditions at each project site. Suitable prognosis methods are missing so far, are not accurate enough or at beta stage. The only possibility to achieve exact information about the offshore conditions is a metocean station consisting of wind and wave sensors. These met stations can be lattice masts mounted on monopiles or buoys equipped with meteorological sensors, both in combination with wave sensors to include all important parameters. Though conventional metocean stations are far more common, established and are measuring data of high quality, cheaper and more flexible solutions as the likes of floating Lidars (Light Detection And Ranging are about to be used during the operation of wind farms. This article explains currently used methods of measurements offshore with respect to wind and wave and compares it with reanalysis data. This data has advantages in comparison to measurements from conventional metocean stations, but cannot be used independently. This article proves that using solely reanalysis data is not possible, that measurements offshore are still necessary and that its operation helps improving the performance of offshore wind farms.

  6. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  7. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  8. Haze episodes at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During our aerosol measurement program at Syowa Station, Antarctica in 2004-2007, some low visibility (haze phenomena were observed under conditions with weak wind and without drifting snow and fog in winter-spring. In the "Antarctic haze" phenomenon, the number concentration of aerosol particles and black carbon concentration increased by one-two orders higher relative to background conditions at Syowa Station, while surface O_3 concentration simultaneously dropped especially after polar sunrise. Major aerosol constituents in the haze phenomenon were sea-salts (e.g., Na^+ and Cl^-. From the trajectory analysis and NAAPS model, the plumes from biomass burning in South America and southern Africa were transported to Syowa Station, Antarctic coast, during eastward (occasionally westward approach of cyclones in the Southern Ocean. Thus, poleward flow of the plume from mid-latitudes and injection of sea-salt particles during the transport may lead to the Antarctic haze phenomenon at Syowa Station. The difference of O_3 concentration between the background and the haze conditions tended to be larger in spring (polar sunrise relative to that in winter. Because enhancement of sea-salt particles can play an important role as an additional source of reactive halogen species, the haze episodes might make a significant contribution to surface O_3 depletion during the polar sunrise on the Antarctic coast.

  9. Tunnel and Station Cost Methodology : Mined Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a model for estimating the cost of subway station and tunnel construction. This report describes a cost estimating methodology for subway tunnels that can be used by planners, designers, owners, and gov...

  10. International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

  11. Fifteen years of international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.; Celebi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrated its 15th birthday in October 2013. The ISS is the largest spaceship ever built by humans and very important for research, to understand life and physics. However, the ISS is very expensive to maintain and therefore some people argue that the ISS

  12. 78 FR 50340 - Travelers' Information Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... thereby prohibit the ``integration'' of NOAA weather radio or NOAA radio all- hazards information into TIS....'' AAIRO opposes a name change as it does not favor changing the fundamental nature of the service. We will... project to determine the effects on AM stations, under a variety of scenarios (power output, spacing...

  13. 7 CFR 29.42 - Receiving station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.42 Receiving station. Points at which producer tobacco is offered for marketing (other than sale at auction on a designated market), including tobacco auction warehouses, packing...

  14. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  15. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  16. Economic station load distribution in thermal power stations with multi-rated sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, P.; Murty, N.S.; Dutt, R.V.S.K. [BHEL House, New Delhi (India)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a suitable method developed for arriving at the minimum station heat rate with dynamic heat rate characteristics evaluation for implementation on existing as well as next generation C & I platforms. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Soil Temperature Station Data from Permafrost Regions of Russia (Selection of Five Stations), 1880s - 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes soil temperature data from boreholes located at five stations in Russia: Yakutsk, Verkhoyansk, Pokrovsk, Isit', and Churapcha. The data have...

  18. US Coast Guard Stations in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USCG [coast_guard_stations_USCG_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of eight US Coast Guard stations in Louisiana. The attributes include name, address, latitude (NAD27),...

  19. NCERA-101 STATION REPORT - KENNEDY SPACE CENTER: Large Plant Growth Hardware for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2013-01-01

    This is the station report for the national controlled environments meeting. Topics to be discussed will include the Veggie and Advanced Plant Habitat ISS hardware. The goal is to introduce this hardware to a potential user community.

