Examines the often attacked television commercial, its messages, and its effects. Considers commercials a contemporary art form, positing that they are deeply linked with the structure of poetry, and compares the TV director with the poet. Suggests that commercials are a "perfect" expression of the television medium--short, intensive,…
(2007: 409) holds that gender roles in the media are authenticated through regular exposures and then adopted by the .... Product user: People are often portrayed as product users in commercials, as television is an excellent medium for ... women than men are product users in television commercials. In a study to compare.
Abstract. Television has been described as the primary medium used by companies to market their product to children. This consequently makes television commercial has significant influence on children. The children tend to believe what the adverts tell them about product and fail to realize that its purpose is just to sell ...
Television has been described as the primary medium used by companies to market their product to children. This consequently makes television commercial has significant influence on children. The children tend to believe what the adverts tell them about product and fail to realize that its purpose is just to sell product to ...
Kaid, Lynda Lee
For decades research on mass media in political campaigns has yielded little evidence of direct, significant effects. Most survey research on elections found adequate explanations for voting decisions while excluding the impact of mass media. Although the increasing use of expensive television advertising campaigns is evidence of the confidence of…
Ostbye, T; Pomerleau, J; White, M; Coolich, M; McWhinney, J
Television is, arguably, the most influential mass medium and "prime time" viewing attracts the largest audiences. To assess the type, number and nutritional content of foods advertised on TV, commercial breaks during "prime time" (7:00 to 11:00 p.m.) on five Canadian channels (CBC-English, CBC-French, CTV, CFPL, Much Music) were recorded and analyzed. A similar analysis of Saturday morning children's TV commercials was also performed. Commercials for foods and food products constituted between 24-35% of all commercials, the largest advertising output for any group of products. The combination of food presented in commercials reflected average current consumption patterns. Of special concern was the emphasis on low nutrition beverages, especially beer, as well as snacks and candy on Much Music. While further government intervention to restrict advertising practices may be an impractical option, there is scope for increasing the alternative promotion of healthy dietary choices.
Goot, M.J. van der; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Kleemans, M.
This article examines whether there are differences between older and younger adults in recall and liking of arousing television commercials. As hypothesized, the experiment demonstrated that older adults remembered brands and products in calm commercials better than in arousing commercials, and
Li, Lean Mei
Malaysia is a multiracial country with a diverse range of religions, leading to a broad range of religious festivals throughout the year. In recent years, corporate giants such as Petronas, Telekom Malaysia (TM), Tenaga and Astro have taken to airing television commercials (TVCs) that contain a local touch when greeting their customers. Perhaps…
Gbadeyan, R. A. - Faculty of Business and Social Sciences, Department of ... such as advertisements on the radio, in print media, on public transportation ..... Table 2: Distribution of Respondents Based on What Interest Them on the. Television Commercial. WHAT INTEREST CHILDREN. PERCENTAGE (%). Music. 19.4.
Terry, W Scott
Does the position of a television commercial in a block of commercials determine how well it will be recalled? The findings of naturalistic studies can be affected by uncontrolled presentation, viewing, and retention variables. In the present article, college students viewed lists of 15 commercials in a laboratory simulation and recalled the product brand names. In an immediate test, the first commercials in a list were well recalled (a primacy effect), as were the last items (a recency effect), in comparison with the recall of middle items. In an end-of-session test, the primacy effect persisted, but the recency effect disappeared. Embedding lists within a television program again produced better recall of the first items during end-of-session tests of recall and recognition. These results offered convergent validity for the naturalistic studies of commercial memory, and they supported the usefulness of combining laboratory and field methods to answer questions about everyday memory.
Palmerton, Patricia R.; Judas, Jeff
Noting that little research has addressed the question of violence in commercials directed to children, a study examined commercials aired during the 21 top-rated children's cartoons during one broadcast week in late spring 1993. Commercials were analyzed for violent content, gender of primary actors and recipients of violent action, primary…
Full Text Available This two-phase study deals with the phenomenon of “stealth advertising” in Canada. This concept refers to the encroachment of commercially tinted messages into broadcast news segments. Different theories of commercial speech were used as a theoretical framework. The study combined mixed methods, content analysis and in-depth interviews. The first phase concentrated on the frequency and actual time spent airing commercially influenced messages in television newscast segments. The sample consisted of eight randomly selected English-language markets across Canada including news stations affiliated with CBC, CTV and Global. Seventy-five newscasts were recorded and content-analyzed. The analysis demonstrated that private television stations used more explicit and aggressive stealth advertising than publicly owned ones. In subsequent interviews, the news directors and sales managers of some of these stations denied that they yield to outside commercial pressures but admitted they may include messages with commercial content if these have public interest value. In the second phase thirty-nine newscasts of a news station affiliated with Global were recorded and content-analyzed, showing high numbers of commercially influenced messages and corroborating previous research findings. Subsequent interviews showed some news decision-makers accept the inclusion of commercially tinted news segments, thus eroding the divide between editorial and commercial contents. This study is intended to contribute to the empirical basis for pursuing the question of corruption of news by surreptitious commercial content.
... Television Fixed Service Licenses AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction... Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses, published in the... Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses, MM Docket No. 97- 234 et al., First Report and Order, 13 FCC...
Full Text Available Watching the commercials depends on the choice of the viewer. Most of the television viewing takes place during “Prime-Time” unfortunately; many viewers opt to zap to other channels when commercials start. The television viewers’ demographic characteristics may indicate the likelihood of the zapping frequency. Analysis made by using Multinomial Logit Model indicates how effective the demographic variables are in the watching rate of the first minute of the television commercials.
Bowes, David R.
Video clips are an excellent way to enhance lecture material. Television commercials are a source of video examples that should not be overlooked and they are readily available on the internet. They are familiar, short, self-contained, constantly being created, and often funny. This paper describes several examples of television commercials that…
To test the hypothesis that television content can teach sex-typed attitudes, this study presented third and eighth graders with television commercials showing either traditional or nontraditional women. Crossing this manipulation, the children's perceptions of the reality of the commercials were altered with instructions. (Author)
Full Text Available In this paper attention is given to the mutual synergy between sports, commercials and alcohol. Therefore, we approach the research topic specified in the title with regards to the cultural history of football and beer, the functioning of the commercial industry within consumer culture and the structural practices of consuming football and beer trough which, at specific places and in special occasions, masculinity is performed. This research relies primarily on discourse analysis of football-beer commercials. For the purpose of enriching the insights gained by this method, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a market expert specialized in branding and an autoethnographic approach is present. The central part of the study is based on a corpus of advertisements that were broadcast on national television programs in the last ten years and that have emerged as part of a market designed advertising campaigns for major breweries during the World and European football championships. For the most of them, the common denominator is putting football fans in the forefront, whether in stadiums, bars, town squares or at home. Also, in most cases, they exclusively present male protagonists during their leisure time, united by their passion for football and beer, as well as their desire for relaxed socialization and fun. Apart from gender, the national context is essential, since these commercials usually visually, audibly and textually refer to the national football team of Croatia.
Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans
We consider a model of commercial television market, where private broadcasters coexist with a public television broadcaster. Assuming that the public TV station follows a policy of Ramsey pricing whereas the private stations are profit maximizers, we consider the equilibria in this market...
Anderson, C R
To identify the frequency of violent commercials during the major league baseball playoffs in 1998 and to compare it with the 1996 playoffs. All 4 World Series games televised on the Fox Television Network (Fox), all 6 National League Championship Series (NLCS) televised by Fox, and 5 of 6 American League Championship Series (ALCS) playoff games televised by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) were videotaped in October 1998. The results were compared with a similar study that analyzed the 1996 playoffs. Forty-four commercials (11.0 per game) that included violent interactions were noted during the World Series, 53 violent commercials (8.8 per game) during the NLCS, and 40 (8.0 per game) during the ALCS for a total of 137. Of these 137 violent commercials, 78 contained at least 1 violent act, 126 contained at least 1 violent threat, and 12 contained evidence of at least 1 violent consequence. One hundred five of the 137 violent commercials (76.6%) were television promotions and 23 (16.8%) were for big-screen movie promotions. Twenty-three of 35 big-screen movie promotions (65.7%) were violent. Ten of the 137 violent commercials (7.3%) contained obvious blood, of which 9 were televised by NBC. There were, however, an additional 20 commercials televised by Fox that contained visible blood if the videotape was slowed or paused. Sixty-three of the 137 violent commercials (46.0%) used fire and explosions, of which 53 were televised by Fox and 10 by NBC. Guns were involved in 86 of 137 violent commercials (62.8%), with Fox accounting for 64 (6.4 per game) and NBC accounting for 22 (4.4 per game). Knives were used in 1 violent commercial on both Fox and NBC. Comparisons that can be made to 1996 include the following: 1) violent commercials during the World Series (both televised by Fox) increased from 10.1 to 11.0 per game; and 2) violent commercials during the ALCS (both televised by NBC) increased from 6.0 to 8.0 per game. Commercials during the 1998 major league
van Selm, M; Westerhof, G J; de Vos, B
The present study replicates our study of older adults' portrayal in Dutch television commercials conducted in 1993. The central question is whether older adults are being portrayed more visibly in Dutch television commercials and whether this portrayal has become more diverse compared to ten years ago. Based on a list of descriptions of all commercials broadcasted by public television channels in 2003 (N= 4767) 117 commercials featuring older adults were selected. By means of a quantitative content analysis it was examined whether and how older men and women are portrayed. It was concluded that although older adults are not more prevalent compared to ten years ago, their portrayal is more diverse with respect to their roles and the advertised products. Older adults were portrayed as more competent and less age-stereotypical in television commercials.
Morris, Jon D; Klahr, Nelson J; Shen, Feng; Villegas, Jorge; Wright, Paul; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun
Unlike previous emotional studies using functional neuroimaging that have focused on either locating discrete emotions in the brain or linking emotional response to an external behavior, this study investigated brain regions in order to validate a three-dimensional construct--namely pleasure, arousal, and dominance (PAD) of emotion induced by marketing communication. Emotional responses to five television commercials were measured with Advertisement Self-Assessment Manikins (AdSAM) for PAD and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify corresponding patterns of brain activation. We found significant differences in the AdSAM scores on the pleasure and arousal rating scales among the stimuli. Using the AdSAM response as a model for the fMRI image analysis, we showed bilateral activations in the inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyri associated with the difference on the pleasure dimension, and activations in the right superior temporal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus associated with the difference on the arousal dimension. These findings suggest a dimensional approach of constructing emotional changes in the brain and provide a better understanding of human behavior in response to advertising stimuli.
To identify the frequency of violent television commercials aired during major league baseball playoffs, traditionally thought to be a family-oriented viewing time. All 6 World Series games televised on the Fox Television Network (Fox), all 5 American League Championship Series playoff games televised by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and 4 first-round playoff games televised by ESPN Sports Television Network (ESPN) were videotaped in October 1996. During the 15 televised games reviewed, 104 (6.8%) of the 1528 commercials contained violent content. Sixty-one commercials (10 per game) that included violent interactions were noted during the World Series, 30 (6 per game) during the American League Championship Series, and 13 (3 per game) during the 4 first-round playoff games for a total of 104. In these 104 violent commercials, 69 contained at least 1 violent act, 90 contained at least 1 violent threat, and 27 contained evidence of at least 1 violent consequence. Seventy (67.3%) of the violent commercials were promotions for television programs, 7 (6.7%) were cable television program advertisements, and 20 (19.2%) were big-screen movie promotions. Twenty (71.4%) of 28 big-screen movie promotions were violent. Twenty-two (21.2%) of the 104 violent commercials and 7 "nonviolent" commercials contained blood or other graphic content, all of which were televised during the Fox presentation of the World Series. Fox also accounted for all 24 violent commercials that used a knife. Guns were involved in 25 violent commercials on NBC (5.0 per game), in 20 on Fox (3.33 per game), and in 7 on ESPN (1.75 per game). Overt violent content in commercials during the 1996 major league playoffs was common and consisted mainly of promotions for television programs and big-screen movies. It is counterintuitive to find such commercials in nonviolent programming and makes it difficult for parents to avoid exposing their children to this form of violence.
Greenberg, Bradley S.; Eastin, Matthew; Hofschire, Linda; Lachlan, Ken; Brownell, Kelly D.
Objectives. This study examined the distribution and individual characteristics of body types on prime-time television. Methods. Five episodes of each of the 10 top-rated prime-time fictional programs on 6 broadcast networks during the 1999–2000 season were quantitatively analyzed. Results. Of 1018 major television characters, 14% of females and 24% of males were overweight or obese, less than half their percentages in the general population. Overweight and obese females were less likely to be considered attractive, to interact with romantic partners, or to display physical affection. Overweight and obese males were less likely to interact with romantic partners and friends or to talk about dating and were more likely to be shown eating. Conclusions. Overweight and obese television characters are associated with specific negative characteristics. PMID:12893625
Sistema de adquisición de datos para la medición de parámetros radioeléctricos en antenas lineales en la banda de TV de VHF y UHF System of acquisition of information for measurement of radioelectric parameters in linear antennas in the band of VHF and UHF’s television
María del Pilar Celemín
Full Text Available Este proyecto desarrolla un sistema de adquisición y procesamiento de datos para la medición y ajuste de parámetros radioeléctricos de antenas lineales en las bandas de VHF y UHF. Como señal de prueba se utilizan algunas de las señales de televisión que se encuentran en el espectro radioeléctrico, provenientes de los transmisores que radian señales de canales nacionales. El receptor implementado incluye un sintonizador comercial de televisión que toma como muestra la señal portadora de video. Esta señal es amplificada, filtrada, almacenada y acondicionada, para ser leída por el puerto serial de un computador personal y procesada empleando un programa en Visual Basic, con una interfaz gráfica que permite una interacción amigable con el usuario. Desde acá se interactúa con un microcontrolador que controla el mecanismo de posicionamiento de la antena receptora por medio de una estructura electromecánica, que le permite ejecutar movimientos en dos grados de libertad: en azimut y en elevación. Con esto se logra un sistema capaz de determinar automáticamente el apuntamiento óptimo de la antena de acuerdo al máximo nivel de recepción de señal. Así mismo, se determinan parámetros propios de la antena tales como: el patrón de radiación (tanto en el plano horizontal como vertical, la ganancia directiva de la antena, la ganancia en cada uno de los puntos que conforman el plano principal, y otros parámetros de interés para el análisis de las características reales de antenas lineales.This project develops a data acquisition and processing system for measuring and adjusting lineal-antenna radioelectric parameters in VHF and UHF. Television signals are used as test signal. They can be found in radio electric spectrum, as they come from commercial transmitters that broadcast signals of national channels. The achieved receptor includes a television commercial tuner for obtaining video signal. Later, this signal is conditioning to
Lull, James T.; And Others
Although college women were generally found to be more aware and critical of sex stereotyping than were college men, data indicated that viewers were not as sensitive to sex-role stereotypes in television commercials as advocates of feminism might hope. (KS)
L. P. Pretorius; C. J. H. Blignaut
From a perceptual point of view it is not clear whether, and under what conditions, the presence of colour in television commercials aids the processing of information. In this study it was argued that the way in which colour is used, would have an effect on the comprehension and memory of children regarding television commercials. It was found that colour, when used in a "concrete" fashion, aids the comprehension process. The results of the study also show that the "concrete" as well as the...
Abstract: The work deals with the possibilities of using emotional appeals in advertising. The main goal was classification and definition of emotions and emotional appeals with regard to marketing. The work focused on emotional appeals in Czech TV adverts and found out the way how emotional appeals are used in these adverts. Research question used in this work concerned the problem of which emmotional appeals are in adverts the most. Research sample consisting of 150 TV adverts was divided i...
Schmidt, Richard; And Others
This study examined the differences in the use of language in television commercials from the United States, Japan, South Korea, and China to persuade viewers (consumers) to buy a product. Because cultural norms in these East Asian nations favor indirectness when suggesting or recommending, it was hypothesized that: 1) suggestions would be more…
Solomon, Paul R.
Contends that research methodology courses can be relevant to issues outside of psychology and describes a method which relates the course to consumer problems. Students use experimental methodology to test claims made in television commercials advertising deodorant, bathroom tissues, and soft drinks. (KC)
Jeffrey, D B; McLellarn, R W; Fox, D T
There is growing evidence that the long-term consumption of the typical high-sugar, high-calorie American diet may lead to a variety of health problems. Since the majority of food ads on television are for high-sugar, high-calorie types of foods, researchers have begun investigating the effects of these commercials. A number of self-report, survey, and correlational studies have found that children watch on the average 28 hours of TV a week, see over 11,000 low-nutrition "junk" food ads a year on TV, believe (at the younger ages) that commercials tell the truth, recall the ads, and often request in stores foods that are highly advertised. A series of behavioral/experimental studies conducted at the University of Montana are reported in some detail. The initial stage of the research focused upon the development of a methodology for assessing the impact of commercials upon the actual amounts of foods consumed. Next, a series of studies investigating the effects of low-nutrition, pro-nutrition, and nonfood commercials upon the eating behaviors of children was begun. The results, to date, suggest low-nutrition ads are most effective in increasing total caloric consumption. Additionally, low-nutrition ads seem to affect boys more than girls and are not mediated by cognitive development. Finally, pro-nutrition ads have so far proven ineffective in increasing consumption of pro-nutrition foods. Some of the implications of applying the growing body of empirical literature on children's television to social policy issues are also discussed.
Pudwell Chaves de Almeida, M.; Vladimir Gonzalez Castellanos, P.; Alfredo Cal Braz, J.; Pereira David, R.; Saboia Lima de Souza, R.; Pereira da Soledade, A.; Rodrigues Nascimento Junior, J.; Ferreira Lima, F.
This paper describes the experimental setup of field measurements carried out for evaluating the operation of the ISDB-TB (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting, Terrestrial, Brazilian version) standard digital TV in the VHF-highband. Measurements were performed in urban and suburban areas in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Besides the direct measurements of received power and environmental noise, a measurement procedure involving the injection of Gaussian additive noise was employed to achieve the signal to noise ratio threshold at each measurement site. The analysis includes results of static reception measurements for evaluating the received field strength and the signal to noise ratio thresholds for correct signal decoding.
The objective is to determine if fruit and vegetable (FV) commercials have an impact on preschool children's preferences for specific FV. A year of extensive formative assessment was conducted to develop two 30-second commercials; Judy Fruity promoted apples and bananas and Reggie Veggie promoted br...
This paper is the result of a three-month monitoring of Serbian television commercials which aimed to study the way elderly people are represented in the media. Elderly people appear in only six commercials, more often as a functional part of a series than as protagonists. Yet in spite of the small number of commercials in which they appear, it is easy to identify the stereotypes which are translated from a social paradigm into the sphere of the media. The stereotypes on which commercials are...
In this paper attention is given to the mutual synergy between sports, commercials and alcohol. Therefore, we approach the research topic specified in the title with regards to the cultural history of football and beer, the functioning of the commercial industry within consumer culture and the structural practices of consuming football and beer trough which, at specific places and in special occasions, masculinity is performed. This research relies primaril...
Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard
The aim of this article is to advance current understandings of cross-media communication in advertising. The study is based on a sample of 80 television commercials and their announced websites, and the article is inspired by recent studies of cross-media advertising effectiveness as well...... serve as inspiration for further research on cross-media communication in advertising and possibly in other types of communication....
L. P. Pretorius
Full Text Available From a perceptual point of view it is not clear whether, and under what conditions, the presence of colour in television commercials aids the processing of information. In this study it was argued that the way in which colour is used, would have an effect on the comprehension and memory of children regarding television commercials. It was found that colour, when used in a "concrete" fashion, aids the comprehension process. The results of the study also show that the "concrete" as well as the "symbolic" use of colour have a positive effect on the memory of children for the content of television commercials. Opsomming Vanuit 'n perseptuele benadering is dit nie duidelik of, en onder watter omstandighede, die teenwoordigheid van kleur in televisie advertensies die prosessering van inligting positief bei'nvloed nie. In hierdie studie is daar van die standpunt uitgegaan dat die wyse van kleurgebruik 'n effek sal he op die begrip en geheue van kinders ten aansien van televisie advertensies. Daar is gevind dat kleur, wat op 'n "konkrete" manier gebruik word, die begripsproses bevorder. Die resultate van die studie toon ook dat sowel die "konkrete" as "simboliese" gebruik van kleur 'n positiewe effek op die geheue van kinders ten opsigte van televisie advertensie inhoud het.
Kelly, Bridget; Hattersley, Libby; King, Lesley; Flood, Victoria
While there is a recognized link between high levels of exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods and overweight and obesity among children, there is little research on the extent to which these exposures include persuasive marketing techniques. This study aimed to measure children's exposure to the use of persuasive marketing within television food advertisements. Advertisements broadcast on all three commercial Australian television channels were recorded for an equivalent 1 week period in May 2006 and 2007 (714 h). Food advertisements were analysed for their use of persuasive marketing, including premium offers, such as competitions, and the use of promotional characters, including celebrities and cartoon characters. Advertised foods were categorized as core, non-core or miscellaneous foods. Commercial data were purchased to determine children's peak viewing times and popular programs. A total of 20 201 advertisements were recorded, 25.5% of which were for food. Significantly more food advertisements broadcast during children's peak viewing times, compared to non-peak times, contained promotional characters (P marketing during all viewing periods were for non-core foods. Persuasive marketing techniques are frequently used to advertise non-core foods to children, to promote children's brand recognition and preference for advertised products. Future debate relating to television advertising regulations must consider the need to restrict the use of persuasive marketing techniques to children.
Ruble, D N; Balaban, T; Cooper, J
The present study represented a cognitive-developmental analysis of the effects of televised, sex-stereotypic information on children's behavior and attitudes toward toy play. The subjects were 50 male and 50 female 4-6-year-olds divided into high and low gender-constancy levels. As the children watched a cartoon, they either saw a commercial of a gender-neutral toy that showed 2 boys or 2 girls playing with the toy, or they saw no commercial (control). As predicted, only the high gender-constant children were differentially affected by the sex-role information in the different commercial conditions. Children at this stage who saw opposite-sex children playing with the toy avoided spending time with the toy and stated verbally that the toy was more appropriate for an opposite-sex sibling, relative to children in the 2 other conditions. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for theories of sex-role development and in terms of the role that television may play in maintaining sex stereotypes and sex-typed behavior.
Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Do-Young; Kwak, Youngshin; Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Chajoong; Kim, Sung-Phil
In recent years, neuroscientific knowledge has been applied to marketing as a novel and efficient means to comprehend the cognitive and behavioral aspects of consumers. A number of studies have attempted to evaluate media contents, especially TV commercials using various neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG). Yet neurophysiological examination of detailed cognitive and affective responses in viewers is still required to provide practical information to marketers. Here, this study develops a method to analyze temporal patterns of EEG data and extract affective and cognitive indices such as happiness, surprise, and attention for TV commercial evaluation. Twenty participants participated in the study. We developed the neurophysiological indices for TV commercial evaluation using classification model. Specifically, these model-based indices were customized using individual EEG features. We used a video game for developing the index of attention and four video clips for developing indices of happiness and surprise. Statistical processes including one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the cross validation scheme were used to select EEG features for each index. The EEG features were composed of the combinations of spectral power at selected channels from the cross validation for each individual. The Fisher's linear discriminant classifier (FLDA) was used to estimate each neurophysiological index during viewing four different TV commercials. Post hoc behavioral responses of preference, short-term memory, and recall were measured. Behavioral results showed significant differences for all preference, short-term memory rates, and recall rates between commercials, leading to a 'high-ranked' commercial group and a 'low-ranked' group (P TV commercials.
