WorldWideScience

Sample records for vhf commercial television

  1. Psychological Strategies in Managing Television Commercial Efficacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    familiar versus novel), and information source (credible versus non-credible) as psychological strategies of managing television commercial efficacy. Subject's total score on recall of advert information, attitude to an advert, and intention to buy an ...

  2. Children's Perception of Television Commercial in Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    separating television adverts effect from influence of peers, parents, friends, and others. This constitutes one of the major problems confronting television advertising to ... Key Words: Perception, Television Commercial, Children Consumer

  3. Television Commercials: Symbols, Myths and Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feasley, Florence G.

    Television commercials convey to the audience through symbols, metaphors, and myths the feelings and emotions deeply rooted in our culture. While commercials on one level are concerned with a representation of the product or service, they are on another level a symbol of a larger meaning: love, family, romance, motherhood, or hero worship. A can…

  4. 78 FR 18527 - Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service... for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses, MM Docket No. 97- 234 et...

  5. Food and nutrition in Canadian "prime time" television commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostbye, T; Pomerleau, J; White, M; Coolich, M; McWhinney, J

    1993-01-01

    Television is, arguably, the most influential mass medium and "prime time" viewing attracts the largest audiences. To assess the type, number and nutritional content of foods advertised on TV, commercial breaks during "prime time" (7:00 to 11:00 p.m.) on five Canadian channels (CBC-English, CBC-French, CTV, CFPL, Much Music) were recorded and analyzed. A similar analysis of Saturday morning children's TV commercials was also performed. Commercials for foods and food products constituted between 24-35% of all commercials, the largest advertising output for any group of products. The combination of food presented in commercials reflected average current consumption patterns. Of special concern was the emphasis on low nutrition beverages, especially beer, as well as snacks and candy on Much Music. While further government intervention to restrict advertising practices may be an impractical option, there is scope for increasing the alternative promotion of healthy dietary choices.

  6. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the

  7. A Visual Analysis of Festive Television Commercials in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lean Mei

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia is a multiracial country with a diverse range of religions, leading to a broad range of religious festivals throughout the year. In recent years, corporate giants such as Petronas, Telekom Malaysia (TM), Tenaga and Astro have taken to airing television commercials (TVCs) that contain a local touch when greeting their customers. Perhaps…

  8. Television Commercial Preferences of Children Aged 3-6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsever Kilicgun, Muge

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: When children watch television, they are exposed to commercial advertisements whose general purpose is to make a positive impression on viewers about a commodity or service in order to drive the sales of that commodity or service. Due to their voiced and moving images, their setup and characters, and their being short and…

  9. A Selective Bibliography of Commercial Radio and Television Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losee, Robert M., Jr.

    A selective bibliography of materials published in the area of commercial radio and television engineering covers relevant areas as well as some described as peripheral including lighting, management, and microwave transmission theory. Reference materials are grouped alphabetically by case studies, circuits, current awareness services,…

  10. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    OpenAIRE

    van der Goot, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the effects of arousing commercials on liking and recall are moderated by age. An experiment (N = 66) indeed demonstrated that older adults showed more liking of calm commercials and better recall of the bra...

  11. Selling Violence: Television Commercials Targeted to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff

    Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…

  12. Do television food commercials target children in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Tobias; Wilcke, Ann-Christin

    2012-08-01

    To examine whether the German food industry directs commercials for unhealthy products to children and whether self-administered voluntary restrictions on the promotion of less healthy foods (the EU Pledge) are effective to mitigate this exposure. By analysing German data from television (TV) channels, advertised products were categorized and food products classified as core foods (healthy) and non-core foods (less healthy). Marketing techniques were documented. Food commercials were furthermore compared with commercials for toy products, and comparisons were made between advertising patterns before and after the EU Pledge. Data for ten German TV channels were recorded for two weekdays and two weekend days from 06.00 to 22.00 hours in 2007 and 2008. A second sample containing one weekday and one weekend day of three German TV channels was recorded again in 2010 for comparison in the same time period. In total 16 062 advertisements from 2007-2008 and 2657 from 2010 were analysed. In 2007-2008 19·9 % of TV commercials were for food products, of which 73 % were for non-core foods, 21 % for core foods and 6 % not classified. In three specified channels widely viewed by children and youth, 14·5 % of commercials were for food products, of which 88·2 % were for non-core foods. Commercials for unhealthy foods were broadcast significantly more often during children's peak viewing and in children's programmes, with a higher use of promotional characters and premiums than found in commercials for non-food products. In 2010, analysis of the three specified channels found that 18·5 % of commercials were for food products, of which 98·2 % were for non-core foods. While the use of premiums decreased compared with other commercials, the use of promotional characters in non-core food commercials increased, especially during children's programmes. Children in Germany are exposed to large numbers of food commercials. The exposure to commercials for non-core foods and the use of

  13. Stealth Advertising: The Commercialization of Television News Broadcasts in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy Chernov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-phase study deals with the phenomenon of “stealth advertising” in Canada. This concept refers to the encroachment of commercially tinted messages into broadcast news segments. Different theories of commercial speech were used as a theoretical framework. The study combined mixed methods, content analysis and in-depth interviews. The first phase concentrated on the frequency and actual time spent airing commercially influenced messages in television newscast segments. The sample consisted of eight randomly selected English-language markets across Canada including news stations affiliated with CBC, CTV and Global. Seventy-five newscasts were recorded and content-analyzed. The analysis demonstrated that private television stations used more explicit and aggressive stealth advertising than publicly owned ones. In subsequent interviews, the news directors and sales managers of some of these stations denied that they yield to outside commercial pressures but admitted they may include messages with commercial content if these have public interest value. In the second phase thirty-nine newscasts of a news station affiliated with Global were recorded and content-analyzed, showing high numbers of commercially influenced messages and corroborating previous research findings. Subsequent interviews showed some news decision-makers accept the inclusion of commercially tinted news segments, thus eroding the divide between editorial and commercial contents. This study is intended to contribute to the empirical basis for pursuing the question of corruption of news by surreptitious commercial content.

  14. An Empirical Analysis of Television Commercial Ratings in Alternative Competitive Environments Using Multinomial Logit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ALTAŞ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Watching the commercials depends on the choice of the viewer. Most of the television viewing takes place during “Prime-Time” unfortunately; many viewers opt to zap to other channels when commercials start. The television viewers’ demographic characteristics may indicate the likelihood of the zapping frequency. Analysis made by using Multinomial Logit Model indicates how effective the demographic variables are in the watching rate of the first minute of the television commercials.

  15. The Effects of Television Advertising on Children: Survey of Children's and Mother's Responses to Television Commercials. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.

    This research assesses reactions to Saturday morning television advertising by four to twelve year old children and their mothers and examines young viewers' naturalistic learning of facts, attitudes, and behavior from commercials. An omnibus questionnaire was administered to 738 children. Interviews were conducted with 301 randomly selected…

  16. Using Television Commercials as Video Illustrations: Examples from a Money and Banking Economics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Video clips are an excellent way to enhance lecture material. Television commercials are a source of video examples that should not be overlooked and they are readily available on the internet. They are familiar, short, self-contained, constantly being created, and often funny. This paper describes several examples of television commercials that…

  17. Public and Private Activity in Commercial TV Broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We consider a model of commercial television market, where private broadcasters coexist with a public television broadcaster. Assuming that the public TV station follows a policy of Ramsey pricing whereas the private stations are profit maximizers, we consider the equilibria in this market...

  18. Croatian fan scene: Football in television beer commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biti Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper attention is given to the mutual synergy between sports, commercials and alcohol. Therefore, we approach the research topic specified in the title with regards to the cultural history of football and beer, the functioning of the commercial industry within consumer culture and the structural practices of consuming football and beer trough which, at specific places and in special occasions, masculinity is performed. This research relies primarily on discourse analysis of football-beer commercials. For the purpose of enriching the insights gained by this method, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a market expert specialized in branding and an autoethnographic approach is present. The central part of the study is based on a corpus of advertisements that were broadcast on national television programs in the last ten years and that have emerged as part of a market designed advertising campaigns for major breweries during the World and European football championships. For the most of them, the common denominator is putting football fans in the forefront, whether in stadiums, bars, town squares or at home. Also, in most cases, they exclusively present male protagonists during their leisure time, united by their passion for football and beer, as well as their desire for relaxed socialization and fun. Apart from gender, the national context is essential, since these commercials usually visually, audibly and textually refer to the national football team of Croatia.

  19. Adspots and Green Eyes: 'National' Identity in Irish TV Commercials and Other 'Marginal' Areas of Irish Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Stephanie

    This paper discusses the relationship between national identity and the so-called "marginal" areas of Irish television, i.e., advertisements, continuity announcements, and promotional trailers. The following issues are considered: (1) how these "spaces" between television programs compare in terms of use and influence to…

  20. Food Commercials and Kids: Characterizing Advertising Content of Children's Online Television Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Penn, Jerrod; Staley, Daniel; Smith, Chaquenta; Saghaian, Sayed H.

    2011-01-01

    Internet marketing has gained attention as a new medium to advertise food products to children. This study examines the prevalence of food marketing during children's television programs that are available on the internet. While food is the largest product category advertised, commercials make up a smaller portion of episode time online compared to previous reports of television advertising.

  1. Sistema de adquisición de datos para la medición de parámetros radioeléctricos en antenas lineales en la banda de TV de VHF y UHF System of acquisition of information for measurement of radioelectric parameters in linear antennas in the band of VHF and UHF’s television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Celemín

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este proyecto desarrolla un sistema de adquisición y procesamiento de datos para la medición y ajuste de parámetros radioeléctricos de antenas lineales en las bandas de VHF y UHF. Como señal de prueba se utilizan algunas de las señales de televisión que se encuentran en el espectro radioeléctrico, provenientes de los transmisores que radian señales de canales nacionales. El receptor implementado incluye un sintonizador comercial de televisión que toma como muestra la señal portadora de video. Esta señal es amplificada, filtrada, almacenada y acondicionada, para ser leída por el puerto serial de un computador personal y procesada empleando un programa en Visual Basic, con una interfaz gráfica que permite una interacción amigable con el usuario. Desde acá se interactúa con un microcontrolador que controla el mecanismo de posicionamiento de la antena receptora por medio de una estructura electromecánica, que le permite ejecutar movimientos en dos grados de libertad: en azimut y en elevación. Con esto se logra un sistema capaz de determinar automáticamente el apuntamiento óptimo de la antena de acuerdo al máximo nivel de recepción de señal. Así mismo, se determinan parámetros propios de la antena tales como: el patrón de radiación (tanto en el plano horizontal como vertical, la ganancia directiva de la antena, la ganancia en cada uno de los puntos que conforman el plano principal, y otros parámetros de interés para el análisis de las características reales de antenas lineales.This project develops a data acquisition and processing system for measuring and adjusting lineal-antenna radioelectric parameters in VHF and UHF. Television signals are used as test signal. They can be found in radio electric spectrum, as they come from commercial transmitters that broadcast signals of national channels. The achieved receptor includes a television commercial tuner for obtaining video signal. Later, this signal is conditioning to

  2. Television commercial violence during nonviolent programming: the 1998 major league baseball playoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C R

    2000-10-01

    To identify the frequency of violent commercials during the major league baseball playoffs in 1998 and to compare it with the 1996 playoffs. All 4 World Series games televised on the Fox Television Network (Fox), all 6 National League Championship Series (NLCS) televised by Fox, and 5 of 6 American League Championship Series (ALCS) playoff games televised by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) were videotaped in October 1998. The results were compared with a similar study that analyzed the 1996 playoffs. Forty-four commercials (11.0 per game) that included violent interactions were noted during the World Series, 53 violent commercials (8.8 per game) during the NLCS, and 40 (8.0 per game) during the ALCS for a total of 137. Of these 137 violent commercials, 78 contained at least 1 violent act, 126 contained at least 1 violent threat, and 12 contained evidence of at least 1 violent consequence. One hundred five of the 137 violent commercials (76.6%) were television promotions and 23 (16.8%) were for big-screen movie promotions. Twenty-three of 35 big-screen movie promotions (65.7%) were violent. Ten of the 137 violent commercials (7.3%) contained obvious blood, of which 9 were televised by NBC. There were, however, an additional 20 commercials televised by Fox that contained visible blood if the videotape was slowed or paused. Sixty-three of the 137 violent commercials (46.0%) used fire and explosions, of which 53 were televised by Fox and 10 by NBC. Guns were involved in 86 of 137 violent commercials (62.8%), with Fox accounting for 64 (6.4 per game) and NBC accounting for 22 (4.4 per game). Knives were used in 1 violent commercial on both Fox and NBC. Comparisons that can be made to 1996 include the following: 1) violent commercials during the World Series (both televised by Fox) increased from 10.1 to 11.0 per game; and 2) violent commercials during the ALCS (both televised by NBC) increased from 6.0 to 8.0 per game. Commercials during the 1998 major league

  3. Violence in television commercials during nonviolent programming. The 1996 Major League Baseball playoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C

    1997-10-01

    To identify the frequency of violent television commercials aired during major league baseball playoffs, traditionally thought to be a family-oriented viewing time. All 6 World Series games televised on the Fox Television Network (Fox), all 5 American League Championship Series playoff games televised by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and 4 first-round playoff games televised by ESPN Sports Television Network (ESPN) were videotaped in October 1996. During the 15 televised games reviewed, 104 (6.8%) of the 1528 commercials contained violent content. Sixty-one commercials (10 per game) that included violent interactions were noted during the World Series, 30 (6 per game) during the American League Championship Series, and 13 (3 per game) during the 4 first-round playoff games for a total of 104. In these 104 violent commercials, 69 contained at least 1 violent act, 90 contained at least 1 violent threat, and 27 contained evidence of at least 1 violent consequence. Seventy (67.3%) of the violent commercials were promotions for television programs, 7 (6.7%) were cable television program advertisements, and 20 (19.2%) were big-screen movie promotions. Twenty (71.4%) of 28 big-screen movie promotions were violent. Twenty-two (21.2%) of the 104 violent commercials and 7 "nonviolent" commercials contained blood or other graphic content, all of which were televised during the Fox presentation of the World Series. Fox also accounted for all 24 violent commercials that used a knife. Guns were involved in 25 violent commercials on NBC (5.0 per game), in 20 on Fox (3.33 per game), and in 7 on ESPN (1.75 per game). Overt violent content in commercials during the 1996 major league playoffs was common and consisted mainly of promotions for television programs and big-screen movies. It is counterintuitive to find such commercials in nonviolent programming and makes it difficult for parents to avoid exposing their children to this form of violence.

  4. Broadcasts for a billion: the growth of commercial television in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, C

    1987-01-01

    At present, Chinese television reaches 35% of the population (80-90% in urban areas) and is used by the government as a source of education and information. In recognition of the potential market represented by 1.1 billions consumers, Western advertisers have commissioned elaborate market research studies. Drama, sports, news, and movies are consistently identified as the favorite type of programming among Chinese television viewers. About 75% of Beijing adults watch television daily, making the medium both an important target for advertising campaigns and a way for Westerners to influence Chinese business and government leaders. Western advertisers have tended to concentrate their investments in the more urban, affluent regions where products have the greatest likelihood of being sold. There has been a recent trend, however, toward industrial commercials, with British and French companies buying television time to promote their image as partners in China's modernization. Key to the future of commercial advertising on Chinese Television. In many provinces, local television stations have developed a unique character and portray different sociocultural values than the national channel. Outside advertisers have sometimes experienced problems with local networks that substitute local advertising without informing the network. To correct this situation, the government is enacting pro-sponsor regulations that forbid the preemption of the national channel and its advertisements. At the same time, efforts are being made to improve relationships with local television stations by either paying them a fee or airing local commercials on the national network.

  5. Women and New Information Technologies in the Public Broadcasting Domain: Television Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Lequn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the current thinking about the relationship between women and information technology and gender roles in television commercials, and then explains how the gender roles of women in television commercials reflect feminist theories. Suggestions are provided to address the problems mentioned. It concludes that information technology is a way of advocating for and consolidating masculinity. In addition, it builds female stereotypes and expands the distinction between men and women.

  6. Edible TV: Your Child and Food Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B., Comp.; Engle, Pamela C., Comp.

    This document reports on the impact of television food commercials on children under 12, focusing specifically on how commercials influence children's food preferences and concepts, how they affect children's knowledge of nutrition, and how they contribute to obesity. Part I is a compilation of short excerpts from relevant testimony before the…

  7. Application of narrow-band television to industrial and commercial communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrey, B. C., Jr.; Southworth, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The development of narrow-band systems for use in space systems is presented. Applications of the technology to future spacecraft requirements are discussed along with narrow-band television's influence in stimulating development within the industry. The transferral of the technology into industrial and commercial communications is described. Major areas included are: (1) medicine; (2) education; (3) remote sensing for traffic control; and (5) weather observation. Applications in data processing, image enhancement, and information retrieval are provided by the combination of the TV camera and the computer.

  8. Cross-media communication in advertising: exploring multimodal connections between television commercials and websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to advance current understandings of cross-media communication in advertising. The study is based on a sample of 80 television commercials and their announced websites, and the article is inspired by recent studies of cross-media advertising effectiveness as well...... as semiotic perspectives on multimodal analysis. The authors present three dimensions to be considered when examining multimodal connections between television commercials and websites: announcements, participants and address strategy. These dimensions are brought together in an analytical framework that can...... serve as inspiration for further research on cross-media communication in advertising and possibly in other types of communication....

  9. Classification analysis of emotional appeals on sample Czech television commercials

    OpenAIRE

    Káčerková, Radka

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The work deals with the possibilities of using emotional appeals in advertising. The main goal was classification and definition of emotions and emotional appeals with regard to marketing. The work focused on emotional appeals in Czech TV adverts and found out the way how emotional appeals are used in these adverts. Research question used in this work concerned the problem of which emmotional appeals are in adverts the most. Research sample consisting of 150 TV adverts was divided i...

  10. Embedded anti-alcohol messages on commercial television: what teenagers perceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, D L

    1996-11-01

    Educators and producers should take advantage of television's potential for reaching audiences with health-related messages. This paper investigates adolescents' perceptions of an anti-alcohol message embedded in commercial television programming. Over 900 8th and 9th graders from New York suburbs completed surveys measuring interest, knowledge, and credibility of either an episode of The Cosby Show or Family Matters. Both episodes had an anti-alcohol message embedded within their plots. Overall, students gave high rates of interest and credibility and received high scores for knowledge for both episodes. Girls and African-American students had higher scores, on average, for interest and credibility. White students had the highest knowledge scores. Students with different television viewing experiences did not differ in their perceptions of the episodes; however, students who had previously seen the episodes gave higher levels of interest and credibility. These data indicate that youngsters are receptive to antialcohol messages within commercial television episodes. The results also suggest that similarities and differences between a viewer and a televised character relate to differences in perception. However, much more research should be done in order to generalize these findings to other audiences, episodes, programs, and health-related messages.

  11. TV Commercials' Second Life: Commercials as Remembrance Culture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biernawska, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this article is to look at the cultural indicators of television in the Netherlands from the perspective of feature that is essential to commercial TV - audiovisual advertisements. TV advertisements have been continuously gaining recognition as vital part of shared,

  12. [Content analysis of television commercials for snacks and of snack packaging targeted at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Rie

    2010-06-01

    To describe the marketing of snacks and beverages to children in television (TV) commercials and on food packages. Study 1: For 5 weeks from April 1 to May 7, 2007, TV commercials were recorded from one of five channels each week (Nihon, TBS, Fuji, Asahi, and Tokyo). Study 2: The energy values of the products advertised in the TV commercials analyzed in Study 1 were determined, along with whether marketing information (e.g., presents, campaigns, and URLs) was included on the packages. The data were shown in frequency tables, and a chi2 test was conducted to examine the relationship between the energy values of the products (under or over 200 kcal) and descriptions concerning consumption of the products presented in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others). Five hours and 18 minutes of food commercials and 2 hours and 57 minutes of snack commercials were obtained from the 105 hours of recordings. Of the food commercials, 55.7% were for snacks. Commercials that were repeated or that targeted adults were excluded, leaving 197 commercials for analysis. There were many beverage commercials, most often associating products with mood, such as having fun and good times. No relationship between the energy value of the products (under or over 200 kcal), and the description of consuming the product in the TV commercials (none, eating alone and eating with others) was found (chi2 (2) = 2.2, P = 0.33). A scene showing someone eating alone was the most common depiction for products with energy levels both under and over 200 kcal. The analysis of 164 snack packages showed that most gave URLs. Although the present study had several limitations, such as the relatively short research period, as the first to describe TV commercials for snacks and beverages in Japan it provides new insights. It is now necessary to understand the current state of commercials in other media, and to consider the content of nutrition education for the future, including media literacy

  13. Embarrassing Age Spots or Just Plain Ugly? Physical Attractiveness Stereotyping as an Instrument of Sexism on American Television Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris; Harrison, Sheila K.

    1985-01-01

    Study examines frequency of attractiveness-based messages on 4,294 network television commercials. Attractiveness statements appear to be associated more with food and drink and personal care ads and with female performers and male voice-overs. Implications of an association of women and attractiveness on television are explored. (Author/SA)

  14. The development of children's eating habits: the role of television commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, D B; McLellarn, R W; Fox, D T

    1982-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the long-term consumption of the typical high-sugar, high-calorie American diet may lead to a variety of health problems. Since the majority of food ads on television are for high-sugar, high-calorie types of foods, researchers have begun investigating the effects of these commercials. A number of self-report, survey, and correlational studies have found that children watch on the average 28 hours of TV a week, see over 11,000 low-nutrition "junk" food ads a year on TV, believe (at the younger ages) that commercials tell the truth, recall the ads, and often request in stores foods that are highly advertised. A series of behavioral/experimental studies conducted at the University of Montana are reported in some detail. The initial stage of the research focused upon the development of a methodology for assessing the impact of commercials upon the actual amounts of foods consumed. Next, a series of studies investigating the effects of low-nutrition, pro-nutrition, and nonfood commercials upon the eating behaviors of children was begun. The results, to date, suggest low-nutrition ads are most effective in increasing total caloric consumption. Additionally, low-nutrition ads seem to affect boys more than girls and are not mediated by cognitive development. Finally, pro-nutrition ads have so far proven ineffective in increasing consumption of pro-nutrition foods. Some of the implications of applying the growing body of empirical literature on children's television to social policy issues are also discussed.

  15. The Effects of Television Advertising on Children. Report No. 6: Survey of Pre-Adolescent's Responses to Television Commercials. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.

    This report, the last in a series of six reports on television advertising and children, describes patterns of advertising exposure and evaluation in the naturalistic setting and examines the role of commercials in late childhood socialization. An omnibus questionnaire was administered to 775 fourth through seventh grade students in urban,…

  16. Optimal timing of TV commercials: symmetrical model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2002, č. 195 (2002), s. 1-27 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : TV commercials * behavior * TV viewer Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. Designing and evaluating a persuasive child restraint television commercial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Ho, Bonnie; Lennon, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high rates of child restraint inappropriate use and misuse and faults in the installation of restraints have suggested a crucial need for public education messages to raise parental awareness of the need to use restraints correctly. This project involved the devising and pilot testing of message concepts, filming of a television advertisement (the TVC), and the evaluation of the TVC. This article focuses specifically upon the evaluation of the TVC. The development and evaluation of the TVC were guided by an extended theory of planned behavior that included the standard constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as well as the additional constructs of group norms and descriptive norms. The study also explored the extent to which parents with low and high intentions to self-check restraints differed on salient beliefs regarding the behavior. An online survey of parents (N = 384) was conducted where parents were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 161), and therefore viewed the advertisement within the survey, or the control group (n = 223), and therefore did not view the advertisement. Following a one-off exposure to the TVC, the results indicated that, although not a significant difference, parents in the intervention group reported stronger intentions (M = 4.43, SD = 0.74) to self-check restraints than parents in the control group (M = 4.18, SD = 0.86). In addition, parents in the intervention group (M = 4.59, SD = 0.47) reported significantly higher levels of perceived behavioral control than parents in the control group (M = 4.40, SD = 0.73). The regression results revealed that, for parents in the intervention group, attitudes and group norms were significant predictors of parental intentions to self-check their child restraint. Finally, the exploratory analyses of parental beliefs suggested that those parents with low intentions to self-check child restraints were significantly more likely than

  18. The impact of television commercials on food preferences of preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective is to determine if fruit and vegetable (FV) commercials have an impact on preschool children's preferences for specific FV. A year of extensive formative assessment was conducted to develop two 30-second commercials; Judy Fruity promoted apples and bananas and Reggie Veggie promoted br...

  19. The effect of colour in television commercials on the comprehension and memory of the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Pretorius

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available From a perceptual point of view it is not clear whether, and under what conditions, the presence of colour in television commercials aids the processing of information. In this study it was argued that the way in which colour is used, would have an effect on the comprehension and memory of children regarding television commercials. It was found that colour, when used in a "concrete" fashion, aids the comprehension process. The results of the study also show that the "concrete" as well as the "symbolic" use of colour have a positive effect on the memory of children for the content of television commercials. Opsomming Vanuit 'n perseptuele benadering is dit nie duidelik of, en onder watter omstandighede, die teenwoordigheid van kleur in televisie advertensies die prosessering van inligting positief bei'nvloed nie. In hierdie studie is daar van die standpunt uitgegaan dat die wyse van kleurgebruik 'n effek sal he op die begrip en geheue van kinders ten aansien van televisie advertensies. Daar is gevind dat kleur, wat op 'n "konkrete" manier gebruik word, die begripsproses bevorder. Die resultate van die studie toon ook dat sowel die "konkrete" as "simboliese" gebruik van kleur 'n positiewe effek op die geheue van kinders ten opsigte van televisie advertensie inhoud het.

  20. The 15-Second Television Commercial: A Study of Executive Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, Roberta R.

    An exploratory study examined the perceptions of creative directors and broadcast production managers in advertising agencies regarding the perceived effects of the 15-second commercial upon creative formats and production techniques. A sample of 600 randomly selected advertising executives and managers were surveyed using a 55-item mailed…

  1. Unsafe and violent behavior in commercials aired during televised major sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburro, Robert F; Gordon, Patricia L; D'Apolito, James P; Howard, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of death in children, and media exposure seems to increase children's risk-taking behavior. Televised sports are commonly viewed by children. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of commercials that depict violence or other unsafe behavior during major televised sporting events that are aired before 9:00 pm. We obtained a list of the 50 sports programs that were most highly rated by Nielsen Media Research and that were televised between September 1, 2001, and September 1, 2002. These 50 programs included Winter Olympics events (n = 15), National Football League (NFL) regular season games (n = 14), NFL playoff games (n = 10), Major League Baseball World Series and playoff games (n = 7), the NFL Super Bowl (n = 1), the National Basketball Association Western Conference Final Game (n = 1), the College Football Rose Bowl (n = 1), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Basketball Championship game (n = 1). Two other events were reviewed as well: the final round of the Masters Golf Championship, because it was the only sporting event rated in the top 50 of the previous year that was not represented by a similar sporting event in the study year, and the Daytona 500 National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing race, because it was the only event rated among the top 75 of the study year that was not represented by a similar event (ie, there were no other golfing or auto racing events reviewed). These events were included because different sporting events may attract different viewers and different advertisements; thus, their inclusion provides a more comprehensive evaluation of the topic. For sporting events with >3 programs in the top 50 (NFL regular season games, NFL playoff games, Winter Olympic events, and Major League Baseball World Series), representative samples of events were assessed. Surrogate events were analyzed for programs that were aired after 9:00 PM (Eastern Time) to control for the reduced

  2. Persuasive food marketing to children: use of cartoons and competitions in Australian commercial television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria

    2008-12-01

    While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.