  20. A report on upgraded seismic monitoring stations in Myanmar: Station performance and site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Hrin Nei; Min Htwe, Yin Myo; Kyaw, Tun Lin; Tun, Pa Pa; Min, Zaw; Htwe, Sun Hninn; Aung, Tin Myo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Aung, Myat Min; De Cristofaro, Jason; Franke, Mathias; Radman, Stefan; Lepiten, Elouie; Wolin, Emily; Hough, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband and strong‐motion seismic stations and real‐time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station noise characteristics and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. MM stations recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including an M 6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016 and the Mw 6.8 Chauk event on 24 August 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratios, which provide a preliminary characterization of site response of the upgraded MM stations.

  1. Water supply at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ishizawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE has sourced domestic water for daily use from ponds, snow drifts, and icebergs on sea ice at Syowa Station since the first wintering expedition. These water sources are dependent on weather conditions and maintenance of the sources requires considerable human effort and thermal energy. For example, the maintenance of outside water tanks and pipelines requires a lot of working force of wintering members and huge thermal energy which has been obtained from waste heat of engine generators. Here, we propose seawater desalination method using a reverse osmosis membrane to provide a reliable domestic water source to Syowa Station. Such a system could meet the station's water needs without requiring a large amount of staff time or heat energy.

  2. JARE Syowa Station 11-m Antenna, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Yuichi; Doi, Koichiro; Shibuya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the 52nd and the 53rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions (hereinafter, referred to as JARE-52 and JARE-53, respectively) participated in five OHIG sessions - OHIG76, 78, 79, 80, and 81. These data were recorded on hard disks through the K5 terminal. Only the hard disks for the OHIG76 session have been brought back from Syowa Station to Japan, in April 2012, by the icebreaker, Shirase, while those of the other four sessions are scheduled to arrive in April 2013. The data obtained from the OHIG73, 74, 75, and 76 sessions by JARE-52 and JARE-53 have been transferred to the Bonn Correlator via the servers of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). At Syowa Station, JARE-53 and JARE-54 will participate in six OHIG sessions in 2013.

  3. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  4. Emulsion chamber experiments for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, R. J.

    Emulsion chambers offer several unique features for the study of ultrahigh-energy cosmic-ray interactions and spectra aboard a permanent manned Space Station. Emulsion-chamber experiments provide the highest acceptance/weight ratio of any current experimental technique, are invulnerable to mechanical shocks and temperature excursions associated with space flight, do not employ volatile or explosive components or materials, and are not dependent upon data communications or recording systems. Space-Station personnel would be employed to replace track-sensitive materials as required by background accumulation. Several emulsion-chamber designs are proposed, including both conventional passive calorimetric detectors and a hybrid superconducting-magnetic-spectrometer system. Results of preliminary simulation studies are presented. Operational logistics are discussed.

  5. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2009-09-23

    In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  6. A probe station for testing silicon sensors

    CERN Multimedia

    Ulysse, Fichet

    2017-01-01

    A probe station for testing silicon sensors. The probe station is located inside a dark box that can keep away light during the measurement. The set-up is located in the DSF (Department Silicon Facility). The golden plate is the "chuck" where the sensor is usually placed on. With the help of "manipulators", thin needles can be precisely positioned that can contact the sensor surface. Using these needles and the golden chuck, a high voltage can be applied to the sensor to test its behaviour under high voltage. We will use the silicon sensors that we test here for building prototypes of a highly granular sandwich calorimeter, the CMS HGC (Highly granular Calorimeter) upgrade for High-Luminosity LHC.

  7. Deployable Debris Shields For Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Cour-Palais, Burton G.; Crews, Jeanne

    1993-01-01

    Multilayer shields made of lightweight sheet materials deployed from proposed Space Station Freedom for additional protection against orbiting debris. Deployment mechanism attached at each location on exterior where extra protection needed. Equipment withdraws layer of material from storage in manner similar to unfurling sail or extending window shade. Number of layers deployed depends on required degree of protection, and could be as large as five.