Tamburro, Robert F; Gordon, Patricia L; D'Apolito, James P; Howard, Scott C
Injuries are the leading cause of death in children, and media exposure seems to increase children's risk-taking behavior. Televised sports are commonly viewed by children. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of commercials that depict violence or other unsafe behavior during major televised sporting events that are aired before 9:00 pm. We obtained a list of the 50 sports programs that were most highly rated by Nielsen Media Research and that were televised between September 1, 2001, and September 1, 2002. These 50 programs included Winter Olympics events (n = 15), National Football League (NFL) regular season games (n = 14), NFL playoff games (n = 10), Major League Baseball World Series and playoff games (n = 7), the NFL Super Bowl (n = 1), the National Basketball Association Western Conference Final Game (n = 1), the College Football Rose Bowl (n = 1), and the National Collegiate Athletic Association Basketball Championship game (n = 1). Two other events were reviewed as well: the final round of the Masters Golf Championship, because it was the only sporting event rated in the top 50 of the previous year that was not represented by a similar sporting event in the study year, and the Daytona 500 National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing race, because it was the only event rated among the top 75 of the study year that was not represented by a similar event (ie, there were no other golfing or auto racing events reviewed). These events were included because different sporting events may attract different viewers and different advertisements; thus, their inclusion provides a more comprehensive evaluation of the topic. For sporting events with >3 programs in the top 50 (NFL regular season games, NFL playoff games, Winter Olympic events, and Major League Baseball World Series), representative samples of events were assessed. Surrogate events were analyzed for programs that were aired after 9:00 PM (Eastern Time) to control for the reduced
Full Text Available This paper is the result of a three-month monitoring of Serbian television commercials which aimed to study the way elderly people are represented in the media. Elderly people appear in only six commercials, more often as a functional part of a series than as protagonists. Yet in spite of the small number of commercials in which they appear, it is easy to identify the stereotypes which are translated from a social paradigm into the sphere of the media. The stereotypes on which commercials are based belong for the most part to the corpus of negative stereotypes of elderly people as hopelessly behind the times, feeble, lonely, irritating, cantankerous, etc. Some positive stereotypes are also evident, but they are mostly limited to a perception of elderly people as kindly givers of useful advice. It is interesting to note that the "cantankerous people next door" are as a rule anonymous elderly people, as are those "lost in time and space", who are mostly elderly women. In contrast, those who let their careers and images be associated with a certain product, in order to pass on their great experience and knowledge, are as a rule famous persons. Just as it is possible to make a distinction between commercials depending on whether or not the products advertised are targeted at the elderly – which they rarely are – and whether elderly people appear in leading or supporting roles, in order to make viewers laugh or annoy them, so it is possible to distinguish between the "real-life principle", which involves the translation of the society’s dominant attitudes into commercials, and "commercial reality", which either makes old age invisible or "masks" it so that it is pleasant to the eye. The reason that old people are absent from television commercials or are mostly represented in a negative light is to be found in the low purchasing power of this age group, but also in the fact that advertising in Serbia developed practically overnight, and
Quigg, Stephanie L; Want, Stephen C
Exposure to idealized media portrayals of women induces appearance dissatisfaction in females, in the short term. Interventions that highlight the artificial nature of media portrayals can mitigate this effect. The present research investigated whether a 75 second television commercial, that demonstrates behind-the-scenes techniques used to artificially enhance media models, could be similarly effective. Eighty-seven Caucasian female undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. The first group viewed music videos and ordinary television commercials. A second group viewed the same music videos and the "intervention" commercial. A final, control, group viewed television and commercials featuring no people. Viewing music videos resulted in significantly lower levels of self-reported appearance satisfaction compared to viewing control television, p<.05, d=-.67. However, exposure to the intervention commercial counter-acted this effect. Demonstrating the extent to which media portrayals of women are artificially enhanced can mitigate detrimental effects on female appearance satisfaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Emond, Jennifer A; Bernhardt, Amy M; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D
To assess the associations between children's exposure to television (TV) networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. One hundred parents of children 3-7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's TV viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (aOR 2.84 for each 1-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, P children to commercial TV networks that aired child-directed ads for children's fast food meals was associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... does an FCC construction permit or license constitute a guarantee of business success. Applicants... reminded, however, that events occurring after the short-form filing deadline, such as the acquisition of... control of an applicant, resulting from a merger for example, will be considered a major modification to...
... transaction data. The proposed minimum opening bid amounts are $200,000 for each construction permit available...; Comment Sought on Competitive Bidding Procedures for Auction 90 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... bidding procedures for Auction 90. DATES: Comments are due on or before September 30, 2010, and reply...
Full Text Available Sources of information used by mass media for presenting events are among the key criteria in evaluating news credibility, whether the credibility is perceived from recipients’ or professionals’ perspectives. The aim of this research is to determine the credibility of TV news in terms of professional imperatives of objectivity, whereas the majority of research on this issue centers on media credibility evaluated from the perspective of the intended audiences. Considering the fact that audience perception is strongly influenced by its (disaffinity for a specific media, particularly in B&H, we consider the analysis from the professional standards to be more objective. The goal of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the contests emitted on primetime news programs of two public and one commercial TV stations in B&H is to determine how credible and reliable the news was as well as its overall objectivity and fairness. The results reveal that the differences were not most evident between the public and commercial TV stations, but rather between the entity televisions despite the fact that they belong to the same RTV system. Coverage of the same events on the three TV stations indicates that the reports were based primarily on one-sided and biased sources.
Verna, Mary Ellen
An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)
Loveland, Thomas; Harrison, Henry L., III
As more school administrators learn ways of promoting their schools to the public, the push for developing television production courses will likely increase. This article introduces the reader to the curricular and pedagogical foundations of television production technology. The authors discuss how to make informed decisions when creating…
This document presents an executive summary of a study that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender roles--primarily…
Williams, Sally; Crane, Valerie
Television programing has a high degree of credibility to the undiscriminating eyes of children. Programing on commercial television is composed of shows produced specifically for children and shows formerly made for adults but now shown as reruns. Observation and imitation of behavior viewed on television by children may be a link to aggressive…
Graves, Sherryl Browne
Notes the potential educational and socializing role of television for children in light of the amount of viewing time, sensitivity to nonverbal communications, and their relative ease of influence. The effects of commercials and televised violence are cited, as is television's ability to influence behavior and cognitive functioning. (RAO)
The commercials on the Sky Channel, the first pan-European satellite television channel, and on the West German Channel 2 (or ZDF) are analyzed in this report. The study summarizes an investigation of the economic consequences of transborder television advertising in Europe and the consequences for consumers if television advertising grows or is…
Raluca BĂBUŢ (COMIATI
Full Text Available As advertisements are broadcast on a daily basis, Romanian consumers are subject to an intensive media bombardment designed to influence them, trigger certain emotions, and make them develop an attitude to a particular brand or product. When designing the advertisement, great care must be taken so that it conveys positive feelings and emotions and fosters favourable attitudes to a brand. The object of the current research is to determine how consumers are able to assess the advertisement phenomenon in general and the TV commercials in particular. Based on a representative sample of 550 Romanian consumers from the urban population, the study highlights the Romanian consumers’ attitude to various types of advertisements, endorsers and creative strategies used to design and execute the advertisements. The managerial as well as the scientific implications are considered by means of the correlations made according to the respondents’ social and demographic characteristics.
Dovey, Terence M; Taylor, Lauren; Stow, Rachael; Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G
Exposure to television advertisements for unhealthy foods has been shown to subsequently increase the amount of snack food consumed in children between the ages of five and eleven. However, it has yet to be elucidated whether healthy food television advertisements have a different effect on subsequent food intake in children. The current study explored the role of food neophobia in 'responsiveness' to food adverts in children between the ages of five and seven. Sixty-six children were exposed to unhealthy food adverts, healthy food adverts and toy adverts embedded into a cartoon in a counterbalanced order on three different occasions. Following the cartoon, children were offered a snack consisting of six food items (chocolate, jelly sweets, potato crisps, Snack-a-Jacks, green seedless grapes and carrot sticks). Food advert exposure, irrespective of content (either unhealthy or healthy food items), increased food intake by 47 kcal (11%) in high food neophobic children. Children who scored lower on the food neophobia scale ate significantly more (63 kcal, 14%) following the unhealthy food adverts only. In the healthy advert condition low food neophobic children consumed less chocolate (p=0.003) but did not increase their consumption of fruit and vegetables. Presentation of healthy foods does not alter food preferences in the short-term. Children with low levels of food neophobia appear to respond to healthy food messages but children with higher levels of food neophobia do not. Instead, high food neophobic children will continue to consume more chocolate following exposure to food adverts irrespective of the healthy or unhealthy message they contain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.
Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…
In an art class, children browse through space-age knobs, robot antennas and gyroscopic signal searchers. They extend space needle antennas before turning on an old TV. They discover the sights and sounds of televisions past, hearing the hiss, the gathering power, and seeing the blinking eye, the black-and-white light and blurry images projected…
... Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of station WJHG-TV, channel 7, Panama City... to experience problems receiving the station's VHF channel 7 digital broadcasts despite two power increases since it began operations on digital channel 7. Gray states that the best solution to resolve the...
Goldsen, Rose K.
Discusses many topics, including proposals to limit television advertisers' access to children; the dependence of television commercials on involuntary, mnemonic learning; the way television commercials' bypassing of rationality is aided by cognitive processing of music, rhythms, and familiar sensory events; and ideas for correcting the damage…
Liebert, R M
The average child born today will, by age 15, have spent more time watching television than going to school. Research has shown that heavy doses of TV violence viewing are associated with the development of aggressive attitudes and behavior. TV viewing also appears to cultivate stereotypic views of gender roles and race. Finally, television commercials often capitalize on children's naivete, and also can foster and reinforce overly materialistic attitudes. All of these adverse effects can be minimized if parents restrict the amount of overall viewing, encourage some programs and discourage others, and talk to children frequently about the meaning of what they see on television.
Full Text Available Today, it is difficult to imagine some sports without television and/or live broadcasting. Television has a decisive influence on our perception and understanding of sport. From the 1940’s, the popularity of sport has grown in proportion with the popularity of television. Not only has their expansion and popularity increased, but both have turned so to speak into a virtual theatre. The attempt of television to place sport in entertainment section of their programming was rewarded with a record number of viewers, however, sport paid a heavy price. Today, “raw” sport does not satisfy its viewers, because they expect it to be presented as any other commodity. Since the events do not always speak for themselves, instructions and narrative are necessary to create the sense of drama for the viewer. The expectations and the experience of sport have changed as well as with the viewing patterns. Television can turn sporting events into pure action by adding episodes and information, intended to enrich the viewing experience at home. Televised sport gained freshness and appeal which cannot be denied, whereas sporting events did not have anything strong enough to oppose this development. There are various forms of televised sports; however, almost every viewer is best acquainted with sport broadcasts. Broadcasts are never only an edit of the competition. Television gives the viewer the opportunity to see more than is usually accessible to the human eye. We can say for sure that television plays the decisive role in how we see and understand sport.
Keri A. Schwab
Full Text Available The purpose of this follow-up study was to learn more about the leisure choices, hobbies, and lifestyles of young adults who had grown up without a television. Study participants responded to an online questionnaire that asked about their health, physical activity habits, hobbies, and level of current television viewing. A mixed methods approach to gathering and analyzing data revealed a picture of young adults who live active lives, watch little television, and appear to have a strong sense of personal agency to direct their lives. Themes of agency, including forethought and intentionality, and self-regulation were evident in the qualitative responses, as well as creation and choosing challenging hobbies or activities. This study provided much information for future research to examine the influence of television on youth development, specifically agency, challenge and life-long habits.
Full Text Available Kehadiran teknologi digital telah membawa perubahan di dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan, tak terkecuali di dunia penyiaran. Digitalisasi dibidang penyiaran diyakini dapat memberikan manfaat dalam hal efisiensi spektrum frekuensi radio. Berkaitan dengan penyiaran radio, Menteri Komunikasi dan Informatika telah menetapkan DAB family sebagai standard penyiaran radio digital di Indonesia. Kajian dilakukan untuk mendapatkan jarak minimum yang diperlukan antara sistem T-DAB dan TV analog sebagai solusi terhadap kemungkinan interferensi. Analisis dilakukan dengan bantuan SEAMCAT. Berdasarkan hasil analisis disimpulkan bahwa kanal A T-DAB merupakan kanal yang paling rentan terhadap interferensi; Untuk mencapai probabilitas interferensi maksimum 5%, separasi geograpis minimum antara cakupan terluar TV analog kanal n dan transmitter terluar pada jaringan SFN T-DAB untuk kanal (n- 1D, nA, nB, nC berturut-turut adalah 220 Km, 290 Km, 145 Km dan 40 Km. Sedangkan untuk kanal nD dan (n+1A dapat dioperasikan tanpa separasi geograpis dengan TV analog.
Barcus, F. Earle; Wolkin, Rachel
The studies reported in this book are content analyses of children's television and attendant advertising. Following an introductory statement, chapters present data about children's commercial television on the weekends, children's commercial television after school, and the seasonal variations in television advertising to children. A concluding…
Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Harink, Karolien; van Selm, Martine; Strick, Madelijn; van Baaren, Rick
The portrayal of older characters in television commercials has over time become more varied and positive. This study examines how different portrayals of older characters relate to self-stereotyping, a process through which older individuals apply their beliefs about older people in general to
Full Text Available The paper represents an attempt to examine to what extent the way in which older members of society are represented in Serbian television commercials has changed in comparison to representations which were present in commercials during the three months in 2009 (Milosavljevic 2010a when the first study was conducted. As was the case in the first study, the focus is on dominant societal attitudes toward old people and old age which were utilized in making the television commercials in question. This was accomplished through analyzing both the positive and the negative stereotypes used to convey meaning in the commercials which were analyzed, as well as through the analysis of the proportional representation of older characters in advertising. The commercials which were analyzed here were broadcasted during the second half of December 2012, January and the first half of February 2013.
Full Text Available Today’s consumer is not easily influenced by classic marketing strategies. He looks for new stimuli and wants to be surprised and captivated by new ploys. This Consumer Neuroscience research aims to compare the cognitive, emotive and preference consumers’ response to traditional and Virtual Reality TV commercials. Brain oscillations (delta, theta, alpha, beta and physiological indexes (SCL - Skin Conductance Level were monitored, when subject (N=seventeen observed four traditional TV commercials and four Virtual Reality commercials in randomized order. During the vision of Virtual Reality commercials, the participants were absorbed into the advertisement and interacted with it thanks to the “Oculus Rift”. Subjects were also asked to explicitly evaluate each commercial and to express their preference on them. The intention is to understand the new marketing strategies efficacy and how these impact on consumer at implicit (brain oscillations and physiological indexes and explicit (subject evaluation level.
Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E
OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.
Stenalt, Maria Hvid
film and TV-commercials, why the collection is important, and how it became available online to students and researchers. The process presents a number of challenges including copyright and technical issues. The scalable and integrated service may be used for other audiovisual collections in the future....
Dobosh, O.; Wright, E. N.
The utilization of educational television (ETV) in schools can be ascertained by considering the teacher training in ETV, the extent of access to ETV, the student reaction, and the programing. Using a questionnaire survey method combined with detailed ETV logs, this study was able to analyze both ETV and film utilization in 13 elementary and…
Bisesi, Michael; Felder, B. Dell
Universities can offer opportunities for workers in high-technology fields to gain state-of-the-art information and skills without traveling to campus, through interactive television training. Careful organization and planning of such programs, including selection of effective faculty and remote site personnel, are essential to their success. (MSE)
Ramos, C; Navas, J
To examine the strategies used in food advertising campaigns on Spanish television and their breach of the Self-Regulation Code on Food Advertising aimed at Preventing Obesity and Promoting Healthy Habits in Children, as such breach advocates the consumption of products that fail to meet the nutritional requirements. Observational descriptive study. Viewing and content analysis of 52 food commercials on the children's television channels 'Disney Channel' and 'Boing' on Saturday and Sunday (9:00-12:00) and general channels 'Telecinco' and 'Antena 3' on Monday to Friday (8:00-9:00 and 17:00-20:00), from March to May 2013; subsequent analysis of the nutrition labelling of the advertised products. There are different ways of bypassing the advertising agreement. Strategies are used which hide or distort the facts about the product in favour of the advertiser. 18 advertisements refer to website or Facebook pages, thus facilitating feedback, and 11 advertisements refer to the Plan for Promoting Healthy Lifestyles in the Spanish Population. With regard to nutritional quality, the composition of the products analysed is high in sugars and saturated fats with average levels of fat and salt. A comparison of the broadcast time of the commercials shows that the figures for fat and saturated fat are similar in food advertised in the morning and in the afternoon, but products that are high in sugar and salt are advertised more in the morning. If the overall figures are compared, they are higher in foods advertised in the morning. The Self-Regulation Code is insufficient. There is an obvious risk of trivialising the messages of the health promotion plan. The regulation of advertising is complex and if the nutritional composition of the foods advertised is likely to lead to child obesity, it is essential to reflect on the consequences deriving from the advertising of these products. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Federal Communications... amended, to allocate not less than one very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, DE AGENCY: Federal Communications... amended, to allocate not less than one very high frequency commercial television channel to each State, if... Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...
Vecchiato, Giovanni; Kong, Wanzeng; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wei, Daming
Today, there is a greater interest in the marketing world in using neuroimaging tools to evaluate the efficacy of TV commercials. This field of research is known as neuromarketing. In this article, we illustrate some applications of electrical neuroimaging, a discipline that uses electroencephalography (EEG) and intensive signal processing techniques for the evaluation of marketing stimuli. We also show how the proper usage of these methodologies can provide information related to memorization and attention while people are watching marketing-relevant stimuli. We note that temporal and frequency patterns of EEG signals are able to provide possible descriptors that convey information about the cognitive process in subjects observing commercial advertisements (ads). Such information could be unobtainable through common tools used in standard marketing research. Evidence of this research shows how EEG methodologies could be employed to better design new products that marketers are going to promote and to analyze the global impact of video commercials already broadcast on TV.
Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.
A content analysis of 601 commercials was conducted in order to identify the appeals that characterize commercials aimed at children and teenagers. Our findings demonstrated that the use of appeals (a) showed strong age differences and (b) was highly gender-role stereotyped, particularly in
Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana
BACKGROUND: Exposure to food commercials is assumed to be related to children's food preferences and snack food intake patterns. However, surprisingly few studies tested whether watching food commercials actually leads to elevated snack food intake. OBJECTIVE: We experimentally tested the side
Jensen, Pia Majbritt
, a quantitative analysis of PSB and commercial schedules in Denmark is presented to establish the extent to which PSBs have employed formats between 2000 and 2012, and how this compares with commercial broadcasters. Secondly, a qualitative analysis looks into genre and the nature of the individual formats...... employed to assess any important differences between the formats in the two sectors. Most formats fall within entertainment and is well suited to providing the consumption friendly environment that commercial broadcasters seek to offer their advertising clients (Brennan 2012). Broadcasters also favour...
Hoppe, Theresa; Tischer, Ulrike; Philippsen, Christine; Hartmann-Tews, Ilse
From the results of different studies it is known that stereotyped images about ageing and elderly people frame and influence the attitudes, beliefs and activities of elderly people and also influence the interaction of others with elderly people. The purpose of this study was to assess the currently portrayed images of elderly people, age and ageing in television (TV) advertisements. The study was based on a qualitative and quantitative content analysis of commercials presented on four major TV networks, two private and two public TV broadcasting networks in Germany. The sample covered 114 different commercials which included 131 elderly actors (approximately 50 + years). The results show that the products most often portrayed in commercials with elderly people are related to food, followed by prescription drugs and health, insurance and hygiene products. Elderly people are still underrepresented in TV commercials. Their characters are portrayed with overwhelmingly positive attributes and traits. The findings suggest that TV advertisements create an ideal image of active and healthy ageing. Further research might explore to what extent elderly people take this ideal image of ageing as their own interpretive frame of orientation.
Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.
Barra, Luca; Scaglioni, Massimo
abstractIn the last 20 years, Italian television has discovered the richness and profitability of its enormous archives. Many new programmes have been broadcast on public and commercial television, making extensive use of historical fragments taken from previously aired shows. This essay explores
Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C M E
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to slim images and diet-related products in commercials on actual food intake in relation to dietary restraint. DESIGN: An experimental design was used, in which food intake was measured in 124 female students who watched
Anschutz, D.J.; van Strien, T.; Engels, R.C.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure to slim images and diet-related products in commercials on actual food intake in relation to dietary restraint. Design: An experimental design was used, in which food intake was measured in 124 female students who watched
En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa.......En analyse af forholdet mellem amerikansk og europæisk tv med inddragelse af eksempler fra både Vest- og Østeuropa....
Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman
Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)
Full Text Available In the last 20 years, Italian television has discovered the richness and profitability of its enormous archives. Many new programmes have been broadcast on public and commercial television, making extensive use of historical fragments taken from previously aired shows. This essay explores the rationale behind the commercial re-use of TV archives in four different programmes: the “variety show made of variety shows” Da Da Da, the militant pastiche Blob, the commercial programming remix Super Show, the comedy history rewritten by La Super Storia On the basis of these programmes, the consequences and risks of putting de-contextualized pieces taken from the past into the contemporary TV flow will be explored.
Ramos, C; Navas, J
To examine the strategies used in food advertising campaigns on Spanish television and their breach of the Self-Regulation Code on Food Advertising aimed at Preventing Obesity and Promoting Healthy...
Shively, Joe E.
In order to determine whether Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) had the capacity to produce a TV series of sufficient quality, two pilot tapes were produced by AEL and then submitted for rating to nine broadcasting specialists from several commercial TV stations. Based on the responses of these nine individuals to a questionnaire dealing…
Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.
Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294
Olai Hansen, Bodil; Keiding, Hans
The authors considered a model of commercial television market with advertising with probabilistic viewer choice of channel, where private broadcasters may coexist with a public television broadcaster. The broadcasters influence the probability of getting viewer attention through the amount...
Maria Hvid Stenalt
Full Text Available The audiovisual cultural heritage is a valuable collection that both reflects contemporary developments in the 20th century and at the same time is a source material for research. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the State and University Library established a digital archive for Danish film and TV-commercials, why the collection is important, and how it became available online to students and researchers. The process presents a number of challenges including copyright and technical issues. The scalable and integrated service may be used for other audiovisual collections in the future.
Shaughnessy, Michael F.
While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…
This paper is concerned with one of the impacts of media globalisation and it is a picking of foreign television formats. It analyzes the structure of television programs offered by Czech television broadcasters and its change from 2005 when TV Nova and TV Prima changed their owners to international ones. After the introduction of media globalisation, the paper describes the television formats and then it includes a list of licensed television programs and a comparison of chosen programs with...
Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea
The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Philips. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....
Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea
The paper is a report documenting the life cycle assessment of a TV. The report is confidential and only handed to the manufacturer of the television, Bang & Olufsen. The paper was handed to the manufacturer in december 2011....
...''); Digital Television and Public Safety Act of 2005 (``DTV Act''), which is Title III of the Deficit... the 700 MHz band and that the continued successful development of new commercial wireless and public... portion of the value of the public spectrum resource made available for commercial use, as well as to...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications... Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster...
Rapaczynski, Wanda; And Others
Describes the adaptation and testing of a curriculum designed to mediate the effects of television. Curriculum included lessons on special effects, violence, commercials, audio and video aspects. Results of the testing indicate that children in kindergarten through second grade made significant gains in their knowledge of how television works. (PD)
Luker, Richard; Johnston, Jerome
Presents television as an instrument through which adolescents can gain social experience and strengthen social development. Examines the link between watching television and social relationships, discussing how television viewing can provide "blueprints" for behavior in social situations. Lists four steps for using television as a learning tool.…
Gupta, A K; Jain, N
Informing, entertaining, and persuading, mass media, especially television, is a powerful factor in the functioning of and change in any society. Mass media can be studied in its various roles as an agent of social change, a reflector of dominant values, and as a reinforcer of dominant values. Results from a 1997 spot survey of 150 television commercials presented on Doordarshan over a 4-week period support the role of the mass media in India as a reflector and reinforcer of dominant cultural values. By indirectly projecting the social norms on how women are expected to behave, television commercials have reproduced patriarchal values in India which are reinforced through the glamorization and naturalization of women's domestic roles, by glorifying the role of mother, by portraying women in public life in soft roles and subordinate jobs, and popularizing the image of women as sex objects and objects of beauty. Changes should be made in the way television in India portrays women to reflect their changing roles and positions in society.
Carlos Eduardo Marquioni
Full Text Available The objective of this text is to present some reflections on theinsertion of a new model of television in Brazil (interactive digital TV,adopting the concept of culture as the center to think of the television system.The notion for structure of feeling, by Raymond Williams, opens up atype of new window that helps to understand this new television whichis being implanted.
Action for Children's Television (ACT) has compiled a comprehensive guide to children's television for parents. Information about broadcasting business, techniques, and advertising is given, along with professional opinions on the value and harm of television, effects of TV violence on children, and the effects and influence of commercials.…
Burns, Gary; Thompson, Robert
Rock videos have their antecedents in film and television images, although music in films is usually background music. Television made possible the live transmission of musical numbers with visuals. The musical television commercial is an amalgam of conventions, with background music suddenly erupting into text, unheard by the characters but…
This article presents the author's personal view of interactive digital television and describes how he used digital television to learn. The author describes how he was simulating digital TV while watching analogue TV. The author stresses that interactive digital television has great potential for education and training in the twenty first…
King, William, Comp.