  3. Reactivity to television food commercials in overweight and lean adults: Physiological, cognitive and behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Burgon, Rachel H; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2017-08-01

    Recent evidence indicates that acute exposure to food advertising increases food intake. However, little research to date has explored the potential mechanisms underpinning this, such as the extent to which food commercials elicit conditioned physiological responses (e.g. increased salivation). The aim of the current study was to examine salivary, cognitive and consumptive responses to televised food commercials in overweight (N=26) and lean (N=29) adult females. Participants attended two laboratory sessions in a counterbalanced order; in one session they viewed a television show with embedded commercials for unhealthy foods, and in the other session they viewed the same show with non-food commercials. In both conditions, following viewing participants were exposed to an in vivo food cue (freshly cooked pizza) which they were then invited to eat ad libitum. Salivation was measured at baseline, during commercial exposure, and during in vivo exposure. Participants also self-reported components of appetite on visual analogue scales and completed a word stem task. Results indicated little evidence of increased salivary reactivity to the food commercials. In both conditions, lean participants showed reliable salivary responses to the in vivo food cue. In contrast, overweight participants only showed increased salivation to the in vivo cue in the food commercials condition. Food commercial exposure did not increase the number of food-related cognitions or amount of food consumed, but did drive a greater increase in desire to eat prior to pizza consumption than exposure to the control commercials. Exposure to food advertising primes eating-related motivations, and while it may not be associated with increased intake or salivation per se, non-food commercials may attenuate subsequent physiological responses to actual food cues in overweight individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 74719 - Auction of VHF Commercial Television Station Construction Permits Scheduled for February 15, 2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... attributable interest in the applicant, in other media of mass communications are considered when determining... in media of mass communications, may cause diminishment or loss of the bidding credit, and must be... Credit. A medium of mass communications is defined in 47 CFR 73.5008(b). Full service noncommercial...

  5. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-04-24

    In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P < 0.05). Neural estimation of happiness results revealed a significant difference between the high-ranked and the low-ranked commercials in happiness index (P < 0.01). The order of rankings based on happiness and

  6. Commercial Television Exposure, Fast Food Toy Collecting, and Family Visits to Fast Food Restaurants among Families Living in Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Bernhardt, Amy M; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2016-01-01

    To assess the associations between children's exposure to television (TV) networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. One hundred parents of children 3-7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's TV viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (aOR 2.84 for each 1-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, P restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Study of Information Content in the U.S. Television Commercials: Has It Become Less Informative but More Creative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Daniel; Supaporn, Potibut

    A study investigated the trend of current U.S. television commercial informativeness by comparing the results with Alan Resnik and Bruce Stern's previous benchmark study conducted in 1977. A systematic random sampling procedure was used to select viewing dates and times of commercials from the three national networks. Ultimately, a total of 550…

  8. About Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin

    The entire broadcast television industry is the subject of this book. An attempt is made to present history, theory, and anecdotes about television programing, television advertising, television and politics, and network news, focusing all the while on American television, but with consideration given to alternative structures and methods.…

  9. The Influence of Televised Food Commercials on Children's Food Choices: Evidence from Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, Timothy R; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    To investigate how food commercials influence children's food choices. Twenty-three children ages 8-14 years provided taste and health ratings for 60 food items. Subsequently, these children were scanned with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while making food choices (ie, "eat" or "not eat") after watching food and nonfood television commercials. Our results show that watching food commercials changes the way children consider the importance of taste when making food choices. Children did not use health values for their food choices, indicating children's decisions were largely driven by hedonic, immediate rewards (ie, "tastiness"); however, children placed significantly more importance on taste after watching food commercials compared with nonfood commercials. This change was accompanied by faster decision times during food commercial trials. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a reward valuation brain region, showed increased activity during food choices after watching food commercials compared with after watching nonfood commercials. Overall, our results suggest watching food commercials before making food choices may bias children's decisions based solely on taste, and that food marketing may systematically alter the psychological and neurobiologic mechanisms of children's food decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of TV commercials using neurophysiological responses

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to market...

  11. The Effects of Emotion on Episodic Memory for TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Esther; Friestad, Marian

    Based on the associational nature of memory, the distinction between episodic and semantic memory, and the notion of memory strength, a model was developed of the role of emotion in the memory of television commercials. The model generated the following hypotheses: (1) emotional commercials will more likely be recalled than nonemotional…

  12. The "Cantankerous Old People" Next Door : How Old Age Is Represented in Serbian Television Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milosavljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a three-month monitoring of Serbian television commercials which aimed to study the way elderly people are represented in the media. Elderly people appear in only six commercials, more often as a functional part of a series than as protagonists. Yet in spite of the small number of commercials in which they appear, it is easy to identify the stereotypes which are translated from a social paradigm into the sphere of the media. The stereotypes on which commercials are based belong for the most part to the corpus of negative stereotypes of elderly people as hopelessly behind the times, feeble, lonely, irritating, cantankerous, etc. Some positive stereotypes are also evident, but they are mostly limited to a perception of elderly people as kindly givers of useful advice. It is interesting to note that the "cantankerous people next door" are as a rule anonymous elderly people, as are those "lost in time and space", who are mostly elderly women. In contrast, those who let their careers and images be associated with a certain product, in order to pass on their great experience and knowledge, are as a rule famous persons. Just as it is possible to make a distinction between commercials depending on whether or not the products advertised are targeted at the elderly – which they rarely are – and whether elderly people appear in leading or supporting roles, in order to make viewers laugh or annoy them, so it is possible to distinguish between the "real-life principle", which involves the translation of the society’s dominant attitudes into commercials, and "commercial reality", which either makes old age invisible or "masks" it so that it is pleasant to the eye. The reason that old people are absent from television commercials or are mostly represented in a negative light is to be found in the low purchasing power of this age group, but also in the fact that advertising in Serbia developed practically overnight, and

  13. Weekend Commercial Children's Television, 1975. A Study of Programming and Advertising to Children on Five Boston Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcus, F. Earle

    Some 25-1/2 hours of Boston commercial television for children were monitored on a Saturday and Sunday in April 1975. The monitoring covered three network affiliated stations and two independent UHF stations. Monitoring, coding, and editing provided much statistical data, which was analyzed to yield findings in the areas of distribution of…

  14. A Study in Critical Listening Using Eight to Ten Year Olds in an Analysis of Commercial Propaganda Emanating from Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jimmie Ellis

    Selected eight to ten year old Maryland children were used in this study measuring the effect of lessons in becoming aware of propaganda employed by commercial advertisers in television programs. Sixteen 45-minute lessons directed to the propaganda techniques of Band Wagon, Card Stacking, Glittering Generalities, Name Calling, Plain Folks,…

  15. 1979 Nielsen Report on Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen (A.C.) Co., Chicago, IL.

    The Nielsen data on commercial television viewing and programming contained in this report are estimates of the audiences and other characteristics of television usage as derived from Nielsen Television Index and Nielsen Station Index measurements. Data and brief discussions are provided on the number of commercial and public stations; number of…

  16. A portrait of food and drink in commercial TV series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Bradley S; Rosaen, Sarah F; Worrell, Tracy R; Salmon, Charles T; Volkman, Julie E

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the content and presentation of food and drink on fictional, commercial television. It provides the first comparison of food and drink consumption across different television program genres designated for different age groups. Data originated with a random sample of 50 taped episodes of children's shows, 50 episodes of "tween" programs (shows targeted for 9- to 14-year-olds), 40 episodes of afternoon soaps, and 50 episodes of prime time shows. The choice of TV series was based solely on the strength of Nielsen audience ratings. The study coded the foods for nutritional content and the drinks for alcoholic/nonalcoholic content, how they were used, and in what context. Findings indicate that foods were more commonly offered and consumed on children's shows, and that problematic foods (defined as oils, solid fats, and foods with added sugars) were significantly more prevalent in youth-oriented shows than in adult-oriented shows. Although there was only a negligible presence of alcohol on children's shows, the average hourly use of alcohol on the tween shows matched that of the adult programs; therefore, alcohol was as common in the shows directed at young audiences as in shows for adults. Negative outcomes were largely absent from food and drink behaviors on these TV series.

  17. Appraising Gender Role Portrayals in TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Richard H.; Langefeld, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    Examines gender role orientations of characters in prime time television advertisements through the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) completed by 426 college students (43.2% females). Results confirm the appropriateness of the scale for self- and person-perception ratings. Uses of the BSRI in gender role research are discussed. (SLD)

  18. ROMANIAN CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS TV COMMERCIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca BĂBUŢ (COMIATI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As advertisements are broadcast on a daily basis, Romanian consumers are subject to an intensive media bombardment designed to influence them, trigger certain emotions, and make them develop an attitude to a particular brand or product. When designing the advertisement, great care must be taken so that it conveys positive feelings and emotions and fosters favourable attitudes to a brand. The object of the current research is to determine how consumers are able to assess the advertisement phenomenon in general and the TV commercials in particular. Based on a representative sample of 550 Romanian consumers from the urban population, the study highlights the Romanian consumers’ attitude to various types of advertisements, endorsers and creative strategies used to design and execute the advertisements. The managerial as well as the scientific implications are considered by means of the correlations made according to the respondents’ social and demographic characteristics.

  19. Some Structural Characteristics of Music Television Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…

  20. Analisis interferensi T-DAB dan TV Analog pada pita Very High Frequency (VHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasmad Ariansyah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kehadiran teknologi digital telah membawa perubahan di dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan, tak terkecuali di dunia penyiaran. Digitalisasi dibidang penyiaran diyakini dapat memberikan manfaat dalam hal efisiensi spektrum frekuensi radio. Berkaitan dengan penyiaran radio, Menteri  Komunikasi  dan  Informatika telah menetapkan DAB family sebagai standard penyiaran radio digital di Indonesia. Kajian dilakukan untuk mendapatkan jarak minimum yang diperlukan  antara sistem T-DAB dan TV analog sebagai solusi terhadap kemungkinan interferensi. Analisis dilakukan dengan bantuan SEAMCAT. Berdasarkan hasil analisis disimpulkan bahwa  kanal  A  T-DAB  merupakan  kanal yang paling rentan terhadap interferensi; Untuk mencapai probabilitas interferensi maksimum 5%, separasi geograpis minimum antara cakupan terluar TV analog kanal n dan transmitter terluar pada jaringan SFN T-DAB untuk kanal (n- 1D, nA, nB, nC berturut-turut adalah 220 Km, 290 Km, 145 Km dan  40  Km.  Sedangkan  untuk  kanal  nD  dan  (n+1A  dapat dioperasikan tanpa separasi geograpis dengan TV analog.

  1. Gender Constancy and the Effects of Sex-typed Televised Toy Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Diane N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents a cognitive-developmental analysis of the effects of televised, sex-stereotypic information on children's behavior and attitudes towards toy play. Subjects were 100 children, ages four to six divided into groups exhibiting high and low gender-constancy. (Author/CM)

  2. Attitude and Perception of Young Audience towards Patriotism in Independence Day TV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlina Jaafar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively, this study intends to identify the attitude and perception of young audiences in Malaysia towards Independence day TV commercials from Petronas, and Maxis Berhad in celebrating the Independence Day. Firstly, respondents were exposed to three TV commercials with the same theme and purpose – to represent the spirit of patriotism. Later, these respondents were given a set of questionnaire to be filled. Data were collected using Purposive Sampling and analyzed with statistical analysis (SPSS using Descriptive analysis represented by using the value of percentages, X, and SD. Findings of this study revealed that respondents have negative attitudes towards independence day, but positive attitudes towards the patriotism showed in all TV commercials. They also showed positive perception on independence day television commercials, as high number of respondents have agreed that the concept, theme and art direction of television commercial about love and live in unity without racism will be the style of benchmark for the future style of direction towards producing television commercial for Independence Day and are considered vital to instill patriotism towards the nation.

  3. Soft x-ray imaging by a commercial solid-state television camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, I.; Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Yano, M.

    1987-01-01

    A commerical, solid-state television camera has been used to record images of soft x radiation (0.8--12 keV). The performance of the camera is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated compared with an x-ray photographic film (Kodak direct exposure film). In the application, the camera has been used to provide image patterns of x rays from laser-produced plasmas. It is demonstrated that the camera has several advantages over x-ray photographic film

  4. Action for Children's Television; The First National Symposium on the Effect on Children of Television Programming and Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarson, Evelyn, Comp.

    Action for Children's Television (ACT) was organized to attempt to change the nature of television (TV) for children--to persuade TV networks that children are not miniature consumers, to encourage appropriate programming for children, and to eliminate commercialism. This report of the First National Symposium of ACT presents papers of…

  5. Why Television Advertising Is Deceptive and Unfair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Rose K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…

  6. Beyond-brand effect of television (TV) food advertisements/commercials on caloric intake and food choice of 5-7-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M

    2007-07-01

    Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.

  7. Without Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keri A. Schwab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this follow-up study was to learn more about the leisure choices, hobbies, and lifestyles of young adults who had grown up without a television. Study participants responded to an online questionnaire that asked about their health, physical activity habits, hobbies, and level of current television viewing. A mixed methods approach to gathering and analyzing data revealed a picture of young adults who live active lives, watch little television, and appear to have a strong sense of personal agency to direct their lives. Themes of agency, including forethought and intentionality, and self-regulation were evident in the qualitative responses, as well as creation and choosing challenging hobbies or activities. This study provided much information for future research to examine the influence of television on youth development, specifically agency, challenge and life-long habits.

  8. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend... television, TV translator, and Class A television station DTV licensees''). The Commission has also revised...

  9. The diffusion of television in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Doshi, J K; Rogers, E M; Rahman, S A

    1988-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1987, the number of television sets increased by 10 times in India. Television now reaches an audience of about 800 million, 10% of the population. 3 main reasons account for the rapid diffusion of television in India: the role of communication satellites in expanding access to television signals, the introduction and popularity of soap operas, and the increasing revenues to the national television system (Doordarshan) from commercial advertising. Hum Log, the 1st soap opera on the national network, was patterned after pro-development soap operas in Mexico and addresses social issues such as family communication, women's status, small family size, national integration, dowry, and alcoholism. The main lesson from the Hum Log experience was that indigenous soap operas can attract large audiences and substantial profits. A 1987 household survey indicated that television ownership is more common in urban areas (88% of households) than rural areas (52%) and among households with incomes above RS 1500 (75% of television owners). The commercialization of Indian television has precipitated a policy debate about television's role. Supporters of further expansion of television services cite popular will, the potential to use this medium for educational development, high advertising incomes, the ability of satellite television to penetrate rural areas, and high government expenditures for television broadcasting. On the other hand, detractors of the commercialization policy argue that television promotes consumerism, widens the gap between the urban elite and the rural poor, disregards regional sociocultural norms, and diverts funding from development programs in areas such as health and education.

  10. TV Commercials as Achievement Scripts for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, F. L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Women who viewed four current, sex-stereotyped commercials emphasized homemaking over other achievement concerns in imagining their lives 10 years hence. Women who saw same commercials with sex roles reversed put significantly greater emphasis on their own achievement aspirations. Their more equal weighting of home and career matched men's. (CMG)

  11. Consumer Neuroscience: the traditional and VR TV Commercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Leanza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s consumer is not easily influenced by classic marketing strategies. He looks for new stimuli and wants to be surprised and captivated by new ploys. This Consumer Neuroscience research aims to compare the cognitive, emotive and preference consumers’ response to traditional and Virtual Reality TV commercials. Brain oscillations (delta, theta, alpha, beta and physiological indexes (SCL - Skin Conductance Level were monitored, when subject (N=seventeen observed four traditional TV commercials and four Virtual Reality commercials in randomized order. During the vision of Virtual Reality commercials, the participants were absorbed into the advertisement and interacted with it thanks to the “Oculus Rift”. Subjects were also asked to explicitly evaluate each commercial and to express their preference on them. The intention is to understand the new marketing strategies efficacy and how these impact on consumer at implicit (brain oscillations and physiological indexes and explicit (subject evaluation level.

  12. The Selling of Cable Television 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cable Television Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The 1972 Cable Television Marketing Workshop reviewed in depth a wide variety of marketing and public relations techniques as they pertain to cable television. The workshop was attended by representatives of commercial television systems throughout the United States; it was intended to disseminate the sales and marketing experience of those…

  13. Filling a missing link: the influence of portrayals of older characters in television commercials on the memory performance of older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Harink, Karolien; van Selm, Martine; Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick

    2010-01-01

    The portrayal of older characters in television commercials has over time become more varied and positive. This study examines how different portrayals of older characters relate to self-stereotyping, a process through which older individuals apply their beliefs about older people in general to

  14. Children's Television Commercials Containing Nutritional Information: When Do They Help? When Do They Hinder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rhonda P.; And Others

    This study assessed the accuracy of judgments of 100 school-age children (5-11 years of age) as to the presence of real fruit content in three sets of cereals and beverages advertised on TV: real fruit, nonfruit, and artificially flavored products. In the baseline session accuracy increased with age, but children at each age misjudged the real…

  15. Television Literacy: Amplifying the Cognitive Level Effects of Television's Prosocial Fare through Curriculum Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelman, Robert; Courtright, John

    1983-01-01

    An in-school mediation strategy focused on teaching children to watch television critically and to recognize the prosocial content of commercial television programs. Changes in children's attitudes and understanding that resulted from the strategy are discussed. (PP)

  16. Why Have the “Cantankerous Old People” Left the Neighborhood? The Representation of Old Age in Serbian Television Commercials – A Repeated Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milosavljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an attempt to examine to what extent the way in which older members of society are represented in Serbian television commercials has changed in comparison to representations which were present in commercials during the three months in 2009 (Milosavljevic 2010a when the first study was conducted. As was the case in the first study, the focus is on dominant societal attitudes toward old people and old age which were utilized in making the television commercials in question. This was accomplished through analyzing both the positive and the negative stereotypes used to convey meaning in the commercials which were analyzed, as well as through the analysis of the proportional representation of older characters in advertising. The commercials which were analyzed here were broadcasted during the second half of December 2012, January and the first half of February 2013.

  17. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  18. Influence of Spanish TV commercials on child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, C; Navas, J

    2015-06-01

    To examine the strategies used in food advertising campaigns on Spanish television and their breach of the Self-Regulation Code on Food Advertising aimed at Preventing Obesity and Promoting Healthy Habits in Children, as such breach advocates the consumption of products that fail to meet the nutritional requirements. Observational descriptive study. Viewing and content analysis of 52 food commercials on the children's television channels 'Disney Channel' and 'Boing' on Saturday and Sunday (9:00-12:00) and general channels 'Telecinco' and 'Antena 3' on Monday to Friday (8:00-9:00 and 17:00-20:00), from March to May 2013; subsequent analysis of the nutrition labelling of the advertised products. There are different ways of bypassing the advertising agreement. Strategies are used which hide or distort the facts about the product in favour of the advertiser. 18 advertisements refer to website or Facebook pages, thus facilitating feedback, and 11 advertisements refer to the Plan for Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in the Spanish Population. With regard to nutritional quality, the composition of the products analysed is high in sugars and saturated fats with average levels of fat and salt. A comparison of the broadcast time of the commercials shows that the figures for fat and saturated fat are similar in food advertised in the morning and in the afternoon, but products that are high in sugar and salt are advertised more in the morning. If the overall figures are compared, they are higher in foods advertised in the morning. The Self-Regulation Code is insufficient. There is an obvious risk of trivialising the messages of the health promotion plan. The regulation of advertising is complex and if the nutritional composition of the foods advertised is likely to lead to child obesity, it is essential to reflect on the consequences deriving from the advertising of these products. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Understanding the impact of TV commercials: electrical neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.

  20. 75 FR 25119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically feasible. DATES: This... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  1. 75 FR 13681 - Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... not less than one very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if technically... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  2. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting technology and system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.

  3. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. OBJECTIVE: We experimentally tested the side

  4. Side effects of television food commercials on concurrent nonadvertised sweet snack food intakes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Strien, T. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. Objective - We experimentally tested the side

  5. The Use of Television Format Adaptation in Denmark: Public Service Broadcasters Compared to Commercial Broadcasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    brought about major changes in both production and scheduling. This paper evaluates the impact that format adaptation has had in Denmark on public service broadcasters (PSBs) compared to commercial broadcasters. To illustrate transnational differences, references are made to Germany and Australia. First......, a quantitative analysis of PSB and commercial schedules in Denmark is presented to establish the extent to which PSBs have employed formats between 2000 and 2012, and how this compares with commercial broadcasters. Secondly, a qualitative analysis looks into genre and the nature of the individual formats...... employed to assess any important differences between the formats in the two sectors. Most formats fall within entertainment and is well suited to providing the consumption friendly environment that commercial broadcasters seek to offer their advertising clients (Brennan 2012). Broadcasters also favour...

  6. American Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2008-01-01

    En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa.......En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa....

  7. Exposure to slim images in mass media : television commercials as reminders of restriction in restrained eaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C M E

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to slim images and diet-related products in commercials on actual food intake in relation to dietary restraint. DESIGN: An experimental design was used, in which food intake was measured in 124 female students who watched

  8. ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOVIES AND TV COMMERCIALS TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Van Der Valk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to shed some light on whether there is any connection between the types of movies broadcasted on TV and types of commercials or not. A total of 20 different movies of Polish channels have been recorded and visually analyzed including the contents of the commercials broadcasted before, after and, during them. The different types of movies examined include comedies of manners, romantic comedies, thrillers, action movies, dramas, crimes, science-fiction and adventures. The research results show that there is a relationship between the types of movies broadcasted and the commercials before, during and after them. This connection is based on the needs and consuming behavior of each movie’s viewers.

  9. Hidden addiction: Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  10. Online Access to Advertising Films and TV-Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hvid Stenalt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The audiovisual cultural heritage is a valuable collection that both reflects contemporary developments in the 20th century and at the same time is a source material for research. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the State and University Library established a digital archive for Danish film and TV-commercials, why the collection is important, and how it became available online to students and researchers. The process presents a number of challenges including copyright and technical issues. The scalable and integrated service may be used for other audiovisual collections in the future.

  11. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... TV, TV Translator or TV Booster Station, FCC Form 346; 47 CFR 74.793(d); LPTV Out-of-Core Digital... collection requirements: 47 CFR 74.793(d) proposes that certain digital low power and TV translator stations...

  12. Commercial Television Personnel's Review of the Technical Quality and Marketability of AEL's "Around the Bend" Pilot Tapes. Technical Report No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Joe E.

    In order to determine whether Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) had the capacity to produce a TV series of sufficient quality, two pilot tapes were produced by AEL and then submitted for rating to nine broadcasting specialists from several commercial TV stations. Based on the responses of these nine individuals to a questionnaire dealing…

  13. The French TV Commercial as a Pedagogical Tool in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katherine

    1987-01-01

    Use of French television commercials as a pedagogical tool has a great advantage over "two-dimensional" advertisements because they provide authentic and current spoken language which is often reinforced by repetitions and musical tunes as well as visual slogans on the screen. (CB)

  14. A Channel For Gay America? A Cultural Criticism Of The Logo Channel's Commercial Success On American Cable Television

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson Jr., Michael

    2008-01-01

    Logo currently holds a self-described monopoly as the “Gay Channel for America.” Logo stands alone as the single most concentrated national-level vehicle of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered) visibility in the post millennial television era. The Logo Channel has reaped financial rewards from its strategy as a business entity, as LGBT American television viewers embraced its presence as a signifier to America that gays and lesbians have finally “made it”. First, any claim to a mon...

  15. Style in Educational Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, John

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of broadcast educational television for adult audiences are discussed in terms of: style in television, television grammar, and course and resource-type programs. The current British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Adult Literacy Project and the television program "On the Move" are used as examples. (LH)

  16. Teaching Television Watchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Judy Lee

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities to help teachers address the needs and behaviors of students raised on television; includes resources to help teachers use television productively in the classroom, a send-home reproducible on children and television violence, and notes on an interview with Shari Lewis and television tips for primary students. (SM)

  17. Picking of foreign television formats by Czech televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Šopovová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with one of the impacts of media globalisation and it is a picking of foreign television formats. It analyzes the structure of television programs offered by Czech television broadcasters and its change from 2005 when TV Nova and TV Prima changed their owners to international ones. After the introduction of media globalisation, the paper describes the television formats and then it includes a list of licensed television programs and a comparison of chosen programs with...

  18. An experimental study on the effect of TV commercials on the attitudes towards nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Yasuyuki [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Seika, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The present study is about the effect TV commercials have on the subjects' attitudes towards nuclear power generation. A number of 191 female students participated in the experiment. It was hypothesized that TV commercials would have a positive effect on the viewer's attitude towards nuclear power generation. The main results of the study supported this hypothesis, demonstrating that TV commercials constitute an effective means for changing people's perception of nuclear power generation. (author)

  19. An experimental study on the effect of TV commercials on the attitudes towards nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    The present study is about the effect TV commercials have on the subjects' attitudes towards nuclear power generation. A number of 191 female students participated in the experiment. It was hypothesized that TV commercials would have a positive effect on the viewer's attitude towards nuclear power generation. The main results of the study supported this hypothesis, demonstrating that TV commercials constitute an effective means for changing people's perception of nuclear power generation. (author)

  20. Television picture signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Field or frame memories are often used in television receivers for video signal processing functions, such as noise reduction and/or flicker reduction. Television receivers also have graphic features such as teletext, menu-driven control systems, multilingual subtitling, an electronic TV-Guide, etc.

  1. Television campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Hospital Center embarked on a branding effort in hopes of raising customer awareness of the hospital's state-of-the-art technologies in advanced medical care. The campaign launched a new phase of TV spots that highlight the facility's advanced services, such as the computed tomography angiogram, the argon plasma coagulator, and heart valve replacement surgery.

  2. Digital TV: structures of feeling in the television of becoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Marquioni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this text is to present some reflections on theinsertion of a new model of television in Brazil (interactive digital TV,adopting the concept of culture as the center to think of the television system.The notion for structure of feeling, by Raymond Williams, opens up atype of new window that helps to understand this new television whichis being implanted.

  3. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  4. LCA of Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011.......The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....

  5. Children's TV Commercials: Importance of the Race Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Thomas E.

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the impact of television advertising on black children is significantly different from its impact on white children, and if the impact is good or bad in terms of psychological and social development. Following an extensive review of the literature on this subject, an exploratory survey was…

  6. The "Unreality Principle": One Use of TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anthony J.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that television advertisements display various characteristics--such as limited duration, verbal repetition, and completeness of story--that make them successful vehicles for comprehension and discussion by foreign language learners and that the unreality of these advertisements can produce a positive, amused response from students.…

  7. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A... Commission's Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power, Television Translator, and Television Booster... Digital Low Power Television Translator, Television Booster Stations, and to Amend Rules for Digital Class...

  8. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  9. Oral Argument in Children's Television Proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B.

    The author advocates the outright ban of commercials from Saturday and Sunday morning television and makes several other recommendations that he believes would improve programing and reduce the hard sell of child targeted advertising. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) could form a Children's Television Broadcast Center and establish a…

  10. Regulating Children's Television Advertising: Reassessing Parental Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.

    In response to public concern over the effects of television commercials on children, the Federal Trade Commission formulated regulatory proposals that would ban certain advertising from children's television and regulate advertising intended for the eight year old to the eleven year old age group. However, in the light of two recent research…

  11. Television Intertextuality and the Discourse of the Nuclear Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naficy, Hamid

    1989-01-01

    Presents an intertextual approach to reading television. Investigates how the heterosexual nuclear family and its various simulations are circulated within the intertextual flow of television, articulating and distributing "cultural capital." Analyzes a 39-minute segment of television text that includes commercials, news briefs, and the…

  12. Taking a Look at Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, William, Comp.

    1981-01-01

    A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)

  13. Moment-to-Moment Optimal Branding in TV Commercials: Preventing Avoidance by Pulsing

    OpenAIRE

    Thales S. Teixeira; Michel Wedel; Rik Pieters

    2010-01-01

    We develop a conceptual framework about the impact that branding activity (the audiovisual representation of brands) and consumers' focused versus dispersed attention have on consumer moment-to-moment avoidance decisions during television advertising. We formalize this framework in a dynamic probit model and estimate it with Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Data on avoidance through zapping, along with eye tracking on 31 commercials for nearly 2,000 participants, are used to calibrate the mo...

  14. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  15. 76 FR 44821 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules... Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and to Amend Rules... translator facilities in the 700 MHz band. These provisions provide procedures for a primary wireless...

  16. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new low...