  8. STS-106 Onboard Photograph - International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was taken when Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-106 mission) approached the ISS for docking. At the top is the Russian Progress supply ship that is linked with the Russian built Service Module or Zvezda. The Zvezda is cornected with the Russian built Functional Cargo Block (FGB) or Zarya. The U.S. built Node 1 or Unity module is seen at the bottom.

  9. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  10. Social factors in space station interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranz, Galen; Eichold, Alice; Hottes, Klaus; Jones, Kevin; Weinstein, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Using the example of the chair, which is often written into space station planning but which serves no non-cultural function in zero gravity, difficulties in overcoming cultural assumptions are discussed. An experimental approach is called for which would allow designers to separate cultural assumptions from logistic, social and psychological necessities. Simulations, systematic doubt and monitored brainstorming are recommended as part of basic research so that the designer will approach the problems of space module design with a complete program.

  11. Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

  12. Momentum management strategy during Space Station buildup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lynda; Malchow, Harvey; Hattis, Philip

    1988-01-01

    The use of momentum storage devices to control effectors for Space Station attitude control throughout the buildup sequence is discussed. Particular attention is given to the problem of providing satisfactory management of momentum storage effectors throughout buildup while experiencing variable torque loading. Continuous and discrete control strategies are compared and the effects of alternative control moment gyro strategies on peak momentum storage requirements and on commanded maneuver characteristics are described.

  13. Design of the LBNF Beamline Target Station

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, S.; Ammigan, K.; Anderson, K.; Buccellato, S. A.; Crowley, C. F.; Hartsell, B. D.; Hurh, P.; Hylen, J.; Kasper, P.; Krafczyk, G. E.; Lee, A.; Lundberg, B.; Marchionni, A; Mokhov, N. V.; Moore, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) project will build a beamline located at Fermilab to create and aim an intense neutrino beam of appropriate energy range toward the DUNE detectors at the SURF facility in Lead, South Dakota. Neutrino production starts in the Target Station, which consists of a solid target, magnetic focusing horns, and the associated sub-systems and shielding infrastructure. Protons hit the target producing mesons which are then focused by the horns into a helium-fil...

  14. Snow Drift Management: Summit Station Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    publication, or promotional purposes. Ci- tation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial...potential that may be deposited as drifts is se- vere by standards for the continental United States, it is significantly less than the maximum potential...taken annually. Fur - ther work is needed to apply this to the broader station that includes the cargo berms and other buildings that are further removed

  15. Space Station Freedom primary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program requirements are a 30 year reliable service life in low Earth orbit in hard vacuum or pressurized module service without detrimental degradation. Specific requirements are outlined in this presentation for SSF primary power and cable insulation. The primary power cable status and the WP-4 planned cable test program are also reviewed along with Rocketdyne-WP04 prime insulation candidates.

  16. Instructor/Operator Station (IOS) Design Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    BOX.LK.CONT V.BRK.TIRE.SJ.SOLRLY,P IN.LGT.MS 24 LNDG CR- N CR UP LK N UHL STRNG SHIMMY 25 8RK &. A/S- 8 SEL VAL-,LKD,rITRG VALS.L INE A-’S VAL TEST...position. Console legends and abbreviations shall be in accor- dance with the Abbreviations For Use at IOSs contained in the Instructor/Opera-tor Station

  17. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  18. Instruction at the Hopkins Marine Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-29

    in Frank Suprynowicz t.he Cell Cycle (Scripps Clinic). Week 4 July 4 ....................... S RESEARCH PROJECTS 6 g 7 3 . 8 a a Week 5 July 11 6 12...Presentations LASER G VIDEO MICROSCOPY Hopkins Marine Station and Dept. of Molecular 4 Cellular ?thyioloy Stanford University Sumer 1989 (Preliminary...sequenace, reie~mble those of the M-phase site% occur in othet nucleic acid-binding proteina wJ histonet kinalse, Is not Inhibited by SDINAP. and Sp his

  19. DIDACTIC AUTOMATED STATION OF COMPLEX KINEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Sosnowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design, control system and software that controls the automated station of complex kinematics. Control interface and software has been developed and manufactured in the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin in the Department of Automated Manufacturing Systems Engineering and Quality. Conducting classes designed to teach programming and design of structures and systems for monitoring the robot kinematic components with non-standard structures was the reason for installation of the control system and software.