A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)
... digital Class A TV stations (``Class A''). The Commission addresses important issues such as: (1) The... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final...
McGilvary, Linda; Penrose, Pat
The amount of violence and inappropriate information that children receive through television and other media is a matter of concern. This paper reviews the values of fantasy play and compares those values with the effects of television viewing on New Zealand children. Both obvious and subtle messages that children receive from television are…
This presentation is concerned with television as it relates to the planning and administration of facilities in which it is utilized. The role of television as a teaching aid, teaching medium, and teacher is discussed. Consideration is given to the following aspects concerned with implementing educational television: plant layout, amount of space…
In opposition to popular disparaging of television as an artistic medium, television can be considered as having its own aesthetics and can be placed in the category of fine arts (as opposed to folk arts). Television art can and should be distinguished from video art and film art in the ways in which it imitates reality; program content and…
... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new low...
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital television transition notices by... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.674 Digital television... broadcasting to digital television (DTV). For each such commercial station, a licensee or permittee must elect...
This article consists of excerpts from a speach made on October 19th at the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Planned Parenthood Professionals by Dr. Luella Klein, President of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) between 1984-85. The speaker described the reaction of US television network to the ACOG's request that the networks air a public service announcement encouraging responsible sexual behavior among the nation's young people. In 1984 the ACOG initiated a public information program aimed at reducing the high number of unwanted births among young people. The ACOG with the help of an advertising agency developed a 27-second public service announcement stressing responsible parenthood and informing young people that they could write or call for further information. A booklet, entitled "Facts," was prepared for distribution to those who inquired. It advised young people to consider postponing sexual intercourse but to use the most effective methods of contraception if they decided to be sexually active. Oral contraceptives for females and condoms for males were recommended as the most effective methods. When the 3 major television networks, i.e., the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), and the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), were requested to carry the announcement, all 3 networks claimed the announcement was too controversial to air. These same networks do not hesitate to show blatant, irresponsible sexual behavior repeatedly during their entertainment programming, and commercials with sexual innuendos are routinely accepted for airing by the networks. In July, 1986, the ACOG called a news conference in New York City to inform the news media about the rejection of the announcement by the networks. The conference stimulated considerable interest, and the story was carried by many newspapers and by radio and television news programs. Many of the news accounts of the story contained
Glinert, Lewis H
The US Food and Drug Administration has called for research that may assist in developing standards for risk/benefit messages in the promotion of prescription drugs. Linguistics-based models of meaning and inference, though frequently applied to advertising, have not hitherto been used in this arena. This study was intended to illustrate how discourse analysis, a methodology for microanalysis of texts in context, can elucidate the workings and interplay of promotional, informational, and other functions of direct-to-consumer drug advertising, anticipating threats to "fair balance" and pinpointing textual phenomena and issues suited to empirical study. The text and visuals of a small corpus were analyzed along several dimensions, using theoretical insights of linguistic pragmatics and ethnography of speech to ask what the advertisement is seeking to do and what messages a viewer is likely to derive. The linguistic and rhetorical features include an intense switching and fusion of styles and modalities: the traditional advertising distinction between personal and impersonal, "company" and "consumer", was ostentatiously flouted. The role of spokesperson was assigned to characters in a real or virtual narrative. The narrative portion of the text and images often struck an ironic or postmodern note, eg, by mixing science with science fiction. The overall functions of the commercials (promotional, informational, and aesthetic) were themselves frequently blended. The text deployed several linguistic or rhetorical strategies to send a double message for promotional advantage, including syntactic-semantic ambiguity, voice-over risk messages at odds with upbeat visuals, and a vagueness of certain words in particular contexts. Findings contribute to our understanding of how TV commercials convey meaning with respect to drug benefits and risks, with implications for advertisers, regulators, and patient education. They also suggest new foci for empirical study.
Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Becker, E.S.; Strien, T. van
This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie,
Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Becker, Eni S; van Strien, Tatjana
This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to television commercials using less thin models on mood, body focused anxiety and food intake, as compared to the effects of commercials using thin models. In a naturalistic setting, 110 young women were exposed to a neutral movie,
Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus
This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...... coming from new global streaming services. Comparing cases of historical, contemporary and crime drama from several countries, this study shows the importance of creative co-production and transnational mediated cultural encounters between national cultures of Europe....
Hajizadehoghaz, Masoomeh; Amini, Maryam; Abdollahi, Afsoun
In this study, the nature of food commercials in children's television (TV) was monitored and analyzed; simultaneously, the relationship between recalling TV food commercials and children's interest in them and in the consumption of the same food products was evaluated. A total of 108 h children's programs broadcast on two channels (Two and Amouzesh) of Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) media organization were monitored (May 6-12, 2015). Simultaneously, a cross-sectional study using 403 primary schoolchildren (201 boys) in four schools of Shirvan, Northeast of Iran, was executed. The children were prompted to recall all TV commercials broadcast on IRIB. Meanwhile, they were directed to define in the list of recalled TV food commercials those were interested in and the commercials (food products) they actually were willing to consume. Regarding the frequency and duration of broadcasting, food commercials ranked fifth and sixth, respectively. Fruit leather and plum paste were the most frequently broadcast food commercials. "High quality" (19%), "good taste" (15%), "novelty", and "message on nutritional composition" (13%) were the most frequent messages used in promoting the sale of food products, respectively. In addition, focus on "high quality/precision in the preparation of the food products" was the most frequently used appeals in TV commercials. There was a significant relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in five out of eight of the commercials (62.5%) (P < 0.05). The relationship between recalling TV food commercials and the interest in the consumption of the same food product ("Tomato paste B") was statistically significant for 12.5% of the commercials (P < 0.05). TV food commercials do not encourage healthy eating. The current study provides convincing evidence for policy-makers and researchers to pay more attention to this area.
Luciana Lobo Miranda
Full Text Available Este artigo discute a produção de subjetividade em duas TVs comunitárias: TV Maxambomba e TV Pinel. Mediante uma pesquisa qualitativa, buscou-se analisar os processos subjetivos engendrados em jovens da periferia ou usuários do sistema de saúde mental quando eles passam de simples espectadores a criadores de produtos audiovisuais. Procurou-se enfatizar diferenças e semelhanças entre a TV de massa e as TVs comunitárias. Pôde-se com isso perceber a apropriação de signos da TV de massa na programação das TVs comunitárias, bem como a diferenciação no processo de produção e de consumo na relação com o espectador.The present article discusses the production of subjectivity in two communitarian TV networks: TV Maxambomba and TV Pinel. Based on a qualitative research, we analyzed the subjective processes that took place in youngsters from peripheric areas or users of the mental health system when they stop being just spectators and begin to create audiovisual products. Special emphasis was given to the differences and resemblances between mass television and communitarian television. Therefore we could notice the appropriation of mass television signs in the communitarian TV networks as well as the difference in the process of production and consumption regarding the spectators.
Miles, David H.
Compares a 1950s Ford television commercial with a 1990s Volvo commercial. Discusses three major aspects of cubist television exemplified in the Volvo commercial: the destruction of Aristotelian viewer-to-stage distance using close-ups, the flattening of Renaissance deep-background perspective using telephoto zooms, and the implementation of an…
Television aesthetics is the study of the compositional principles pertinent to the television medium in which basic elements of the television picture such as light, color, framing, space, time, motion, editing, sound, etc. are examined in relation to the finished product, the television program. The major areas covered by television aesthetics…
Full Text Available Background: Advertisement creates colossal impact on teenagers and TV create gigantic impacting on eating habits of teenagers and cause obesity in them. So, our study focus on finding the impact of advertisement on psychology, buying behavior, obesity and eating habits of teenagers in Jammu.Methods: The data is collected in the age group of 7 to 18 years. The schedule is developed to examine eating habits of teenagers and its effect on obesity level. The statistical tool and the sampling technique used are regression analysis and convenience sampling.Results: children consume unhealthy and low nutritional product while watching TV. They even insist their parents to buy product for them and those have pocket money (Rs50-100 are influenced by advertisement and opt unhealthy food and suffer from the problem of obesity.Conclusion: Teenagers are influenced by advertisements, but those who have high leverage to buy these products inadvertently face the problem of obesity.
The evolution of DBS satellite systems and their market in the U.S. is described. Anik A, launched in 1972, has been followed by 40 other launches. By 1986 there were 30 functional DBS systems in orbit operating in either C- or K- or hybrid modes of the two bands and providing over 450 channels to subscribers. The television capabilities are being augmented, with FCC approval for 31 new satellites, with Ku-band video, telephony and data transmission systems for small businesses. Features of the RCA Series 4000 and 5000 third generation satellites which will provide the services and lower operating costs passed on to the consumer are summarized, noting the use of TWTAs and high efficiency thermal dissipation systems on the new satellite designs.
Netzley, Sara Baker
A content analysis of 98 episodes of primetime entertainment programs on commercial broadcast and cable television stations from the 2005-2006 season showed that gay characters on television were more likely to be shown in sexual situations than straight characters, and women were more likely to be shown in same-sex sexual situations than men. In addition, gay characters were more likely to be depicted as sexually active on cable television than they were on commercial broadcast television, and they were more likely to be relegated to guest star status on commercial broadcast television than on cable television. The study also showed that gay characters made up 7.5% of all the characters studied. This study discusses the implications of these findings for gay and straight audiences.
Bernard-Bonnin, A C; Gilbert, S; Rousseau, E; Masson, P; Maheux, B
A questionnaire on the use of television was administered to the parents of 387 children aged between 3 and 10 years. All families owned at least one television set and 57.6% of families owned two or more sets, with one in the child's bedroom in 10.6% of cases. Television was turned on all day in 16% of cases, mostly in families with low level of parental education (P less than .01). Television was on at mealtime in 54.5% of cases; 45.2% of children were watching television for between 7 to 16 hours per week, and the heavy viewers belonged to families with low levels of maternal education (P less than .05). About one third of children watched television without any interdiction set by their parents. According to age, from 28% to 40% of children watched violence on television. Parents believed that television facilitates learning (65.3%) but were concerned about violence (22.7%) and commercials (7.4%). Finally, 63.3% of parents reported that they would like to obtain more information about television use. According to this survey, many children are watching television without any limits being set by their parents and are witnessing violent scenes at an impressionable and vulnerable age. The pediatrician should include at routine office visits parental guidance on the mediation of television effects through coviewing, content discussion with children, and program selection.
Full Text Available The experience of image culture and convergence era effects on every field of social life, reconfigures the means and its mediations and provokes aesthetics and contents innovations. The webTVs are born as singular environments, characterized by a new way to see and make television. This work points possibilities of use of universities’ webTVs as relevant environments to the vocational training, once they are constituted, potentially, by spaces of experimentation of audiovisual language and multimedia resources and socialization. This article presents results of a study about four universities’ webTVs from Rio de Janeiro city.
Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, F; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Bianchi, L; Marciani, M G; Salinari, S; Colosimo, A; Tocci, A; Soranzo, R; Babiloni, F
We investigated brain activity during the observation of TV commercials by tracking the cortical activity and the functional connectivity changes in normal subjects. The aim was to elucidate if the TV commercials that were remembered by the subjects several days after their first observation elicited particular brain activity and connectivity compared with those generated during the observation of TV commercials that were quickly forgotten. High-resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were performed in a group of healthy subjects and the cortical activity during the observation of TV commercials was evaluated in several regions of interest coincident with the Brodmann areas (BAs). The patterns of cortical connectivity were obtained in the four principal frequency bands, Theta (3-7 Hz), Alpha (8-12 Hz), Beta (13-30 Hz), Gamma (30-40 Hz) and the directed influences between any given pair of the estimated cortical signals were evaluated by use of a multivariate spectral technique known as partial directed coherence. The topology of the cortical networks has been identified with tools derived from graph theory. Results suggest that the cortical activity and connectivity elicited by the viewing of the TV commercials that were remembered by the experimental subjects are markedly different from the brain activity elicited during the observation of the TV commercials that were forgotten. In particular, during the observation of the TV commercials that were remembered, the amount of cortical spectral activity from the frontal areas (BA 8 and 9) and from the parietal areas (BA 5, 7, and 40) is higher compared with the activity elicited by the observation of TV commercials that were forgotten. In addition, network analysis suggests a clear role of the parietal areas as a target of the incoming flow of information from all the other parts of the cortex during the observation of TV commercials that have been remembered. The techniques presented here shed new light on
Feshbach, Seymour; Singer, Robert D.
While violence on television may serve as an instigation or model for real life violence, there may be other, more positive effects of violent portrayals, such as entertainment or catharsis of hostile feelings. A study was conducted to assess the effects of violent television in natural settings with preadolescent and adolescent boys. For a…
Rivenburgh, Nancy K.
What is currently happening in China is similar to what happened in the United States in the 1950s and the Soviet Union in the 1970s--television is quickly becoming a mainstay of popular entertainment and news. The Chinese government has made substantial efforts to provide television service to all regions of the country, with importance attached…
Argues that television programs must be polysemic to achieve popularity because of the wide variety of subcultures represented in the television audience. Analyzes two scenes from "Hart to Hart" to demonstrate the textual devices that bear the dominant ideology and those that resist it. (JD)
KESSLER, WILLIAM J.
DESIGNED FOR A READER WITHOUT SPECIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, THIS ILLUSTRATED RESOURCE PAPER EXPLAINS THE COMPONENTS OF A TELEVISION SYSTEM AND RELATES THEM TO THE COMPLETE SYSTEM. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE THE FOLLOWING--STUDIO ORGANIZATION AND COMPATIBLE COLOR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES, WIRED AND RADIO TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, DIRECT VIEW AND PROJECTION…
Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty
A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)
Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC…
Gotz, Ignacio L.
Discusses the deleterious effects of television on children's behavior, focusing on television as a medium of communication, and not on the quality of its programming. The criticisms include distortion and mediation of reality, interference with creative and social development, unidirectionality, violence, and inducement toward passivity. (ED)
Klepp, Knut-Inge; Wind, Marianne; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable intake is low among European children and exposure to TV is negatively associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. The aim of the present study was to explore exposure to food commercials on TV in nine European countries. Associations between...... such exposure and intake of fruit and vegetables and possible mediating effects of attitudes toward and liking of fruit and vegetables were assessed. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in nine European countries, i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain...... and Sweden, from October-December 2003, as a part of the Pro Children study. Data on usual intake of fruit and vegetables, and related correlates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire among 11-year-old school children (mean age 11.4 (sd = 0.48), 50.2% boys). Complete data was available...
Ahmad, Madiha; Ahmad, Sofia; Ijaz, Nida; Batool, Sumera; Abid, Maratab
The article aims at the analysis of the TV commercials of three carbonated cold drinks from Pakistani media. The analysis will be carried out using the three dimensional framework presented by Fairclough. Through the analysis, the ideological framing of the commercials will be brought to light. To achieve this purpose different techniques used by…
Holosko, M. J.; And Others
Outlines research into teenage viewing preferences which was undertaken prior to production of a television series for CITY-TV, Toronto. The series is designed to attract as large a teenage audience as possible, and to promote "socially responsible" attitudes. The resulting effects on instructional television programing design are…
Reviews three books concerned with the effects of television advertising upon children and their parents: "Television Advertising and Children," edited by June Esserman; "Children and the Faces of Television," edited by Edward Palmer and Aimee Dorr; and "The Effects of Television Advertising on Children," by Richard Adler and others. (JJD)
Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S
Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.
Page, Randy M; Brewster, Aaron
The aggressive advertising and marketing of high caloric food products to children is implicated as a potential causative factor in the childhood obesity epidemic. This study analyzed 147 commercials appearing during children's programming on U.S. broadcast networks for a wide range of potential emotional and rational advertising appeals. The most prominent emotional appeals were fun/happiness and play followed by fantasy/ imagination, social enhancement/peer acceptance, and coolness/hipness. Many of the products used the term ;super-charged' or a similar adjective to describe the powerful taste or other physical properties of the product. More than one-third of all the commercials used a fruit appeal or association. Statements or depictions that a product was healthy or nutritious were quite rare among the commercials. This seems to imply that health and nutrition claims are understood by food marketers to not be salient concerns among children and as such are not a selling point to children. Commercials for high sugar cereal products and fast food restaurants differed in several respects. This study can serve to guide child health care professionals and other child advocates in designing measures that counter food advertising messages directed at children.
Catholic/Baptist Male Dominance/Female Equality Heterosexual / Homosexual Environmentalist/Developer Minimum Fig. 2. Arrangement of compared cultures, sub...person doesn’t mind or have the brains to know the difference ." 24, White, higher--"I think this commercial is effective. I do not personally like it...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This paper examines the hypothesis that individuals of different ages, ideologies, cultural, educational, and socioeconomic
Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael
Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.
The first portion of this handbook considers the positive aspects of television (the news, entertainment, and educational programming); presents negative criticism regarding programming quality, the use of violence, and the influence of commercials; and discusses the available options and alternatives for improving and using television to its…
Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea; Dalgaard, Randi; Merciai, Stefano
to analyse if other environmental hotspots and life cycle phases should be included in the requirements in the IM of the Ecodesign Directive besides energy consumption in the use phase analysis. Methods The consequential approach is used. The data for the LCA have been gathered from two manufacturers of TVs....... In one case, the data were delivered in Excel spreadsheets; in the other case, the authors of this paper together with the manufacturer disassembled a TV and collected the data manually. Results and discussion When applying the consequential approach, the production phase has the highest environmental...
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital television transmission towers... COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM System Architecture § 10.340 Digital television transmission towers... required to install on, or as part of, any broadcast television digital signal transmitter, equipment to...
Trujillo, Nick; Ekdom, Leah R.
Examines prime-time television's portrayals of industries from the 1950s through the 1980s. Claims that television overrepresents service and public administration industries and underrepresents manufacturing. Asserts that these representations reflect widely shared cultural values and the commercial constraints of network television. (MM)
Full Text Available The article aims at the analysis of the TV commercials of three carbonated cold drinks from Pakistani media. The analysis will be carried out using the three dimensional framework presented by Fairclough. Through the analysis, the ideological framing of the commercials will be brought to light. To achieve this purpose different techniques used by the ad- makers will be described, interpreted and explained in the light of critical discourse analysis. Keywords: Advertisements, Power, Ideology, CDA, Fairclough
Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.
The family system plays an important role in shaping children’s television use. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that parents limit screen time, given the risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing. Researchers have highlighted family television practices that may be
Reitzes, Katherine A.; White, Mary Alice
Found that sixth- and eighth-grade children (1) predicted a greater proportion of positive outcomes for television entertainment events than for television news events and (2) rated news events as more likely to happen in everyday life than entertainment events. Concluded that children can discriminate between the two facets of television reality.…
A study examined kinds of messages prevalent in the media used by preteen and teenage girls, asking what messages are sent about goals, dating, careers, behavior, and appearance and its relationship to well being. Four media were the subject of the study, which comprised 12 samples from television programs, theatrical films, music videos, and teen…
Fakouri, M. Embrahim
Television viewing has negative effects and positive potential for young children. It is evident that children need to be educated in television viewing in order to understand the differences between fantasy and reality, and sponsor motives. (DF)
Fleiss, David; Ambrosino, Lillian
The results of a comparison of television programming for children in the United States, Canada, Japan, and the democracies of Western Europe are presented. It was found that: in European countries no advertiser is allowed to sponsor a children's program, almost none of these programs carries commercials, and except in Italy, no host of a…
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subscription TV service. 73.642 Section 73.642... Television Broadcast Stations § 73.642 Subscription TV service. (a) Subscription TV service may be provided by: (1) Licensees and permittees of commercial and noncommercial TV stations, and (2) Licensees and...
Arneson, R.; And Others
One of four individualized courses included in a radio and television repair, curriculum, this course focuses on trouble-shooting procedures for both black and white and color television equipment. The course is comprised of ten units: (1) Introduction to/and Block Diagrams of Television, (2) Television Audio Section Troubles, (3) Television Video…
Full Text Available In this study we investigated the cerebral activity of a group of Eastern people during the observation of a Western and an Eastern version of the same TV commercial advertising a very popular smartphone. By comparing the electroencephalographic (EEG signals in theta, alpha and heart rate (HR activity of the population investigated, we estimated and compared the levels of memorization, attention, pleasantness and emotion perceived. Results present and increase of the pleasantness and emotion while watching particular scenes of interest of the Eastern version of the commercial. These findings suggest that this kind of technology is able to track variation of the cerebral activity related to cognitive and emotional processing across TV commercials. Moreover, there is the possibility to investigate frame segments of particular interest for marketers that could be properly adapted according to the cultural context in which the advertising campaign will be promoted.
Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.
This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…
P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); K. Chorianopoulos; J.F. Jensen
htmlabstractAt first glance, the notion of social interactive television seems to be a tautology. Television watching has always been a social activity. People watch television together in their living rooms, and outside their homes they talk about last night's football match; and even call each
Seiter, David M.
Surveys ERIC/ChESS resources on both the influence of television on children and methods for using television effectively in the classroom. Titles of documents include "Getting Through: The Use of Media in the Classroom"; "Censorship, the Classroom, and the Electronic Environment"; and "Inside Television. Instructor's…
Emond, Jennifer A.; Bernhardt, Amy M.; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.
Objective To assess the associations between children's exposure to TV networks that aired child-directed advertisements for children's fast food meals with the collection of fast food meal toy premiums and frequency of family visits to those restaurants. Study design One hundred parents of children 3–7 years old were recruited from a rural pediatrics clinic during 2011; families receiving Medicaid were oversampled. Parents reported the child's television viewing habits and family visit frequency to the fast food restaurants participating in child-directed TV marketing at the time, and their child's requests for visits to and the collecting of toy premiums from those restaurants. Logistic regression models assessed adjusted associations between a child's TV viewing with more frequent restaurant visits (≥monthly in this population). Structural equation modeling assessed if child requests or toy collecting mediated that association. Results Thirty-seven percent of parents reported ≥monthly visits to the select fast food restaurants. Among children, 54% requested visits to and 29% collected toys from those restaurants. Greater child commercial TV viewing was significantly associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants (adjusted odds ratio 2.84 for each one-unit increase in the child's commercial TV viewing scale, pchildren to commercial TV networks that aired child-directed ads for children's fast food meals was associated with more frequent family visits to those fast food restaurants. Child desire for toy premiums may be a mediating factor. PMID:26526362
Thirteen half-hour television programs entitled "The Geography of Tourism" developed for use in Wilfrid Laurier University's (Canada) distance education program are discussed. Distance education embraces teaching, or communicating with, students who are not physically in the classroom with the instructor. The central theme of the series…
Marshall, Wes; And Others
The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…
Hunt, Edmund B.; Reid, John E., Jr.
Ways in which the resources of a university's special education, communication arts, and library services can be combined with those of special education consortiums or parent organizations to provide exceptional children and their parents and teachers with high-quality cable educational television programs that meet their varied needs are…
This chapter examines the importance of gender in the history of food television in an American/European context, by discussing the scientific literature on the topic. The analysis covers a period from the very first shows in the 1930s and 1940s, until 2016. It will be argued that despite the app...
Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others
Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…
Baggaley, P. Jonathan, Ed.; And Others
Eleven articles on the evaluation of educational television (ETV) in South Africa are provided. Under the heading "Theory" are: (1) "The Meaning of Evaluation and Its Practice" (D. Nevo); (2) "Criteria for Evaluating ETV: A Theoretical Framework" (R. Israeli); and (3) "Sources of Evaluation Criteria in Education,…
Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm
In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....
Ramirez, J. Martin
... sobre los comportamientos agresivo y antisocial en la vida real, esto solo se ha observado a corto plazo. Para otros, por el contrario, la causalidad se mostraria justo en direccion contraria: quienes prefieren ver mas television y las escenas mas violentas son los que se comportan mas agresivamente. Y no faltan quienes apuntan mas bien haci...
Wurtzel, Alan; Lometti, Guy
Two officals from the American Broadcasting Companies (ABC) (1) review a 1982 National Institute of Mental Health Study on television and violence, and (2) summarize the broadcast standards, practices, policies, and procedures employed by the network regarding the depiction of violence. (GC)
Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio
Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender.
Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Graziani, Ilenia; Trettel, Arianna
Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579
Full Text Available Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers’ reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG, galvanic skin response (GSR, and heart rate (HR in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer’s gender.