  17. Television as an Aid to Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Samantha

    2018-01-01

    In the late nineteenth-century, readily available dry, gelatin-based photographic emulsions revolutionized astronomy. Photography not only provided a permanent record, but also allowed for integration over extended exposures, helping astronomers observe fainter objects than possible with the eye alone. In 1942, television pioneer Vladimir Zworykin, patented the Telelectroscope, an electronic telescope which removed the observer from the eyepiece and replaced photographic emulsion with a television camera. By the mid-1950s, the astronomical community had developed a growing interest in the possible uses of television technology and at the 1955 Dublin meeting of the IAU, a special session was devoted to the application of television in astronomy.Here, I will examine the use of commercially-available television camera tubes by professional and amateur astronomers and explain how results from these early observations encouraged the astronomical community to further test, design, and build electronic imaging devices specifically for astronomical use.

  18. Television and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, L

    1986-01-01

    This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained

  19. Measuring Emotional Responses to TV Commercials: The Warmth Monitor Modernized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Roy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been a lot of interest in measuring emotional responses to advertising. This study focuses on the measurement of a specific emotional response to television advertising; warmth. Nearly thirty years ago, (Aaker, Stayman and Hagerty, 1986 developed a procedure they called the Warmth Monitor; “paper and pencil” self-report process recording method. The Warmth Monitor has been used in a large number of empirical studies in marketing since, but the most recent versions of the procedure are computerized. The two methods of administering the Warmth Monitor are compared in this research.

  20. The effects of TV commercials using less thin models on young women's mood, body image and actual food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie,

  1. TV 1.9: A experiência das webTVs universitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Becker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The experience of image culture and convergence era effects on every field of social life, reconfigures the means and its mediations and provokes aesthetics and contents innovations. The webTVs are born as singular environments, characterized by a new way to see and make television. This work points possibilities of use of universities’ webTVs as relevant environments to the vocational training, once they are constituted, potentially, by spaces of experimentation of audiovisual language and multimedia resources and socialization. This article presents results of a study about four universities’ webTVs from Rio de Janeiro city.

  2. Iranian Television Advertisement and Children's Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadehoghaz, Masoomeh; Amini, Maryam; Abdollahi, Afsoun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the nature of food commercials in children's television (TV) was monitored and analyzed; simultaneously, the relationship between recalling TV food commercials and children's interest in them and in the consumption of the same food products was evaluated. A total of 108 h children's programs broadcast on two channels (Two and Amouzesh) of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) media organization were monitored (May 6-12, 2015). Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study using 403 primary schoolchildren (201 boys) in four schools of Shirvan, Northeast of Iran, was executed. The children were prompted to recall all TV commercials broadcast on IRIB. Meanwhile, they were directed to define in the list of recalled TV food commercials those were interested in and the commercials (food products) they actually were willing to consume. Regarding the frequency and duration of broadcasting, food commercials ranked fifth and sixth, respectively. Fruit leather and plum paste were the most frequently broadcast food commercials. "High quality" (19%), "good taste" (15%), "novelty", and "message on nutritional composition" (13%) were the most frequent messages used in promoting the sale of food products, respectively. In addition, focus on "high quality/precision in the preparation of the food products" was the most frequently used appeals in TV commercials. There was a significant relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in five out of eight of the commercials (62.5%) ( P TV food commercials and the interest in the consumption of the same food product ("Tomato paste B") was statistically significant for 12.5% of the commercials ( P TV food commercials do not encourage healthy eating. The current study provides convincing evidence for policy-makers and researchers to pay more attention to this area.

  3. 76 FR 5521 - Innovation in the Broadcast Television Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... broadcasters serving minority, foreign language and niche interests that might have smaller audiences and lower... signals, including those not specifically raised in this NPRM. Improving Reception of VHF TV Service 34... band that can cause interference, and reception of VHF signals requires physically larger antennas that...

  4. Commercial TV distribution and broadcast by satellite in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debastos, R.

    The evolution of DBS satellite systems and their market in the U.S. is described. Anik A, launched in 1972, has been followed by 40 other launches. By 1986 there were 30 functional DBS systems in orbit operating in either C- or K- or hybrid modes of the two bands and providing over 450 channels to subscribers. The television capabilities are being augmented, with FCC approval for 31 new satellites, with Ku-band video, telephony and data transmission systems for small businesses. Features of the RCA Series 4000 and 5000 third generation satellites which will provide the services and lower operating costs passed on to the consumer are summarized, noting the use of TWTAs and high efficiency thermal dissipation systems on the new satellite designs.

  5. Children's Impressions of Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartella, Ellen

    This research study examines the types of social behaviors portrayed by families in various television series and explores children's impressions of the TV family members. Content analysis of nine family-oriented TV series was employed to describe the ranges of behaviors of fathers, mothers and children on television. Eleven shows from each series…

  6. DUE TO TELEVISION COMMERCIAL, CHANGE IN EATING HABITS AND ITS DIRECT IMPACT ON OBESITY OF TEENAGER OF JAMMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot SINGH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertisement creates colossal impact on teenagers and TV create gigantic impacting on eating habits of teenagers and cause obesity in them. So, our study focus on finding the impact of advertisement on psychology, buying behavior, obesity and eating habits of teenagers in Jammu.Methods: The data is collected in the age group of 7 to 18 years. The schedule is developed to examine eating habits of teenagers and its effect on obesity level. The statistical tool and the sampling technique used are regression analysis and convenience sampling.Results: children consume unhealthy and low nutritional product while watching TV. They even insist their parents to buy product for them and those have pocket money (Rs50-100 are influenced by advertisement and opt unhealthy food and suffer from the problem of obesity.Conclusion: Teenagers are influenced by advertisements, but those who have high leverage to buy these products inadvertently face the problem of obesity.

  7. Neural basis for brain responses to TV commercials: a high-resolution EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, F; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Bianchi, L; Marciani, M G; Salinari, S; Colosimo, A; Tocci, A; Soranzo, R; Babiloni, F

    2008-12-01

    We investigated brain activity during the observation of TV commercials by tracking the cortical activity and the functional connectivity changes in normal subjects. The aim was to elucidate if the TV commercials that were remembered by the subjects several days after their first observation elicited particular brain activity and connectivity compared with those generated during the observation of TV commercials that were quickly forgotten. High-resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were performed in a group of healthy subjects and the cortical activity during the observation of TV commercials was evaluated in several regions of interest coincident with the Brodmann areas (BAs). The patterns of cortical connectivity were obtained in the four principal frequency bands, Theta (3-7 Hz), Alpha (8-12 Hz), Beta (13-30 Hz), Gamma (30-40 Hz) and the directed influences between any given pair of the estimated cortical signals were evaluated by use of a multivariate spectral technique known as partial directed coherence. The topology of the cortical networks has been identified with tools derived from graph theory. Results suggest that the cortical activity and connectivity elicited by the viewing of the TV commercials that were remembered by the experimental subjects are markedly different from the brain activity elicited during the observation of the TV commercials that were forgotten. In particular, during the observation of the TV commercials that were remembered, the amount of cortical spectral activity from the frontal areas (BA 8 and 9) and from the parietal areas (BA 5, 7, and 40) is higher compared with the activity elicited by the observation of TV commercials that were forgotten. In addition, network analysis suggests a clear role of the parietal areas as a target of the incoming flow of information from all the other parts of the cortex during the observation of TV commercials that have been remembered. The techniques presented here shed new light on

  8. Visibility that demystifies: gays, gender, and sex on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzley, Sara Baker

    2010-01-01

    A content analysis of 98 episodes of primetime entertainment programs on commercial broadcast and cable television stations from the 2005-2006 season showed that gay characters on television were more likely to be shown in sexual situations than straight characters, and women were more likely to be shown in same-sex sexual situations than men. In addition, gay characters were more likely to be depicted as sexually active on cable television than they were on commercial broadcast television, and they were more likely to be relegated to guest star status on commercial broadcast television than on cable television. The study also showed that gay characters made up 7.5% of all the characters studied. This study discusses the implications of these findings for gay and straight audiences.

  9. Television and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Eunice

    1984-01-01

    Considers characteristics of educational television that militate against effective language learning and argues that further research is needed to ascertain whether language development is promoted by educational television and which programs and formats are best. Research in the United States and suggestions for future research are discussed.…

  10. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  11. Television in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateneo de Manila Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Center for Educational Television.

    Information about instructional television (ITV) programing in the Philippines is summarized in this three part document. An outline of the status of the Center for Educational Television, Inc., (CETV) and a description of its current activities and financial support are provided in the first section. A narrative review of both CETV and other…

  12. Science on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, John

    2011-01-01

    Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC…

  13. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to T...

  14. Television viewing and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Stacy A; Foster, Jill A; DiLillo, Vicki G; Kirk, Kathy; Smith West, Delia

    2003-11-01

    With the rise in obesity in America, the search for potential causes for this epidemic has begun to include a focus on environmental factors. Television (TV) viewing is one such factor, partially due to its potential as a stimulus for eating. The current study investigated the relationship between food intake and self-reported TV viewing in an effort to identify the impact of TV viewing on specific eating behaviors. Seventy-four overweight women seeking obesity treatment completed questionnaires assessing dietary habits and TV viewing behaviors. Results suggest that snacking, but not necessarily eating meals, while watching TV is associated with increased overall caloric intake and calories from fat. Therefore, interventions targeting stimulus control techniques to reduce snacking behavior may have an impact on overall caloric intake.

  15. Effects of Television Advertising on Consumer Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Scott; Wackman, Daniel B.

    In this survey a sample was taken of kindergarten students, third graders, and sixth graders of both sexes and of varying socioeconomic backgrounds for the purpose of exploring their attitudes toward television commercials. Questions concerning the child's mother's attitude towards commercials, the child's cognition of commercials, and the child's…

  16. Parents, television and cultural change

    OpenAIRE

    Hauk, Esther; Immordino, Giovanni; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica; Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children which is costly and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV's entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural di...

  17. British Television and Official Film, 1946-1951.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between the British Government's Information Services and both the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the commercial film trade after the BBC's television service resumed independent broadcasts in 1946. Examines proposals for using television as an alternative outlet for commercial and official films. (GEA)

  18. Working of Ideology in the TV Commercials of Cold Drinks in Pakistani Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Madiha; Ahmad, Sofia; Ijaz, Nida; Batool, Sumera; Abid, Maratab

    2015-01-01

    The article aims at the analysis of the TV commercials of three carbonated cold drinks from Pakistani media. The analysis will be carried out using the three dimensional framework presented by Fairclough. Through the analysis, the ideological framing of the commercials will be brought to light. To achieve this purpose different techniques used by…

  19. ObesiTV: how television is influencing the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-08-20

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, John M., Jr.

    In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

  1. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  2. Cell Phone Carriers, TV-Commercials & Branding : A study of cell phone carriers TV- commercials, branding and its affect on young people

    OpenAIRE

    Sköld, Robin; Nilsson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Problem: As almost everyone has a cell phone today, keeping your customers is very important. An important group for cell phone carriers is young people. This is a group that uses cell phones more and more. However, attracting these people could be hard. One of the most common strategies to attract customers today is promotion through TV-commercials. Another strategy that has gained popularity is branding. We therefore asked ourselves how these strategies could affect each other and eventuall...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Televisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Televisions that are effective as of October 30,...

  4. Television area detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, V.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of standard television camera tubes as X-ray detectors in X-ray diffraction studies. Standard tubes can be modified to detect X rays by depositing an external X-ray phosphor on the fibre optics face plate either of a highly sensitive television camera tube or of an image intensifier coupled to a camera tube. The author considers various X-ray phosphors and concludes that polycrystalline silver activated ZnS is most suitable for crystallographic applications. In the following sections various types of television camera tubes with adequate light sensitivity for use in an X-ray detection system are described, and also three types of image intensifiers. The digitization of the television output signals and their statistical precision are discussed and the electronic circuitry for the detector system is briefly described. (B.D.)

  5. Emotional and rational product appeals in televised food advertisements for children: analysis of commercials shown on US broadcast networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Brewster, Aaron

    2007-12-01

    The aggressive advertising and marketing of high caloric food products to children is implicated as a potential causative factor in the childhood obesity epidemic. This study analyzed 147 commercials appearing during children's programming on U.S. broadcast networks for a wide range of potential emotional and rational advertising appeals. The most prominent emotional appeals were fun/happiness and play followed by fantasy/ imagination, social enhancement/peer acceptance, and coolness/hipness. Many of the products used the term ;super-charged' or a similar adjective to describe the powerful taste or other physical properties of the product. More than one-third of all the commercials used a fruit appeal or association. Statements or depictions that a product was healthy or nutritious were quite rare among the commercials. This seems to imply that health and nutrition claims are understood by food marketers to not be salient concerns among children and as such are not a selling point to children. Commercials for high sugar cereal products and fast food restaurants differed in several respects. This study can serve to guide child health care professionals and other child advocates in designing measures that counter food advertising messages directed at children.

  6. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.

  7. Parents, Television and Cultural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Hauk; Giovanni Immordino

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a model of cultural transmission where television plays a central role for socialization. Parents split their free time between educating their children, which is costly, and watching TV which though entertaining might socialize the children to the wrong trait. The free to air television industry maximizes advertisement revenue. We show that TV watching is increasing in cultural coverage, cost of education, TV’s entertainment value and decreasing in the perceived cultural ...

  8. TV commercial and rTMS: can brain lateralization give us information about consumer preference?

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Leanza; Michela Balconi

    2017-01-01

    The current research aimed at investigating the brain lateralization effect in response to TV advertising of different commercial sectors. This study explored the effects of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation on subjective evaluation (semantic differential), in response to some consumer goods. We adopted rTMS (low-frequency 1Hz on left and right DLPFC) to modulate the consumers’ (N=thirty-three) response during the vision of five commercials. After three hours from the first e...

  9. Characteristics of hybrid broadcast broadband television (HbbTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Branimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the working principle of hybrid broadcast-broadband TV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV - HbbTV. The architecture of HbbTV system is given, the principle of its operation, as well as an overview of HbbTV specification standards that are in use, with their basic characteristics. Here are described the services provided by Hybrid TV. It is also provided an overview of the distribution of HbbTV services in Europe in terms of the number of TV channels that HbbTV services offer, the number of active hybrid TV devices, HbbTV standards which are in use and models of broadcast networks used to distribute HbbTV service.

  10. 75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... Television Commission, the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ(TV), channel *10, Birmingham... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  11. Cross-cultural analysis of neuroelectrical cognitive and emotional variables during the appreciation of TV commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vecchiato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the cerebral activity of a group of Eastern people during the observation of a Western and an Eastern version of the same TV commercial advertising a very popular smartphone. By comparing the electroencephalographic (EEG signals in theta, alpha and heart rate (HR activity of the population investigated, we estimated and compared the levels of memorization, attention, pleasantness and emotion perceived. Results present and increase of the pleasantness and emotion while watching particular scenes of interest of the Eastern version of the commercial. These findings suggest that this kind of technology is able to track variation of the cerebral activity related to cognitive and emotional processing across TV commercials. Moreover, there is the possibility to investigate frame segments of particular interest for marketers that could be properly adapted according to the cultural context in which the advertising campaign will be promoted.

  12. Identifying family television practices to reduce children's television time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.

    2015-01-01

    The family system plays an important role in shaping children’s television use. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that parents limit screen time, given the risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing. Researchers have highlighted family television practices that may be

  13. Influences of Television Toward Modern Society Reflected in TV People by Haruki Murakami

    OpenAIRE

    KHIKMAH, ZIYAADATUL

    2014-01-01

    Khikmah, Ziyaadatul. 2014. Influences of Television toward Modern SocietyReflected in TV People By Haruki Murakami. Study Program of English,Department of Languages and Literature, Faculty of Cultural Studies, UniversitasBrawijaya. Supervisor: Juliati; Co-supervisor : Arcci Tusita. Keyword: Television, Mass Media, Effect, Construction, Culture, Influence. Television has become part of daily life in the society in modern era. Television functions as a medium of information and entertainment. ...

  14. Television: The New State Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbner, George

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the special characteristics of television that make it a formula-bound, ritualistic, repetitive, and nonselectively used system; concludes that television's social symbolic functions resemble preindustrial religions more than they do the media that preceded it. (GT)

  15. The World According to Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Don

    1985-01-01

    Adult guidance and discussion are two elements necessary to transform children from passive consumers into active critics of the social world presented by television. Ways in which teachers can help students scrutinize what they see on television are discussed. (CB)

  16. Locations in Television Drama Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the analysis of the increasingly significant role of location as a key element in television drama. In recent years, the popularity of serial television has progressively been tied to the expanded use of location as a central element in productions, both as sett...... mainly been considered as a practical term in film and television productions....

  17. A GUIDE TO INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIAMOND, ROBERT M., ED.

    THIS IS A GUIDE DESIGNED AS A SINGLE REFERENCE FOR ADMINISTRATORS, TEACHERS, STUDENTS, AND LAYMEN INTERESTED IN TELEVISION FOR A SPECIFIC SCHOOL OR SCHOOL SYSTEM. FOUR EXAMPLES OF SINGLE-ROOM TELEVISION ARE GIVEN AND SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS OF STUDIO TELEVISION ARE PRESENTED. ITS USE IN GUIDANCE AND IN ADMINISTRATION IS EXPLAINED. THE PROBLEMS…

  18. Factors in Dubbing Television Comedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalbeascoa, Patrick

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a greater awareness of the factors involved with dubbing television comedies. Considers the translation of jokes and provides an outline of the various kinds of jokes in television shows. Calls for more research on comedy dubbing and television translation in general. (HB)

  19. Learning from Commercials: The Influence of TV Advertising on the Voter Political "Agenda."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Donald L.; Bowers, Thomas A.

    The effects of the television advertisements for Richard Nixon and George McGovern during the 1972 presidential election were tested by a content analysis of television programing and statistical analysis of viewer attitudinal response. Programing content for Nixon developed more general issues and did not especially feature the personality of…

  20. Neurophysiological tools to investigate consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender.

  1. Neurophysiological Tools to Investigate Consumer’s Gender Differences during the Observation of TV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Vecchiato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers’ reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG, galvanic skin response (GSR, and heart rate (HR in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer’s gender.

  2. Neurophysiological Tools to Investigate Consumer's Gender Differences during the Observation of TV Commercials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Graziani, Ilenia; Trettel, Arianna

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

  3. TV commercial and rTMS: can brain lateralization give us information about consumer preference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Leanza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed at investigating the brain lateralization effect in response to TV advertising of different commercial sectors. This study explored the effects of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC stimulation on subjective evaluation (semantic differential, in response to some consumer goods. We adopted rTMS (low-frequency 1Hz on left and right DLPFC to modulate the consumers’ (N=thirty-three response during the vision of five commercials. After three hours from the first evaluation of TV commercials without stimulation, rTMS was delivered in brain frontal areas (F3 and F4 areas before the vision of each stimulus. Following the stimulation, subjects evaluated advertising a second time by using the same semantic differential. An increase of TV commercials preference occurred in subjects who were inhibited on right DLPFC; while a decrease of advertising preference was shown in subjects who were inhibited on left DLPFC. These results reveal the important role of DLPFC for emotions’ elaboration. In particular, the left and right DLPFC seem to be related respectively to positive and negative evaluation of emotional stimuli.

  4. Don Draper Thinks Your Ad Is Cliché: Fairy Tale Iconography in TV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Wittwer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When examining the history of fairy tale iconography in advertising, folklore scholar Donald Haase’s fairy tale encyclopedia compared the Pied Piper of Hamelin to a symbol of advertising who could “play his pipe ever so sweetly and the consumers following him without resisting his charming and manipulative music.” In contrast, a 2012 episode of Mad Men, advertising luminary Don Draper shoots down a shoe commercial pitch featuring Cinderella, calling the idea “cliché”. The temptation for advertisers to rely on fairy tale figures and iconography continues today and many ignore Don’s aversion for cliché because it still gets the job done. However, there are some ads featuring fairy tales which avoid cliché and are truly innovative for their time. I’ll examine how, and for whom, these fairy tale figures have been adapted decade by decade in order to examine popular culture’s commercialized and hypnotic relationship with fairy tales in the most direct format available: television commercials.

  5. Danish television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....

  6. Adolescents and Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Leo B.; Patrick, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Over 2,000 15-16 year old adolescents from central Scotland were surveyed to determine characteristics of high- vs. low-frequency television viewers. Personality characteristics, attitudes toward school and sports, and socioeconomic status were related to viewing habits. Sex of the viewer was found to be related to choice of programs. (GDC)

  7. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    abstractIn this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’

  8. Television and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, George; And Others

    To compile a comprehensive review of English language scientific literature regarding the effects of television on human behavior, the authors of this book evaluated more than 2,500 books, articles, reports, and other documents. Rather than taking a traditional approach, the authors followed a new model for the retrieval and synthesis of…

  9. Dominant Advertisement Strategies in Iranian TV Commercials and their Cognitive Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Advertising strategies are some factors in the content and form of advertisements which are intended to have certain effects on ad viewers or potential customers. These effects could be defined as the kind of cognitive responses they are expected to elicit in their audiences. This study examined 39 Iranian TV commercials in seven product categories to identify the most dominant strategies used by the advertisers and investigated the effect of product type on the selection and use of these strategies. The results showed that Iranian TV commercials used a mixture of analytic and effective cognitive strategies among which “elaborating on the reasons to buy”, “explaining the quality appeal” are the most favorite analytic based strategies and use of emotion and mood arising words is the most dominant affective based advertising method. The results also endorse significant effect of product type on types of strategies employed in the ads.

  10. Competition between television companies for advertising revenue in the United Kingdom: the Independent Television regions prior to deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    D B Clarke; M G Bradford

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a contribution to the geographies of advertising and the media. The authors examine the ways in wbich commercial television companies try to attract advertising to their regions; advertising being their main source of revenue. Competition based on the cost of advertising in particular regions is effectively restricted. This market failure results in regionally uneven allocations of advertising money, and hence an uneven regional pattern of TV company revenues. Other forms ...

  11. Closed Loop Recycling of Plastic Housing for Flat Screen TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Jef; Vanegas, Paul; Devoldere, Tom; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of the rapidly increasing number of End-of-Life (EoL) Flat screen Televisions (FTVs) presents major challenges and opportunities. Closing loops in plastic housing material flows remains a particular technical challenge because of the presence of additives, such as Flame Retardants (FR) in recovered housings. In the framework of a collaborative project PRIME with TP Vision the TV development site for Philips TVs and a Van Gansewinkel first level recycling plant, series of experim...

  12. Fire prevention film spots for television ... narrator influence on knowledge and attitude changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene C. Bernardi

    1973-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of 60-second films on fire prevention, with different narrators, was tested among high school students and by exposure on commercial television channels. The narrators were Smokey Bear, a Youth, and a Ranger. All three films were effective in teaching proper fire use practices to the high school classroom audience. In commercial TV showings,...

  13. Life without TV? cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework.

  14. Can sedentary behavior be made more active? A randomized pilot study of TV commercial stepping versus walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A; Thompson, Dixie L

    2012-08-06

    There is a growing problem of physical inactivity in America, and approximately a quarter of the population report being completely sedentary during their leisure time. In the U.S., TV viewing is the most common leisure-time activity. Stepping in place during TV commercials (TV Commercial Stepping) could increase physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of incorporating physical activity (PA) into a traditionally sedentary activity, by comparing TV Commercial Stepping during 90 min/d of TV programming to traditional exercise (Walking). A randomized controlled pilot study of the impact of 6 months of TV Commercial Stepping versus Walking 30 min/day in adults was conducted. 58 sedentary, overweight (body mass index 33.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2) adults (age 52.0 ± 8.6 y) were randomly assigned to one of two 6-mo behavioral PA programs: 1) TV Commercial Stepping; or 2) Walking 30 min/day. To help facilitate behavior changes participants received 6 monthly phone calls, attended monthly meetings for the first 3 months, and received monthly newsletters for the last 3 months. Using intent-to-treat analysis, changes in daily steps, TV viewing, diet, body weight, waist and hip circumference, and percent fat were compared at baseline, 3, and 6 mo. Data were collected in 2010-2011, and analyzed in 2011. Of the 58 subjects, 47 (81%) were retained for follow-up at the completion of the 6-mo program. From baseline to 6-mo, both groups significantly increased their daily steps [4611 ± 1553 steps/d vs. 7605 ± 2471 steps/d (TV Commercial Stepping); 4909 ± 1335 steps/d vs. 7865 ± 1939 steps/d (Walking); P TV viewing and dietary intake decreased significantly in both groups. Body weight did not change, but both groups had significant decreases in percent body fat (3-mo to 6-mo), and waist and hip circumference (baseline to 6-mo) over time. Participants in both the TV Commercial Stepping and Walking groups had favorable changes in

  15. Gender and food television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines the importance of gender in the history of food television in an American/European context, by discussing the scientific literature on the topic. The analysis covers a period from the very first shows in the 1930s and 1940s, until 2016. It will be argued that despite...... feminine values” of nurturing and home management. However, this chapter brings out a series of examples in which these gendered models are negotiated and transgressed. This chapter, which draws on examples from the US, UK, and France, argues that the gendering of cooking shows should be understood...... in relation to other social categories, notably ethnicity and class. With this in mind, I conclude that food television not only reproduces hierarchies between men and women, but also between various kinds of masculinity and femininity....

  16. Bevarage consumption during television viewing and tooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The study assessed the television (TV) viewing habits, preferred energy and acidic drinks consumed when watching television and the history of tooth sensitivity among adolescents who watched television >2 hours daily (HTV) and <2 hour daily. (LTV). Subjects and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted in Ife ...

  17. Can sedentary behavior be made more active? A randomized pilot study of TV commercial stepping versus walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeves Jeremy A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing problem of physical inactivity in America, and approximately a quarter of the population report being completely sedentary during their leisure time. In the U.S., TV viewing is the most common leisure-time activity. Stepping in place during TV commercials (TV Commercial Stepping could increase physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of incorporating physical activity (PA into a traditionally sedentary activity, by comparing TV Commercial Stepping during 90 min/d of TV programming to traditional exercise (Walking. Methods A randomized controlled pilot study of the impact of 6 months of TV Commercial Stepping versus Walking 30 min/day in adults was conducted. 58 sedentary, overweight (body mass index 33.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2 adults (age 52.0 ± 8.6 y were randomly assigned to one of two 6-mo behavioral PA programs: 1 TV Commercial Stepping; or 2 Walking 30 min/day. To help facilitate behavior changes participants received 6 monthly phone calls, attended monthly meetings for the first 3 months, and received monthly newsletters for the last 3 months. Using intent-to-treat analysis, changes in daily steps, TV viewing, diet, body weight, waist and hip circumference, and percent fat were compared at baseline, 3, and 6 mo. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and analyzed in 2011. Results Of the 58 subjects, 47 (81% were retained for follow-up at the completion of the 6-mo program. From baseline to 6-mo, both groups significantly increased their daily steps [4611 ± 1553 steps/d vs. 7605 ± 2471 steps/d (TV Commercial Stepping; 4909 ± 1335 steps/d vs. 7865 ± 1939 steps/d (Walking; P  Conclusions Participants in both the TV Commercial Stepping and Walking groups had favorable changes in daily steps, TV viewing, diet, and anthropometrics. PA can be performed while viewing TV commercials and this may be a feasible alternative to traditional approaches for

  18. Commercial TV exposure, fast-food toy collecting and family visits to fast food restaurants among families living in rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the associations between children's exposure to TV networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. Study design One hundred parents of children 3–7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's television viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Results Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (adjusted odds ratio 2.84 for each one-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, prestaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. PMID:26526362

  19. Telecommunications: Additional Federal Efforts Could Help Advance Digital Television Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    The transition to broadcast digital television(DTV) will provide new television services and the improved picture quality of 'high definition television'. It will also allow some portions of the radiofrequency spectrum used for broadcasting to be returned for public safety and commercial uses. The Congress set December 2006 as the target date for completing the DTV transition and turning the analog broadcast signals. However, this date can be extended if fewer than 85 percent of households in a market are able to receive the digital signals. GAO (General Accounting Office) was asked to assess issues related to the DTV transition.