  20. Space Station Control Moment Gyroscope Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurrisi, Charles; Seidel, Raymond; Dickerson, Scott; Didziulis, Stephen; Frantz, Peter; Ferguson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Four 4760 Nms (3510 ft-lbf-s) Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscopes (DGCMG) with unlimited gimbal freedom about each axis were adopted by the International Space Station (ISS) Program as the non-propulsive solution for continuous attitude control. These CMGs with a life expectancy of approximately 10 years contain a flywheel spinning at 691 rad/s (6600 rpm) and can produce an output torque of 258 Nm (190 ft-lbf)1. One CMG unexpectedly failed after approximately 1.3 years and one developed anomalous behavior after approximately six years. Both units were returned to earth for failure investigation. This paper describes the Space Station Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscope design, on-orbit telemetry signatures and a summary of the results of both failure investigations. The lessons learned from these combined sources have lead to improvements in the design that will provide CMGs with greater reliability to assure the success of the Space Station. These lessons learned and design improvements are not only applicable to CMGs but can be applied to spacecraft mechanisms in general.

  1. Antenna unit and radio base station therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Mikio; Doi, Nobukazu; Suzuki, Toshiro; Ishida, Yuji; Inoue, Takashi; Niida, Sumaru

    2007-04-10

    Phase and amplitude deviations, which are generated, for example, by cables connecting an array antenna of a CDMA base station and the base station, are calibrated in the baseband. The base station comprises: an antenna apparatus 1; couplers 2; an RF unit 3 that converts a receive signal to a baseband signal, converts a transmit signal to a radio frequency, and performs power control; an A/D converter 4 for converting a receive signal to a digital signal; a receive beam form unit 6 that multiplies the receive signal by semi-fixed weight; a despreader 7 for this signal input; a time-space demodulator 8 for demodulating user data; a despreader 9 for probe signal; a space modulator 14 for user data; a spreader 13 for user signal; a channel combiner 12; a Tx calibrater 11 for controlling calibration of a signal; a D/A converter 10; a unit 16 for calculation of correlation matrix for generating a probe signal used for controlling an Rx calibration system and a TX calibration system; a spreader 17 for probe signal; a power control unit 18; a D/A converter 19; an RF unit 20 for probe signal; an A/D converter 21 for signal from the couplers 2; and a despreader 22.

  2. Cooperative Proxy Caching for Wireless Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Z. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mobile cache model to facilitate the cooperative proxy caching in wireless base stations. This mobile cache model uses a network cache line to record the caching state information about a web document for effective data search and cache space management. Based on the proposed mobile cache model, a P2P cooperative proxy caching scheme is proposed to use a self-configured and self-managed virtual proxy graph (VPG, independent of the underlying wireless network structure and adaptive to the network and geographic environment changes, to achieve efficient data search, data cache and date replication. Based on demand, the aggregate effect of data caching, searching and replicating actions by individual proxy servers automatically migrates the cached web documents closer to the interested clients. In addition, a cache line migration (CLM strategy is proposed to flow and replicate the heads of network cache lines of web documents associated with a moving mobile host to the new base station during the mobile host handoff. These replicated cache line heads provide direct links to the cached web documents accessed by the moving mobile hosts in the previous base station, thus improving the mobile web caching performance. Performance studies have shown that the proposed P2P cooperative proxy caching schemes significantly outperform existing caching schemes.

  3. Site characterization using noninvasive single- and multi-station methods at southern California seismic stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A.; Martin, A. J.; Pfau, J.; McPhillips, D.; Alvarez, M.; Lydeen, S.; Clerc, F.; Leue, N.