Full Text Available When examining the history of fairy tale iconography in advertising, folklore scholar Donald Haase’s fairy tale encyclopedia compared the Pied Piper of Hamelin to a symbol of advertising who could “play his pipe ever so sweetly and the consumers following him without resisting his charming and manipulative music.” In contrast, a 2012 episode of Mad Men, advertising luminary Don Draper shoots down a shoe commercial pitch featuring Cinderella, calling the idea “cliché”. The temptation for advertisers to rely on fairy tale figures and iconography continues today and many ignore Don’s aversion for cliché because it still gets the job done. However, there are some ads featuring fairy tales which avoid cliché and are truly innovative for their time. I’ll examine how, and for whom, these fairy tale figures have been adapted decade by decade in order to examine popular culture’s commercialized and hypnotic relationship with fairy tales in the most direct format available: television commercials.
Full Text Available Advertising strategies are some factors in the content and form of advertisements which are intended to have certain effects on ad viewers or potential customers. These effects could be defined as the kind of cognitive responses they are expected to elicit in their audiences. This study examined 39 Iranian TV commercials in seven product categories to identify the most dominant strategies used by the advertisers and investigated the effect of product type on the selection and use of these strategies. The results showed that Iranian TV commercials used a mixture of analytic and effective cognitive strategies among which “elaborating on the reasons to buy”, “explaining the quality appeal” are the most favorite analytic based strategies and use of emotion and mood arising words is the most dominant affective based advertising method. The results also endorse significant effect of product type on types of strategies employed in the ads.
Kelley, N. D.; Hemphill, R. R.; Sengupta, D. L.
Field surveys were conducted to assess the community annoyance potential from electromagnetic interference to television reception (TVI) and acoustic emissions associated with the operation of a Darrieus-type, vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT). The type and extent of interference to nearby television reception was evaluated using a 17 meter VAWT. A series of measurements of observed interference levels were made at a number of sites in the turbine vicinity employing the locally available VHF and UHF television signals as sources. A simple theoretical model was developed for analyzing the TVI produced by the Darrieus turbine. Using this model in conjunction with the field measurements, it was found the Darrieus/VAWT produces the same amount of interference on the lower VHF channels as a horizontal axis turbine with a comparably sized blade scattering area, but less on all other channels.
Aim: The study assessed the television (TV) viewing habits, preferred energy and acidic drinks consumed when watching television and the history of tooth sensitivity among adolescents who watched television >2 hours daily (HTV) and <2 hour daily. (LTV). Subjects and Methods: This is a descriptive study conducted in Ife ...
Satellite television is part of the lives of millions of television viewers worldwide and its influence is set to increase significantly with the launch of digital satellite television services.This comprehensive reference book, written by the author of the highly successful 'Digital Television', provides a technical overview of both analogue and digital satellite TV. Written concisely and thoroughly, it covers all aspects of satellite TV necessary to understand its operation and installation. It also covers the evolution of satellite television, and contains a detailed glossary of tec
Astolfi, Laura; Vecchiato, Giovanni; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Salinari, Serenella; Cincotti, Febo; Aloise, Fabio; Mattia, Donatella; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Bianchi, Luigi; Soranzo, Ramon; Babiloni, Fabio
We estimate cortical activity in normal subjects during the observation of TV commercials inserted within a movie by using high-resolution EEG techniques. The brain activity was evaluated in both time and frequency domains by solving the associate inverse problem of EEG with the use of realistic head models. In particular, we recover statistically significant information about cortical areas engaged by particular scenes inserted within the TV commercial proposed with respect to the brain acti...
Steeves Jeremy A
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing problem of physical inactivity in America, and approximately a quarter of the population report being completely sedentary during their leisure time. In the U.S., TV viewing is the most common leisure-time activity. Stepping in place during TV commercials (TV Commercial Stepping could increase physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of incorporating physical activity (PA into a traditionally sedentary activity, by comparing TV Commercial Stepping during 90 min/d of TV programming to traditional exercise (Walking. Methods A randomized controlled pilot study of the impact of 6 months of TV Commercial Stepping versus Walking 30 min/day in adults was conducted. 58 sedentary, overweight (body mass index 33.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2 adults (age 52.0 ± 8.6 y were randomly assigned to one of two 6-mo behavioral PA programs: 1 TV Commercial Stepping; or 2 Walking 30 min/day. To help facilitate behavior changes participants received 6 monthly phone calls, attended monthly meetings for the first 3 months, and received monthly newsletters for the last 3 months. Using intent-to-treat analysis, changes in daily steps, TV viewing, diet, body weight, waist and hip circumference, and percent fat were compared at baseline, 3, and 6 mo. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and analyzed in 2011. Results Of the 58 subjects, 47 (81% were retained for follow-up at the completion of the 6-mo program. From baseline to 6-mo, both groups significantly increased their daily steps [4611 ± 1553 steps/d vs. 7605 ± 2471 steps/d (TV Commercial Stepping; 4909 ± 1335 steps/d vs. 7865 ± 1939 steps/d (Walking; P Conclusions Participants in both the TV Commercial Stepping and Walking groups had favorable changes in daily steps, TV viewing, diet, and anthropometrics. PA can be performed while viewing TV commercials and this may be a feasible alternative to traditional approaches for
Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie
Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja
This is a paper about the ongoing project of Ambient Shared Live Media positioned in the field of social television. It illustrates a scenario of social television that exemplifies how media sharing/TV watching can be a facilitator for social TV across physical locations. It also addresses...
Panaggio, Mark J.; Fok, Pak-Wing; Bhatt, Ghan S; Burhoe, Simon; Capps, Michael; Edholm, Christina J.; Moustaid, Fadoua El; Emerson, Tegan; Estock, Star-Lena; Gold, Nathan; Halabi, Ryan; Houser, Madelyn; Kramer, Peter R.; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Li, Qingxia
Advertising is a crucial component of marketing and an important way for companies to raise awareness of goods and services in the marketplace. Advertising campaigns are designed to convey a marketing image or message to an audience of potential consumers and television commercials can be an effective way of transmitting these messages to a large audience. In order to meet the requirements for a typical advertising order, television content providers must provide advertisers with a predetermi...
English lessons. Thus,. ➢ it assessed the effectiveness of the grade ten televised vocabulary teaching as compared to the non-televised mode of presentation by ... the large group. Altogether, 245 students were drawn as the sample of the study. The students were given a vocabulary test that incorporated items which were ...
An explication is presented of the human, persuasive, and communicative elements involved in the process of transmitting a message via the medium of television. The book is designed to serve as a text for secondary school classes in speech arts, language arts, journalism, social studies and television production; it attempts to explain the…
Full Text Available After decades in which television has been marked as more banal than bewitching, recalling the "magic of television" is more likely to evoke a sense of wonder for the perceived innocence of an earlier televisual audience than for television itself. With TV offered on demand, captured with DVRs, downloaded or watched streaming on the Web, purchased as DVD sets, miniaturized for private screenings, jumbo-sized for public spectacles, monitored in closed circuits, and accessed for open forums, once-mysterious television flows have flowed to new media forms, giving TV an appearing/disappearing, now-you-see-it/now-you-don't magical act of its own. Has TV disappeared, or has it multiplied—redoubled each time it's sawed in half, replicating like rabbits pulled out of a hat? Is it still TV or something else when programs are screened (as if through a magic curtain via today's delivery systems?
P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)
htmlabstractDigital television broadcast started in Finland on 27th of August 2001. A new period in this entertainment field has already begun. Because of the importance of television in the society, the shift between analogue and digital has to be done with the viewers in mind. The User
McDaniel, Thomas R.
The two and one half week workshop on television literacy for teachers that is described covered the historical development of television, advertising and the "hidden message," news programing, sociological and psychological perspectives, the development of critical viewing skills, and classroom applications. Course objectives, requirements, and…
Waade, Anne Marit
This special issue is dedicated to the analysis of the increasingly significant role of location as a key element in television drama. In recent years, the popularity of serial television has progressively been tied to the expanded use of location as a central element in productions, both...
The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…
To some degree television is the current inheritor of anxiety over the effects of communications from outside the home, and is not alone among mass media in presenting sizeable amounts of violence. However the accessibility, pervasiveness, and very character of television make it the ultimate mass medium, and hence a cause for concern. Television…
Heller, Melvin S.; Polsky, Samuel
The complete reports of the research efforts on the effects of televised violence on children sponsored by the American Broadcasting Company in the past five years are presented. Ten research projects on aggression and violence are described which examined primarily the effect of television on children who were emotionally disturbed, came from…
Karp, J K
Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Konig, R.P.; Renckstorf, K.; Wester, F.P.J.F.
In this study we explore patterns of television news use, using data from a national survey on Media Use in the Netherlands conducted in 1994 (n = 969). Results indicate that people are much more likely to prefer watching television news selectively and attentively than watching the news while
Full Text Available Much research has been conducted in the field of utilising the media - television and radio in particular - to promote particular public health messages. However, a burgeoning canon has examined how mass media can play a role in affecting change in fertility preferences and outcomes. In this paper we review these researches which have primarily focussed upon higher fertility settings. The impact of mass media presentation of families and children in low fertility settings has not yet been subject to rigorous sociological investigation so its impact can not be accurately inferred. However, given the pervasive nature of mass media and celebrity culture, we suggest that this is an important avenue for future research. We conclude that television plays a multi-faceted role in shaping individuals decision-making procedures concerning both demographic events and public health interactions. To illustrate this, we present a model which demonstrates a sliding scale of intent - but not impact - of various genres in order to understand the actual role of the media in shaping attitudes towards family size - either explicitly in terms of edutainment or implicitly as a forms of normalization.
Coltrane, Scott; Messineo, Melinda
Analyzed television commercials aired on programs with high ratings for specific target audiences from 1992-94 to investigate how advertising imagery simultaneously constructed racial and gender stereotypes. Results indicated that 1990s television commercials portrayed white men as powerful, white women as sex objects, African American men as…
Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bennich, Peter [Swedish Energy Agency (Sweden); Cockburn, John [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Doi, Naoko [Institute of Energy Economics (Japan); Garg, Sandeep [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States); Garnaik, S.P. [ICF International (India); Holt, Shane [Energy and Tourism, Canberra (Australia); Walker, Mike [Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom); Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth [Natural Resources, Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Lising, Anna [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Pantano, Steve [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Khare, Amit [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)
The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.
Cohen, Dorothy H.
Explores the possible influences of commercial and educational television on young children's imaginative play, intellectual development and behavior. Commercialism, learning readiness, television's unique mode of communication, and the child's sensory experiences while viewing are considered from the standpoint of developmental needs. (SDH)
Amini, Maryam; Omidvar, Nasrin; Yeatman, Heather; Shariat-Jafari, Shadab; Eslami-Amirabadi, Maryam; Zahedirad, Malihe
Advertisements can influence children's health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children's television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children's programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s) and mode of presentation (s) were coded. A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31%) across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%). The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54%) and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Although the total number of food advertisements during children's television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.
Nielsen (A.C.) Co., Chicago, IL.
The latest (1973) edition of Nielsen Television presents data on the television audience. Major findings are graphically summarized and data are presented for: number of stations receivable by household; households equipped with TV sets; United States TV households with color television; total United States households using television by time of…
Full Text Available Digitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new possibilities. The article offers three: use of material in language teaching and learning; use in dementia therapy; and applications as data in medical research. All depend on ordinary TV for their effectivity.
Galcheva, S V; Iotova, V M; Stratev, V K
Childhood obesity is a serious health problem worldwide with a prevalence rising to epidemic proportions. Television viewing is suspected as an important contributor and along with food advertisements significantly influence children's unhealthy dietary habits, purchase requests and adiposity. To examine the exposure of Bulgarian children to television food advertising and to make a content analysis of the food/beverage advertisements during children's television programmes. 41.5 h of children's television programming on three national networks, were videotaped. All recorded food advertisements were evaluated to identify the marketing strategies used for the stimulation of children's purchase requests. Food/beverage advertisements accounted for 124 (33.4%) of all commercials, with 96.8% being for unhealthy foods. 57% of them were aimed specifically at children as the most advertised products were salty/sweetened snacks and cereals, sweets, soft drinks/carbohydrate juices and salty foods, with no fruit or vegetable commercials. Food advertisements used more themes of adventure, animation, music and gifts to attract children's attention, and gave information based on the product's taste, physical qualities, novelty, presence of premiums/prizes. Of all food/beverage advertisements, 27.4% contained health-related information about the products; three-quarters of the advertisements were shot with young normal-weight actors with a good/healthy appearance. Almost all recorded food advertisements do not support the Bulgarian dietary recommendations for healthy and balanced eating. More activities to reduce the unhealthy food promotion to children are mandatory as restrictions by type of advertised food, target group or limits on the advertisements' account and times shown, as well as parental/self-regulation.
Stroink, H; Dekker, E; Trenité, D G A Kasteleijn-Nolst
Two girls and one boy suffered seizures caused by television and other visual stimuli from 11, 12 and 12 years of age onwards, respectively. EEG recording revealed that intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) provoked epileptiform activity. Technological progress (video games, computer, disco, car, train) has considerably increased the risk for visually-induced seizures. A comprehensive clinical history with special attention to the environmental circumstances is important. For correct diagnosis an EEG with standardised IPS is necessary. Treatment consists of avoidance of strong visual stimuli. Patients may need prophylaxis with valproic acid, which should only be withdrawn after clear reduction of the EEG response to IPS. Repeating the EEG after the dosage has been lowered will help avoiding unnecessary recurrence of seizures.
Keller, Simone K.; Schulz, Peter J.
Background: In the light of increasing childhood obesity, the role of food advertisements relayed on television (TV) is of high interest. There is evidence of food commercials having an impact on children's food preferences, choices, consumption and obesity. We describe the product categories advertised during kids programmes, the type of food promoted and the characteristics of food commercials targeting children. Methods: A content analysis of the commercials aired during the kids programme...
Storm, Susan R.
The purpose of this research was to determine young children's comprehension of selected TV program content. The subjects were 210 children in grades K-2. All subjects in groups of five, were shown segments from four TV programs: a scalloped potatoes commercial, a "Batman" and Robin episode, a news story on the MIG-25 and a segment of the…
Rothwell, Jennifer Truran
Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Television receivers. 393.88 Section 393.88... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.88 Television receivers. Any motor vehicle equipped with a television viewer, screen or other means of visually receiving a television...
Seawell, Margaret, Ed.
The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…
Seawell, Margaret, Ed.
The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…
Seawell, Margaret, Ed.
The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…
Elo, Kristofer; Sundin, Erik
There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in tu...
Christenson, Peter Gilbert
Investigated whether public service announcements (PSAs) on the nature of television advertising affect (1) children's awareness of advertising intent; (2) their belief in its truthfulness; and (3) their perception of advertised products. Data indicate that PSAs can influence children's perceptions of advertising's credibility and can affect their…
Miró, O; Sánchez, M; Borrás, A; Millá, J
To know the influence of televised football on the use of emergency department (ED). We assessed the number, demographic characteristics and acuity of patients attended during the broadcast of football matches played by FC Barcelona during Champions' League (n = 12), and they were compared with days without televised football (n = 12). Televised football was associated with a decrease in visits to ED (-18%; p = 0.002). Such a decrease was observed for all ED units, but only for traumatology unit reached statistical significance (-28%; p = 0.006). Decay of ED visits were mainly due to a decrease of low-acuity consults (-30%; p = 0.04). There is a significant decrease on ED use associated with televised football.
Van Niel, Eloise
Television programing governed by national policy is described. The Advertising Code is noted, as are sources of foreign programs, media research agencies, and references to Malaysian media studies. (RAO)
abstractDigitisation of historic TV material is driven by the widespread perception that archival material should be made available to diverse users. Yet digitisation alters the material, taking away any lingering sense of presence. Digitisation and online access, however, offer startling new
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
The 135 hour course is the terminus of the series of radio and television service courses. The basic course includes a study of color signal demodulation and matrix circuits, the color-picture tube, alignment and trouble shooting of a color television receiver. Laboratory experiments and live production work on color television receivers…
Ostman, Ronald E.; Jeffers, Dennis W.
A model specifying relationships between life stage, motives for using television and the perceived reality of television was tested with data from 140 telephone interviews of adults living in Southern Illinois. The adults ranged in age from 18 to 87 years. Life stage was related to five of the 11 motives for using television: learning things,…
Brinson, Susan L.
Studies the behaviors of women and men represented in interpersonal arguments in prime-time television dramas. Finds a weak link between actual argument behaviors and those on television, thereby socializing viewers in a manner inconsistent with reality. Suggests that television arguments are guided more by the needs of the medium that a need to…
Hollander, E.; d' Haenens, L.; Bardoel, J.
This article looks at the television landscape in Indonesia that has undergone a major transformation in recent decades. As one of the ‘Asian Tigers,’ Indonesia introduced commercial television in two waves between 1989 and 2002 as a complement to the traditional state broadcaster, TVRI. During the
Austin, Erica Weintraub; Meili, Heidi Kay
Discusses a model of television interpretation processes regarding the influences of alcohol advertising and describes a study that tested the model with preadolescent at-risk students. Highlights include perceptions of alcohol use at home and on television; social norms; perceived realism of commercials; and intent to drink. (41 references) (LRW)
Martin, Chorsie E.; Duncan, David F.
Examined the effect of televised drug commercials on drug use in college students (N=223). Results indicated that over-the-counter drug advertising has no effect on the likelihood of drug use in college students. However, a weak positive relationship was found between weekday television viewing and marijuana use. (JAC)
Durán, Iván Mauricio
To what extent can be electoral results in Catalonia explained by the exposure of individuals to television? This paper sheds light on this question by looking into the effect of TV3 on two distinguished political outcomes in the 1984 Catalan Parliamentary election. The outcomes of interest are voter turnout and the vote share of Convergència i Unió (CiU), one of the strongest political forces in Catalonia who has mainly driven the channel since its creation. We resort to a natural experiment...
...; DA 11-1034] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications... Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of station WEAU-TV, channel 13, Eau Claire... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Cleveland, OH AGENCY: Federal Communications... Community Television of Ohio License, LLC (``Community Television''), the licensee of station WJW (TV.... Community Television is seeking the channel substitution because a sizeable number of the station's viewers...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... Alabama Educational Television Commission, the licensee of noncommercial educational station WBIQ(TV... CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. 0 For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the...
Full Text Available Det populære svenske spil- og underholdningsprogram, Bingolotto, har været vist på national svensk tv lige så længe der har været kommer- ciel tv i Sverige. Programmet har haft skiftende succe siden starten i 1991 og havde på sit højdepunkt over 2 milllioner seere. Artiklen be- skriver Bingolotto som et særligt format inden for spil- og legeprogram- mer. Det sker gennem en diskussion af formatbegrebet i forhold til be- grebet genre, og gennem en identifikation af 4 karakteristiske dimen- sioner i formatbegrebet. Forfatteren fremhæver tv-formatet som en konceptuel beholder, der dels kan kapitaliseres, men som også kun kan anvendes på visse genrer. Desuden betragtes tv-formaternes fremvækst som et slags kulturelt oversættelsesarbejde i en globalise- ret tid, hvor internationale formater versioneres til et bestemt publikum ved at give formatet nationalt kulturelt særpræg.
Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.
Lokesh Mittal; Ritika Mittal
IPTV is one of the mostly used technology of Internet and IP application. IPTV is a service for the delivery of broadcast TV, movies on demand and other interactive multimedia services over a secure, end-to-end operator managed broadband IP data network with desired QoS to the public with a broadband Internet connection. IPTV system may also include Internet services such as Web access and VoIP where it may be called Triple Play and is typically supplied by a broadband operator using the same...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... Alabama Educational Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of noncommercial educational station... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...
Lunazzi, José J.; Magalhães, Daniel S. F.; Rivera, Noemí I. R.
Our Institute of Physics exposes since 1980 didactical exhibitions of holography in Brazil where nice holograms are shown altogether with basic experiments of geometric and wave optics. This experiments lead to the understanding of the phenomenon of images of an ample way. Thousands of people have been present at them, in their majority of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas, where since 2002 they have taken the format of a course without formal evaluation. This way the exhibition has been divided in four modules, in each one of them are shown different holograms, experiments of optics and applications of diffractive images with white light developed in the Institute of Physics. The sequence of the learning through the modules begins with the geometric optics, later we explain the wave optics and finally holography. The phenomenon of the diffraction in daily elements is shown experimentally from the beginning. As well as the application of the holographic screens in white light: the television images that appear in front of the screen and the spectator can try to experience the reality illusion. Put something so exclusive (that only exists in the laboratory) to the public is a way to approximate the persons to an investigation in course. The vision of images that seem to be of holograms, but in movement, and size of until a square meter completes this exhibition of an exclusive way in the world.
En empirisk opfølgning på gennemgangen af tidligere forskning og opstilling af nye teorier og metoder i samme forfatters 'Transnationalization of Television'. En empirisk undersøgelse af det totale udbud og forbrug af tv i 5 europæiske lande i to uger med særligt henblik på import og eksport af tv...
Greenberg, Bradley S.; Reeves, Byron
Childrens' perceptions of reality in television are examined as an intervening variable between exposure to the medium and the effect of TV messages. Among the findings of this study are that perceptions of the reality of TV increase as the specificity of content increases. (Author/AM)
Grajczyk, A; Zöllner, O
This study has been prompted by the relatively small body of knowledge on the media use of the elderly. The aim of this study was to show how people 50 years and older use the medium television in Germany. Therefore, the 1996 television usership data collected in a representative 'peoplemeter' panel of about 4,800 German television households have been surveyed, processed and analyzed using standard audience research software. In 1996, Germans 50 years and above watched on average 233 min television per day. The older a person, the longer he or she watches television. Individuals 65 years and older watch television for 253 min per day. This subgroup appears to comprise the most intensive users of the medium. Men 65 years and above may be depicted as the heaviest weekend TV watchers, older women as the medium's closest followers from Monday to Friday. Television program broadcast late in the afternoon and early in the evening have by far the best chances to be chosen by seniors. The affinity of the elderly for the medium can be explained by its potential for offering entertainment, information, and companionship, being a substitute for primary interpersonal communication, a tool for structuring time patterns and keeping up the rhythms of long-established everyday rituals. On the one hand, television can be a 'lifeline' and a 'window to the outside world' for people with little opportunity for direct, unmediated social contact, thus possibly raising their satisfaction of life. On the other hand, prolonged TV use may be seen as an indicator for the degree of loneliness and neglect of the elderly.
van Eijk, N.; van der Sloot, B.
This paper summarizes the development of digital television in the Netherlands, analyzing such key policy issues as: technical decisions on access for public television, license conditions, and other issues.
Rubin, Alan M.
Full Text Available The subject of the future of the interactive Television medium has become a topic of great interest to the academic and industrial communities particularly since in the recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the pace of innovation of convergence of digital TV systems and services. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of what we know as digital TV converged services, to present and categorise the digital Television middleware technologies that contributed to it, and to present possible future trends and directions. A new Television era of converged wireless and mobile content delivery, user-authored content, multimodal interaction, intelligent personalisation, smart space awareness, and 3D content sensations is foreseen, creating ambient and immersive experiences.
O'Brien, Richard S., Ed.
A collection of 27 articles from the Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) covers the fundamental aspects of color television technology. Introductory articles explain the basic workings of color television within the set and as perceived by the viewer. Other sections deal with: color television systems, color…
In 1964, in "A Guide to Instructional Television," editor Robert M. Diamond defined "educational television" as a "broad term usually applied to cultural and community broadcasting which may include some programs for in-school use" (p. 278). His definition for instructional television was "television used within the formal classroom context on any…
Piotrowski, J.; Jordan, A.B.; Bleakley, A.; Hennessy, M.
The risks associated with children’s heavy television viewing justify television-reduction efforts. Targeting parents and the household environment provides a promising strategy for limiting television. Research has highlighted household television practices to reduce children’s viewing, but more
Huth, G. K.
The use of digital techniques for transmission of pictorial data is discussed for multi-frame images (television). Video signals are processed in a manner which includes quantization and coding such that they are separable from the noise introduced into the channel. The performance of digital television systems is determined by the nature of the processing techniques (i.e., whether the video signal itself or, instead, something related to the video signal is quantized and coded) and to the quantization and coding schemes employed.
Paz CÁNOVAS LEONHARDT
Full Text Available This article try to deal with the complex influence of television viewing in the process of socialization of children and adolescents, focusing our attention on the importance of the family as the mediator-educator agency of particular relevance. Once analyzed the basic theoretical assumptions, we deepened in reality under study by providing data about how the studied population lives television and what extent parental mediation influences and affects the process. The article concludes with some reflections and pedagogical suggestions which trying to help to the optimization of the educational reality.