  20. Television and children's executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... power television and television translator stations. 74.789 Section 74.789 Telecommunication FEDERAL... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.789 Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator...

  2. Television Programming for Children: A Report of the Children's Television Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Susan C.; And Others

    These two volumes of a 5-volume report on commercial broadcaster compliance with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 1974 policies on programming and advertising to children provide an overall analysis of children's television, as well as a detailed analysis of broadcast industry compliance. The first volume reviews the social, cognitive,…

  3. MOBILE TELEVISION: UNDERSTANDING THE TECHNOLOGY AND OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Omar AlSheikSalem

    2015-01-01

    Television have converged the technologies of movies and radio and now being converged with mobile phones. Mobile TV is the result of the convergence between mobile devices and television. Mobile TV is a key device and service that enrich civilization with applications, vast market and great investment. Mobile TV is an important subject that has a potential impact on leading edge technologies for promising future. In the time being Mobile TV is still in its early stages and has many potential...

  4. Iranian Family Representation from the Perspective of Gender and Generational Relationships in TV Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kousari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research investigated the issue of TV ads in the context of cultural studies and from the critical- cultural perspective. This study has focused on the family in order to read culture among the advertisements, so family from both the gender and generational relations has been analyzed. The main focus of the research is on the policy of representation of TV commercials across the country about couple bilateral relations and parent-child generational bilateral relations in Iranian families, in this way the power structure in the family can be understood. Using qualitative methods, this research has done based on the general principles of semiotics and followed the principles of “first order implications” that is centered mostly in syntagmatic axis and “second-order implications” assigned to Roland Barthes that has replaced in the axis of succession. This research shows that TV ads in “subjective aspect of power” with showing mental images consistent with male-dominated system, and in “objective aspect of power” with showing stereotypes that in the first step men(sexual and in the second step parents (generational make the final decision, leads to reproduction of power gap and inequality in family relationships.

  5. TELEVISION AND DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL WOMENA STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Devadas M.B,; Saravanan V.M,

    2015-01-01

    Television as a mass medium has profound impact on society. The pivotal role of Television as an instrument of development by altering the human perspective and transforming the traditional mindset of society is well recognized. TV has not only occupied the leisure hours of women but the whole family is also found busy viewing television programmes for varying length of hours. This paper basically intends to examine the role of TV in the development of rural women. The term dev...

  6. Social Television for the modern nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2008-01-01

    This is a paper about the ongoing project of Ambient Shared Live Media positioned in the field of social television. It illustrates a scenario of social television that exemplifies how media sharing/TV watching can be a facilitator for social TV across physical locations. It also addresses a spec...... a specific target of users, being the modern nomad....

  7. [Use of painkillers by Polish secondary school students and the influence of TV commercials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczak, A; Lukasik, I M; Witek, A

    2010-11-01

    This article refers to the results of research conducted in 2008 with financial support (as a grant) of UMCS vice-chancellor. The topic was: Environmental and personal circumstances of taking painkillers available without prescription by secondary school students. 276 high school pupils in Lublin (equivalent of higher grammar-school level in Germany) were examined with a copyright questionnaire to check, among other things, how TV commercials affect taking painkillers. 40.6% of participants take analgesics very often, almost half of them (47.1%) reach for drugs which they know from commercials. 75% of students can indicate at least four examples of specific commercials advertising painkillers. In their depiction of these analgesics by metaphors a great number of analogies with TV advertisements can be found. Those who claim frequent intake of painkillers describe them as 'necessary, essential' (31.3%) or as 'convenient (giving comfort)' (19.6%). At the same time the majority of students (94.6%) is convinced that reaching for painkillers is socially accepted. Such attitude is probably reinforced by ubiquitous advertising of those drugs in Polish media. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Message content of alcohol moderation TV commercials: impact of corporate versus nonprofit sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, A M

    1999-01-01

    This content analysis examines a sample of 203 alcohol-related North American TV commercials dealing with alcohol moderation and driving under the influence (DUI), in order to determine whether the type of ad sponsor has an impact on the message content. Corporate sponsors, such as breweries and distillers, are compared to nonprofit sponsors such as governments and nonprofit organizations. Findings show that ads from corporate sponsors are less likely to make mention of threats or negative consequences, and are also less likely to use fear arousal. However, DUI/alcohol moderation ads from corporate sponsors and nonprofit sponsors do not differ in the degree to which they use humor or positive approaches.

  9. Borehole television survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, J.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    The borehole television survey can provide a measure of the orientation, depth, width and aperture of any planar discontinuity intersected by a borehole and a technique is in an advanced stage of development by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) to make such measurements. Much of its practical application to date has been in crystalline rocks (plutons) at research areas pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Disposal Program in Canada. It also has many other engineering applications where bedrock stability is of particular concern. The equipment required to carry out the survey can be readily transported by two panel trucks with trailers. The components consist of a camera probe, control unit, cable storage reel, cable drive, video-tape recorder, TV monitor and two electrical generators. An inclined planar structure intersected by a borehole appears as an elliptical trace on the wall of the borehole. Such an intersection line shows on the TV monitor as a sinusoidal curve with a high point and a low point as the camera rotates through an angle of 360 degrees. The azimuth of the low point, measured by a compass in the camera probe, represents the direction of the dip of the planar structure. The angle of dip is measured midway between the high and low points or is computed from the maximum-to-minimum distance of the sinusoid and the hole diameter. These observations provide the true orientation of the planar structure if the borehole is vertical. However, if the borehole is inclined, direct observations will only provide the apparent orientation. The true orientation must thus be obtained either by means of stereographic projection or spherical trigonometry. A computer program has been written to calculate the true orientation from the apparent orientation. In the field, observation data are recorded directly on a data record sheet for keypunching and input into the computer

  10. The magic of television: Thinking through magical realism in recent TV [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Joyrich

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available After decades in which television has been marked as more banal than bewitching, recalling the "magic of television" is more likely to evoke a sense of wonder for the perceived innocence of an earlier televisual audience than for television itself. With TV offered on demand, captured with DVRs, downloaded or watched streaming on the Web, purchased as DVD sets, miniaturized for private screenings, jumbo-sized for public spectacles, monitored in closed circuits, and accessed for open forums, once-mysterious television flows have flowed to new media forms, giving TV an appearing/disappearing, now-you-see-it/now-you-don't magical act of its own. Has TV disappeared, or has it multiplied—redoubled each time it's sawed in half, replicating like rabbits pulled out of a hat? Is it still TV or something else when programs are screened (as if through a magic curtain via today's delivery systems?

  11. Prediction and Optimal Scheduling of Advertisements in Linear Television

    OpenAIRE

    Panaggio, Mark J; Fok, Pak-Wing; Bhatt, Ghan S; Burhoe, Simon; Capps, Michael; Edholm, Christina J; Moustaid, Fadoua El; Emerson, Tegan; Estock, Star-Lena; Gold, Nathan; Halabi, Ryan; Houser, Madelyn; Kramer, Peter R; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Li, Qingxia

    2016-01-01

    Advertising is a crucial component of marketing and an important way for companies to raise awareness of goods and services in the marketplace. Advertising campaigns are designed to convey a marketing image or message to an audience of potential consumers and television commercials can be an effective way of transmitting these messages to a large audience. In order to meet the requirements for a typical advertising order, television content providers must provide advertisers with a predetermi...

  12. A Frame Analysis Approach To Cross-Cultural Television Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Noel M. Murray

    2011-01-01

    The role of visuals in advertising research is examined. An argument is developed to support a theory of frame analysis for cross-cultural television advertising. Frame analysis is explained and commercials from Japan and the Dominican Republic are used to illustrate application of the theory. It is hoped that frame analysis will supplement content analysis as a methodological approach to cross-cultural television advertising.

  13. Food advertising on Australian television: Frequency, duration and monthly pattern of advertising from a commercial network (four channels) for the entire 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Lisa G; Haag, Dandara G; Agnew, Benjamin; Lynch, John; Sorell, Matthew

    2018-04-16

    To estimate the frequency, duration and monthly pattern of discretionary food advertising on Australian free-to-air television. We logged 30 000 h of television collected in Adelaide during 2016 from one network that has four channels. The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating was used to identify discretionary foods. Data were examined according to all times, to children's peak viewing times (PVTs) and to when C-(children's) rated programmes may be broadcast. Of the >800 000 advertisements logged during 2016, 11% were for foods (n = 97 837). The most frequently advertised products were: snack foods (e.g. crisps), crumbed/battered meats, fast foods/take away meals and sweetened beverages. The frequency and duration of discretionary food advertising was 1.7 times/h and 0.5 min/h respectively at all times. During children's PVTs, the frequency and duration of discretionary food advertising was 2.3 times/h and 0.7 min/h, respectively. When C-rated programmes can be broadcast, the frequency and duration of discretionary food advertising was 1.8 times/h and 0.6 min/h, respectively. Across the year, discretionary foods ranged between 41% (August) and 71% (January) of all food advertising. Discretionary foods dominate food advertising. On average, discretionary food advertising was higher during PVTs for children and during the summer school holidays (January). © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Television Use by Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the relationships between child and adolescent television use motivations and various sociodemographic characteristics, television viewing levels, program preference, and television attitudes. Viewing motivations include learning, passing time, companionship, escape, arousal, and relaxation. Discusses implications within the conceptual…

  15. Children's understanding of television advertising: a revisit in the Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U

    2004-03-01

    The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the authors interviewed were able to understand that television stations broadcast commercials to earn money. Their understanding of the purposes of television commercials and the persuasive intention of television commercials developed with age. The authors examined the influence of gender, level of advertising, and level of television viewing on children's understanding of television advertising by using 3-way factorial models.

  16. 78 FR 75306 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of station WBIQ(TV), channel *39, Birmingham, Alabama... freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by television stations seeking channel substitutions in...

  17. An electroencephalographic Peak Density Function to detect memorization during the observation of TV commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; Di Flumeri, G; Maglione, A G; Cherubino, P; Kong, W; Trettel, A; Babiloni, F

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest in measuring the impact of advertisements through the estimation of cerebral reactions. Several techniques and methods are used and discussed in the consumer neuroscience. In such a context, the present paper provides a novel method to estimate the level of memorization occurred in subjects during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, the present work introduce the Peak Density Function (PDF) as an electroencephalographic (EEG) time-varying variable which is correlated with the cerebral events of memorization of TV commercials. The analysis has been performed on the EEG activity recorded on twenty healthy subjects during the exposition to several advertisements. After the EEG recordings, an interview has been performed to obtain the information about the memorized scenes for all the video clips watched by the subjects. Such information has been put in correlation with the occurrence of transient peaks of EEG synchronization in the theta band, by computing the PDF. The present results show that the increase of PDF is positively correlated, scene by scene, (R=0.46, pmarketers to overcome the drawbacks of the standard marketing tools (e.g., interviews, focus groups) when analyzing the impact of advertisements.

  18. Public Policy and Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Aletha C.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Advocates the promotion of television programing that serves the diverse needs of children for education, entertainment, aesthetic appreciation, and knowledge; and the protection of children from television content and advertising practices that exploit their special vulnerability. More regulation is needed. (Author/BJV)

  19. The Social Uses of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, James

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrates that audience members create specific and sometimes elaborate practical actions involving television in order to gratify particular needs in the context of family viewing. Supports a typology of the social uses of television using ethnographic research and current uses and gratifications literature. (JMF)

  20. HAVi components in digital television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2001-01-01

    htmlabstractDigital television broadcast started in Finland on 27th of August 2001. A new period in this entertainment field has already begun. Because of the importance of television in the society, the shift between analogue and digital has to be done with the viewers in mind. The User

  1. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  2. Children's Age, Intelligence and Sex as Variables Mediating Reactions to TV Commercials: Repetition and Content Complexity Implications for Advertisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, Donald W.; And Others

    To learn if differences in age, intelligence, and sex account for differences in children's recall of TV commercials and in the degree of insistence with which they request that the advertised product be purchased, 54 gifted, 71 normal, and 53 educable mentally retarded children of both sexes were questioned after viewing commercials for breakfast…

  3. Efficiency improvement opportunities in TVs: Implications for market transformation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol; Shah, Nihar; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    Televisions (TVs) account for a significant portion of residential electricity consumption and global TV shipments are expected to continue to increase. We assess the market trends in the energy efficiency of TVs that are likely to occur without any additional policy intervention and estimate that TV efficiency will likely improve by over 60% by 2015 with savings potential of 45 terawatt-hours [TW h] per year in 2015, compared to today’s technology. We discuss various energy-efficiency improvement options and evaluate the cost effectiveness of three of them. At least one of these options improves efficiency by at least 20% cost effectively beyond ongoing market trends. We provide insights for policies and programs that can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient technologies to further capture global energy savings potential from TVs which we estimate to be up to 23 TW h per year in 2015. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of the recent TV market transition on TV energy consumption. • We review TV technology options that could be realized in the near future. • We assess the cost-effectiveness of selected energy-efficiency improvement options. • We estimate global electricity savings potential in selected scenarios. • We discuss possible directions of market transformation programs

  4. The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bennich, Peter [Swedish Energy Agency (Sweden); Cockburn, John [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Doi, Naoko [Institute of Energy Economics (Japan); Garg, Sandeep [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States); Garnaik, S.P. [ICF International (India); Holt, Shane [Energy and Tourism, Canberra (Australia); Walker, Mike [Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom); Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth [Natural Resources, Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Lising, Anna [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Pantano, Steve [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Khare, Amit [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

  5. Why Digitise Historical Television?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.

  6. 'TV Format Protection through Marketing Strategies?'

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sukhpreet

    2008-01-01

    Commercially successful programme ideas are often imitated or adapted. Television formats, in particular, are routinely copied. Starting from radio formats in the 1950s to game shows and reality programme formats of today, producers have accused others of “stealing”. Although formats constitute one of the most important exports for British TV producers, there is still no certainty about the legal protection of TV formats from copycat versions. Since TV formats fail to fall neatly within the d...

  7. The Perpetuation of Subtle Prejudice: Race and Gender Imagery in 1990s Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…

  8. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children's Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Maryam; Omidvar, Nasrin; Yeatman, Heather; Shariat-Jafari, Shadab; Eslami-Amirabadi, Maryam; Zahedirad, Malihe

    2014-10-01

    Advertisements can influence children's health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children's television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children's programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s) and mode of presentation (s) were coded. A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31%) across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%). The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54%) and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Although the total number of food advertisements during children's television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  9. The Track of Brain Activity during the Observation of TV Commercials with the High-Resolution EEG Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astolfi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimate cortical activity in normal subjects during the observation of TV commercials inserted within a movie by using high-resolution EEG techniques. The brain activity was evaluated in both time and frequency domains by solving the associate inverse problem of EEG with the use of realistic head models. In particular, we recover statistically significant information about cortical areas engaged by particular scenes inserted within the TV commercial proposed with respect to the brain activity estimated while watching a documentary. Results obtained in the population investigated suggest that the statistically significant brain activity during the observation of the TV commercial was mainly concentrated in frontoparietal cortical areas, roughly coincident with the Brodmann areas 8, 9, and 7, in the analyzed population.

  10. Television food advertising directed towards Bulgarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galcheva, S V; Iotova, V M; Stratev, V K

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem worldwide with a prevalence rising to epidemic proportions. Television viewing is suspected as an important contributor and along with food advertisements significantly influence children's unhealthy dietary habits, purchase requests and adiposity. To examine the exposure of Bulgarian children to television food advertising and to make a content analysis of the food/beverage advertisements during children's television programmes. 41.5 h of children's television programming on three national networks, were videotaped. All recorded food advertisements were evaluated to identify the marketing strategies used for the stimulation of children's purchase requests. Food/beverage advertisements accounted for 124 (33.4%) of all commercials, with 96.8% being for unhealthy foods. 57% of them were aimed specifically at children as the most advertised products were salty/sweetened snacks and cereals, sweets, soft drinks/carbohydrate juices and salty foods, with no fruit or vegetable commercials. Food advertisements used more themes of adventure, animation, music and gifts to attract children's attention, and gave information based on the product's taste, physical qualities, novelty, presence of premiums/prizes. Of all food/beverage advertisements, 27.4% contained health-related information about the products; three-quarters of the advertisements were shot with young normal-weight actors with a good/healthy appearance. Almost all recorded food advertisements do not support the Bulgarian dietary recommendations for healthy and balanced eating. More activities to reduce the unhealthy food promotion to children are mandatory as restrictions by type of advertised food, target group or limits on the advertisements' account and times shown, as well as parental/self-regulation.

  11. [Television, children and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroink, H; Dekker, E; Trenité, D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst

    2002-06-08

    Two girls and one boy suffered seizures caused by television and other visual stimuli from 11, 12 and 12 years of age onwards, respectively. EEG recording revealed that intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) provoked epileptiform activity. Technological progress (video games, computer, disco, car, train) has considerably increased the risk for visually-induced seizures. A comprehensive clinical history with special attention to the environmental circumstances is important. For correct diagnosis an EEG with standardised IPS is necessary. Treatment consists of avoidance of strong visual stimuli. Patients may need prophylaxis with valproic acid, which should only be withdrawn after clear reduction of the EEG response to IPS. Repeating the EEG after the dosage has been lowered will help avoiding unnecessary recurrence of seizures.

  12. Comprehension: The Challenge for Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Susan R.

    The purpose of this research was to determine young children's comprehension of selected TV program content. The subjects were 210 children in grades K-2. All subjects in groups of five, were shown segments from four TV programs: a scalloped potatoes commercial, a "Batman" and Robin episode, a news story on the MIG-25 and a segment of the…

  13. ‘Remember, it’s just television’: Rubicon TV and the Commercialisation of Norwegian Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundet, Vilde Schanke; Bakøy, Eva

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article discusses the corporate strategy of one of the most successful television production companies in Norway: Rubicon TV. Based on a historical analysis from the company’s establishment in the early 1990s until today, the article illuminates how Rubicon TV has navigated in and

  14. Children's Perceptions of TV Commercials and Products: The Effects of PSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter Gilbert

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether public service announcements (PSAs) on the nature of television advertising affect (1) children's awareness of advertising intent; (2) their belief in its truthfulness; and (3) their perception of advertised products. Data indicate that PSAs can influence children's perceptions of advertising's credibility and can affect their…

  15. Process Concepts for Semi-automatic Dismantling of LCD Televisions

    OpenAIRE

    Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in tu...

  16. Television use in the 21st century: An exploration of television and social television use in a multiplatform environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jiyoung

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the multiplatform and individualized video viewing environment, this study conducted focus groups to delve into reasons behind the choice and use of television over other types of video platforms, and the motives for using social television. The results suggest that the focus group participants feel affection for television as a medium itself — a feeling that is independent of the content available on television. The motives for seeking social television include a sense of communi...

  17. Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

  18. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  19. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  20. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  1. 49 CFR 393.88 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a television...

  2. TV Fights: Women and Men in Interpersonal Arguments on Prime-Time Television Dramas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    Studies the behaviors of women and men represented in interpersonal arguments in prime-time television dramas. Finds a weak link between actual argument behaviors and those on television, thereby socializing viewers in a manner inconsistent with reality. Suggests that television arguments are guided more by the needs of the medium that a need to…

  3. Television Viewing at Home: Age Trends in Visual Attention and Time with TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Decribes age trends in television viewing time and visual attention of children and adults videotaped in their homes for 10-day periods. Shows that the increase in visual attention to television during the preschool years is consistent with the theory that television program comprehensibility is a major determinant of attention in young children.…

  4. Television violence and its effect on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M O

    1996-04-01

    Television (TV) has become a large part of children's activities. Much discussion exists as to the level of violence on TV programs and its effect on children's behavior. This article reviews the literature, discusses social issues, and presents some interventions available to nursing professionals to assist children and families in coping with the impact of TV on children's lives.

  5. Ubiquitous TV: A Business Model Perspective on the Norwegian Television Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bjøndal, Tore Stautland; Gedde, Mads

    2011-01-01

    The Internet is an emerging distribution channel for television content that will deeply impact industry incumbents in the long term. This master thesis explores what challenges are brought forth in this industry by the possibility of Internet distribution of TV and how these issues should be addressed from the business model perspective of incumbent distributors in the Norwegian television market.There have been tremendous developments in Internet related infrastructure over the last decade....

  6. Television advertising of foodstuffs potentially detrimental to oral health--a content analysis and comparison of children's and primetime broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnutt, I G; Ashraf, F J

    2002-06-01

    The study aimed to examine the nature, content and duration of advertisements broadcast during children's television; determine the proportion of advertisements promoting food; identify the potential of the food advertised to be detrimental to oral health; and to compare the nature and content of advertisements aimed at children with those transmitted during evening 'primetime' television. Children's and primetime television, broadcast on a main independent terrestrial channel in South Wales were video recorded, 237 and 42 hours being analysed in total. Analysis of the recording resulted in a total of 3,236 commercials, of which 2,345 were broadcast during children's television and 891 in primetime. During children's TV, 62.5% of advertising time was devoted to foodstuffs, significantly greater (Padvertising foods during primetime. Of the time spent advertising foods, during children's television 73.4% was devoted to products deemed potentially detrimental to oral health (primarily high in sugar), compared to 18.6% similarly categorised during evening television. Commercials for products which have the potential to adversely affect oral health constitute a large proportion of advertising time during children's television. Current codes of the Independent Television Commission governing advertising directed at children should be reviewed.

  7. [Football, television and emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, O; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J

    2000-04-15

    To know the influence of televised football on the use of emergency department (ED). We assessed the number, demographic characteristics and acuity of patients attended during the broadcast of football matches played by FC Barcelona during Champions' League (n = 12), and they were compared with days without televised football (n = 12). Televised football was associated with a decrease in visits to ED (-18%; p = 0.002). Such a decrease was observed for all ED units, but only for traumatology unit reached statistical significance (-28%; p = 0.006). Decay of ED visits were mainly due to a decrease of low-acuity consults (-30%; p = 0.04). There is a significant decrease on ED use associated with televised football.

  8. Physical Attractiveness Stereotyping on American Television Programs: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris; Harrison, Sheila K.

    The frequencies of specific types of verbal attractiveness stereotypes portrayed on television commercials and regular programs were determined in two studies. In the first, the 4,294 commercials aired between 8 and 10 p.m. on the 3 major networks were observed during a 7-day period in the spring of 1982. Statements related to attractiveness were…

  9. Children's Reactions to Television Advertising for Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Gerald J.; Goldberg, Marvin E.

    This study investigated both the effects of expectancy and TV commercials using an expectancy-value model. In a 3 x 5 factorial design, eight- to ten-year-old boys (N=133) were presented with low, moderate or high expectancies of winning a toy, followed by exposure to 0, 1 or 3 repetitions of a TV commercial for the toy. High expectancy led to…

  10. Wat onhoudt een consument van een tv-commercial? Een kijkje in het brein met neuro-imaging technieken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Smidts (Ale)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMet een nieuwe neuro-imaging techniek om de activiteit in de hersenen te meten, de zogenaamde steady-state probe topography (SSPT), kan opgespoord worden welke scènes uit een tv-commercial door consumenten goed herinnerd worden. Uit een experiment blijkt dat scènes die langer dan 1,5

  11. Television News Imagery: A Hierarchy of Diegetic Mediation through Viewer Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Timothy J.

    The ways in which, and the extent to which, changes in viewer positioning mediate the diegesis of commercial television news is problematic, since television news is generally considered to be "non-fiction." Diegesis can be defined as the depicted real-world. The choices made in depicting the scene have implications as to the positioning…

  12. Scheduling science on television: A comparative analysis of the representations of science in 11 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Markus; Karamanidou, Christina; Mörä, Tuomo; Petkova, Kristina; Trench, Brian

    2012-11-01

    This article explores the factors that influence the volume and structure of science programming by European television broadcasters, focussing on differences among channel patterns. It proposes three factors as relevant to understanding differences in science programming: A) the segmentation/fragmentation of television markets; B) the presence of middle sized commercial channels; C) the dependency of public service TV channels on commercial income (trading/advertising). We identified countries whose channel patterns encourage a varied picture of science - namely Sweden, Finland and Germany. They are distinguished from those which show a less differentiated picture and present a smaller volume of science content on television - such as Great Britain and Ireland. Finally, we identified countries whose channel patterns don't encourage a varied picture of science - namely Spain, Greece, Bulgaria and Estonia - and these countries present their small volume of science content at off-peak hours, in contrast to patterns in Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Politics and Politicians – Main Topic and Main Characters on Television News

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Car

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between television as a medium, and politics and politicians as the content of television news in Croatia. The first part of the paper explains the models of ‘media logic’, ‘partisan logic’ and ‘party logic’. The second part of the paper presents the results of the research conducted on the representative sample of primetime news HTV Dnevnik for the period 1991-2009, and Nova TV Dnevnik and RTL Vijesti for the period 2005-2009. The goal of the research was to examine the presence of political topics on primetime news, as well to what extent politicians are presented as main characters. The results show a sustained decline of politics on the news and their simultaneous replacement by news on disasters and lifestyle. Further, citizens and their opinion become more important than opinions of politicians, experts and scientists. Comparing the news on public service television and on commercial televisions, the author elaborates on the internal processes and changes of the television medium and finally introduces the concept of ‘power logic’ to explain news selection and news editing on the Croatian TV channels.

  14. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  15. Quantification of Rain Induced Artifacts on Digital Satellite Television ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of artifacts on the high definition television (TV) content and the eventual loss of the digital TV signals to rain is still a major concern to satellite operators, digital satellite television (DSTV) and terrestrial television content providers. In this paper, the artifacts present in a typical DSTV signal is examined on a ...

  16. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  17. 76 FR 35831 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  18. 78 FR 44090 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cedar Rapids, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Hossein Hashemzadeh...

  19. An Examination of Television Viewing Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies nine motivations for television viewing and relates these to age, viewing levels, television attitudes of attachment and reality, and program preferences. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of uses and gratifications research perspectives. (JMF)

  20. Children's Television: More than Mere Entertainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The authors propose that television, while entertaining children, also socializes them. To support this conclusion they review the literature regarding effects of television content on aggressive and prosocial behavior and social attitudes. (Editor)

  1. Racism and the Media: Racism in Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marquita

    1971-01-01

    The major problem confronting black people working in the television industry today is that of communicating with the black community, despite the nature of television and its system of operation. (DM)

  2. Equilibrium in a random viewer model of television broadcasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Keiding, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The authors considered a model of commercial television market with advertising with probabilistic viewer choice of channel, where private broadcasters may coexist with a public television broadcaster. The broadcasters influence the probability of getting viewer attention through the amount...... number of channels. The authors derive properties of equilibrium in an oligopolistic market with private broadcasters and show that the number of firms has a negative effect on overall advertising and viewer satisfaction. If there is a public channel that also sells advertisements but does not maximize...... profits, this will have a positive effect on advertiser and viewer satisfaction....

  3. Family education and television mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz CÁNOVAS LEONHARDT

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article try to deal with the complex influence of television viewing in the process of socialization of children and adolescents, focusing our attention on the importance of the family as the mediator-educator agency of particular relevance. Once analyzed the basic theoretical assumptions, we deepened in reality under study by providing data about how the studied population lives television and what extent parental mediation influences and affects the process. The article concludes with some reflections and pedagogical suggestions which trying to help to the optimization of the educational reality.

  4. Television in the Schools: Instructional Television and Educational Media Resources at the National Public Broadcasting Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Karen

    2008-01-01

    In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…

  5. Identifying household television practices to reduce children’s television time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.

    2013-01-01

    The risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing justify television-reduction efforts. Targeting parents and the household environment provides a promising strategy for limiting television. Research has highlighted household television practices to reduce children’s viewing, but more

  6. Antecedents of Children's Comprehension of the Purpose of Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Ronald J.; And Others

    A study was conducted to compare the relative importance of several different variables from different theoretical perspectives in explaining how children understood the advertising on commercial television. Sixty-seven first and third grade students were interviewed individually to assess their current stage of logical operations and role taking,…

  7. Television the Medium, the Message and Nutritional Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a review of research linking nutritional health and body image attitudes with television viewing. Highlights include content analyses of advertisements and programming; audience uses of television; television as reality; socialization of attitudes and television; television, body image and self-esteem; television and health behaviors; and…

  8. 47 CFR 76.51 - Major television markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major television markets. 76.51 Section 76.51... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.51 Major television markets. For purposes of the cable television rules, the following is a list of the major television markets and their...