    2016-12-01

    In-situ measurements of shear-wave velocity (Vs) are used commonly to evaluate seismic response at earthquake monitoring station and project sites. Vs30, the time-averaged Vs in the upper 30 m, is a common parameter used to capture seismic site response and is used in almost all modern ground motion prediction equations. Traditional invasive downhole methods directly measure Vs; however, these methods are often cost- and/or environmentally-prohibitive and their results do not always reflect the lateral variability of seismic conditions beyond the immediate vicinity of the test site. In comparison, noninvasive methods record active- or passive-source data consisting of surface or body waves and are less prohibitive to use. Moreover, these methods use multiple horizontally-spaced surface receivers (multi-station array), thus, lateral variability beneath the array is accounted for in their results. Most noninvasive methods, however, indirectly measure Vs, and thus have inherent uncertainties. We have used a suite of noninvasive methods at ten stations in southern California. We record microseisms using standalone single-stations, located at the end- and mid-points of the measurement array, and over the same period, we also collect records from the seismic station. Using both single- and seismic-station records, we calculate the horizontal-to-vertical-spectra-ratios (HVSR), resonance frequency, and power spectral density to study site characteristics, including noise levels. For soil sites, we generally find insignificant lateral variability in subsurface conditions beneath our multi-station arrays by matching similar spectral peaks and frequencies in the three HVSR records; for rock sites, the magnitudes of the HVSR values are not as discernible. While we find general agreement in Vs30 computed using a variety of methods at each site, preliminary results for low-noise sites using standalone passive methods have large uncertainty in their computed Vs30 values.

  4. feedr and animalnexus.ca: A paired R package and user-friendly Web application for transforming and visualizing animal movement data from static stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaZerte, Stefanie E; Reudink, Matthew W; Otter, Ken A; Kusack, Jackson; Bailey, Jacob M; Woolverton, Austin; Paetkau, Mark; de Jong, Adriaan; Hill, David J

    2017-10-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) provides a simple and inexpensive approach for examining the movements of tagged animals, which can provide information on species behavior and ecology, such as habitat/resource use and social interactions. In addition, tracking animal movements is appealing to naturalists, citizen scientists, and the general public and thus represents a tool for public engagement in science and science education. Although a useful tool, the large amount of data collected using RFID may quickly become overwhelming. Here, we present an R package (feedr) we have developed for loading, transforming, and visualizing time-stamped, georeferenced data, such as RFID data collected from static logger stations. Using our package, data can be transformed from raw RFID data to visits, presence (regular detections by a logger over time), movements between loggers, displacements, and activity patterns. In addition, we provide several conversion functions to allow users to format data for use in functions from other complementary R packages. Data can also be visualized through static or interactive maps or as animations over time. To increase accessibility, data can be transformed and visualized either through R directly, or through the companion site: http://animalnexus.ca, an online, user-friendly, R-based Shiny Web application. This system can be used by professional and citizen scientists alike to view and study animal movements. We have designed this package to be flexible and to be able to handle data collected from other stationary sources (e.g., hair traps, static very high frequency (VHF) telemetry loggers, observations of marked individuals in colonies or staging sites), and we hope this framework will become a meeting point for science, education, and community awareness of the movements of animals. We aim to inspire citizen engagement while simultaneously enabling robust scientific analysis.

  5. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...

  6. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  7. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite railway infrastructure was the structural framework on which modern European States were developed, contributing to unify territories and to the establishment of Nations, right from the beginning, the relationship between railway and city has been characterized by physical, functional and social conflicts, mainly because of a lack of integration between infrastructural and urban policies, which have been produced strong conflicts during decades. These critical situations have concentrated on the railway stations surrounding areas, which have started symbolizing the main conflicts that are taking place inside the cities.Similarly to what happened in the XIX century, today railway is a strategic infrastructure for the European territory development, thanks to the introduction of high speed transport systems and the promotion of rail transport as a more sustainable transportation system, which can quickly connect metropolitan central areas, more and more impenetrable by private vehicles, and key functions centres for the contemporary urban systems.In this framework, railway stations are becoming public places representing a complex society which is more and more dedicated to motion; thus they offer an unmissable chance not only to carry out urban development and spatial cohesion policies, but also to compose old tensions caused by the sharing of physical space, which is more and more scarce and valuable, and by ghettoization phenomena which have been produced at local scale, between rail infrastructure and the surrounding urban context. Today, such conflicts are growing and they are involving many actors who express a lot of different interests, needs and expectations, relating to the station areas’ destiny.Starting from the analysis of some conflicting situations between rail stations and the surrounding areas which have took place until today, this paper investigates some recent renewal interventions on Italian and European main railway