Nelson, R S
Endoscopic color television is a practical method of recording gastrointestinal pathology and procedures. Nevertheless, a careful MEDLARS review of the medical literature failed to reveal a mention of this method during the past ten years. The endoscopic procedure can be recorded to illustrate many features not possible with still pictures. While particularly useful in teaching endoscopy, it is also useful for demonstrating pathologic findings to interested physicians, patients, and relatives. Television recording requires meticulous attention to details of lighting, focus, and cleansing of areas to be photographed and of the instrument objective, but results may well be superior to other means of photography in gastrointestinal endoscopy.
Flood, James; Lapp, Diane
Discusses three commonly believed myths about the relationships between television and language development: television displaces reading; television viewing negatively affects reading; and television inhibits language development. Discusses television as an instructional tool. Notes several ways that television can enhance literacy curricula. (SR)
Wadsworth, Laurie A.
Presents a review of research linking nutritional health and body image attitudes with television viewing. Highlights include content analyses of advertisements and programming; audience uses of television; television as reality; socialization of attitudes and television; television, body image and self-esteem; television and health behaviors; and…
M.J. Montpetit; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); M. Matijasevic; Z. Liu; J. Crowcroft; O.M. Bonastre
htmlabstractThe TV is dead motto of just a few years ago has been replaced by the prospect of Internet Protocol (IP) television experiences over converged networks to become one of the great technology opportunities in the next few years. As an introduction to the Special Issue on Smart, Social and
...-transition low power TV signals provided to consumers will be of an estimable quality. If not, we seek... the Commission's burden estimates; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the... Authority to Construct or Make Changes in a Low Power TV, TV Translator or TV Booster Station, FCC Form 346...
Maushak, Nancy; Cheng, Yahua; Wang, Hsi-chih
Digital technology has turned a new page for television broadcasting. The convergence of television and computer has brought about powerful effects to television viewing experiences. Digital broadcasting combined with the Internet is conceived as a new driving force that will change the mode of learning in the very near future. Many educators…
Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.
Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Television receivers. 1020.10 Section 1020.10 Food...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.10 Television receivers. (a) Applicability. The provisions of this section are applicable to television receivers...
Staples, Robert; Jones, Terry
Chronicles the representation of Blacks on television since the 1950s, focusing on their stereotyping as entertainers, athletes and criminals. Discusses the positive effect of the Bill Cosby Show, the negative effect of Mr. T, and television's role in reinforcing White supremacy. Also considers the impact of television on Blacks. (RDN)
McEnteer, James B.
This paper discusses the controversy that has traditionally surrounded the issue of capital punishment. When a Texas television reporter sought permission to televise the execution of a convicted murderer by lethal injection in 1983, arguments were advanced both for and against televising executions. A recent poll shows that 84% of Americans…
Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory
This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…
Advocates that the Federal Communications Council should remove unnecessary UHF restrictions to dramatically increase the number of UHF stations, put all existing stations on the UHF band, and license new low-power stations on the UHF channels, arguing that television fails to serve a sizable number of viewers. (Author/JM)
Hub Electric Co., Inc., Chicago, IL.
Contains specifications, typical layouts, and equipment schedules for lighting television studios. A lighting schedule includes information on--(1) back and key lights, (2) fill and base lights, (3) special purpose lights, and (4) hanging devices. Floor plans for different type and size studios are also included. (RH)
Heath, M. A.; Peck, J. C.
Color television microscopy used at laboratory range magnifications, reproduces a slide image with sufficient fidelity for medical laboratory and instructional use. The system is used for instant pathological reporting between operating room and remotely located pathologist viewing a biopsy through this medium.
This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on the major American networks in the fi rst 24...
Abd Rahim, Normaliza
Learning the Malay language has been a challenging task for foreign language learners. Learners have to learn Malay grammar structure rules in order to write simple sentences. The word choice is important in constructing a sentence. Therefore, the study focuses on the use of adjectives in television advertisements among Korean learners at Hankuk…
This article views television news coverage of ongoing terrorist attacks and their immediate aftermath as a special genre within journalism, and describes norms connected with the genre. The description is based on qualitative analyses of the coverage on major American networks the first 24 hours...
Over the past twenty years, the question of the effects of violence on television has figured prominently in public opinion and hundreds of studies have been devoted to this subject. Many researchers have determined that violence has a negative impact on behavior. The public, broadcasters and political figures all support the idea of reducing the total amount of violence on television - in particular in shows for children. A thousand programs aired between 1993 and 2001 on major non-specialty television networks in Canada were analyzed: TVA, TQS, as well as CTV and Global, private French and English networks, as well as the English CBC Radio and French Radio-Canada for the public networks. The methodology consists of a classic analysis of content where an act of violence constitutes a unit of analysis. The data collected revealed that the amount of violence has increased regularly since 1993 despite the stated willingness on the part of broadcasters to produce programs with less violence. The total number of violent acts, as well as the number of violent acts per hour, is increasing. Private networks deliver three times more violence than public networks. Researchers have also noted that a high proportion of violence occurs in programs airing before 21:00 hours, thereby exposing a large number of children to this violence. Psychological violence is taking on a more significant role in Canadian Television.
Simon, Rita J.; Fejes, Fred
Experienced policemen and police trainees were interviewed about their attitudes toward television police programs. Experienced policemen were more critical of these programs, believing that the glamour, excitement, and heroics they portray are detrimental to their work and their relations with the public. (Author/GC)
Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa
Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…
Slater, Dan; Elliott, William R.
The value of "cultivation analysis" as a theoretical and analytic framework for investigating the effects of television has been questioned. This study suggests that of the viewing/reality variables, the most important is perceived law enforcement program realism, a variable generally excluded from cultivation analysis studies. (PD)
Nikken, Peter; Peeters, Allerd L.
Describes study conducted with Dutch preschool and elementary school students to determine their perception of reality when watching Sesame Street on television. Variables studied include age, communication skills, and socioeconomic backgrounds, and data are analyzed using factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. (13 references) (LRW)
Full Text Available Contemporarily, television is the most popular of all mass media and watching it is the most frequent way of spending leisure time. It seems that no one argues for a positive role of television in family life anymore, with complete lack of contact with television being disadvantageous to the family, as well. The opportunity to use television increases self-esteem and allows for participation in what is going on in the country and in the world; it is, therefore, worth it to make use of its benefits reasonably
Watkins, L. Theresa; And Others
Ninety-one children participated in a study which evaluated a critical television-viewing skills curriculum. Students were given a comprehensive test of reality versus fantasy portrayals, special effects, and commercials. Methodology and results are presented and analyzed. (JL)
Full Text Available Popular culture and fandom provide a setting where people can reflect on the questions of life. A television show defines for many of its fans what it means to be human. It also discusses the way things are, and the way they should, or could, be in our reality. In this article the author shows that television shows Buffy the Vampire Slayer, True Blood and the Vampire Diaries have made the same kind of impact on their fans. The fan writings of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, True Blood and the Vampire Diaries show that these popular texts, and the communities they have formed, have greatly affected the lives of fans. People have found on their TV screens stories they can get strength and hope from. The vampire shows deal with the supernatural – vampires, werewolves, and witches – and place them in our contemporary world as if they are a natural part of it. Television vampire stories revolve around topics of death, good and evil, and humanity. These stories have created massive fan communities and even life changing fan experiences. The reflections upon existential questions, and the way the shows have empowered fans, make this phenomenon important to study in the context of today’s religions reality.
Subbotsky, Eugene; Mathews, Jayne
The aim of this study was to examine whether memorizing advertised products of television advertisements with magical effects (i.e., talking animals, inanimate objects which turn into humans, objects that appear from thin air or instantly turn into other objects) is easier than memorizing products of advertisements without such effects, by testing immediate and delayed retention. Adolescents and adults viewed two films containing television advertisements and were asked to recall and recognize the films' characters, events, and advertised products. Film 1 included magical effects, but Film 2 did not. On a free-recall test, no differences in the number of items recalled were noted for the two films. On the immediate recognition test, adolescents, but not adults, showed significantly better recognition for the magical than the nonmagical film. When this test was repeated two weeks later, results were reversed: adults, but not adolescents, recognized a significantly larger number of items from the magical film than the nonmagical one. These results are interpreted to accentuate the role of magical thinking in cognitive processes.
Sonja de Leeuw
Full Text Available Increasingly television heritage is being digitized and made accessible to non- industry user, enabling ‘the archival turn’: the study of online archives so as to revisit the dominant discourses in television historiography. This article discusses both conceptual and practical perspectives on online television heritage within a broader European frame- work. It starts from the notion of connectivity, pointing to the development of the archive as a network of connections and continues to address the dynamics involved in the trans- formation of the television archive into an online presentation including the most relevant actors. With the help of examples from Dutch and European television heritage projects the article discusses how the new archive is capable of mediating between the past and present, between history and memory, between curatorial perspectives and popular uses. It concludes on the challenges that (European online television heritage offers in the field of television historiography and theory.
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.789 Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator...
Discusses simultaneous airing by three commercial networks and influence on viewers' attitudes of The Great American Values Test, a 30-minute informational program designed to affect viewers' values about environmental issues, racial equality, and sexual equality. The program's effectiveness at influencing behavior was proven by a field…
Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide: “Living” History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform Berber Hagedoorn University of Groningen (NL) E-mail: email@example.com Abstract: Modern audiences engage with representations of the past in a particular way via the medium of television,
Palmieri, Tina L; Aoki, Traci; Combs, Elena; Curri, Terese; Garma, Sylvia; Kaulkin, Cammie; Lawless, Mary Beth; Nelson, Kate; Sanders, Johanna; Warden, Nancy; Greenhalgh, David G
Television has become an important tool for learning and socialization in children. Although television violence has been associated with adverse effects, data on depiction of fire and burn injury are lacking. We sought to determine whether Saturday-morning television programming, viewed primarily by children, depicts fire and burn injury as safe or without consequence, thus potentially increasing the incidence of burn injury in children. This was a prospective observational study. Saturday-morning children's television programs were videotaped from 7 AM to 11 AM for eight different television networks during a 6-month period. Tapes were scored for scenes depicting fire or smoke by independent observers. Recorded items included show category, scene type, gender target, context of fire, and outcome after exposure to flame. Fire events were documented during programs and their associated commercials. A total of 108 hours of children's programs, 16 hours per network, were recorded. Scenes depicting fire or smoke were identified 1960 times, with 39% of events occurring during the program itself and 61% in commercials. Fire was depicted as either safe or without consequence in 64% of incidents. Action adventure stories accounted for 56% of flame depictions. Overall, one incident involving flame and fire was portrayed for each 3 minutes of television programming. Saturday-morning television programming frequently depicts fire as safe, empowering, or exciting. The incidence of flame use in programming varies between stations but is most prevalent in action/adventure stories. Television commercials, although brief, provide the majority of the misinformation regarding fire. Medical professional societies should alert the public to this potential hazard and recommend responsible portrayal of fire in children's television programming.
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications... Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), licensee of WEAU-TV, channel 13, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, requesting the... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television...
...-140; RM-11683, DA 11-1735] Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal... Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of WJHG-TV, channel 7, Panama City, Florida...)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, Alabama AGENCY: Federal... filed by Alabama Educational Television Commission (``AETC''), the licensee of station WBIQ(TV), channel... seeks a waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by television...
The full potential of television for education has not been used in developing nations. It is relatively inexpensive to produce astronomy programs that can be broadcast taking advantage of satellite transmissions. We suggest that these programs should have the following elements in order to be efficient: 1. Be in the local language. 2. Be short enough so that the teacher has a chance to comment on them during a one-hour lecture. 3. Show experiments specially if they are meant for schools that do not have laboratory facitilies. 4. Be produced for several educational levels, including programs aimed for teacher training. Inexpensive books should be edited in the local language in order to serve as an educational complement to the television series.
Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.; Dumolin, J. R.; Singh, J. P.
The use of television in schools as an aid to instruction is proposed for individualized instruction, repetition for slow learners, acceleration for fast learners, and lectures from the best teachers for all students. A dedicated school district cable system, a 40 channel cable to each school and classroom, is considered. This innovation offers an opportunity for improving the quality and content of the school's instruction and for reducing the cost.
Vecchiato, Giovanni; Astolfi, Laura; De Vico Fallani, Fabrizio; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Salinari, Serenella; Soranzo, Ramon; Babiloni, Fabio
In this study we were interested to analyse the brain activity occurring during the "naturalistic" observation of commercial ads intermingled in a random order within a documentary. In order to measure both the brain activity and the emotional engage of the 15 healthy subjects investigated, we used simultaneous EEG, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), Heart Rate (HR) recordings during the whole experiment. We would like to link significant variation of EEG, GSR, HR and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) measurements with the memory and pleasantness of the stimuli presented, as resulted successively from the subject's verbal interview. In order to do that, different indexes were employed to summarize the cerebral and autonomic measurements performed. Such indexes were used in the statistical analysis, performed with the use of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and z-score transformation of the estimated cortical activity by solving the associated EEG inverse problem. The results are summarized as follows: (1) in the population analyzed, the cortical activity in the theta band elicited during the observation of the TV commercials that were remembered is higher and localized in the left frontal brain areas when compared to the activity elicited during the vision of the TV commercials that were forgotten (p HR and HRV activity elicited during the observation of the TV commercials that were remembered or judged pleasant is higher than the same activity during the observation of commercials that will be forgotten (p HR and HRV) or were judged unpleasant (p HR and HRV). No statistical differences between the level of the GSR values were observed across the experimental conditions. In conclusion, the TV commercials proposed to the population analyzed have increased the HR values and the cerebral activity mainly in the theta band in the left hemisphere when they will be memorized and judged pleasant. Further research with an extended set of subjects will be necessary to further validate the
Nešić Dejana B.
Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to determine the presence of infotainment elements as well as differences in the amount of their participation in the top news programs of the Public Service in Serbia: Radio Television of Serbia (RTS and two commercial televisions, Pink, being the most watched private television, and Television B92. 'Infotainment ' is an English compound word which denotes a phenomenon related to the television. This media phenomenon is not a new one, but it has experienced its massive breakthrough into the media content in the market competition. It was created with the intention of making the news program more popular in order to entice advertisers who pay for advertising time and on whom commercial televisions depend. The methods which were used in the research are qualitative (a discourse analysis and quantitative (a content analysis. The analysis of the data showed that there is a difference in news program of RTS, mostly in relation to TV Pink in terms of infotainment, and to some extent in relation to TV B92. In addition to the importance of the research that should show the state of the newscast on the Serbian national television, this paper also provides a theoretical contribution to the understanding of the infotainment problem.
Graham, Andrew; Adams, Jean
The aim of the study was to explore the frequency of alcohol marketing (both formal commercials and otherwise) in televised top-class English professional football matches. A purposive sample of six broadcasts (total = 1101 min) of televised top-class English club football matches were identified and recorded in full. A customized coding framework was used to identify and categorize all verbal and visual alcohol references in non-commercial broadcasting. The number and the duration of all formal alcohol commercials were also noted. A mean of 111 visual references and 2 verbal references to alcohol per hour of broadcast were identified. Nearly all visual references were to beer products and were primarily simple logos or branding. The majority of verbal alcohol references were related to title-sponsorship of competitions. A total of 17 formal alcohol commercials were identified, accounting for televised top-class English football matches are common with an average of nearly two per minute. Verbal references are rare and formal alcohol commercials account for <1% of broadcast time. Restriction of all alcohol sports sponsorship, as seen for tobacco, may be justified.
To test the proposition that television content can teach sex-typed behaviors and attitudes, this study presented children of two ages (third grade and eighth grade) with one of two sets of television commercials. The first set contained women engaged in nontraditional occupations outside the home. The second set showed traditional women in their…
Rosenkoetter, Lawrence I.; Rosenkoetter, Sharon E.; Ozretich, Rachel A.; Acock, Alan C.
In an effort to minimize the harmful effects of violent TV, a yearlong intervention was undertaken with children in Grades 1 through 3 (N = 177). The classroom-based intervention consisted of 31 brief lessons that emphasized the many ways in which television distorts violence. As hypothesized, the intervention resulted in a reduction in children's…
Examines the broad and subtle effects of television watching on children and their families. Discusses the role of television in family life; the effects of television on children's development, behavior, attitudes, and values; children's understanding of messages conveyed by television; the relationship of television and play; and strategies for…
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MVPD digital television transition notices. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1630 MVPD digital television... switch to digital television broadcasting will be complete on June 12, 2009, but your local television...
... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.51 Major television markets. For purposes of the cable television rules, the following is a list of the major television markets and their...) Davenport, Iowa-Rock Island-Moline, Ill. (61) Flint-Bay City-Saginaw, Mich. (62) Green Bay, Wis. (63...
Svensson, Marcus Sanchez; Sokoler, Tomas
In this paper we discuss a particular perspective on interactivity and sociability in the design of new TV technologies for social interaction. We will argue that current research on Social TV builds on a too narrow conception of interaction in everyday social life. In consequence, rather than...... on a moment-to-moment basis throughout everyday life beyond the TV screens. We take the phenomenon of ticket-to-talk as our point of departure when analyzing observations made during a study of the ways senior citizens go about socializing in everyday face-to-face situations. We then discuss how this analysis...... turning the TV media itself into an arena for peer-to-peer synchronous interaction amongst TV viewers we will discuss the idea of Social TV as a resource that when part of a larger socio-material fabric can help accommodate the circumstantial nature of social interactions as they emerge and play out...
Behera, S K
Gender role biases in Indian television have served to reinforce and even enhance the degradation of women in the broader society. A content analysis of 20 news programs, 20 fictionalized serials, and 100 commercials conducted over a 3-week period in 1988 indicated that women are portrayed as victims, caretakers, and sex objects while men are presented as masters, doers, and intellectuals. Of the 400 hours of news programs studied, men newsmakers accounted for 71% of the content while women were featured in only 10% of the segments. Even then, women's portrayal in the news tended to center on their roles as beneficiaries of welfare schemes, victims of accidents, or as the wives of male dignitaries. Fictionalized dramas reinforced the sex role stereotypes of men as decisive, assertive, dominant, and career- oriented, and of women as emotionally dependent, eager to please, sentimental, and primarily concerned with family relationships. Female characters in these series were most often housewives, secretaries, teachers, or nurses. Women were featured more often (56% of content) than men in Indian commercials, yet were shown performing stereotyped female activities such as shopping, preparing meals, and dressing to obtain the sexual approval of men. This sex role stereotyping in the media is seriously impeding the struggles of women in India to achieve economic and political autonomy. To promote more positive role modeling and change women's self-image, Indian television must move immediately to portray women achieving self-realization through their careers and social participation and to depict cooperation between men and women in performing household chores.
César, P.S.; Bulterman, D.; Soares, L.F.G.
The research area of interactive digital TV is in the midst of a significant revival. Unlike the first generation of digital TV, which focused on producer concerns that effectively limited (re)distribution, the current generation of research is closely linked to the role of the user in selecting,
P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); L.F.G. Soares
htmlabstractThe research area of interactive digital TV is in the midst of a significant revival. Unlike the first generation of digital TV, which focused on producer concerns that effectively limited (re)distribution, the current generation of research is closely linked to the role of the user in
Marchman, R. H.
Coding scheme for transmission of color-television pictures reduces crosstalk between chrominance and luminance. Picture elements arranged in zigzag pattern to accommodate scanning. Resulting chrominance signal combined with horizontally and vertically interlaced output of luminance scan converter to form composite color signal. Applicable to color-video cameras with solid-state image-sensing devices using National Television System Committee (NTSC) standard color-television system, or other systems.
The development of interactive television provides expanded opportunities for prevention research and practice. Three key prevention strategies are (1) intervening with populations at risk, (2) training caregivers, and (3) building competent communities. This paper describes these applications of interactive television. Three interactive systems--Berks Community Television in Reading, Pennsylvania; QUBE in Columbus, Ohio; and Hi-Ovis in Japan--are discussed in the context of their contributions to the promotion of competent communities.
Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Williams, Peter; Gunter, Barrie
As part of a Department of Health funded project nearly 2000 people were surveyed as to their use of two digital health information services, one on the Web and the other on digital interactive television (DiTV). The website was of a commercial company-Surgerydoor-and the DiTV service NHS based. This paper concentrates on the issue of trust in digital health information. Two of the main findings were that advertising was found to have an effect on trust, though the quality and type of advertising will impact in different ways on trustworthiness. DiTV subscribers who had either used the Living Health channel which carried NHS branded health information or had heard of the service, were more likely to say that the NHS was a symbol of trust for them compared with DiTV subscribers who had not used the service.
Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto
The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.
The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal…
Crump, Charla A.
Television violence and the impact it has on children is a growing concern in the world today. Although research indicates that violence on television triggers aggressive behavior in children, the characteristics of those children also need to be examined. Factors such as age, intellectual level, identification with television personalities, the…
Recent worldwide studies on the viewing habits of children emphasize the large amount of time spent viewing television and the potential influence that television has to shape the behavior of children. Extensive research has investigated the short and long term effects of viewing television violence, and the results, though complex, suggest that…
van der Goot, M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.; van Selm, M.
Television viewing is an important leisure activity for older adults. The aim of the current study is to provide insight into the meanings of television in older adults' lives, by analysing change and continuity in their television viewing. A qualitative study was conducted that included in-depth
Questions of television's relationship to reality are discussed by two of the conference participants. The discussion focusses on two basic questions: given the time, space, and money constraints of the medium, what relationship is there between events as portrayed on television and physical reality; and what are the implications of television's…
S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar
Television advertising is a most common commercial activity used in advertising medium. Humor in advertising contains an important aspect on changing attitude of the consumer, improves buying behavior and creates new patterns for buying any goods and services. Humor in television advertising is the effective and convenient way to attract the any consumers because they are emotional based content and makes the consumer to special for satisfaction. Compared to all emotions humor advertising is ...
The paper focuses on the introduction of interactive digital television (DTV) in the UK, at the turn of the millennium, and its take-up and use by early audiences. It discusses whether the processes of television technological convergence went together with “consumer behavior convergence”[i], enhanced audience engagement with the interactive TV services offered, and participation. Based on findings from a UK-wide survey and interviews with early Sky digital subscribers[ii] it shows that early...
By employing 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, eight advert pieces were designed to reflect the levels of the independent variables. Standardized psychological instruments were used to measure the dependent variable. The result of the 2 x 2 x 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) computed showed significant main effect of each of the ...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Decatur, IL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; El Paso, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Huntsville, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Topeka, KS AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Montgomery, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief...
Beşinci Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Televizyon Reklamlarına Yönelik Alımlamalarının Eleştirel Düşünme Düzeylerine Göre Karşılaştırılması / A Comparison of Reception of 5th Grade Students on Television Commercials With Respect To Their Critical Thinking Levels
Akbiyik, Cenk; Karadüz, Adnan
In today’s free market conditions, commercials have become the most important financial source of income for media sector. With television commercials almost a magical discourse was aimed to be created in order to sell certain services and products. We will not be mistaken if we suggest child viewers whose interpretation and analysis skills were not adequately developed, are the most open individuals to media messages. Within the content of this study, fifth grade students' receptions on tele...
Amanda D. Lotz
Full Text Available Television industries around the world have weathered profound change as technologies advanced and services developed to allow internet-distributed television to compete alongside broadcast and cable-distributed television. This article, drawn from the context of the U.S., explores the emergence of internet-distributed television as a mechanism that provides the affordance of nonlinear distribution. It assesses the preliminary organization of internet-distributed television by portals and explores the similarities and differences between portals and networks/channels with an eye toward conceptualizing emerging business practices and strategies.
Gordon, P N; Williamson, S; Lawler, P G
Objective: To determine the frequency and accuracy with which cardiopulmonary resuscitation is portrayed in British television medical dramas. Design: Observational study. Subjects: 64 episodes of three major British television medical dramas: Casualty, Cardiac Arrest, and Medics. Main outcome measures: Frequency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation shown on television; age, sex, and diagnosis of the patients undergoing resuscitation; rate of survival through resuscitation. Results: Overall 52 patients had a cardiorespiratory arrest on screen and 3 had a respiratory arrest alone, all the arrests occurring in 40 of the 64 episodes. Of the 52 patients having cardiorespiratory arrest, 32 (62%) underwent an attempt at cardiopulmonary resuscitation; 8 attempts were successful. All 3 of the patients having respiratory arrests alone received ventilatory support and survived. On 48% of occasions, victims of cardiac arrest seemed to be less than 35 years old. Conclusions: Cardiorespiratory resuscitation is often depicted in British television medical dramas. Patients portrayed receiving resuscitation are likely to be in a younger age group than in real life. Though the reasons for resuscitation are more varied and more often associated with trauma than in reality, the overall success rate is nevertheless realistic. Widespread overoptimism of patients for survival after resuscitation cannot necessarily be blamed on British television medical dramas. Key messagesA quarter of patients in British television medical dramas who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation on screen seemed to surviveThis figure is comparable to initial survival rates in a series of patients in real lifePatients on television are more likely to suffer cardiac arrest as a result of trauma than in real life, and patients undergoing resuscitation are likely to be younger than patients in real lifeThe overall survival rate of patients after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in British television medical drama seems
Katie J Damratoski; April R Field; Katie N Mizell; Michael C Budden
.... Research focused on the television viewing habits of college students, current challenges in television advertising and marketing and the increasing use of DVRs and the Internet are investigated...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation... Federal Communications Commission published requirements related to Establishment of Class A TV Service...