  9. Neutron television camera detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron area detector system is being developed at the Institut Laue-Langevin which is based on a system for x-rays. The system has a large counting rate capability; this is extremely important where the total background count exceeds the total counts in the signals of interest. Its spatial resolution is of the order of one mm, while the screen size is 400 mm. The main limitation of the system is its limited counting efficiency, and this is directly attributable to the optical self-absorption of the neutron phosphor. All coherent noise in the system, i.e., all noise synchronized with the TV scans, has to be kept lower than the first bit threshold. However, this requirement can be relaxed when dealing with diffraction patterns, such as those from single crystals, for which a local background is subtracted from the pattern

  10. Upbringing with a TV set in the background. Of television in everyday family life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRYCJA HANYGA-JANCZAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporarily, television is the most popular of all mass media and watching it is the most frequent way of spending leisure time. It seems that no one argues for a positive role of television in family life anymore, with complete lack of contact with television being disadvantageous to the family, as well. The opportunity to use television increases self-esteem and allows for participation in what is going on in the country and in the world; it is, therefore, worth it to make use of its benefits reasonably

  11. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  12. Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

  13. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  14. Interaction between Siblings in Primetime Television Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Mary S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes three primetime family sitcoms in order to describe the nature of sibling interaction in television families. Research on television families is examined, and questions are raised concerning the value of television sibling images as role models for real people, and the effects of these models on family and peer relationships. (27…

  15. 21 CFR 1020.10 - Television receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television receivers...

  16. Magical thinking and memory: distinctiveness effect for tv commercials with magical content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotsky, Eugene; Mathews, Jayne

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether memorizing advertised products of television advertisements with magical effects (i.e., talking animals, inanimate objects which turn into humans, objects that appear from thin air or instantly turn into other objects) is easier than memorizing products of advertisements without such effects, by testing immediate and delayed retention. Adolescents and adults viewed two films containing television advertisements and were asked to recall and recognize the films' characters, events, and advertised products. Film 1 included magical effects, but Film 2 did not. On a free-recall test, no differences in the number of items recalled were noted for the two films. On the immediate recognition test, adolescents, but not adults, showed significantly better recognition for the magical than the nonmagical film. When this test was repeated two weeks later, results were reversed: adults, but not adolescents, recognized a significantly larger number of items from the magical film than the nonmagical one. These results are interpreted to accentuate the role of magical thinking in cognitive processes.

  17. Adjective Identification in Television Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2013-01-01

    Learning the Malay language has been a challenging task for foreign language learners. Learners have to learn Malay grammar structure rules in order to write simple sentences. The word choice is important in constructing a sentence. Therefore, the study focuses on the use of adjectives in television advertisements among Korean learners at Hankuk…

  18. Cable Television in Sedalia, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamkin, Kathryn Janel

    A field study was conducted of the status of cable television in Sedalia, Missouri. Based on interviews of city council members and staff members of Cablevision, the Sedalia cable franchise holder, the following issues were investigated: (1) subscription rates; (2) franchise negotiations; (3) quality of existing services; and (4) possible…

  19. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  20. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    in the extra bonus material (Gray, 2010; Waade, 2013), and film tours and film apps become part of the television series’ trans-media franchise (Reijnders, 2011; Thompson, 2007). Location has so far been a practical term describing the place where the series is shot. Ellis (1992) used to see location...

  1. Violence on canadian television networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Guy

    2004-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.

  2. Will Television Bring Us This?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    25 Mei 1974 ... In October 1973 viewers of a popular show on. BBC television in the UK were given unequivocal statements about the treatment of rheumatic disease and advice on treatment recommending a 'prescrip- tion only' drug recently introduced to that market. The use of the medium to advise specific anti-.

  3. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  4. Development of multi-group spectral code TVS-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarenko, A. P.; Pryanichnikov, A. V.; Kalugin, M. A.; Gurevich, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the latest version of TVS-M code - TVS-M 2007, which allows the neutron flux distribution inside fuel assemblies to be calculated without using the diffusion approximation. The new spatial calculation module PERST introduced in TBS-M code is based on the first collisions probability method and allows the scattering anisotropy to be accounted for. This paper presents some preliminary results calculated with the use of the new version of TVS-M code. (Authors)

  5. Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide : ‘Living’ History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, Berber

    2017-01-01

    Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide: “Living” History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform Berber Hagedoorn University of Groningen (NL) E-mail: b.hagedoorn@rug.nl Abstract: Modern audiences engage with representations of the past in a particular way via the medium of television,

  6. Innovations in television field: transition to the digital television

    OpenAIRE

    Serzhuk Anastasia Volodymyrivna; Kozlova Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The article is about significance of innovations and innovative process. It is investigated that the development of the innovative activity acquires a great importance for management innovations at the enterprise; the pre-conditions of the innovative are determined and the innovative implementation to the telecommunication market are studied. The role of the digital television as a new type of broadcasting technology, where the transmission, processing and storage of t...

  7. Political Tv Talk Shows on Greek Television: Live Broadcasting as an ideological and Cognitive frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Vovou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a semiopragmatic analysis of the political talk shows on Greek television that reveals a symbolic conception of the TV studio and it’s value-attributing mechanisms through which principles of democratic dialogue are enacted inside this kind of social and media frame. Political talk shows create the notion of a complex temporality, larger than the concept of events presented live, afecting the political and social vision of the audience.

  8. Infotainment in the central informative TV programs of national broadcasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Dejana B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to determine the presence of infotainment elements as well as differences in the amount of their participation in the top news programs of the Public Service in Serbia: Radio Television of Serbia (RTS and two commercial televisions, Pink, being the most watched private television, and Television B92. 'Infotainment ' is an English compound word which denotes a phenomenon related to the television. This media phenomenon is not a new one, but it has experienced its massive breakthrough into the media content in the market competition. It was created with the intention of making the news program more popular in order to entice advertisers who pay for advertising time and on whom commercial televisions depend. The methods which were used in the research are qualitative (a discourse analysis and quantitative (a content analysis. The analysis of the data showed that there is a difference in news program of RTS, mostly in relation to TV Pink in terms of infotainment, and to some extent in relation to TV B92. In addition to the importance of the research that should show the state of the newscast on the Serbian national television, this paper also provides a theoretical contribution to the understanding of the infotainment problem.

  9. 75 FR 3695 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ (TV), channel *10... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  10. 76 FR 66250 - Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Community Television of Ohio License, LLC (``Community Television''), the licensee of station WJW (TV), channel 8, Cleveland...

  11. Television Advertising and Soda Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...

  12. Saturday-morning television: do sponsors promote high-risk behavior for burn injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L; Aoki, Traci; Combs, Elena; Curri, Terese; Garma, Sylvia; Kaulkin, Cammie; Lawless, Mary Beth; Nelson, Kate; Sanders, Johanna; Warden, Nancy; Greenhalgh, David G

    2004-01-01

    Television has become an important tool for learning and socialization in children. Although television violence has been associated with adverse effects, data on depiction of fire and burn injury are lacking. We sought to determine whether Saturday-morning television programming, viewed primarily by children, depicts fire and burn injury as safe or without consequence, thus potentially increasing the incidence of burn injury in children. This was a prospective observational study. Saturday-morning children's television programs were videotaped from 7 AM to 11 AM for eight different television networks during a 6-month period. Tapes were scored for scenes depicting fire or smoke by independent observers. Recorded items included show category, scene type, gender target, context of fire, and outcome after exposure to flame. Fire events were documented during programs and their associated commercials. A total of 108 hours of children's programs, 16 hours per network, were recorded. Scenes depicting fire or smoke were identified 1960 times, with 39% of events occurring during the program itself and 61% in commercials. Fire was depicted as either safe or without consequence in 64% of incidents. Action adventure stories accounted for 56% of flame depictions. Overall, one incident involving flame and fire was portrayed for each 3 minutes of television programming. Saturday-morning television programming frequently depicts fire as safe, empowering, or exciting. The incidence of flame use in programming varies between stations but is most prevalent in action/adventure stories. Television commercials, although brief, provide the majority of the misinformation regarding fire. Medical professional societies should alert the public to this potential hazard and recommend responsible portrayal of fire in children's television programming.

  13. Over the top mobile TV : A field trial by public and commercial broadcasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, W.A.G.A.; De Reuver, G.A.; Stalman, S.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile TV has been on the research agenda and promoted by Telecom operators as the killer app for their services for a long time. However with the emergence of Over The Top providers (OTT’s) mobile Internet offers the opportunity to fulfil this unmet promise. In this paper we discuss the results of

  14. Mitigating the Harmful Effects of Violent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…

  15. Alcohol marketing in televised English professional football: a frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew; Adams, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the frequency of alcohol marketing (both formal commercials and otherwise) in televised top-class English professional football matches. A purposive sample of six broadcasts (total = 1101 min) of televised top-class English club football matches were identified and recorded in full. A customized coding framework was used to identify and categorize all verbal and visual alcohol references in non-commercial broadcasting. The number and the duration of all formal alcohol commercials were also noted. A mean of 111 visual references and 2 verbal references to alcohol per hour of broadcast were identified. Nearly all visual references were to beer products and were primarily simple logos or branding. The majority of verbal alcohol references were related to title-sponsorship of competitions. A total of 17 formal alcohol commercials were identified, accounting for <1% of total broadcast time. Visual alcohol references in televised top-class English football matches are common with an average of nearly two per minute. Verbal references are rare and formal alcohol commercials account for <1% of broadcast time. Restriction of all alcohol sports sponsorship, as seen for tobacco, may be justified.

  16. Medical practice branding using cable television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaoulis, George; Kissinger, Mark; Sirko-Fiorilli, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Genesis Medical Associates is an independent primary care practice in the suburbs of Pittsburgh. Given competitive pressures, a member of the physician leadership began thinking about the need for the practice to develop an "identity and awareness" program to set the practice apart from the competition. The idea for branding the campaign began when Dr. Rob Potter, Jr., was attending a Pittsburgh Pirates baseball game and a fan said to him, "You're that doctor I see on television" in the nursing home commercial. Triggered by this experience, Potter saw the opportunity to develop an awareness and identity campaign for Genesis. In this article we share the reasons for, the steps taken, and initial results in developing a medical practice branding strategy.

  17. Televised antismoking advertising: effects of level and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally; Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-08-01

    We assessed the effects of levels and duration of exposure to televised antismoking advertising on cognitive and behavioral changes. We used data from a serial cross-sectional telephone survey with weekly interviews of adult smokers and recent quitters in New South Wales, Australia (n = 13,301), between April 2005 and December 2010. We merged survey data with commercial TV ratings data to estimate individuals' exposure to antismoking advertising. Logistic regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for a wide range of potential confounders, exposure to antismoking advertising at levels between 100 and 200 gross rating points per week on average over 6 to 9 weeks was associated with an increased likelihood of having (1) salient quitting thoughts and (2) recent quit attempts. Associations between exposure for shorter periods and these outcomes were not significant. Broadcasting schedules may affect the success of antismoking ads. Campaign planners should ensure advertising exposure at adequate frequency over relatively sustained periods to maximize impact.

  18. Gender role biases on Indian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, S K

    1989-01-01

    Gender role biases in Indian television have served to reinforce and even enhance the degradation of women in the broader society. A content analysis of 20 news programs, 20 fictionalized serials, and 100 commercials conducted over a 3-week period in 1988 indicated that women are portrayed as victims, caretakers, and sex objects while men are presented as masters, doers, and intellectuals. Of the 400 hours of news programs studied, men newsmakers accounted for 71% of the content while women were featured in only 10% of the segments. Even then, women's portrayal in the news tended to center on their roles as beneficiaries of welfare schemes, victims of accidents, or as the wives of male dignitaries. Fictionalized dramas reinforced the sex role stereotypes of men as decisive, assertive, dominant, and career- oriented, and of women as emotionally dependent, eager to please, sentimental, and primarily concerned with family relationships. Female characters in these series were most often housewives, secretaries, teachers, or nurses. Women were featured more often (56% of content) than men in Indian commercials, yet were shown performing stereotyped female activities such as shopping, preparing meals, and dressing to obtain the sexual approval of men. This sex role stereotyping in the media is seriously impeding the struggles of women in India to achieve economic and political autonomy. To promote more positive role modeling and change women's self-image, Indian television must move immediately to portray women achieving self-realization through their careers and social participation and to depict cooperation between men and women in performing household chores.

  19. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.

  20. Children's attitudes toward violence on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, K J; Erwin, P G

    1997-07-01

    Children's attitudes toward television violence were studied. A 47-item questionnaire collecting attitudinal and personal information was administered to 316 children aged 11 to 16 years. Cluster analysis was used to split the participants into two groups based on their attitudes toward television violence. A stepwise discriminant function analysis was performed to determine which personal characteristics would predict group membership. The only significant predictor of attitudes toward violence on television was the amount of television watched on school days (p < .05), but we also found that the impact of other predictor variables may have been mediated by this factor.

  1. Digital Technology and the Interactive Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozéias Teixeira de Souza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is analyzed the impact that the digital technology process causes in the way that television participates of the social life in Brazil. Trying a non-hermeneutic approach, it is proposed to think this new role of television, from the materiality existing on this media that can bring more interactivity and conducts the changes over people behavior. In our opinion, we realize that materiality can support the transposition of the nowadays analogical interaction form – the televiewer-television model – to a user-machine model in the digital television.

  2. Television's Child; The Impact of Television on Today's Children; What Parents Can Do About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Norman S.

    Based on an extensive series of interviews with clinical psychiatrists and psychologists, educators, television executives, producers, performers, advertisers, parents, and children themselves, this book explores the effect of television on a child's values. It delves into the question of a relationship between violence on television and violent…

  3. Television Violence and Behavior: The Effects of Television Violence on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Charla A.

    Television violence and the impact it has on children is a growing concern in the world today. Although research indicates that violence on television triggers aggressive behavior in children, the characteristics of those children also need to be examined. Factors such as age, intellectual level, identification with television personalities, the…

  4. Meanings of television in older adults’ lives: an analysis of change and continuity in television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.; van Selm, M.

    2012-01-01

    Television viewing is an important leisure activity for older adults. The aim of the current study is to provide insight into the meanings of television in older adults' lives, by analysing change and continuity in their television viewing. A qualitative study was conducted that included in-depth

  5. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal…

  6. Technology of Wide Color Gamut Backlight with Light-Emitting Diode for Liquid Crystal Display Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, Koichiro

    2006-05-01

    The development of light-emitting diode (LED) backlight a wide-color-gamut and mercury-free has become active in liquid crystal display (LCD) industry. Reports on the development of backlights, such as a direct illumination-type back-light and a guided light illumination-type LED backlight were published. The fabrication of an actual commercial product has been progressing under this active development. Sony Corporation launched an LED-backlit LCD television (TV) model, dubbed QUALIA 005, the world’s first home-use television featuring LED backlighting. This product offers a very wide color reproduction range, delivering a color gamut of 150% of that typically achieved by conventional televisions. In this paper, the background of the development of the LED backlight system “TriluminosTM” and the technologies used to realize the wide color gamut are discussed. The main issues to be solved for the commercialization were how to reduce the brightness/color non uniformity of the backlight and how to treat heat generation from the LED. The standardization of wide color space definition xvYCC and LED backlight LCD television combination is expected to result in a more vivid and correct color expression, and a forecast that extends to the market in the future.

  7. Humor in advertising: a review on use of television radio and print advertising media

    OpenAIRE

    S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Television advertising is a most common commercial activity used in advertising medium. Humor in advertising contains an important aspect on changing attitude of the consumer, improves buying behavior and creates new patterns for buying any goods and services. Humor in television advertising is the effective and convenient way to attract the any consumers because they are emotional based content and makes the consumer to special for satisfaction. Compared to all emotions humor advertising is ...

  8. DWPF remotable television and cell lighting facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckendorn, F.M. II.

    1984-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for radioactive waste vitrification at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is now under construction. Development of specialized low cost television (TV) viewing equipment for in-cell and within-melter applications is now complete. High resolution TV cameras not originally designed for high radiation environments have been demonstrated in crane remotable packages to be well suited to the DWPF. High intensity in-cell lighting has also been demonstrated in crane remotable assemblies. These dual 1000 W units (2000 W total) are used to support the multiplicity of TV and cell window viewing requirements. 8 figures

  9. 77 FR 46631 - Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video...

  10. 77 FR 6481 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in May 2011, it subsequently... CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division...

  11. 76 FR 14855 - Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-29, RM-11622; DA 11-335] Television Broadcasting Services; Nashville, TN AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Kevin R. Harding...

  12. 78 FR 12967 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation... Federal Communications Commission published requirements related to Establishment of Class A TV Service...

  13. Energy Use of Televisions and Videocassette Recorders in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Karen

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate current energy use of residential televisions (TVs) and videocassette recorders (VCRs) in the United States. Ownership and usage statistics were taken from media research, while average power values were derived from power measurements of nearly 500 units. Results indicate that TVs and VCRs comprise 3.6% of U.S. residential electricity consumption. In homes with at least one TV, the average annual household TV energy consumption is 310 kWh, 23% of which i...

  14. Hooked for a Week on Two Yugoslav TV Channels: PALMA and RTS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanic, Aleksandar

    1996-01-01

    Investigates content composition, quality, and origin of two Yugoslav TV channels reflecting current media make-up in the region (remaining domination of state television and proliferation of commercial TV). Corroborates some assumed directions of new electronic media: focus on entertainment; lack of news and information programming; and high…

  15. The Paradigmatic Evolution of U.S. Television and the Emergence of Internet-Distributed Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Lotz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Television industries around the world have weathered profound change as technologies advanced and services developed to allow internet-distributed television to compete alongside broadcast and cable-distributed television. This article, drawn from the context of the U.S., explores the emergence of internet-distributed television as a mechanism that provides the affordance of nonlinear distribution. It assesses the preliminary organization of internet-distributed television by portals and explores the similarities and differences between portals and networks/channels with an eye toward conceptualizing emerging business practices and strategies.

  16. The Interactions of Television Uses and Gratifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Alan M.

    Data from 464 adults were analyzed to provide a more heuristic paradigm for mass communication uses and gratifications research in a study of the interactive nature of television viewing motivations, viewing behavior, and attitude gratifications. Factor analysis located five principal television viewing motivations: passing time, information,…

  17. Understanding the Properties of Interactive Televised Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Ponto, Katelyn C.

    2013-01-01

    Children's television programming frequently uses interactive characters that appear to directly engage the viewers. These characters encourage children to answer questions and perform actions to help the characters solve problems in the televised world. Children readily engage in these interactions; however, it is unclear why they do so. To…

  18. Children's Perceived Realism of Family Television Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Beth E.; And Others

    This study examined the influence of grade level, program content, and ethnic match between viewer and television characters on children's perceptions of the realism of families portrayed in television series. In the 1986-87 school year, a sample of 1,692 children in 2nd, 5th, and 10th grades completed a 13-item questionnaire measuring their…

  19. Factors to Consider When Designing Television Pictorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trohanis, Pascal; Du Monceau, Michael

    1971-01-01

    The authors have developed a framework for improving the visual communication element of television. After warning that seeing is not enough to insure learning they discuss the five pre-production components which research indicates should be considered when designing television pictorials." (Editor)

  20. Parent-Child Coviewing of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Aimee; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses parent-child television coviewing and describes the results of a study that examined coviewing of television series featuring families via questionnaire responses from second, sixth, and tenth graders and their parents. The paper and pencil instruments that were administered are described, and dependent and independent variables are…

  1. Modularization and Packaging of Public Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John; And Others

    This report examines the changing relationship between public television programming and program distribution methods, and considers whether there is a need to change the design and packaging of some public television programming to respond to changes in the way the audience receives its programming as interactive cable systems, videocassettes,…

  2. Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.

    This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television…

  3. Fright reactions to television; A child survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.; Cantor, J.; Peeters, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Using telephone interviews with a random sample of Dutch children between the ages of 7 and 12 years, the authors investigated (a) the prevalence of television-induced fright, (b) whether the fear-inducing capacity of different types of television content (interpersonal violence, fantasy characters,

  4. Time spent on television in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Konig, R.P.; Nelissen, P.W.M.; Huysmans, F.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explain the variation in time spent on watching television in 15 European Union countries, using determinants defined at the individual level, and characteristics defined at the national level, such as the number of channels and nature of the television supply. The results of the

  5. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilbach, Judith

    2014-01-01

    abstractThe trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it

  6. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keilbach

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it maintained at the same time ideological boundaries.

  7. Cinematography and Television: Differences and Similarites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Nazareth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Television and Cinema present specific behaviour and language in relation to reality. If film focuses on its proximity to artistic practices, and this reflects the viewer’s relationship with the film, television, in turn, seeks in directness or the transposition of the real to the imaginary, the key to its success, the audience. We all see the possibilities that television has for viewers. Even those most aware of the various con- straints, and who claim themselves to be not influenced, come under the hypnotic power of the television screen. The quality of the programming continues to decline, succumbing to the claim that television channels have to get into the audience “ratings”.

  8. Prosocial effects of entertainment television in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W J

    1990-01-01

    The study examines the prosocial effects of Hum Log (We People), India's 1st long running television soap opera. Hum Log was a prosocial TV program that was designed to promote women's status in Indian society. Regression analysis was used to measure the degree to which exposure to Hum Log affected viewers' (1) awareness of certain prosocial beliefs promoted by the series, (2) level of TV dependency, (3) involvement with the characters of Hum Log, and (4) adherence to 3 prosocial beliefs promoted by Hum Log. Exposure to Hum Log was positively associated with viewer's awareness of the program's prosocial messages, TV dependency, and involvement with TV characters in the series. Viewers who were more exposed to Hum Log were also more likely to believe in women's equality and women's freedom of choice, but not in family planning. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of present and future research on the use of prosocial TV programs for development in Asia.

  9. [Epilepsy in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús María

    2012-10-01

    Literature, cinema and television have often portrayed stereotypical images of people that have epilepsy and have helped foster false beliefs about the disease. To examine the image of epilepsy presented by literature, cinema and television over the years. Epilepsy has frequently been portrayed in literary works, films and television series, often relating it with madness, delinquency, violent behaviours or possession by the divine or the diabolical, all of which has helped perpetuate our ancestral beliefs. The literary tales and the images that appear in films and on television cause an important emotional impact and, bearing in mind that many people will only ever see an epileptic seizure in a film or in a TV series or might gain some information about the disorder from a literary text, what they see on the screen or read in the novels will be their only points of reference. Such experiences will therefore mark the awareness and knowledge they will have about epilepsy and their attitudes towards the people who suffer from it. Novels and films are fiction, but it is important to show realistic images of the disease that are no longer linked to the false beliefs of the past and which help the general public to have a more correct view of epilepsy that is free from prejudices and stereotypes. Literature, cinema and television have often dealt with the subject of epilepsy, sometimes realistically, but in many cases they have only helped to perpetuate false beliefs about this disease.

  10. Women in Television News: Analysis of Primetime News on HTV, RTL and Nova TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svjetlana Knežević

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the particularly low level of women represented on national primetime television newscasts in Croatia. In doing so, it presents the results of a content analysis covering a random,stratified sample of HTV, Nova TV, and RTL primetime news broadcasts over the years 2009 and 2010. According to these results, women are significantly underrepresented as main characters, experts, or even persons relevant to news stories concerning issues or problems. In particular, the results are most apparent on the primetime newscast Dnevnik, broadcasted daily on Croatia’s main public television station. Ideally, this news broadcast should rank among the best in terms of gender equality, given the principles of equality stipulated throughout Croatian law (and especially where it concerns programming legislation. Concerning the analyzed content, when women serve as the main characters in a news story, their emotional response to an issue appears to be almost obligatory. Further, women are often portrayed as victims, or as a figure to galvanize a rather black and white response, i.e. they are to be praised or blamed. Adding to this gender discrepancy, statistics show that more women than men have earned BA and MA degrees, which not only highlights the unbalanced representation of women on television news, but also distorts the actual level of female participation in society, particularly where it regards sociopolitical fields.

  11. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    In a plant that employs remote handling techniques for equipment maintenance, operators perform maintenance tasks primarily by using the information from television systems. The efficiency of the television system has a significant impact on remote maintenance task performance. High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number of horizontal scan lines as standard-resolution television (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution NTSC television). The added scan lines dramatically improve the resolution of images on the HDTV monitors. This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (a) high-definition color television, (b) high-definition monochromatic television, (c) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (d) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television

  12. Trends in food advertising to children on free-to-air television in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; King, Lesley; Hebden, Lana

    2011-04-01

    The issue of marketing unhealthy food to children and its contribution to childhood obesity has become a highly politicised debate in Australia. The aim of this study was to compare recent television food advertising patterns in 2008 to previously published Australian research on television advertising from 2006 and 2007, to examine any changes following policy debates. Television broadcasting was recorded for two weekdays and two weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00 in February 2008 for all three commercial television channels. Food advertisements were classified as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous. Television audience data were obtained to determine broadcast periods corresponding to children's peak viewing times. The overall rate of food advertising decreased over time: from seven food advertisements/hour/channel in 2006/07 to five in 2008. However, the relative contribution of non-core food advertising to overall food advertising remained stable. In 2008, the proportion of food advertisements for non-core foods was significantly higher during children's peak viewing times (padvertisements for unhealthy foods on commercial television, which are shown during time periods when the highest numbers of children are watching. Regulations to limit unhealthy food advertising during the time periods when a significant number of children are watching are required. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children′s Television Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertisements can influence children′s health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children′s television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. Methods: All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children′s programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s and mode of presentation (s were coded. Results: A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31% across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%. The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54% and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Conclusion: Although the total number of food advertisements during children′s television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  14. Children's violent television viewing: are parents monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R

    2004-07-01

    Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched

  15. 47 CFR 76.1630 - MVPD digital television transition notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Analog-only TVs should continue to work as before to receive low power, Class A or translator television....DTV.gov, 1-888-CALL-FCC (TTY 1-888-TELL-FCC), or this MVPD at [telephone number and Web site if...

  16. TV Audience Measurement with Big Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra

    2014-06-01

    TV audience measurement involves estimating the number of viewers tuned into a TV show at any given time as well as their demographics. First introduced shortly after commercial television broadcasting began in the late 1940s, audience measurement allowed the business of television to flourish by offering networks a way to quantify the monetary value of TV audiences for advertisers, who pay for the estimated number of eyeballs watching during commercials. The first measurement techniques suffered from multiple limitations because reliable, large-scale data were costly to acquire. Yet despite these limitations, measurement standards remained largely unchanged for decades until devices such as cable boxes, video-on-demand boxes, and cell phones, as well as web apps, Internet browser clicks, web queries, and social media activity, resulted in an explosion of digitally available data. TV viewers now leave digital traces that can be used to track almost every aspect of their daily lives, allowing the potential for large-scale aggregation across data sources for individual users and groups and enabling the tracking of more people on more dimensions for more shows. Data are now more comprehensive, available in real time, and cheaper to acquire, enabling accurate and fine-grained TV audience measurement. In this article, I discuss the evolution of audience measurement and what the recent data explosion means for the TV industry and academic research.

  17. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  18. Adolescent exposure to food advertising on television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    Television viewing is hypothesized to contribute to obesity among children and adolescents through several mechanisms that include the displacement of physical activity, snacking while watching TV, and the influence of food advertising. This study drew on television ratings to examine the distribution of food advertising exposure among adolescents aged 12 through 17 based on 170 top-rated shows across network, cable and syndicated TV stations over the 9-month period from September 2003 to May 2004. A total of 238,353 30-second equivalent advertisements on the top-rated shows were assessed. Each advertisement was weighted by its rating to measure actual exposure to advertisements. The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for African-American versus white adolescents and total exposure to food advertising would be even larger for African-American teens given that, on average, they watched more TV. Fast food was the most frequently viewed food product category comprising 23% of all food-related advertisements among adolescents. Food ads made up just over one quarter of TV ads viewed by adolescents with the most commonly viewed products of fast food, sweets, and beverage products well within the reach of their own purchasing power.