  8. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  9. Separating Station-Dependent from Regionally-Coherent GPS Draconitics in Station Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Gómez, A.; Rebischung, P.; Ray, J.

    2016-12-01

    Spurious periodic oscillations of the station positions coincident with harmonics of the GPS draconitic year (about 351.2 d) are mostly coherent up to at least continental scales and are thought to be mainly related to corresponding effects in the GPS orbits. Possible sources could be deficiencies in the available models for sub-daily variations of the Earth orientation or solar radiation-induced satellite accelerations. Multipath near the ground antennas may also propagate into the draconitic harmonics in station positions due to the ground path repeat period being about four minutes shorter than the typical 24-hr data sampling interval. Separating such contributions might enable future mitigation strategies. However, detection and quantification of the multipath contribution is challenging as it depends on the local environment of each ground antenna, i.e., it is not spatially homogeneous and it can also vary in time. We analyzed the draconitic harmonics in station positions from the IGS second reprocessing campaign. Differences in the draconitics among eight contributing Analysis Centers were analyzed and deemed not statistically significant. The IGS combined time series were then used to assess station-dependent draconitics by differencing station pairs at different separation bins up to 2000 km. Differences in harmonic amplitude and phase were considered.

  10. H2USA: Siting Refueling Stations in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarett [Consultant; Ellis, Steve [Honda

    2017-11-01

    To achieve cost-effective deployment of both fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hydrogen stations, the number of vehicles and public stations must grow together in areas of highest demand. This fact sheet introduces two advanced modeling tools and presents preliminary analysis of the hydrogen refueling station locations needed to support early consumer demand for FCEVs in the Northeast United States. United States.

  11. 47 CFR 74.705 - TV broadcast analog station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV broadcast analog station protection. 74.705... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.705 TV broadcast analog station protection. (a) The TV broadcast...

  12. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the Commission...

  13. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered and...

  14. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations...

  15. 47 CFR 74.706 - Digital TV (DTV) station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital TV (DTV) station protection. 74.706... EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.706 Digital TV (DTV) station protection. (a) For purposes of this...

  16. 76 FR 20249 - Update Station License Expiration Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Update Station License Expiration Dates AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... reflect the current license expiration dates for radio and television broadcast stations. The current version of the rule specifies license expiration dates from 2011 through 2014 for radio stations and 2012...

  17. Inner-city station areas in Chinese cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.

    2014-01-01

    Redevelopments of Chinese inner-­?city station areas introduced both new transport infrastructures (high speed railway, urban mass transit system, etc.) and real estate projects to station vicinities during the past decades. However, existing station areas are isolated from the rest of the city, and

  18. Evaluation of weather station network in Jordan | El-Khateeb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to evaluate weather stations distribution in Jordan according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criteria; using the daily average maximum and minimum temperatures in 35 climatic stations. Signifïcance of this study lies in highlighting the importance of weather stations distribution on areas of ...

  19. 19 CFR 7.11 - Guantanamo Bay Naval Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. 7.11 Section 7.11... TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH INSULAR POSSESSIONS AND GUANTANAMO BAY NAVAL STATION § 7.11 Guantanamo Bay Naval Station. Articles of foreign origin may enter the area (both land and water) of the Guantanamo Bay...

  20. thermal power stations' reliability evaluation in a hydrothermal system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A quantitative tool for the evaluation of thermal power stations reliability in a hydrothermal system is presented. A reliable power station is one which would supply the required power within its installed capacity at any time within the specified voltage and frequency limits. Required for this evaluation are the station's installed ...

  1. 47 CFR 95.25 - Land station description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... Line C, and the station transmits with no more than 5 watts ERP (effective radiated power). (e) A small... than 5 watts ERP. (f) Each base station and each control station with an antenna height greater than 6...

  2. Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations on Air Quality in Umuahia, Nigeria. ... Hence a conclusion was drawn from the findings that the primary pollutant to consider when building filling station are the VOCs and methane and that the minimum safe distance to site a filling station is a distance of ...

  3. Measuring Robustness of Timetables in Stations using a Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex

    delays caused by interdependencies, and result in a more robust operation. Currently three methods to calculate the complexity of station exists: 1. Complexity of a station based on the track layout 2. Complexity of a station based on the probability of a conflict using a plan of operation 3. Complexity...

  4. Hospital visitors' experiences at the nurses' station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Janet

    2017-04-19

    Aim To investigate participants' experiences of visiting hospitalised friends and family members in adult acute medical or surgical wards in NHS hospitals in England, to improve knowledge of hospital visiting practices and to inform future policy-making and professional practice. Method A review of the contextual influences and the literature identified that hospital visitors might experience many of the characteristics of liminality, which is a state of being between two social structures or ways of being. In 2013, a total of 17 semi-structured, recorded and transcribed interviews were conducted with participants who had been hospital visitors in the period 2011-2013. The transcribed interviews underwent a thematic analysis. Liminality was then used as an analytic lens, and was central to the theoretical framework that was constructed to further consider the experiences of hospital visitors. Findings Participants experienced the hospitalisation of their friend or family member and their subsequent role as hospital visitors as a suspension of their everyday lives. Liminality was a predominant and consistent theme of the interviews. Five main themes of liminality were identified in relation to hospital visitors' experiences: total obedience; loss of status; ambiguity and being betwixt and between; uncertainty; and structure and communitas. The findings suggested that nurses consider the area behind the nurses' station as 'back stage'; a place they can use for downtime, socialising and computer work. In contrast, hospital visitors perceive the nurses' station to be a continuation of the ward, where they expect professional 'front stage behaviour' from staff. Conclusion When hospital visitors, already discomfited in their liminal status, encounter nurses' 'back-stage behaviour' at the nurses' station, their feelings of marginalisation, exclusion and mistrust increase. This may lead them to judge that the nurses lack professionalism and care, which can lead them to

  5. Southeast regional experiment station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-05

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  6. 78 FR 35646 - Byron Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, and Braidwood Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Byron Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2, and Braidwood Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2 AGENCY: Nuclear..., Units 1 and 2 (Byron), and the Braidwood Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2 (Braidwood). Renewal of the... current operating licenses for Byron expire as follows: Unit 1 (NPF-37) on October 31, 2024, and Unit 2...

  7. Electrical Power Station Theory. A Course of Technical Information for Electrical Power Station Wireman Apprentices. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This third-year course for electrical power station wirer apprentices is a foundation for the study of all aspects of installation and maintenance of power station equipment. It also provides a good technical background as well as the general knowledge essential to power station operator trainees. The course is intended to be equivalent to a…

  8. 76 FR 40754 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station, Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ..., 50-270, And 50-287] Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3; Notice of Withdrawal of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY...

  9. Space Station GPS Multipath Analysis and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Y. C.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the multipath effects on the International Space Station (ISS) Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement accuracy, experimental and computational investigations were performed to estimate the carrier phase errors due to multipath. A new modeling approach is used to reduce the required computing time by separating the dynamic structure elements from the static structure elements in the multipath computations. This study confirmed that the multipath is a major error source to the ISS GPS performance and can possibly degrade the attitude determination solution. It is demonstrated that the GPS antenna carrier phase errors due to multipath can be analyzed using the electromagnetic modeling technique such as the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD).