Ge, Xun; Lin, Shou
This paper investigates superspaces 0(X) and 0(X) of a tvs-cone metric space (X, d), where 0(X) and 0(X) are the space consisting of nonempty subsets of X and the space consisting of nonempty compact subsets of X, respectively. The purpose of this paper is to establish some relationships between the lower topology and the lower tvs-cone hemimetric topology (resp., the upper topology and the upper tvs-cone hemimetric topology to the Vietoris topology and the Hausdorff tvs-cone hemimetric topology) on 0(X) and 0(X), which makes it possible to generalize some results of superspaces from metric spaces to tvs-cone metric spaces.
Information, Communication And Education Media: Television Advertising And Its Effects On The Consuming Society. ... This study was focused on television as one of the major information, communication and education media. Issues such as the use of ... The research design adopted for this study was a survey method.
This test of Marshall McLuhan's claim that increased exposure to television will develop a perception of the world as a "global village" used estimation of cognitive distance as an operational definition of the global village concept. The first phase of the study tested the hypothesis that "heavy" television viewers' estimates…
Morrisett, Lloyd N.
Even though we lack definitive research evidence concerning television's effects upon children the pervasiveness of television and its fascination for children suggest that it is possible to use this component of our culture consciously in an effort to benefit children. (Author/JM)
Highlights differences between cause-effect and interactive research models that are used to explain television's effects on children. Proposes a schema theory of comprehension and learning that (1) acknowledges the child's prior knowledge, (2) considers television viewing as active communication, and (3) emphasizes critical and literate viewing…
Benson, Thomas W.
After an analysis of television coverage of political conventions, the author contends that television journalism, though not consciously biased, emphasizes the present at the expense of the past, concentrates on nominees instead of on policies, and uses gossip and rumor as hard news to heighten the drama surrounding the emergence of a new leader.…
Teenagers discuss their sexual uncertainties and roles parents and television could play in enlightening them on sexuality. From parents, they would like honesty and support, and, from television, portrayals of strong women, emotional attachment, sexual attraction without glamor, connection between sex and pregnancy, and information on…
This account of the global switch to digital television, from its origins to its emerging outcomes, provides an understanding of how digital television is converging with the Internet. It pictures a future in which the democratic role of the media, freedom of expression and democratic participation can be enhanced.
abstractThis article develops a number of conceptual and methodological proposals aimed at furthering a firmer agenda for the field of socialist television studies. It opens by addressing the issue of relevance of the field, identifying three critical contributions the study of socialist television
Kielwasser, Alfred P.; Wolf, Michelle A.
Argues that the symbolic annihilation of gay and lesbian youth exhibited by network television contributes to a dysfunctional isolation supported by the mutually reinforcing invisibility of homosexual adolescents on television and in the real world. Suggests that the spiral of silence also partially accounts for the inefficacy of oppositional…
Reading comprehension is the basic foundation for functional literacy and scholastic achievement. However, most school children spend a great deal of their time watching television or listening to radio than in reading. The research effort was thus; set out to investigate the effects of television and radio programmes to the ...
Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.
This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television…
Discussion of teenage television viewing focuses on a study of secondary school students in Belfast (Northern Ireland) that examined viewing habits. Highlights include the amount of television watched; effects on reading; the influence of violence; parents' responsibility and control over viewing; models for behavior; and negative views of…
de Leeuw, Sonja
abstractIncreasingly television heritage is being digitized and made accessible to non- industry user, enabling ‘the archival turn’: the study of online archives so as to revisit the dominant discourses in television historiography. This article discusses both conceptual and practical perspectives
Potter, W. James; Chang, Ik Chin
Describes study of students in grades 8 through 12 that was conducted to determine the degree to which television messages influence a person's construction of reality (the cultivation hypothesis). Research methodology that tests the effects of television exposure is examined with emphasis on the importance of demographic control variables. (38…
Potter, W. James
Reviews literature dealing with perceived reality in the television effects process from a construct validation perspective. Topics discussed include variables that influence the degree to which individuals perceive reality in televised messages, relationships with attribute variables, influence of reality perception on viewers' behavior and…
Gerbner, George; Gross, Larry
Defines the violence profile as a set of indicators tracing aspects of the television world and of conceptions of social reality they tend to cultivate in the viewer's minds. Suggests using cultural indicators as a framework for a progress report on a long-range study of trends in television content and effects. (MH)
Greenberg, Bradley S.; Reeves, Byron
Based on previous research findings and original data from school children in grades 3-6, this study examines children's perceptions of reality in television as an intervening variable between exposure to the medium and the effect of television messages. The specific focus of the current research was to isolate and identify factors which have…
Full Text Available Television and Cinema present specific behaviour and language in relation to reality. If film focuses on its proximity to artistic practices, and this reflects the viewer’s relationship with the film, television, in turn, seeks in directness or the transposition of the real to the imaginary, the key to its success, the audience. We all see the possibilities that television has for viewers. Even those most aware of the various con- straints, and who claim themselves to be not influenced, come under the hypnotic power of the television screen. The quality of the programming continues to decline, succumbing to the claim that television channels have to get into the audience “ratings”.
Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús María
Literature, cinema and television have often portrayed stereotypical images of people that have epilepsy and have helped foster false beliefs about the disease. To examine the image of epilepsy presented by literature, cinema and television over the years. Epilepsy has frequently been portrayed in literary works, films and television series, often relating it with madness, delinquency, violent behaviours or possession by the divine or the diabolical, all of which has helped perpetuate our ancestral beliefs. The literary tales and the images that appear in films and on television cause an important emotional impact and, bearing in mind that many people will only ever see an epileptic seizure in a film or in a TV series or might gain some information about the disorder from a literary text, what they see on the screen or read in the novels will be their only points of reference. Such experiences will therefore mark the awareness and knowledge they will have about epilepsy and their attitudes towards the people who suffer from it. Novels and films are fiction, but it is important to show realistic images of the disease that are no longer linked to the false beliefs of the past and which help the general public to have a more correct view of epilepsy that is free from prejudices and stereotypes. Literature, cinema and television have often dealt with the subject of epilepsy, sometimes realistically, but in many cases they have only helped to perpetuate false beliefs about this disease.
Full Text Available Background: Advertisements can influence children′s health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children′s television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. Methods: All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children′s programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s and mode of presentation (s were coded. Results: A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31% across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%. The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54% and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Conclusion: Although the total number of food advertisements during children′s television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.
Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; King, Lesley; Hebden, Lana
The issue of marketing unhealthy food to children and its contribution to childhood obesity has become a highly politicised debate in Australia. The aim of this study was to compare recent television food advertising patterns in 2008 to previously published Australian research on television advertising from 2006 and 2007, to examine any changes following policy debates. Television broadcasting was recorded for two weekdays and two weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00 in February 2008 for all three commercial television channels. Food advertisements were classified as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous. Television audience data were obtained to determine broadcast periods corresponding to children's peak viewing times. The overall rate of food advertising decreased over time: from seven food advertisements/hour/channel in 2006/07 to five in 2008. However, the relative contribution of non-core food advertising to overall food advertising remained stable. In 2008, the proportion of food advertisements for non-core foods was significantly higher during children's peak viewing times (pfoods on commercial television, which are shown during time periods when the highest numbers of children are watching. Regulations to limit unhealthy food advertising during the time periods when a significant number of children are watching are required. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.
Interviews were conducted with 721 students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades to study whether children's perceived reality of television would affect the relationship between pro-social and anti-social television content and pro-social and anti-social behavior. Social behavior variables, a perceived reality index, and television exposure…
Akiyama, Takashiro; Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi
Reactions of 50 2-year-old and 46 4-year-old Japanese children to selected experimental television programs were examined in two studies. The child was placed with his or her mother in a room where the experimental program was shown on one television and a fast-moving animation without sound was shown on a second television as a distractor. The…
Rodrigo GARCÍA VEGA
Full Text Available If we bear in mind that mainly the television violent contents increase children aggressiveness, long periods of time watching TV make the children to loose the desire of practicing physical activities and that, even, for example three or four hours a day in front of the television can increase the risk of suffering a deficit of attention disorder and hyperactivity. For this reason, it is important to consider this subject which continues being relevant and current due to the long time our children spend watching TV everyday.In this article, worried about this matter, and not in theory terms, we have checked the last decade reports as the title mentions. We present a descriptive study of the television for children, analyzing the children’s programmers in the Spanish television channels. We argue about the educational values that TV offers the children by checking its rules and taking one day children’s programmers as an example we analyze and describe it in order to finish with some conclusions.Since it is not possible to reduce the time children spend watching TV, at least we should know what is on TV and suggest an improvement in the contents. Probably in this way our children will be less influenced by television.
Cheng, Tina L; Brenner, Ruth A; Wright, Joseph L; Sachs, Hari Cheryl; Moyer, Patricia; Rao, Malla R
Violent media exposure has been associated with aggressive behavior, and it has been suggested that child health professionals counsel families on limiting exposure. Effective violence prevention counseling requires an understanding of norms regarding parental attitudes, practices, and influencing factors. Both theories of reasoned action and planned behavior emphasize that subjective norms and attitudes affect people's perceptions and intended behavior. Few data exist on violent television viewing and monitoring from a cross-section of families. By understanding the spectrum of parental attitudes, community-sensitive interventions for violence prevention can be developed. The objective of this study was to assess attitudes about and monitoring of violent television viewing from the perspective of parents. An anonymous self-report assisted survey was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians who visited child health providers at 3 sites: an urban children's hospital clinic, an urban managed care clinic, and a suburban private practice. The parent questionnaire included questions on child-rearing attitudes and practices and sociodemographic information. A total of 1004 adults who accompanied children for health visits were recruited for the study; 922 surveys were completed (participation rate: 92%). A total of 830 (90%) respondents were parents and had complete child data. Of the 830 respondents, 677 had questions on television viewing included in the survey and were the focus of this analysis. Seventy-five percent of families reported that their youngest child watched television. Of these, 53% reported always limiting violent television viewing, although 73% believed that their children viewed television violence at least 1 time a week. Among television viewers, 81% reported usually or always limiting viewing of sexual content on television and 45% reported usually or always watching television with their youngest child. Among children who watched
Sengupta, D L; Senior, T B.A.; Ferris, J E
Electromagnetic interference to television reception caused by the MOD-2 wind turbine (WT) array at Goodnoe Hills, Washington, was studied by means of detailed measurements at a number of test sites in the vicinity of the WT array. The commercial television signals available in the area were used as the radio frequency sources during the measurements. The dynamic measurements indicated that varying amounts of TVI were produced at all sites and on some or all of the available TV channels; with the directional antenna in use, most of the backward region interference produced video distortion that was judged to be acceptable; at one test location about 1-1/2 miles from the WT array site, forward region interference was observed; when the blades of the WTs rotate in synchronism, they tend to increase the amplitude of the interference pulses, thereby producing more TVI effects; and when the blades do not rotate in synchronism, each WT produces interference effects individually.
Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Baginska, S.
Sensory emissions from personal computers (PCs), PC monitors + PC towers, and television sets (TVs) having been in operation for 50, 400 and 600 h were assessed by a panel of 48 subjects. One brand of PC tower and four brands of PC monitors were tested. Within each brand, cathode-ray tube (CRT...
Full Text Available This article assesses the particularly low level of women represented on national primetime television newscasts in Croatia. In doing so, it presents the results of a content analysis covering a random,stratified sample of HTV, Nova TV, and RTL primetime news broadcasts over the years 2009 and 2010. According to these results, women are significantly underrepresented as main characters, experts, or even persons relevant to news stories concerning issues or problems. In particular, the results are most apparent on the primetime newscast Dnevnik, broadcasted daily on Croatia’s main public television station. Ideally, this news broadcast should rank among the best in terms of gender equality, given the principles of equality stipulated throughout Croatian law (and especially where it concerns programming legislation. Concerning the analyzed content, when women serve as the main characters in a news story, their emotional response to an issue appears to be almost obligatory. Further, women are often portrayed as victims, or as a figure to galvanize a rather black and white response, i.e. they are to be praised or blamed. Adding to this gender discrepancy, statistics show that more women than men have earned BA and MA degrees, which not only highlights the unbalanced representation of women on television news, but also distorts the actual level of female participation in society, particularly where it regards sociopolitical fields.
Full Text Available Obliged by act of Parliament to ‘innovate and experiment’, Channel 4 has, since its birth in 1982, been the UK’s most pioneering commercial television broadcaster. Its arrival broadened the meaning, function and operations of public service broadcasting in the UK, with a particular focus on minorities and pushing boundaries, political and creative. In the late 1990s, though, it was under increasing threat from specialist pay-TV services that could more accurately target its audiences. As a commercially funded channel with public service responsibilities, Channel 4 was under increasing pressure to be financially independent and fulfil a challenging remit. Its response to a threatened income and increasing competition was to diversify its portfolio into various media related businesses, particularly taking advantage of the arrival of digital television to expand its offer. The subtitle of the Corporation’s 2000 Annual report, ‘More than a Television Channel’ indicates the confidence, optimism and boldness with which this expansion was approached. The rapid expansion of the channel’s portfolio in a time of relative confidence in the commercial viability of the television industry was to be reversed only a few years later, when, after it failed to produce the returns it was designed for, 4Ventures was drastically scaled back, and Channel 4 refocused its efforts on the core broadcast channel. Channel 4 therefore offers a test case in the limits of convergence as a strategy for survival for British broadcasters at the arrival of digital television. This paper focuses specifically on the areas of Channel 4’s strategy that pertained to one of the broadcaster’s particular strengths: film culture. It explores one of the film offshoots of 4Ventures: FilmFour Ltd, the film finance, production, sales and distribution company and how its failure to find a commercial hit mirrors the general problems for a commercial public service broadcaster
Niiranen, S; Lamminen, H; Mattila, H; Niemi, K; Kalli, S
Personal health care has obtained increasing importance in the field of health care as the populations' age in the industrialised countries and resources available for health care remain limited. Personal health care through digital television is an exiting possibility in the realisation of new types of services answering to this demand for increased personal action and responsibility in health care. The possibilities of digital television in health care are studied in the Health Care Television (HCTV) research project of the Digital Media Institute at Tampere University of Technology. In this paper personal health care services are studied mainly from the perspective of the interactive service infrastructure of digital television. Firstly we present the general infrastructure of digital television and the different interactive service types of digital television. The usage of these service types in personal health care applications is also discussed. Finally, a web-based application based on chronic atrial fibrillation and its test use is presented. The application is used as a research platform for personal health care applications in digital television.
In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.
Francisco Rui Cádima
Full Text Available We live in a complex and still blurred time of transition from systems of audiovisual fragmentation, specific to cable and satellite, to web environment hyper-fragmented systems. In the process, transnational televisions are experiencing some loss but for the time being, they still hold powerful distribution channels in the main strategic areas of the globe, with exception of zones where, for totalitarian or censorship reasons, they cannot always penetrate. This is a model that has several limitations both at the onset and at the point of arrival, which makes for a critical communication system whose subordination to local and/or global interests affects its narrative diversity. Finally, it is a model that is normally characterized by discursive regularities that are alien to political, cultural, and geographic pluralism, and which is closer to what we may call “single history” than to an open, pluralistic and participated system.
Powell, Lisa M; Szczypka, Glen; Chaloupka, Frank J
Television viewing is hypothesized to contribute to obesity among children and adolescents through several mechanisms that include the displacement of physical activity, snacking while watching TV, and the influence of food advertising. This study drew on television ratings to examine the distribution of food advertising exposure among adolescents aged 12 through 17 based on 170 top-rated shows across network, cable and syndicated TV stations over the 9-month period from September 2003 to May 2004. A total of 238,353 30-second equivalent advertisements on the top-rated shows were assessed. Each advertisement was weighted by its rating to measure actual exposure to advertisements. The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for African-American versus white adolescents and total exposure to food advertising would be even larger for African-American teens given that, on average, they watched more TV. Fast food was the most frequently viewed food product category comprising 23% of all food-related advertisements among adolescents. Food ads made up just over one quarter of TV ads viewed by adolescents with the most commonly viewed products of fast food, sweets, and beverage products well within the reach of their own purchasing power.
Thesis "The Staging elements and procedures in a TV news in the Czech Television and TV Nova" reveals the elements that modify the perception of stories in TV news. Staging will be analyzed on commercial TV Nova and public Czech Television. Thesis is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on theoretical background elements of staging in the news. Work also shows the way, how the makers of news work with staging elements. TV News session is understood as distinctive kind of productions...
This review of communication research on television viewing by intellectually gifted children examines the number of hours such children spend watching television, types of programing they watch, their capacity to process and comprehend program content, appropriate child role models in television programing, and mediation of television viewing by…
Williams, Tannis MacBeth
Examines current research on the role of television in children's learning. Assesses evidence that television can play a positive teaching role and suggests a model for evaluating television's impact on viewers. Concludes that current programing limits the positive effects of television on children's learning. (JMF)
Studies and writings on the effects of television on children are reviewed and summarized. Topics are the young people's pattern of exposure to television, the nature of their viewing experience, the way they respond to television, and the direct effects on their values, attitudes and behavior. Research on the influence of television violence on…
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital television broadcast stations. 73.624... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.624 Digital television broadcast stations. (a) Digital television (“DTV”) broadcast stations are assigned channels 6 MHz wide. Initial...
Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn
This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…
Wren, Christopher S.
By phasing out the superheroes of violence, attempting to involve children in constructive projects and reexamining their commitment to children's programming, the major commercial networks are gradually changing children's television. Together with non-commercial television networks they are striving for greater quality control. (Author/RK)
Ravikiran, S R; Baliga, B Shantharam; Jain, Animesh; Kotian, M Shashidhar
To study the effect of socio-demographic factors, parental regulations and maternal television usage on the television viewing practices of Indian schoolchildren. Mothers of 6-12 y old children were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire at the pediatric outpatient. The television viewing practices of 405 schoolchildren with maternal television viewing and parental television rules were analyzed. Specific television viewing practices considered harmful in the present study were- viewing television >2 h, viewing television just prior to sleep (at bedtime), predominantly viewing general adult channels and using television as an aid to sleep. 35.8 % (n = 145) of the children viewed television for >2 h on schooldays. 20 % (n = 81) used television as sleep-aid. 28.1 % (n = 114) children had televisions in the room they slept. The frequency of parental television rules were with respect to: duration of viewing- 77.5 % (n = 314), timing of viewing- 63.7 % (n = 258), content- 35.6 % (n = 144). The children of families with the rule needing of parental permission to switch on the television [present in 34.8 % (n = 141) children] had lower harmful television viewing practices: duration of television viewing on schooldays >2 h (23.4 %, n = 33, P television viewed just before sleep (39 %, n = 55, P television as sleep-aid (12.1 %, n = 17, P = 0.003). 26.7 % (n = 108) of the mothers viewed television for >2 h. Linear regression analysis showed association between average television duration of children and average maternal television duration on schooldays (Beta = 0.246, t = 5.09, P television viewing practices were significantly more in children with television in bedroom [OR = 7.49(4.19-13.38), P television [OR = 0.31(0.18-0.53), P television usage, presence of television in bedroom resulted in harmful television viewing practices among Indian children. The parental rules that were
Carter, Owen B J
The aim of this paper is to provide an accessible overview of research literature on the link between childhood obesity and food advertising on Australian television. A systematic review of current medical, public health, psychological and marketing research literature surrounding the topics of childhood obesity and television food advertising, with emphasis on Australian data. Childhood obesity rates have tripled since 1985, mirrored by increases in consumption of energy-dense foods. Energy-dense food advertising is ubiquitous in children's television programming, but children's ability to perceive the commercial intent of advertisements only emerges gradually as a function of age. Until such time, children are trusting, and hence vulnerable, to food advertising, influencing their desires and purchase requests to parents. There is robust evidence to suggest that television viewing and childhood obesity are related. However, the direction of causation and specific contribution of food advertising remains equivocal. Moreover, the link between television and childhood obesity is surprisingly weak, with only a small independent effect size (approximately 1%). Television food advertising seems to have only a very small, indirect link to childhood obesity.
TV audience measurement involves estimating the number of viewers tuned into a TV show at any given time as well as their demographics. First introduced shortly after commercial television broadcasting began in the late 1940s, audience measurement allowed the business of television to flourish by offering networks a way to quantify the monetary value of TV audiences for advertisers, who pay for the estimated number of eyeballs watching during commercials. The first measurement techniques suffered from multiple limitations because reliable, large-scale data were costly to acquire. Yet despite these limitations, measurement standards remained largely unchanged for decades until devices such as cable boxes, video-on-demand boxes, and cell phones, as well as web apps, Internet browser clicks, web queries, and social media activity, resulted in an explosion of digitally available data. TV viewers now leave digital traces that can be used to track almost every aspect of their daily lives, allowing the potential for large-scale aggregation across data sources for individual users and groups and enabling the tracking of more people on more dimensions for more shows. Data are now more comprehensive, available in real time, and cheaper to acquire, enabling accurate and fine-grained TV audience measurement. In this article, I discuss the evolution of audience measurement and what the recent data explosion means for the TV industry and academic research.
Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M; Águila-Maturana, Ana M
Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease whose initial symptoms are fever, fatigue, headaches, vomiting, a stiff neck and pains in the limbs. In many cases, the sequelae are irreversible paralysis and may result in death if there is bulbar or respiratory compromise. A set of symptoms, called post-polio syndrome, which appears years after the acute infection, are also described. To analyse the way poliomyelitis has been dealt with in literature, cinema and television. Film and television writers and directors have shown an interest in poliomyelitis and have portrayed it in a correct and realistic manner, both in fiction and in biographies or documentary-type works. Nemesis, Silver wattle, Leave her to heaven or The fall are some examples of literary works on the subject. Cinema has also portrayed polio all the way back to silent movies, with titles such as The woman in his house, The Silver Streak, Sister Kenny or The sessions. This disease and its sequelae have also been portrayed on television in series such as Hospital Central, Grey's anatomy, House M.D. or Amar en tiempos revueltos, and in TV films like El asunto, Eleanor and Franklin or Warm Springs. Poliomyelitis has been portrayed in literature, cinema and television in a realistic manner, showing its symptoms, sequelae, and the personal, familial and social impact of this disease.
Adams, J; Hennessy-Priest, K; Ingimarsdóttir, S; Sheeshka, J; Ostbye, T; White, M
Television advertisements for less healthy foods are thought to contribute to overweight and obesity in children. In the UK, new regulations on television food advertising to children came into effect in April 2007. These prohibit advertisements for "less healthy" foods during or around programmes "of particular appeal to" (OPAT) children. In Canada, self-regulated codes of practice on television food advertising to children were recently strengthened. To document the nutritional content of food advertised and number of advertisements OPAT children broadcast in the UK and central Canada before the introduction of the new UK regulations. All food advertisements broadcast on four popular channels in Canada and the three terrestrial commercial channels in the UK during 1 week in 2006 were identified and linked to relevant nutritional data. Food advertisements OPAT children and for "less healthy" products were identified using the criteria in the UK regulations. 2315 food related advertisements broadcast in Canada and 1365 broadcast in the UK were included. 52-61% were for "less healthy" products; 5-11% were OPAT children. Around 5% of food advertisements would have been prohibited under the new UK regulations. There were few differences in the nutritional content of food described in advertisements that were and were not OPAT children. There was little evidence that food described in advertisements OPAT children were any less healthy than those that were not. Few food advertisements are likely to be prohibited by the new UK regulations.
Max Headroom, the computer-generated media personality, presents a good opportunity for an investigation of the degree of intertextuality in television. Max combines narrative genres (science fiction and film noir), television program types (prime-time episodic narrative, made-for-TV movie, talkshows), advertising and programming, and electronic…
Baus, F., Ed.
Baseline information for the would-be cable television educational programer is provided by two papers, one an overview of the state of the cable television industry, and the other a report on a marketing study conducted to determine consumer attitudes toward cable TV as an educational medium. In "The Promise and Reality of Cable…
Full Text Available Music genres rooted in folklore have often been interpreted as ideological manoeuvres to forge a sense of national identity (Gordy, Mihailescu, Baker, Cash. This article explores formalized folklore performances of muzică populară as forms ‘media rituals’ (Couldry, and focuses on the role that television has played in establishing the genre as we know it today. It analyses the link between muzică populară as rooted in mass participation activities during communism, and ‘media rituals’ as framed on television (Couldry, indiscriminately and democratically involving the entire population that it addresses (and is available beyond that.
Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M
Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background Food and beverage marketing has been implicated in the childhood obesity “pandemic.” Prior studies have established the negative impact of television advertising on children's dietary intake, yet few have considered the role of online food and beverage marketing, particularly within the Canadian context. Objective This study explores children's engagement in online marketing and investigates the potential impact on their dietary intake. Methods Participants were recruited from the Ryerson University Summer Day Camp to participate in a single one-on-one semi-structured interview. Results A total of 83 children (age 7 to 13 years; mean 9.99 years; 56.3% boys, 43.8% girls participated in the study. Fewer children thought that there is food, drink, or candy advertising on the internet (67.7% than on television (98.8% (p > 0.001. Awareness of online marketing increased with age: 7 to 8 year olds (23.67%; 4, 9 to 10 years (63.89%; 23, 11 to 12 years (86.96%; 20; 13 years (100%; 9. Over one-third of children had visited a website after seeing the address advertised on television (n = 32; 38.55% or on product package (n = 29; 34.94%. Conclusions Branded internet sites, commonly featured on television and product packaging, offer new opportunities for marketers to reach children with messages promoting commercial food and beverage items. These websites are subsequently spread via word-of-mouth through children's peer networks. The independent impact of web-based food, drink and candy marketing, as well as the synergistic effect of multi-channel product promotion, on children's dietary intake merits further investigation.
Full Text Available The spectrum sharing between primary TV systems (Channels 9 and 35 and Public Safety Networks (PSNs is presented in this article. The networks to be deployed within Television White Space (TVWS in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara State operate on a secondary basis spatially, without causing harmful interference to incumbent TV users. In order to guarantee the protection of incumbent TV users both in VHF and UHF bands, minimum separation distances were suggested considering field strengths of 36 dBu and 41 dBu as the protected contours for the two bands respectively. The effects of varying the transmit power and the antenna height of the secondary system on the coverage area are emphasized in this work. Aggregate interference effect from the multiple secondary systems on the TV service coverage was also investigated. The performances of VHF and UHF bands were also verified when used for secondary transmission both at lower and higher transmit power scenarios. The results of this work show that the safety networks can co-exist with the TV systems without causing harmful interference with the suggested separation distances at the edge of the noise-limited service area, where the signal-to-noise ratio is 16 dB as recommended by the International Telecommunication Union-Radio sector (ITU-R.
Mulligan, J B
A method is described for minimizing the ghost images which normally appear when anaglyphs are presented on color television screens. This is done by careful adjustment of the phosphor levels in each of the anaglyph regions.
Petranovich, Kaitlin A; Bapty, Samantha J; Maestas, Travis S; Strasburger, Victor C
Bullying is a serious issue for adolescents, with health consequences both at the time of victimization and later on in adulthood. Aggression in the media is an area that has been explored as a contributing factor to bullying behavior. This study aims to determine if the incidence of aggression in popular television shows over the past 50 years has changed. A total of 198 episodes of the most popular television shows between the years 1960 and 2010 were coded for incidents of aggression and analyzed using simple linear regression. The mean number of events per episode was 8.8. No statistically significant correlation was found between number of bullying events and the years in which they occurred. Whereas it is possible that aggression on television may have an impact on bullying behaviors, there is no evidence that the incidence of bullying on television has changed significantly in the past 5 decades. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dominick, Joseph R.
Investigated relationships relative to teenagers' videogame playing, watching violent television programs, antisocial behavior, and self-esteem. Concluded that videogame playing is neither the menace critics portray it nor without possible negative consequences. (PD)
Manganello, Jennifer A; McKenzie, Lara B
.... A pilot study with a sample of 10 television shows about home renovation, children or families was examined using content analysis for the presence or absence of home and child safety practices...
Morison, Patricia; And Others
Examines first- , third- , and sixth-grade children's abilities to discriminate between the reality and fantasy of television programs. Lengthy clinical interviews were conducted with each of 36 children, including viewing and discussion of 12 videotaped program segments. (SW)
homes by the end teevision per week. However, accorigtthIne op that de a ay anthr 4 million hoesby - tohoe pendent Broadcast Authority’s (IBA...France to create a leisure desire to buy cable TV. park and a production studio for cartoons. 8 The Role of Public Service Providers In the Next Decade
Waade, Anne Marit
, and reflect the growing academic and business interests, respectively, on places in a global media and consumption culture (Falkheimer & Jansson, 2006). Based on empirical location studies of three crime series, Wallander (Yellow Bird, 2008-2012), The Bridge (SVT1 & DR1, 2011-2013) and Dicte (Misofilm/TV2...
Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo
and competitive behavior as a possible motivation factor to encourage user contribution. The results from the rst study suggest that users would feel comfortable watching mobile TV in a social environment, especially when combined with earplugs. The second study uncovered challenges to tackle in order to achieve...
The work presents a comparison of commercial channels TV Nova and TV Barrandov in terms of historical, economical and marketing perspectives during their entry into the television market. The survey focused on the time period of two media entry to the TV market - at about one year before and one year after the entry. TV Nova in the years 1993 - 1994 and TV Barrandov in the years 2008 - 2009. These time periods influenced late development of both TV channels. Both TV channels were chosen regar...
Closed circuit television (CCTV) weld targeting systems were developed to provide accurate and repeatable positioning of the electrode of an electronic arc welder with respect to the parts being joined. A sliding mirror electrode holder was developed for use with closed circuit television equipment on existing weld fixturing. A complete motorized CCTV weld alignment system was developed to provide weld targeting for even the most critical positioning requirements.
Luciana Lobo Miranda
Este artigo discute a produção de subjetividade em duas TVs comunitárias: TV Maxambomba e TV Pinel. Mediante uma pesquisa qualitativa, buscou-se analisar os processos subjetivos engendrados em jovens da periferia ou usuários do sistema de saúde mental quando eles passam de simples espectadores a criadores de produtos audiovisuais. Procurou-se enfatizar diferenças e semelhanças entre a TV de massa e as TVs comunitárias. Pôde-se com isso perceber a apropriação de signos da TV de massa na progra...
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John
Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John
Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules--Clarification Regarding Information Collection Requirements; Correction AGENCY...
Legenbauer, Tanja; Ruhl, Ilka; Vocks, Silja
This study investigates the influence of media exposure on body image state in eating-disordered (ED) patients. The attitudinal and perceptual components of body image are assessed, as well as any associations with dysfunctional cognitions and behavioral consequences. Twenty-five ED patients and 25 non-ED controls (ND) viewed commercials either…
Cameron, Glen T.; And Others
Explores the role of news teasers on memory and attention for commercials in evening newscasts. Finds that they enhance moderately the primacy-recency pattern found in visual and verbal memory scores. Finds that news teasers appear to have an effect on processing strategies employed by viewers. (SR)
abstractThe paper focuses on the introduction of interactive digital television (DTV) in the UK, at the turn of the millennium, and its take-up and use by early audiences. It discusses whether the processes of television technological convergence went together with “consumer behavior
A.F.M. Krijnen (Tonny)
textabstractIn this dissertation the central focus lies with exploration the relationship of television and moral imagination. The underlying aim was to explore how television might be valuable in reaching moral maturity in order to diminish needless suffering in this world. To give form to these
Thompson, Darcy A; Flores, Glenn; Ebel, Beth E; Christakis, Dimitri A
To analyze the content of food and drink commercials aired during after-school hours on Spanish-language television. We performed a content analysis of food and drink advertisements, evaluating product type, food category, and message content. All advertisements aired during after-school hours (3 to 9 p.m.) on 2 U.S. Spanish-language television stations were sampled over a 1-week period in the spring of 2006. We reviewed 60 hours of programming. Of the non-program content, 47% was for product advertisements, 15% (n = 153) of which was for food/drink. A mean of 2.5 food/drink commercials aired per hour (range 0-8), and the median duration was 30 seconds; 31% of food/drink commercials advertised fast food, and 27% advertised drinks, most (54%) of which were sugared. About one third (31%) of the food/drink commercials targeted children, 12% featured Latino celebrities, and 19% made reference to Latino culture. Only 16% of the food/drink commercials had health-related content. Children viewing Spanish-language television in the United States after school are exposed to food and drink commercials, most of which advertise unhealthy foods, including fast food and sugared drinks. Food and beverage advertising on Spanish-language television may play an important role in the high risk of overweight among Latino children.
We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is an innovative visual media that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. FTV is based on the ray-space method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have also developed new type of ray capture and display technologies such as a 360-degree mirror-scan ray capturing system and a 360 degree ray-reproducing display. The international standardization of FTV has been conducted in MPEG.
Lumeng, Julie C; Rahnama, Sahand; Appugliese, Danielle; Kaciroti, Niko; Bradley, Robert H
To test the independent effect of television exposure in preschool-aged children on overweight risk. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Ten US sites. One thousand sixteen children selected via conditional random sampling. Being awake in the room with the television on for 2 hours or more per day, by maternal report at age 36 months. Child overweight (body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters] > or =95th percentile) calculated from measured anthropometrics at ages 36 and 54 months. Covariates tested included child sex and race; maternal marital status, education, age, and depressive symptoms; income-needs ratio, child behavior problems; Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment total score; hours per week in nonparental care; and proportion of television exposure that was educational. At age 36 months, 5.8% of children were overweight; at age 54 months, 10.0% were overweight. Exposure to 2 or more hours of television per day was associated with an increased risk of overweight at both age 36 months (odds ratio, 2.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-6.24) and age 54 months (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.83) in unadjusted analyses. Only maternal age altered the concurrent relationship, and the effect of television remained significant (odds ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-5.62). Television exposure at age 36 months was no longer a significant predictor of overweight at age 54 months when controlling for covariates. Excessive television exposure is a risk factor for overweight in preschoolers independent of a number of potential confounders associated with the quality of the home environment.
Андрій Олександрович Недо
Full Text Available This article describes trends of the development of entertainment television in Ukraine as westernization, McDonaldization, tabloidization, development of post-show. Westernization is viewed as the process of borrowing commercial formats of entertainment shows from the US and Western Europe. McDonaldization is considered as a process of simplifying program formats. Tabloidization is shown as a process of manipulating the viewer’s attention through lively and provocative announcements of programs. Development of post-show is covered as a process of creating programs that supplement reality shows
Full Text Available This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934 for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.
Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, R
Today, the care of patients with multiple sclerosis and those around them represents a clinical and therapeutic challenge for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study is to analyse the appearance of multiple sclerosis in literature, cinema and television, and to reflect upon the image it has in these media. Several representative works that have addressed multiple sclerosis were reviewed, and many of them were seen to offer a very true-to-life vision of the disease. Likewise, a review was also conducted of the most relevant films and TV series that, on occasions, offer the general public a close look at the impact of the disease on patients or relatives, although they are sometimes somewhat exaggerated for the sake of increased dramatic effect and offer a slightly distorted view of reality. Literature largely reflects the real epidemiology, the symptoms and development of the disease, while less attention seems to be given to the diagnostic and therapeutic options open to patients. Cinema and television have offered a correct image but sometimes with the addition of more dramatic effects. It is important for literature, cinema and television to offer a realistic view of this neurological disease so as to make it better known among the public and to help lessen the stigma attached to it.
Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M
INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.
Dixon, Helen G; Scully, Maree L; Wakefield, Melanie A; White, Victoria M; Crawford, David A
Television (TV) food advertising has attracted criticism for its potential role in promoting unhealthy dietary practices among children. Content analyses indicate junk food advertising is prevalent on Australian children's TV; healthy eating is rarely promoted. This paper presents (a) a cross-sectional survey examining associations between children's regular TV viewing habits and their food-related attitudes and behaviour; and (b) an experiment assessing the impact of varying combinations of TV advertisements (ads) for unhealthy and healthy foods on children's dietary knowledge, attitudes and intentions. The experimental conditions simulated possible models for regulating food ads on children's TV. Participants were 919 grade five and six students from schools in Melbourne, Australia. The survey showed that heavier TV use and more frequent commercial TV viewing were independently associated with more positive attitudes toward junk food; heavier TV use was also independently associated with higher reported junk food consumption. The experiment found that ads for nutritious foods promote selected positive attitudes and beliefs concerning these foods. Findings are discussed in light of methodological issues in media effects research and their implications for policy and practice. It is concluded that changing the food advertising environment on children's TV to one where nutritious foods are promoted and junk foods are relatively unrepresented would help to normalize and reinforce healthy eating.
Reeder Anthony I
Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.
Jolly, S. J. E.; Armstrong, M.; Salmon, R. A.
The recent resurgence of interest in the stereoscopic cinema and the increasing availability to the consumer of stereoscopic televisions and computer displays are leading broadcasters to consider, once again, the feasibility of stereoscopic broadcasting. High Definition Television is now widely deployed, and the R&D departments of broadcasters and consumer electronics manufacturers are starting to plan future enhancements to the experience of television. Improving the perception of depth via stereoscopy is a strong candidate technology. In this paper we will consider the challenges associated with the production, transmission and display of different forms of "three-dimensional" television. We will explore options available to a broadcaster wishing to start a 3D service using the technologies available at the present time, and consider how they could be improved to enable many more television programmes to be recorded and transmitted in a 3D-compatible form, paying particular attention to scenarios such as live broadcasting, where the workflows developed for the stereoscopic cinema are inapplicable. We will also consider the opportunities available for broadcasters to reach audiences with "three-dimensional" content via other media in the near future: for example, distributing content via the existing stereoscopic cinema network, or over the Internet to owners of stereoscopic computer displays.
Sheng-Ming Wang; Cheih-Ju Huang
A Smart TV integrates Internet and Web features into a TV, as well convergence between computer and TV and can utilize as a computer. Smart TV devices facilitate the curation of content by combining Internet-based information with content from TV providers. Many techniques, such as those that focus on speech, gestures, and eye movement, have been used to develop various human computer interfaces for Smart TVs. However, as suggested by several researchers, user scenarios and user experiences s...
Campos, Daniel; Hern?ndez-Torres, Juan Jos?; Agil, Ahmad; Comino, Mariano; L?pez, Juan Carlos; Mac?as, Victoria; Campoy, Cristina
Introduction We aimed to assess longitudinal changes in television (TV) food advertising during 2013 compared to 2007, measuring children's exposure to healthy and unhealthy advertisements, after the new European and Spanish Public Health laws published in 2011. Material and methods Two thematic channels for children (TC), and 2 generalist channels (GC) for all ages were recorded, between April and May 2013, on 2 week and 2 weekend days. Food advertisements were classified as core (CFA) (nutr...
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Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF590 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16306-1 VHF590P (Link to Original site) VHF...590F 115 VHF590Z 603 VHF590P 698 - - Show VHF590 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-D/VHF590Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...590P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF590 (VHF590Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-D/VHF5...qlphvlrqlk*sqnfhkkylkkvqeqqq--- ---rwifhrwccfqsthdamyflyqxfgslsw*snlxrpkist*xfyhifghfw*rls*l ss*ipi*lqkwysyv
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF536 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16531-1 VHF536P (Link to Original site) VHF...536F 255 VHF536Z 685 VHF536P 920 - - Show VHF536 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-B/VHF536Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...536P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF536 (VHF536Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-B/VHF5...ti*mlhliskvmtvh*mslslfyggyfl*lsi*llwnysig qvvvcliksikxerllkstmt--- ---*erlcl*ilxlvsichf
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF730 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15767-1 VHF730P (Link to Original site) VHF...730F 569 VHF730Z 718 VHF730P 1267 - - Show VHF730 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF7-B/VHF730Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...730P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF730 (VHF730Q) /CSM/VH/VHF7-B/VHF...QEKRIPVLNSMDANDSINKKA RISWPDGFKYFFVDNQAGDSESAKSGKNLPIQRDIELNWNGEAYEYSNSNYFPINGQXFN DVSYPV--- ---lhvvvvkxvhtlpvnvnqivhf
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF649 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11031-1 VHF649P (Link to Original site) VHF...649F 562 VHF649Z 671 VHF649P 1213 - - Show VHF649 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF6-C/VHF649Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...649P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF649 (VHF649Q) /CSM/VH/VHF6-C/VHF...PNTPPTIKIELPSQSILKPSGQLKK*x* Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: i*qlvchlsivlfhhqviyphvlklekhf
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF527 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF527P (Link to Original site) VHF...527F 571 VHF527Z 456 VHF527P 1007 - - Show VHF527 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-B/VHF527Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...527P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF527 (VHF527Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-B/VHF...AKKVKYKMVNFTIDQIRAIMDRRENIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGDMRYMSCRADEQXRGITIKSSSVSLHF
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF294 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16441-1 VHF294P (Link to Original site) VHF...294F 573 VHF294Z 215 VHF294P 768 - - Show VHF294 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-D/VHF294Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...294P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF294 (VHF294Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-D/VHF2...ssfst*scisfttfry*gfsdctfr*fhfn**RFWFNMEQCII QWVMFYS--- ---DCHVSIKKFFKWWQRLDRWCCXXXSCXXXSWWFWFPTFLRIQISNXXY*k
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF690 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11064-1 VHF690P (Link to Original site) VHF...690F 199 VHF690Z 419 VHF690P 598 - - Show VHF690 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF6-D/VHF690Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...690P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF690 (VHF690Q) /CSM/VH/VHF6-D/VHF6...vllksqsknqyl*hlikslidfinif*hgmhqiyhqrkkn*nq *k--- ---rrwfpr*rernhhfqlc*sts*rgcryw
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF273 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11514-1 VHF273P (Link to Original site) VHF...273F 644 VHF273Z 678 VHF273P 1302 - - Show VHF273 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-D/VHF273Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...273P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF273 (VHF273Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-D/VHF...ctr*ccnvkdwchyssrl*syrs*ts*nrsifidr*iftsh*kdw**s llwfsnetr*skmcchcnwckhflwscckfstrnrrtwssssys*kywslly*fhrhlg
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF243 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16423-1 VHF243P (Link to Original site) VHF...243F 580 VHF243Z 334 VHF243P 894 - - Show VHF243 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF2-B/VHF243Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...243P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF243 (VHF243Q) /CSM/VH/VHF2-B/VHF2...AATCNAGATATTCCAGATTGGTTTGAAAAGATGG TACA sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence ifihadkff*RISHF
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF134 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF134P (Link to Original site) VHF...134F 533 VHF134Z 404 VHF134P 917 - - Show VHF134 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF1-B/VHF134Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...134P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF134 (VHF134Q) /CSM/VH/VHF1-B/VHF1...cid sequence LSSAKKVKYKMVNFTIDQIRAIMDRRENIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGDMRYMSCRADEQERGITIKSSSVSLHFEMPKE
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF892 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF892P (Link to Original site) VHF...892F 140 VHF892Z 417 VHF892P 537 - - Show VHF892 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF8-D/VHF892Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...892P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF892 (VHF892Q) /CSM/VH/VHF8-D/VHF8... Translated Amino Acid sequence TIKSSSVSLHFEMPXEDKLPAGCTSHEFLINLIDSPSHVDFS--- ---ELTASPNILEPIYLVEITAPENAIGGI
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF479 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11426-1 VHF479P (Link to Original site) VHF...479F 629 VHF479Z 691 VHF479P 1300 - - Show VHF479 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF4-D/VHF479Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...479P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF479 (VHF479Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-D/VHF...EKNPQEWRWSGGFFVDSISDYVVKSRNTERPDHDSLLF HVNIKEKQGTHFIRIPLSSKESPPYIIQNDTQFKISFFQRDSPENIDYIEPKEKLCYGWD EPSAEYVL
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF754 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16531-1 VHF754P (Link to Original site) VHF...754F 526 VHF754Z 624 VHF754P 1130 - - Show VHF754 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF7-C/VHF754Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...754P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF754 (VHF754Q) /CSM/VH/VHF7-C/VHF...ixnkmqwlkmlqvk*killk*ekvvslgiiftipf--- ---flvsichfnchc*itfccsrwnnlxllxfldsryllqw*
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF461 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11551-1 VHF461P (Link to Original site) VHF...461F 646 VHF461Z 261 VHF461P 887 - - Show VHF461 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF4-C/VHF461Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...461P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF461 (VHF461Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-C/VHF4...TTAAATTATTAAAAATAGTAAATAAAAAAAA sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence fyfifenfkthfhiiffl
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF781 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16440-1 VHF781P (Link to Original site) VHF...781F 452 VHF781Z 680 VHF781P 1112 - - Show VHF781 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF7-D/VHF781Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...781P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF781 (VHF781Q) /CSM/VH/VHF7-D/VHF...vlkmmmlkf*xixftr*r Frame C: glldinkleeiik*rfhlfylfl*rlllayhfhkilfqlisktaligsnfnhyiqikmim y*l*iqdqrmf*kdqqmvv
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF435 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16260-1 VHF435P (Link to Original site) VHF...435F 616 VHF435Z 703 VHF435P 1299 - - Show VHF435 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF4-B/VHF435Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...435P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF435 (VHF435Q) /CSM/VH/VHF4-B/VHF...AKKVKYKMVNFTIDQIRAIMDRRENIRNMSVIAHVDHGKTTLSDSLIQRAGIIADKV SGDMRYMSCRADEQERGITIKSSSVSLHF
Full Text Available VH (Link to library) VHF553 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16433-1 VHF553P (Link to Original site) VHF...553F 122 VHF553Z 533 VHF553P 635 - - Show VHF553 Library VH (Link to library) Clone ID VHF... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/VH/VHF5-C/VHF553Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID VHF...553P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >VHF553 (VHF553Q) /CSM/VH/VHF5-C/VHF5...ed Amino Acid sequence syhfylfiy*IIIYLLNYYLLSCVNYLPINFNILYIY--- ---YVINLTLDGDNVNGFPKTVTVKPAPSXEQXYAEGEGLVKVF
Barnes, S. P.
Results are presented of subjective and quantitative tests describing the results of interference to a particular digital television system from a frequency modulated (FM) television system, and for interference to an FM television system from a digital television system.
Cotter, Trish; Perez, Donna; Wakefield, Melanie
Objectives. We assessed the effects of levels and duration of exposure to televised antismoking advertising on cognitive and behavioral changes. Methods. We used data from a serial cross-sectional telephone survey with weekly interviews of adult smokers and recent quitters in New South Wales, Australia (n = 13 301), between April 2005 and December 2010. We merged survey data with commercial TV ratings data to estimate individuals’ exposure to antismoking advertising. Results. Logistic regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for a wide range of potential confounders, exposure to antismoking advertising at levels between 100 and 200 gross rating points per week on average over 6 to 9 weeks was associated with an increased likelihood of having (1) salient quitting thoughts and (2) recent quit attempts. Associations between exposure for shorter periods and these outcomes were not significant. Conclusions. Broadcasting schedules may affect the success of antismoking ads. Campaign planners should ensure advertising exposure at adequate frequency over relatively sustained periods to maximize impact. PMID:23763419
The presence of artifacts on the high definition television (TV) content and the eventual loss of the digital TV signals to rain is still a major concern to satellite operators, ... The degrading effect is assessed using a subjective experimental approach, which is based on the quantification of the artifacts ruining user's Quality of ...
Coon, K A; Tucker, K L
The recent increase in childhood obesity has, among other things, focused attention on the role that television may play. This paper summarizes results of studies published in peer review journals since 1970 with data pertaining to the relationship between television use and children's food intake. Studies fall into four categories: content analyses; effects of television advertising on children's food behaviors; television and pediatric obesity, with effects on children's dietary intake and physical activity; and television use and children's food consumption patterns. Content analyses have shown that food is the most frequently advertised product category on children's TV. The majority of these ads target highly sweetened products, but more recently, the proportion from fast food meal promotions has been growing. Controlled studies on children's choices have consistently shown that children exposed to advertising choose advertised food products at significantly higher rates than do those not exposed. Purchase request studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and number of requests from the child to the mother for specific food items, as well as the presence of those items in the home. Greater TV use has been associated with higher intakes of energy, fat, sweet and salty snacks, and carbonated beverages and lower intakes of fruit and vegetables. Several large studies have documented associations between number of hours of TV watched and both the prevalence and incidence of obesity. The combination of lifestyle factors that accompany heavy television use appear to place children at risk of obesity and poor nutritional status.
Kelly, B; Freeman, B; King, L; Chapman, K; Baur, L A; Gill, T
Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing is a contributor to poor diets and weight gain. Television food advertising, in particular, has been the focus of research and policy discussions. We aimed to quantify the specific impact of television advertising, as distinct from television viewing generally, on children's usual diet. Methods Four hundred seventeen Australian children aged 10-16 participated in an online survey, which assessed television viewing habits and consumption of 12 frequently advertised unhealthy foods/drinks. Consumption of these foods/drinks was dichotomized (less weekly, weekly or more) and summed (1 point for each item consumed weekly or more) to give cumulative consumption scores. After adjusting for age and socioeconomic status, there was strong evidence of an increase in unhealthy food score (P children who watched the most commercial television, and those who were actually exposed to advertisements embedded within programs. This association between advertisement exposure and poor diet emphasizes the need for public policy intervention to reduce children's food advertising exposures. © 2015 World Obesity.
... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.59 Modification... be included to support a technical service exhibit. (3) Available data on shopping and labor patterns...
The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1984
A chronology of television in college football is presented from the first televised college football game (a University of Pennsylvania game) to the Supreme Court ruling declaring that the National Collegiate Athletic Association contracts violate antitrust law. (MLW)
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Augusta, GA AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief, Video Division, Media...
Madigan, R. J.; Peterson, W. Jack
Describes an experiment using videotaped programing as an alternative to satellite communication for television broadcasting in an isolated Alaskan village. Discusses the impact of television generally and local control in particular on the community. (JMF)
Levy, Mark R.
Reports that a classification of television news uses and gratifications based on research in Leeds, England, did not adequately encompass the functions of television news for a United States audience. (GW)
Ruiz, Anibal Arias
A description of the Official School of Radio and Television which is designed to train university graduates in the fields of journalism, the sciences of cinema, radio and television, and advertising. (JY)
Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Secco, Mary; Yake, Laura; Speechley, Kathy N.
Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial advertisements aiming to improve knowledge, attitudes and/or behavior. No evaluations of epilepsy PSAs exist. This study sought to evaluate a televised PSA showing first aid for a seizure. A multilevel regression analysis was used to determine the effect of the PSA on epilepsy knowledge and…
This dissertation explores the ‘blurring’ of news styles and emergence of new forms within American television journalism over the past 25 years. It considers how the roles of emotion and ‘objectivity’ have been reconfigured in a climate of unprecedented technological and commercial shifts. It is
... any commercial non-broadcast communications signals transmitted via wireless technology to and/or from... Transmit Fixed Wireless Communications Signals § 1.4000 Restrictions impairing reception of television... broadcast signals, direct broadcast satellite services or multichannel multipoint distribution services. 1...
Coltrane, Scott; Adams, Michele
Analysis of cultural imagery in 1,699 television commercials from 1992-94 showed that women were less prevalent, more likely to be shown in families, less likely to hold jobs or be in professional occupations, less likely to exercise authority, and more likely to be depicted as sex objects. Results suggest that sex stereotypes in media imagery…
Castro, Juan Carlos; Grauer, Kit
Gulf Island Film and Television School (GIFTS) is a community-based new media school founded 15 years ago by a group of documentary and commercial filmmakers on the site of a former logging camp on the island of Galiano in British Columbia, Canada. This article presents insights derived from a component of a larger research project investigating…
A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…
Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G
Television provides one of the first, and most intimate, experiences of commercial food promotion. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the effects of television advertising on children's brand preferences are well established. However, its effect on actual food intake and the food choices in children of various weight statuses has only recently been characterised. Despite regulation, children in the UK are exposed to considerable numbers of food adverts on television. These are predominantly for foods high in fat, salt and sugar (HFSS), which are marketed to children using promotional characters and themes of fun. Such adverts have been shown to cause significant increases in intake, particularly in overweight and obese children, and enhanced preference for high carbohydrate and high fat foods in children who consume the greatest amounts of televisual media. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilkens, H.; Guenther, P.; Kiel, F.; Kraus, F.; Mahnkopf, P.; Schnee, R.
The market demand for a multiuser computer system with interactive services was studied. Mean system work load at peak use hours was estimated and the complexity of dialog with a central computer was determined. Man machine communication by broadband cable television transmission, using digital techniques, was assumed. The end to end system is described. It is user friendly, able to handle 10,000 subscribers, and provides color television display. The central computer system architecture with remote audiovisual terminals is depicted and software is explained. Signal transmission requirements are dealt with. International availability of the test system, including sample programs, is indicated.
feedback ioop closed through a phtoelec- tron converter or, in other words , through an image . It is possible to show that for stable tracing, it is...7AD-A886 537 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH FIG 17/2 CONTRAST SENSITIVITY OF CIRCUIT TELEVISION SYSTEMS. 11.1T OISJUN 80 L A SHIFRIN...UNCLASSIFIED FTD-IO(RS)T-0891-60 NL 88T .0 ’-FTD-ID (RS )T-0 891-80 * ’FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION 0 CONTRAST SENSITIVITY OF CIRC UIT TELEVISION
Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.
Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.
of social interaction. Cable network SciFi Channel produced “live events” to allow limited narrative interaction. Independent producer Metanomics created a virtual “talk show” to encourage both social interaction and narrative interaction. The analysis is set into a larger theoretical framework...... considering how these Internet-based interactive television examples demonstrate the remediation of conventional conceptualizations of television distribution structures and consumption practices, which then indicate the power dynamics of the producer-consumer relationship. The form in which...
Shelton Amiee J.
Full Text Available Significant research has been conducted regarding fear appeals, but little empirical evidence concerning death appeals is found. This study determined to what extent necromarketing exists in advertisements in American television. Through a content analysis of 1012 American television advertisements, this study found what product categories employ this marketing strategy and which consumer groups were targeted. Findings show that implicit necromarketing is a more commonly used marketing tactic than explicit necromarketing; the industries of entertainment promotions and insurance use necromarketing appeals more often than others, and necromarketing appeals were more heavily used during primetime. His study forms the base for future studies investigating the impact death has on purchase intentions.
... set forth in 10 CFR 430.2: Television set means a color television set or a monochrome television set. Color television set means an electrical device designed to convert incoming broadcast signals into color television pictures and associated sound. Monochrome television set means an electrical device...
This article aims to describe specific practices of television spectators based on recordings of English families and friends while watching football on television. Their conversations and the talk and events on television are transcribed and analysed with interactional sociolinguistic and conversation analytical methodologies. By doing 'watching football on television', the spectators constitute themselves as a community of practice. Their strategies include direct address of the telev...
Background Evidence suggests exposure to film smoking increases youth smoking, and this is also likely to be the case for television. Some evidence suggests alcohol in films and television has similar effects on drinking behaviours. It is therefore important to document the extent to which tobacco and alcohol occur in films and television in the UK. Methods Films (1989-2008) and television broadcasting were content coded for tobacco and alcohol including branding, use, parapherna...
Full Text Available
Abstract: Within this article I am focus upon the construction of both social and personal memories within the television drama, drawing upon Landsberg’s notion of prosthetic memory and King’s identification of ‘afterwardsness’ as ways of comprehending the construction of memory and the past within texts. The examples are The Long Walk to Finchley (Tony Saint, BBC 4, 2008 and Life on Mars (2007-8. Both dramas share a number of concerns yet each has a very different context within British television. The relationship between viewers’ adopting memories from the dramas and incorporating these into their own sets of memories, including my own memories of the dramas is considered. Equally, the negotiation of the media and public discourses as memory screens with which we interact is a primary concern.
Résumé: Cet article analyse la construction de souvenirs à la fois sociaux et personnels dans les s
Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Song, Chunyi; Harada, Hiroshi
This paper introduces a unified method of spectrum sensing for all existing analog television (TV) signals including NTSC, PAL and SECAM. We propose a correlation based method (CBM) with a single reference signal for sensing any analog TV signals. In addition we also propose an improved energy detection method. The CBM approach has been implemented in a hardware prototype specially designed for participating in Singapore TV white space (WS) test trial conducted by Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of the Singapore government. Analytical and simulation results of the CBM method will be presented in the paper, as well as hardware testing results for sensing various analog TV signals. Both AWGN and fading channels will be considered. It is shown that the theoretical results closely match with those from simulations. Sensing performance of the hardware prototype will also be presented in fading environment by using a fading simulator. We present performance of the proposed techniques in terms of probability of false alarm, probability of detection, sensing time etc. We also present a comparative study of the various techniques.
Children aged 5 to 6 (N=309 were interviewed in three Finnish university cities using previously developed interview methods. Parents (N=297 completed four questionnaires covering family background, TV viewing habits, psychiatric well-being and quality and quantity of the childs sleep. Television viewing by pre-school-aged children was quite social in nature, although our qualitative data suggested that television was sometimes also used in asocial ways. Co-viewing within the family was common, whereas peer groups signi? cance in the media reception process was evident after the viewing situation, in childrens games based on television programs. 62% of children reported at least one television fear. However, it seems that the presence of family members may help children to cope with television fears.
Evaluators of television programing and representatives of funding agencies discussed the impact of the perceptions of funding agencies on the evaluation of children's television. Participants also examined the interplay between the objectives of the television series and the evaluation, the relationship between production and evaluation, and the…
... Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education... new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. We have extended the deadline for...'' with the date ``June 22, 2010.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program...
... Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education... new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. There is an error in one of the... INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program, U.S. Department of Education, 400 ] Maryland...
Reviews Bower's "The Changing Television Audience in America," third in a benchmark series tracing public opinion from 1960 to 1980, which indicates that television audiences are better educated and more critical today than in 1960. Public acceptance remains high but there is an increased concern over television's effects on children. (MBR)
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital television transition education reports... analog broadcast television service to digital broadcast television service (DTV) and, if so, what... SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.20 Digital...
Summarizes 12 recent documents and journal articles from the ERIC database that discuss topics related to television violence and children. Articles cited address the effects of television violence on child behavior and attitudes at school and home, and methods of reducing the impact of television on children. (JPB)
Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.
Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…
The telecommunications industry has now entered the most critical period of evolution in television technology since the introduction of color television. The transition to high definition television (HDTV), with related technologies such as semiconductors and computers, would mean a multi-billion dollar business for the telecommunications…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications... instituted a freeze on the acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel... 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications...
... Ready-to-Learn Television Program AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education... new awards for FY 2010 for the Ready-to-Learn Television Program. There is an error in one of the... INFORMATION CONTACT: The Ready-to-Learn Television Program, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Greenville, NC AGENCY: Federal Communications... Commission instituted a freeze on the acceptance of rulemaking petitions by full power television stations... petitions for rulemaking filed by full power television stations seeking to relocate from channel 51...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma AGENCY: Federal... City. While the Commission instituted a freeze on the acceptance of full power television rulemaking.... Sec. 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal Communications Commission...
Linebarger, Deborah L.
Television--public television, in particular--has come to be seen as a great educational resource for the home, but it hasn't been as widely embraced in the classroom. Thanks to a number of recent, large-scale research projects, it's time to put those concerns to rest. Not only does educational television have powerful effects on children's…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Beaumont, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Kalispell, MT AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting. For the...
... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numerical designation of television channels... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.603 Numerical designation of television channels. (a) Channel No. Frequency band (MHz) 2 54-60 3 60-66 4 66-72 5 76-82 6 82-88 7 174-180 8...
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Lincoln, NE AGENCY: Federal Communications... on the acceptance of full power television rulemaking petitions requesting channel substitutions in... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television. Federal...
Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart
In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Oklahoma City, OK AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...
Comstock, George A.
When judiciously interpreted, the findings of the Report to the Surgeon General on Television and Social Behavior cannot support any conclusion other than that televised violence is a cause of aggressiveness in children and young people. Given this interpretation, policy guidance research into the effects of television on society should include…
Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather
Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)
Hoffman, Beth L.; Shensa, Ariel; Wessel, Charles; Hoffman, Robert; Primack, Brian A.
Fictional medical television programs have long been a staple of television programming, and they remain popular today. We aimed to examine published literature assessing the influence of medical television programs on health outcomes. We conducted systematic literature searches in PubMed, PsychINFO and CINAHL. Selected studies had to be scholarly…
Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul
South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…
Potter, W. James
Finds that middle and high school students change their views of television watching along three ways of evaluating television: as a "magic window" to reality; as a utility route to information; and as an identity source of almost real people. Concludes that views of television reality are complex and dynamic. (SR)
Lipinski, Judith M.; Calvert, Sandra L.
This paper places research findings within a social learning framework to demonstrate that television influences the development of sex typing in children. First, the presence of sex-typed content in television programming and advertising is documented. Then, the nature of children's attention to and comprehension of televised messages is…
Gillman, Matthew W.; Kleinman, Ken; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.
BACKGROUND: Television and insufficient sleep are associated with poor mental and physical health. This study assessed associations of TV viewing and bedroom TV with sleep duration from infancy to midchildhood. METHOD: We studied 1864 children in Project Viva. Parents reported children’s average daily TV viewing and sleep (at 6 months and annually from 1–7 years) and the presence of a bedroom TV (annually 4–7 years). We used mixed effects models to assess associations of TV exposures with contemporaneous sleep, adjusting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, and income. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-three children (35%) were racial/ethnic minorities; 37% of households had incomes ≤$70 000. From 6 months to 7 years, mean (SD) sleep duration decreased from 12.2 (2.0) hours to 9.8 (0.9) hours per day; TV viewing increased from 0.9 (1.2) hours to 1.6 (1.0) hours per day. At 4 years, 17% had a bedroom TV, rising to 23% at 7 years. Each 1 hour per day increase in lifetime TV viewing was associated with 7 minutes per day (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4 to 10) shorter sleep. The association of bedroom TV varied by race/ethnicity; bedroom TV was associated with 31 minutes per day shorter sleep (95% CI: 16 to 45) among racial/ethnic minority children, but not among white, non-Hispanic children (8 fewer minutes per day [95% CI: −19 to 2]). CONCLUSIONS: More TV viewing, and, among racial/ethnic minority children, the presence of a bedroom TV, were associated with shorter sleep from infancy to midchildhood. PMID:24733878
Sukumaran, Aparna; Diwakar, Madankumar P; Shastry, Shivakumar M
This study was conducted to examine the nature, content, and duration of advertisements broadcasted during children's Tamil television channels and to determine the extent to which television advertising changes during school holiday and non-holiday periods and between prime time and non-prime time broadcast. Television broadcasts on two main children's Tamil television channels were video-recorded over 16 days between 17.00-19.00 hours (non-prime time) and 19.00-21.00 hours (prime time). For each commercial, the type of product advertised, as well as the duration (in seconds), was recorded. Advertisements were categorized as 'food' and 'non-food'. The former category was further subdivided into 'sugar-rich foods' and 'other foods'. The sugar-rich foods were further categorized as liquid, solid and sticky, and slowly dissolving sugars. Commercials related to the promotion of oral health products and non-food products were also recorded. Among the total of 128 h of television programmes recorded, advertising accounted for 10.15% (13.01 hours). The advertisement of sugar-rich food products, non-food and oral hygiene products occupied 50.36%, 38.41% and 1.90%, respectively, of the total advertising time. Solid and sticky products made up 100% of advertisements in this category on Chithiram television channel, compared with 62.5% of advertisements on Chutti television channel. It was concluded that the advertising of sugar-rich foods, particularly solid and sticky food products, was broadcasted more in Chithiram television channel, during school holidays and during prime time. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Baccarne, Bastiaan; Evens, Tom; Schuurman, Dimitri
Traditional television screens have lost their monopoly on television content. With a helping hand of digitalization, the introduction of ever more screens in our lives and increasingly faster network technologies, a wide variety of alternative screens and sources of television content are trying to conquer a piece of the audiences' viewing time. This evolution calls for new kinds of services and has the potential to change the current television market. This paper assesses the evolution of o...
Bourdon, Jérôme; Méadel, Cécile
abstractThis paper will tell the story of the smallgroup of people who, in France, have been in charge of the measurement and theappreciation of the audience of television, and had to invent audience research,to organize it and to communicate its results to "clients" whodepended on it much earlier
Moe, H.; Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.
This introduction to the special issue on social media and television audience engagement sketches the key dimensions that affect how audiences are transformed through the development of social platforms. Building on the five contributions to the special issue, we identify three dimensions that
Video segments captioned at different speeds were shown to a group of 578 people (ages 8 to 80) who are deaf, hard of hearing, or typically hearing. The most comfortable speed was found to be about 145 words per minute (WPM), close to the 141 WPM mean rate actually found in television programs. (Author/CR)
In discussing the technical aspects of television production, this book covers both equipment and techniques used in these areas: camera, lighting, sound, settings, and make-up. Composition of images according to camera movement, placement of subjects, editing, and aural composition are also covered. Steps in the technical planning of a telecast…
Yu R Volfson
Full Text Available The challenge associated with the adjustment and overlapping of different techniques becomes especially evident in media research. The article examines the passive techniques of mass media measurement exemplified by the study of television oriented to handle the problem of objectively verifiable data acquisition.
A study was conducted to investigate the extent to which local television stations exhibited diversity in newscast content within three midwest broadcast markets. A second objective was to describe the nature of the news content characteristic of local news stories that were broadcast by only one station within a market (or unique news stories). A…
Indicates that prime-time television presents a remarkably consistent portrayal of the world across program genres and that it offers few scheduling alternatives to avoiding violence-laden adventure programs. Finds that the average viewer has little opportunity to exercise any kind of choice in viewing. (JD)
In this article the author presents his reflection on the framing of mass queer television as a technology within the cultural politics of gender and sexuality; and, next, discusses the mass production of these representations in terms of the mass production of modes of intelligibility of LGBT subjects. To narrow the argument, he focuses his…
A total of 286 subjects was presented with a series of motivations and asked to evaluate the relative importance of each in their exposure/avoidance decisions about watching sports programs on television. The 188 sports viewers assessed the importance of each motivation for their viewing of baseball, hockey, football, and tennis. The 98…
Draws upon overlapping disciplines (the sociology of interaction, ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, and the pragmatics of philosophy of ordinary language) with a common interest in the intelligibility of the social practices of everyday life, to investigate how it is that television and radio appear as unproblematically and meaningfully…
While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…
National Association of Educational Broadcasters, Washington, DC.
The National Association of Educational Broadcasters attempted to determine how educational television and related technologies could strengthen the educational system of Tunisia. An overview of the Tunisian society is presented, followed by a brief history of the development of its educational system. The tremendous educational needs of the…
Argumentation and Advocacy, 2002
Surveys existing research on televised campaign debates; indicates areas for future research; considers the resources needed to expand and improve current research efforts; and encourages more systematic and sustained inquiry. Notes two compelling needs in terms of resources: an archive containing comprehensive records of media coverage of the…
This study investigated instructional Television (ITV) programmes and Academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Anambra state-Nigeria. The need for the study arose from the problem of the declining nature of West African school certificate examination results of senior secondary school students in ...
Pfau, Michael; And Others
Examines theoretical and methodological controversies identified with the cultivation explanation of the way television shapes perceptions of social reality. Finds that content-specific viewing is a more reliable predictor than total viewing or select viewer sociodemographic variables of the public's tendency to perceive attorneys in the same way…
Notten, N.; Kraaykamp, G.; Tolsma, J.
This study scrutinizes the long-term effects of parental television socialization activities on their children's weight status measured through body mass index (BMI-score). We address the question how parental television habits and parental television mediation in childhood relate to a person's
Weaver, Roslyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Koch, Jane; Jackson, Debra
To explore nursing students' perceptions of how their profession is portrayed on medical television programmes. Recruitment and retention in nursing have been linked to the image of the profession in society. Images of nursing in popular media frequently draw on stereotypes that may damage the appeal of nursing for potential students and denigrate the value and status of the profession. A growing body of work analyses how nursing is portrayed in popular media, but less research asks nursing students themselves to reflect on this area. Convergent parallel mixed methods. Data were collected in 2011 from surveys of 484 undergraduate nursing students at a large university in New South Wales, Australia, that included demographic data, their viewing habits of medical television programmes and their opinions of how the shows handled nursing ethics and professionalism and the image of nursing on television and nursing role models. Most students watch medical television programmes. Students who do not speak English at home watched fewer programmes but were more positive about the depictions of professionalism. The qualitative data showed students were concerned that television can have a negative influence on the image of nursing, but they also recognized some educational and recruitment value in television programmes. It is important for nurses, educators and students to be critically engaged with the image of their profession in society. There is value in engaging more closely with contemporary media portrayals of nursing for students and educators alike. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cauchi, Daniel; Reiff, Sascha; Knai, Cecile; Gauci, Charmaine; Spiteri, Joanna
To undertake a cross-sectional survey of the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising to children on Maltese national television stations. Seven national free-to-air channels were recorded for seven consecutive days in March 2014 between 07:00 and 22:00 h. Advertisements were coded according to predefined categories, with a focus on advertisements aired during 'peak' children's viewing times, defined as periods during which more than 25% of children were likely to be watching television on any channel. Food and beverage advertisements were classified as core (healthy), non-core (unhealthy) or miscellaneous foods. Malta. Whole population, with a focus on children. Food and drinks were the most heavily advertised product category (26.9% of all advertisements) across all channels. The proportion of non-core food/drink advertisements was significantly greater during peak compared with non-peak children's viewing times (52 vs 44.6%; p ≤ 0.001). A majority of advertisements aimed at children are for non-core foods, and are typically shown during family-oriented programmes in the late evening rather than being restricted to children's programmes. 'Taste', 'enjoyment' and 'peer status' were the primary persuasive appeals used in adolescent and child-focused advertisements. This first content analysis of television advertising in Malta suggests that there is scope for the implementation of statutory regulation regarding advertising of foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) during times when children are likely to watch television, rather than during children's programmes only. Ongoing, systematic monitoring is essential for evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations designed to reduce children's exposure to HFSS food advertising on television. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the advertisingsegment and their relationship with the development process of the digital television. We intent to observe the new perspectives of production and consumption of media. Among other things, that involves the issues of interactivity, the exhaustion of the traditional media models, and the relationship of the new media with the audience, considering the analysis of the tripod: digital television, advertising and audience. In Brazil, with the implementation of the Brazilian System of Digital Television (SBTVD, the problem takes bigger proportions, as a consequence of the possibility to issue and track down the digital content consumed. That happens as a consequence of the consumer ability to watch the program withor without the commercial break. At the current model of television, the public is the legitimizing factor: the broadcasters issues the public a ention asan instrument to obtain pecuniary rewarding of theadvertisers. That model constitutes itself as the main funding source of the channels and networks. On the one hand, digital television represents an advantage at the quality of picture and audio, multiplying the capacity to transmit television signals and to transport new features and services. On the other hand, it seems impossible to transform this industry without some reaction. The many interests involved constitute the main cause of that scenario: the agents interested in advertising are those concerned with the role of ideology, the support of capitalism and the industrial culture. Considering all these questions, it seems almost impossible to produce deep chances,contrary to the interests involved.
Owens, J; Maxim, R; McGuinn, M; Nobile, C; Msall, M; Alario, A
To investigate the relationship between specific television-viewing habits and both sleep habits and sleep disturbances in school children. The parents of 495 children in grades kindergarten through fourth grade in three public elementary schools completed two retrospective survey questionnaires, one assessing their children's sleep behaviors and the other examining television-viewing habits of both the child and the family. Sleep domains assessed included bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, anxiety around sleep, parasomnias, night wakings, and daytime sleepiness. Teachers from all three schools also completed daytime sleepiness questionnaires (N = 402) for the sample. Most of the television-viewing practices examined in this study were associated with at least one type of sleep disturbance. Despite overall close monitoring of television-viewing habits, one quarter of the parents reported the presence of a television set in the child's bedroom. The television-viewing habits associated most significantly with sleep disturbance were increased daily television viewing amounts and increased television viewing at bedtime, especially in the context of having a television set in the child's bedroom. The sleep domains that appeared to be affected most consistently by television were bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and anxiety around sleep, followed by shortened sleep duration. The parent's threshold for defining "problem sleep behavior" in their child was also important in determining the significance of the association between sleep disturbance and television-viewing habits. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television viewing at bedtime. Parents should be questioned about their children's television-viewing habits as part of general screening for sleep disturbances and as part of anticipatory guidance in regards to healthy sleep habits in children. In particular, the presence of a television set in the
..., conceptualized as successful ageing. The present article demonstrates how representations of vigorous elderly people are construed in the programme VeteranTV, produced by UR, Swedish educational television...
Guillermo Orozco; Toby Miller
.... Advertising investment in TV continues to increase, governments still use television to promote generalized propaganda as well as their daily agendas, football on screen remains wildly popular...
Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.
Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on