  19. [TV, overweight and nutritional surveillance. Ads content, food intake and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, T D; Bioletti, L; Bo, C; Formigatti, M

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between television viewing and obesity in children and adults was examined in a large number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies. Some randomised, controlled trials confirmed the evidence that television viewing is a cause of increased body fatness. It seems of utility in nutritional surveillance to esteem time spent by children and adults in television watching and to evaluate ads contents and food preferences suggested by them. This editorial shows a two-years long analysis of food commercials broadcasted by the main Italian TV networks; food ads targeted on children, housewives and sport fans were evaluated; the relationship between television viewing, commercials and food intake or global lifestyle was investigated in a Piedmont's population (from Northern Italy). School projects aimed to reduce television viewing represent a promising strategy for preventing childhood obesity.

  20. ‘More Than a Television Channel’: Channel 4, FilmFour and a Failed Convergence Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Andrews

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obliged by act of Parliament to ‘innovate and experiment’, Channel 4 has, since its birth in 1982, been the UK’s most pioneering commercial television broadcaster. Its arrival broadened the meaning, function and operations of public service broadcasting in the UK, with a particular focus on minorities and pushing boundaries, political and creative. In the late 1990s, though, it was under increasing threat from specialist pay-TV services that could more accurately target its audiences. As a commercially funded channel with public service responsibilities, Channel 4 was under increasing pressure to be financially independent and fulfil a challenging remit. Its response to a threatened income and increasing competition was to diversify its portfolio into various media related businesses, particularly taking advantage of the arrival of digital television to expand its offer. The subtitle of the Corporation’s 2000 Annual report, ‘More than a Television Channel’ indicates the confidence, optimism and boldness with which this expansion was approached. The rapid expansion of the channel’s portfolio in a time of relative confidence in the commercial viability of the television industry was to be reversed only a few years later, when, after it failed to produce the returns it was designed for, 4Ventures was drastically scaled back, and Channel 4 refocused its efforts on the core broadcast channel. Channel 4 therefore offers a test case in the limits of convergence as a strategy for survival for British broadcasters at the arrival of digital television. This paper focuses specifically on the areas of Channel 4’s strategy that pertained to one of the broadcaster’s particular strengths: film culture. It explores one of the film offshoots of 4Ventures: FilmFour Ltd, the film finance, production, sales and distribution company and how its failure to find a commercial hit mirrors the general problems for a commercial public service broadcaster

  1. Using Television to Stimulate Learning and Develop Evaluative Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Wright, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Poses two questions regarding use of television in the social studies classroom--"How can television be used as motivation for learning?" and "How can teachers assist students to make rational evaluations concerning the issues presented on television?" Answers to these questions focus on teaching methods involving television in the classroom.…

  2. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  3. Folklore Music on Romanian TV. From State Socialist Television to Private Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Urdea

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Music genres rooted in folklore have often been interpreted as ideological manoeuvres to forge a sense of national identity (Gordy, Mihailescu, Baker, Cash. This article explores formalized folklore performances of muzică populară as forms ‘media rituals’ (Couldry, and focuses on the role that television has played in establishing the genre as we know it today. It analyses the link between muzică populară as rooted in mass participation activities during communism, and ‘media rituals’ as framed on television (Couldry, indiscriminately and democratically involving the entire population that it addresses (and is available beyond that.

  4. Reuse of secondhand TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Aya; Terazono, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    The trade of secondhand electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) from developed to developing countries has become a growing environmental issue owing to concerns about improper recycling of these goods in developing countries. We followed a 12-m cargo container of cathode-ray-tube color TVs exported from Japan to the Philippines in February 2008. We surveyed the number of TVs damaged in transport, as well as the number of malfunctioning TVs from this shipment. In addition, we present the results of interviews with 113 Filipino consumers who intended to buy secondhand EEE at nine secondhand shops in Metro Manila. Approximately 3% of the imported TVs were damaged upon arrival. The importer sold some of the units directly to local dealers, and kept the rest to repair, refurbish and resell. Approximately 40% of the imported TVs malfunctioned and needed repair in addition to basic reconditioning. Most interviewees indicated that they prefer to buy secondhand EEE because the prices are lower than those of brand-new products. Consumers indicated that they planned on using the product for an average of about 5 years, but the actual period of use may be lower. Most end-of-life EEE in the Philippines is dismantled and recycled by unregulated companies and untrained individuals in markets or near landfill sites, and it is clear that a proper collection system and treatment methods are needed for e-waste. In addition to the material flow of secondhand TVs, we also discuss several economic aspects and appropriate control measures of the international reuse of secondhand TVs.

  5. [Poliomyelitis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M; Águila-Maturana, Ana M

    2014-10-01

    Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease whose initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headaches, vomiting, a stiff neck and pains in the limbs. In many cases, the sequelae are irreversible paralysis and may result in death if there is bulbar or respiratory compromise. A set of symptoms, called post-polio syndrome, which appears years after the acute infection, are also described. To analyse the way poliomyelitis has been dealt with in literature, cinema and television. Film and television writers and directors have shown an interest in poliomyelitis and have portrayed it in a correct and realistic manner, both in fiction and in biographies or documentary-type works. Nemesis, Silver wattle, Leave her to heaven or The fall are some examples of literary works on the subject. Cinema has also portrayed polio all the way back to silent movies, with titles such as The woman in his house, The Silver Streak, Sister Kenny or The sessions. This disease and its sequelae have also been portrayed on television in series such as Hospital Central, Grey's anatomy, House M.D. or Amar en tiempos revueltos, and in TV films like El asunto, Eleanor and Franklin or Warm Springs. Poliomyelitis has been portrayed in literature, cinema and television in a realistic manner, showing its symptoms, sequelae, and the personal, familial and social impact of this disease.

  6. Cable Television 1980: Status and Prospect for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, F., Ed.

    Baseline information for the would-be cable television educational programer is provided by two papers, one an overview of the state of the cable television industry, and the other a report on a marketing study conducted to determine consumer attitudes toward cable TV as an educational medium. In "The Promise and Reality of Cable…

  7. Intertextuality and Television Discourse: The Max Headroom Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddlee

    Max Headroom, the computer-generated media personality, presents a good opportunity for an investigation of the degree of intertextuality in television. Max combines narrative genres (science fiction and film noir), television program types (prime-time episodic narrative, made-for-TV movie, talkshows), advertising and programming, and electronic…

  8. Minority Produced Television: Problems of Policy and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Robert W.; McDermott, Joseph T.

    1970-01-01

    The authors treat some of the special problems faced in evaluating a black-produced television series. Black-Voices was a weekly offering of KTCA-TV in Minneapolis, owned and operated by the Twin Cities Area Educational Television Corporation." (Editor)

  9. Food advertising during children's television in Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Hennessy-Priest, K; Ingimarsdóttir, S; Sheeshka, J; Ostbye, T; White, M

    2009-09-01

    Television advertisements for less healthy foods are thought to contribute to overweight and obesity in children. In the UK, new regulations on television food advertising to children came into effect in April 2007. These prohibit advertisements for "less healthy" foods during or around programmes "of particular appeal to" (OPAT) children. In Canada, self-regulated codes of practice on television food advertising to children were recently strengthened. To document the nutritional content of food advertised and number of advertisements OPAT children broadcast in the UK and central Canada before the introduction of the new UK regulations. All food advertisements broadcast on four popular channels in Canada and the three terrestrial commercial channels in the UK during 1 week in 2006 were identified and linked to relevant nutritional data. Food advertisements OPAT children and for "less healthy" products were identified using the criteria in the UK regulations. 2315 food related advertisements broadcast in Canada and 1365 broadcast in the UK were included. 52-61% were for "less healthy" products; 5-11% were OPAT children. Around 5% of food advertisements would have been prohibited under the new UK regulations. There were few differences in the nutritional content of food described in advertisements that were and were not OPAT children. There was little evidence that food described in advertisements OPAT children were any less healthy than those that were not. Few food advertisements are likely to be prohibited by the new UK regulations.

  10. Ticket-to-talk-television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Marcus Sanchez; Sokoler, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    on a moment-to-moment basis throughout everyday life beyond the TV screens. We take the phenomenon of ticket-to-talk as our point of departure when analyzing observations made during a study of the ways senior citizens go about socializing in everyday face-to-face situations. We then discuss how this analysis...

  11. Health discourse in Swedish television food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M

    2011-06-01

    Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Videogames, Television Violence, and Aggression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Joseph R.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated relationships relative to teenagers' videogame playing, watching violent television programs, antisocial behavior, and self-esteem. Concluded that videogame playing is neither the menace critics portray it nor without possible negative consequences. (PD)

  13. Liquid crystal television spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    The spatial light modulation characteristics and capabilities of the liquid crystal television (LCTV) spatial light modulators (SLMs) are discussed. A comparison of Radio Shack, Epson, and Citizen LCTV SLMs is made.

  14. Structuring virtual spaces as television places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    As all major American broadcast and cable networks now provide some form and amount of online distribution of their television programming, we are beginning to see more interactive features being attached to this distribution to remediate the conditions of television consumption in the physical...... world.  Attaching such interactivity to their online distribution creates cyberspaces of consumption that become places for virtual audiences to congregate as they view the program.  To illustrate how the virtual environments and worlds are constructed to become places for virtual audiences, four case...... considering how these Internet-based interactive television examples demonstrate the remediation of conventional conceptualizations of television distribution structures and consumption practices, which then indicate the power dynamics of the producer-consumer relationship.  The form in which...

  15. Desensitization of Children to Television Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Victor B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    To find if children do become desensitized to violence, a test for a measurable physiological difference in emotional response to filmed violence was administered to children who are high exposure and low exposure television viewers. (Author/KM)

  16. Nuclear lobby group launches television ad campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power is the green wave of the future, according to a television advertising campaign launched by Canada's nuclear industry and designed to help counter the anti-nuclear messages delivered by groups such as Green peace and Energy Probe

  17. Television and Social Problems: A Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two documentary television movies, "Johnny Go Home" and "Goodbye Longfellow Road," in terms of their resultant social change. Includes consideration of audience, time shown, and previous attitudes to provide evidence for his argument. (JEG)

  18. Parental Mediation of Television Advertising Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Thomas S.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the current research on the effects of television advertising on children and the interaction between parent and child regarding the child's consumer behavior. Suggests areas for future research. (JMF)

  19. Beyond Television: Children's Engagement with Online Food and Beverage Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brady

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Food and beverage marketing has been implicated in the childhood obesity “pandemic.” Prior studies have established the negative impact of television advertising on children's dietary intake, yet few have considered the role of online food and beverage marketing, particularly within the Canadian context. Objective This study explores children's engagement in online marketing and investigates the potential impact on their dietary intake. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ryerson University Summer Day Camp to participate in a single one-on-one semi-structured interview. Results A total of 83 children (age 7 to 13 years; mean 9.99 years; 56.3% boys, 43.8% girls participated in the study. Fewer children thought that there is food, drink, or candy advertising on the internet (67.7% than on television (98.8% (p > 0.001. Awareness of online marketing increased with age: 7 to 8 year olds (23.67%; 4, 9 to 10 years (63.89%; 23, 11 to 12 years (86.96%; 20; 13 years (100%; 9. Over one-third of children had visited a website after seeing the address advertised on television (n = 32; 38.55% or on product package (n = 29; 34.94%. Conclusions Branded internet sites, commonly featured on television and product packaging, offer new opportunities for marketers to reach children with messages promoting commercial food and beverage items. These websites are subsequently spread via word-of-mouth through children's peer networks. The independent impact of web-based food, drink and candy marketing, as well as the synergistic effect of multi-channel product promotion, on children's dietary intake merits further investigation.

  20. Public Relations Applications in Librarianship and Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yılmaz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Public relations is an indispensable management function for an organization to reach its target audiences so as to serve them better and, at the same time, to upgrade its status in society as an organization. Television, as mass communication medium, is used effectively in public relations in librarianship. Researches showed that planned public relations is not utilized in the field of librarianship in our country, and television is not made use of for this purpose.

  1. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together...

  2. Necromarketing as Advertising Strategy in American Television

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton Amiee J.

    2016-01-01

    Significant research has been conducted regarding fear appeals, but little empirical evidence concerning death appeals is found. This study determined to what extent necromarketing exists in advertisements in American television. Through a content analysis of 1012 American television advertisements, this study found what product categories employ this marketing strategy and which consumer groups were targeted. Findings show that implicit necromarketing is a more commonly used marketing tactic...

  3. Must See TV: The Timelessness of Television as a Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Courtney Shelton

    2001-01-01

    Examples of ways to use themes and characters from television shows in classroom activities for organizational behavior courses are provided, related to need theories of motivation, perceptual biases and errors, and equity theory. Six appendices provide sample activities and test questions. (SK)

  4. 78 FR 27307 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules--Clarification Regarding Information Collection Requirements; Correction AGENCY...

  5. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  6. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  7. Convergence of Internet and TV: The Commercial Viability of P2P Content Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boever, Jorn

    The popularity of (illegal) P2P (peer-to-peer) file sharing has a disruptive impact on Internet traffic and business models of content providers. In addition, several studies have found an increasing demand for bandwidth consuming content, such as video, on the Internet. Although P2P systems have been put forward as a scalable and inexpensive model to deliver such content, there has been relatively little economic analysis of the potentials and obstacles of P2P systems as a legal and commercial content distribution model. Many content providers encounter uncertainties regarding the adoption or rejection of P2P networks to spread content over the Internet. The recent launch of several commercial, legal P2P content distribution platforms increases the importance of an integrated analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT).

  8. TV FOR CHILDREN : How the Swedish Public Service Television Imagines a Child Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    The study explores how the Swedish public service TV institution imagines a child audience in a societal context where the broadcasting landscape hastransformed greatly over the past thirty years and where TV is seen to  constitute both risks and benefits for children. The concept of TV for children is established to broaden the scope for studying what has been broadcast for a child audience on public service TV. The empirical material consists of both broadcasting policy documents and an ext...

  9. The new Digital Television channels in Spain. The changes of the free TV offer two years after the switch on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan VIDELA RODRÍGUEZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of television in our country has had like last stage the analogue switch off and the birth of multiple programs that nourish the offer of the Digital Television. In the present article we analyze the reconfiguration of the offer of Terrestrial Digital Television (TDT in our country, after the approval of the Real-Decree 365/2010 to assign the multiple of the TDT once finalized the analog broadcasts.

  10. There Is More(s) in Television. Studying the relationship between television and moral imagination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Krijnen (Tonny)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation the central focus lies with exploration the relationship of television and moral imagination. The underlying aim was to explore how television might be valuable in reaching moral maturity in order to diminish needless suffering in this world. To give form to these

  11. Television the Surrogate Parent: Uses and Correlates of Television as Babysitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantz, Walter

    A study was conducted to determine (1) how often television was used as a surrogate parent, (2) the reasons leading to its use as such, and (3) the correlates of using television as a babysitter. Telephone interviews were conducted with 226 mothers who had children between the ages of 2 and 12. The respondents answered questions that addressed…

  12. [Television and children: is television responsible for all the evils attributed to it?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes Altable, B E; Quesada Fernández, E; Herranz, J L

    2000-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to analyze children's television viewing habits and their parents attitudes towards such viewing. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Primary care. A survey was undertaken with 317 three to fourteen year old children and their parents as part of the primary care check-up program for healthy children. Time devoted to television viewing was 106 +/- 50 minutes on weekdays and 141 +/- 80 minutes weekends. Despite this, 49.2% of parents thought their children saw little television, especially those with children under six (57.6%). Children of parents in highly qualified positions and of parents in the uppermost socioeconomic group saw television the least, on non-working days (70 +/- 61 minutes and 144 +/- 78 minutes respectively, p children watched television alone and 34% did so at meal-times. Altogether 48.3% of parents were unaware as to what their children watched and some 61.5% encouraged television viewing, above all those having children of under six (76%). The youngest children preferred to watch cartoons which were generally of a violent nature. For those aged from 11 to 14, 19.5% chose as their favorite programs those having a high level of violence. Television habits are an educational problem for parents, an important shake-up in their attitudes being called for, in which pediatricians should be involved in developing health programs aimed at proper use of the television.

  13. The impact of Televised and Non-Televised Instruction on achivement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    THE IMPACT OF TELEVISED AND NON-TELEVISED. INSTRUCTION ON ... instruction in motivating students by bringing real- life ... To the researchers' knowledge, the success .... promote their retention. Acknowledging the importance of engaging students in extended .... Instructional Technology ; its nature and use.

  14. Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture. Fifty Years of Television in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinjka Peruško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934 for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.

  15. Entertainment nature of modern television: prospects and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Олександрович Недо

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes trends of the development of entertainment television in Ukraine as westernization, McDonaldization, tabloidization, development of post-show. Westernization is viewed as the process of borrowing commercial formats of entertainment shows from the US and Western Europe. McDonaldization is considered as a process of simplifying program formats. Tabloidization is shown as a process of manipulating the viewer’s attention through lively and provocative announcements of programs. Development of post-show is covered as a process of creating programs that supplement reality shows

  16. Television viewing associates with delayed language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2008-07-01

    To identify impact of television viewing on language development. The case-control study included 56 new patients with language delay and 110 normal children, aged 15-48 months. Language delay was diagnosed by reviewing language milestones and Denver-II. Television viewing variables and child/parental characteristics between both groups were interviewed. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and chi-square test. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from multivariate logistic regression model. Forty-six boys and 10 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.11+/-0.47 years of the case group and 59 boys and 51 girls; mean [+/-SD] age, 2.23+/-0.80 years of the control group were enrolled. Children who had language delay usually started watching television earlier at age 7.22+/-5.52 months vs. 11.92+/-5.86 months, p-valuetelevision than normal children (3.05+/-1.90 h/day vs. 1.85+/-1.18 h/day; p-valuetelevision attelevision>2 h/day were approximately six times more likely to have language delays. There is a relationship between early onset and high frequency of TV viewing and language delay.

  17. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.

  18. [Multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R

    2016-12-16

    Today, the care of patients with multiple sclerosis and those around them represents a clinical and therapeutic challenge for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study is to analyse the appearance of multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television, and to reflect upon the image it has in these media. Several representative works that have addressed multiple sclerosis were reviewed, and many of them were seen to offer a very true-to-life vision of the disease. Likewise, a review was also conducted of the most relevant films and TV series that, on occasions, offer the general public a close look at the impact of the disease on patients or relatives, although they are sometimes somewhat exaggerated for the sake of increased dramatic effect and offer a slightly distorted view of reality. Literature largely reflects the real epidemiology, the symptoms and development of the disease, while less attention seems to be given to the diagnostic and therapeutic options open to patients. Cinema and television have offered a correct image but sometimes with the addition of more dramatic effects. It is important for literature, cinema and television to offer a realistic view of this neurological disease so as to make it better known among the public and to help lessen the stigma attached to it.

  19. Timing crisis information release via television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  20. The effects of television advertisements for junk food versus nutritious food on children's food attitudes and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen G; Scully, Maree L; Wakefield, Melanie A; White, Victoria M; Crawford, David A

    2007-10-01

    Television (TV) food advertising has attracted criticism for its potential role in promoting unhealthy dietary practices among children. Content analyses indicate junk food advertising is prevalent on Australian children's TV; healthy eating is rarely promoted. This paper presents (a) a cross-sectional survey examining associations between children's regular TV viewing habits and their food-related attitudes and behaviour; and (b) an experiment assessing the impact of varying combinations of TV advertisements (ads) for unhealthy and healthy foods on children's dietary knowledge, attitudes and intentions. The experimental conditions simulated possible models for regulating food ads on children's TV. Participants were 919 grade five and six students from schools in Melbourne, Australia. The survey showed that heavier TV use and more frequent commercial TV viewing were independently associated with more positive attitudes toward junk food; heavier TV use was also independently associated with higher reported junk food consumption. The experiment found that ads for nutritious foods promote selected positive attitudes and beliefs concerning these foods. Findings are discussed in light of methodological issues in media effects research and their implications for policy and practice. It is concluded that changing the food advertising environment on children's TV to one where nutritious foods are promoted and junk foods are relatively unrepresented would help to normalize and reinforce healthy eating.

  1. From VHF to UHF CMOS-MEMS Monolithically Integrated Resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teva, Jordi; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Uranga, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of microresonators exhibiting resonance frequencies in the VHF and UHF bands, fabricated using the available layers of the standard and commercial CMOS technology, AMS-0.35mum. The resonators are released in a post-CMOS process cons...

  2. Alcohol imagery on New Zealand television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeder Anthony I

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.

  3. Commercialization of Children's Television. Hearings on H.R. 3288, H.R. 3966, and H.R. 4125: Bills To Require the FCC To Reinstate Restrictions on Advertising during Children's Television, To Enforce the Obligation of Broadcasters To Meet the Educational Needs of the Child Audience, and for Other Purposes, before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress (September 15, 1987 and March 17, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This report provides transcripts of two hearings held 6 months apart before a subcommittee of the House of Representatives on three bills which would require the Federal Communications Commission to reinstate restrictions on advertising on children's television programs. The texts of the bills under consideration, H.R. 3288, H.R. 3966, and H.R.…

  4. [Television publicity and food preferences of school age children of the metropolitan region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, S; Albala, C; García, F; Jofré, I

    1999-07-01

    There is an alarming increase in the prevalence of child obesity in Chile. Lack of exercise and bad feeding habits strongly strongly contribute to the problem. To investigate the influence of television publicity on school age children food preferences. A semi structured interview was applied to a representative sample of 786 school age children aged 6 to 11 years old, living in Metropolitan Santiago. Time watching television during week days and the attitude towards food and beverage commercials was analyzed and related to food preferences. Ninety nine percent of school age children watch television during week days and 20% watches more the three hours daily. Snack commercials such as those about potato chips, chocolates, cookies and ice cream, are preferred by 35% of children. Soda commercials are preferred by 33% and yoghurt commercials by 12%. Eighty five percent of children had money to buy food. Of these, 66% bought snacks, 15% bought sodas and 7% yoghurt. The same tendency was observed in school collations. The high percentage of children, watching television and the influence of commercials in their food preferences, requires an urgent educational strategy to promote healthy feeding habits.

  5. Background television in the homes of US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Matthew A; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor; Linebarger, Deborah L

    2012-11-01

    US parents were surveyed to determine the amount of background television that their children are exposed to as well as to isolate demographic factors associated with increased exposure to background television. After this, we ask how certain home media practices are linked to children's background television exposure. US parents/caregivers (N = 1454) with 1 child between the ages of 8 months and 8 years participated in this study. A nationally representative telephone survey was conducted. Parents were asked to report on their child's exposure to background television via a 24-hour time diary. Parents were also asked to report relevant home media behaviors related to their child: bedroom television ownership, number of televisions in the home, and how often a television was on in the home. The average US child was exposed to 232.2 minutes of background television on a typical day. With the use of multiple regression analysis, we found that younger children and African American children were exposed to more background television. Leaving the television on while no one is viewing and children's bedroom television ownership were associated with increased background television exposure. Although recent research has shown the negative consequences associated with background television, this study provides the first nationally representative estimates of that exposure. The amount of exposure for the average child is startling. This study offers practitioners potential pathways to reduce exposure.

  6. What Does TV Viewing Have to Do with Internet Reading?: Readers, Television "Texts", and Intertextual Links to Companion Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…

  7. A stereoscopic television system for reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, D.B.; Jones, A.

    1980-03-01

    A stereoscopic television system suitable for reactor inspection has been developed. Right and left eye views, obtained from two conventional black and white cameras, are displayed by the anaglyph technique and observers wear appropriately coloured viewing spectacles. All camera functions, such as zoom, focus and toe-in are remotely controlled. A laboratory experiment is described which demonstrates the increase in spatial awareness afforded by the use of stereo television and illustrates its potential in the supervision of remote handling tasks. Typical depth resolutions of 3mm at 1m and 10mm at 2m have been achieved with the reactor instrument. Trials undertaken during routine inspection at Oldbury Power Station in June 1978 are described. They demonstrate that stereoscopic television can indeed improve the convenience of remote handling and that the added display realism is beneficial in visual inspection. (author)

  8. Bruce X Longwood television reception survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    Property owners living close to a proposed 500-kV transmission line route in Ontario expressed concerns that the line would affect their television reception. To give a reasonable evaluation of the impact of the transmission line, tests were conducted before and after installation of the line in which the possibility of active or passive interference to reception was assessed. Measurements were made of signal strength and ambient noise, and television reception was also recorded on videotape. Possible transmission line effects due to radiated noise, signal reduction, and ghosts are analyzed. The analysis of signal and noise conditions, and the assessment of videotaped reception, provide reasonable evidence that the line has had negligible impact on the television reception along the line route. 13 refs., 18 figs., 12 tabs

  9. Television for Children in Japan: Trends and Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi

    In Japan, the production and broadcasting of television (TV) programs for children began in 1953. After the first few years of trial and error, children's programs gradually rose in popularity with the introduction of TV animation, dramas, special-effects photography, music/variety and quiz shows, comedies, and action dramas. Since the inception…

  10. Televised Antismoking Advertising: Effects of Level and Duration of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effects of levels and duration of exposure to televised antismoking advertising on cognitive and behavioral changes. Methods. We used data from a serial cross-sectional telephone survey with weekly interviews of adult smokers and recent quitters in New South Wales, Australia (n = 13 301), between April 2005 and December 2010. We merged survey data with commercial TV ratings data to estimate individuals’ exposure to antismoking advertising. Results. Logistic regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for a wide range of potential confounders, exposure to antismoking advertising at levels between 100 and 200 gross rating points per week on average over 6 to 9 weeks was associated with an increased likelihood of having (1) salient quitting thoughts and (2) recent quit attempts. Associations between exposure for shorter periods and these outcomes were not significant. Conclusions. Broadcasting schedules may affect the success of antismoking ads. Campaign planners should ensure advertising exposure at adequate frequency over relatively sustained periods to maximize impact. PMID:23763419

  11. Television and children's consumption patterns. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, K A; Tucker, K L

    2002-10-01

    The recent increase in childhood obesity has, among other things, focused attention on the role that television may play. This paper summarizes results of studies published in peer review journals since 1970 with data pertaining to the relationship between television use and children's food intake. Studies fall into four categories: content analyses; effects of television advertising on children's food behaviors; television and pediatric obesity, with effects on children's dietary intake and physical activity; and television use and children's food consumption patterns. Content analyses have shown that food is the most frequently advertised product category on children's TV. The majority of these ads target highly sweetened products, but more recently, the proportion from fast food meal promotions has been growing. Controlled studies on children's choices have consistently shown that children exposed to advertising choose advertised food products at significantly higher rates than do those not exposed. Purchase request studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and number of requests from the child to the mother for specific food items, as well as the presence of those items in the home. Greater TV use has been associated with higher intakes of energy, fat, sweet and salty snacks, and carbonated beverages and lower intakes of fruit and vegetables. Several large studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and both the prevalence and incidence of obesity. The combination of lifestyle factors that accompany heavy television use appear to place children at risk of obesity and poor nutritional status.

  12. Time bomb or hidden treasure? Characteristics of junk TVs and of the US households who store them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovantseva, Natalia, E-mail: nmilovan@uci.edu [School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Saphores, Jean-Daniel, E-mail: saphores@uci.edu [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Economics, and Planning, Policy, and Design Departments, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► US households are storing 84.1 million broken or obsolete (junk) TVs. ► They represent 2.12 million metric tons of scrap. ► The value of these materials is approximately $21 per TV. ► Our count models characterize US households who store junk TVs. ► Our results are useful for designing more effective TV recycling programs. - Abstract: Within the growing stockpile of electronic waste (e-waste), TVs are especially of concern in the US because of their number (which is known imprecisely), their low recycling rate, and their material content: cathode ray tube televisions contain lead, and both rear projection and flat panel displays contain mercury, in addition to other potentially toxic materials. Based on a unique dataset from a 2010 survey, our count models show that pro-environmental behavior, age, education, household size, marital status, gender of the head of household, dwelling type, and geographic location are statistically significant variables for explaining the number of broken or obsolete (junk) TVs stored by US households. We also estimate that they are storing approximately 84.1 million junk TVs, which represents 40 pounds of scrap per household. Materials in each of these junk TVs are worth $21 on average at January 2012 materials prices, which sets an upper bound on collecting and recycling costs. This information should be helpful for developing more effective recycling strategies for TVs in the e-waste stream.