  10. High temperature and pressure electrochemical test station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Allebrod, Frank; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    An electrochemical test station capable of operating at pressures up to 100 bars and temperatures up to 400 ◦C has been established. It enables control of the partial pressures and mass flow of O2, N2, H2, CO2, and H2O in a single or dual environment arrangement, measurements with highly corrosive......, to the electrochemical characterization of high temperature and pressure alkaline electrolysis cells and the use of pseudo-reference electrodes for the separation of each electrode contribution. A future perspective of various electrochemical processes and devices that can be developed with the use of the established...

  11. A three-station lightning detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    A three-station network is described which senses magnetic and electric fields of lightning. Directional and distance information derived from the data are used to redundantly determine lightning position. This redundancy is used to correct consistent propagation errors. A comparison is made of the relative accuracy of VLF direction finders with a newer method to determine distance to and location of lightning by the ratio of magnetic-to-electric field as observed at 400 Hz. It was found that VLF direction finders can determine lightning positions with only one-half the accuracy of the method that uses the ratio of magnetic-to-electric field.

  12. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  13. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  14. International Space Station -- Fluid Physics Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The optical bench for the Fluids Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  15. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  16. Research on station management in subway operation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiman

    2017-10-01

    The management of subway station is an important part of the safe operation of urban subway. In order to ensure the safety of subway operation, it is necessary to study the relevant factors that affect station management. In the protection of subway safety operations on the basis of improving the quality of service, to promote the sustained and healthy development of subway stations. This paper discusses the influencing factors of subway operation accident and station management, and analyzes the specific contents of station management security for subway operation, and develops effective suppression measures. It is desirable to improve the operational quality and safety factor for subway operations.

  17. Space Station Radiator Test Hosted by NASA Lewis at Plum Brook Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Randall C.

    1998-01-01

    In April of 1997, the NASA Lewis Research Center hosted the testing of the photovoltaic thermal radiator that is to be launched in 1999 as part of flight 4A of the International Space Station. The tests were conducted by Lockheed Martin Vought Systems of Dallas, who built the radiator. This radiator, and three more like it, will be used to cool the electronic system and power storage batteries for the space station's solar power system. Three of the four units will also be used early on to cool the service module.

  18. Space Station evolution study oxygen loop closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. G.; Delong, D.

    1993-01-01

    In the current Space Station Freedom (SSF) Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC), physical scars for closing the oxygen loop by the addition of oxygen generation and carbon dioxide reduction hardware are not included. During station restructuring, the capability for oxygen loop closure was deferred to the B-modules. As such, the ability to close the oxygen loop in the U.S. Laboratory module (LAB A) and the Habitation A module (HAB A) is contingent on the presence of the B modules. To base oxygen loop closure of SSF on the funding of the B-modules may not be desirable. Therefore, this study was requested to evaluate the necessary hooks and scars in the A-modules to facilitate closure of the oxygen loop at or subsequent to PMC. The study defines the scars for oxygen loop closure with impacts to cost, weight and volume and assesses the effects of byproduct venting. In addition, the recommended scenarios for closure with regard to topology and packaging are presented.

  19. Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.

    1978-12-01

    This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.

  20. Shippingport station decommissioning project ALARA Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crimi, F.P. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Properly planned and implemented ALARA programs help to maintain nuclear worker radiation exposures {open_quotes}As Low As Reasonably Achievable.{close_quotes}. This paper describes the ALARA program developed and implemented for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The elements required for a successful ALARA program are discussed along with examples of good ALARA practices. The Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS) was the first commercial nuclear power plant to be built in the United States. It was located 35 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, PA on the south bank of the Ohio river. The reactor plant achieved initial criticality in December 1959. During its 25-year life, it produced 7.5 billion kilowatts of electricity. The SAPS was shut down in October 1982 and was the first large-scale U.S. nuclear power plant to be totally decommissioned and the site released for unrestricted use. The Decommission Project was estimated to take 1,007 man-rem of radiation exposure and $.98.3 million to complete. Physical decommissioning commenced in September 1985 and was completed in September 1989. The actual man-rem of exposure was 155. The project was completed 6 months ahead of schedule at a cost of $91.3 million.