  13. Adoption of energy-efficient televisions for expanded off-grid electricity service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Park

    Full Text Available Even though they dominate the global television (TV market, light-emitting diode backlit liquid crystal display (LED-LCD TVs have received little attention for use with off-grid household-scale renewable energy systems, primarily because of high up-front costs. However, technological advances and price declines mean that these TVs can now provide the same level of electricity service as standard LED-LCD TVs offer but at lower total energy cost. Moreover, LED-LCD TVs are inherently direct-current (DC-powered devices and therefore well suited for use with off-grid solar home systems. We estimate that DC-powered energy-efficient LED-LCD TVs can decrease the retail purchase price of solar home systems by about 25% by allowing use of 50% smaller photovoltaics and battery capacities than would be needed for the same energy system to power a standard LED-LCD TV. We recommend that policies such as awards, bulk procurement, incentives, and energy labels be considered to facilitate the adoption of these energy-efficient TVs in off-grid settings. Keywords: DC television, TV energy efficiency, Electricity access, Off-grid electricity service, Cost-benefit analysis

  14. Television News Uses: A Cross-National Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mark R.

    1978-01-01

    Reports that a classification of television news uses and gratifications based on research in Leeds, England, did not adequately encompass the functions of television news for a United States audience. (GW)

  15. Progress Report of the Schools Television Research Project--III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemelfield, Graeme

    1969-01-01

    "This concluding article provides the first published account of a series of psychological experiments which are presently being undertaken by the Schools Television Research Project, examining presentation factors in instructional television. (Editor)

  16. the television factor in vocabulary development among secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This study investigated the influence of television viewing frequency on the performance in ... Language, but also in other content subjects. .... TABLE 1: One- way analysis of variance of the influence of frequency of television ... favourite movie.

  17. Examining the Link Between Television and Unhealthy Eating ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Examining the Link Between Television and Unhealthy Eating Among Children in Peru ... television exposure increases unhealthy eating among Peruvian children. ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  18. The Official Radio and Television Institute in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Anibal Arias

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Official School of Radio and Television which is designed to train university graduates in the fields of journalism, the sciences of cinema, radio and television, and advertising. (JY)

  19. Television advertising, not viewing, is associated with negative dietary patterns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, B; Freeman, B; King, L; Chapman, K; Baur, L A; Gill, T

    2016-04-01

    Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing is a contributor to poor diets and weight gain. Television food advertising, in particular, has been the focus of research and policy discussions. We aimed to quantify the specific impact of television advertising, as distinct from television viewing generally, on children's usual diet. Methods Four hundred seventeen Australian children aged 10-16 participated in an online survey, which assessed television viewing habits and consumption of 12 frequently advertised unhealthy foods/drinks. Consumption of these foods/drinks was dichotomized (less weekly, weekly or more) and summed (1 point for each item consumed weekly or more) to give cumulative consumption scores. After adjusting for age and socioeconomic status, there was strong evidence of an increase in unhealthy food score (P food/drink combined score (P children who watched the most commercial television, and those who were actually exposed to advertisements embedded within programs. This association between advertisement exposure and poor diet emphasizes the need for public policy intervention to reduce children's food advertising exposures. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Improving Acoustic Models by Watching Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrock, Michael J.; Hauptmann, Alexander G.

    1998-01-01

    Obtaining sufficient labelled training data is a persistent difficulty for speech recognition research. Although well transcribed data is expensive to produce, there is a constant stream of challenging speech data and poor transcription broadcast as closed-captioned television. We describe a reliable unsupervised method for identifying accurately transcribed sections of these broadcasts, and show how these segments can be used to train a recognition system. Starting from acoustic models trained on the Wall Street Journal database, a single iteration of our training method reduced the word error rate on an independent broadcast television news test set from 62.2% to 59.5%.

  1. Necromarketing as Advertising Strategy in American Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton Amiee J.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant research has been conducted regarding fear appeals, but little empirical evidence concerning death appeals is found. This study determined to what extent necromarketing exists in advertisements in American television. Through a content analysis of 1012 American television advertisements, this study found what product categories employ this marketing strategy and which consumer groups were targeted. Findings show that implicit necromarketing is a more commonly used marketing tactic than explicit necromarketing; the industries of entertainment promotions and insurance use necromarketing appeals more often than others, and necromarketing appeals were more heavily used during primetime. His study forms the base for future studies investigating the impact death has on purchase intentions.

  2. Two-way cable television project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H.; Guenther, P.; Kiel, F.; Kraus, F.; Mahnkopf, P.; Schnee, R.

    1982-02-01

    The market demand for a multiuser computer system with interactive services was studied. Mean system work load at peak use hours was estimated and the complexity of dialog with a central computer was determined. Man machine communication by broadband cable television transmission, using digital techniques, was assumed. The end to end system is described. It is user friendly, able to handle 10,000 subscribers, and provides color television display. The central computer system architecture with remote audiovisual terminals is depicted and software is explained. Signal transmission requirements are dealt with. International availability of the test system, including sample programs, is indicated.

  3. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.

  4. Television tulevaisuus tubettajien aikana : miten YouTuben suosio vaikuttaa television tulevaisuuteen?

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkola, Ina

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytteessä selvitetään, millainen television murros on parhaillaan käynnissä. Keskeisimpänä kysymyksenä on kuitenkin television tulevaisuus. Jos nuoria katsojia kiinnostaa videopalvelu YouTube enemmän perinteisen televison sijaan, niin miten tämä tulee vaikuttamaan television tulevaisuuteen? Entä miksi nuoret ylipäätään katsovat YouTubea? YouTuben katselu sekä sisällön tuottajien eli tubettajien fanittaminen nuorten keskuudessa ovat kasvava ilmiö. Samaan aikaan perinteisen telev...

  5. Evaluating the Effect of a Television Public Service Announcement about Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Secco, Mary; Yake, Laura; Speechley, Kathy N.

    2010-01-01

    Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial advertisements aiming to improve knowledge, attitudes and/or behavior. No evaluations of epilepsy PSAs exist. This study sought to evaluate a televised PSA showing first aid for a seizure. A multilevel regression analysis was used to determine the effect of the PSA on epilepsy knowledge and…

  6. Audio Control Handbook For Radio and Television Broadcasting. Third Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oringel, Robert S.

    Audio control is the operation of all the types of sound equipment found in the studios and control rooms of a radio or television station. Written in a nontechnical style for beginners, the book explains thoroughly the operation of all types of audio equipment. Diagrams and photographs of commercial consoles, microphones, turntables, and tape…

  7. Scriptwriting for the Audio-Visual Media: Radio, Films, Television, Filmstrips, Slidefilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Robert

    Intended as a guide for prospective scriptwriters, this handbook provides information about and examples of scripts for radio, films, and television. The scriptwriter's role in the preparation of filmstrips, sound slidefilms, commercial announcements, and storyboards is also examined. The book offers guidance in the techniques of getting writing…

  8. On Top of the World: Chevrolet Television Advertising 1955 to 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Jan L.

    Through a review of data from the Campbell-Ewald Advertising Agency and its creative director, the Chevrolet car company, and a review of the award-winning television commercials, this paper explores the successful relationship between Chevrolet and that agency from 1955 to 1965. Following an introduction and a list the questions asked about both…

  9. Sensing Methods for Detecting Analog Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Song, Chunyi; Harada, Hiroshi

    This paper introduces a unified method of spectrum sensing for all existing analog television (TV) signals including NTSC, PAL and SECAM. We propose a correlation based method (CBM) with a single reference signal for sensing any analog TV signals. In addition we also propose an improved energy detection method. The CBM approach has been implemented in a hardware prototype specially designed for participating in Singapore TV white space (WS) test trial conducted by Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of the Singapore government. Analytical and simulation results of the CBM method will be presented in the paper, as well as hardware testing results for sensing various analog TV signals. Both AWGN and fading channels will be considered. It is shown that the theoretical results closely match with those from simulations. Sensing performance of the hardware prototype will also be presented in fading environment by using a fading simulator. We present performance of the proposed techniques in terms of probability of false alarm, probability of detection, sensing time etc. We also present a comparative study of the various techniques.

  10. Television advertising and branding. Effects on eating behaviour and food preferences in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

    2013-03-01

    Television provides one of the first, and most intimate, experiences of commercial food promotion. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the effects of television advertising on children's brand preferences are well established. However, its effect on actual food intake and the food choices in children of various weight statuses has only recently been characterised. Despite regulation, children in the UK are exposed to considerable numbers of food adverts on television. These are predominantly for foods high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS), which are marketed to children using promotional characters and themes of fun. Such adverts have been shown to cause significant increases in intake, particularly in overweight and obese children, and enhanced preference for high carbohydrate and high fat foods in children who consume the greatest amounts of televisual media. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A set of X-ray test objects for quality control in television fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.; Clarke, O.F.; Coleman, N.J.; Cowen, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    The history of performance testing in Leeds of television fluoroscopic systems is briefly outlined. Using the visual, physical and technological requirements as a basis, a set of nine test objects for quality control in television fluoroscopy is described. The factors measured by the test objects are listed in the introduction; the test objects and their function are fully described in the remainder of the paper. The test objects, in conjunction with a television oscilloscope, give both subjective and objective information about the X-ray system. Three of the test objects enable the physicist or engineer to adjust certain aspects of the performance of the X-ray system. The set of nine test objects is available commercially. (author)

  12. The Influence of Television Advertising on Purchase Decision of Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Bakara, Frisca Oktoviani

    2013-01-01

    Television advertising has become a new force capable of influencing the audience to do what the advertisers want, and teenagers are very promising target for producers. This study investigated the influence of television advertising on teenagers purchase decision in Manado. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the impact of television advertising (Brand Preference, Peer Group, and Pester Power) on teenagers purchase decision; (2) which impact of television advertising (Brand Preference,...

  13. Tobacco and alcohol in films and on television

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests exposure to film smoking increases youth smoking, and this is also likely to be the case for television. Some evidence suggests alcohol in films and television has similar effects on drinking behaviours. It is therefore important to document the extent to which tobacco and alcohol occur in films and television in the UK. Methods Films (1989-2008) and television broadcasting were content coded for tobacco and alcohol including branding, use, parapherna...

  14. Current status of stereoscopic 3D LCD TV technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jin

    2011-06-01

    The year 2010 may be recorded as a first year of successful commercial 3D products. Among them, the 3D LCD TVs are expected to be the major one regarding the sales volume. In this paper, the principle of current stereoscopic 3D LCD TV techniques and the required flat panel display (FPD) technologies for the realization of them are reviewed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. CAPITALISM VS BUSINESS ETHICS IN INDONESIA’S TELEVISION BROADCASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra WIDYATAMA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, in every country, there is supervision of the television broadcasting system. In Indonesia, all television broadcasting is supervised by the Komisi Penyiaran Indonesia/KPI (Indonesian Broadcasting Commission. This commission oversees broadcast television, to ensure all TV broadcasts in Indonesia comply with government regulations. Often the KPI imposes sanctions, but frequent violations still occur. This article describes the results of research on the contradiction between business interests and ethics in the television industry in Indonesia. This study uses the method of evaluation research, where researchers analyze data, here in the form of sanctions documents released by broadcasting commissions. The results reveal that all national private television stations often violate regulations. They prioritize their business interests rather than follow broadcasting guidelines, especially since KPI does not have the full authority to grant and revoke a broadcasting license. The granting and revocation of permits remains under the authority of the government, where political lobbying plays a more significant role.

  16. Wide-Screen Television and Home Movies: Towards an Archaeology of Television and Cinema Convergence Before Digitalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, Tom James Longley

    2014-01-01

    abstractIn this article, Tom Steward uses past interrelations of television and cinema spectatorship, exhibition, production and aesthetics to historicize phenomenological digital-era discourses on, ontological definitions of, and cultural arguments about television and cinema convergence. He argues

  17. Women and Minorities in Television Drama, 1969-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbner, George; Signorielli, Nancy

    This report presents an analysis of the characters created for prime time and weekend daytime network television drama and viewer conceptions associated with exposure to television. Data was gathered through 10 years of monitoring television programs, analyzing characters, and conducting surveys of child and adult viewers. Trends in representation…

  18. 76 FR 62642 - Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control; Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Characteristic,'' (July 6, 2010), as listed below: (i) A/53, Part 1:2007, ``Digital Television System'' (January... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-1432] Digital Broadcast Television..., Radio, Television. Accordingly, 47 CFR part 73 is corrected by making the following correcting...

  19. Television Violence and Behavior: A Research Summary. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marilyn E.

    This digest describes the overall pattern of the results of research on television violence and behavior. Several variables in the relationship between television violence and aggression related to characteristics of the viewers and to the portrayal of violence are identified. Viewer characteristics included: age, amount of television watched,…

  20. 75 FR 3641 - Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-40; MB Docket No. 09-210; RM-11583] Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  1. Television Violence and Children. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)

  2. Television Violence and Its Effect on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)

  3. The Effect of Viewing Television Violence on Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…

  4. Television, Parents, and the Political Socialization of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebes, Tamar

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the role of television in constructing social reality and teaching children to participate in society, examining Israeli research on the role of television fiction and news in parent-child interactions. The article notes how family cultures affect the way television is incorporated into the socialization process in all households. (SM)

  5. Media Literacy: Fighting the Effect Television Has on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Charla A.

    The overall pattern of research findings indicates a positive association between television violence and aggressive behavior. The first congressional hearing on television took place in 1952, when the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce investigated television entertainment to ascertain if it was excessively violent and sexually…

  6. Audience Perception of Television Animated Cartoons as Tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated audience perception of television animated cartoons as tool for political communication. The specific objectives of the study were: to find out the frequency of exposure to television animated cartoons between males and females; to find out the frequency of exposure to television animated cartoons ...

  7. 76 FR 9991 - Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-224; MB Docket No. 11-20; RM-11619] Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  8. 75 FR 67077 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2000; MB Docket No. 08-194; RM-11488] Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  9. 75 FR 1546 - Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Bangor, ME AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  10. 76 FR 49697 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  11. 76 FR 5119 - Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-96; MB Docket No. 11-8; RM-11618] Television Broadcasting Services; Jackson, MS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...

  12. 76 FR 54188 - Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-137, RM-11637; DA 11-1414] Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A...

  13. 75 FR 9859 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-307; MB Docket No. 10-49; RM-11593] Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  14. 77 FR 33997 - Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... freeze on the acceptance of rulemaking petitions by full power television stations requesting channel... filed by full power television stations seeking to relocate from channel 51 pursuant to a voluntary...

  15. 76 FR 76337 - Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-192, RM-11646; DA 11-1924] Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  16. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  17. 75 FR 19907 - Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-606; MB Docket No. 10-49; RM-11593] Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  18. 76 FR 13966 - Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 11-33, RM-11623; DA 11-406] Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...

  19. Teaching with Television: New Evidence Supports an Old Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linebarger, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    Television--public television, in particular--has come to be seen as a great educational resource for the home, but it hasn't been as widely embraced in the classroom. Thanks to a number of recent, large-scale research projects, it's time to put those concerns to rest. Not only does educational television have powerful effects on children's…

  20. 75 FR 5015 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  1. 76 FR 68117 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission grants a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee, LLC... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...

  2. 76 FR 5120 - Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 11-74; MB Docket No. 11-4; RM-11616] Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  3. 76 FR 3875 - Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-2426; MB Docket No. 10-264; RM-11615] Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  4. 75 FR 13236 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-395; MB Docket No. 10-19; RM-11589] Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  5. 76 FR 5290 - Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...

  6. 47 CFR 73.603 - Numerical designation of television channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numerical designation of television channels... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.603 Numerical designation of television channels. (a) Channel No. Frequency band (MHz) 2 54-60 3 60-66 4 66-72 5 76-82 6 82-88 7 174-180 8...

  7. High Definition Television: A New Challenge for Telecommunication Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongcharu, Boonchai

    The telecommunications industry has now entered the most critical period of evolution in television technology since the introduction of color television. The transition to high definition television (HDTV), with related technologies such as semiconductors and computers, would mean a multi-billion dollar business for the telecommunications…

  8. The Frequency of Unhealthy Food Advertising on Mainland Chinese Television (TV) and Children and Adolescents? Risk of Exposure to Them

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhenghua; Diao, Qinqin; Shao, Nan; Liang, Youke; Lin, Li; Lei, Yan; Zheng, Lingmei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct an analysis of the frequency of unhealthy food advertising on mainland Chinese television (TV) and children and adolescents? risk of exposure to them. Methods The frequencies of all types of advertisements (ads) on forty TV channels in mainland China, the exact ad broadcast times, and the name and brand of all snacks and western fast foods advertised were recorded from 0800 hours to 2400 hours on both a weekday and a weekend day in a week. The difference in the frequencie...

  9. TV watching (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Television can be a useful tool for parents; it can be used for distraction, substitution, and recreation. Unfortunately, the TV has become a substitute for parent-child interaction and is used in some families as a "baby sitter".

  10. A content analysis of advertisements related to oral health in children's Tamil television channels--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Aparna; Diwakar, Madankumar P; Shastry, Shivakumar M

    2012-05-01

    This study was conducted to examine the nature, content, and duration of advertisements broadcasted during children's Tamil television channels and to determine the extent to which television advertising changes during school holiday and non-holiday periods and between prime time and non-prime time broadcast. Television broadcasts on two main children's Tamil television channels were video-recorded over 16 days between 17.00-19.00 hours (non-prime time) and 19.00-21.00 hours (prime time). For each commercial, the type of product advertised, as well as the duration (in seconds), was recorded. Advertisements were categorized as 'food' and 'non-food'. The former category was further subdivided into 'sugar-rich foods' and 'other foods'. The sugar-rich foods were further categorized as liquid, solid and sticky, and slowly dissolving sugars. Commercials related to the promotion of oral health products and non-food products were also recorded. Among the total of 128 h of television programmes recorded, advertising accounted for 10.15% (13.01 hours). The advertisement of sugar-rich food products, non-food and oral hygiene products occupied 50.36%, 38.41% and 1.90%, respectively, of the total advertising time. Solid and sticky products made up 100% of advertisements in this category on Chithiram television channel, compared with 62.5% of advertisements on Chutti television channel. It was concluded that the advertising of sugar-rich foods, particularly solid and sticky food products, was broadcasted more in Chithiram television channel, during school holidays and during prime time. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Digital TV, advertising and audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the advertisingsegment and their relationship with the development process of the digital television. We intent to observe the new perspectives of production and consumption of media. Among other things, that involves the issues of interactivity, the exhaustion of the traditional media models, and the relationship of the new media with the audience, considering the analysis of the tripod: digital television, advertising and audience. In Brazil, with the implementation of the Brazilian System of Digital Television (SBTVD, the problem takes bigger proportions, as a consequence of the possibility to issue and track down the digital content consumed. That happens as a consequence of the consumer ability to watch the program withor without the commercial break. At the current model of television, the public is the legitimizing factor: the broadcasters issues the public a ention asan instrument to obtain pecuniary rewarding of theadvertisers. That model constitutes itself as the main funding source of the channels and networks. On the one hand, digital television represents an advantage at the quality of picture and audio, multiplying the capacity to transmit television signals and to transport new features and services. On the other hand, it seems impossible to transform this industry without some reaction. The many interests involved constitute the main cause of that scenario: the agents interested in advertising are those concerned with the role of ideology, the support of capitalism and the industrial culture. Considering all these questions, it seems almost impossible to produce deep chances,contrary to the interests involved.

  12. Instructional Television Programmes and Academic Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated instructional Television (ITV) programmes and Academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Anambra state-Nigeria. The need for the study arose from the problem of the declining nature of West African school certificate examination results of senior secondary school students in ...

  13. Glocal perspectives on Danish television series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    Two interwoven and increasing tendencies characterise the development of Danish television drama during the past two decades. On the one hand, the financial composition and the narrative strategies of the dramas have become explicitly transnational. On the other hand, local municipal administrati...

  14. Selective Television Viewing: A Limited Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorielli, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that prime-time television presents a remarkably consistent portrayal of the world across program genres and that it offers few scheduling alternatives to avoiding violence-laden adventure programs. Finds that the average viewer has little opportunity to exercise any kind of choice in viewing. (JD)

  15. Cable Television for Librarians. Ordinances and Franchises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel Library Quarterly, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A short lecture is presented on how librarians can incorporate their programing into that of existing and future cable television stations. The lecture was followed by a question/answer period. (Other conference materials are LI 503071-503076 and 503078 through 503084.) (SM)

  16. Product Differentiation in Local Television News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Tony

    A study was conducted to investigate the extent to which local television stations exhibited diversity in newscast content within three midwest broadcast markets. A second objective was to describe the nature of the news content characteristic of local news stories that were broadcast by only one station within a market (or unique news stories). A…

  17. Teaching Program Evaluation on Interactive Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Keith; Steinhauser, Jim; Newman, Isadore

    This paper describes a five-session course entitled "Program Evaluation," which was taught via interactive television in the summer of 2002 to 68 doctoral and master's students in 5 of 6 locations throughout New Mexico. Students received a 4-hour lecture and then participated in off-line activities directed by the instructor. Problems in distance…

  18. Rational Wizards: Audience Interpreters in French Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, Jérôme; Méadel, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    abstractThis paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier

  19. Should I Let My Child Watch Television?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

  20. Cable Television: Citizen Participation After the Franchise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Monroe E.; Botein, Michael

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has incorporated several allowances in its regulations pertaining to cable television. Some of these enable citizen groups and communities to intervene in the cable franchise after the final issuance in order to correct deficiencies in the franchising process and the administration of the franchise.…

  1. Impact on Adults of Dramatized Television Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, Roderic; And Others

    Psychosocial adaptations are sometimes affected by experiences that are ordinarily considered to be amusements. In 1974, a field study was undertaken by the Program on Psychosocial Adaptation and the Future to determine if it is possible to measure the effect of television on adult viewers. A sample of 260 couples, controlled for demographic…

  2. Television Research: The Potential for Ecological Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Susan C.

    The failure of television research to affect broadcast policy is attributed partially to its methodological inadequacies and its narrow audience. Research tends not to take into account such variables as the program selection behavior itself, the natural viewing context, and other non-content influences. Existing research suggests that television…

  3. An ACLU Guide to Cable Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powledge, Fred

    Proceeding from the hypothesis that cable television (CATV) is one of the most significant developments in modern America, this booklet examines the medium itself and then devotes special attention to the capacity of CATV to serve the First Amendment interest in diversity of expression. The opening section deals with the size and growth of cable,…

  4. Television and Children: A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Thomas P.; Cardwell, Jerry D.

    1984-01-01

    Contends that the effect of television can best be understood as part of the overall attempts by social scientists to understand the effects of the mass media. Argues that symbolic interactionism is the most viable theory for bringing together the pure and the applied aspects of this issue. (LLL)

  5. Television news and fear; A child survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walma van der Molen, J.H.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peeters, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using telephone interviews among a random sample of 537 Dutch children aged 7–12 years old, we investigated (a) the prevalence of fear reactions to television news among younger and older children and among boys and girls, (b) what types of news items children in different age and gender groups

  6. Violence in Children's Programmes on British Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Barrie; Harrison, Jackie

    1997-01-01

    Studied violence on children's television in Britain. Found 39% of children's programs examined contained violence, primarily involving shootings and physical assault committed for negative purposes and rarely followed by painful consequences. The fast pace of such programs is also a significant factor. Results pose wider implications for those…

  7. Cable Television Report and Suggested Ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    League of California Cities, Sacramento.

    Guidelines and suggested ordinances for cable television regulation by local governments are comprehensively discussed in this report. The emphasis is placed on franchising the cable operator. Seventeen legal aspects of franchising are reviewed, and an exemplary ordinance is presented. In addition, current statistics about cable franchising in…

  8. Cable Television: The Process of Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leland L.; Botein, Michael

    In an effort to insure that cable television franchising procedures at the local level are based on a competitive and well-conceived selection process, this report discusses some of the most important steps of the franchising process. Not only does it show how the community should assess its needs and appraise the merits of the cable operator, but…

  9. Cherenkov ring imaging using a television digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Peisert, A.; Sauli, F.; Cavestro, A.; Vascon, M.; Zanella, G.

    1981-01-01

    A Cherenkov ring imaging device using as photon detector a multistep spark chamber coupled to a television digitizer is described. Results of a test run using triethylamine as photo-ionizing vapour are presented, as well as preliminary results obtained with a new vapour having an extremely low ionization potential. (orig.)

  10. Network television news coverage of environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Sandman, P.M.; Sachsman, D.V.; Salomone, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Despite the criticisms that surround television coverage of environmental risk, there have been relatively few attempts to measure what and whom television shows. Most research has focused analysis on a few weeks of coverage of major stories like the gas leak at Bhopal, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, or the Mount St. Helen's eruption. To advance the research into television coverage of environmental risk, an analysis has been made of all environmental risk coverage by the network nightly news broadcasts for a period of more than two years. Researchers have analyzed all environmental risk coverage-564 stories in 26 months-presented on ABC, CBS, and NBC's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986. The quantitative information from the 564 stories was balanced by a more qualitative analysis of the television coverage of two case studies-the dioxin contamination in Times Beach, Missouri, and the suspected methyl isocyanate emissions from the Union Carbide plant in Institute, West Virginia. Both qualitative and quantitative data contributed to the analysis of the role played by experts and environmental advocacy sources in coverage of environmental risk and to the suggestions for increasing that role

  11. Cable Television and Educational Access: A Reconsideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lee R.; Greene, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Considers the possible impact of recent federal legislation on educational utilization of cable television. Stresses the importance of educators understanding the law's provisions and acting to initiate relationships with cable companies. Reviews public educational or governmental access provisions. Presents strategies for promoting reciprocity…

  12. Corporate actors in Western European television news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, P.

    2009-01-01

    News about corporations can be understood as an interdependent relationship among the public relations function, organizational logic and the logic of the media. This research addresses the visibility and role of corporate actors in Western European public television news. A quantitative content

  13. The Desensitization of Children to Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Victor B.; And Others

    Children with histories of high and low exposure to television (and the violence therein) were exposed to a moderately violent film. Measures of autonomic response (skin conductance and blood volume pulse amplitude) were taken before and during their exposure to the violent film. Over both measures and in another replicated study, the high TV…

  14. Television systems for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartly, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation-tolerant television cameras, widely used for the inspection of nuclear plants, are now used for monitoring radioactive waste management processes. Two systems are described in this paper that differ in the methods of maintaining the camera equipment. At the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield plant, a major capital investment program is under way that includes plants for spent-fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management. The Windscale vitrification plant (WVP) will convert highly active liquid waste to a solid glass-like form. The WVP television system was based on in-cell cameras designed to be removable by remote-handling equipment. The plant to encapsulate medium active solid waste, encapsulation plant 1 (EP1) used through-wall and through-roof viewing systems with a glass viewing dome as the biological shield, allowing the camera and optics to be withdrawn to a safe area for maintenance. Both systems used novel techniques to obtain a record of the waste-processing operations. The WVP system used a microcomputer to overlay reference information onto the television picture and a motion detector to automatically trigger the video recording. The television system for EP1 included automatic character recognition to generate a computer data record of drum serial numbers

  15. Application of Television to the PSI Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. E.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1978-01-01

    The use of television in PSI courses has two advantages: (1) student time involved in learning is comparable with that of students using only written material, and (2) it provides an avenue for learning for those students who prefer auditory learning to written learning. (Author)

  16. Reading Queer Television: Some Notes on Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author presents his reflection on the framing of mass queer television as a technology within the cultural politics of gender and sexuality; and, next, discusses the mass production of these representations in terms of the mass production of modes of intelligibility of LGBT subjects. To narrow the argument, he focuses his…

  17. Policies of transnational Moroccan television station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathallah DAGHMI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the different televisions stations accessible to Moroccans living outside the country (Diaspora. It is particularly concerned with the discourse and representation of the managers of the stations. The objective is to understand the media available and the political and economic policies that guide them.

  18. Parents, television and children’s weight status: on lasting effects of parental television socialization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.; Tolsma, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study scrutinizes the long-term effects of parental television socialization activities on their children's weight status measured through body mass index (BMI-score). We address the question how parental television habits and parental television mediation in childhood relate to a person's

  19. Nursing on television: student perceptions of television's role in public image, recruitment and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Koch, Jane; Jackson, Debra

    2013-12-01

    To explore nursing students' perceptions of how their profession is portrayed on medical television programmes. Recruitment and retention in nursing have been linked to the image of the profession in society. Images of nursing in popular media frequently draw on stereotypes that may damage the appeal of nursing for potential students and denigrate the value and status of the profession. A growing body of work analyses how nursing is portrayed in popular media, but less research asks nursing students themselves to reflect on this area. Convergent parallel mixed methods. Data were collected in 2011 from surveys of 484 undergraduate nursing students at a large university in New South Wales, Australia, that included demographic data, their viewing habits of medical television programmes and their opinions of how the shows handled nursing ethics and professionalism and the image of nursing on television and nursing role models. Most students watch medical television programmes. Students who do not speak English at home watched fewer programmes but were more positive about the depictions of professionalism. The qualitative data showed students were concerned that television can have a negative influence on the image of nursing, but they also recognized some educational and recruitment value in television programmes. It is important for nurses, educators and students to be critically engaged with the image of their profession in society. There is value in engaging more closely with contemporary media portrayals of nursing for students and educators alike. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sensory emission rates from personal computers and television sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Baginska, S.

    2003-01-01

    Sensory emissions from personal computers (PCs), PC monitors + PC towers, and television sets (TVs) having been in operation for 50, 400 and 600 h were assessed by a panel of 48 subjects. One brand of PC tower and four brands of PC monitors were tested. Within each brand, cathode-ray tube (CRT......) and thin-flat-transistor (TFT) monitors were selected. Two brands of TVs were tested. All brands are prevalent on the world market. The assessments were conducted in low-polluting 40 m3 test offices ventilated with a constant outdoor air change rate of 1.3 ± 0.2 h–1 corresponding to 7 L/s per PC or TV...... with two units placed at a time in the test offices; air temperature was controlled at 22 ± 0.1°C and relative humidity at 41 ± 0.5%. The subjects entered the offices individually and immediately assessed the air quality. They did not see the PCs or TVs that were placed behind a screen and were...

  1. Television food advertising to children in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchi, Daniel; Reiff, Sascha; Knai, Cecile; Gauci, Charmaine; Spiteri, Joanna

    2017-06-01

    To undertake a cross-sectional survey of the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising to children on Maltese national television stations. Seven national free-to-air channels were recorded for seven consecutive days in March 2014 between 07:00 and 22:00 h. Advertisements were coded according to predefined categories, with a focus on advertisements aired during 'peak' children's viewing times, defined as periods during which more than 25% of children were likely to be watching television on any channel. Food and beverage advertisements were classified as core (healthy), non-core (unhealthy) or miscellaneous foods. Malta. Whole population, with a focus on children. Food and drinks were the most heavily advertised product category (26.9% of all advertisements) across all channels. The proportion of non-core food/drink advertisements was significantly greater during peak compared with non-peak children's viewing times (52 vs 44.6%; p ≤ 0.001). A majority of advertisements aimed at children are for non-core foods, and are typically shown during family-oriented programmes in the late evening rather than being restricted to children's programmes. 'Taste', 'enjoyment' and 'peer status' were the primary persuasive appeals used in adolescent and child-focused advertisements. This first content analysis of television advertising in Malta suggests that there is scope for the implementation of statutory regulation regarding advertising of foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) during times when children are likely to watch television, rather than during children's programmes only. Ongoing, systematic monitoring is essential for evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations designed to reduce children's exposure to HFSS food advertising on television. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. 75 FR 81491 - Digital Television Signals Pursuant to the Satellite Home Viewer Extension and Reauthorization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ...://web.sba.gov/faqs/faqindex.cfm?areaID=24 (revised Sept. 2009). \\16\\ 5 U.S.C. 601(4). \\17\\ Independent... they apply may be over-inclusive to this extent. Class A TV, LPTV, and TV translator stations. The... television (LPTV) stations, and TV translator stations, as well as potential licensees in these television...

  3. Parents of preschoolers’ usage of television program rating symbols and their protective ways from television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Banko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is detecting parent’s, who have 3-6 ages of children, knowledge and usage level of these systems, and their protective ways for TV. Research sample was formed by 130 mothers in qualiatative part of the study and 8 mothers in quantitative part of the study.  In this study, which include both quantitative and qualitative methods, semi-structured interview form and survey were used. For the evaluation of qualitative data, ANOVA and t-test were used. The relationship between parents’ awareness level and program rating symbols usage level was revealed by correlation analysis. The evaluation of quantitative data was carried out with content analysis. Findings show that participants mostly know television content rating systems except symbol used for negative behaviours. Moreover, usage level and children guidance level of participants are generally high. Participant’s education level was the only effective variable of the study. Post hoc test showed that  and their awareness and guidance level. After qualitative analyzes it is found that families use television on the purpose of entertainment and education. Parents thought that TV includes negative sample behaviors and parents protect their children from negative effects of TV by controlling their watching.

  4. Virtual set on television. Analysis of the use of virtual set in the realization of a TV program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Esteban Galán Cubillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtual studio is a very recent phenomenon that emerged in the mid-90 'as an application of virtual reality to the television field. This article examines how virtual studio amending process of realizing television affecting their various stages of pre-production, production and post-production of a television program. This research has been carried out considering the impact in technology, creative and economic offered by the use of this technology. The field work that has been used to carry out this analysis has been on-line questionnaires and in-depth interviews with professionals who work with virtual scenery in Spain in public and private television channels with national and regional coverage.

  5. Convergent Television and 'Audience Participation': The Early Days of Interactive Digital Television in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Theodoropoulou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the introduction of interactive digital television (DTV in the UK, at the turn of the millennium, and its take-up and use by early audiences. It discusses whether the processes of television technological convergence went together with “consumer behavior convergence”[i], enhanced audience engagement with the interactive TV services offered, and participation. Based on findings from a UK-wide survey and interviews with early Sky digital subscribers[ii] it shows that early interactive DTV was taken up because of its multichannel offering and thematic orientation and, interestingly, was approached and appreciated mostly as a television content provider. It thus notes a divergence on industry’s attempts to promote convergence in broadcasting and on the level and pace with which users adopt and adapt to such change. In so doing it highlights the evolutionary nature and slow rate of ‘change’ of cultural habits and forms. [i] Horst Stipp, ‘Convergence now?’, The International Journal of Media Management, 1, 1, 1999, 10-13. [ii] A postal survey using a simple random sample of 1986 early Sky digital subscribers was conducted and achieved a response rate of 35.25%. This was complemented by 15 in-depth interviews with a stratified sample of the original survey sample. In the quotes that follow the gender initial (Male or Female and age of the interviewee is used as an identification mark.

  6. Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide: “Living” History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagedoorn Berber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern audiences engage with representations of the past in a particular way via the medium of television, negotiating a shared understanding of the past. This is evidenced by the increasing popularity of reboots, newly developed history and documentary programming, re-use of archival footage and nostalgia content. This article takes a closer look at television’s abilities to circulate and contextualize the past in the current era of convergence through narrowcasting or niche programming on digital television platforms, specifically via nostalgia programming. Such platforms exemplify the multifaceted way of looking at and gaining access to television programming through a variety of connected platforms and screens in the current multi-platform era. Since the way in which television professionals (producers, schedulers, commissioners, researchers act as moderators in this process needs to be further analysed, the article places an emphasis on how meaningful connections via previously broadcast history and nostalgia programming are also curated, principally through scheduling and production practices for niche programming – key elements in television’s creative process that have received less academic attention. Furthermore, the article discusses to what extent media policy in the Netherlands is attuned to the (re-circulation of previously broadcast content and programming about past events, and reflects on television’s possibilities for “re-screening” references to the past in the contemporary media landscape. The analysis is based on a combination of textual analysis of audio-visual archival content and a production studies approach of interviews with key professionals, to gain insight into the creators’ strategies in relation to nostalgia programming and scheduling. Subsequently, the article demonstrates how national collective memory, as understood by television professionals in the Netherlands, informs the scheduling and

  7. Tv-reklamens musik i et tekstanalytisk perspektiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Jørgensgaard Graakjær

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines music in television commercials from a text analytical perspective. An analytical framework is presented involving three interrelated analytic levels: the text, the co-text and the con-text. The level of con-text is presented as a transtextual matter of the relationship between the music appearing in the television commercial and music from outside the commercial. The level of co-text is presented as an analytical issue regarding the relationship between the different textual elements of the television commercial – a primary level of audiovisual signification is identified. The level of text is presented as a matter of the specific structure of music in television commercials and a number of formats are described. Arguably these three interrelated analytical levels are pivotal for the textual analysis of music in television commercials. Each level is discussed and further developed into a number of analytical categories, and throughout, the analytical levels and categories are illustrated with references to recent television commercials broadcast in Denmark.

  8. Monitoring Accessibility Services in Digital Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Utray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses methodology and tools applied to the monitoring of accessibility services in digital television at a time when the principles of accessibility and design are being considered in all new audiovisual media communication services. The main objective of this research is to measure the quality and quantity of existing accessibility services offered by digital terrestrial television (DTT. The preliminary results, presented here, offer the development of a prototype for automatic monitoring and a methodology for obtaining quality measurements, along with the conclusions drawn by initial studies carried out in Spain. The recent approval of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities gives special relevance to this research because it provides valuable guidelines to help set the priorities to improve services currently available to users.

  9. 76 FR 54189 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, NC AGENCY... licensee of noncommercial educational television station WHRO-TV, channel *16, Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia... freeze on the filing of television allotment rulemaking petitions, but since HRETA'S proposal...

  10. 47 CFR 1.1155 - Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locations for cable television services. 1.1155 Section 1.1155 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Schedule of regulatory fees and filing locations for cable television services. Fee amount Address 1. Cable Television Relay Service $315 FCC, Cable, P.O. Box 979084, St. Louis, MO 63197-9000 2. Cable TV System (per...

  11. 47 CFR 73.9001 - Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redistribution control of digital television... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9001 Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts. Licensees of TV broadcast stations may utilize the...

  12. Sex differences in young adults' snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; van Strien, Tatjana

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  13. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  14. The relationship between parents' and children's television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Hennessy, Michael

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effect of parental television viewing on children's television viewing compared with traditional predictors such as household television access, parental rules, and demographic characteristics of the child, parent, and household. An online survey using national samples of 1550 parents with children in 3 age groups (children ≤ 5 years, children aged 6-11 years, and adolescents aged 12-17 years), weighted to be representative of US parents with children in each age group. Adolescents (n = 629) of participating parents were also surveyed. Parent television time is associated with child television time and had a stronger relationship to child time than access to television in the home or the child's bedroom, as well as parental rules about television viewing and coviewing. This pattern persisted across all age groups of children. Educating parents about the relationship between their own and their child's viewing may be a useful strategy for interventions that aim to reduce children's excessive television viewing. Additionally, health professionals can engage parents in a discussion about how family television time is associated with increased television time for children.

  15. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005.5 Section 1005.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed or any television production or sound...

  16. Caught: Critical versus everyday perspectives on television

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes, Joke

    2013-01-01

    The ‘televisual’ names a media culture generally in which television’s multiple dimensions have shaped and continue to alter the coordinates through which we understand, theorize, intervene, and challenge contemporary media culture. Televisual culture is a culture which both encompasses and crosses all aspects of television from its experiential dimensions to its aesthetic strategies, from its technological developments to its crossmedial consequences. Concepts like liveness, media event, aud...

  17. Postfeminist Spectres: What Is Haunting Television Heroines?

    OpenAIRE

    Strehlau, Nelly

    2017-01-01

    Postfeminism is frequently analyzed and conceptualized as a time or sensibility haunted by the ghost of feminism that it wants to (purports to) relegate to the past. It is also a crucial concept in understanding the ways of portraying and constructing female characters prevalent in the American media. The article considers the hauntings (literal but predominantly fgurative) experienced by selected prominent women protagonists of postfeminist American mid-brow television series of the late 199...

  18. Television imaging system for fast neutron radiography using baby cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Koji; Miya, Kenzo; Katoh, Norihiko.

    1993-01-01

    A television imaging system for fast neutron radiography (FNR-TV) developed using the fast neutron source reactor YAYOI was applied to the baby-cyclotron based fast neutron source to get images of thick objects quickly. In the system the same technique as a current television imaging system of thermal neutron radiography was applied, while the luminescent converter was used to detect fast neutrons. Using the CR39 track etch method it took about 7 h to get an image, while the FNR-TV only 20 s enough for taking the same object. However the FNR-TV imaging result of the simulation model of a large explosive device for the space launch vehicle of H-2 type was not so good as the image taken with the CR39 track etch method. The reason was that the luminescence intensity of the FNR-TV converter was a quarter of that in the YAYOI. (author)

  19. Study of the precision guided communication of digital television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lun

    2012-04-01

    Along with the progress and development of the digital technology, there produced the transmission of the new media by medium of such as the network, mobile phones and the digital television, while among them digital TV has the superiority of other media. The appearance and development of digital TV will induce a profound change in the broadcasting and television industry chain. This paper started with discussing the transformation of digital television in profit model, mode of operation and mode of transmission to construct the precision-guided communication theory; And then analyzes the properties and marketing nature of the precision-guided communication to make the construction of the precision-guided communication marketing mode; And put forward the implementing of the precision-guided communication marketing strategies and concrete steps; At the end of the article the author summarized four conclusions.

  20. Distance learning through synchronous interactive television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Janis L

    2007-01-01

    The advent and popularity of asynchronous online learning has somewhat obscured a standby technology developed over the last two decades. Interactive videoconferencing, sometimes called "interactive television," though not as glamorous and popular a topic at distance-learning conferences, is still alive and well at many institutions. Three or four years ago, many of us were led to believe that interactive television would go the way of the dinosaurs-everything would soon be in an asynchronous format or on individual desktops. There would no longer be any need for elaborately designed classrooms, networks, and operations staff. To date, this prediction has not come true. In fact, synchronous interactive television has experienced significant growth as newer, easier, and cheaper technologies allow institutions to reach more students with less resource investment. Faculty and students, while appreciating the convenience of asynchronous delivery, still express a need for synchronous communication. This article explores the issues involved in synchronous distance education, the current technologies and proposed future developments, and best practices in terms of classroom design, faculty use, and operational issues. It is not a research article but an anecdotal case study based on Washington State University's experiences over the last 20 years in developing and adapting to new synchronous technologies and creating the support and technical infrastructure to best deliver academic courses through this medium.

  1. Television in a New Media Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Car

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first decade of the 21st century has brought about comprehensive changes for media and communications in general. The new multimedia landscape has broken traditional boarders between telecommunications, the audiovisual industry, and information technology. Still, the border between traditional and new media is quite defined, yet there exists a tendency to mitigate it. Changes in media content production will play the dominant role in that process, as well the fact that the three-step flows of communication encompass new configurations of one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many communication across the online/offline divide. In such processes of development and transformation, video content, once reserved exclusively for film and television using the one-way channel of communication (from content provider to viewers, now plays an increasingly important role. New media provides opportunities for video content to use three-step flows of communication, which subsequently enables space for new video genres and formats. This article presents the results of the study entitled, ”Media Accountability”, and compares them with the author’s own research on television news and with Forrester’s research on youth as a media audience. Finally, this article provides insights on the future of television as a medium and its existence as a traditional medium.

  2. Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of conformational modifications on the thermodynamic, optical, and switching properties of dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photoswitches, in the context of molecular solar thermal (MOST) systems, is described herein. The optical properties...... of monomeric DHA/VHF systems are found to be strongly dependent on structural changes which can be tuned via steric modifications. This correlation is then used to infer structural features of more complex, macrocyclic DHA/VHF systems based on their optical properties. The introduction of macrocyclic ring...... strain is furthermore found to significantly influence the switching behavior of DHA/VHF moieties compared to non-cyclized systems. The thermal ring closure of macrocyclic VHF-VHF systems is found to occur in a stepwise manner, enabling the release of the energy on both a fast and slow timescale...

  3. Quantitative analysis of Internet television and video (WebTV: A study of formats, content, and source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Borja ARJONA MARTÍN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the significant increase in the last five years of audiovisual content distribution over the web, this paper is focused on a study aimed at the description and classification of a wide sample of audiovisual initiatives whose access is carried out by means of the World Wide Web. The purpose of this study is to promote the debate concerning the different names of these incipient media, as well as their categorization and description so that an organised universe of the WebTV phenomenon could be provided. An analysis of formats and content is carried out on the basis of quantitative techniques in order to propose a categorization typology. These formats and content will be studied under three key variables: "Content", "Origin" and "Domain .tv". "Content" will help us define the programmatic lines of our study sample; “Source” refers to the source of a particular item of study (“Native WebTV or WebTV representative of a conventional media and "Domain.tv" will specify the proportion of case studies hosted with domain .tv. The results obtained in this study will offer the researchers and the professionals a comprehensive description of the models currently adopted in the field of video and television on the net.

  4. Anglų kalbos vartojimas ir kodų kaita Lietuvos televizijų reklamose. Use of English and code-mixing in TV commercials in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta Vaicekauskienė

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of language domain loss and sets out to examine the relationship between Lithuanian and English in TV commercials in Lithuania. The aim of the research is to determine the spread of English, together with the functions of English elements in the commercials and code-mixing. The data consists of a corpus of TV commercials recorded in 2003 and in 2009; in total, more than 1200 commercials, broadcasted during the most popular TV programs in one week each year. The analysis has shown that TV advertising as a domain of Lithuanian language use is not being lost and the situation hasn’t changed over the years. There are almost no only English commercials. Most of the commercials are a mix of Lithuanian and English codes, while English is mostly used in the product names. There are few English slogans and not much other information in English in the corpus. It turned out that there might be a special strategy for the localization of commercials in Lithuania. The oral form of the commercials is more Lithuanized than the written form. The slogans and the product names are presented in translation or explained in Lithuanian. At the same time, the written part of the commercials can have more information in English. Some English insertions most likely have a symbolic function to make an impression that the product advertised is valuable or modern. The use of English in commercials may have the purpose of communicating prestige and especially targeting at an audience with a high social status or young people.------ Straipsnyje keliama Lietuvoje iki šiol labai mažai tirta kalbos domenų praradimo problema ir analizuojami anglų ir lietuvių kalbų santykiai televizijos reklamoje. Tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti anglų kalbos vartojimo apimtis ir plitimą, angliškų elementų funkcijas bei kodų kaitos pobūdį. Medžiaga rinkta 2003 m. ir 2009 m., vieną savaitę įrašinėjant Lietuvos televizijų transliuojamų

  5. Social Interaction Design for Online Video and Television

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); D. Geerts (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years social networking and social interactions have challenged old conceptions in the media landscape. Web applications that offer video content, connected television sets and set-top boxes, tablets and smartphones as second screens, and online TV widgets have radically

  6. Linked Data Methodologies for Managing Information about Television Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Redondo-García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OntoTV is a television information management system designed for improving the quality and quantity of the information available in the current television platforms. In order to achieve this objective, OntoTV (1 collects the information offered by the broadcasters, (2 integrates it into a ontology-based data structure, (3 extracts extra data from alternative television sources, and (4 makes possible for the user to perform queries over the stored information.This document shows the way Linked Data methodologies have been applied in OntoTV system, and the improvements in the data consumption and publication processes that have been obtained as result. On the one hand, the possibility of accessing to information available in the Web of Data has made possible to offer more complete descriptions about the programs, as well as more detailed guides than those obtained by using classic collection methods. On the other hand, as the information of the television programs and channels is published according to the Linked Data philosophy, it becomes available not only for OntoTV clients, but also for other agents able to access Linked Data resources, who could offer the viewer more fresh and innovative features.

  7. Who knows television? Online access and the gatekeepers of knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the implications of online access to television archival material and the knowledge it represents. I discuss the impact of digitisation on the TV archive, and ask how that affects the role of the archivist as a gatekeeper to its knowledge. I argue that far from being a

  8. What Researchers Have Learned about Toddlers and Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Hanson, Katherine G.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research conducted after the American Academy of Pediatrics 1999 recommendation against screen exposure for children less than 2 years old. Television in the background disrupts play and parent-child interactions. Background TV exposure is associated with negative cognitive and language outcomes. Children begin to understand…

  9. Television filmless technique for fast-process coordinate measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrakov, A.V.

    1977-01-01

    Achievements in the application of television filmless method for recording transients have been analysed, as well as the causes limiting the quality of measuring lines: experimental equipment - TV system - computer. The perspectives are shown of developing the method by using new transmitting kinescopes and by stabilizing the size and location of their rasters in space

  10. 78 FR 78318 - Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Family Broadcasting Group, Inc. (``Family Broadcasting''), the licensee of station KSBI(TV), channel 51, Oklahoma City... instituted a freeze on the acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel...

  11. The Role of Television at the Gentrification of Arabesque Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Soydan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Before television became so popular in our daily life, sub-cultural groups could have survived without any contact to mainstream lifestyle. Until the 1990s there were only state controlled radio stations and one television channel on which broadcasting arabesque music was prohibited. It’s after privately owned broadcasting began that arabesque music -by gaining a hybrid identity- has become mainstream. Thanks to privately owned television channels arabesque music were started to be listened by masses and its singers have become popular TV icons. In this paper the term gentrification which is a trend in urban neighborhoods, which results in increased property values and the displacing of lower-income families and small businesses, will be used to stress the integration of mainstream with arabesque music. The purpose of the paper is to point the role of privately owned TV channels on gentrification of arabesque music. In the paper, after the literature review, the relationship between popular culture and arabesque music, the historical background of arabesque music and the role of TV on gentrification of arabesque music will be expressed on an example: Dilber Ay. A popular TV show for arabesque music named “Kadere Mahkumlar” will also be mentioned. The fact that Dilber Ay who has been an icon in the arabesque music realm for forty years, becoming a popular culture figure after she has stood in mainstream TV channels in 2012, shows the role of TV on gentrification of arabesque music.

  12. Children's perceptions of TV and health behavior effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christine M; Strzempko, Fran; Danford, Cynthia; Kools, Susan

    2002-01-01

    To understand and document children's stated experiences and beliefs about television and to elicit their suggestions for alternative activities. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 51 Anglo and Latino children, ages 7-10, in a large Northern California city. Philosophical underpinnings of developmental psychology were the basis for multiphase thematic analysis. Data were collected in 1998-1999. Themes were identified in five conceptual categories. Findings showed that children did not perceive many parental rules related to TV watching, rather daily routines are associated with TV viewing. Children revealed both covert and overt motivations for watching. Nearly all participants spoke of the deception of advertising, but they were unclear about the role of commercial sponsors in payment for TV shows. Children perceived both negative physical and behavioral health effects of TV and they had great difficulty imagining life without a TV. Children perceived television as providing educational and relational needs. Although they preferred alternatives to TV, they had difficulty articulating and getting those needs met. Clinicians and researchers can utilize these findings to design health interventions that attenuate the health-impairing effects of habitual sedentary activity in childhood.

  13. 76 FR 23795 - Low-Power Television and Translator Upgrade Program: Notice of Final Closing Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    .... 110418247-1247-01] Low-Power Television and Translator Upgrade Program: Notice of Final Closing Date AGENCY... receipt of applications for the Low-Power Television and Translator Upgrade Program (Upgrade Program) will... Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster...

  14. Cultural schemas for racial identity in Canadian television advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Shyon; Ho, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    What meanings are attached to race in advertising? We analyze a sample of prime-time Canadian television advertising to identify cultural schemas for what it means to be White, Black, and East/Southeast Asian. Our empirical focus is on food and dining advertising. Through quantitative content analysis of associations between race and food subtypes, we show that there are systematic differences in the types of foods that groups are associated with. Through a qualitative content analysis of the commercials, we illuminate these quantitative patterns and discuss six cultural schemas for racial identity. The schemas allow for both diversity and privilege in the representation of Whites, and poignant contrasts regarding status and emotionality in the narrow representations of the other two groups.

  15. Representing climate change on public service television: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrett, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Publicly funded broadcasters with a track record in science programming would appear ideally placed to represent climate change to the lay public. Free from the constraints of vested interests and the economic imperative, public service providers are better equipped to represent the scientific, social and economic aspects of climate change than commercial media, where ownership conglomeration, corporate lobbyists and online competition have driven increasingly tabloid coverage with an emphasis on controversy. This prime-time snapshot of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's main television channel explores how the structural/rhetorical conventions of three established public service genres - a science programme, a documentary and a live public affairs talk show - impact on the representation of anthropogenic climate change. The study findings note implications for public trust, and discuss possibilities for innovation in the interests of better public understanding of climate change.

  16. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore a pair of glasses with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera

  17. Food advertisements on UK television popular with children: a content analysis in relation to dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mazyad, M; Flannigan, N; Burnside, G; Higham, S; Boyland, E

    2017-02-10

    Objective To quantify the prevalence of advertising for foods and beverages potentially detrimental to dental health on UK television watched by children.Design Content analysis of pre-recorded television advertisements (adverts).Materials and methods Three hundred and fifty-two hours of television were recorded (one weekday and one weekend day, 6 am - 10 pm) from the main commercial channel (ITV1). All adverts were coded using pre-defined criteria.Setting UK television recorded between January and December 2012.Results Of 9,151 adverts, foods and beverages were the second most commonly advertised products (16.7%; n = 1,532). Nearly two-thirds of food adverts were for items that are potentially harmful to dental health (61%; n = 934). Of these, 96.6% were cariogenic and 11% were acidogenic foods. During peak children's viewing hours, the proportion of foods that are potentially harmful to dental health was significantly higher than for non-harmful foods (65.9% vs. 34.1%; p = 0.011). Adverts for foods potentially harmful to dental health were rare around children's programmes, but significantly more frequent during other programmes watched by children (p <0.001).Conclusion UK children are exposed to a particularly high proportion of advertisements for foods that are potentially detrimental to their dental health during their peak viewing hours and around the programmes they watch the most.

  18. Building the case for independent monitoring of food advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lesley; Hebden, Lana; Grunseit, Anne; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy

    2013-12-01

    To provide an independent monitoring report examining the ongoing impact of Australian self-regulatory pledges on food and drink advertising to children on commercial television. Analysis of food advertisements across comparable sample time periods in April/May 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The main outcome measure comprised change in the mean rate of non-core food advertisements from 2006 to 2011. Sydney free-to-air television channels. Televised food advertisements. In 2011 the rate of non-core food advertisements was not significantly different from that in 2006 or 2010 (3·2/h v. 4·1/h and 3·1/h), although there were variations across the intervening years. The rate of fast-food advertising in 2010 was significantly higher than in 2006 (1·8/h v. 1·1/h, P advertising on Sydney television has remained essentially unchanged between 2006 and 2011, despite the implementation of two industry self-regulatory pledges. The current study illustrates the value of independent monitoring as a basic requirement of any responsive regulatory approach.

  19. Exposure to television food advertising primes food-related cognitions and triggers motivation to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Hollitt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of exposure to television food advertising on accessibility of food-related cognitions and motivation to eat. We initially developed a word stem completion task to measure accessibility of food-related cognitions. In two subsequent experiments, 160 female undergraduate students (Experiment 1) and 124 overweight or obese community-dwelling women (Experiment 2) viewed a series of television commercials advertising either food or non-food products. They then completed the word stem task and also rated their desire to eat. Exposure to televised food advertisements led to the completion of word stems with more food- and eating-related words in both experiments. It also increased self-reported desire to eat, but only for overweight and obese individuals (Experiment 2). In both samples, there was a positive association between accessibility of food-related cognitions and reported desire to eat, following priming with television food advertisements. We conclude that an increased activation of food-related cognitions may provide a mechanism for the link between food advertising and consumption. This has implications for tackling pathological (over)eating.

  20. What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chinna, Karuthan; Mee, Loi Huei; Mei, Lim Siau; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on television. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed ( p food advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children's prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest.