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Sample records for vhdl dialects pebble

  1. A VHDL primer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhasker, Jayaram

    1999-01-01

    This introduction to VHDL focuses on the features you need to get results - with extensive practical examples so you can start writing VHDL models immediately. Written by J. Bhasker, one of the world's leading VHDL course developers, this best-selling guide has been completely updated to reflect the popular IEEE STDvLOGICv1164 package.

  2. WAVES VHDL interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, James P.

    1994-06-01

    The Waveform and Vector Exchange Specification (WAVES) is the Industry standard representation for digital stimulus and response for both the design and test communities. The VHSIC Hardware Description Language (VHDL) is the Industry standard language for the design, modeling, and simulation of digital electronics. Together VHDL and WAVES provide powerful support for top-down design and test methodologies and concurrent engineering practices. Although the syntax of WAVES is a subset of VHDL, no special support for using WAVES in a VHDL environment is defined within the language. This report will introduce and describe a VHDL package that was developed at Rome Laboratory to provide a software interface to support the use of WAVES in a VHDL environment. This VHDL package is referred to as the WAVES VHDL interface and has been proposed as a standard practice for a top-down design and test methodology using WAVES and VHDL. This report is not intended to provide a tutorial on VHDL or WAVES. It is assumed that the reader has an adequate understanding of the VHDL language and some modeling techniques. Further, it is assumed that the reader has an understanding of the WAVES language and can follow a simple Level 1 dataset description.

  3. Theory and practice of VHDL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Min; Lee, Beyong Yeob; Lee, Jong Gun; Jong, Duc Jin

    2006-06-15

    This book describes theory and practice of VHDL in easy way. It starts introduction of HDL, the design process with VHDL, the constitution of VHDL code, design structure of CHDL, basics for using of VHDL, language grammar of VHDL, design of combinational circuit, synchronizing circuit and asynchronizing circuit design, finite state machine, using of Quartus, parity, 7-segment decode, 4bit adder, 4 X I multiplexer, I X 4 demulitplexer, duodecimal counter, a second counter, LED sequential switch and a traffic signal controller.

  4. VHDL for logic synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...

  5. Pitted pebbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1942-01-01

    As early as 1863 Sorby proved that pitted pebbles are the result of solution at the points of mutual contact in a conglomerate. As cause he suggested solution under pressure in saturated, stagnant groundwater by what has afterwards been designated Riecke’s principle. By the examination of polished

  6. Digital design (VHDL) an embedded systems approach using VHDL

    CERN Document Server

    Ashenden, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Digital Design: An Embedded Systems Approach Using VHDL provides a foundation in digital design for students in computer engineering, electrical engineering and computer science courses. It takes an up-to-date and modern approach of presenting digital logic design as an activity in a larger systems design context. Rather than focus on aspects of digital design that have little relevance in a realistic design context, this book concentrates on modern and evolving knowledge and design skills. Hardware description language (HDL)-based design and verification is emphasized--VHDL exa

  7. Information Flow Analysis for VHDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Terkel Kristian; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    We describe a fragment of the hardware description language VHDL that is suitable for implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. We then define an Information Flow analysis as required by the international standard Common Criteria. The goal of the analysis is to identify the entire ...

  8. Synthesizable VHDL design for FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, Eduardo Augusto

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a gradual description of very-high-speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL), targeting the design of digital systems to be implemented in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms. It is organized in a very didactic way. The adopted methodolgy was matured over 20 years of teaching experience in the subject. The examples in the book were planned targeting two FPGA platforms, one used widely around the world and the other one developed by a Brazilian company.

  9. Modeling Shared Variables in VHDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Brage, Jens P.

    1994-01-01

    A set of concurrent processes communicating through shared variables is an often used model for hardware systems. This paper presents three modeling techniques for representing such shared variables in VHDL, depending on the acceptable constraints on accesses to the variables. Also a set...... of guidelines for handling atomic updates of multiple shared variables is given. 1 Introduction It is often desirable to partition a computational system into discrete functional units which cooperates to....

  10. MATLAB-Based VHDL Development Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katko, K. K. (Kimberly K.); Robinson, S. H. (Scott H.)

    2002-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Computing program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) required synthesizable VHDL Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) designs that could be quickly implemented into FPGA-based high speed Digital Signal Processing architectures. Several different FFTs were needed for the different systems. As a result, the MATLAB-Based VHDL Development Environment was developed so that with a small amount of work and forethought, arbitrarily sized FFTs with different bit-width parameters could be produced quickly from one VHDL generating algorithm. The result is highly readable VHDL that can be modified quickly via the generating function to adapt to new algorithmic requirements. Several additional capabilities are integrated into the development environment. These capabilities include a bit-true parameterized mathematical model, fixed-point design validation, test vector generation, VHDL design verification, and chip resource use estimation. LANL needed the flexibility to build a wide variety of FFTs with a quick turn around time. It was important to have an effective way of trading off size, speed and precision. The FFTs also needed to be efficiently implemented into our existing FPGA-based architecture. Reconfigurable computing systems at LANL have been designed to accept two or four inputs on each clock. This allows the data processing rate to be reduced to a more manageable speed. This approach, however, limits us from using existing FFT cores. A MATLAB-Based VHDL Development Environment (MBVDE) was created in response to our FFT needs. MBVDE provides more flexibility than is available with VHDL. The technique allows new designs to be implemented and verified quickly. In addition, analysis tools are incorporated to evaluate trade-offs. MBVDE incorporates the performance of VHDL, the fast design time of core generation, and the benefit of not having to know VHDL available with C-tools into one environment. The MBVDE approach is not a comprehensive solution, but

  11. Execution of VHDL Models Using Parallel Discrete Event Simulation Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenden, Peter J.; Henry Detmold; McKeen, Wayne S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of parallel discrete event simulation (PDES) algorithms for execution of hardware models written in VHDL. We survey central event queue, conservative distributed and optimistic distributed PDES algorithms, and discuss aspects of the semantics of VHDL and VHDL-92 that affect the use of these algorithms in a VHDL simulator. Next, we describe an experiment performed as part of the Vsim Project at the University of Adelaide, in which a simulation kernel using the...

  12. Pebble-bed pebble motion: Simulation and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-11-01

    Pebble bed reactors (PBR) have moving graphite fuel pebbles. This unique feature provides advantages, but also means that simulation of the reactor requires understanding the typical motion and location of the granular flow of pebbles. This report presents a method for simulation of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. A new mechanical motion simulator, PEBBLES, efficiently simulates the key elements of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. This model simulates gravitational force and contact forces including kinetic and true static friction. It's used for a variety of tasks including simulation of the effect of earthquakes on a PBR, calculation of packing fractions, Dancoff factors, pebble wear and the pebble force on the walls. The simulator includes a new differential static friction model for the varied geometries of PBRs. A new static friction benchmark was devised via analytically solving the mechanics equations to determine the minimum pebble-to-pebble friction and pebble-to-surface friction for a five pebble pyramid. This pyramid check as well as a comparison to the Janssen formula was used to test the new static friction equations. Because larger pebble bed simulations involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and long periods of time, the PEBBLES code has been parallelized. PEBBLES runs on shared memory architectures and distributed memory architectures. For the shared memory architecture, the code uses a new O(n) lock-less parallel collision detection algorithm to determine which pebbles are likely to be in contact. The new collision detection algorithm improves on the traditional non-parallel O(n log(n)) collision detection algorithm. These features combine to form a fast parallel pebble motion simulation. The PEBBLES code provides new capabilities for understanding and optimizing PBRs. The PEBBLES code has provided the pebble motion data required to calculate the motion of pebbles during a simulated earthquake. The PEBBLES code provides the ability to

  13. PEBBLES Operation and Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua J. Cogliati

    2010-09-01

    The PEBBLES manual describes the PEBBLES code. The PEBBLES code is a computer program designed to simulation the motion, packing and vibration of spheres that undergo various mechanical forces including gravitation, Hooke’s law force and various friction forces. The frictional forces include true static friction that allows non-zero angles of repose. Each pebble is individually simulated using the distinct element method.

  14. PEBBLES Operation and Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua J. Cogliati

    2011-02-01

    The PEBBLES manual describes the PEBBLES code. The PEBBLES code is a computer program designed to simulation the motion, packing and vibration of spheres that undergo various mechanical forces including gravitation, Hooke’s law force and various friction forces. The frictional forces include true static friction that allows non-zero angles of repose. Each pebble is individually simulated using the distinct element method.

  15. PEBBLES: A COMPUTER CODE FOR MODELING PACKING, FLOW AND RECIRCULATIONOF PEBBLES IN A PEBBLE BED REACTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua J. Cogliati; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2006-10-01

    A comprehensive, high fidelity model for pebble flow has been developed and embodied in the PEBBLES computer code. In this paper, a description of the physical artifacts included in the model is presented and some results from using the computer code for predicting the features of pebble flow and packing in a realistic pebble bed reactor design are shown. The sensitivity of models to various physical parameters is also discussed.

  16. VHDL Model of Electronic-Lock System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Noga

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the design of an electronic-lock system which wascompleted as part of the Basic VHDL course in the Department of Controland Measurement Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics,Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic in co-operation withthe Department if Electronic Engineering, University of Hull, GreatBritain in the frame of TEMPUS project no. S_JEP/09468-95.

  17. Discrete element modelling of pebble packing in pebble bed reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suikkanen, Heikki, E-mail: heikki.suikkanen@lut.fi; Ritvanen, Jouni, E-mail: jouni.ritvanen@lut.fi; Jalali, Payman, E-mail: payman.jalali@lut.fi; Kyrki-Rajamäki, Riitta, E-mail: riitta.kyrki-rajamaki@lut.fi

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A discrete element method code is developed for pebble bed reactor analyses. • Methods are established to extract packing information at various spatial scales. • Packing simulations inside annular core geometry are done varying input parameters. • The restitution coefficient has the strongest effect on the resulting packing density. • Detailed analyses reveal local densification especially near the walls. - Abstract: It is important to understand the packing characteristics and behaviour of the randomly packed pebble bed to further analyse the reactor physical and thermal-hydraulic behaviour and to design a safe and economically feasible pebble bed reactor. The objective of this work was to establish methods to model and analyse the pebble packing in detail to provide useful tools and data for further analyses. Discrete element method (DEM) is a well acknowledged method for analysing granular materials, such as the fuel pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. In this work, a DEM computer code was written specifically for pebble bed analyses. Analysis methods were established to extract data at various spatial scales from the pebble beds resulting from the DEM simulations. A comparison with available experimental data was performed to validate the DEM implementation. To test the code implementation in full-scale reactor calculations, DEM packing simulations were done in annular geometry with 450,000 pebbles. Effects of the initial packing configuration, friction and restitution coefficients and pebble size distribution to the resulting pebble bed were investigated. The packing simulations revealed that from the investigated parameters the restitution coefficient had the largest effect on the resulting average packing density while other parameters had smaller effects. Detailed local packing density analysis of pebble beds with different average densities revealed local variations especially strong in the regions near the walls. The implemented DEM

  18. VHDL simulation of the implementation of a costfunction circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Imvidhaya, Ming

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Since VHDL is a DoD standard hardware description language, it is widely used in the design of logic circuits at different levels. VHDL can be used to do behavioral modeling which is desirable in top-down system design. A cost function calculation in a graph partition algorithm is used here as an example to test the VHDL design methodology. Subroutines or statements in the software can be implemented into hardware if the subroutines or t...

  19. PLD based design with VHDL RTL design, synthesis and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Taraate, Vaibbhav

    2017-01-01

    This book covers basic fundamentals of logic design and advanced RTL design concepts using VHDL. The book is organized to describe both simple and complex RTL design scenarios using VHDL. It gives practical information on the issues in ASIC prototyping using FPGAs, design challenges and how to overcome practical issues and concerns. It describes how to write an efficient RTL code using VHDL and how to improve the design performance. The design guidelines by using VHDL are also explained with the practical examples in this book. The book also covers the ALTERA and XILINX FPGA architecture and the design flow for the PLDs. The contents of this book will be useful to students, researchers, and professionals working in hardware design and optimization. The book can also be used as a text for graduate and professional development courses.

  20. C/VHDL Codesign for LHCb VELO zero suppression algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Muecke, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    We present a workflow to generate cycle-accurate C and VHDL code from one common description to accelerate and unify algorithm implementation and simulation for real-time DSP applications in particle detectors. We use Confluence as description language which compiles into C-code (for simulation) and VHDL code (for implementation on FPGAs). We demonstrate the improved portability and simulation speed while assuring bit- and cycle-accuracy. Our approach solves the problem of having to maintain...

  1. Automatisierte VHDL-Code-Generierung eines Delta-Sigma Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Spilka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine automatische Generierung des VHDL-Codes eines Delta-Sigma Modulators präsentiert. Die Koeffizientenmultiplikation wird hierbei durch Bit-Serielle-Addition durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe zweier neuer Matlab Funktionen wird der Systementwurf durch die bekannte Delta-Sigma Toolbox von R. Schreier erweitert und direkt synthesefähiger VHDL Code erzeugt.

  2. VHDL resolved function based inner communication bus for FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2017-08-01

    This article discusses a method of building an internal, universal and parametric bus. The solution was designed for a variety of FPGA families and popular VHDL compilers. The algorithm of automatic configuration of address space and methods of receiving and sending addressed data are discussed. The basic solution realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form and chosen examples of practical use of the internal bus are presented in detail.

  3. Formation of pebble-pile planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg Jansson, Karl; Johansen, Anders

    2014-10-01

    Asteroids and Kuiper belt objects are remnant planetesimals from the epoch of planet formation. The first stage of planet formation is the accumulation of dust and ice grains into mm- and cm-sized pebbles. These pebbles can clump together through the streaming instability and form gravitationally bound pebble clouds. Pebbles inside such a cloud will undergo mutual collisions, dissipating energy into heat. As the cloud loses energy, it gradually contracts towards solid density. We model this process and investigate two important properties of the collapse: (i) the collapse timescale and (ii) the temporal evolution of the pebble size distribution. Our numerical model of the pebble cloud is zero-dimensional and treats collisions with a statistical method. We find that planetesimals with radii larger than ~100 km collapse on the free-fall timescale of ~25 years. Lower-mass clouds have longer pebble collision timescales and collapse much more slowly, with collapse times of a few hundred years for 10 km scale planetesimals and a few thousand years for 1 km scale planetesimals. The mass of the pebble cloud also determines the interior structure of the resulting planetesimal. The pebble collision speeds in low-mass clouds are below the threshold for fragmentation, forming pebble-pile planetesimals consisting of the primordial pebbles from the protoplanetary disk. Planetesimals above 100 km in radius, on the other hand, consist of mixtures of dust (pebble fragments) and pebbles which have undergone substantial collisions with dust and other pebbles. The Rosetta mission to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the New Horizons mission to Pluto will provide valuable information about the structure of planetesimals in the solar system. Our model predicts that 67P is a pebble-pile planetesimal consisting of primordial pebbles from the solar nebula, while the pebbles in the cloud which contracted to form Pluto must have been ground down substantially during the collapse.

  4. VHDL simulation of the implementation of a costfunction circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Imvidhaya

    1990-09-01

    Since VHDL is a DoD standard hardware description language, it is widely used in the design of logic circuits at different levels. VHDL can be used to do behavioral modeling which is desirable in top-down system design. A cost function calculation in a graph partition algorithm is used here as an example to test the VHDL design methodology. Subroutines or statements in the software can be implemented into hardware if the subroutines or the statements in that software are suitably grouped. While the design of hardware is considered, high density integration of circuit is also the primary goal. Parts of an old design were condensed using programmable EPLDs which were programmed by commercial software development tools. The methodology of implementation goes from a register transfer language description to data flow design and control flow design. The costfunction calculation was successfully put into 4 EP1800 chips and the design was simulated in VHDL. The primary goal of integration was achieved at the expense of speed. To support the total simulation several behavior models were created. Results of simulation revealed that the adder circuit in the EP1800 can be further improved. Experiences of using VHDL are discussed in this thesis.

  5. VHDL 101 everything you need to know to get started

    CERN Document Server

    Kafig, William

    2011-01-01

    VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is a hardware programming language commonly used for FPGA or ASIC designs. FPGAs and the like are often found within larger applications such as cell phones, medical imagers, and personal media devices. As these devices are becoming more ubiquitous so the need for engineers fluent in VHDL design grows. Engineers commonly face an immediate need to learn a language or technique quickly and this book can answer that requirement. Bill Kafig, Xilinx, swiftly brings the reader up to speed on techniques and functions commonly used as well as commands and dat

  6. FEATURES OF OBFUSCATION OF VHDL-DESIGNS AND ITS COMPLEXITY EVALUATION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sergeichik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lexical and functional obfuscation is formalized. Brief survey of methods of lexical obfuscation is given and their drawbacks are investigated when applied to specifications in VHDL language. Complexity evaluation methods for specifications in VHDL language are considered. Complexity evaluation for different variants of VHDL specifications of a given digital device is presented.

  7. Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2008-09-01

    The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors’ PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production.

  8. A VHDL-AMS package for microsystems polychromatic optical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiquerez, Laurent; Ouaaziz, Siomar; Pittet, Patrick; Lu, Guo-Neng

    2004-08-01

    For biomedical microanalysis systems requiring implementation of optical signal generation and detection, we propose a package of VHDL-AMS functions to allow co-simulations of optical path, opto-electronic elements and associated electronics. This package contains a set of functions, which may be used for functional description of parts of microanalysis systems. An overview of simulation techniques shows that VHDL-AMS allows continuous-time simulation of polychromatic optical signals needed by the wavelength shifting nature of fluorescence. Indeed, directivity of optic path is well managed by VHDL-AMS using directional ports. By design, optical signals are easily simulated together with associated command and processing electronic circuits. Inspired by RF simulation techniques, the proposed description of polychromatic optical signals lies on a discretization of spectra. This format allows each optic band to be processed independently by models. The array data structure available in VHDL-AMS provides a compact form to device descriptions and to optical signal connexions. Fluorescence is modelled with absorbance and emission spectra, and optical couplings are described using results of geometric-optic analysis. A "spectral plug-in" has been developed, to be connected to output-power models of LASER-LED reported in the literature. Furthermore, a physical model of the CMOS Buried Double Junction (BDJ) detector has been described. Models of optic and electronic parts include a modulated LASER source, fibre optic, fluorochrom, BDJ detector and Constant Voltage Threshold (CVT) analogue-to-digital signal conversion. The system-level simulations, with Variable-Time Synchronous Detection (VTSD) are performed using the "Advanced-MS" environment. The validity domain of this approach as well as limitations of the available VHDL-AMS simulators (especially in terms of convergence and simulation time) are discussed.

  9. A smoother pebble mathematical explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Donald C

    2003-01-01

    Introduction. I. BRIDGING THE GAP. 1. The Ancient Fractions. 2. Greek Gifts. 3. The Music of the Ratios. II. THE SHAPE OF THINGS. 4. Tubeland. 5. The Calculating Eye. III. THE GREAT ART. 6. Algebra Rules. 7. The Root of the Problem. 8. Symmetry Without Fear. 9. The Magic Mirror. IV. A SMOOTHER PEBBLE. 10. On the Shoulders of Giants. 11. Six-Minute Calculus. 12. Roller-Coaster Science. Glossary. References. Index

  10. Abrasion behavior of graphite pebble in lifting pipe of pebble-bed HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ke; Su, Jiageng [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 10084 (China); Zhou, Hongbo [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 10084 (China); Chinergy Co., LTD., Beijing 100193 (China); Peng, Wei; Liu, Bing [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology Cooperation Innovation Center, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Engineering and Safety, Ministry of Education, Beijing 10084 (China); Yu, Suyun, E-mail: suyuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Combustion Energy, The Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Educations, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative determination of abrasion rate of graphite pebbles in different lifting velocities. • Abrasion behavior of graphite pebble in helium, air and nitrogen. • In helium, intensive collisions caused by oscillatory motion result in more graphite dust production. - Abstract: A pebble-bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (pebble-bed HTR) uses a helium coolant, graphite core structure, and spherical fuel elements. The pebble-bed design enables on-line refueling, avoiding refueling shutdowns. During circulation process, the pebbles are lifted pneumatically via a stainless steel lifting pipe and reinserted into the reactor. Inevitably, the movement of the fuel elements as they recirculate in the reactor produces graphite dust. Mechanical wear is the primary source of graphite dust production. Specifically, the sources are mechanisms of pebble–pebble contact, pebble–wall (structural graphite) contact, and fuel handling (pebble–metal abrasion). The key contribution to graphite dust production is from the fuel handling system, particularly from the lifting pipe. During pneumatic lift, graphite pebbles undergo multiple collisions with the stainless steel lifting pipe, thereby causing abrasion of the graphite pebbles and producing graphite dust. The present work explored the abrasion behavior of graphite pebble in the lifting pipe by measuring the abrasion rate at different lifting velocities. The abrasion rate of the graphite pebble in helium was found much higher than those in air and nitrogen. This gas environment effect could be explained by either tribology behavior or dynamic behavior. Friction testing excluded the possibility of tribology reason. The dynamic behavior of the graphite pebble was captured by analysis of the audio waveforms during pneumatic lift. The analysis results revealed unique dynamic behavior of the graphite pebble in helium. Oscillation and consequently intensive collisions occur during pneumatic lift, causing

  11. VHDL Models with Usage of the LFSR_PCKG Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitrych

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available LFSRs (Linear Feedback Shift Registers are very often used in theBIST (Built-In Self-Test methodology. Implementation of the LFSRs tothe design or application of digital system, which supports BISTtechniques or which only uses these LFSRs, can be done by VHDLlanguage. This paper presents VHDL models of the devices andsubroutines (e.g. test pattern generators, signature analysers. Modelsare based on LFSR structures with usage of the LFSR_PCKG packagedescribed in the (Kovalsky and Vlcek, 2001, which can be usedin the applications supporting BIST techniques. Devices are describedas behavioural and structural models. These models and descriptions canbe used e.g. in the (Kovalsky, 2001. The LFSR_PCKG was modifiedand new approach is presented. Naturally, there are presented somesynthesis conclusions of the VHDL models and applications in thispaper.

  12. C/VHDL Codesign for LHCb VELO zero suppression algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Muecke, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    We present a workflow to generate cycle-accurate C and VHDL code from one common description to accelerate and unify algorithm implementation and simulation for real-time DSP applications in particle detectors. We use Confluence as description language which compiles into C-code (for simulation) and VHDL code (for implementation on FPGAs). We demonstrate the improved portability and simulation speed while assuring bit- and cycle-accuracy. Our approach solves the problem of having to maintain two source codes (for simulation and implementation) in parallel and therefore minimizes workload and the danger of inconsistent models. This is crucial in an environment where algorithm implementation is expected to cycle through several design iterations.

  13. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  14. VHDL Specification Methodology from High-level Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Benmohammed, M.; S. Merniz

    2005-01-01

    Design complexity has been increasing exponentially this last decade. In order to cope with such an increase and to keep up designers' productivity, higher level specifications were required. Moreover new synthesis systems, starting with a high level specification, have been developed in order to automate and speed up processor design. This study presents a VHDL specification methodology aimed to extend structured design methodologies to the behavioral level. The goal is t...

  15. Principles for Language Extensions to VHDL to Support High-Level Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenden, Peter J.; Philip A. Wilsey

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews proposals for extensions to VHDL to support high-level modeling and places them within a taxonomy that describes the modeling requirements they address. Many of the proposals focus on object-oriented extensions, whereas this paper argues that extension of VHDL to support high-level modeling requires a broader review. The paper presents a detailed discussion of issues to be considered in adding high-level modeling extensions to VHDL, including concurrency and ...

  16. Behavior of beryllium pebbles under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalle-Donne, M.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik; Baldwin, D.L.; Gelles, D.S.; Greenwood, L.R.; Kawamura, H.; Oliver, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Beryllium pebbles are being considered in fusion reactor blanket designs as neutron multiplier. An example is the European `Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket.` Several forms of beryllium pebbles are commercially available but little is known about these forms in response to fast neutron irradiation. Commercially available beryllium pebbles have been irradiated to approximately 1.3 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) at 390degC. Pebbles 1-mm in diameter manufactured by Brush Wellman, USA and by Nippon Gaishi Company, Japan, and 3-mm pebbles manufactured by Brush Wellman were included. All were irradiated in the below-core area of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho Falls, USA, in molybdenum alloy capsules containing helium. Post-irradiation results are presented on density change measurements, tritium release by assay, stepped-temperature anneal, and thermal ramp desorption tests, and helium release by assay and stepped-temperature anneal measurements, for Be pebbles from two manufacturing methods, and with two specimen diameters. The experimental results on density change and tritium and helium release are compared with the predictions of the code ANFIBE. (author)

  17. Quantitative analysis of uncertainty from pebble flow in HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hao, E-mail: haochen.heu@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Fu, Li; Jiong, Guo; Ximing, Sun; Lidong, Wang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis model for pebble flow has been built. • Experiment and random walk theory are used to identify uncertainty of pebble flow. • Effects of pebble flow to the core parameters are identified by sensitivity analysis. • Uncertainty of core parameters due to pebble flow is quantified for the first time. - Abstract: In pebble bed HTR, along the deterministic average flow lines, randomness exists in the flow of pebbles, which is not possible to simulate with the current reactor design codes for HTR, such as VSOP, due to the limitation of current computer capability. In order to study how the randomness of pebble flow will affect the key parameters in HTR, a new pebble flow model was set up, which has been successfully transplanted into the VSOP code. In the new pebble flow model, mixing coefficients were introduced into the fixed flow line to simulate the randomness of pebble flow. Numerical simulation and pebble flow experiments were facilitated to determine the mixing coefficients. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to achieve the conclusion that the key parameters of pebble bed HTR are not sensitive to the randomness in pebble flow. The uncertainty of maximum power density and power distribution caused by the randomness in pebble flow is very small, especially for the “multi-pass” scheme of fuel circulation adopted in the pebble bed HTR.

  18. Pebble bed packing in prismatic containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Joerg, E-mail: reimann-langhans@web.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Abou-Sena, Ali [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Nippen, Rainer [KBHF GmbH, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Tafforeau, Paul [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The essential part of ceramic breeder blankets is pebble beds. • The packing factor for blanket relevant cavities must be known. • Tomography experiments revealed details of packing arrangements. • Packing experiments confirm that reference packing factors will be achieved. -- Abstract: New analyses of previous tomography investigations show in detail void fraction fluctuations close to walls generated by regular pebble arrangements. Local packing factors within the pebble bed were determined for characteristic zones. These results are very helpful for the interpretation of the packing experiments performed with spherical pebbles in different kinds of Plexiglas containers dominated by flat walls. The packing factors for single-size pebbles in the containers with a piston on top are fairly independent of bed height unless the height to diameter ratio becomes less than 10. For the closed rectangular containers, the development of structured packings is rendered more difficult. However, for blanket relevant bed heights, both for orthosilicate and beryllium pebbles, the packing factors obtained which agree well with previously obtained reference values.

  19. The Southern Dutch dialect dictionaries | Kruijsen | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: lexicography, onomasiology, dialect geography, language variation, phonology, historical linguistics, dictionary, regional dictionary, word atlas, cartography, general vocabulary, agrarian terminology, terminology of traditional crafts, dialect, traditional dialect, flemish, brabant dialect, limburg dialect, dutch, the ...

  20. Multiscale Analysis of Pebble Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Gougar; Woo Yoon; Abderrafi Ougouag

    2010-10-01

    – The PEBBED code was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for design and analysis of pebble-bed high temperature reactors. The diffusion-depletion-pebble-mixing algorithm of the original PEBBED code was enhanced through coupling with the THERMIX-KONVEK code for thermal fluid analysis and by the COMBINE code for online cross section generation. The COMBINE code solves the B-1 or B-3 approximations to the transport equation for neutron slowing down and resonance interactions in a homogeneous medium with simple corrections for shadowing and thermal self-shielding. The number densities of materials within specified regions of the core are averaged and transferred to COMBINE from PEBBED for updating during the burnup iteration. The simple treatment of self-shielding in previous versions of COMBINE led to inaccurate results for cross sections and unsatisfactory core performance calculations. A new version of COMBINE has been developed that treats all levels of heterogeneity using the 1D transport code ANISN. In a 3-stage calculation, slowing down is performed in 167 groups for each homogeneous subregion (kernel, particle layers, graphite shell, control rod absorber annulus, etc.) Particles in a local average pebble are homogenized using ANISN then passed to the next (pebble) stage. A 1D transport solution is again performed over the pebble geometry and the homogenized pebble cross sections are passed to a 1-d radial model of a wedge of the pebble bed core. This wedge may also include homogeneous reflector regions and a control rod region composed of annuli of different absorbing regions. Radial leakage effects are therefore captured with discrete ordinates transport while axial and azimuthal effects are captured with a transverse buckling term. In this paper, results of various PBR models will be compared with comparable models from literature. Performance of the code will be assessed.

  1. Studi Optimasi Moderasi Neutron Dalam Teras Htr Pebble Bed

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhair, Zuhair; Suwoto, Suwoto; Irianto, Ign. Djoko

    2010-01-01

    STUDY ON OPTIMIZING NEUTRON MODERATION IN HTR PEBBLE-BED CORE. In HTR pebble bed, the neutron moderation is strongly influenced by the ratio of the fuel pebbles (F) and the moderator pebbles (M) contained in the reactor core. Optimum moderation can be achieved by adjusting the ratio F/M, but the combination of the pebble with the ratio of F/M more than 1:1 in pebble bed reactor core raises a problem in the calculation. This paper discusses a method to solve this problem. Optimizing neutron mo...

  2. Experimental and computational investigation of flow of pebbles in a pebble bed nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khane, Vaibhav B.

    The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a 4th generation nuclear reactor which is conceptually similar to moving bed reactors used in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In a PBR core, nuclear fuel in the form of pebbles moves slowly under the influence of gravity. Due to the dynamic nature of the core, a thorough understanding about slow and dense granular flow of pebbles is required from both a reactor safety and performance evaluation point of view. In this dissertation, a new integrated experimental and computational study of granular flow in a PBR has been performed. Continuous pebble re-circulation experimental set-up, mimicking flow of pebbles in a PBR, is designed and developed. Experimental investigation of the flow of pebbles in a mimicked test reactor was carried out for the first time using non-invasive radioactive particle tracking (RPT) and residence time distribution (RTD) techniques to measure the pebble trajectory, velocity, overall/zonal residence times, flow patterns etc. The tracer trajectory length and overall/zonal residence time is found to increase with change in pebble's initial seeding position from the center towards the wall of the test reactor. Overall and zonal average velocities of pebbles are found to decrease from the center towards the wall. Discrete element method (DEM) based simulations of test reactor geometry were also carried out using commercial code EDEM(TM) and simulation results were validated using the obtained benchmark experimental data. In addition, EDEM(TM) based parametric sensitivity study of interaction properties was carried out which suggests that static friction characteristics play an important role from a packed/pebble beds structural characterization point of view. To make the RPT technique viable for practical applications and to enhance its accuracy, a novel and dynamic technique for RPT calibration was designed and developed. Preliminary feasibility results suggest that it can be implemented as a non

  3. Thermo-mechanical screening tests to qualify beryllium pebble beds with non-spherical pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.reimann@partner.kit.edu [IKET, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fretz, Benjamin [KBHF GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pupeschi, Simone [IAM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • In present ceramic breeder blankets, pebble-shaped beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier. • Spherical pebbles are considered as the candidate material, however, non-spherical particles are of economic interest. • Thermo-mechanical pebble bed data do merely exist for non-spherical beryllium grades. • Uniaxial compression tests (UCTs), combined with the Hot Wire Technique (HWT) were used to measure the stress–strain relations and the thermal conductivity. • A small experimental set-up had to be used and a detailed 3D modelling was of prime importance. • Compared to spherical pebble beds, non-spherical pebble beds are generally softer and mainly the thermal conductivity is lower. - Abstract: In present ceramic breeder blankets, pebble-shaped beryllium is used as a neutron multiplier. Fairly spherical pebbles are considered as a candidate material, however, non-spherical particles are of economic interest because production costs are much lower. Yet, thermo-mechanical pebble bed data do merely exist for these beryllium grades, and the blanket relevant potential of these grades cannot be judged. Screening experiments were performed with three different grades of non-spherical beryllium pebbles, produced by different companies, accompanied by experiments with the reference beryllium pebble beds. Uniaxial compression tests (UCTs), combined with the Hot Wire Technique (HWT), were performed to measure both the stress–strain relation and the thermal conductivity, k, at different stress levels. Because of the limited amounts of the non-spherical materials, the experimental set-ups were small and a detailed 3D modelling was of prime importance in order to prove that the used design was appropriate. Compared to the pebble beds consisting of spherical pebbles, non-spherical pebble beds are generally softer (smaller stress for a given strain), and, mainly as a consequence of this, for a given strain value, the thermal conductivity is lower. This

  4. Topical Roots of Formal Dialectic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.

    Formal dialectic has its roots in ancient dialectic. We can trace this influence in Charles Hamblin's book on fallacies, in which he introduced his first formal dialectical systems. Earlier, Paul Lorenzen proposed systems of dialogical logic, which were in fact formal dialectical systems avant la

  5. Plastic Brains and the Dialectics of Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxley, Andrew; Murphy, Colette; Seery, Aidan

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the thinking of Lima, Ostermann and Rezende's "Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies of science education" and Mark Zuss' response to their paper. Firstly, it introduces Catherine Malabou's concept of plasticity, from which Hegel's dialectic can be re-read as historical materialist…

  6. A dialogue on dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuss, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The following comments are intended as a constructive critique of the questions posed by Lima, Osterman and Rezende. The issues raised by the authors advocate for a return in research and teaching to the impetus of dialectical materialist approaches in the originators of the sociocultural school, including Vygotsky. The focus of this response is directed toward the need to historicize dialectics itself, as a tradition, method and approach. The relation between dialectics and materialist critique requires a critical scrutiny that also provides pedagogical spaces and temporalities for an entwining of dialectical practices with dialogic interchange. The intent of the following comments is to engage with the authors in shaping a materialist critique of some of the ways through which the sociocultural school and `Vygotskyian inspired practices have been domesticated within the neoliberal university.

  7. Spanish dialects: phonetic transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Bilbao, M. Asunción; Mariño Acebal, José Bernardo

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that canonical Spanish, the dialectal variant `central' of Spain, so called Castilian, can be transcribed by rules. This paper deals with the automatic grapheme to phoneme transcription rules in several Spanish dialects from Latin America. Spanish is a language spoken by more than 300 million people, has an important geographical dispersion compared among other languages and has been historically influenced by many native languages. In this paper authors expand the Castilian ...

  8. Plastic Brains and the Dialectics of dialectics

    OpenAIRE

    Seery, Aidan; Loxley, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED This article advances the thinking of Lima, Ostermann and Rezende?s ?Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies of science education? and Mark Zuss? response to their paper. Firstly, it introduces Catherine Malabou?s concept of plasticity, from which Hegel?s dialectic can be re-read as historical materialist self-determination in a way that embraces science but non-reductively, and which leads to the possibility of challenging theoretical rigidity as a form of transform...

  9. "Smart pebble" designs for sediment transport monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2015-04-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions.

  10. Experimental abrasion of pebbles I. Wet sandblasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1955-01-01

    Pebbles of various kinds were subjected to abrasion by a sand-laden current of water. The loss in weight resulting from the action of coarse and fine sand at different velocities was measured. There proved to be no abrasion below a velocity of 70 cm per second. At a bottom velocity of this amount

  11. Experiments on the formation of windworn Pebbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, Ph.H.

    1928-01-01

    The influence of the wind laden with sand in modelling pebbles is believed by some authors to be only that of polishing the surface, by others of rounding off bits of stone that already possessed edges and corners, or again by others of wearing any fragment either rounded or angular into definite

  12. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  13. Measurements of the purge helium pressure drop across pebble beds packed with lithium orthosilicate and glass pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Sena, Ali, E-mail: ali.abou-sena@kit.edu; Arbeiter, Frederik; Boccaccini, Lorenzo V.; Schlindwein, Georg

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The objective is to measure the purge helium pressure drop across various HCPB-relevant pebble beds packed with lithium orthosilicate and glass pebbles. • The purge helium pressure drop significantly increases with decreasing the pebbles diameter from one run to another. • At the same superficial velocity, the pressure drop is directly proportional to the helium inlet pressure. • The Ergun's equation can successfully model the purge helium pressure drop for the HCPB-relevant pebble beds. • The measured values of the purge helium pressure drop for the lithium orthosilicate pebble bed will support the design of the purge gas system for the HCPB breeder units. - Abstract: The lithium orthosilicate pebble beds of the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket are purged by helium to transport the produced tritium to the tritium extraction system. The pressure drop of the purge helium has a direct impact on the required pumping power and is a limiting factor for the purge mass flow. Therefore, the objective of this study is to measure the helium pressure drop across various HCPB-relevant pebble beds packed with lithium orthosilicate and glass pebbles. The pebble bed was formed by packing the pebbles into a stainless steel cylinder (ID = 30 mm and L = 120 mm); then it was integrated into a gas loop that has four variable-speed side-channel compressors to regulate the helium mass flow. The static pressure was measured at two locations (100 mm apart) along the pebble bed and at inlet and outlet of the pebble bed. The results demonstrated that: (i) the pressure drop significantly increases with decreasing the pebbles diameter, (ii) for the same superficial velocity, the pressure drop is directly proportional to the inlet pressure, and (iii) predictions of Ergun's equation agree well with the experimental results. The measured pressure drop for the lithium orthosilicate pebble bed will support the design of the purge gas system for the HCPB.

  14. Deer leather: analysis of the microstructure affecting pebble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Hannah C; Sizeland, Katie H; Cooper, Sue M; Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2017-08-01

    Deer leather has a characteristic pattern, referred to as 'pebble', which is accorded such importance that a lack of it renders a leather defective. Synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), ultrasonic imaging, scanning electron microscopy, and tear tests were used to investigate the structural characteristics of well-pebbled and poorly pebbled cervine leathers. Poorly pebbled leather has a less open structure in the upper grain region than well-pebbled leather. The orientation index (OI) of leather with a poor pebble is less than that of the well-pebbled leather, particularly in the corium. The tear strength is also less for the poorly pebbled leather. The differences in structure between well- and poorly pebbled cervine leathers are not the same as the structural differences between tight and loose bovine leathers, to which they are sometimes compared. On the contrary, good pebble may reflect an internal structure similar to that of looseness. It is hoped that methods to prevent a reduction in pebbling during the processing of cervine leather may be developed by applying this knowledge of cervine leather's structural characteristics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Dialectical metatheory in family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, M J; Weeks, G R

    1984-03-01

    This paper addresses the controversy in family therapy over basic philosophical issues in terms of a historical opposition between demonstrative and dialectical metatheories. It argues that advances in family therapy are indicative of the growing prominence of dialectical forms of understanding in the social sciences. Several family therapy concepts are explored as representative of the dialectical categories of motion, form, relationship, and transformation.

  16. Mechanical performance of irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Dalle-Donne, M.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    For the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Fusion Technology Programme, the neutron multiplier consists of a mixed bed of about 2 and 0.1-0.2 mm diameter beryllium pebbles. Beryllium has no structural function in the blanket, however microstructural and mechanical properties are important, as they might influence the material behavior under neutron irradiation. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating it. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from these irradiation experiments, emphasizing the effects of irradiation of essential material properties and trying to elucidate the processes controlling the property changes. The microstructure, the porosity distribution, the impurity content, the behavior under compression loads and the compatibility of the beryllium pebbles with lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) during the in-pile irradiation are presented and critically discussed. Qualitative information on ductility and creep obtained by hardness-type measurements are also supplied. (author)

  17. Diseño en VHDL de un controlador HDLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilena Del Valle Crespo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se presenta el diseño de un módulo de hardware embebido con la funcionalidad de un controlador HDLC (de sus siglas en inglés High Level Dato Link Control para una interfaz de línea digital E1. El sistema diseñado realiza las tareas de un transmisor-receptor, encargándose de acciones como la inserción y  detección de las banderas de inicio y fin de trama, la inserción y detección de ceros para evitar la existencia  de la secuencia de bandera en el campo de dato y el chequeo de trama. También incorpora una interfaz con un microprocesador  para la configuración de los parámetros iníciales y a través de ella se adquieren los datos de control que se van a transmitir o recibir. Cada uno de los bloques presentes en el sistema  se ha  diseñado a través del lenguaje de descripción de hardware VHDL (de sus siglas en inglés Very High Density Language empleando el software Xilinx ISE Design Suite 12.4. Finalmente, la investigación es implementada en la tarjeta de desarrollo SPARTAN3 Starter Board Kit y los resultados quedan validados con las comprobaciones pertinentes.

  18. Cross-Dialectal Arabic Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Harrat, Salima; Meftouh, Karima; Abbas, Mourad; Jamoussi, Salma; Saad, Motaz; Smaïli, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present, in this paper an Arabic multi-dialect study including dialects from both the Maghreb and the Middle-east that we compare to the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Three dialects from Maghreb are concerned by this study: two from Algeria and one from Tunisia and two dialects from Middle-east (Syria and Palestine). The resources which have been built from scratch have lead to a collection of a multi-dialect parallel resource. Furthermore, this collection has been ...

  19. A Dialogue on Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuss, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The following comments are intended as a constructive critique of the questions posed by Lima, Osterman and Rezende. The issues raised by the authors advocate for a return in research and teaching to the impetus of dialectical materialist approaches in the originators of the sociocultural school, including Vygotsky. The focus of this response is…

  20. Thermal-hydraulic analysis techniques for axisymmetric pebble bed nuclear reactor cores. [PEBBLE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, K.R.

    1979-03-01

    The pebble bed reactor's cylindrical core volume contains a random bed of small, spherical fuel-moderator elements. These graphite spheres, containing a central region of dispersed coated-particle fissile and fertile material, are cooled by high pressure helium flowing through the connected interstitial voids. A mathematical model and numerical solution technique have been developed which allow calculation of macroscopic values of thermal-hydraulic variables in an axisymmetric pebble bed nuclear reactor core. The computer program PEBBLE is based on a mathematical model which treats the bed macroscopically as a generating, conducting porous medium. The steady-state model uses a nonlinear Forchheimer-type relation between the coolant pressure gradient and mass flux, with newly derived coefficients for the linear and quadratic resistance terms. The remaining equations in the model make use of mass continuity, and thermal energy balances for the solid and fluid phases.

  1. CIRCUIT IMPLEMENTATION OF VHDL-DESCRIPTIONS OF SYSTEMS OF PARTIAL BOOLEAN FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Bibilo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Method for description of incompletely specified (partial Boolean functions in VHDL is proposed. Examples of synthesized VHDL models of partial Boolean functions are presented; and the results of experiments on circuit implementation of VHDL descriptions of systems of partial functions. The realizability of original partial functions in logical circuits was verified by formal verification. The results of the experiments show that the preliminary minimization in DNF class and in the class of BDD representations for pseudo-random systems of completely specified functions does not improve practically (and in the case of BDD sometimes worsens the results of the subsequent synthesis in the basis of FPGA unlike the significant efficiency of these procedures for the synthesis of benchmark circuits taken from the practice of the design.

  2. A VHDL Core for Intrinsic Evolution of Discrete Time Filters with Signal Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Dutton, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    The design of an Evolvable Machine VHDL Core is presented, representing a discrete-time processing structure capable of supporting control system applications. This VHDL Core is implemented in an FPGA and is interfaced with an evolutionary algorithm implemented in firmware on a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to create an evolvable system platform. The salient features of this architecture are presented. The capability to implement IIR filter structures is presented along with the results of the intrinsic evolution of a filter. The robustness of the evolved filter design is tested and its unique characteristics are described.

  3. CERN Technical Training 2006: 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' and 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE' course sessions, May-June 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Learning for the LHC! The next session of the course 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' given in English by Doulos Ltd (UK) will take place at CERN from May 29 through June 2nd (5 days), for a maximum of 14 participants. It will be preceded by an optional, refresher session of the two-day course 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE', given on 23-24 May, in French, by Serge Brobecker of IT/DES. For more information, please visit the Technical Training CTA website, http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300, to consult the detailed course descriptions and to apply via EDH. Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  4. Technical training: Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design' and 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE' course sessions, May-June 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2006-01-01

    The next session of the course 'Comprehensive VHDL for FPGA Design'given in English by Doulos Ltd (UK) will take place at CERN from May 29 through June 2nd (5 days), for a maximum of 14 participants. It will be preceded by an optional, refresher session of the two-day course 'Introduction au VHDL et utilisation du simulateur NCVHDL de CADENCE', given on 23-24 May, in French, by Serge Brobecker of IT/DES. For more information, please visit the Technical Training CTA website, http://cta.cern.ch/cta2/f?p=300, to consult the detailed course descriptions and to apply via EDH. Organiser: Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Davide.Vite@cern.ch ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  5. A Pebble Bed Reactor cross section methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Nathanael H. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering/Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States); Ougouag, Abderrafi M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3885 (United States); Rahnema, Farzad [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering/Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0405 (United States)], E-mail: farzad@gatech.edu; Gougar, Hans [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3885 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    A method is presented for the evaluation of microscopic cross sections for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) neutron diffusion computational models during convergence to an equilibrium (asymptotic) fuel cycle. This method considers the isotopics within a core spectral zone and the leakages from such a zone as they arise during reactor operation. The randomness of the spatial distribution of fuel grains within the fuel pebbles and that of the fuel and moderator pebbles within the core, the double heterogeneity of the fuel, and the indeterminate burnup of the spectral zones all pose a unique challenge for the computation of the local microscopic cross sections. As prior knowledge of the equilibrium composition and leakage is not available, it is necessary to repeatedly re-compute the group constants with updated zone information. A method is presented to account for local spectral zone composition and leakage effects without resorting to frequent spectrum code calls. Fine group data are pre-computed for a range of isotopic states. Microscopic cross sections and zone nuclide number densities are used to construct fine group macroscopic cross sections, which, together with fission spectra, flux modulation factors, and zone buckling, are used in the solution of the slowing down balance to generate a new or updated spectrum. The microscopic cross-sections are then re-collapsed with the new spectrum for the local spectral zone. This technique is named the Spectral History Correction (SHC) method. It is found that this method accurately recalculates local broad group microscopic cross sections. Significant improvement in the core eigenvalue, flux, and power peaking factor is observed when the local cross sections are corrected for the effects of the spectral zone composition and leakage in two-dimensional PBR test problems.

  6. Shakespeare and Warwickshire Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Barber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates whether Shakespeare used Warwickshire, Cotswold or Midlands dialect, focusing on the sources of recent claims by Bate, Kathman and Wood, most of which derive from early dialect dictionaries compiled by 18th and 19th century antiquarians. It determines that all of these claims – frequently used as a defence against the Shakespeare authorship question – fall into four categories: those based on errors of fact, well-known or widely-used words, poetic inventions, and those derived through circular reasoning. Two problems are identified. Firstly, the source texts on which these dialect claims rest were written two- to three-hundred years after the plays, by which time language use would not only have evolved, but would have been influenced by Shakespeare. Secondly, the continuing academic taboo surrounding the authorship question has meant that these claims, though easily refuted by searching the Oxford English Dictionary and the digitized texts of EEBO, have gone unchallenged in academia. It demonstrates that querying the validity of arguments derived from an assumed biography can – without in any way disproving that the man from Stratford wrote the body of works we call ‘Shakespeare’ – lead to a better understanding of the way Shakespeare actually used language, and the meanings he intended.

  7. L2 Arabic Dialect Comprehension: Empirical Evidence for the Transfer of Familiar Dialect Knowledge to Unfamiliar Dialects

    OpenAIRE

    Trentman, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Arabic is a diglossic language, and learners must become competent in both Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and a spoken dialect. However, Arabic dialects are typically not taught in U.S. classrooms. One reason is the question of which dialect to teach? This study looks at two cases of transfer between familiar dialect listening ability and unfamiliar dialect listening ability. The first is between Egyptian and Levantine dialects, where one is familiar and one is not (EL transfer). The second...

  8. SPEAKER RECOGNITION OF MAGHREB DIALECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Beltaifa - Zouari *1, Asma Chayeh 2

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have focused on the west Arabic (Maghreb) dialects for which resources are rare. To handle this problem, we devoped a web-based database of speech from Tunisian, Algerian and Moroccan speakers covering the diversity of Arabic dialects spoken in north Africa. Then speaker identification and verification experiments have been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of each dialect-based system. A baseline system using Timit database have also be developed for comparison pur...

  9. Plastic brains and the dialectics of dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxley, Andrew; Murphy, Colette; Seery, Aidan

    2014-09-01

    This article advances the thinking of Lima, Ostermann and Rezende's "Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies of science education" and Mark Zuss' response to their paper. Firstly, it introduces Catherine Malabou's concept of plasticity, from which Hegel's dialectic can be re-read as historical materialist self-determination in a way that embraces science but non-reductively, and which leads to the possibility of challenging theoretical rigidity as a form of transformative action. Secondly, this response article provides political analysis of scientific concepts as they reproduce and reinforce particular interests and are expropriated by policy makers and unaware teacher educators whose understanding lies within a technical-instrumentalism and diluted humanism framework. Both arguments feature the human brain as an object of research in science education. From Malabou, the emancipatory conceptualisation of the brain as material, historical and sociocultural; whilst `Brain Gym' exemplifies a non-science and nonsensical misappropriation of scientific concepts for commercial gain via a para-educational intervention.

  10. VHDL implementation of feature-extraction algorithm for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guliyev, E.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Tambave, G.; Löhner, H.

    2012-01-01

    A simple, efficient, and robust feature-extraction algorithm, developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA spectrometer at FAIR, Darmstadt, is implemented in VHDL for a commercial 16 bit 100 MHz sampling ADC. The source-code is available as an

  11. A New "Moodle" Module Supporting Automatic Verification of VHDL-Based Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Eladio; Trenas, Maria A.; Ramos, Julian; Corbera, Francisco; Romero, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a new "Moodle" module developed to give support to the practical content of a basic computer organization course. This module goes beyond the mere hosting of resources and assignments. It makes use of an automatic checking and verification engine that works on the VHDL designs submitted by the students. The module automatically…

  12. Comparing CλaSH and VHDL by implementing a dataflow processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermeier, A.; Wester, Rinse; Wester, Rinse; Baaij, C.P.R.; Kuper, Jan; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    As embedded systems are becoming increasingly complex, the design process and verification have become very time-consuming. Additionally, specifying hardware manually in a low-level hardware description language like VHDL is usually an error-prone task. In our group, a tool (the ClaSH compiler) was

  13. VHDL Descriptions for the FPGA Implementation of PWL-Function-Based Multi-Scroll Chaotic Oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlelo-Cuautle, Esteban; Quintas-Valles, Antonio de Jesus; de la Fraga, Luis Gerardo; Rangel-Magdaleno, Jose de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, chaos generators are an attractive field for research and the challenge is their realization for the development of engineering applications. From more than three decades ago, chaotic oscillators have been designed using discrete electronic devices, very few with integrated circuit technology, and in this work we propose the use of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for fast prototyping. FPGA-based applications require that one be expert on programming with very-high-speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL). In this manner, we detail the VHDL descriptions of chaos generators for fast prototyping from high-level programming using Python. The cases of study are three kinds of chaos generators based on piecewise-linear (PWL) functions that can be systematically augmented to generate even and odd number of scrolls. We introduce new algorithms for the VHDL description of PWL functions like saturated functions series, negative slopes and sawtooth. The generated VHDL-code is portable, reusable and open source to be synthesized in an FPGA. Finally, we show experimental results for observing 2, 10 and 30-scroll attractors.

  14. A Transformational Approach to VHDL and CDFG Based High-Level Synthesis: a Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelhoek, Peter F.A.; Middelhoek, P.F.A.; Mekenkamp, G.E.; Molenkamp, Egbert; Krol, Th.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a novel multi-target design methodology based on the concepts of transformational design, and its application to the interlaced-to-progressive scan conversion (IPSC) problem, are discussed. Starting from a single high-level behavioral specification in VHDL a direction detector used in

  15. VHDL Implementation of Feature-Extraction Algorithm for the PANDA Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, M.; Guliyev, E.; Lemmens, P. J. J.; Löhner, H.; Tambave, G.

    2010-01-01

    The feature-extraction algorithm, developed for the digital front-end electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the PANDA detector at the future FAIR facility, is implemented in VHDL for a commercial 16 bit 100 MHz sampling ADC. The use of modified firmware with the running on-line

  16. Rethinking Conflict through the Dialectical Glasses of Relational Dialectics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Diane W.

    Recently, communication researchers have suggested that dialectics may offer a different way of looking at mediation, organizational conflict, and the fundamental oppositions of interpersonal bonding. Leslie Baxter and Barbara Montgomery, through their relational dialectics perspective, have claimed a dialogical conceptualization of…

  17. The Dialectics of Exile

    OpenAIRE

    Auretta, Christopher Damien

    2016-01-01

    The volume of poetry entitled Sobre esta praia, Oito meditações à beira do Pacífico (written in 1972, published in 1977), possesses a paradigmatic Senian complexity—thematic, conceptual, humanist, and poetic—which we explore in this paper. The Hegelian-Marxist theoretical framework, i.e., the dialectical underpinnings of the poet’s approach to modernity’s civilizational project is explored in this meditative series of serenely agonic, elegiacally erotic poems. In addition, the volume reveals ...

  18. North Frisian: Dialectalization and Demise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, Steven

    1995-01-01

    North Frisian is an endangered language spoken in northwest Germany near Denmark, with 8,000 speakers representing nine dialects. The paper examines factors that are impelling the language toward attrition and shift, characterizing the current state of the language, discussing the effect of language contact, and presenting dialectalization or…

  19. Dialects and Levels of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    This textbook, part of "The Language of Man" series, has two sections. The first section on dialects of English tells what dialects are and details the speech patterns of Kentucky, the Pennsylvania Dutch, Yiddish, and pidgin English. The second section discusses levels of language such as informal, formal, and technical language, slang, jargon,…

  20. Initial prediction of dust production in pebble bed reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rostamian

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the computational simulation of contact zones between pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. In this type of reactor, the potential for graphite dust generation from frictional contact of graphite pebbles and the subsequent transport of dust and fission products can cause significant safety issues at very high temperatures around 900 °C in HTRs. The present simulation is an initial attempt to quantify the amount of nuclear grade graphite dust produced within a very high temperature reactor.

  1. Reconstructing the transport history of pebbles on Mars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szabó, Tímea; Domokos, Gábor; Grotzinger, John P; Jerolmack, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    .... Here we show how quantitative information on the transport distance of river pebbles can be extracted from their shape alone, using a combination of theory, laboratory experiments and terrestrial field data...

  2. Learning Spanish dialects through Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We map the large-scale variation of the Spanish language by employing a corpus based on geographically tagged Twitter messages. Lexical dialects are extracted from an analysis of variants of tens of concepts. The resulting maps show linguistic variations on an unprecedented scale across the globe. We discuss the properties of the main dialects within a machine learning approach and find that varieties spoken in urban areas have an international character in contrast to country areas where dialects show a more regional uniformity.

  3. A plug-in to Eclipse for VHDL source codes: functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niton, B.; Poźniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    The paper presents an original application, written by authors, which supports writing and edition of source codes in VHDL language. It is a step towards fully automatic, augmented code writing for photonic and electronic systems, also systems based on FPGA and/or DSP processors. An implementation is described, based on VEditor. VEditor is a free license program. Thus, the work presented in this paper supplements and extends this free license. The introduction characterizes shortly available tools on the market which serve for aiding the design processes of electronic systems in VHDL. Particular attention was put on plug-ins to the Eclipse environment and Emacs program. There are presented detailed properties of the written plug-in such as: programming extension conception, and the results of the activities of formatter, re-factorizer, code hider, and other new additions to the VEditor program.

  4. Transformation and VHDL Code Generation from Coarse-grained Data flow Graph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, M.W.; Ha, S.H. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses how we generate VHDL codes for DSP applications described in data flow graphs. Because the generated VHDL code implements the details of the control structure, we can easily transform it into a running circuit without any modifications, using logic synthesis tools. To improve the quality of the synthesized circuit we apply some graph transformation techniques to the original data flow graph. We mainly consider coarse-grained data flow graphs in which each node corresponds to an IP component of considerable size. The proposed facility is very useful for data flow graph based high level design tools, including our co design framework PeaCE (Ptolemy extension as Codesign Environment). (author). 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The Dialectics of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Roman-Lagerspetz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ”Thinking publicly otherwise” is one of the foundations of democracy. The task of the opposition in a democratic system is to express distrust, to criticize the actions of the government and to provide an alternative. The opposition institutionalizes distrust, and, paradoxically, the presence of this institutionalized distrust is, for the citizens, one important reason to trust the democratic system. The claim defended here is that the relationship between the government and the opposition can be understood in terms of Hegel’s dialectics. Although Hegel’s political theory as formulated in his Philosophy of Right emphasizes the unifying role of the State, his earlier philosophy contains more democratic potential.

  6. Deconstructing the dialectic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, A

    1998-04-01

    The author examines some of the newly offered ideas and concepts about the interaction of the patient and the analyst. This interaction is termed a dialectic in the sense of interacting forces and this study is called a deconstruction, which is an effort to see how unstable and self-contradictory these new ideas may be. They are examined in terms of viewpoints of analysis as a developmental process, the location of the data of analysis, and the technical modifications that follow from this changed theoretical vision. A clinical example is offered to demonstrate the resultant problems. The suggested present status of the impact of these new ideas is that of a family of related concepts with no unifying theory.

  7. Modeling and simulation of a wheatstone bridge pressure sensor in high temperature with VHDL-AMS

    OpenAIRE

    Baccar, Sahbi; Levi, Timothée; Dallet, Dominique; Barbara, François

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a model of a Wheatstone bridge sensor in VHDL-AMS. This model is useful to take into account the temperature effect on the sensor accuracy. The model is developed on the basis of a resistor model. Simulations are performed for three different combinations of parameters values. They confirm the resistors mismatch effect on the sensor accuracy in high temperature (HT).

  8. Thermo-mechanical characterization of ceramic pebbles for breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it; Aquaro, Donato; Scaletti, Luca

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experimental activities to characterize the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. • Compression tests of pebbles. • Experimental evaluation of thermal conductivity of pebbles bed at different temperatures. • Experimental test with/without compression load. - Abstract: An open issue for fusion power reactor is to design a suitable breeding blanket capable to produce the necessary quantity of the tritium and to transfer the energy of the nuclear fusion reaction to the coolant. The envisaged solution called Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket foresees the use of lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) or lithium metatitanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebble beds. The thermal mechanical properties of the candidate pebble bed materials are presently extensively investigated because they are critical for the feasibility and performances of the numerous conceptual designs which use a solid breeder. This study is aimed at the investigation of mechanical properties of the lithium orthosilicate and at the characterization of the main chemical, physical and thermo-mechanical properties taking into account the production technology. In doing that at the Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering (DICI) of the University of Pisa adequate experiments were carried out. The obtained results may contribute to characterize the material of the pebbles and to optimize the design of the envisaged fusion breeding blankets.

  9. Dialect mixing and dialect levelling in Kordofanian Baggara Arabic (Western Sudan)

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this article is to describe two different patterns of contact-induced change in a bedouin dialect spoken in western Sudan. More to the point, the study describes the social grounds and structural outcomes of dialect mixing and dialect levelling in the Baggara dialect of Kordofan. In my perspective, the notion of "dialect mixing" refers to the concurrence of structural traits of different dialects in contact and to the affirmation of newmixed features amo...

  10. Dialectical Model of Human Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Cachat, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The DMoHN is a graphical representation of my current understanding and conceptualization of human nature, in addition to embodying the guiding ethos of social neuroscience. The dialectic is a logic, or way of thinking that joins opposite elements together in a uniting fashion to create emergent attributes not present in the elements alone. The dialectical structure of this model explicitly links Culture and Biology within the human brain in order to convey the symbiotic and dynamic interacti...

  11. Spatial Evolution of Human Dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, James

    2017-07-01

    The geographical pattern of human dialects is a result of history. Here, we formulate a simple spatial model of language change which shows that the final result of this historical evolution may, to some extent, be predictable. The model shows that the boundaries of language dialect regions are controlled by a length minimizing effect analogous to surface tension, mediated by variations in population density which can induce curvature, and by the shape of coastline or similar borders. The predictability of dialect regions arises because these effects will drive many complex, randomized early states toward one of a smaller number of stable final configurations. The model is able to reproduce observations and predictions of dialectologists. These include dialect continua, isogloss bundling, fanning, the wavelike spread of dialect features from cities, and the impact of human movement on the number of dialects that an area can support. The model also provides an analytical form for Séguy's curve giving the relationship between geographical and linguistic distance, and a generalization of the curve to account for the presence of a population center. A simple modification allows us to analytically characterize the variation of language use by age in an area undergoing linguistic change.

  12. Localization of the hot spots in a pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Leisheng; Lee, Wooram; Lee, Jaeyoung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The pebble bed reactor (PBR) is a candidate reactor type for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is one of the Generation-IV reactor types. The HTGR design concept exhibits excellent safety features due to the low power density and the large amount of graphite present in the core which gives a large thermal inertia in an accident such as loss of coolant. The conclusions are made and may contribute to a better design of a PBR core and a closer inspection of the local hot spots to avoid destruction of pebbles from happening. Thermal field of a PBR core is investigated in this study. Specifically, experiments on measuring the pebbles' surface temperature are performed. It is found that the upper pebble has an overall higher temperature profile than the other pebbles and the stagnation zone under does not increase its surface's temperature. In addition, the temperature profile of the side pebble shows a concave form and it keeps decreasing from the contact point to the vertex in the lower pebble. Lastly, the maximum temperature difference among these points is 5.83 deg. C. These findings above are validated by CFX simulations under two different turbulence models (k-e, SST) and two contact areas (diameter of 6mm and 3.5mm). By contrasting the temperature variation trends of all simulation cases, it is concluded that SST turbulence model with 20% intensity shows a better agreement with the experiment result, nevertheless, slightly deviation is also found in terms of total temperature difference and the peak appears in position 17-19 in experiments.

  13. Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov., isolated from pebbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (>5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26 ± 1 % and 34 ± 3 %, respectively. Based on taxonomic data obtained using a polyphasic approach, strain JC267T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC267T ( = IBRC-M 10914T = KCTC 33579T).

  14. Where is the Dialectic in the Community-Diversity Dialectic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jean L

    2017-06-01

    Agent-based modeling has provided some interesting investigations of the hypothesis that there is a dialectical relationship between sense of community and diversity. A close look at those models strongly suggests that only models in which the attributes of agents are fixed completely support that hypothesis. Models which acknowledge that diversity is contextually defined, and thus changeable, suggest that there is no inherent dialectical relationship between the two values. Rather, it is the context of the setting, the way in which the setting is socially constructed, that determines whether a strong sense of community can exist in highly diverse settings. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  15. Reconstructing the transport history of pebbles on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Tímea; Domokos, Gábor; Grotzinger, John P.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of remarkably rounded pebbles by the rover Curiosity, within an exhumed alluvial fan complex in Gale Crater, presents some of the most compelling evidence yet for sustained fluvial activity on Mars. While rounding is known to result from abrasion by inter-particle collisions, geologic interpretations of sediment shape have been qualitative. Here we show how quantitative information on the transport distance of river pebbles can be extracted from their shape alone, using a combination of theory, laboratory experiments and terrestrial field data. We determine that the Martian basalt pebbles have been carried tens of kilometres from their source, by bed-load transport on an alluvial fan. In contrast, angular clasts strewn about the surface of the Curiosity traverse are indicative of later emplacement by rock fragmentation processes. The proposed method for decoding transport history from particle shape provides a new tool for terrestrial and planetary sedimentology. PMID:26460507

  16. Letters initiating Clean Water Act 404(c) review of mining at Pebble deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correspondence between EPA and the Pebble Limited Partnership and the State of Alaska initiating review under section 404(c) of the Clean Water Act of potential adverse environmental effects associated with mining the Pebble deposit in southwest Alaska.

  17. Disability as a dialectical concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2012-01-01

    describes a dialectical relation between the person with a disability and the surrounding society. The aim of this study is to explore Vygotsky’s concept of incongruence. A case example is presented. Through video observation of a child with severe cerebral palsy and cognitive visual impairment......The legacy of defectology, Vygotsky’s theoretical work on children with disabilities, still offers a useful approach in disability research. Vygotsky understood disability as an incongruence between the individual’s psychological structure and the structure of cultural forms. The incongruence...... and cerebral palsy differed depending on the interaction with the environment and on how his teacher and mother interacted with him. The dialectical dynamics of incongruence in each of the two settings created different levels of abilities/disabilities. It is argued that the dialectical psychological...

  18. A Synthesizable VHDL Behavioral Model of A DSP On Chip Emulation Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qingsen

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the VHDL behavioral model design of a DSP On Chip Emulation Unit. The prototype of this design is the OnCE port of the Motorola DSP56002. Capabilities of this On Chip Emulation Unit are accessible through four pins, which allows the user to step through a program, to set the breakpoint that stop program execution at a specific address, and to examine the contents of registers, memory, and pipeline information. The detailed design that includes input/output signals and s...

  19. Pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR). Programme status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, D.R. [ESKOM, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1998-09-01

    ESKOM is the South African state electricity utility, with an installed capacity of 38,397 MW at the end of 1996 (98% of all national generating assets). It is largely coal based with a small proportion (5%) nuclear. The current nuclear power plant (Koeberg) has two PWR units of 965 MW (gross). As part of ESKOM`s long term planning process investigations are made into new power generation options. The option of further LWR was investigated extensively in the late 1980s and rejected due to the cost penalty compared to ESKOM`s coal fired options. In 1993 ESKOM reconsidered the nuclear option (specifically for load centres away from coal fields) and again discounted LWRs. Further investigation was done and two key nuclear issues where identified. These are cost and public acceptance. It was considered that both of these were driven by the safety issues related to potential accidents. It was seen that the only way to obtain competitive costs with nuclear power was to remove the potential (however remote) for accidents with significant offsite consequences. The only reactor type that was seen to have this was the small HTR, using coated particle fuel. This design was then investigated in much greater detail and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) concept design was undertaken. The reason for the level of detail in the concept design was to ensure that the safety arguments were valid and that the costing could be effectively done. The key requirements for such a programme are seen to be: Adequate technology level in the local industry; Limited (compared to USA/EU/Japan) anti-nuclear movement; Large enough utility to provide backing for the project; Non-prescriptive Licensing regime; and Cost structure for power generation that excludes current nuclear technology. All these are seen to be met in the South African situation with ESKOM being well placed, both in terms of its size and legal position as well as the high regard it is held in

  20. Identifying Dialect Regions from Syntactic Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.; Wieling, Martijn; Kroon, Martin; van Noord, Gertjan; Bouma, Gosse

    2017-01-01

    The Syntactic Atlas of Dutch Dialects (SAND) is a database of syntactic features observed in the language spoken by people from different dialect regions in The Netherlands and Flanders. We would like to know how specific syntactic features are for the different dialects. For this purpose we try to

  1. Dialectical Rapprochement in the New Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Contends that the New Rhetoric, a response to 20th-century totalitarianism, is a post-Holocaust dialectic of rapprochement, deserving development by scholars of rhetoric and argument. Demonstrates that the dialectic of New Rhetoric exploits Aristotle's notion of reasoning from common opinions and reconciles Hegelian dialectics with argumentation.…

  2. Conceptual study of ferromagnetic pebbles for heat exhaust in fusion reactors with short power decay length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gierse

    2015-03-01

    The key results of this study are that very high heat fluxes are accessible in the operation space of ferromagnetic pebbles, that ferromagnetic pebbles are compatible with tokamak operation and current divertor designs, that the heat removal capability of ferromagnetic pebbles increases as λq decreases and, finally, that for fusion relevant values of q∥ pebble diameters below 100 μm are required.

  3. The Student's Guide to VHDL, Peter J. Ashenden, Morgan Kaufmann : Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-55860-520-7

    OpenAIRE

    De Giusti, Marisa Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The Student’s Guide to VHDL teaches the fundamental modeling features of VHDL, showing how the features are used for the design of digital systems. It is organized so that it can be read linearly from front to back, as a structured self-learning guide to the language.

  4. On dialectisms of authentic origin in Don dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flyagina Marina Valerievna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the locally limited vocabulary of authentic origin represented in the dictionary of Don dialects. The emergence of vocabulary authentic origin in the dialect language is the result of cultural and language contacts, which are an integral part of any ethnic culture. Particularly notable was the impact of the Turkic language, related to the pre-Russian indigenous population neighborhoods of Wild Field. Authentic locally marked lexical units reflect the particular social, commodity-money relations, religious beliefs inherent in the culture of Turkic peoples, whose names were borrowed from Russian. Besides Turkisms in the lexicon of the Don dialect, there are also borrowings from other languages - Finno-Ugric, Slavic. Turkisms take the bulk of borrowed words, due to the territorial proximity to the earliest periods of the Don Cossacks. Regional origin covers the entire scope of domestic relations on Don, found among the names of the natural world. Research of dialect vocabulary of authentic origin lets to determine the specifics of formation of Don resettlement negotiations, which took place in a dialogue between different ethnic cultures.

  5. Rapid implementation of image processing onto FPGA using modular DSP C6201 VHDL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, V.; Yang, F.; Paindavoine, M.; Liu, X. J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent FPGA chips, with their large capacity memory and reconfigurability potential, have opened new frontiers for rapid prototyping of embedded systems. With the advent of high density FPGAs it is now feasible to implement a high-performance VLIW processor core in an FPGA. We describe research results of enabling the DSP TMS320 C6201 model for real-time image processing applications, by exploiting FPGA technology. The goals are, firstly, to keep the flexibility of DSP in order to shorten the development cycle, and secondly, to use powerful available resources on FPGA to a maximum in order to increase real-time performance. We present a modular DSP C6201 VHDL model which contains only the bare minimum number of instruction sets, or modules, necessary for each target application. This allows an optimal implementation on the FPGA. Some common algorithms of image processing were created and validated on an FPGA VirtexII-2000 multimedia board using the proposed application development cycle. Our results demonstrate that an algorithm can easily be, in an optimal manner, specified and then automatically converted to VHDL language and implemented on an FPGA device with system level software.

  6. Border effects among Catalan dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieling, Martijn; Valls, Esteve; Baayen, R. Harald; Nerbonne, John; Speelman, Dirk; Heylen, Kris; Geeraerts, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors influence the linguistic distance of Catalan dialectal pronunciations from standard Catalan. We use pronunciations from three regions where the northwestern variety of the Catalan language is spoken (Catalonia, Aragon and Andorra). In contrast to Aragon,

  7. Science, Religion and Difficult Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Discussing themes from my paper "Scientists at play in a field of the Lord," three forum participants identify and discuss continuing social and epistemological issues which continue to challenge effective evolution education. I extend these themes and further amplify the vexing nature of an effective dialectic regarding evolution, especially for…

  8. Black Dialect: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Walter

    Based on transcribed conversations with black children in kindergarten and the intermediate grades, a study was devised to determine whether black urban children from lower socioeconomic areas speak a systematic, consistent form of nonstandard English, and if so, to provide a syntactical analysis of the dialect of nonstandard speakers. Speech…

  9. Communication Dialectics, Islam, and Sundanese Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujang Saefullah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Customary societies of Kampung Dukuh is community tightly maintaining their tradition up to the present. It appeared on their life routine beginning from the way of having intercourse, the custom of consuming, the kind of living, the system of leadership until the construction model of stage house constructed from bamboo with palm fiber for the roof. This study aimed to analyze: 1 language dialectic, communication and Sundanese culture at customary society of Kampung Dukuh 2 communication dialectic and tradition of Islam at customary society of Kampung Dukuh 3 Dialectic of Islam tradition and Sundanese culture at customary society of Kampung Dukuh. The method of this research is Ethnography of Communication with qualitative approach. The techniques of data collection are profound interview, participatory observation and documentation research. The results are 1 communication dialectic Sundanese culture lasted in total dialectic manner and indicated relation of dependence each other 2 communication dialectic and tradition of Islam prevailed in total dialectic way, and possessed dependence, affirmed as well as strengthen each other 3 tradition dialectic of Islam and Sundanese culture were divided into two categories namely 1 dialectic of Islam value and culture norm run in total dialectic manner and owned dependence each other 2 dialectic of Islam faith and myths lasted in contradictory way or be in conflict among two different extremes.

  10. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  11. performance evaluation of a pebble bed solar crop dryer abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    build up on the open air sun dried products. This indicates that drying under solar crop dryer offers high quality products and is time saving than the open-air sun drying. Keywords: pebble bed, solar, storage, crop dryer. 1.0 Introduction. Food drying is a major processing activity, which involves dehydration of moisture.

  12. Core Physics of Pebble Bed High Temperature Nuclear Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auwerda, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    To more accurately predict the temperature distribution inside the reactor core of pebble bed type high temperature reactors, in this thesis we investigated the stochastic properties of randomly stacked beds and the effects of the non-homogeneity of these beds on the neutronics and

  13. performance evaluation of a pebble bed solar crop dryer abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    The design, development and test performance evaluation of an integrated of passive solar energy crop drying system was undertaken. The solar crop dryer consists of an imbedded pebble bed solar heat storage unit/solar collector and crop drying chamber measuring 67 cm x 110 cm x 21cm and 50 cm x 90 cm ...

  14. TEM study of impurity segregations in beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenkov, M., E-mail: michael.klimenkov@kit.edu [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Chakin, V.; Moeslang, A. [Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rolli, R. [Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Beryllium is planned to be used as a neutron multiplier in the Helium-cooled Pebble Bed European concept of a breeding blanket of demonstration power reactor DEMO. In order to evaluate the irradiation performance, individual pebbles and constrained pebble beds were neutron-irradiated at temperatures typical of fusion blankets. Beryllium pebbles 1 mm in diameter produced by the rotating electrode method were subjected to a TEM study before and after irradiation at High Flux Reactor, Petten, Netherlands at 861 K. The grain size varied in a wide range from sub-micron size up to several tens of micrometers, which indicated formation bimodal grain size distribution. Based on the application of combined electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy methods, we suggest that impurity precipitates play an important role in controlling the mechanical properties of beryllium. The impurity elements were present in beryllium at a sub-percent concentration form beryllide particles of a complex (Fe/Al/Mn/Cr)B composition. These particles are often ordered along dislocations lines, forming several micron-long chains. It can be suggested that fracture surfaces often extended along these chains in irradiated material.

  15. Consonants, vowels and tones across Vietnamese dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PhȦm, Ben; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-04-01

    Vietnamese is spoken by over 89 million people in Vietnam and it is one of the most commonly spoken languages other than English in the US, Canada and Australia. This study defines between one and nine different dialects of Vietnamese spoken in Vietnam. In Vietnamese schools, children learn Standard Vietnamese which is based on the northern dialect; however, if they live in other regions they may speak a different dialect at home. This paper describes the differences between the consonants, semivowels, vowels, diphthongs and tones for four dialects: Standard, northern, central and southern Vietnamese. The number and type of initial consonants differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 23, northern = 20, central = 23, southern = 21). For example, the letter "r" is pronounced in the Standard and central dialects as the retroflex /ʐ/, northern dialect as the voiced alveolar fricative /z/ or the trilled /r/ and in the southern dialect as the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/. Additionally, the letter "v" is pronounced in the Standard, northern and central dialects as the voiced bilabial fricative /v/, the southern dialect as the voiced palatal approximant /j/ and in the lower northern dialect (Ninh Binh) as the voiceless bilabial fricative /f/. Similarly, the number of final consonants differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 6, northern = 10, central = 10, southern = 8). Finally, the number and type of tones differs per dialect (i.e. Standard = 6, northern = 6, central = 5, southern = 5). Understanding differences between Vietnamese dialects is important so that speech-language pathologists and educators provide appropriate services to people who speak Vietnamese.

  16. Evolution of migrating protoplanets heated by pebble accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrenko, Ondrej; Broz, Miroslav; Lambrechts, Michiel

    2017-10-01

    We study the interactions in a protoplanetary system consisting of a gas disk, a pebble disk and embedded low-mass protoplanets. The hydrodynamic simulations are performed using a new code based on 2D FARGO (Masset 2000) which we call FARGO_THORIN (http://sirrah.troja.mff.cuni.cz/~chrenko/). The code treats the hydrodynamics of gas and pebbles within a two-fluid approximation, accounts for the heating and cooling processes in the gaseous component (including heating due to pebble accretion) and propagates the planets in 3D using a high-order integration scheme (IAS15; Rein & Spiegel 2015). Our aim is to investigate how pebble accretion alters the orbital evolution of protoplanets undergoing Type-I migration.First, we demonstrate that pebble accretion can heat the protoplanets so that their luminosity induces the heating torque (Benítez-Llambay et al. 2015) and the hot-trail effect (Chrenko et al. 2017; Eklund & Masset 2017). The heating torque is always positive and alters the migration rates and directions profoundly, thus changing the position of planet traps and deserts. The hot-trail effect, on the other hand, pumps the eccentricity of initially circular orbits up to e ~ h. After becoming eccentric, the protoplanets exhibit reduced probability of resonant locking during the migration and moreover, their close encounters become more frequent and provide more opportunities for scattering or merger events. The mergers can be massive enough to become giant planet cores. We discuss the importance of the excited eccentricities and violent orbital evolution for the extrasolar planet population synthesis. Finally, we present an extended model with flux-mean opacities caused by a coupled disk of coagulating dust grains with a realistic size distribution. The aim of this model is to constrain possible pathways of migrating planets towards the inner rim of the protoplanetary disk.

  17. Research on the Computed Tomography Pebble Flow Detecting System for HTR-PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pebble dynamics is important for the safe operation of pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors and is a complicated problem of great concern. To investigate it more authentically, a computed tomography pebble flow detecting (CT-PFD system has been constructed, in which a three-dimensional model is simulated according to the ratio of 1 : 5 with the core of HTR-PM. A multislice helical CT is utilized to acquire the reconstructed cross-sectional images of simulated pebbles, among which special tracer pebbles are designed to indicate pebble flow. Tracer pebbles can be recognized from many other background pebbles because of their heavy kernels that can be resolved in CT images. The detecting principle and design parameters of the system were demonstrated by a verification experiment on an existing CT system in this paper. Algorithms to automatically locate the three-dimensional coordinates of tracer pebbles and to rebuild the trajectory of each tracer pebble were presented and verified. The proposed pebble-detecting and tracking technique described in this paper will be implemented in the near future.

  18. Pore Scale Thermal Hydraulics Investigations of Molten Salt Cooled Pebble Bed High Temperature Reactor with BCC and FCC Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixiong Song

    2014-01-01

    CFD results and empirical correlations’ predictions of pressure drop and local Nusselt numbers. Local pebble surface temperature distributions in several default conditions are investigated. Thermal removal capacities of molten salt are confirmed in the case of nominal condition; the pebble surface temperature under the condition of local power distortion shows the tolerance of pebble in extreme neutron dose exposure. The numerical experiments of local pebble insufficient cooling indicate that in the molten salt cooled pebble bed reactor, the pebble surface temperature is not very sensitive to loss of partial coolant. The methods and results of this paper would be useful for optimum designs and safety analysis of molten salt cooled pebble bed reactors.

  19. Granular flow in pebble-bed nuclear reactors: Scaling, dust generation, and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris H., E-mail: chr@seas.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Mathematics, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dehbi, Abdel, E-mail: abdel.dehbi@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lind, Terttaliisa, E-mail: terttaliisa.lind@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Güntay, Salih, E-mail: salih.guentay@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The scaling properties of granular flow in pebble-bed reactors have been analyzed. • Simulations in a full-size reactor are compared to those scaled down by 3:1 and 6:1. • For some features, the scaled-down behavior is complex due to pebble packing effects. • Pebble stresses and dust generation due to pebble wear are analyzed in detail. • Approximate scaling laws for pebble stress and wear are developed. - Abstract: In experimental prototypes of pebble-bed reactors, significant quantities of graphite dust have been observed due to rubbing between pebbles as they flow through the core. At the typical operating conditions in these reactors, which feature high temperatures, pressures, and a helium atmosphere, limited data is available on the frictional properties of the pebble surfaces, and as a result, a conceptual design of a scaled-down version of a pebble-bed reactor has been proposed to investigate this issue in detail. However, this raises general questions about how the granular flow in a scaled facility will emulate that in a full-size reactor. To address this, simulations of granular flow in pebble-bed reactors using the discrete-element method (DEM) have been carried out in a full-size geometry (using 440,000 pebbles) and compared to those in geometries scaled down by factors of 3:1 and 6:1. Differences in velocity profiles, pebble ordering, pebble wear, and stresses are examined, and the effect of friction is discussed. The results show complex behavior due to discrete pebble packing effects, although several simple scaling rules can be derived.

  20. Morphological disambiguation of Tunisian dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès Zribi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to disambiguate the output of a morphological analyzer of the Tunisian dialect. We test three machine-learning techniques that classify the morphological analysis of each word token into two classes: true and false. The class label is assigned to each analysis according to the context of the corresponding word in a sentence. In failure cases, we combine the results of the proposed techniques with a bigram classifier to choose only one analysis for a given word. We disambiguate the result of the morphological analyzer of the Tunisian Dialect Al-Khalil-TUN (Zribi et al., 2013b. We use the Spoken Tunisian Arabic Corpus STAC (Zribi et al., 2015 to train and test our method. The evaluation shows that the proposed method has achieved an accuracy performance of 87.32%.

  1. On Letting the Dialectic Go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Code

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfred North Whiteheadrsquo;s critique of modern naturalisms suggest that they betray reason by ignoring the vast extent and depth of the problematic of symbolism. This is partly borne out by the still unexplained fact that highly abstract systems of symbolism, as in mathematics, can throw light on the hidden workings of nature. But since these include ordinary perception itself, and since symbolisms always mediate between minds and nature, all reasonings about truth or reality elicit references to mysterious natural powers. Good reasoning in natural philosophy thus requires an artful dialectic which is primarily concerned not with exact analyses of meanings but rather with the element of creativity in their ongoing production. Such a dialectic must be based on a polar logic that is opposed to the modern tendency to treat fundamental conceptual contrasts, such as nature-culture, subject-object, matter-spirit, and so on, as separable.

  2. Intellectual property protection (IPP) using obfuscation in C, VHDL, and Verilog coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Castillo, Encarni; Botella, Guillermo; Parrilla, L.; García, Antonio

    2011-06-01

    One of the big challenges in the design of embedded systems today is how to combine design reuse and intellectual property protection (IPP). Strong IP schemes such as hardware dongle or layout watermarking usually have a very limited design reuse for different FPGA/ASIC design platforms. Some techniques also do not fit well with protection of software in embedded microprocessors. Another approach to IPP that allows an easy design reuse and has low costs but a somehow reduced security is code "obfuscation." Obfuscation is a method to hide the design concept, or program algorithm included in the C or HDL source by using one or more transformations of the original code. Obfuscation methods include, for instance, renaming identifiers, removing comments or formatting of the code. More sophisticated obfuscation methods include data splitting or merging, and control flow changes. This paper shows strength and weakness of method obfuscating C, VHDL and Verilog code.

  3. Hierarchical Classification for Spoken Arabic Dialect Identification using Prosody: Case of Algerian Dialects

    OpenAIRE

    Bougrine, Soumia; Cherroun, Hadda; Ziadi, Djelloul

    2017-01-01

    In daily communications, Arabs use local dialects which are hard to identify automatically using conventional classification methods. The dialect identification challenging task becomes more complicated when dealing with an under-resourced dialects belonging to a same county/region. In this paper, we start by analyzing statistically Algerian dialects in order to capture their specificities related to prosody information which are extracted at utterance level after a coarse-grained consonant/v...

  4. Experimental investigation of pebble flow dynamics using radioactive particle tracking technique in a scaled-down Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khane, Vaibhav; Said, I.A.; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna H., E-mail: aldahhanm@mst.edu

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Pebble Flow fields at Pebble Bed Modular Reactor was investigated. • Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT) technique has been used. • Plug flow type velocity profile is suggested at upper cylindrical region. - Abstract: The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a type of very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) that is conceptually very similar to moving bed reactors used in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In a PBMR core, nuclear fuel is in the form of pebbles and moves slowly under the influence of gravity. In this work, an integrated experimental and computational study of granular flow in a scaled-down cold flow PBMR was performed. A continuous pebble re-circulation experimental set-up, mimicking the flow of pebbles in a PBMR was designed and developed. An experimental investigation of pebble flow dynamics in a scaled down test reactor was carried out using a non-invasive radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique that used a cobalt-60 based tracer to mimic pebbles in terms of shape, size and density. A cross-correlation based position reconstruction algorithm and RPT calibration data were used to obtain results about Lagrangian trajectories, the velocity field, and residence time distributions. The RPT technique results a serve as a benchmark data for assessing contact force models used in the discrete element method (DEM) simulations.

  5. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  6. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1981-03-01

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming.

  7. Atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanet formation by pebble accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bitsch, Bertram; Johansen, Anders; Eriksson, Linn

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric chemical abundances of giant planets lead to important constraints on planetary formation and migration. Studies have shown that giant planets that migrate through the protoplanetary disc can accrete substantial amounts of oxygen-rich planetesimals, leading to supersolar metallicities in the envelope and solar or subsolar C/O ratios. Pebble accretion has been demonstrated to play an important role in core accretion and to have growth rates that are consistent with planetary migration. The high pebble accretion rates allow planetary cores to start their growth beyond 10 au and subsequently migrate to cold (≳1 au), warm (˜0.1-1 au) or hot (≲0.1 au) orbits. In this work we investigate how the formation of giant planets via pebble accretion influences their atmospheric chemical compositions. We find that under the standard pebble accretion scenario, where the core is isolated from the envelope, the resulting metallicities (O/H and C/H ratios) are subsolar, while the C/O ratios are supersolar. Planets that migrate through the disc to become hot Jupiters accrete substantial amounts of water vapour, but still acquire slightly subsolar O/H and supersolar C/O of 0.7-0.8. The metallicity can be substantially subsolar (˜0.2-0.5 × solar) and the C/O can even approach 1.0 if the planet accretes its envelope mostly beyond the CO2 ice line, i.e. cold Jupiters or hot Jupiters that form far out and migrate in by scattering. Allowing for core erosion yields significantly supersolar metallicities and solar or subsolar C/O, which can also be achieved by other means, e.g. photoevaporation and late-stage planetesimal accretion.

  8. Pebble orientation on large, experimental debris-flow deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Replicable, pronounced orientation of discoid pebbles (??? 8 mm) embedded on surfaces of large (??? 10 m3) experimental debris-flow deposits reveals that strongly aligned, imbricate fabric can develop rapidly over short distances in mass flows. Pebble long axes aligned subparallel to deposit margins as well as subparallel to margins of surge waves arrested within the deposits. Pebble alignment exhibited modes both parallel to (a(p)), and normal to (a(t)), the primary flow direction; intermediate axes dipped preferentially inward from surge-wave margins (b(i) orientation). Repetitive development of margin-parallel, imbricate fabric distributed across deposit surfaces provides compelling evidence that deposits formed dominantly through progressive incremental accretion rather than through simple en masse emplacement. Pronounced fabric along deposit and arrested surge-wave margins reflects significant grain interaction along flow margins. This sedimentological evidence for significant marginal grain interaction complements theoretical analyses (Iverson, 1997) and other experimental data (Major, 1996: Iverson, 1997) that indicate that resistance along flow margins is an important factor affecting debris-flow deposition. The fabric on the experimental deposits demonstrates that debris flows can develop strongly imbricate particle orientation that mimics fabric developed during fluvial deposition. Particle shape and local stress fields appear to have more control over fabric development than does general depositional process. Other criteria in addition to particle orientation are needed to discriminate mass flow from fluvial gravel deposits and to unravel depositional history. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Machine Translation Experiments on PADIC: A Parallel Arabic DIalect Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Meftouh, Karima; Harrat , Salima; Jamoussi, Salma; Abbas, Mourad; Smaili, Kamel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We present in this paper PADIC, a Parallel Arabic DIalect Corpus we built from scratch, then we conducted experiments on cross-dialect Arabic machine translation. PADIC is composed of dialects from both the Maghreb and the Middle-East. Each dialect has been aligned with Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). Three dialects from Maghreb are concerned by this study: two from Algeria, one from Tunisia, and two dialects from the Middle-East (Syria and Palestine). PADIC has been bui...

  10. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of aerosol deposition in pebble beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhosi, Margaret Msongi

    2007-12-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor is a high temperature gas cooled reactor which uses helium gas as a coolant. The reactor uses spherical graphite pebbles as fuel. The fuel design is inherently resistant to the release of the radioactive material up to high temperatures; therefore, the plant can withstand a broad spectrum of accidents with limited release of radionuclides to the environment. Despite safety features of the concepts, these reactors still contain large inventories of radioactive materials. The transport of most of the radioactive materials in an accident occurs in the form of aerosol particles. In this dissertation, the limits of applicability of existing computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT to the prediction of aerosol transport have been explored. The code was run using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models to determine the effects of different turbulence models on the prediction of aerosol particle deposition. Analyses were performed for up to three unit cells in the orthorhombic configuration. For low flow conditions representing natural circulation driven flow, the laminar flow model was used and the results were compared with existing experimental data for packed beds. The results compares well with experimental data in the low flow regime. For conditions corresponding to normal operating of the reactor, analyses were performed using the standard k-ɛ turbulence model. From the inertial deposition results, a correlation that can be used to estimate the deposition of aerosol particles within pebble beds given inlet flow conditions has been developed. These results were converted into a dimensionless form as a function of a modified Stokes number. Based on results obtained in the laminar regime and for individual pebbles, the correlation developed for the inertial impaction component of deposition is believed to be credible. The form of the correlation developed also allows these results to be applied to pebble beds of different

  11. Development of Chinese HTR-PM pebble bed equivalent conductivity test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Cheng; Yang, Xingtuan; Jiang, Shengyao [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology

    2016-01-15

    The first two 250-MWt high-temperature reactor pebble bed modules (HTR-PM) have been installing at the Shidaowan plant in Shandong Province, China. The values of the effective thermal conductivity of the pebble bed core are essential parameters for the design. For their determination, Tsinghua University in China has proposed a full-scale heat transfer experiment to conduct comprehensive thermal transfer tests in packed pebble bed and to determine the effective thermal conductivity.

  12. The dialectical antinomies for leisure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Martins Piccolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks, through a dry process of literature review, demarcate the leisure at the space dialectic of ownership, enjoyment and cultural objectification by the experience of entertainment in society, stressing the leisure phenomenon characteristic of mediated tools in the production of knowledge, which materiality can either be in line to the incorporation of the goals proposed by the hegemonic classes but also to critique these assumptions. Still in the framework of the text pointed possible relationships between physical education and leisure, which aim to produce a play area libertarian and emancipated. Keywords: leisure, Physical Education and culture.

  13. ARABIC DIALECT STUDIES, A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOBELMAN, HARVEY; AND OTHERS

    FOUR BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW ARTICLES ON ARABIC DIALECT STUDIES THAT HAD PREVIOUSLY APPEARED WERE CORRECTED AND UPDATED FOR PUBLICATION. THE PURPOSE OF THESE REVISED ARTICLES IS TO PROVIDE THE INTERESTED STUDENT WITH A CAREFULLY EVALUATED LIST OF ALL THE SIGNIFICANT SCHOLARLY WORK PUBLISHED ON ARABIC DIALECTS. THE AUTHORS OF THE ORIGINAL FOUR…

  14. Saudi Arabic, Urban Hijazi Dialect: Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret K.

    The three major dialect groups of Saudi Arabia are Hijazi, Najdi and Shargi. Hijazi is used for government and commercial purposes and is the most widely understood. This basic course uses the Hijazi dialect of Jidda, which is designated "urban" to distinguish it from Bedouin varieties. The book will provide students with the basic…

  15. The Dialectics of Agency in Educational Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainio, Anna Pauliina; Hilppö, Jaakko

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a dialectical conceptualisation of children's agency for the purposes of multidisciplinary educational theory and practice. We illuminate five contradictory but connected dimensions of children's agency, or "the dialectics of agency," identified from theoretical debate between sociologically and psychologically…

  16. Indonesian Basic Course: The Djakarta Dialect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Seven everyday topics are discussed in Basa Djarkarta, a dialect of Malay spoken in Djarkarta by over three million people. The purpose of the reading text, part of the basic course in Indonesian for official United States military personnel, is to acquaint students with this increasingly popular dialect in addition to Bahasa Indonesian, the…

  17. Evaluating and Evolving Metadata in Multiple Dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozimor, J.; Habermann, T.; Powers, L. A.; Gordon, S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite many long-term homogenization efforts, communities continue to develop focused metadata standards along with related recommendations and (typically) XML representations (aka dialects) for sharing metadata content. Different representations easily become obstacles to sharing information because each representation generally requires a set of tools and skills that are designed, built, and maintained specifically for that representation. In contrast, community recommendations are generally described, at least initially, at a more conceptual level and are more easily shared. For example, most communities agree that dataset titles should be included in metadata records although they write the titles in different ways. This situation has led to the development of metadata repositories that can ingest and output metadata in multiple dialects. As an operational example, the NASA Common Metadata Repository (CMR) includes three different metadata dialects (DIF, ECHO, and ISO 19115-2). These systems raise a new question for metadata providers: if I have a choice of metadata dialects, which should I use and how do I make that decision? We have developed a collection of metadata evaluation tools that can be used to evaluate metadata records in many dialects for completeness with respect to recommendations from many organizations and communities. We have applied these tools to over 8000 collection and granule metadata records in four different dialects. This large collection of identical content in multiple dialects enables us to address questions about metadata and dialect evolution and to answer those questions quantitatively. We will describe those tools and results from evaluating the NASA CMR metadata collection.

  18. White Dialectics as Multidimensional, Contextual, and Transformational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elizabeth M.; Todd, Nathan R.

    2011-01-01

    This rejoinder provides a response to reactions by Ponterotto, Sue, and Toporek to the White dialectics framework presented in Todd and Abrams's article. The present response focuses on incorporating multidimensionality, the multilevel nature of context, and the potential for transformation in the White dialectics framework. The authors expand…

  19. Culture, Dialectics, and Reasoning about Contradiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kaiping; Nisbett, Richard E.

    1999-01-01

    Results of five experiments involving 212 U.S. undergraduates and 177 Chinese undergraduates and 34 U.S. graduate students and 32 Chinese graduate students show that dialectical thinking is a form of folk wisdom in Chinese culture. Chinese participants preferred dialectical proverbs containing seeming contradictions more than did U.S. students.…

  20. Syntactic Atlas of the Dutch Dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbiers, Sjef; Bennis, Hans; Vogelaer, De Gunther; Devos, Magda; Ham, van der Margreet

    2005-01-01

    Available in a Dutch and English Edition, the Syntactic Atlas of the Dutch Dialects (SAND) provides a detailed overview of the surprisingly rich syntactic variation found in 267 dialects of Dutch at the beginning of the 21th century. 200 full color maps show the geographic distribution of more than

  1. Measuring Norwegian dialect distances using acoustic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, Wilbert; Johnson, Keith; Gooskens, Charlotte

    Levenshtein distance has become a popular tool for measuring linguistic dialect distances, and has been applied to Irish Gaelic, Dutch, German and other dialect groups. The method, in the current state of the art, depends upon phonetic transcriptions, even when acoustic differences are used the

  2. Materialism, Dialectics and Theology in Alain Badiou

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Mads Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between materialism, dialectics, and theology in Alain Badiou's work. The first three sections of the article focus on Badiou's reading of Hegelian dialectics in his 1982 work, Theory of the Subject. The first section accounts for Badiou's splitting of Hegel...

  3. Diseño de un codificador y decodificador digital Reed-Solomon usando programación en VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedón

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un procedimiento práctico para el diseño de un codificador/decodificador Reed-Solomon a través de la descripción funcional usando lenguaje descriptor de hardware (VHDL con la herramienta de programación Xilinx ISE 9.2i. Este trabajo propone un diseño que usa los beneficios que presenta la programación VHDL, su característica de modularidad, y la estrategia de seccionar el diseño en componentes menos complejos para facilitar el proceso. Además, se detalla la metodología del diseño del decodificador a través de procesamiento paralelo. Para la validación del comportamiento del codificador/decodificador, se realizaron simulaciones con el programa ModelSim XE 5.7c.

  4. The dialect in Italy after the union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grochowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Italian dialects occupy an important position in the history of Italian linguistics and are still present and relevant in the linguistic panorama of modern Italy. The purpose of this article is to outline the linguistic image of Italy by drawing attention to its dialects. Through analysis of the situation after unification in Italy in 1861, the author attempts to mark off functions and roles which dialects used to serve. In the second part of the article she concentrates on the phenomena of nuova dialettalità, or the new perspective and collocation of dialect in the Italian linguistic panorama of the 21st century. This article is a part of a research project dedicated to functions and uses of dialects in the Italian cinematography.

  5. A DIALECTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF TRAUMA PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brurit Laub

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a dialectical perspective, which attempts to elucidate the integrative components of trauma processing in therapy. It is proposed that the inherent movement toward greater integration is an expanding dialectical movement. It is conceived as a spiral resulting from the synergy of two dialectical movements. The horizontal line moves between the opposite aspects of the individual (thesis vs. antithesis toward a synthesis. The vertical line moves upward via whole/part shifts toward greater integration, or downward toward disintegration and fragmentation. It is proposed that the complementary processes of differentiation and linking are the building blocks of the integrative/dialectical movement. Differentiation relates to the separation of parts and linking relates to their connection. The role of differentiation and linking in three basic interacting systems of trauma work is discussed. It is proposed that the dialectical principles are applicable to various therapeutic approaches and clinical vignettes are included to illustrate.

  6. Critical realism and the dialectic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J M

    2001-12-01

    A prominent strand within both sociological and social theory has been concerned to develop a 'systems approach' with which to explore social life. One of the most original contributions to a systems approach has arisen within critical realism. In particular critical realism demonstrates that it is possible to abstract the causal powers of different objects of analysis to examine their interaction within concrete and contingent 'open systems'. The recent dialectical turn of critical realism develops this systems approach in a much more rigorous manner. However, in this paper I argue that the (dialectical) critical realist mode of abstraction ultimately fails to embed concepts and categories internally within the specific ideological and historical forms of social relations. Or rather, critical realists do not seek to develop concepts that reflect the self-movement of a historical and contradictory essence. This self-movement is what I prefer to call a 'system'. Consequently critical realists are led to separate method from system in theory construction and such a separation leads to a problematic dualist mode of theorizing. I make these observations from a Hegelian-Marxist position.

  7. The reprocessing of advanced mixed lithium orthosilicate/metatitanate tritium breeder pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leys, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.leys@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Bergfeldt, Thomas; Kolb, Matthias H.H.; Knitter, Regina [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany); Goraieb, Aniceto A. [Karlsruhe Beryllium Handling Facility, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, 76344 (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • The recycling of advanced breeder pebbles without a deterioration of the material properties is possible using a melt-based process. • The only accumulation of impurities upon reprocessing, results from the platinum crucible alloy used for processing. • It is possible to replenish burnt-up lithium by additions of LiOH·H{sub 2}O to the melt during reprocessing. - Abstract: The recycling of tritium breeding materials will be necessary for any future use of nuclear fusion energy due to economical as well as ecological considerations. In the case of the solid breeder blanket concept, the ceramic pebble beds that are intended for the generation of tritium will eventually need to be restored due to depleted lithium levels as well as due to fractured pebbles, which will cause a deterioration of the pebble bed properties. It is proposed that the pebbles, which are fabricated using a melt-based process, are recycled using the same initial process, by replenishing the lithium levels and reforming the pebbles at the same time. To prove this recycling scheme, advanced ceramic pebbles were fabricated and then re-melted multiple times to prove that the reprocessing did not have any negative effect on the pebble properties and secondly, pebbles were produced with a simulated lithium burn-up and subsequently replenished by additions of LiOH to the melt. It was shown that the re-melting and lithium re-enrichment had no effect on the pebble properties, demonstrating that a melt-based process is suitable for recycling used breeder pebbles.

  8. Mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles at blanket relevant temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurinskiy, Petr, E-mail: petr.kurinskiy@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rolli, Rolf [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Materials Biomechanics (IAM-WBM), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Fusion Institute, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Oaza-Obuchi-Aza-Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aoori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of two kinds of Be–Ti pebbles in the temperature range of 400–800 °C was investigated. • It was experimentally shown that Be-7 at.%Ti pebbles have the enhanced ductile properties compared to Be-7.7 at.%Ti pebbles. • Brittle failure of both kinds of Be–Ti pebbles was observed by testing at 400 °C using the constant loading with 150 N. - Abstract: Mechanical performance of beryllium-based materials is a matter of a great interest from the point of view of their use as neutron multipliers of the tritium breeding blankets. The compression strains which can occur in beryllium pebble beds under blanket working conditions will lead to deformation or even failure of individual pebbles [1,2] (Reimann et al. 2002; Ishitsuka and Kawamura, 1995). Mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles having chemical contents of Be-7.0 at.% Ti and Be-7.7 at.%Ti was investigated in the temperature range of 400–800 °C. Constant loads varying from 10 up to 150 N were applied uniaxially. It was shown that Be–Ti pebbles compared to pure beryllium pebbles possess much lower ductility, although their strength properties exceed corresponding characteristics of pure beryllium. Also, the influence of titanium content on mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles was investigated. Specific features of deformation of pure beryllium and Be–Ti pebbles having different titanium contents at blanket operation temperatures are discussed.

  9. Planet population synthesis driven by pebble accretion in cluster environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndugu, N.; Bitsch, B.; Jurua, E.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of protoplanetary discs embedded in stellar clusters depends on the age and the stellar density in which they are embedded. Stellar clusters of young age and high stellar surface density destroy protoplanetary discs by external photoevaporation and stellar encounters. Here, we consider the effect of background heating from newly formed stellar clusters on the structure of protoplanetary discs and how it affects the formation of planets in these discs. Our planet formation model is built on the core accretion scenario, where we take the reduction of the core growth time-scale due to pebble accretion into account. We synthesize planet populations that we compare to observations obtained by radial velocity measurements. The giant planets in our simulations migrate over large distances due to the fast type-II migration regime induced by a high disc viscosity (α = 5.4 × 10-3). Cold Jupiters (rp > 1 au) originate preferably from the outer disc, due to the large-scale planetary migration, while hot Jupiters (rp population of isolated stars host a significant amount of giant planets even at low metallicity, in contradiction to observations where giant planets are preferably found around high metallicity stars, indicating that pebble accretion is very efficient in the standard pebble accretion framework. On the other hand, discs around stars embedded in cluster environments hardly form any giant planets at low metallicity in agreement with observations, where these changes originate from the increased temperature in the outer parts of the disc, which prolongs the core accretion time-scale of the planet. We therefore conclude that the outer disc structure and the planet's formation location determines the giant planet occurrence rate and the formation efficiency of cold and hot Jupiters.

  10. Pebble bed reactor fuel cycle optimization using particle swarm algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavron, Barak, E-mail: btavron@bgu.ac.il [Planning, Development and Technology Division, Israel Electric Corporation Ltd., P.O. Box 10, Haifa 31000 (Israel); Shwageraus, Eugene, E-mail: es607@cam.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Particle swarm method has been developed for fuel cycle optimization of PBR reactor. • Results show uranium utilization low sensitivity to fuel and core design parameters. • Multi-zone fuel loading pattern leads to a small improvement in uranium utilization. • Thorium mixes with highly enriched uranium yields the best uranium utilization. - Abstract: Pebble bed reactors (PBR) features, such as robust thermo-mechanical fuel design and on-line continuous fueling, facilitate wide range of fuel cycle alternatives. A range off fuel pebble types, containing different amounts of fertile or fissile fuel material, may be loaded into the reactor core. Several fuel loading zones may be used since radial mixing of the pebbles was shown to be limited. This radial separation suggests the possibility to implement the “seed-blanket” concept for the utilization of fertile fuels such as thorium, and for enhancing reactor fuel utilization. In this study, the particle-swarm meta-heuristic evolutionary optimization method (PSO) has been used to find optimal fuel cycle design which yields the highest natural uranium utilization. The PSO method is known for solving efficiently complex problems with non-linear objective function, continuous or discrete parameters and complex constrains. The VSOP system of codes has been used for PBR fuel utilization calculations and MATLAB script has been used to implement the PSO algorithm. Optimization of PBR natural uranium utilization (NUU) has been carried out for 3000 MWth High Temperature Reactor design (HTR) operating on the Once Trough Then Out (OTTO) fuel management scheme, and for 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) operating on the multi-pass (MEDUL) fuel management scheme. Results showed only a modest improvement in the NUU (<5%) over reference designs. Investigation of thorium fuel cases showed that the use of HEU in combination with thorium results in the most favorable reactor performance in terms of

  11. Variation in the strength of lexical encoding across dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapper, Cynthia G.; Tamati, Terrin N.; Pierrehumbert, Janet B.

    Lexical processing is slower and less accurate for unfamiliar dialects than familiar dialects. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that dialect differences in lexical processing reflect differences in lexical encoding strength across dialects. Lexical encoding (i.e., updating

  12. Mutual intelligibility of Chinese dialects : an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Chaoju

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the mutual intelligibility between all 225 pairs of 15 Chinese dialects, in two main branches, i.e., six Mandarin dialects and nine non-Mandarin (Southern) dialects. The dialects (often distinct languages by western standards) differ in the richness of their lexical tone

  13. The Dialectic as a Tool for Teaching Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Presents dialectical thinking as a useful tool in teaching psychology. Argues that the basic notion of dialectical thinking is that ideas evolve in cycles. Provides examples of dialectical thinking in psychology and methods of using it in teaching. Contrasts the dialectical model for teaching with the more traditional model. (DSK)

  14. Dialectical Philosophy and Developmental Psychology: Hegel and Piaget on Contradiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James

    1975-01-01

    Suggests that although Piaget's psychological theory is developmental and dialectical in a general way, the lack of a developed philosophical basis leads to the subordination of a dialectical approach to static, anti-dialectical concepts. Hegel's theory of interaction and contradiction is examined to show that dialectical theory has a precise…

  15. Proverb preferences across cultures: dialecticality or poeticality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mike; Chen, Hsin-Chin; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2006-04-01

    Peng and Nisbett (1999) claimed that members of Asian cultures show a greater preference than Euro-Americans for proverbs expressing paradox (so-called dialectical proverbs; e.g., Too humble is half proud). The present research sought to replicate this claim with the same set of stimuli used in Peng and Nisbett's Experiment 2 and a new set of dialectical and nondialectical proverbs that were screened to be comparably pleasing in phrasing. Whereas the proverbs were rated as more familiar and (in Set 1) more poetic by Chinese than by American participants, no group differences were found in relation to proverb dialecticality. Both the Chinese and Americans in our study rated the dialectical proverbs from Peng and Nisbett's study as more likable, higher in wisdom, and higher in poeticality than the nondialectical proverbs. For Set 2, both groups found the dialectical proverbs to be as likable, wise, and poetic as the nondialectical proverbs. When poeticality was covaried out, dialectical proverbs were liked better than nondialectical proverbs across both stimulus sets by the Chinese and the Americans alike, and when wisdom was covaried out, the effect of dialecticality was reduced in both sets and groups. Our findings indicate that caution should be taken in ascribing differences in proverb preferences solely to cultural differences in reasoning.

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Latina Adolescents: Supplemental Dialectical Corollaries and Treatment Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán, Miguelina; Smith, Heather L; Rivera-Morales, Camila; González, Garnetta; Haliczer, Lauren A; Haaz, Chloe; Miller, Alec L

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to describe extreme behavioral patterns that the authors have observed in treating Latina adolescents who are suicidal and their parents within the framework of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). These extreme patterns, called dialectical corollaries, serve to supplement the adolescent/family dialectical dilemmas described by Rathus and Miller (2002) as part of dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescents with borderline personality features. The dialectical corollaries proposed are "old school versus new school" and "overprotecting" versus "underprotecting," and they are described in-depth. We also identify specific treatment targets for each corollary and discuss therapeutic techniques aimed at achieving a synthesis between the polarities that characterize each corollary. Lastly, we suggest clinical strategies to use when therapists reach a therapeutic impasse with the parent-adolescent dyad (i.e., dialectical failures).

  17. Influence of gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic breeder pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Weijing [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Pupeschi, Simone [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Hanaor, Dorian [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Institute for Materials Science and Technologies, Technical University of Berlin (Germany); Gan, Yixiang, E-mail: yixiang.gan@sydney.edu.au [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • This study explicitly demonstrates the influence of the gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds. • The gas pressure influence is shown to correlated to the pebble size. • The effective thermal conductivity is linked to thermal-mechanical properties of pebbles and packing structure. - Abstract: Lithium ceramics have been considered as tritium breeder materials in many proposed designs of fusion breeding blankets. Heat generated in breeder pebble beds due to nuclear breeding reaction must be removed by means of actively cooled plates while generated tritiums is recovered by purge gas slowly flowing through beds. Therefore, the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds that is one of the governing parameters determining heat transport phenomenon needs to be addressed with respect to mechanical status of beds and purge gas pressure. In this study, a numerical framework combining finite element simulation and a semi-empirical correlation of gas gap conduction is proposed to predict the effective thermal conductivity. The purge gas pressure is found to vary the effective thermal conductivity, in particular with the presence of various sized gaps in pebble beds. Random packing of pebble beds is taken into account by an approximated correlation considering the packing factor and coordination number of pebble beds. The model prediction is compared with experimental observation from different sources showing a quantitative agreement with the measurement.

  18. Rhythmic variability in Swiss German dialects

    OpenAIRE

    Leemann, Adrian; Dellwo, Volker; Kolly, Marie-José; Schmid, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Speech rhythm can be measured acoustically in terms of durational characteristics of consonantal and vocalic intervals. The present paper investigated how acoustically measurable rhythm varies across dialects of Swiss German. Rhythmic measurements (%V, ∆C, ∆V, varcoC, varcoV, rPVI-C, nPVI- C, nPVI-V) were carried out on four sentences of six speakers from eight Swiss dialects. Results indicate that there are significant differences across the dialects in some rhythm measures but not in others...

  19. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

    2012-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  20. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  1. The use of Hegelian dialectics in nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, Lisbeth; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this column is to describe dialectics as a philosophy and method which can be used by nurses to make a contribution to nursing science. Dialectics can be used in three ways: as a philosophical approach, as a method using the dialectic laws, and as a method of describing the dialectic process by focusing on the dynamic elements of the process. Dialectics can also be combined with hermeneutics.

  2. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) graphite pebble fuel: Review of technologies for reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcwilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-08

    This report reviews literature on reprocessing high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite fuel components. A basic review of the various fuel components used in the pebble bed type reactors is provided along with a survey of synthesis methods for the fabrication of the fuel components. Several disposal options are considered for the graphite pebble fuel elements including the storage of intact pebbles, volume reduction by separating the graphite from fuel kernels, and complete processing of the pebbles for waste storage. Existing methods for graphite removal are presented and generally consist of mechanical separation techniques such as crushing and grinding chemical techniques through the use of acid digestion and oxidation. Potential methods for reprocessing the graphite pebbles include improvements to existing methods and novel technologies that have not previously been investigated for nuclear graphite waste applications. The best overall method will be dependent on the desired final waste form and needs to factor in the technical efficiency, political concerns, cost, and implementation.

  3. Application of a model to investigate the effective thermal conductivity of randomly packed fusion pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Jie; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    In our precious study, a prediction model, which calculates the effective thermal conductivity k{sub eff} of mono-sized pebble beds, has been developed and validated. Based on this model, here the effects of these influencing factors such as pebble size, thermal radiation, contact area, filling gas, gas flow, gas pressure, etc. on the k{sub eff} of randomly packed fusion pebble beds are studied and analyzed. The pebble beds investigated include Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}O, Be and BeO pebble beds. In the current study, many important and meaningful conclusions are derived and some of them are similar to the existing research results. Particularly, some critters that under which conditions the effect of some influencing factors can be neglected or should be considered are also presented.

  4. Production of various sizes and some properties of beryllium pebbles by the rotating electrode method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwadachi, T.; Sakamoto, N.; Nishida, K. [NGK Insulators Ltd., Nagoya (Japan); Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The particle size distribution of beryllium pebbles produced by the rotating electrode method was investigated. Particle size depends on some physical properties and process parameters, which can practicaly be controlled by varying electrode angular velocities. The average particle sizes produced were expressed by the hyperbolic function with electrode angular velocity. Particles within the range of 0.3 and 2.0 mm in diameter are readily produced by the rotating electrode method while those of 0.2 mm in diameter are also fabricable. Sphericity and surface roughness were good in each size of pebble. Grain sizes of the pebbles are 17 {mu} m in 0.25 mm diameter pebbles and 260 {mu} m in 1.8 mm diameter pebbles. (author)

  5. Pebble Accretion at the Origin of Water in Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnet, Thomas; Mousis, Olivier; Vernazza, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Despite the fact that the observed gradient in water content among the Galilean satellites is globally consistent with a formation in a circum-Jovian disk on both sides of the snowline, the mechanisms that led to a low water mass fraction in Europa (˜8%) are not yet understood. Here, we present new modeling results of solids transport in the circum-Jovian disk accounting for aerodynamic drag, turbulent diffusion, surface temperature evolution, and sublimation of water ice. We find that the water mass fraction of pebbles (e.g., solids with sizes of 10-2-1 m) as they drift inward is globally consistent with the current water content of the Galilean system. This opens the possibility that each satellite could have formed through pebble accretion within a delimited region whose boundaries were defined by the position of the snowline. This further implies that the migration of the forming satellites was tied to the evolution of the snowline so that Europa fully accreted from partially dehydrated material in the region just inside of the snowline.

  6. Dialectical Reason and Education: Sartre's Fused Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Haim

    1985-01-01

    Philosophers of education tend to stress the importance of analytic and scientific thinking. A discussion of how dialectical reasoning, as developed by Jean Paul Sartre, can contribute to educational thought is offered. (DF)

  7. Material Dialectic. Donald Judd and Philip Johnson

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Teresa Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this writing is to consider how a certain material dialectic is stated in the so called Mansana de Chinati, a complex built by the sculptor Donald Judd in the city of Marfa, Texas...

  8. A dialectical perspective on assessment in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine

    In this presentation, I will describe dialectical processes in self-assessment. Dialectical processes are means to understand how subjects both live their life under certain conditions and at the same time change these conditions. The theoretical foundation is critical psychology which has...... developed its sense of dialectics from a Hegelian and Marxist philosophical tradition rooted in a critique of the Cartesian framework (Bernstein, 1971).Over the past decade, evaluation has become a big issue in the debate of the Danish school system. It is now required that teachers assess their pupils......’ learning abilities. The practice of evaluation and assessment is very complex, and is often described as involving both social control and individual development (Borgnakke, 1996, Dahler-Larsen 2006). From the theoretical perspective of critical psychology, I will describe dialectical processes in self...

  9. Power and caring: a dialectic in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, A R

    1996-09-01

    The tension between power and caring in nursing is evident through the volume of nursing literature related to power and powerlessness and through nurses' discomfort with notions of power. A dialectical examination of the concepts of power and caring reveals that at one level they appear to be polar opposites. Additional layers of the dialectic reflect different relationships between power and caring until they are seen as intertwined and mutually generative concepts in an approach to caring labeled "empowered caring".

  10. The Dialectical Nature of Business Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2006-01-01

    The main argument is that contemporary scholarly activities in the field of strategy may benefit from viewing strategy as a dialectical phenomenon in terms of a continuous transposition of managerial decision making situations.......The main argument is that contemporary scholarly activities in the field of strategy may benefit from viewing strategy as a dialectical phenomenon in terms of a continuous transposition of managerial decision making situations....

  11. Pebble Bed Reactors Design Optimization Methods and their Application to the Pebble Bed Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Anselmo Tomas, Jr.

    The Fluoride salt cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR) is a class of advanced nuclear reactors that combine the robust coated particle fuel form from high temperature gas cooled reactors, direct reactor auxillary cooling system (DRACS) passive decay removal of liquid metal fast reactors, and the transparent, high volumetric heat capacitance liquid fluoride salt working fluids---flibe (33%7Li2F-67%BeF)---from molten salt reactors. This combination of fuel and coolant enables FHRs to operate in a high-temperature low-pressure design space that has beneficial safety and economic implications. In 2012, UC Berkeley was charged with developing a pre-conceptual design of a commercial prototype FHR---the Pebble Bed- Fluoride Salt Cooled High Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR)---as part of the Nuclear Energy University Programs' (NEUP) integrated research project. The Mark 1 design of the PB-FHR (Mk1 PB-FHR) is 236 MWt flibe cooled pebble bed nuclear heat source that drives an open-air Brayton combine-cycle power conversion system. The PB-FHR's pebble bed consists of a 19.8% enriched uranium fuel core surrounded by an inert graphite pebble reflector that shields the outer solid graphite reflector, core barrel and reactor vessel. The fuel reaches an average burnup of 178000 MWt-d/MT. The Mk1 PB-FHR exhibits strong negative temperature reactivity feedback from the fuel, graphite moderator and the flibe coolant but a small positive temperature reactivity feedback of the inner reflector and from the outer graphite pebble reflector. A novel neutronics and depletion methodology---the multiple burnup state methodology was developed for an accurate and efficient search for the equilibrium composition of an arbitrary continuously refueled pebble bed reactor core. The Burnup Equilibrium Analysis Utility (BEAU) computer program was developed to implement this methodology. BEAU was successfully benchmarked against published results generated with existing equilibrium depletion codes VSOP

  12. Dialectical Schemata. A Framework for the Empirical Study of the Development of Dialectical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basseches, M.

    1980-01-01

    A dialectical schemata framework was used to interpret, code, and compare 27 interviews on the nature of education with freshmen, seniors and faculty members at a small, highly selective liberal arts college in order to provide a description of the organization of dialectical thinking and its presence in mature thought. (Author/DB)

  13. Fabrication of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles by a freeze drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jin, E-mail: lee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Mokpo National University, Muan 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Min-Woo [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Mokpo National University, Muan 534-729 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were successfully fabricated by using a freeze drying process. The Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} slurry was prepared using a commercial powder of particle size 0.5–1.5 μm and the pebble pre-form was prepared by dropping the slurry into liquid nitrogen through a syringe needle. The droplets were rapidly frozen, changing their morphology to spherical pebbles. The frozen pebbles were dried at −10 °C in vacuum. To make crack-free pebbles, some glycerin was employed in the slurry, and long drying time and a low vacuum condition were applied in the freeze drying process. In the process, the solid content in the slurry influenced the spheroidicity of the pebble green body. The dried pebbles were sintered at 1200 °C in an air atmosphere. The sintered pebbles showed almost 40% shrinkage. The sintered pebbles revealed a porous microstructure with a uniform pore distribution and the sintered pebbles were crushed under an average load of 50 N in a compressive strength test. In the present study, a freeze drying process for fabrication of spherical Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles is introduced. The processing parameters, such as solid content in the slurry and the conditions of freeze drying and sintering, are also examined.

  14. Some Movement Mechanisms and Characteristics in Pebble Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pebblebed-type high temperature gas-cooled reactor is considered to be one of the promising solutions for generation IV advanced reactors, and the two-region arranged reactor core can enhance its advantages by flattening neutron flux. However, this application is held back by the existence of mixing zone between central and peripheral regions, which results from pebbles’ dispersion motions. In this study, experiments have been carried out to study the dispersion phenomenon, and the variation of dispersion region and radial distribution of pebbles in the specifically shaped flow field are shown. Most importantly, the standard deviation of pebbles’ radial positions in dispersion region, as a quantitative index to describe the size of dispersion region, is gotten through statistical analysis. Besides, discrete element method has been utilized to analyze the parameter influence on dispersion region, and this practice offers some strategies to eliminate or reduce mixing zone in practical reactors.

  15. Pebble Bed Reactor: core physics and fuel cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Worley, B.A.

    1979-10-01

    The Pebble Bed Reactor is a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high-temperature reactor that is continuously fueled with small spherical fuel elements. The projected performance was studied over a broad range of reactor applicability. Calculations were done for a burner on a throwaway cycle, a converter with recycle, a prebreeder and breeder. The thorium fuel cycle was considered using low, medium (denatured), and highly enriched uranium. The base calculations were carried out for electrical energy generation in a 1200 MW/sub e/ plant. A steady-state, continuous-fueling model was developed and one- and two-dimensional calculations were used to characterize performance. Treating a single point in time effects considerable savings in computer time as opposed to following a long reactor history, permitting evaluation of reactor performance over a broad range of design parameters and operating modes.

  16. Positron emission tomography in pebble beds. Part 1: Liquid particle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, T., E-mail: t.barth@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (IFD), Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Ludwig, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (IFD), Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kulenkampff, J.; Gründig, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Franke, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmacy (IRP), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lippmann-Pipke, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Hampel, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Fluid Dynamics (IFD), Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, AREVA Endowed Chair of Imaging Techniques in Energy and Process Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Particle deposition in a pebble bed was recorded by positron emission tomography. • The particles were radioactively labelled and their spatial distribution was recorded. • Particle deposition was mainly driven by particle inertia and turbulent dispersion. • Particle deposits form hot spots on the upstream face of the single pebbles. - Abstract: Accidental scenarios such as the depressurisation of the primary circuit of high temperature gas cooled pebble bed reactors may lead to the release of fission products via the discharge of radioactive graphite dust. For a detailed source term assessment in such accident scenarios knowledge of the flow mechanics of dust transport in complex coolant circuit components, like pebble beds, recuperator structures and pipe systems is necessary. In this article an experimental study of aerosol deposition in a pebble bed is described. We investigated the deposition of radiolabelled liquid aerosol particles in a scaled pebble bed in an air-driven small-scale aerosol flow test facility under isothermal ambient conditions. The aerosol particles were generated by means of a condensational aerosol generator with potassium-fluoride (KF) condensation nuclei. Particle concentration measurements upstream and downstream of the pebble bed were performed by isokinetic sampling and particle counting. The results agree with typical deposition curves for turbulent and inertia driven particle deposition. Furthermore, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed to visualize and measure particle deposition distributions in the pebble bed. Results of a selected deposition experiment with moderately large particles (d{sub aero} = 3.5 μm, Re{sup ′}{sub pb}=2200) show that the deposited particles are located in the vicinity of the upstream stagnation points of the pebbles. These findings support the thesis that inertia driven particle deposition is predominating.

  17. Year One Summary of X-energy Pebble Fuel Development at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMurray, Jake W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunt, Rodney D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jolly, Brian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trammell, Michael P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Daniel R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blamer, Brandon J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reif, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Howard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Advanced Reactor Concepts X-energy (ARC-Xe) Pebble Fuel Development project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has successfully completed its first year, having made excellent progress in accomplishing programmatic objectives. The primary focus of research at ORNL in support of X-energy has been the training of X-energy fuel fabrication engineers and the establishment of US pebble fuel production capabilities able to supply the Xe-100 pebble-bed reactor. These efforts have been strongly supported by particle fuel fabrication and characterization expertise present at ORNL from the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program.

  18. Monte Carlo criticality calculation for Pebble-type HTR-PROTEUS core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong Chul; Shin, Chang Ho; Han, Chi Young; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Soon Young [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    These days, pebble-bed and other High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs are once again in vogue in connection with hydrogen production. In this study, as a part of establishing Monte Carlo computation system for HTGR core analysis, some criticality calculations for pebble-type HTGR were carried out using MCNP code. Firstly, the pebble-bed cores of HTR-PROTEUS critical facility in Swiss were selected for the benchmark model, and, after the detailed MCNP modeling of the whole facility, criticality calculations were performed. It was also investigated the homogenization effect of TRISO fuel on criticality.

  19. Optimization of mass-production conditions for tritium breeder pebbles based on slurry droplet wetting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yi-Hyun, E-mail: yhpark@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyung-Mi; Ahn, Mu-Young; Cho, Seungyon; Lee, Young-Min [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Jin; Danish, Rehan; Lim, Chul-Hwan; Jo, Yong-Dae [IVT Co., Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • An automatic dispensing system was developed to improve uniformity and production rate of breeder pebbles. • The production rate of this system for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble was estimated at 50 kg/year. • The optimization of dispensing and sintering conditions for the mass-production of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble was conducted. • Integrity of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble was able to be ensured during mass-production process, especially during batch process. - Abstract: Lithium metatitanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) is being considered as tritium breeding material for solid-type breeding blanket, which are used in pebble-bed form. The total amount of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is approximately 80 kg. Furthermore, DEMO reactor requires a great deal of breeder pebbles. Therefore, the development of mass-production system for breeder pebbles is necessary. The slurry droplet wetting method was adopted in the mass-production process for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles, which had been developed in Korea. In this method, an automatic slurry dispensing system is one of the key apparatuses because the uniformity of pebbles and production rate are able to be improved. The system was successfully manufactured, which was consisted of a dispensing unit for instillation of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} slurry, a glycerin bath for hardening of droplets, and an automatic maintaining unit for constant distance between syringe needle and glycerin surface. The production rate of this system for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble was estimated at 50 kg/year. In this study, it was investigated that the effect of dispensing and sintering conditions on the mass-production of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles.

  20. HTR-proteus pebble bed experimental program core 4: random packing with a 1:1 moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sterbentz, James W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Briggs, J. Blair [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gougar, Hans D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snoj, Luka [Jozef Stefan Inst. (IJS), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lengar, Igor [Jozef Stefan Inst. (IJS), Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koberl, Oliver [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2014-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering

  1. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORE 4: RANDOM PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. One benchmark experiment was evaluated in this report: Core 4. Core 4 represents the only configuration with random pebble packing in the HTR-PROTEUS series of experiments, and has a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:1. Three random configurations were performed. The initial configuration, Core 4.1, was rejected because the method for pebble loading, separate delivery tubes for the moderator and fuel pebbles, may not have been completely random; this core loading was rejected by the experimenters. Cores 4.2 and 4.3 were loaded using a single delivery tube, eliminating the possibility for systematic ordering effects. The second and third cores differed slightly in the quantity of pebbles loaded (40 each of moderator and fuel pebbles), stacked height of the pebbles in the core cavity (0.02 m), withdrawn distance of the stainless steel control rods (20 mm), and withdrawn distance of the autorod (30 mm). The 34 coolant channels in the upper axial reflector and the 33 coolant channels in the lower axial reflector were open. Additionally, the axial graphite fillers used in all other HTR-PROTEUS configurations to create a 12-sided core cavity were not used in the randomly packed cores. Instead, graphite fillers were placed on the cavity floor, creating a funnel-like base, to discourage ordering

  2. Pebble Fuel Handling and Reactivity Control for Salt-Cooled High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-02-09

    This report documents the work completed on the X-PREX facility under NEUP Project 11- 3172. This project seeks to demonstrate the viability of pebble fuel handling and reactivity control for fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs). The research results also improve the understanding of pebble motion in helium-cooled reactors, as well as the general, fundamental understanding of low-velocity granular flows. Successful use of pebble fuels in with salt coolants would bring major benefits for high-temperature reactor technology. Pebble fuels enable on-line refueling and operation with low excess reactivity, and thus simpler reactivity control and improved fuel utilization. If fixed fuel designs are used, the power density of salt- cooled reactors is limited to 10 MW/m3 to obtain adequate duration between refueling, but pebble fuels allow power densities in the range of 20 to 30 MW/m3. This can be compared to the typical modular helium reactor power density of 5 MW/m3. Pebble fuels also permit radial zoning in annular cores and use of thorium or graphite pebble blankets to reduce neutron fluences to outer radial reflectors and increase total power production. Combined with high power conversion efficiency, compact low-pressure primary and containment systems, and unique safety characteristics including very large thermal margins (>500°C) to fuel damage during transients and accidents, salt-cooled pebble fuel cores offer the potential to meet the major goals of the Advanced Reactor Concepts Development program to provide electricity at lower cost than light water reactors with improved safety and system performance.This report presents the facility description, experimental results, and supporting simulation methods of the new X-Ray Pebble Recirculation Experiment (X-PREX), which is now operational and being used to collect data on the behavior of slow dense granular flows relevant to pebble bed reactor core designs. The X

  3. Bioethical language and its dialects and idiolects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    Full Text Available In their search for answers to the relevant theoretical questions on importing knowledge in practical ethics, the authors take an instrumental approach to metaphor. This figure of language allows one to compare language and linguistic variants to bioethics and knowledge. As defined by the dictionary, an 'idiom' is the official language of a nation, a 'dialect' is a regional variant of an idiom, and an 'idiolect' is an individual variant of a dialect. The bioethical idiom is thus seen as a linguistic set constituting a 'bioethical nation'. Since it is situated above particular dialects, it exercises more than a regulatory role over the discipline. In this article, in order to focus on the process of transmission of knowledge in bioethics, the authors chose Diego Gracia's work as a paradigmatic reference to the question on the transculturation of dialects and the relations in bioethics which are considered 'peripheral' or 'central'. Although this researcher found the key question pointing to the core of the problem of importing dialects, he is still searching for a proper answer to the cultural/bioethical context/contradiction

  4. Bioethical language and its dialects and idiolects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrafa Volnei

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In their search for answers to the relevant theoretical questions on importing knowledge in practical ethics, the authors take an instrumental approach to metaphor. This figure of language allows one to compare language and linguistic variants to bioethics and knowledge. As defined by the dictionary, an 'idiom' is the official language of a nation, a 'dialect' is a regional variant of an idiom, and an 'idiolect' is an individual variant of a dialect. The bioethical idiom is thus seen as a linguistic set constituting a 'bioethical nation'. Since it is situated above particular dialects, it exercises more than a regulatory role over the discipline. In this article, in order to focus on the process of transmission of knowledge in bioethics, the authors chose Diego Gracia's work as a paradigmatic reference to the question on the transculturation of dialects and the relations in bioethics which are considered 'peripheral' or 'central'. Although this researcher found the key question pointing to the core of the problem of importing dialects, he is still searching for a proper answer to the cultural/bioethical context/contradiction

  5. Health Information in Sudanese (Arabic dialect) (Sudanese Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Sudanese (Arabic dialect) (Sudanese Arabic) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/sudanesearabicdialect.html Health Information in Sudanese (Arabic dialect) (Sudanese Arabic) To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Health Information in Levantine (Arabic dialect) (Levantine Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Levantine (Arabic dialect) (Levantine Arabic) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/levantinearabicdialect.html Health Information in Levantine (Arabic dialect) (Levantine Arabic) To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Greene's Dialectics of Freedom and Dewey's Naturalistic Existential Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This article attempts to develop the Deweyan naturalistic existential metaphysics which underlies Maxine Greene's diverse dialectics. Also included are reflections on the implications of the dialectic of freedom and Dewey's metaphysics for education and the arts. (IAH)

  8. Methodological Issues in Dialect Perception: Some Social Psychological Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard; Bourhis, Richard Y.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents certain innovations in the "matched-guise" technique of dialect study, which is used to determine people's immediate evaluative responses to tape-recorded speakers of various accents, dialects and languages. (CHK)

  9. Health Information in Arabic, Sudanese (Arabic dialect) (Sudanese Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arabic dialect)) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Health Literacy Iraqi Health Outreach Project: Evaluating Web-based Health ... Arabic dialect)) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Postpartum Depression Emotional Changes After Giving Birth - Sudanese Arabic (Arabic, Sudanese ( ...

  10. Health Information in Arabic, Levantine (Arabic dialect) (Levantine Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arabic dialect)) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Health Literacy Iraqi Health Outreach Project: Evaluating Web-based Health ... Arabic dialect)) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Postpartum Depression Emotional Changes After Giving Birth - Levantine Arabic (Arabic, Levantine ( ...

  11. Theory and Experience: Teaching Dialectical Thinking in Counselor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Fred J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Dialectical thinking is a modality that may be able to improve the quality of counselor training when introduced into theory courses. Presents a dialectical look at counseling theories and discusses teaching techniques. Teaching suggestions are offered. (KW)

  12. Comments on Social Cognition in Adulthood: A Dialectical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basseches, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Considers relationships of dialectical thinking to formal operational thought; general conceptions of cognitive structure to understanding thinking across specific domains; motivational and cognitive competence factors in adult reasoning; and contextualistic and dialectical conceptions of social intelligence. Outlines structural-developmental…

  13. The Dialectic Between Romanticism and Classicism in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an application of Alvin Gouldner's dialectic between Romanticism and Classicism to the constitutional process of European identity formation. Gouldner introduced his dialectical sociology in a critical attempt to destroy compulsive identification with any fixed idea of order.

  14. Georgian Dialect Corpus: Linguistic and Encyclopedic Information in Online Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beridze Marina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Georgian Dialect Corpus (GDC has been created within the framework of the project “Linguistic Portrait of Georgia”. It was the first attempt to create a structured corpus of Georgian dialects. The work of this project includes building the technical framework for a corpus, collecting the corpus (text data of Georgian dialects including the lexicographic data (dictionaries, their linguistic processing, digitizing, developing annotation framework, making decision on the morphosyntactic annotation. Currently, the Georgian Dialect Corpus is a platform consisting of the dialect corpus, the text library, the lexicographical database/online dialect dictionaries. For the purposes of developing the lexicographical database and dialect dictionaries, we have created a new program – the Lexicographic Editor. It allows us to structure and improve the dictionaries with multiple linguistic and lexicographic information. The lexicographic concept of the GDC has been developed taking into consideration linguistic and social features of the Georgian dialects.

  15. Socio-dialectal works in the Community of Madrid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilar García Mouton; Isabel Molina Martos

    2009-01-01

    Rural dialects in Madrid, considered to be closer to the normative language than other dialects, have normally been overlooked by geolinguists, in spite of the undoubtedly interest risen by the area...

  16. LEXICOGRAPHICAL STUDIES ON THE SOUTHWESTERN DIALECTS OF THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Greshchuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of compiling the Southwestern dialect dictionaries. A survey of the history of the dialect dictionaries from the mid-nineteenth century to the present is given. The scientific background and principles of compiling the dictionaries in question are analyzed. Special attention is given to dictionary register, dictionary entry structure, description of semantic properties of registered words, illustrative material, word passport. It has been established that many aspects of the Hutsul dialects are reflected in different lexicographical works, though a big academic dictionary still needs to be written. There exist big differential dictionaries of the Boyko, Bukovynian, Upper Dniestrian dialects. The Transcarpathian and Lemko dialects are less closely studied in this respect. There have been carried out some lexicographical studies of the Podillian, Pokuttian, Southern Volynian dialects and the dialects of the Sian river basin; further research is certainly needed to provide a firm basis for compiling dictionaries of these dialects.

  17. Pebble fabrication and tritium release properties of an advanced tritium breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: hoshino.tsuyoshi@jaea.go.jp [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuch, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Edao, Yuki [Tritium Technology Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata, Shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshinori [Blanket Technology Group, Department of Blanket Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [BA Project Coordination Group, Department of Fusion Power Systems Research, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Obuch, Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) pebble as an advanced tritium breeders was fabricated using emulsion method. • Grain size of Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles was controlled to be less than 5 μm. • Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to that of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. - Abstract: Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) has been developed as an advanced tritium breeder. With respect to the tritium release characteristics of the blanket, the optimum grain size after sintering was less than 5 μm. Therefore, an emulsion method was developed to fabricate pebbles with this target grain size. The predominant factor affecting grain growth was assumed to be the presence of binder in the gel particles; this remaining binder was hypothesized to react with the excess Li, thereby generating Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, which promotes grain growth. To inhibit the generation of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, calcined Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles were sintered under vacuum and subsequently under a 1% H{sub 2}–He atmosphere. The average grain size of the sintered Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles was less than 5 μm. Furthermore, the tritium release properties of Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles were evaluated, and deuterium–tritium (DT) neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the Fusion Neutronics Source facility in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. To remove the tritium produced by neutron irradiation, 1% H{sub 2}–He purge gas was passed through the Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties, similar to those of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of tritiated hydrogen gas for easier tritium handling was greater than the released amount of tritiated water.

  18. Language and the bicultural dialectical self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Helen C; O'Dowd, Meghan C

    2011-04-01

    We examined the effect of language priming on naïve dialecticism, with special attention paid to effects on dialectical beliefs about the self. European Americans responding in English and bilingual Chinese responding in either Chinese or English completed several measures designed to tap dialectical thinking and dialectical self-perceptions, including tolerance of contradiction, change in thoughts and behavior over time and context, holistic beliefs, and self-concept inconsistency. As expected, those answering in Chinese reported greater dialecticism on most of these measures, relative to those responding in English. European American responses were highly similar to those of bilinguals responding in English. We discuss advantages of language priming and offer directions for future research.

  19. EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLOPPER, CYNTHIA G.; CONREY, BRIANNA; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the gender of an unfamiliar talker is an easy and automatic process for naïve adult listeners. Sociolinguistic research has consistently revealed gender differences in the production of linguistic variables. Research on the perception of dialect variation, however, has been limited almost exclusively to male talkers. In the present study, naïve participants were asked to categorize unfamiliar talkers by dialect using sentence-length utterances under three presentation conditions: male talkers only, female talkers only, and a mixed gender condition. The results revealed no significant differences in categorization performance across the three presentation conditions. However, a clustering analysis of the listeners’ categorization errors revealed significant effects of talker gender on the underlying perceptual similarity spaces. The present findings suggest that naïve listeners are sensitive to gender differences in speech production and are able to use those differences to reliably categorize unfamiliar male and female talkers by dialect. PMID:21423866

  20. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    OpenAIRE

    Belal Abuata; Asma Al-Omari

    2015-01-01

    Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to d...

  1. Dialectical conditions: Leadership structures as productive action generators

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Albert

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a model of productive leadership structures. It is based on the idea that structures should stimulate dialectical processes which activate functional and simultaneously restrict dysfunctional behavioural tendencies of the management team. The structural dialectics are part of a more comprehensive concept called 'tensegrity', which, besides the dialectic part, embraces the socio-political conditions in the leadership system which enable dialectic structures to unfold th...

  2. Fission Product Transport and Source Terms in HTRs: Experience from AVR Pebble Bed Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Moormann

    2008-01-01

    Fission products deposited in the coolant circuit outside of the active core play a dominant role in source term estimations for advanced small pebble bed HTRs, particularly in design basis accidents (DBA). The deposited fission products may be released in depressurization accidents because present pebble bed HTR concepts abstain from a gas tight containment. Contamination of the circuit also hinders maintenance work. Experiments, performed from 1972 to 88 on the AVR, an experimental ...

  3. STUDI PEMODELAN DAN PERHITUNGAN TRANSPORT MONTE CARLO DALAM TERAS HTR PEBBLE BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair .

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Konsep sistem energi VHTR baik yang berbahan bakar pebble (VHTR pebble bed maupun blok prismatik (VHTR prismatik menarik perhatian fisikawan reaktor nuklir. Salah satu kelebihan teknologi bahan bakar bola adalah menawarkan terobosan teknologi pengisian bahan bakar tanpa harus menghentikan produksi listrik. Selain itu, partikel bahan bakar pebble dengan kernel uranium oksida (UO2 atau uranium oksikarbida (UCO yang dibalut TRISO dan pelapisan silikon karbida (SiC dianggap sebagai opsi utama dengan pertimbangan performa tinggi pada burn-up bahan bakar dan temperatur tinggi. Makalah ini mendiskusikan pemodelan dan perhitungan transport Monte Carlo dalam teras HTR pebble bed. HTR pebble bed adalah reaktor berpendingin gas temperatur tinggi dan bermoderator grafit dengan kemampuan kogenerasi. Perhitungan dikerjakan dengan program MCNP5 pada temperatur 1200 K. Pustaka data nuklir energi kontinu ENDF/B-V dan ENDF/B-VI dimanfaatkan untuk melengkapi analisis. Hasil perhitungan secara keseluruhan menunjukkan konsistensi dengan nilai keff yang hampir sama untuk pustaka data nuklir yang digunakan. Pustaka ENDF/B-VI (66c selalu memproduksi keff lebih besar dibandingkan ENDF/B-V (50c maupun ENDF/B-VI (60c dengan bias kurang dari 0,25%. Kisi BCC memprediksi keff hampir selalu lebih kecil daripada kisi lainnya, khususnya FCC. Nilai keff kisi BCC lebih dekat dengan kisi FCC dengan bias kurang dari 0,19% sedangkan dengan kisi SH bias perhitungannya kurang dari 0,22%. Fraksi packing yang sedikit berbeda (BCC= 61%, SH= 60,459% tidak membuat bias perhitungan menjadi berbeda jauh. Estimasi keff ketiga model kisi menyimpulkan bahwa model BCC lebih bisa diadopsi dalam perhitungan HTR pebble bed dibandingkan model FCC dan SH. Verifikasi hasil estimasi ini perlu dilakukan dengan simulasi Monte Carlo atau bahkan program deterministik lainnya guna optimisasi perhitungan teras reaktor temperatur tinggi.   Kata-kunci: kernel, TRISO, bahan bakar pebble, HTR pebble bed

  4. Modularity of the MIT Pebble Bed Reactor for use by the commercial power industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon-Hyssong, Jaime E.

    2008-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor is a small high temperature helium cooled reactor that is being considered for both electric power and hydrogen production. Pebble bed reactors are being developed in South Africa, China and the US. To make smaller 120 Mwe reactors economically competitive with larger 1500 Mwe traditional light water reactors changes in the way these plants are built are ...

  5. Numerical Simulation of Particle Flow Motion in a Two-Dimensional Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor with Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular pebble-bed nuclear reactor (MPBNR technology is promising due to its attractive features such as high fuel performance and inherent safety. Particle motion of fuel and graphite pebbles is highly associated with the performance of pebbled-bed modular nuclear reactor. To understand the mechanism of pebble’s motion in the reactor, we numerically studied the influence of number ratio of fuel and graphite pebbles, funnel angle of the reactor, height of guide ring on the distribution of pebble position, and velocity by means of discrete element method (DEM in a two-dimensional MPBNR. Velocity distributions at different areas of the reactor as well as mixing characteristics of fuel and graphite pebbles were investigated. Both fuel and graphite pebbles moved downward, and a uniform motion was formed in the column zone, while pebbles motion in the cone zone was accelerated due to the decrease of the cross sectional flow area. The number ratio of fuel and graphite pebbles and the height of guide ring had a minor influence on the velocity distribution of pebbles, while the variation of funnel angle had an obvious impact on the velocity distribution. Simulated results agreed well with the work in the literature.

  6. Rethinking the Dialectic: A Social Semiotic Perspective for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Rhonda; McLaren, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Presents a historical survey of the dialectic, a heuristic device which enables teachers, researchers, and students to transform hierarchies of relations regarding class, race, and gender. The article discusses Hegel, Marx, and Engels, and presents a critique of misperceptions of the dialectic and an analysis of the laws of dialectics. (SM)

  7. Post-dialectic: politics in postcolonial African fiction | Gaylard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their attempt to find political agency is via a rigorous critique of the Marxist dialectic utilised by African nationalism, a critique which, at the least, extends that dialectic into a constellation of multiple dialectics and consequently defamiliarises previous notions of the political. The politics of this fiction might be described as ...

  8. Dialectical Thinking: A Generative Approach to Critical/Creative Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Anthony V.; And Others

    Dialectical thinking has values for education that have been largely overlooked by researchers and educators. Dialectical thinking refers to the ability to view issues from multiple perspectives and to arrive at the most economical and reasonable reconciliation of seemingly contradictory information and postures. Dialectical thinking is a form of…

  9. "Y'all Listenin?": Accessing Children's Dialects in Preschool YEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Armstrong, Jennifer; Santos, Rosa Milagros

    2009-01-01

    Children come to school with the language of their families and communities. For many children, this means that they speak a nonstandard dialect, an English dialect not used as the primary means of instruction in schools. Examples of dialects include African American English (AAE; i.e., Ebonics), Hawaiian Creole, Hispanic English, and Southern…

  10. Dialectical approach to research and development planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Leschly, K.; Feinberg, A.; Smith, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    This paper reports on the methodology and an application of a dialectical approach to research and development planning. The methodology features a structured debate followed by augmentation analysis. The argumentation analysis in turn is followed by an assessment of the plausibility of the arguments. The application involved using the methodology to assess the level of funding for research and development for a transportation system that would employ advanced technology. The Dialectic Inquiry process, and specifically, the plausibility rating activity, were seen as valuable aids for policy analysis. 12 references, 6 figures.

  11. The ethics of compliance: a dialectic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, J D

    1996-09-01

    Compliance with prescribed therapeutic regimens is a construct that begs for consideration from an ethical perspective. This article offers a dialectical study of the nurse-client relationship, derived from Gadow's framework of ethical knowledge, that provides an alternative to compliance as context for nursing therapeutics. The dialectic move from compliance as thesis to isolated autonomy as antithesis is explored. Gadow's notion of engagement is elaborated on and offered as a synthesis that transcends the paternalistic and coercive assumptions underlying compliance and overcomes the dilemmas presented by the issues for power, consumerism, and beneficence that are inherent in isolated autonomy.

  12. A dialectical perspective on burnout and engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Leon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With strong empirical evidence existing for conflicting models, the nature of burnout and engagement continues to be debated. Scholars have recognized the need to theoretically clarify the nature of the burnout–engagement relationship in order to advance empirical research related to both topics. The purpose of this paper is to reconcile existing perspectives through an alternative approach that provides an alternate view of burnout and engagement based on dialectical theory. Implications for common theories used to study burnout and engagement are discussed, followed by suggestions and models for future research utilizing dialectics.

  13. CFD study on the supercritical carbon dioxide cooled pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Dali, E-mail: ydlmitd@outlook.com; Peng, Minjun; Wang, Zhongyi

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • An innovation concept of supercritical carbon dioxide cooled pebble bed reactor is proposed. • Body-centered cuboid (BCCa) arrangement is adopted for the pebbles. • S-CO{sub 2} would be a good candidate coolant for using in pebble bed reactor. - Abstract: The thermal hydraulic study of using supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}), a superior fluid state brayton cycle medium, in pebble bed type nuclear reactor is assessed through computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. Preliminary concept design of this S-CO{sub 2} cooled pebble bed reactor (PBR) is implemented by the well-known KTA heat transfer correlation and Ergun pressure drop equation. Eddy viscosity transport turbulence model is adopted and verified by KTA calculated results. Distributions of the temperature, velocity, pressure and Nusselt (Nu) number of the coolant near the surface of the middle spherical fuel element are obtained and analyzed. The conclusion of the assessment is that S-CO{sub 2} would be a good candidate coolant for using in pebble bed reactor due primarily to its good heat transfer characteristic and large mass density, which could lead to achieve lower pressure drop and higher power density.

  14. Pebble bed structures in the vicinity of concave and convex walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, Joerg, E-mail: reimann-langhans@web.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Brun, Emmanuel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Garching (Germany); Ferrero, Claudio [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Vicente, Jérôme [Polytech Marseille, Marseille (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Detailed tomography experiments were performed to study the packing structure close to concave and convex walls. • A model for arbitrary container geometries is proposed to predict the inner packing factor based on the known total packing factor. • The results are important for the design of ceramic breeder blankets. • The results are relevant for models describing the thermo-mechanical interaction of pebble beds with the blanket structure. - Abstract: Computed tomography experiments were performed with mostly spherical particles in containers with concave, plane and convex walls. Regular pebble packings exist also close to convex cylindrical walls even if the cylinder-to-pebble diameter ratio is about 1, characteristic of thermocouples within the pebble bed. A model for arbitrary container shapes is proposed which predicts the inner packing factor based on the known total packing factor. With increasing vibration efficiency the total packing factor rises because the zones with structured packing increase. Depending on container dimensions, a structured packing can occur in the total pebble bed. Large packing factors are desirable, however, these pebble beds can probably no longer be considered as isotropic with respect to thermo-mechanic properties.

  15. Exploring Twitter as a Source of an Arabic Dialect Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Alshutayri, AOO; Atwell, E

    2017-01-01

    Given the lack of Arabic dialect text corpora in comparison with what is available for dialects of English and other languages, there is a need to create dialect text corpora for use in Arabic natural language processing. What is more, there is an increasing use of Arabic dialects in social media, so this text is now considered quite appropriate as a source of a corpus. We collected 210,915K tweets from five groups of Arabic dialects Gulf, Iraqi, Egyptian, Levantine, and North African. This p...

  16. Features and Methods for Automatic Dialect Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, David Michael

    2010-01-01

    Systematic differences among regional U.S. English speech are recognizable to native speakers to varying degrees. This has been demonstrated by researchers in perceptual dialectology who ask listeners to match a speaker to his or her dialect region. Machines have also been able to identify the regional origin of a speaker to some degree, although…

  17. Lexical Aspects of Standard Dialect Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Mirjam; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Uses Weinreich's (1953) partition of bilingualism to describe the effects of a small typological distance on the organization of the bilingual lexicon. Using standard Dutch and the dialect of Maastricht, subjects performed an auditory lexical decision task. (30 references) (Author/CK)

  18. Treatment Failure in Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Shireen L.

    2011-01-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has become a widely used treatment model for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other individuals with significant emotion dysregulation problems. Despite its strong empirical support, DBT obviously does not have positive outcomes for all individuals. It is critical that cases of DBT…

  19. On the dialectical foundations of mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damsma, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper tracks the systematic dialectical determination of mathematical concepts in Hegel's Encyclopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (1830, 1817) and investigates the insights that can be gained from such a perspective on the mathematical. To begin with, the determination of Numbers and

  20. On the dialectical foundations of mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damsma, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper tracks the systematic dialectical determination of mathematical concepts in Hegel’s Encyclopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften (1830,1817) and investigates the insights that can be gained from such a perspective on the mathematical. To begin with, the determination of Numbers and

  1. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FOOCHOW DIALECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, LEO; NORMAN, JERRY

    THE FOOCHOW DIALECT IS SPOKEN BY ABOUT SEVEN TO TEN MILLION CHINESE IN THE AREA IN AND AROUND THE CITY OF FOOCHOW, MAINLAND CHINA. THIS LANGUAGE MANUAL REPRESENTS THE SPEECH OF A LITERATE PERSON FROM THAT AREA. LESSONS 1-15 CONSIST OF--(1) SEVERAL SHORT FOOCHOW PASSAGES WRITTEN IN ROMANIZATION, (2) ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS, (3) A FOOCHOW TO ENGLISH…

  2. A Dialectical Approach to Rethinking Roommate Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasono, Lisa K.; Nadler, Lawrence B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the complex interplay between roommate factors and relational satisfaction has offered contradictory findings. This study establishes a typology that accounts for relational satisfaction among first-year college roommates. Drawing from the theoretical framework of Interactional Dialectics and the ideal hypothesis, three…

  3. The Limitations of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on two mainstream therapeutic approaches towards persons with borderline personality disorder, in which suicidal behaviour is a prominent feature demanding understanding and active attention. It is argued that dialectical behaviour therapy and psychoanalytically informed therapies are lacking on two ...

  4. Prosodic Reversal in Dogrib (Weledeh Dialect)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaker, Alessandro Michelangelo

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive phonological analysis of the Weledeh dialect of Dogrib, a Northern Athabaskan language spoken in the Northwest Territories, Canada, based on the author's own fieldwork. The phonology of Northern Athabaskan languages, and Dogrib in particular, has to date been regarded as highly irregular, and subject to…

  5. Accurate Arabic Script Language/Dialect Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    other (as well as MSA) but can vary widely with respect to their vocabulary, morphology, word order, and pronunciation . Furthermore, these dialects have...no standard orthography, are insufficiently documented, and, when written, are written without short vowel diacritics, resulting in significant

  6. Preserving Dialects of an Endangered Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Shelley

    2006-01-01

    Language planning research and practice have largely ignored, or considered problematic, the diversity within endangered languages. Such a stance, though, conflicts with speakers' attitudes and desires, which often place high value on specific dialects. As grassroots, bottom-up approaches move to the forefront, so do concerns about the maintenance…

  7. On the Dialect of the Moravian Croats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzagers, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the northernmost variety of what is traditionally called Burgenland Croatian (with ‘Burgenland’ used in a very broad sense). Because of its marginal geographic position, the dialect is potentially of great importance to anyone interested in Burgenland Croatian. However, the

  8. Reconstructing Dewey: Dialectics and Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This essay aims to demonstrate the theoretical purchase offered by linking Dewey's educational theory with a rigorous account of dialectical development. Drawing on recent literature which emphasizes the continuing influence of Hegel on Dewey's thought throughout the latter's career, this essay reconstructs Dewey's argument regarding the…

  9. Expanding educational boundaries: making dialectical shifts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of changing social circumstances, and the new purposes that higher education should meet, we need to rethink and redefine conventional educational boundaries. Dialectic thinking is advocated as a way of transcending discrepancies between theoretical perspectives and actual educational practice, and among ...

  10. Dialectical roots for interest prohibition theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that arguments for strict prohibition of interests must be based on the use of arguments from authority. This is carried out by first making a survey of so-called dialectical roots for interest prohibition and then demonstrating that for at least one important positive interest bearing

  11. Detection system for location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongbing, E-mail: liuhb07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education P. R. China, Beijing 100084 (China); Du, Dong, E-mail: dudong@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education P. R. China, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, An; Chang, Baohua; Han, Zandong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education P. R. China, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Ayada [Shanghai Electric Power Generation Group Shanghai Generator Works, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A detection system for locations of pebbles transported in pipes is introduced. • The detection system is based on vibration signal processing, which is original. • The characteristics of the vibration signals of the pipe are analyzed. • The experiment shows that the detection results are accurate. • The research provides an important basis for the design of the reactor. - Abstract: Pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactors have many advantages such as inherent safety, high efficiency, etc., and have been considered as a candidate for Generation IV nuclear reactors. During the operation of the reactor, there are thousands of fuel pebbles transported in the pipes outside the core by gravity and helium flow. The pattern of the pipes which consist of straight and arc sections is very complex. When a fuel pebble is transported, it will constantly collide with the pipes, especially in the arc sections. The collisions will lead to the vibration of the pipes. This paper aims to provide a detection system for the location of fuel pebbles transported in pipes in a pebble-bed reactor based on vibration signal processing. Before the reactor is running, the system acquires the vibration signals of several key sections by sensors. Then the frequency characteristics of the signals are obtained by joint time–frequency analysis. When the reactor is running, the system detects the signals and processes them based on their frequency characteristics in real time. According to the results of the processing, the system can correctly judge whether the fuel pebble has passed through the section and records the time of the passing. The experiment validates the accuracy and reliability of the detection results. In this way, the operational condition of the reactor can be monitored so that the normal running of the reactor can be ensured. Additionally, the detection data are of great significance to the evaluation and optimization of the reactor performance

  12. Nuclear Safeguards Considerations For The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Casey Durst; David Beddingfield; Brian Boyer; Robert Bean; Michael Collins; Michael Ehinger; David Hanks; David L. Moses; Lee Refalo

    2009-10-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been considered since the 1940s, and have been constructed and demonstrated in the United Kingdom (Dragon), United States (Peach Bottom and Fort Saint Vrain), Japan (HTTR), Germany (AVR and THTR-300), and have been the subject of conceptual studies in Russia (VGM). The attraction to these reactors is that they can use a variety of reactor fuels, including abundant thorium, which upon reprocessing of the spent fuel can produce fissile U-233. Hence, they could extend the stocks of available uranium, provided the fuel is reprocessed. Another attractive attribute is that HTRs typically operate at a much higher temperature than conventional light water reactors (LWRs), because of the use of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coated (TRISO) fuel particles embedded in ceramic graphite. Rather than simply discharge most of the unused heat from the working fluid in the power plant to the environment, engineers have been designing reactors for 40 years to recover this heat and make it available for district heating or chemical conversion plants. Demonstrating high-temperature nuclear energy conversion was the purpose behind Fort Saint Vrain in the United States, THTR-300 in Germany, HTTR in Japan, and HTR-10 and HTR-PM, being built in China. This resulted in nuclear reactors at least 30% or more thermodynamically efficient than conventional LWRs, especially if the waste heat can be effectively utilized in chemical processing plants. A modern variant of high temperature reactors is the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Originally developed in the United States and Germany, it is now being redesigned and marketed by the Republic of South Africa and China. The team examined historical high temperature and high temperature gas reactors (HTR and HTGR) and reviewed safeguards considerations for this reactor. The following is a preliminary report on this topic prepared under the ASA-100 Advanced Safeguards Project in support of the NNSA Next

  13. Effect of a flow-corrective insert on the flow pattern in a pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu; Gui, Nan; Yang, Xingtuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tu, Jiyuan [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace, Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne 3083, VIC (Australia); Jiang, Shengyao, E-mail: shengyaojiang@sina.com [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Effect of an insert on improving flow uniformity and eliminating stagnant zone is studied. • Three values concerned with the stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence are used. • Outlet diameter is a critical parameter that determines balancing mechanism of the insert. • Height/location is varied to let the insert work in unbalanced region and avoid adverse effect. - Abstract: A flow-corrective insert is adopted in the pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to improve flow performance of the pebble flow for the first time. 3D discrete element method (DEM) modeling is employed to study this slow and dense granular flow. It is verified that locating a properly designed insert in the bed can help transform unsatisfactory flow field to the preferred flow pattern for pebble bed reactors. Three characteristic values on the stagnant zone, radial uniformity and flow sequence of pebble flow are defined to evaluate uniformity of the overall flow field quantitatively. The results demonstrate that the pebble bed equipped with an insert performs better than normal beds from all these three aspects. Moreover, based on numerical experiments, several universal tips for insert design on height, location and outlet diameter are suggested.

  14. The importance of the AVR pebble-bed reactor for the future of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, P. [Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor AVR GmbH, Postfach 1160, 52412 Juelich (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The AVR pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) at Juelich (Germany)) operated from 1967 to 1988 and was certainly the most important HTGR project of the past. The reactor was the mass test bed for all development steps of HTGR pebble fuel. Some early fuel charges failed under high temperature conditions and contaminated the reactor. An accurate pebble measurement (Cs 137) allowed to clean the core from unwanted pebbles after 1981. The coolant activity went down and remained very low for the remaining reactor operation. A melt-wire experiment in 1986 revealed max. coolant temperatures of >1280 deg. C and fuel temperatures of >1350 deg. C, explained by under-estimated bypasses. The fuel still in the core achieved high burn-ups and showed under the extreme temperature conditions excellent fission product retention. Thus, the AVR operation qualified the HTGR fuel, and an average discharge burn-up of 112% fifa revealed an excellent fuel economy of the pebble-bed reactor. Furthermore, the AVR operation offers many meaningful data for code-to-experiment comparisons. (authors)

  15. Experimental study and analysis of the purge gas pressure drop across the pebble beds for the fusion HCPB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Sena, Ali, E-mail: ali.abou-sena@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Boccaccini, Lorenzo V.; Rey, Jörg; Schlindwein, Georg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The pressure drop significantly increases with decreasing the pebbles diameter. ► The pressure drop slightly increases with increasing the packing factor. ► The pressure drop is directly proportional to pebble bed length and inlet pressure. ► Predictions of Ergun equation agree well with the measured values of pressure drop. ► The filters resistance has a small contribution to the total pressure drop. -- Abstract: The lithium ceramic and beryllium pebble beds of the breeder units (BU), in the fusion breeding blanket, are purged by helium to extract the bred tritium. Therefore, the objective of this study is to support the design of the BU purge gas system by studying the effect of pebbles diameter, packing factor, pebble bed length, and flow inlet pressure on the purge gas pressure drop. The pebble bed was formed by packing glass pebbles in a rectangular container (56 mm × 206 mm × 396 mm) and was integrated into a gas loop to be purged by helium at BU-relevant pressures (1.1–3.8 bar). To determine the pressure drop across the pebble bed, the static pressure was measured at four locations along the pebble bed as well as at the inlet and outlet locations. The results show: (i) the pressure drop significantly increases with decreasing the pebbles diameter and slightly increases with increasing the packing factor, (ii) for a constant inlet flow velocity, the pressure drop is directly proportional to the pebble bed length and inlet pressure, and (iii) predictions of Ergun's equation agree well with the experimental values of the pressure drop.

  16. Fabrication of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles by a selective laser sintering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qilai [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Yue [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Liu, Kai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xue, Lihong, E-mail: xuelh@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yan, Youwei [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Selective laser sintering (SLS) is employed to fabricate ceramic pebbles. • Quantities and diameter of the pebbles could be easily controlled by adjusting the model of pebbles. • All the pebbles could be prepared at a time within several minutes. • The Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles sintered at 1100 °C show a notable crush load of 43 N. - Abstract: Lithium titanate, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, is an important tritium breeding material for deuterium (D)–tritium (T) fusion reactor. In test blanket module (TBM) design of China, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} is considered as one candidate material of tritium breeders. In this study, selective laser sintering (SLS) technology was introduced to fabricate Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramic pebbles. This fabrication process is computer assisted and has a high level of flexibility. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powder with a particle size of 1–3 μm was used as the raw material, whilst epoxy resin E06 was adopted as a binder. Green Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles with certain strengths were successfully prepared via SLS. Density of the green pebbles was subsequently increased by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) process. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles with a diameter of about 2 mm were obtained after high temperature sintering. Density of the pebbles reaches 80% of theoretical density (TD) with a comparable crush load of 43 N. This computer assisted approach provides a new efficient route for the production of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramic pebbles.

  17. Proposal for the Formalization of Dialectical Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Usó-Doménech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical logic is typically concerned with abstract analysis. The problem for a synthetic logic is to transcend and unify available data to reconstruct the object as a totality. Three rules are proposed to pass from classic logic to synthetic logic. We present the category logic of qualitative opposition using examples from various sciences. This logic has been defined to include the neuter as part of qualitative opposition. The application of these rules to qualitative opposition, and, in particular, its neuter, demonstrated that a synthetic logic allows the truth of some contradictions. This synthetic logic is dialectical with a multi-valued logic, which gives every proposition a truth value in the interval [0,1] that is the square of the modulus of a complex number. In this dialectical logic, contradictions of the neuter of an opposition may be true.

  18. The Syntactic Atlas of the Dutch Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjef Barbiers

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of the various choices we had to make in order to realize the Syntactic Atlas of the Dutch Dialects (SAND in a relatively short period. The idea is that by presenting the SAND in this way, we enable the ScanDiaSyn project and other new dialect syntax projects to profit from our experience in a similar enterprise. The presentation and explicitation of the choices we had to make, the problems we had to face and the mistakes we have made will not necessarily be the same choices, problems, and mistakes that will arise in the Scandinavian project, but it might give an indication of where problems may be expected and how mistakes may be prevented.

  19. Dialectical behavior therapy for substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Linda A; Linehan, Marsha M

    2008-06-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a well-established treatment for individuals with multiple and severe psychosocial disorders, including those who are chronically suicidal. Because many such patients have substance use disorders (SUDs), the authors developed DBT for Substance Abusers, which incorporates concepts and modalities designed to promote abstinence and to reduce the length and adverse impact of relapses. Among these are dialectical abstinence, "clear mind," and attachment strategies that include off-site counseling as well as active attempts to find patients who miss sessions. Several randomized clinical trials have found that DBT for Substance Abusers decreased substance abuse in patients with borderline personality disorder. The treatment also may be helpful for patients who have other severe disorders co-occurring with SUDs or who have not responded to other evidence-based SUD therapies.

  20. DEM-CFD simulation of purge gas flow in a solid breeder pebble bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Guo, Haibing [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Ye, Minyou [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Hongwen, E-mail: inpclane@sina.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Solid tritium breeding blanket applying pebble bed concept is promising for fusion reactors. Tritium bred in the pebble bed is purged out by inert gas. The flow characteristics of the purge gas are important for the tritium transport from the solid breeder materials. In this study, a randomly packed pebble bed was generated by Discrete Element Method (DEM) and verified by radial porosity distribution. The flow parameters of the purge gas in channels were solved by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The results show that the normalized velocity magnitudes have the same damped oscillating patterns with radial porosity distribution. Besides, the bypass flow near the wall cannot be ignored in this model, and it has a slight increase with inlet velocity. Furthermore, higher purging efficiency becomes with higher inlet velocity and especially higher in near wall region.

  1. Study of the fracture behavior of mortar and concretes with crushed rock or pebble aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Ribeiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the fracture energy of mortar and concretes produced with crushed rock and pebble aggregates using zero, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of aggregates mixed with standard mortar and applying the wedge splitting method to achieve stable crack propagation. The samples were cast in a special mold and cured for 28 days, after which they were subjected to crack propagation tests by the wedge splitting method to determine the fracture energies of the mortar and concrete. The concretes showed higher fracture energy than the mortar, and the concretes containing crushed rock showed higher resistance to crack propagation than all the compositions containing pebbles. The fracture energy varied from 38 to 55 J.m-2. A comparison of the number of aggregates that separated from the two concrete matrices with the highest fracture energies indicated that the concrete containing pebbles crumbled more easily and was therefore less resistant to crack propagation.

  2. Electrical behaviour of ceramic breeder blankets in pebble form after γ-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4 ceramics in from of pebble bed is the European candidate for ITER testing HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed breeding modules. The breeder function and the shielding role of this material, represent the areas upon which attention is focused. Electrical measurements are proposed for monitoring the modification created by ionizing radiation and at the same time provide information on lithium movement in this ceramic structure. The electrical tests are performed on pebbles fabricated by Spray-dryer method before and after gamma-irradiation through a 60Co source to a fluence of 4.8 Gy/s till a total dose of 5 ∗ 105 Gy. The introduction of thermal annealing treatments during the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements points out the recombination effect of the temperature on the γ-induced defects.

  3. Automatic Dialect Detection in Arabic Broadcast Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ahmed; Bell, Peter; Renals, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We investigate different approaches for dialect identification in Arabic broadcast speech, using phonetic, lexical features obtained from a speech recognition system, and acoustic features using the i-vector framework. We studied both generative and discriminate classifiers, and we combined these featuresusing a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM).We validated our results on an Arabic/English language identification task, with an accuracy of 100%. We used these features in a binary class...

  4. Automatic Dialect Detection in Arabic Broadcast Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ahmed; Dehak, Najim; Cardinal, Patrick; Khurana, Sameer; Yella, Sree Harsha; Glass, James; Bell, Peter; Renals, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate different approaches for dialect identification in Arabic broadcast speech. These methods are based on phonetic and lexical features obtained from a speech recognition system, and bottleneck features using the i-vector framework. We studied both generative and discriminative classifiers, and we combined these features using a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM). We validated our results on an Arabic/English language identification task, with an accuracy of 1...

  5. Place and dialect levelling in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    og /l/ vocalization in New Zealand and Australian English." Language Variation and Change 13(1): 37-57. Johnstone, B. (2004). Place, Globalization, and Linguistic Variation. Sociolinguistic Variation - Critical Reflections. C. Fought. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Johnstone, B. (2010). Indexing...... Gruyter Mouton: 632-648. Trudgill, P. (1974). "Linguistic change and diffusion: description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect geography." Language in Society 3: 215-246....

  6. The Dialectical Nature of Business Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Based on a theoretical overview and empirical observations, the paper discusses a variety of concepts of strategy. The main argument is that even though the concepts of strategy mostly reflect the perception of science at the macro-sociological level, the research field of strategy seems keen...... on mixing paradigms. The paper arrives at the argument that contemporary scholarly activities may benefit from viewing strategy as a dialectical phenomenon in terms of a continuous transposition of managerial decision making situations....

  7. 3D Nondestructive Visualization and Evaluation of TRISO Particles Distribution in HTGR Fuel Pebbles Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongyi Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonuniform distribution of tristructural isotropic (TRISO particles within a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR pebble may lead to excessive thermal gradients and nonuniform thermal expansion during operation. If the particles are closely clustered, local hotspots may form, leading to excessive stresses on particle layers and an increased probability of particle failure. Although X-ray digital radiography (DR is currently used to evaluate the TRISO distributions in pebbles, X-ray DR projection images are two-dimensional in nature, which would potentially miss some details for 3D evaluation. This paper proposes a method of 3D visualization and evaluation of the TRISO distribution in HTGR pebbles using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT: first, a pebble is scanned on our high-resolution CBCT, and 2D cross-sectional images are reconstructed; secondly, all cross-sectional images are restructured to form the 3D model of the pebble; then, volume rendering is applied to segment and display the TRISO particles in 3D for visualization and distribution evaluation. For method validation, several pebbles were scanned and the 3D distributions of the TRISO particles within the pebbles were produced. Experiment results show that the proposed method provides more 3D than DR, which will facilitate pebble fabrication research and production quality control.

  8. Characteristics of microstructure and tritium release properties of different kinds of beryllium pebbles for application in tritium breeding modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurinskiy, P., E-mail: petr.kurinskiy@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials – Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Rolli, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials – Materials and Biomechanics (IAM-WBM), P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Zmitko, M. [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy, c/Josep Pla, no. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Tritium release properties and characteristics of microstructure of beryllium pebbles having different sizes of grains were studied. • Fine-grained beryllium pebbles showed the best ability to release tritium compared to pebbles from another charges. • Be pebbles with the grain sizes exceeding 100 μm contain a great number of small pores and inclusions presumably referring to the history of material fabrication. • The sizes of grains are one of a key characteristic of microstructure which influences the parameters of tritium release. - Abstract: Beryllium pebbles with diameters of 1 mm are considered to be perspective material for the use as neutron multiplier in tritium breeding modules of fusion reactors. Up to now, the design of helium-cooled breeding blanket in ITER project foresees the use of 1 mm beryllium pebbles fabricated by NGK Insulators Ltd., Japan. It is notable that beryllium pebbles from Russian Federation and USA are also available and the possibility of their large-scale fabrication is under study. Presented work is dedicated to a study of characteristics of microstructure and parameters of tritium release of beryllium pebbles produced by Bochvar Institute, Russian Federation, and Materion Corporation, USA.

  9. Dialectical thinking and coping flexibility: a multimethod approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia

    2009-04-01

    Coping flexibility refers to the formulation of flexible coping strategies that meet distinct demands under changing circumstances. Dialectical thinking was proposed to be related to flexible coping across situations. The hypothesized link between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility was explored by a multimethod approach. In Study 1, the association between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility was examined using a cross-sectional design. In Study 2, the hypothesized link was tested using an experimental paradigm in which dialectical thinking was manipulated by priming procedures. Participants' responses to different hypothetical stressful situations were assessed after priming. Study 3 adopted a prospective design in which dialectical thinking assessed at an initial phase was a predictor of changes in coping flexibility and state anxiety over a 12-month period. Results from the three studies consistently revealed a positive relationship between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility.

  10. Origin of the water content of Europa : Evidence for pebble accretion ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnet, T.; Mousis, O.; Vernazza, P.

    2017-09-01

    Despite the fact that the observed gradient in water content among the Galilean satellites is globally consistent with a formation in a circum-Jovian disk on both sides of the snowline, the mechanisms that led to a low water mass fraction in Europa (˜8%) are not yet understood. Here we show that the water mass fraction of pebbles, as they drift inward, is globally consistent with the current water content of the Galilean system. This opens the possibility that each satellite could have formed through pebble accretion within a delimited region whose boundaries were defined by the position of the snowline.

  11. Pebble pile-up and planetesimal formation at the snow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazkowska, J.

    2017-09-01

    The planetesimal formation stage represents a major gap in our understanding of planet formation process. Because of this, the late-stage planet accretion models typically make arbitrary assumptions about planetesimals and pebbles distribution, while the state-of-the-art dust evolution models predict no or little planetesimal formation. With this contribution, I present a step toward bridging the gap between the early and late stages of planet formation by models that connect dust coagulation and planetesimal formation. With the aid of evaporation, outward diffusion, and re-condensation of water vapor, pile-up of large pebbles is formed outside of the snow line that facilitates planetesimal formation by streaming instability.

  12. Grapheme To Phoneme Conversion - An Arabic Dialect Case

    OpenAIRE

    Harrat, Salima; Meftouh, Karima; Abbas, Mourad; Smaïli, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We aim to develop a speech translation system between Modern Standard Arabic and Algiers dialect. Such a system must include a Text-to-Speech module which itself must include a grapheme-phoneme converter. Algiers dialect is an Arabic dialect concerned by the most problems of Modern Standard Arabic in NLP area. Furthermore, it could be considered as an under-resourced language because it is a vernacular language for which no substantial corpus exists. In this paper we p...

  13. The Development of Dialectical Thinking As An Approach to Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Basseches

    2005-01-01

    This article offers a description of dialectical thinking as a psychological phenomenon that reflects adult intellectual development. While relating this psychological phenomenon to the various dialectical philosophical perspectives from which the description is derived, the article conceptualizes dialectical thinking as a form of organization of thought, various aspects of which can be identified in individual adults’ approaches to conceptualizing a range of problems, rather than as one part...

  14. What can Google Trends data tell us about dialect labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2017-01-01

    of folk perceptions of dialect labels and, as a secondary aim, if this can be used to uncover what these dialect labels denote to lay people. With regard to the first aim, the study found that using Google Trends data can be useful in the early stages of perceptual dialectology studies of dialects...... on what it is Google users are curious about or interested in when they search for words such as Geordie, Scouse and Cockney – is it the dialects which the labels denote or is it something else? The study thus takes as its primary interest the application of the Google Trends search tool to the study...

  15. Implementación en VHDL de un Detector de Envolvente para demodulación BFSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Toledo de la Garza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda el empleo de un bloque Detector de Envolvente para demodular señales BFSK que pueda ser usado en aplicaciones donde se desconoce el tiempo del símbolo de la fuente. Presenta una estructura interna caracterizada por cuatro filtrosdel tipo FIR, que son inherentemente estables y se implementan siempre por una misma ecuación de diferenciasgenérica. El demodulador se configura en lenguaje VHDL con un número variable de coeficientes no especificado de antemano y está sintetizado como un módulo IP con el que se buscareconfigurabilidad. Para validar el  demodulador,se implementa en un circuito FPGA de Xilinx un procesador Microblaze que se comunicacon una PC mediante el puerto serie y se configura con diversos periféricos, tales como la interfaz de comunicación serieRS-232 y el módulo IP del demodulador BFSK especialmente diseñado al efecto. Para gestionar la operación del sistema se desarrolló en la PC un programa en Matlabcon una aplicación gráfica de usuario que incluye el envío y recepción de las señales moduladas y demoduladas por el circuito FPGA, así como el envío de los valores de los coeficientes empleados por los filtros FIR en una determinada aplicación. La solución final permite la demodulación de señales BFSK a través de la interconexión de Matlab con Microblaze y de este con el módulo IP. Se presenta en detalle el modelo VHDL del demodulador, se discuten los resultados alcanzados teniendo en cuenta el efecto de la cuantificación de los coeficientes y se realiza un análisis temporal y de ocupación del circuito FPGA.

  16. More dialectical thinking, less creativity? The relationship between dialectical thinking style and creative personality: the case of China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Fei-xue; Yang, Xiao-yang

    2015-01-01

    .... Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style...

  17. More Dialectical Thinking, Less Creativity? The Relationship between Dialectical Thinking Style and Creative Personality: The Case of China: e0122926

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui Liu; Fei-xue Wang; Xiao-yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    .... Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style...

  18. The impact of ellipsoidal particle shape on pebble breakage in gravel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuitz, Christoph; Exner, Ulrike; Frehner, Marcel; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2012-09-01

    We have studied the influence of particle shape and consequently loading configuration on the breakage load of fluvial pebbles. Unfortunately, physical strength tests on pebbles, i.e., point-load tests, can only be conducted under one specific stable loading configuration. Therefore, the physical uniaxial strength tests performed in this study were extended by a two-dimensional finite-element stress analysis, which is capable of investigating those scenarios that are not possible in physical tests. Breakage load, equivalent to that measured in unidirectional physical tests, was determined from the results of the stress analysis by a maximum tensile stress-based failure criterion. Using this assumption, allows the determination of breakage load for a range of different kind of synthetic loading configurations and its comparison with the natural breakage load distribution of the physical strength tests. The results of numerical modelling indicated that the configuration that required the least breakage load corresponded with the minor principal axis of the ellipsoidal pebbles. In addition, most of the simulated gravel-hosted loading configurations exceeded the natural breakage load distribution of fluvial pebbles obtained from the physical strength tests.

  19. Axial Dispersion and Back-mixing of Gas Phase in Pebble Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Al-Musafir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide attended of pebble bed reactors (PBRs, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of the complex flow pattern. In this work, the non-ideal flow behavior of the gas phase which is used for cooling has been investigated experimentally in a 0.3 m diameter pebble bed. The extent of mixing and dispersion of the gas phase has been qualified. The effect of gas velocity on the axial dispersion has been investigated with range from 0.05 to 0.6 m/s covering both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Glass bead particles of 1.2 cm diameter and 2.5 gm/cm3 which is randomly and closely packed have been used to mimic the pebbles. An advanced gas tracer technique was applied to measure the residence time distribution (RTD of gas phase using impulse tracer. The axial dispersion coefficients of gas phase in the studied pebble bed have been estimated using the axial dispersion model (ADM. It was found that the flow pattern of the gas phase deviates from plug flow depending on the superficial gas velocity. The results showed that the dispersion of the gas reduces as the gas velocity and Reynolds numbers increased.

  20. Analysis of granular flow in a pebble-bed nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, Chris H; Grest, Gary S; Landry, James W; Bazant, Martin Z

    2006-08-01

    Pebble-bed nuclear reactor technology, which is currently being revived around the world, raises fundamental questions about dense granular flow in silos. A typical reactor core is composed of graphite fuel pebbles, which drain very slowly in a continuous refueling process. Pebble flow is poorly understood and not easily accessible to experiments, and yet it has a major impact on reactor physics. To address this problem, we perform full-scale, discrete-element simulations in realistic geometries, with up to 440,000 frictional, viscoelastic 6-cm-diam spheres draining in a cylindrical vessel of diameter 3.5m and height 10 m with bottom funnels angled at 30 degrees or 60 degrees. We also simulate a bidisperse core with a dynamic central column of smaller graphite moderator pebbles and show that little mixing occurs down to a 1:2 diameter ratio. We analyze the mean velocity, diffusion and mixing, local ordering and porosity (from Voronoi volumes), the residence-time distribution, and the effects of wall friction and discuss implications for reactor design and the basic physics of granular flow.

  1. Optimized core design and fuel management of a pebble-bed type nuclear reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, B.

    2009-01-01

    The core design of a pebble-bed type Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is optimized, aiming for an increase of the coolant outlet temperature to 1000 C, while retaining its inherent safety features. The VHTR has been selected by the international Generation IV research initiative as one of the

  2. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.

    2013-03-12

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  3. Dialect variation, dialect-shifting, and reading comprehension in second grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Nicole Patton; Connor, Carol McDonald; Johnson, Lakeisha; Stuckey, Adrienne; Tani, Novell

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine second graders’ (n=680) changing spoken nonmainstream American English (NMAE) use in relation to their oral language and reading comprehension achievement. Fall NMAE production was negatively associated with fall achievement scores. NMAE production generally decreased from fall to spring. Students who qualified for the US Free and Reduced Lunch program (FARL) and who had stronger language skills were more likely to decrease their NMAE use (i.e., dialect shifting) than their peers who did not qualify for FARL or their peers with weaker language skills. Dialect shifting for a sub-sample of 102 students who used substantial amounts of NMAE at the beginning of the school year was predicted by school context, controlling for reading and language skills – in general, students who attended more affluent schools dialect shifted to a greater extent than did their peers who attended higher poverty schools. Greater dialect shifting in this group predicted gains in reading comprehension from fall to spring. PMID:26877595

  4. Argumentative Polylogues: Beyond Dialectical Understanding of Fallacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewiński Marcin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dialectical fallacies are typically defined as breaches of the rules of a regulated discussion between two participants (di-logue. What if discussions become more complex and involve multiple parties with distinct positions to argue for (poly-logues? Are there distinct argumentation norms of polylogues? If so, can their violations be conceptualized as polylogical fallacies? I will argue for such an approach and analyze two candidates for argumentative breaches of multi-party rationality: false dilemma and collateral straw man.

  5. Retroactive Dialectics and Value in Marxs Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Alves

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I expose Caligaris and Starostas argument on the logical character of the initial moments in Hegels and Marxs dialectics; I argue that the categories of Marxs theory of labor-value must be read in such a way that value, or substance of value, is taken non-substantially, arising only with the emergence of exchange value, or the value-form; Finally, I attempt to justify this reading from the standpoint of the idea of self-posited presuppositions, as developed by Slavoj Zizek.

  6. [Dialectic behavioral therapy for eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Valerija; Bohus, Martin; Schweiger, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    Eating disorders belong to the leading causes of lost life years in young adult women. Current behavioral treatments are efficacious but reach only part of the affected women. Dialectic behavioral therapy for eating disorders (DBT-E) assumes that altered eating behavior is a consequence of stress, traumatization or of difficulties in emotion regulation. DBT-E focuses on imparting skills that improve the self-management of eating behavior, emotion regulation and stress tolerance. Pilot data point to a good effectiveness of the treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Social Media and the Dialectic of Enlightenment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of control or meaningfulness, and in the face of crisis and systemic contradictions in the now global society we tend to regress and rely on older, more primitive forms of sense-making and coping: magic, mythology and metaphysics - even ritual behaviour. But these philosophical reflections, can they help us...... evaluate the role of today's social media?......My reflections in this paper concern revitalizing the critical potential of certain core concepts of Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno's Dialectic of Enlightenment (first published 1944) and bringing it to bear on the digital era in general and in particular on the phenomenon of modern social...

  8. Evaluating and Evolving Metadata in Multiple Dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozimore, John; Habermann, Ted; Gordon, Sean; Powers, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Despite many long-term homogenization efforts, communities continue to develop focused metadata standards along with related recommendations and (typically) XML representations (aka dialects) for sharing metadata content. Different representations easily become obstacles to sharing information because each representation generally requires a set of tools and skills that are designed, built, and maintained specifically for that representation. In contrast, community recommendations are generally described, at least initially, at a more conceptual level and are more easily shared. For example, most communities agree that dataset titles should be included in metadata records although they write the titles in different ways.

  9. Fission Product Transport and Source Terms in HTRs: Experience from AVR Pebble Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Moormann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission products deposited in the coolant circuit outside of the active core play a dominant role in source term estimations for advanced small pebble bed HTRs, particularly in design basis accidents (DBA. The deposited fission products may be released in depressurization accidents because present pebble bed HTR concepts abstain from a gas tight containment. Contamination of the circuit also hinders maintenance work. Experiments, performed from 1972 to 88 on the AVR, an experimental pebble bed HTR, allow for a deeper insight into fission product transport behavior. The activity deposition per coolant pass was lower than expected and was influenced by fission product chemistry and by presence of carbonaceous dust. The latter lead also to inconsistencies between Cs plate out experiments in laboratory and in AVR. The deposition behavior of Ag was in line with present models. Dust as activity carrier is of safety relevance because of its mobility and of its sorption capability for fission products. All metal surfaces in pebble bed reactors were covered by a carbonaceous dust layer. Dust in AVR was produced by abrasion in amounts of about 5 kg/y. Additional dust sources in AVR were ours oil ingress and peeling of fuel element surfaces due to an air ingress. Dust has a size of about 1  m, consists mainly of graphite, is partly remobilized by flow perturbations, and deposits with time constants of 1 to 2 hours. In future reactors, an efficient filtering via a gas tight containment is required because accidents with fast depressurizations induce dust mobilization. Enhanced core temperatures in normal operation as in AVR and broken fuel pebbles have to be considered, as inflammable dust concentrations in the gas phase.

  10. Negative Particles and Morphemes in Jordanian Arabic Dialects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayat, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the negative particles and morphemes in three main Jordanian dialects (Urban, Rural and Bedouin). This quantitative and qualitative study includes 30 teachers from different disciplines who use these dialects. The sample of the study was selected randomly. The research used two research instruments, a checklist and…

  11. One Probe - Two Goals : Aspects of agreement in Dutch dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, Marjo van

    2005-01-01

    In Dutch dialects, verbs and complementizers can bear different morphological affixes depending on which nominal element they agree with in their local syntactic domain. For instance, in a dialect such as tegelen Dutch, the complementizer agrees with the first conjunct of a coordinated subject,

  12. A Formal Perspective On The Pragma-Dialectical Discussion Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Garssen, B.J.; Godden, D.; Mitchell, G.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    For the development of computation tools to support the pragma-dialectical analysis of argumentative texts, a formal approximation of the pragma-dialectical ideal model of a critical discussion theory is required. A basic dialogue game for critical discussion is developed as the foundation for such

  13. DERIVATIVE WORD FORMATION IN THE DIALECTS OF TVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Novikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the contemporary tendencies in dialectal word formation with major focus on derivative meanings in word formation. The investigation is based on the data of the Tver dialects. Two groups of words are subjected to analysis: nouns with suffixes of subjective evaluation and nouns for females.

  14. Humiliating Ironies and Dangerous Dignities: A Dialectic of School Pushout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Eve

    2011-01-01

    This article explores youth resistance to urban public high schools that both inadvertently and by design push out students before graduation. The author details how youth experience the institutional production of school non-completion as a dialectic of humiliating ironies and dangerous dignities, a dialectic of school pushout. The author…

  15. Dialect and Influences on the Academic Experiences of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2015-01-01

    The dialects that college students speak represent a type of diversity that can influence many elements of their experiences in college, including academic experiences. In this study, we examined the influence of speaking a stigmatized dialect on academic experiences for White and African American students (both male and female) from rural…

  16. Shetland Scots as a new dialect: phonetic and phonological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knooihuizen, Remco

    2009-01-01

    The dialect of Scots spoken in the Shetland Islands has been variously described as a language shift variety, acquired when the islanders abandoned their native Norn for Scots from the sixteenth century onwards, or a continuation of the dialects brought to Shetland by Scottish immigrants in the same

  17. The Legitimization of Dialectic: Socratic Strategy in the "Gorgias."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia

    In the "Gorgias," Plato focuses attention upon the value of dialectic as opposed to rhetoric, as well as the status of orators as opposed to philosophers. Through his agent, Socrates, Plato confirms dialectic as a legitimate endeavor while calling into question the place of rhetoric. Socrates is portrayed as a director who enacts a…

  18. Dialectic and who we are in the Alcibiades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In the Platonic Alcibiades, Socrates raises two central philosophical questions: Who are we? and: How ought we to take care of ourselves? He answers these questions, I argue, in his famous comparison between eyes and souls. Both answers hinge upon dialectic: self-care functions through dialectic

  19. Analysis of morphophonemic patterns of Gujii dialect: an insight from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of morphophonemic patterns of Gujii dialect: an insight from optimality theory, sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics in the determination of peculiarities ... This assimilation is dictated by some linguistic and non-linguistic factors and it has impact on the communication held between Gujii dialect speakers and school ...

  20. Dialekmerkers in die Afrikaanse literatuur Dialect marking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on research on the socio-linguistic aspects of dialect marking in Afrikaans literature since the 19th century. The ways in which dialect forms are being used in literature can be seen as “acts of identity”, as described by Le Page and Tabouret-Keller (1985). In the 19th century some Afrikaans writers only ...

  1. Dialectical Effects on Nasalance: A Multicenter, Cross-Continental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Bressmann, Tim; Poburka, Bruce; Roy, Nelson; Sharp, Helen; Watts, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated nasalance in speakers from six different dialectal regions across North America using recent versions of the Nasometer. It was hypothesized that many of the sound changes observed in regional dialects of North American English would have a significant impact on measures of nasalance. Method: Samples of the Zoo…

  2. Understanding Performance Management in Schools: A Dialectical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a dialectical framework for the examination of performance management in schools. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper is based upon a qualitative study of ten headteachers that involved in-depth semi-structured interviews. Findings: The findings identified four dialectical tensions that underpin…

  3. Investigation of effective thermal conductivity for pebble beds by one-way coupled CFD-DEM method for CFETR WCCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Chen, Youhua [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Huang, Kai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A CFD-DEM coupled numerical model is built based on the prototypical blanket pebble bed. • The numerical model can be applied to simulate heat transfer of a pebble bed and estimate effective thermal conductivity. • The numerical model agrees well with the theoretical SZB model. • Effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds for WCCB is estimated by the current model. - Abstract: The mono-sized beryllium pebble bed and the multi-sized Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}/Be{sub 12}Ti mixed pebble bed are the main schemes for the Water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). And the effective thermal conductivity (k{sub eff}) of the pebble beds is important to characterize the thermal performance of WCCB. In this study, a one-way coupled CFD-DEM method was employed to simulate heat transfer and estimate k{sub eff}. The geometric topology of a prototypical blanket pebble bed was produced by the discrete element method (DEM). Based on the geometric topology, the temperature distribution and the k{sub eff} were obtained by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The current numerical model presented a good performance to calculate k{sub eff} of the beryllium pebble bed, and according to the modeling of the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}/Be{sub 12}Ti mixed pebble bed, k{sub eff} was estimated with values ranged between 2.0 and 4.0 W/(m∙K).

  4. Omani Arabic: More than a Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Balushi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys several linguistic aspects of the varieties of the Omani Arabic dialect (OA. It starts with a discussion of the sociolinguistic situation in Oman and the factors that shaped it, as well as discussing the OA varieties and the languages spoken in the country. This is followed by a presentation of the OA consonant and vowel phonemes and their allophones. The paper also presents phonological aspects such as syllable structure and word stress as well as examples of processes like assimilation and emphasis spreading. Then, it presents the OA personal, demonstrative, possessive, and interrogative pronouns, as well as morphological issues such as subject agreement affixes, verbal forms, passive formation, and pluralization patterns. Next, it presents syntactic patterns including word order, negation, question formation, and relative clauses. Besides the survey, the paper provides examples that reveal similarity between some OA dialects and those of the pre-Islamic era, as evidenced by some of the documented and approved readings of the Holy Qurʔān. There is also discussion of some cases of grammaticalization and pronominal copulas.

  5. Malagasy dialects and the peopling of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serva, Maurizio; Petroni, Filippo; Volchenkov, Dima; Wichmann, Søren

    2012-01-07

    The origin of Malagasy DNA is half African and half Indonesian, nevertheless the Malagasy language, spoken by the entire population, belongs to the Austronesian family. The language most closely related to Malagasy is Maanyan (Greater Barito East group of the Austronesian family), but related languages are also in Sulawesi, Malaysia and Sumatra. For this reason, and because Maanyan is spoken by a population which lives along the Barito river in Kalimantan and which does not possess the necessary skill for long maritime navigation, the ethnic composition of the Indonesian colonizers is still unclear. There is a general consensus that Indonesian sailors reached Madagascar by a maritime trek, but the time, the path and the landing area of the first colonization are all disputed. In this research, we try to answer these problems together with other ones, such as the historical configuration of Malagasy dialects, by types of analysis related to lexicostatistics and glottochronology that draw upon the automated method recently proposed by the authors. The data were collected by the first author at the beginning of 2010 with the invaluable help of Joselinà Soafara Néré and consist of Swadesh lists of 200 items for 23 dialects covering all areas of the island.

  6. The Use of Dialectal Tanwin in Qatari Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bettega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to analyse the use of dialectal tanwīn in the Arabic dialect of Qatar. Section (1 provides a brief description of the linguistic situation in Qatar and attempts a definition for the general label “Qatari Arabic”. Section (2 examines the function and contexts of use of the tanwīn in other dialects of the area: dialects are taken into account for which material is available in the current literature, and that can be related to Qatari Arabic in terms of either common origin or geographical proximity. Section (3 describes the use of dialectal tanwīn in Qatari Arabic by presenting original examples drawn from oral interviews gathered on the field with Qatari natives: these examples cover a variety of syntactic contexts, all involving an indefinite nominal (namely a noun or an active participle followed by some modifying element (an adjective, an adverb, a direct object or a prepositional phrase. Some examples are also provided concerning the use of dialectal tanwīn in set phrases and idiomatic expressions. Finally, section (4 tries to assess the position of Qatari Arabic within the frame of the other peninsular dialects with regard to the use of tanwīn, and gives some insight on the evolution of this phenomenon over time.

  7. Aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Leinonen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an aggregate analysis of vowel pronunciation in Swedish dialects is proposed by means of multidimensional scaling (MDS. The Gap statistic showed that no statistically significant partitioning of Swedish dialects can be made based on vowel pronunciation, which means that the dialects form a true linguistic continuum. Vowels recorded by 1,170 speakers at 98 sites were analyzed acoustically with principal components of Bark-filtered spectra, and the linguistic distances between varieties were computed as the Euclidean distance of the acoustic variables. The MDS analyses showed that the dialect areas that can be detected based on vowel pronunciation in modern rural varieties of Swedish largely correspond to the traditional Swedish dialect division and divisions of regional varieties of Standard Swedish. The results also show a large-scale ongoing dialect leveling. The change is largest in many central parts of the language area close to the biggest cities, while the dialects in more peripheral areas are relatively stable.

  8. A rule-based stemmer for Arabic Gulf dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Abuata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialects arewidely used from many years ago instead of Modern Standard Arabic language in many fields. The presence of dialects in any language is a big challenge. Dialects add a new set of variational dimensions in some fields like natural language processing, information retrieval and even in Arabic chatting between different Arab nationals. Spoken dialects have no standard morphological, phonological and lexical like Modern Standard Arabic. Hence, the objective of this paper is to describe a procedure or algorithm by which a stem for the Arabian Gulf dialect can be defined. The algorithm is rule based. Special rules are created to remove the suffixes and prefixes of the dialect words. Also, the algorithm applies rules related to the word size and the relation between adjacent letters. The algorithm was tested for a number of words and given a good correct stem ratio. The algorithm is also compared with two Modern Standard Arabic algorithms. The results showed that Modern Standard Arabic stemmers performed poorly with Arabic Gulf dialect and our algorithm performed poorly when applied for Modern Standard Arabic words.

  9. Effects of Lexical Competition and Dialect Exposure on Phonological Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G; Walker, Abby

    2017-03-01

    A cross-modal lexical decision task was used to explore the effects of lexical competition and dialect exposure on phonological form priming. Relative to unrelated auditory primes, matching real word primes facilitated lexical decision for visual real word targets, whereas competing minimal pair primes inhibited lexical decision. These effects were robust across two English vowel pairs (mid-front and low-front) and for two listener groups (mono-dialectal and multi-dialectal). However, both the most robust facilitation and the most robust inhibition were observed for the mid-front vowel words with few phonological competitors for the mono-dialectal listener group. The mid-front vowel targets were acoustically more distinct than the low-front vowel targets, suggesting that acoustic-phonetic similarity leads to stronger lexical competition and less robust facilitation and inhibition. The multi-dialectal listeners had more prior exposure to multiple different dialects than the mono-dialectal group, suggesting that long-term exposure to linguistic variability contributes to a more flexible processing strategy in which lexical competition extends over a longer period of time, leading to less robust facilitation and inhibition.

  10. Socio-dialectal works in the Community of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar García Mouton

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural dialects in Madrid, considered to be closer to the normative language than other dialects, have normally been overlooked by geolinguists, in spite of the undoubtedly interest risen by the area. The fact that there is no dialectal material for that region comparable with that of other Spanish areas —some of which include linguistic atlases— has prompted the decision to carry out a dialectal research using new methodological material. Madrid dialects are interesting, among other reasons, because some «Southern» traits divide the Community in two. Moreover, the interviewed informants have the particular characteristic that they are the closest group to a focus of linguistic irradiation as powerful as the capital of Spain. In order to convey a complete image of the linguistic situation of the area, socio-dialectal material of informants of different ages have been collected which, compared with the material of dialectal surveys, will enable us to analyse the tendencies and ongoing changes.

  11. Tritium and helium release from beryllium pebbles neutron-irradiated up to 230appm tritium and 3000appm helium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Chakin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of tritium and helium release from beryllium pebbles with diameters of 0.5 and 1mm after high-dose neutron irradiation at temperatures of 686–968K was performed. The release rate always has a single peak, and the peak temperatures at heating rates of 0.017K/s and 0.117K/s lie in the range of 1100–1350K for both tritium and helium release. The total tritium release from 1mm pebbles decreases considerably by increasing the irradiation temperature. The total tritium release from 0.5mm pebbles is less than that from 1mm pebbles and remains constant regardless of the irradiation temperature. At high irradiation temperatures, open channels are formed which contribute to the enhanced tritium release.

  12. Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2014-08-01

    Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways

  13. Le dialecte quechua de Laraos, Yauyos: étude morphologique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article décrit le système morphologique du dialecte quechua de Laraos (Yauyos, parler peu connu et, compte tenu du faible nombre de ses locuteurs actuels, voué très probablement à une rapide disparition. Afin de dégager les traits originaux de ce dialecte de frontière, on le situe d’abord dans le contexte dialectal de Yauyos, province caractérisée par une situation de plurilinguisme remarquable et unique dans le monde andin. EL DIALECTO QUECHUA DE LARAOS,YAUYOS. ESTUDIO MORFOLÓGICO. Este artículo describe el sistema morfológico del dialecto quechua de Laraos, dialecto poco conocido y, si tomamos en consideración el número reducido de sus hablantes, destinado -muy probablemente- a una rápida extinción. Para subrayar los rasgos originales de este dialecto de frontera, se empieza por situarlo en el contexto dialectal de Yauyos, provincia caracterizada por una situación de plurilingüismo notable y única en el mundo andino. THE QUECHUAN DIALECT OF LARAOS, YAUYOS. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY. This article describes the morphological system of the little known Quechuan dialect spoken by a small number of elderly people in the community of Laraos, Yauyos. This dialect is rapidly becoming extinct. In order to bring out the original features of this frontier dialect, the author makes a comparative study of its relationship with the other Quechuan dialects of Yauyos, a multilingual province unique in the Andean world.

  14. Analysis of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Model for the Pebble Bed High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    S. Yamoah; E.H.K. Akaho; Nana G.A. Ayensu; M. Asamoah

    2012-01-01

    The pebble bed type high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is a promising option for next generation reactor technology and has the potential to provide high efficiency and cost effective electricity generation. The reactor unit heat transfer poses a challenge due to the complexity associated with the thermalflow design. Therefore to reliably simulate the flow and heat transport of the pebble bed modular reactor necessitates a heat transfer model that deals with radiation as well as ther...

  15. Effects of external energetic factors on tritium release from the EXOTIC 8-3/13 neutron-irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiliks, Juris [Laboratory of Radiation Chemistry of Solids, Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, LV-1010 Riga (Latvia); Vitins, Aigars [Laboratory of Radiation Chemistry of Solids, Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, LV-1010 Riga (Latvia)], E-mail: aigars.vitins@lu.lv; Kizane, Gunta; Tilika, Vija; Kolodinska, Elina; Kaleja, Sarmite; Lescinskis, Bronislavs [Laboratory of Radiation Chemistry of Solids, Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda Boulevard 4, LV-1010 Riga (Latvia)

    2009-06-15

    Tritium release from samples of 9-13 mg of the EXOTIC 8-3/13 neutron-irradiated beryllium pebbles under the separate and simultaneous action of temperature 490-770 K, 5 MeV fast-electron radiation 14 MGy h{sup -1} for 3 h and magnetic field (MF) of 1.7 T was investigated. The pebbles were found to be very dissimilar with respect to their total tritium content-2.5-9 MBq g{sup -1}. The batch contained also some coarse agglomerates of the pebbles containing 10-19 MBq g{sup -1} of tritium having also a high tritium release. For the pebbles having the total tritium 2.5-5.3 MBq g{sup -1}, the electron radiation for 3 h caused the fractional tritium release 17-26% (B = 0) and 21-29% (B = 1.7 T), the temperature of the pebbles being <550 K. The annealing of the pebbles at the temperature ramp at 5 K/min to 553 K and at 553 K for 3 h caused the fractional tritium release 10-19% (B = 0) and 14% (B = 1.7 T). For the pebbles having the total tritium 3.6-5.8 MBq g{sup -1}, the annealing of the pebbles at the temperature ramp at 5 K/min to 770 K and at 770 K for 1 h caused the fractional tritium release 17-24% (B = 0) and 25% (B = 1.7 T), but with the simultaneous additional action of the electron radiation for 3 h the fractional tritium release was 24-42% (B = 0) and 32-37% (B = 1.7 T)

  16. Contradictions and dialectics in the palliative dialogue: enhancing the palliative dialogue by dialectical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Tali; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2014-11-01

    The application of required communication skills in the palliative dialogue necessitates a significant transition from the paternalistic medical approach to the holistic psychosocial approach that focuses on the patient and views the individual as a whole entity. Understanding the evolution of a therapeutic relationship in terms of entrance into the relationship, development, maintenance, and leave taking as well as the adoption of dialectical ideas gives palliative caregivers flexibility in the dialogue with patients and families. Accepting the principles of dialectics, in which the existence of contradictions is seen as an inherent part of a reality that is undergoing constant change, gives the caregiver the flexibility to interpret dichotomic thoughts and emotions as a dialectic failure and, in accordance, to move toward a synthesis of the ideas of living and dying. This approach provides caregivers the means to promote the palliative dialogue, implement varied communication skills to clarify the patient's goals, and implement a therapeutic plan to realize them. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceptual Dialectology: Northerners and Southerners’ View of Different American Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurenzia Yannuar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available American English, also known as US English, is a set of dialects in the English language mostly used in the United States. It has considerable variations in terminology, phrasing and syntax. The differences are mostly on regional basis. The three major regional dialects are: Northern, Midland, and Southern. Generally, dialect varieties are acceptable in society; however, some of them are more stigmatized than others. The present study has been done to examine American English speakers’ perceptions towards regional American varieties in terms of correctness, pleasantness, and difference from their own speech

  18. Structural dialectical approach in psychology: problems and research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veraksa, Nikolay E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems. The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line can degrade during school time if the educational program follows formal logical principles, or it can become significantly stronger if the pedagogy is based on dialectical methodology.

  19. Measurement of the thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient of a binary bed of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Piazza, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Goraieb, A.; Sordon, G.

    1998-01-01

    The four ITER partners propose to use binary beryllium pebble bed as neutron multiplier. Recently this solution has been adopted for the ITER blanket as well. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket the effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient of the bed have to be known. Therefore at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe heat transfer experiments have been performed with a binary bed of beryllium pebbles and the results have been correlated expressing thermal conductivity and wall heat transfer coefficients as a function of temperature in the bed and of the difference between the thermal expansion of the bed and of that of the confinement walls. The comparison of the obtained correlations with the data available from the literature show a quite good agreement. (author)

  20. EBSD characterization of pre-Cambrian deformations in conglomerate pebbles (Sierra de la Demanda, Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelles, Pablo; Ábalos, Benito; Fernández-Armas, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    Pre-Cambrian and unconformable earliest Cambrian rocks from the Sierra de la Demanda (N Spain) exhibit field and microstructural relationships that attest to orogenic events recorded by concealed basement rocks. Neoproterozoic foliated slates ("Anguiano Schists") crop out under up to 300 m thick, unfoliated quartz-rich conglomerates ("Anguiano Conglomerates") and quartzites which are stratigraphically ca. 600 m below the oldest, paleontologically dated, pre-trilobitic Cambrian layers (likely older than 520 Ma). The Anguiano Conglomerates contain mm to cm grainsized well-rounded pebbles of various types including monocrystalline quartz, detrital zircon and tourmaline-bearing sandstones, black cherts and metamorphic poly-crystalline quartz aggregates. The undeformed matrix is made of much smaller (diagenetically overgrown) monocrystaline quartz grains and minor amounts of accesory zircon, tourmaline and mica. Black chert pebbles exhibit microstructural evidence of brittle deformation (microfaults and thin veins of syntaxial fibrous quartz). These and the fine-grained sandstone pebbles can also exhibit ductile deformations (microfolds with thickened hinges and axial planar continuous foliations), too. Polycrystalline quartz pebbles exhibit a variety of microstructures that resulted from syn-metamorphic ductile deformations. These are recognisable under the petrographic microscope and include continuous foliations, quartz shape fabrics, various types of subgrain or recrystallized new grain microtextures, and lattice preferred orientations (LPOs). Conventional characterization of quartz fabrics (after oriented structural sections) is challenged in conglomerate pebble thin sections by the difficulty of unraveling in them the complete structural reference framework provided by foliation (whose trace can be unraveled) and lineation orientation (which cannot be directly identified). Quartz in various metamorphic polycrystalline pebbles was studied with the Electron Back

  1. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acceptance and change: the dialectic of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kiran; Wolbert, Randy; Graziano, Alana; Slocum, Julia

    2005-01-01

    While a good deal of research has been conducted on the factors associated with recovery, we still need a clearer understanding of the dialectic between behavior and attitude. This research uses semi-structured interviews with two groups of mental health consumers, one receiving more intensive ACT services and the other receiving less intensive case management services, to ascertain the illness management strategies used by those who have been transferred to less intensive services. Our research suggests that while engaging in community, vocational, and church activities are important, those who are further along the road to recovery have gained an understanding and acceptance of their illness that allow them to use these activities as effective illness management strategies.

  3. Environment and individual: a dialectic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapini, F

    2001-01-01

    The role of development in current neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory is still underestimated. Only a few experimental and theoretical efforts have been made to bridge the gap, among which the theories of genetic assimilation, stabilising selection and autopoiesis. The relationship between the organism and its environment is a focal point for understanding development. The organism itself determines which environmental features are relevant to it, what represents a stimulus that would trigger its behaviour, and continuously affects the environment through its activities, in a dialectic relationship. Such a relationship is unique and diachronic, changing with time and defining the individual. Development in the broad sense and behavioural plasticity refer to the individual unlike evolution, which refers to populations.

  4. Accommodating variation: dialects, idiolects, and speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljic, Tanya; Brennan, Susan E; Samuel, Arthur G

    2008-04-01

    Listeners are faced with enormous variation in pronunciation, yet they rarely have difficulty understanding speech. Although much research has been devoted to figuring out how listeners deal with variability, virtually none (outside of sociolinguistics) has focused on the source of the variation itself. The current experiments explore whether different kinds of variation lead to different cognitive and behavioral adjustments. Specifically, we compare adjustments to the same acoustic consequence when it is due to context-independent variation (resulting from articulatory properties unique to a speaker) versus context-conditioned variation (resulting from common articulatory properties of speakers who share a dialect). The contrasting results for these two cases show that the source of a particular acoustic-phonetic variation affects how that variation is handled by the perceptual system. We also show that changes in perceptual representations do not necessarily lead to changes in production.

  5. Thermo-mechanical and neutron lifetime modeling and design of Be pebbles in the neutron multiplier for the LIFE engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMange, P; Marian, J; de Caro, M S; Caro, A

    2009-03-16

    Concept designs for the laser-initiated fusion/fission engine (LIFE) include a neutron multiplication blanket containing Be pebbles flowing in a molten salt coolant. These pebbles must be designed to withstand the extreme irradiation and temperature conditions in the blanket to enable a safe and cost-effective operation of LIFE. In this work, we develop design criteria for spherical Be pebbles on the basis of their thermomechanical behavior under continued neutron exposure. We consider the effects of high fluence/fast flux on the elastic, thermal and mechanical properties of nuclear-grade Be. Our results suggest a maximum pebble diameter of 30 mm to avoid tensile failure, coated with an anti-corrosive, high-strength metallic shell to avoid failure by pebble contact. Moreover, we find that the operation temperature must always be kept above 450 C to enable creep to relax the stresses induced by swelling, which we estimate to be at least 16 months if uncoated and up to six years when coated. We identify the sources of uncertainty on the properties used and discuss the advantages of new intermetallic beryllides and their use in LIFE's neutron multiplier. To establish Be-pebble lifetimes with improved confidence, reliable experiments to measure irradiation creep must be performed.

  6. Medium voltage direct current (MVDC) converter for pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) / Hendrik de Villiers Pretorius

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Hendrik de Villiers

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear and renewable energy systems will probably be used more and more extensively in future due to high environmental demands regarding pollution and exhaustion of the world's gas and coal reserves. Because most types of renewable energy systems do not supply electric power at line frequency and voltage a converter is used to connect these sources to the existing power system. The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a nuclear power plant currently using a 50 Hz synchrono...

  7. Comparative studies for two different orientations of pebble bed in an HCCB blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritosh, CHAUDHURI; Chandan, DANANI; E, RAJENDRAKUMAR

    2017-12-01

    The Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) program in ITER is one of the major steps in its fusion reactor program towards DEMO and the future fusion power reactor vision. Research and development (R&D) is focused on two types of breeding blanket concepts: lead–lithium ceramic breeder (LLCB) and helium-cooled ceramic breeder (HCCB) blanket systems for the DEMO reactor. As part of the ITER-TBM program, the LLCB concept will be tested in one-half of ITER port no. 2, whose materials and technologies will be tested during ITER operation. The HCCB concept is a variant of the solid breeder blanket, which is presently part of our domestic R&D program for DEMO relevant technology development. In the HCCB concept Li2TiO3 and beryllium are used as the tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, respectively, in the form of a packed bed having edge-on configuration with reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel as the structural material. In this paper two design schemes, mainly two different orientations of pebble beds, are discussed. In the current concept (case-1), the ceramic breeder beds are kept horizontal in the toroidal–radial direction. Due to gravity, the pebbles may settle down at the bottom and create a finite gap between the pebbles and the top cooling plate, which will affect the heat transfer between them. In the alternate design concept (case-2), the pebble bed is vertically (poloidal–radial) orientated where the side plates act as cooling plates instead of top and bottom plates. These two design variants are analyzed analytically and 2D thermal-hydraulic simulation studies are carried out with ANSYS, using the heat loads obtained from neutronic calculations. Based on the analysis the performance is compared and details of the thermal and radiative heat transfer studies are also discussed in this paper.

  8. Alexa Fluor 488 as an iron sensing molecule and its application in PEBBLE nanosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, James P; Kopelman, Raoul

    2005-04-01

    Molecular Probes' Alexa Fluor dyes are generally used for biological labeling because of their ideal fluorescent properties, but here we detail Alexa Fluor 488's nanomolar sensitivity to free iron. Furthermore, the dye has been encapsulated into a polymer nanosphere by a microemulsion method, producing <100 nm particles. These nanosensors, PEBBLEs (Probe Encapsulated By Biologically Localized Embedding) have micromolar sensitivity and are non-responsive to other metal ions of biological interest.

  9. Characterisation and radiolysis of modified lithium orthosilicate pebbles with noble metal impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Zariņš, A.; Valtenbergs, O.

    2017-01-01

    Li4SiO4 pebbles during the melt-based process, due to the corrosion of Pt-Rh and Pt-Au alloy crucible components. In this study, the surface microstructure, chemical and phase composition of the modified Li4SiO4 pebbles with different contents of the noble metals was analysed. The influence......Modified lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) pebbles with additions of titanium dioxide (TiO2) are suggested as an alternative tritium breeding ceramic for the European solid breeder test blanket module. The noble metals – platinum (Pt), gold (Au) and rhodium (Rh), can be introduced into the modified...... of the noble metals on the radiolysis was evaluated after irradiation with accelerated electrons (E = 5 MeV), up to 12 MGy absorbed dose at 300–345 K in a dry argon atmosphere. Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, it was determined that the noble metals (up to 300 ppm) do not significantly...

  10. Mechanical properties and tritium release behavior of neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishitsuka, E.; Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Terai, T.; Tanaka, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Beryllium pebbles are expected as a neutron multiplier of a fusion reactor blanket. Mechanical properties and tritium release behaviors of the neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles were tested as a post irradiation examination (PIE). Two kinds of beryllium specimens (diameter:1 mm, grain size: about 0.5 mm), which were fabricated by the rotating electrode method (REM) and by the Mg reduction method (MRM), were irradiated with a total fast neutron fluence of 1.6 x 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV) at 673, 773 and 873 K. The estimated helium concentration and dpa value were about 1 x 10{sup 3} appmHe and 10 dpa, respectively. Compression tests were carried out at the room temperature in the Beryllium PIE facility of JMTR (Japan materials testing reactor) hot laboratory. Compression speed was 0.2 mm/min in ten tests for each specimen. From the results of compression test, no significant difference in the compression strength was observed between two kinds of beryllium pebbles. Additionally, it was clear that not only helium concentration but also dpa value was an important factor on the mechanical properties, because the compression strength of the high dpa specimens (10 dpa) was smaller than that of the low dpa specimens (6 dpa) with similar helium concentration (about 1 x 10{sup 3} appmHe). Also, the tritium release experiment will be carried out for these specimens, and results will be presented in this workshop. (orig.)

  11. A simulation of a pebble bed reactor core by the MCNP-4C computer code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhshayesh Moshkbar Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of energy is a major crisis of our century; the irregular increase of fossil fuel costs has forced us to search for novel, cheaper, and safer sources of energy. Pebble bed reactors - an advanced new generation of reactors with specific advantages in safety and cost - might turn out to be the desired candidate for the role. The calculation of the critical height of a pebble bed reactor at room temperature, while using the MCNP-4C computer code, is the main goal of this paper. In order to reduce the MCNP computing time compared to the previously proposed schemes, we have devised a new simulation scheme. Different arrangements of kernels in fuel pebble simulations were investigated and the best arrangement to decrease the MCNP execution time (while keeping the accuracy of the results, chosen. The neutron flux distribution and control rods worth, as well as their shadowing effects, have also been considered in this paper. All calculations done for the HTR-10 reactor core are in good agreement with experimental results.

  12. Advanced Core Design And Fuel Management For Pebble-Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans D. Gougar; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; William K. Terry

    2004-10-01

    A method for designing and optimizing recirculating pebble-bed reactor cores is presented. At the heart of the method is a new reactor physics computer code, PEBBED, which accurately and efficiently computes the neutronic and material properties of the asymptotic (equilibrium) fuel cycle. This core state is shown to be unique for a given core geometry, power level, discharge burnup, and fuel circulation policy. Fuel circulation in the pebble-bed can be described in terms of a few well?defined parameters and expressed as a recirculation matrix. The implementation of a few heat?transfer relations suitable for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors allows for the rapid estimation of thermal properties critical for safe operation. Thus, modeling and design optimization of a given pebble-bed core can be performed quickly and efficiently via the manipulation of a limited number key parameters. Automation of the optimization process is achieved by manipulation of these parameters using a genetic algorithm. The end result is an economical, passively safe, proliferation-resistant nuclear power plant.

  13. Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Kulshreshtha, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study discusses the subject of forensic voice identification and speaker profiling. Specifically focusing on speaker profiling and using dialects of the Hindi language, widely used in India, the authors have contributed to the body of research on speaker identification by using accent feature as the discriminating factor. This case study contributes to the understanding of the speaker identification process in a situation where unknown speech samples are in different language/dialect than the recording of a suspect. The authors' data establishes that vowel quality, quantity, intonation and tone of a speaker as compared to Khariboli (standard Hindi) could be the potential features for identification of dialect accent.

  14. Effects of phonetic reduction and regional dialect on vowel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapper, Cynthia G.; Mitsch, Jane F.; Tamati, Terrin N.

    Many linguistic factors contribute to variation in vowel dispersion, including lexical properties, such as word frequency, and discourse properties, such as previous mention. Indexical factors, such as regional dialect, similarly contribute to spectral vowel variation in production. A handful of

  15. Dialect distances based on orthographic and phonetic transcriptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zulu, N

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes ongoing work in which the main objective is to quantitatively determine the linguistic distances between languages and dialects. The Levenshtein distance measure is applied to orthographic and phonetic transcriptions of words...

  16. On the Typology of Immigrant Slavic Dialects in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey S. Skorvid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to introduce a typology of immigrant Slavic dialects spoken in the Russian Federation. The paper deals with two Czech and two Polish dialects located in the Northern Caucasus and in Siberia and with the West Ukrainian patois of Siberian Hollanders. The author outlines primarily the internal linguistic typology of those patois, including a comparative structural analysis. All of the dialects examined here show good preservation of their original dialectal systems and, at the same time, they have been strongly influenced by their language surroundings, first and foremost by regional varieties of Russian. In some aspects of their systems, however, certain developments indicate evidence of the relatively high vitality of these patois.

  17. Creating Parallel Arabic Dialect Corpus: Pitfalls to Avoid

    OpenAIRE

    Harrat, Salima; Meftouh, Karima; Smaïli, Kamel

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Creating parallel corpora is a difficult issue that many researches try to deal with. In the context of under-resourced languages like Arabic dialects this issue is more complicated due to the nature of these spoken languages. In this paper, we share our experiment of creating a Parallel Corpus which contain several dialects and Modern Standard Arabic(MSA). We attempt to highlight the most important choices that we did and how good were these choices.

  18. At the dialectal crossroads: the Spanish of Albuquerque, New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Waltermire, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Bills & Vigil (2008) have established two dialects of New Mexican Spanish – Traditional Spanish and Border Spanish. In general, archaisms and Anglicisms predominate in the north of the state (Traditional Spanish) whereas Mexicanisms predominate in the south (Bord er Spanish). The recent incorporation of Mexicanisms in the Spanish of Albuquerque has placed it at a dialectal crossroads where a Traditional variety is being supplanted by Mexican Spanish, thereby making it more similar t...

  19. Structural dialectical approach in psychology: problems and research results

    OpenAIRE

    Veraksa, Nikolay; Belolutskaya, Anastasiya; Vorobyeva, Irina; Krasheninnikov, Eugene; Rachkova, Elena; Shiyan, Igor; Shiyan, Olga

    2013-01-01

    In this article dialectical thinking is regarded as one of the central cognitive processes. Because of this cognitive function we can analyze the development of processes and objects. It also determines the possibilities for the creative transformation of some content and for solving problems. The article presents a description and the results of experimental studies. This evidence proves that dialectical thinking is a specific line of cognitive development in children and adults. This line c...

  20. Sentence-level dialects identification in the greater China region

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Mingwen; Li, Maoxi

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the different varieties of the same language is more challenging than unrelated languages identification. In this paper, we propose an approach to discriminate language varieties or dialects of Mandarin Chinese for the Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Macao, Malaysia and Singapore, a.k.a., the Greater China Region (GCR). When applied to the dialects identification of the GCR, we find that the commonly used character-level or word-level uni-gram feature is not very efficient sinc...

  1. Eccentricity excitation and merging of planetary embryos heated by pebble accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrenko, O.; Brož, M.; Lambrechts, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Planetary embryos can continue to grow by pebble accretion until they become giant planet cores. Simultaneously, these embryos mutually interact and also migrate due to torques arising from the protoplanetary disk. Aims: Our aim is to study how pebble accretion alters the orbital evolution of embryos undergoing Type-I migration. In particular, we try to determine whether or not the embryos establish resonant chains, and if so, whether or not these chains are prone to instabilities. Further, we investigate the possibility that giant planet cores form through embryo merging which can be more rapid than pebble accretion alone. Methods: For the first time, we perform self-consistent global-scale radiative hydrodynamic simulations of a two-fluid protoplanetary disk consisting of gas and pebbles, the latter being accreted by embedded embryos. Accretion heating, along with other radiative processes, is accounted for to correctly model the Type-I migration. Results: We track the evolution of four super-Earth-like embryos, initially located in a region where the disk structure allows for a convergent migration. Generally, embryo merging is facilitated by rapidly increasing embryo masses and breaks the otherwise oligarchic growth. Moreover, we find that the orbital eccentricity of each embryo is considerably excited (≃0.03) due to the presence of an asymmetric under-dense lobe of gas - a so-called "hot trail" - produced by accretion heating of the embryo's vicinity. Eccentric orbits lead the embryos to frequent close encounters and make resonant locking more difficult. Conclusions: Embryo merging typically produces one massive core (≳10 ME) in our simulations, orbiting near 10 AU. Pebble accretion is naturally accompanied by the occurrence of eccentric orbits which should be considered in future efforts to explain the structure of exoplanetary systems. The code is publicly available at http://sirrah.troja.mff.cuni.cz/ chrenko/, and also at the CDS via anonymous

  2. Testing of a "smart-pebble" for measuring particle transport statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Avgeris, Loukas; Valyrakis, Manousos

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from novel experiments aiming to assess coarse sediment transport statistics for a range of transport conditions, via the use of an innovative "smart-pebble" device. This device is a waterproof sphere, which has 7 cm diameter and is equipped with a number of sensors that provide information about the velocity, acceleration and positioning of the "smart-pebble" within the flow field. A series of specifically designed experiments are carried out to monitor the entrainment of a "smart-pebble" for fully developed, uniform, turbulent flow conditions over a hydraulically rough bed. Specifically, the bed surface is configured to three sections, each of them consisting of well packed glass beads of slightly increasing size at the downstream direction. The first section has a streamwise length of L1=150 cm and beads size of D1=15 mm, the second section has a length of L2=85 cm and beads size of D2=22 mm, and the third bed section has a length of L3=55 cm and beads size of D3=25.4 mm. Two cameras monitor the area of interest to provide additional information regarding the "smart-pebble" movement. Three-dimensional flow measurements are obtained with the aid of an acoustic Doppler velocimeter along a measurement grid to assess the flow forcing field. A wide range of flow rates near and above the threshold of entrainment is tested, while using four distinct densities for the "smart-pebble", which can affect its transport speed and total momentum. The acquired data are analyzed to derive Lagrangian transport statistics and the implications of such an important experiment for the transport of particles by rolling are discussed. The flow conditions for the initiation of motion, particle accelerations and equilibrium particle velocities (translating into transport rates), statistics of particle impact and its motion, can be extracted from the acquired data, which can be further compared to develop meaningful insights for sediment transport

  3. Dialectal Atlas of the Arab World - between Intention and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Redkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Arabic dialectology has a long history and achieved significant progress in collecting and analyzing linguistic data and its classification. The present paper analyses modern trends in the linguistic situation in the Arab world and defines the topics essential for the Arabic dialectology, which require an urgent solution. During the last century, several attempts have been undertaken to create dialectal atlases of different regions of the Arab world. Besides this, considerable work also has been done on synchronous descriptions of modern and ancient Arabic dialects. Meanwhile these researches do not always reflect fully and adequately the current state of the dialectal continuum, which underwent significant transformations as a result of social and economic changes in the region, development of new technologies. Globalization and leveling of dialectal differences, spread of languages of international communication will lead to disappearance of small dialectal groups and vernaculars, among them those that are not sufficiently described or are little known at all, which presupposes their urgent investigation. In recent years digital methods of research open new horizons for scholars and put on the agenda the task of building of the dialectal atlas of the Arab world basing on the previous experience and data collected as well as application of ICT.

  4. The Development of Dialectical Thinking As An Approach to Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Basseches

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a description of dialectical thinking as a psychological phenomenon that reflects adult intellectual development. While relating this psychological phenomenon to the various dialectical philosophical perspectives from which the description is derived, the article conceptualizes dialectical thinking as a form of organization of thought, various aspects of which can be identified in individual adults' approaches to conceptualizing a range of problems, rather than as one particular stream of intellectual history. The article provides a range of examples of dialectical analyses, contrasting them with more formalistic analyses, in order to convey the power, adequacy, and significance of dialectical thinking for the sorts of challenges that this journal embraces. It suggests that events in all areas of life demand recognition of the limitations of closed-system approaches to analysis. Approaches based instead on the organizing principle of dialectic integrate dimensions of contradiction, change and system-transformation over time in a way that supports people's adaptation when structures under girding their sense of self/world coherence are challenged. Higher education and psychotherapy are considered as examples of potential contexts for adult intellectual development, and the conditions that foster such development in these contexts are discussed. The article as a whole makes the case for consciously attempting to foster such development in all our work as an approach to integration.

  5. The Development of Dialectical Thinking As An Approach to Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Basseches

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a description of dialectical thinking as a psychological phenomenon that reflects adult intellectual development. While relating this psychological phenomenon to the various dialectical philosophical perspectives from which the description is derived, the article conceptualizes dialectical thinking as a form of organization of thought, various aspects of which can be identified in individual adults’ approaches to conceptualizing a range of problems, rather than as one particular stream of intellectual history. The article provides a range of examples of dialectical analyses, contrasting them with more formalistic analyses, in order to convey the power, adequacy, and significance of dialectical thinking for the sorts of challenges that this journal embraces. It suggests that events in all areas of life demand recognition of the limitations of closed-system approaches to analysis. Approaches based instead on the organizing principle of dialectic integrate dimensions of contradiction, change and system-transformation over time in a way that supports people’s adaptation when structures under girding their sense of self/world coherence are challenged. Higher education and psychotherapy are considered as examples of potential contexts for adult intellectual development, and the conditions that foster such development in these contexts are discussed. The article as a whole makes the case for consciously attempting to foster such development in all our work as an approach to integration.

  6. THE ACCUSATIVE CASE SUFFIXES IN IRAN (AZERBAIJAN DIALECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Gül

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ran is a very important region in terms of Turkish language and culture. Today, there are some areas where the Ottoman and Azeri Turkish, which are branches of western Turkish, are spoken in Iran region. There are pronunciation and phonetic differences among them and Turkey-Turkish. The morphological differences are negligible. Studies in Turkey on determination of these differences are insufficient at the moment. A few master and doctoral theses have been written on Azerbaijan dialects in Turkey.Old Oghuz sound and shape properties live in Iran dialects. Therefore, the different grammatical structures appear in spoken languages in a remarkable way. In Turkey Turkish designator suffix is created by using + I for vowels and using + sI for constants. In Iran's Azerbaijan dialects the different uses of this suffix is seen. In this study, the accusative case suffixes created by + I, + n, + nI in Iran’s Hamedan and Salmas regions presented. In addition, this study also put forward similar and differing aspects of the accusative case suffixes withTurkey-Turkish. Therefore, firstly the accusative case suffixes in Azerbaijan dialects were examined and exemplified. Similar uses and the different uses were specified and exemplified.Studies on Azerbaijan dialects in Iran will be a very important step for the studies on Oghuz. Studies in this field will contribute Turkish Language. This study will contribute the studies on the Comparative Turkish Grammar and will provide important contributions to the lexicon of Turkish tribes’ dialects.

  7. Investigating coarse sediment particles transport using PTV and "smart-pebbles" instrumented with inertial sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Farhadi, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    This study, reports on the analysis of appropriately designed fluvial experiments investigating the transport of coarse bed material using two approaches: particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to extract bulk transport parameters and inertia sensor data (via the use of "smart-pebbles") to obtain refined statistics for the transport of the particle. The purpose of this study is to provide further insight on the use of technologies (optical techniques and inertial sensors) that are complementary one to another, towards producing improved estimates of bedload transport in natural rivers. The experiments are conducted in the Water Engineering Lab at the University of Glasgow on a tilting recirculating flume with 90 cm width. Ten different discharges have been implemented in this study. A couple of fake beds, made of well-packed beads of three different sizes have been set up in the flume. The particle motion is captured by two high-speed commercial cameras, responsible for recording the top view covering the full length of the fake beds over which the "smart-pebble" is allowed to be transported. "Smart-pebbles" of four different densities are initially located at the upstream end of the configuration, fully exposed to the instream flow. These are instrumented with appropriate inertial sensors that allow recording the particle's motion, in the Langrangian frame, in high resolution. Specifically, the "smart-pebble" employ a tri-axial gyroscope, magnetometer and accelerometer, which are utilized to obtain minute linear and angular displacements in high frequency (up to 200Hz). However, these are not enough to accurately reconstruct the full trajectory of the particles rolling downstream. To that goal optical methods are used. In particular, by using particle tracking velocimetry data and image processing techniques, the location, orientation and velocities of the "smart-pebble" are derived. Specific consideration is given to appropriately preprocess the obtained video, as

  8. More Dialectical Thinking, Less Creativity? The Relationship between Dialectical Thinking Style and Creative Personality: The Case of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Fei-xue; Yang, Xiao-yang

    2015-01-01

    People use dialectical thinking to be holistic, reconcile contradictions, and emphasize changes when processing information and managing problems. Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style. Undergraduates majoring in different subjects and adults in different professions were surveyed. The results showed that 1) compared with undergraduates majoring in art and adults from the design industry, undergraduates majoring in other disciplines significantly showed the least creative personality; 2) the highest score for dialectical thinking was found in the group of undergraduates who majored in other disciplines, followed by the adult group, and the undergraduates majoring in art had the lowest score; and 3) A negative relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality was found mostly in the UMA group. The limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25856372

  9. More dialectical thinking, less creativity? The relationship between dialectical thinking style and creative personality: the case of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    Full Text Available People use dialectical thinking to be holistic, reconcile contradictions, and emphasize changes when processing information and managing problems. Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style. Undergraduates majoring in different subjects and adults in different professions were surveyed. The results showed that 1 compared with undergraduates majoring in art and adults from the design industry, undergraduates majoring in other disciplines significantly showed the least creative personality; 2 the highest score for dialectical thinking was found in the group of undergraduates who majored in other disciplines, followed by the adult group, and the undergraduates majoring in art had the lowest score; and 3 A negative relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality was found mostly in the UMA group. The limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  10. More dialectical thinking, less creativity? The relationship between dialectical thinking style and creative personality: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Fei-xue; Yang, Xiao-yang

    2015-01-01

    People use dialectical thinking to be holistic, reconcile contradictions, and emphasize changes when processing information and managing problems. Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style. Undergraduates majoring in different subjects and adults in different professions were surveyed. The results showed that 1) compared with undergraduates majoring in art and adults from the design industry, undergraduates majoring in other disciplines significantly showed the least creative personality; 2) the highest score for dialectical thinking was found in the group of undergraduates who majored in other disciplines, followed by the adult group, and the undergraduates majoring in art had the lowest score; and 3) A negative relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality was found mostly in the UMA group. The limitations of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  11. More Dialectical Thinking, Less Creativity? The Relationship between Dialectical Thinking Style and Creative Personality: The Case of China

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Liu; Fei-xue Wang; Xiao-yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    People use dialectical thinking to be holistic, reconcile contradictions, and emphasize changes when processing information and managing problems. Using a questionnaire survey, this study examined the relationship between dialectical thinking and creative personality in the Chinese culture, which encourages a holistic and collective thinking style. Undergraduates majoring in different subjects and adults in different professions were surveyed. The results showed that 1) compared with undergra...

  12. A scaled experimental study of control blade insertion dynamics in Pebble-Bed Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buster, Grant C., E-mail: grant.buster@gmail.com; Laufer, Michael R.; Peterson, Per F.

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A granular dynamics scaling methodology is discussed. • Control blade insertion in a representative pebble-bed core is experimentally studied. • Control blade insertion forces and pebble displacements are experimentally measured. • X-ray tomography techniques are used to observe pebble displacement distributions. - Abstract: Direct control element insertion into a pebble-bed reactor core is proposed as a viable control system in molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactors. Unlike helium-cooled pebble-bed reactors, this reactor type uses spherical fuel elements with near-neutral buoyancy in the molten-salt coolant, thus reducing contact forces on the fuel elements. This study uses the X-ray Pebble Bed Recirculation Experiment facility to measure the force required to insert a control element directly into a scaled pebble-bed. The required control element insertion force, and therefore the contact force on fuel elements, is measured to be well below recommended limits. Additionally, X-ray tomography is used to observe how the direct insertion of a control element physically displaces spherical fuel elements. The tomography results further support the viability of direct control element insertion into molten-salt-cooled pebble-bed reactor cores.

  13. Analyzing dialect variation in historical speech corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Margaret E L; Olsen, Rachel M

    2017-07-01

    The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race. Multiple tokens of common words were annotated (N = 6085), and formant values of their stressed vowels were extracted. The effects of shifting on relative vowel placement were evaluated via Pillai scores, and vowel dynamics were estimated via functional data analysis and modeled with linear mixed-effects regression. Results indicate that European American speakers show features of the Southern Vowel Shift, though certain speakers shift in more ways than others, and African American speakers' productions are consistent with the African American Vowel Shift. Wide variation is apparent, even within this small geographic region, contributing evidence of the complexity of Southern speech.

  14. The Hegelian dialectics of global imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célestin Monga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional narratives of external imbalances have focused on the analysis of national accounts, trade flows, and financial flows. They have generated two opposing views of the current situation of the world economy: on one side, a prudent, if not pessimistic view considers large imbalances as evidence of problems with the international monetary and financial system, and symptoms of domestic distortions (mainly in the United States and China. On the other side, a relaxed, if not optimistic view suggests that global imbalances are not anomalies but simply the predictable outcome of a world with increasingly globalized financial flows in search of the right mix of risks and returns. This paper offers a critical analysis of these competing explanations of the United States-China imbalances and suggests a way of reconciling them. The paper uses Hegel’s parable of the development of self-consciousness to explain the dynamics between the two countries. Hegel may not have been a great philosopher of history but his study of lordship and bondage provides a good framework for analyzing the dialectics of recognition and acknowledgement that currently characterizes the macroeconomic relationships between the United States and China.

  15. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Deep Burn Core and Fuel Analysis -- Complete Design Selection for the Pebble Bed Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Boer; A. M. Ougouag

    2010-09-01

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into TRISO coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400). Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup, while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239-Pu, 240-Pu and 241-Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a ”standard,” UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge

  16. KüFA safety testing of HTR fuel pebbles irradiated in the High Flux Reactor in Petten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, O., E-mail: oliver.seeger@rwth-aachen.de [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Safety of Irradiated Nuclear Materials Unit, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laurie, M., E-mail: mathias.laurie@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Safety of Irradiated Nuclear Materials Unit, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Abjani, A. El; Ejton, J.; Boudaud, D.; Freis, D.; Carbol, P.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Safety of Irradiated Nuclear Materials Unit, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fütterer, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Energy and Transport (IET), Nuclear Reactor Integrity Assessment and Knowledge Management Unit, PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Allelein, H.-J. [Lehrstuhl für Reaktorsicherheit und -technik an der RWTH Aachen, Kackertstraße 9, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    The Cold Finger Apparatus (KühlFinger-Apparatur—KüFA) in operation at JRC-ITU is designed to experimentally scrutinize the effects of Depressurization LOss of Forced Circulation (D-LOFC) accident scenarios on irradiated High Temperature Reactor (HTR) fuel pebbles. Up to 1600 °C, the reference maximum temperature for these accidents, high-quality German HTR fuel pebbles have already demonstrated a small fission product release. This paper discusses and compares the releases obtained from KüFA-testing the pebbles HFR-K5/3 and HFR-EU1/3, which were both irradiated in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten. We present the time-dependent fractional release of the volatile fission product {sup 137}Cs as well as the fission gas {sup 85}Kr for both pebbles. For HFR-EU1/3 the isotopes {sup 134}Cs and {sup 154}Eu as well as the shorter-lived {sup 110m}Ag have also been measured. A detailed description of the experimental setup and its accuracy is given. The data for the recently tested pebbles is discussed in the context of previous results.

  17. The Role of Pebble Fragmentation in Planetesimal Formation. I. Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari Syed, M.; Blum, J.; Wahlberg Jansson, K.; Johansen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work on protoplanetary dust growth shows a halt at centimeter sizes owing to the occurrence of bouncing at velocities of ≳0.1 m s-1 and fragmentation at velocities ≳1 m s-1. To overcome these barriers, spatial concentration of centimeter-sized dust pebbles and subsequent gravitational collapse have been proposed. However, numerical investigations have shown that dust aggregates may undergo fragmentation during the gravitational collapse phase. This fragmentation in turn changes the size distribution of the solids and thus must be taken into account in order to understand the properties of the planetesimals that form. To explore the fate of dust pebbles undergoing fragmenting collisions, we conducted laboratory experiments on dust-aggregate collisions with a focus on establishing a collision model for this stage of planetesimal formation. In our experiments, we analyzed collisions of dust aggregates with masses between 0.7 and 91 g mass ratios between target and projectile from 1 to 126 at a fixed porosity of 65%, within the velocity range of 1.5-8.7 m s-1, at low atmospheric pressure of ˜10-3 mbar, and in free-fall conditions. We derived the mass of the largest fragment, the fragment size/mass distribution, and the efficiency of mass transfer as a function of collision velocity and projectile/target aggregate size. Moreover, we give recipes for an easy-to-use fragmentation and mass-transfer model for further use in modeling work. In a companion paper, we use the experimental findings and the derived dust-aggregate collision model to investigate the fate of dust pebbles during gravitational collapse.

  18. Safeguards Challenges for Pebble-Bed Reactors (PBRs):Peoples Republic of China (PRC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2009-11-01

    The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) is operating the HTR-10 pebble-bed reactor (PBR) and is in the process of building a prototype PBR plant with two modular reactors (250-MW(t) per reactor) feeding steam to a single turbine-generator. It is likely to be the first modular hightemperature reactor to be ready for commercial deployment in the world because it is a highpriority project for the PRC. The plant design features multiple modular reactors feeding steam to a single turbine generator where the number of modules determines the plant output. The design and commercialization strategy are based on PRC strengths: (1) a rapidly growing electric market that will support low-cost mass production of modular reactor units and (2) a balance of plant system based on economics of scale that uses the same mass-produced turbine-generator systems used in PRC coal plants. If successful, in addition to supplying the PRC market, this strategy could enable China to be the leading exporter of nuclear reactors to developing countries. The modular characteristics of the reactor match much of the need elsewhere in the world. PBRs have major safety advantages and a radically different fuel. The fuel, not the plant systems, is the primary safety system to prevent and mitigate the release of radionuclides under accident conditions. The fuel consists of small (6-cm) pebbles (spheres) containing coatedparticle fuel in a graphitized carbon matrix. The fuel loading per pebble is small (~9 grams of low-enriched uranium) and hundreds of thousands of pebbles are required to fuel a nuclear plant. The uranium concentration in the fuel is an order of magnitude less than in traditional nuclear fuels. These characteristics make the fuel significantly less attractive for illicit use (weapons production or dirty bomb); but, its unusual physical form may require changes in the tools used for safeguards. This report describes PBRs, what is different, and the safeguards challenges. A series of

  19. Tula song folklore: genre-stylistic and dialectic peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasovskaya Nelli Alexandrovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the works of Tula folklore recorded in the western part of the Tula region, in terms of genre, stylistic and linguistic features. The relevance of the study is related to the fact that Tula folk songs has not been studied, linguistic features of the works are not subjected to serious analysis. The article describes the features of the genre of songs recorded in Belevsky district of Tula region, including the ancient fortunetelling chants, wedding ceremony songs, romantic ballads etc., it is cited numerous examples in the lyrics that reflect the dialectal features of the phonetic, grammatical, lexical levels. According to the authors, a modern folk song genre retains its diversity and is a kind of storeroom containing priceless linguistic wealth. The analysis allows to draw conclusions about the presence and well-preserved in the recorded music of South Russian dialect phonetic and grammatical features. So far, there is no established typology of Tula dialects, therefore, according to the authors, the fixation of folklore in the territories bordering on Tula dialects, is very important and interesting for further descriptive and comparative work on identifying the eastern and south-south-west differences in Tula dialects.

  20. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates dialectical self-thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking, in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants' dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking.

  1. The Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulates Dialectical Self-Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Peng, Kaiping; Bai, Yang; Li, Rui; Zhu, Ying; Sun, Pei; Guo, Hua; Yuan, Chun; Rotshtein, Pia; Sui, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgment whether a simultaneously presented pair of contradictory or non-contradictory traits properly described them while brain activity was recording using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The data showed that activity in the dACC during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information was positively correlated with participants' dispositional level of naïve dialecticism (measured with the Dialectical Self Scale). Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses further revealed increased functional connectivity between the dACC and the caudate, middle temporal gyrus and hippocampus during the processing of self-relevant conflicting information for dialectical thinkers. These results support the hypothesis that the dACC has a key role in dialectical self-thinking.

  2. The Aromanian Farsheroti Dialect – Balkan Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Markovik'

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aromanian Farsheroti Dialect – Balkan Perspective The focus of our interest is the analysis of the Aromanian Farsheroti speech from the Ohrid-Struga region, which has never been a subject of a separate linguistic analysis. This speech is described in comparison to the Macedonian Ohrid-Struga dialects and special emphasis is given to their mutual interferences within the Balkan context. Using such approach, the parallel structures and the differences between these speeches are more clearly pointed out thus presenting a wider picture of the processes typical of the Balkan linguistic community. The efforts for drawing closer to a joint model that enables easier and straightforward communication were the most powerful with the linguistic features and categories that were in a way the most distinct and completely different. Both Aromanian Farsheroti and Macedonian Ohrid speeches adjusted to each other by using all available linguistic means not only from their own languages. For instance, the Aromanian Farsheroti speech has eliminated the case inflections for genitive / dative thus approaching closer to the analytical declination which is the case with the Macedonian language. Even for the complex past tenses from a present point of view can be argued that they outline an almost joint Albanian-Aromanian-Macedonian model. The Aromanian Farsheroti dialect, using its own and the borrowed Albanian linguistic characteristics, has created such model, whereas the Macedonian Ohrid speech, on the other hand, by adopting the constructions with imam (have and sum (be, has filled the blanks in its own verbal tense system. The constructions showing admirative are another typical feature that the Aromanian has borrowed from the Albanian and has incorporated into the Macedonian system. All these instances show that the mutual interference was very strong and emerged deeply in the structure of the two systems. This is another proof of the great need for mutual

  3. Review Essay: Auto/Biography as Method: Dialectical Sociology of Everyday Life

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2002-01-01

    ... dialectical perspective on the issue that makes the (dialectical) relations between individual and society and Self and Other more explicit, and provide additional reasons for the feasibility of the project described...

  4. Progress in the development of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lulewicz, J.D.; Roux, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1998-03-01

    Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles are being developed as ceramic breeder for the European Helium-cooled pebble bed DEMO blanket concept. Status is given of the fabrication work, and of the properties characteristics determination. (author)

  5. A linguistic analysis of MTG a spoken dialect of Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Hamerlain

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article rentre dans le cadre de la dialectologie maghrébine à travers une étude synchronique du dialecte Mostaganemois MTG qui a visé quelques phénomènes linguistiques. Nous avons pu établir la charte des phonèmes avec les sons emphatiques et non-emphatiques, et la charpente syllabique du dialecte en question. Parmi les problèmes qu'on a soulevés, les phonèmes dans la région citadine. Ce qui nous a poussés à faire cette étude, c'est le manque d'articles traitant de ce parler par comparaison avec les dialectes Oranais, Constantinois, et ceux du Sud Algérien.

  6. Language and dialect identification in social media analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratz, Stephen; Briesch, Douglas; Laoudi, Jamal; Voss, Clare; Holland, V. Melissa

    2014-05-01

    Historically-unwritten Arabic dialects are increasingly appearing online in social media texts and are often intermixed with other languages, including Modern Standard Arabic, English, and French. The next generation analyst will need new capabilities to quickly distinguish among the languages appearing in a given text and to identify informative patterns of language switching that occur within a user's social network—patterns that may correspond to socio-cultural aspects such as participants' perceived and projected group identity. This paper presents work to (i) collect texts written in Moroccan Darija, a low-resource Arabic dialect from North Africa, and (ii) build an annotation tool that (iii) supports development of automatic language and dialect identification and (iv) provides social and information network visualizations of languages identified in tweet conversations.

  7. Dialect Topic Modeling for Improved Consumer Medical Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crain, Steven P. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yang, Shuang-Hong [Georgia Institute of Technology; Zha, Hongyuan [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jiao, Yu [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Access to health information by consumers is ham- pered by a fundamental language gap. Current attempts to close the gap leverage consumer oriented health information, which does not, however, have good coverage of slang medical terminology. In this paper, we present a Bayesian model to automatically align documents with different dialects (slang, com- mon and technical) while extracting their semantic topics. The proposed diaTM model enables effective information retrieval, even when the query contains slang words, by explicitly modeling the mixtures of dialects in documents and the joint influence of dialects and topics on word selection. Simulations us- ing consumer questions to retrieve medical information from a corpus of medical documents show that diaTM achieves a 25% improvement in information retrieval relevance by nDCG@5 over an LDA baseline.

  8. Dialect topic modeling for improved consumer medical search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Steven P; Yang, Shuang-Hong; Zha, Hongyuan; Jiao, Yu

    2010-11-13

    Access to health information by consumers is hampered by a fundamental language gap. Current attempts to close the gap leverage consumer oriented health information, which does not, however, have good coverage of slang medical terminology. In this paper, we present a Bayesian model to automatically align documents with different dialects (slang, common and technical) while extracting their semantic topics. The proposed diaTM model enables effective information retrieval, even when the query contains slang words, by explicitly modeling the mixtures of dialects in documents and the joint influence of dialects and topics on word selection. Simulations using consumer questions to retrieve medical information from a corpus of medical documents show that diaTM achieves a 25% improvement in information retrieval relevance by nDCG@5 over an LDA baseline.

  9. Low Resourced Machine Translation via Morpho-syntactic Modeling: The Case of Dialectal Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Erdmann, Alexander; Habash, Nizar; Taji, Dima; Bouamor, Houda

    2017-01-01

    We present the second ever evaluated Arabic dialect-to-dialect machine translation effort, and the first to leverage external resources beyond a small parallel corpus. The subject has not previously received serious attention due to lack of naturally occurring parallel data; yet its importance is evidenced by dialectal Arabic's wide usage and breadth of inter-dialect variation, comparable to that of Romance languages. Our results suggest that modeling morphology and syntax significantly impro...

  10. Dialect Distance Assessment Based on 2-Dimensional Pitch Slope Features and Kullback Leibler Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-08

    compare the obtained statistical models. The presented scheme is evaluated on a corpus of Arabic dialects . The sensitivity of the proposed measure...models.The presented scheme is evaluated on a corpus of Arabic dialects . The sensitivity of the proposed measure to changes on input data is... Dialects In this section, the use of distance assessment scheme is in- vestigated for a corpus of three Arabic dialects : AE (United Arab Emirates), EG

  11. Una lectura dialectal de la historia de la traducción

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Galvis, Jairo

    2013-01-01

    The translation of dialect is one of the most difficult and yet interesting challenges facing literary translators. Although theoretical contributions about dialect translation develop mainly from 1960, this article proposes a historical reading of the history of translation from antiquity to the first half of the 20th century, inquiring about the “implications” that the milestones of translation might have had on the translation of dialect. Since dialect texts are conceived within a politica...

  12. The effects of applying silicon carbide coating on core reactivity of pebble-bed HTR in water ingress accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuhair, S.; Setiadipura, Topan [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Serpong Tagerang Selatan (Indonesia). Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety; Su' ud, Zaki [Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia). Dept. of Physics

    2017-03-15

    Graphite is used as the moderator, fuel barrier material, and core structure in High Temperature Reactors (HTRs). However, despite its good thermal and mechanical properties below the radiation and high temperatures, it cannot avoid corrosion as a consequence of an accident of water/air ingress. Degradation of graphite as a main HTR material and the formation of dangerous CO gas is a serious problem in HTR safety. One of the several steps that can be adopted to avoid or prevent the corrosion of graphite by the water/air ingress is the application of a thin layer of silicon carbide (SiC) on the surface of the fuel element. This study investigates the effect of applying SiC coating on the fuel surfaces of pebble-bed HTR in water ingress accident from the reactivity points of view. A series of reactivity calculations were done with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX and continuous energy nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII at temperature of 1200 K. Three options of UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2}, and ThO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} fuel kernel were considered to obtain the inter comparison of the core reactivity of pebble-bed HTR in conditions of water/air ingress accident. The calculation results indicated that the UO{sub 2}-fueled pebble-bed HTR reactivity was slightly reduced and relatively more decreased when the thickness of the SiC coating increased. The reactivity characteristic of ThO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2}-fueled pebble-bed HTR showed a similar trend to that of UO{sub 2}, but did not show reactivity peak caused by water ingress. In contrast with UO{sub 2}- and ThO{sub 2}-fueled pebble-bed HTR, although the reactivity of PuO{sub 2}-fueled pebble-bed HTR was the lowest, its characteristics showed a very high reactivity peak (0.33 Δk/k) and this introduction of positive reactivity is difficult to control. SiC coating on the surface of the plutonium fuel pebble has no significant impact. From the comparison between reactivity characteristics of uranium, thorium and plutonium cores with 0

  13. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution.

  14. Surface energy equation for heat transfer process in a pebble fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G., E-mail: gepe@xanum.uam.mx [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico); Castillo-Jiménez, V. [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico); Herranz-Puebla, L.E. [División de Fisión Nuclear, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vázquez-Rodríguez, R. [Área de Ingeniería en Recursos Energéticos, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186 Col. Vicentina, México, DF 09340 (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Steady and transient behaviors of the interfacial heat transfer in a fuel element. • Non-local averaging volume method for deriving the surface energy equation. • The method captures significant physical phenomena of the interfacial heat transfer. • Closure relationships are proposed in order to obtain the temperatures distribution. • The derived average equation represents an upscaling regarding the local description. - Abstract: In this paper the surface energy equation for the heat transfer process (HT) between the mixture of fuel (TRISO particles and graphite matrix) and coating in a fuel pebble is derived. The fuel pebble can be treated as a heterogeneous region (mixture of microspheres and graphite) interacting thermally with the homogeneous region (the coating or cladding). These two regions are separated by a boundary region where the properties and behavior differ from those of the adjoining regions. The methodology applied for deriving the surface energy equation is based on the classical theory on interfacial transport phenomena. The surface energy equation derived in this work is an average equation that represents an upscaling respect to the local description. The regions around the surface where changes in the physical phenomena are important are of the order of microns, in contrast with interfacial mass transfer between phases that may be several molecular diameters. The numerical analysis regarding the application of surface energy equation is presented in this work.

  15. Feasibility of Thorium Fuel Cycles in a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Rodriguez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear energy presents key challenges to be successful as a sustainable energy source. Currently, the viability of the use thorium-based fuel cycles in an innovative nuclear energy generation system is being investigated in order to solve these key challenges. In this work, the feasibility of three thorium-based fuel cycles (232Th-233U, 232Th-239Pu, and 232Th-U in a hybrid system formed by a Very High Temperature Pebble-Bed Reactor (VHTR and two Pebble-Bed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs was evaluated using parameters related to the neutronic behavior such as nuclear fuel breeding, minor actinide stockpile, the energetic contribution of each fissile isotope, and the radiotoxicity of the long lived wastes. These parameters were used to compare the fuel cycles using the well-known MCNPX ver. 2.6e computational code. The results obtained confirm that the 232Th-233U fuel cycle is the best cycle for minimizing the production of plutonium isotopes and minor actinides. Moreover, the inclusion of the second stage in the ADSs demonstrated the possibility of extending the burnup cycle duration and reducing the radiotoxicity of the discharged fuel from the VHTR.

  16. Pebble bed modular reactor safeguards: developing new approaches and implementing safeguards by design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Brian David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Durst, Philip [INL; Bean, Robert [INL

    2010-01-01

    The design of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) does not fit or seem appropriate to the IAEA safeguards approach under the categories of light water reactor (LWR), on-load refueled reactor (OLR, i.e. CANDU), or Other (prismatic HTGR) because the fuel is in a bulk form, rather than discrete items. Because the nuclear fuel is a collection of nuclear material inserted in tennis-ball sized spheres containing structural and moderating material and a PBMR core will contain a bulk load on the order of 500,000 spheres, it could be classified as a 'Bulk-Fuel Reactor.' Hence, the IAEA should develop unique safeguards criteria. In a multi-lab DOE study, it was found that an optimized blend of: (i) developing techniques to verify the plutonium content in spent fuel pebbles, (ii) improving burn-up computer codes for PBMR spent fuel to provide better understanding of the core and spent fuel makeup, and (iii) utilizing bulk verification techniques for PBMR spent fuel storage bins should be combined with the historic IAEA and South African approaches of containment and surveillance to verify and maintain continuity of knowledge of PBMR fuel. For all of these techniques to work the design of the reactor will need to accommodate safeguards and material accountancy measures to a far greater extent than has thus far been the case. The implementation of Safeguards-by-Design as the PBMR design progresses provides an approach to meets these safeguards and accountancy needs.

  17. The Syntax of Spoken Arabic: A Comparative Study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, and Kuwaiti Dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustad, Kristen E.

    This book is a comparative study of the syntax of Arabic dialects based on natural language data recorded in Morocco, Egypt, Syria, and Kuwait. These four dialect regions are distinct and geographically diverse and representative of four distinct dialect groups. The analytical approach of the book is both functional and descriptive, combining…

  18. A Scandinavian Island in a Slavonic Linguistic Environment. The Dialect of Gammalsvenskby: Nouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Евгеньевич Маньков

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper initiates a series of publications on the morphology of the dialect of Staroshvedskoye (Sw. Gammalsvenskby, which is the only surviving Scandinavian dialect on the territory of the former Soviet Union. The village of Staroshvedskoye is located in the Kherson region, Ukraine. Its Swedish dialect historically belongs to the group of Swedish dialects of Estonia and goes back to the dialect of the island of Dagö (Hiiumaa. The dialect of Gammalsvenskby is of interest to slavists as an example of a language island in the Slavonic environment. From around the 1950s, the main spoken language of all village residents, including dialect speakers, has been surzhik. Due to the complete lack of studies of the present-day dialect and because of the severe endangerment in which the dialect is currently situated, the most urgent task is to collect, classify and publish the factual material. This paper introduces comprehensive material on nouns in the conservative variety of the present-day dialect. It lists all masculine nouns of type 1a together with their cognates from Estonian Swedish dialects; comments on the history of the forms are given as well. The sources for the material presented here are interviews with speakers of the conservative variety of the dialect recorded by the author during fieldwork in the village from 2004 to 2012. We plan to publish nouns of other types in later articles.

  19. A Scandinavian Island in a Slavonic Linguistic Environment. The Dialect of Gammalsvenskby: Nouns (Paper 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E. Mankov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues the series of publications on the morphology of the dialect of Staroshvedskoye (Sw. Gammalsvenskby, which is the only surviving Scandinavian dialect in the territory of the former Soviet Union. The village of Staroshvedskoye is located in the Kherson region, Ukraine. Its Swedish dialect historically belongs to the group of Swedish dialects of Estonia and goes back to the dialect of the island of Dagö (Hiiumaa. The dialect of Gammalsvenskby is of interest to slavists as an example of a language island in the Slavonic environment. From around the 1950s, the main spoken language of all village residents, including dialect speakers, has been surzhik. Due to the complete lack of studies of the present-day dialect and because of the severe endangerment in which the dialect is currently situated, the most urgent task is to collect, classify, and publish the factual material. This paper introduces comprehensive material on nouns in the conservative variety of the present-day dialect. It lists all masculine nouns of types 1b, c, d, and e together with their cognates from Estonian Swedish dialects; comments on the history of the forms are given as well. The sources for the material presented here are interviews with speakers of the conservative variety of the dialect recorded by the author during fieldwork in the village from 2004 to 2013. We plan to publish nouns of other types in later articles.

  20. Perceptions of Dialect in a Changing Society: Folk Linguistics Along the Texas-Mexico Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Glenn A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines perceptions of dialect along the Texas-Mexico border, where researchers have found many similarities between the Spanish dialects spoken on the Mexican and the American sides of the national boundary. Looks at social change along the border, and discusses results of a dialect perception survey. (Author/VWL)

  1. The Dialectical Nature of Writing and Its Implications for Learning Subject Matter Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Looks at writing as a dialectical affair--"dialectic" refers both to the dialogical nature of writing and the opportunity it opens up for the writer in coming to a new understanding of the subject matter. Uses H. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a starting point for developing writing as a dialectical process. (PA)

  2. The Use of Aristotelian Dialectics: Reception and Scientific Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel López Molina-Niñirola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the relevance of Aristotelian dialectic in the twentieth century, which has a scientific use, basically in the construction and development of science. It allows, reasoning from éndoxa, to establish the value of truth in propositions and to understand the common principles of science and the principles inherent to individual sciences. The diaporétic procedure theorized by Aristotle is a method and not a piece of knowledge, unlike Plato, but rooted in the Platonic dialectic of Parmenides.

  3. Question Formation and Focus Construction in Owo: A Yoruba Dialect

    OpenAIRE

    Boluwaji Oshodi

    2016-01-01

    Question formation and focusing are two transformational processes attested in Standard Yorùbá both of which have been extensively discussed in previous studies. However, very little is known about these concepts in Owo (Owò̩̩̀) a south-East Yoruba (Yorùbá) dialect. This study examines the concept of questions and focusing in Owo ̩̩̀̀dialect with a comparison of the processes in Standard Yorùbá. The study revealed some differences as well as similarities in the two processes in Owo ̩̩̀̀and s...

  4. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates dialectical self-thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Fei eWang; Kaiping ePeng; Yang eBai; Rui eLi; Ying eZhu; Pei eSun; Hua eGuo; Chun eYuan; Pia eRotshtein; Jie eSui

    2016-01-01

    Dialectical self-thinking involves holding the view that one can possess contradictory traits such as extraverted and introverted. Prior work has demonstrated that the dorsal part of anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) plays a crucial role in conflict monitoring as well as self-related processing. Here, we tested the function of dACC in dialectical self-thinking using a modified classical self-referential paradigm (self- vs. other-referential thinking), in which participants had to make a judgme...

  5. Semantics of the VDM Real-Time Dialect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausdahl, Kenneth; Coleman, Joey; Larsen, Peter Gorm

    All formally defined languages need to be given an unambiguous semantics such that the meaning of all models expressed using the language is clear. In this technical report a semantic model is provided for the Real-Time dialect of the Vienna Development Method (VDM). This builds upon both...... the formal semantics provided for the ISO standard VDM Specification Language, and on other work on the core of the VDM-RT notation. Although none of the VDM dialects are executable in general, the primary focus of the work presented here is on the executable subset. This focus is result of parallel work...

  6. Supplemental Report on Nuclear Safeguards Considerations for the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, David Lewis [ORNL; Ehinger, Michael H [ORNL

    2010-05-01

    Recent reports by Department of Energy National Laboratories have discussed safeguards considerations for the low enriched uranium (LEU) fueled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the need for bulk accountancy of the plutonium in used fuel. These reports fail to account effectively for the degree of plutonium dilution in the graphitized-carbon pebbles that is sufficient to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) 'provisional' guidelines for termination of safeguards on 'measured discards.' The thrust of this finding is not to terminate safeguards but to limit the need for specific accountancy of plutonium in stored used fuel. While the residual uranium in the used fuel may not be judged sufficiently diluted to meet the IAEA provisional guidelines for termination of safeguards, the estimated quantities of {sup 232}U and {sup 236}U in the used fuel at the target burn-up of {approx}91 GWD/MT exceed specification limits for reprocessed uranium (ASTM C787) and will require extensive blending with either natural uranium or uranium enrichment tails to dilute the {sup 236}U content to fall within specification thus making the PBMR used fuel less desirable for commercial reprocessing and reuse than that from light water reactors. Also the PBMR specific activity of reprocessed uranium isotopic mixture and its A{sub 2} values for effective dose limit if released in a dispersible form during a transportation accident are more limiting than the equivalent values for light water reactor spent fuel at 55 GWD/MT without accounting for the presence of the principal carry-over fission product ({sup 99}Tc) and any possible plutonium contamination that may be present from attempted covert reprocessing. Thus, the potentially recoverable uranium from PBMR used fuel carries reactivity penalties and radiological penalties likely greater than those for reprocessed uranium from light water reactors. These factors impact the economics of

  7. L' Aroumain entre dialecte et langue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilo D. Savić

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A vant d' essayer à repondre à la question que nous avons posée et qui représente l'objet central de notre expose d'aujourd'hui, nous considérons opportun d'envisager un peu plus amplement le problème en intégrité mettant en relief aussi sa dimension historique, parce que nous savons très bien que toute solution n'est que partielle si elle ne tient pas compte de la réalité historique. D'autre part, il est aussi nécessaire de s'arrêter plus à long sur la préhistoire du problème parce que nous nous occupons d'une des questions périphériques de la Romània Orientale. En disant "question périphérique", je désire souligner que l'intérêt des romanisants est attaché aux langues romanes qui possèdent une langue traditionnelle en écrit, qui sont nationales et représentent la langue d'une formation politique, c'est-à-dire de l'autorité d'Etat. Nous savons aussi qu'il y a en Occident un intérêt bien limité pour les langues et les groupes linguistiques qui ne sont pas représentants de l'autorité d'Etat, tandis que, d'autre côté, quand nous parlons aujourd'hui de la romanité orientale, nous avons en vue en premier lieu la langue roumaine littéraire, sa littérature, ainsi que la culture exprimée dans cette langue. Quant à l'aroumain, l'intérêt qu'il suscite est assez limité, soit comme dialecte soit comme langue, ce qui reste au centre de notre attention.

  8. Density improvement of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles fabricated by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, K.; Kawamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Fuchinoue, K.; Sawada, H.; Watarumi, K.

    1998-03-01

    Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) has attracted the attention of many researchers from a point of tritium recovery at low temperature, chemical stability, etc.. The application of small Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} sphere has been proposed in some designs of fusion blanket. On the other hand, the wet process is most advantageous as the fabrication method of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles from a point of mass production, and of reprocessing necessary for effective use of resources and reduction of radioactive wastes. In the preliminary fabrication test, density of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles was about 40%T.D.. Therefore, in this study, density improvement tests and preliminary characterization of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles by wet process were performed, noting the aging condition and sintering condition in the fabrication process of the gel-spheres. This study yielded Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in target range of 80-85%T.D.. (author)

  9. Preliminary Safeguards Assessment for the Pebble-Bed Fluoride High-Temperature Reactor (PB-FHR) Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disser, Jay; Arthur, Edward; Lambert, Janine

    2016-09-01

    This report examines a preliminary design for a pebble bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor (PB-FHR) concept, assessing it from an international safeguards perspective. Safeguards features are defined, in a preliminary fashion, and suggestions are made for addressing further nuclear materials accountancy needs.

  10. Characterization of PEBBLEs as a Tool for Real-Time Measurement of Dictyostelium discoideum Endosomal pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everett Moding

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of intracellular ion concentration change is important for understanding the cellular mechanisms for communication. Recently developed nanosensors, (Photonic Explorers for Biomedical use with Biologically Localized Embedding PEBBLEs, have a number of advantages for measuring ions in cells over established methods using microelectrodes, unbound fluorescent dyes, or NMR. PEBBLE sensors have been shown to work in principle for measuring dynamic ion changes, but few in vivo applications have been demonstrated. We modified the protocol for the fabrication of pH sensing PEBBLEs and developed a protocol for the utilization of these sensors for the monitoring of dynamic pH changes in the endosomes of slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum (D. discoideum. Oregon Green 514-CdSe Quantum Dot PEBBLEs were used to measure real-time pH inside D. discoideum endosomes during cAMP stimulation. Endosomal pH was shown to decrease during cAMP signaling, demonstrating a movement of protons into the endosomes of D. discoideum amoebae.

  11. Grammatical Agreement in Classical Arabic and the Modern Dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the historical changes in agreement patterns between Old Arabic and the New Arabic dialects to see whether they support Versteegh's radical hypothesis of pidginization, creolization, and decreolization. The conclusion is reached that the changes are chiefly because of processes of normal transmissions, "drift," and diffusion. (24…

  12. Normativity I – The Dialectical Legacy | Strauss | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With Habermas it is important to realize that one has to differentiate between moral and non-moral (a-moral) norms, which is different from what is immoral. However, since the Renaissance reflections on human freedom were caught up in the dialectic of necessity (nature) and freedom. A brief sketch is given of the ...

  13. Mandarin, Suzhou Dialect and English: Multilingualism in Suzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sibing

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of Mandarin, Suzhou dialect and English in Suzhou, the relation between language policy and language use, discusses the positive and negative consequences that multilingualism in Suzhou might have for the society, and focuses on the change of language use in Suzhou and provides suggestions for the maintenance of…

  14. Dialectical Theory: Testing the Relationships between Tensions and Relational Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    A study explored psychometric relationships among three dialectical tensions (connection/autonomy, openness/closedness, and novelty/predictability). A confirmatory factor analysis using 694 undergraduate students (347 romantic dyads) culled from various courses in a large midwestern metropolitan university confirmed the existence and independence…

  15. Dyslexia Limits the Ability to Categorize Talker Dialect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gayle Beam; Fox, Robert Allen; Jacewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the underlying phonological impairment in dyslexia is associated with a deficit in categorizing regional dialects. Method: Twenty adults with dyslexia, 20 school-age children with dyslexia, and 40 corresponding control listeners with average reading ability listened to sentences produced…

  16. Dialectical Behaviour Therapy: Description, Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, Michaela A.

    2009-01-01

    Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is a cognitive behavioural treatment initially developed for adult women with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of chronic suicidal behaviour (Linehan, 1993a; 1993b). DBT was the first treatment for BPD to demonstrate its efficacy in a randomised controlled trial (Linehan ,…

  17. Emerging Approaches to Counseling Intervention: Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, multimodal cognitive behavioral treatment originally developed for individuals who met criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) who displayed suicidal tendencies. DBT is based on behavioral theory but also includes principles of acceptance, mindfulness, and validation. Since its…

  18. Dialectics of Burial and Teritoriality in Barclays Ayakoroma's A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV LALIGENS: An International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ... Thus appropriating the literary investigative approach, which is essentially predicated on critical content analysis, the paper examines the dialectic of death, burial ... Keywords: Death, burial nationalism, territoriality, representation ...

  19. The Nordic Dialect Corpus – a joint research infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Bondi Johannessen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the Nordic Dialect Corpus as of June 2010. The corpus is a tool that combines a number of useful features that together makes it a unique and very advanced resource for researchers of many fields of language search. The corpus is web-based and features full audio-visual representation linked to transcriptions and translations.

  20. Bakhtin and Freire: Dialogue, Dialectic and Boundary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Dialogue is a seminal concept within the work of the Brazilian adult education theorist, Paulo Freire, and the Russian literary critic and philosopher, Mikhail Bakhtin. While there are commonalities in their understanding of dialogue, they differ in their treatment of dialectic. This paper addresses commonalities and dissonances within a…

  1. Dialectics, Dialogics and Other Ways of Reading Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Matthew; Broda, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    In this response to Reis's and Zuss's responses to our meditation on the grotesque, we attempt to draw distinctions between positivist, empiricist, and realist (including grotesque realist) projects. We also, drawing on Bakhtin, consider the difference between dialogic and dialectic commentary.

  2. Dialectics and Dilemmas: Psychosocial Dimensions of Ability Grouping Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Ability grouping in schools and classrooms constitutes something of a policy hiatus in the Australian context, in contrast to the conspicuous visibility of equity and quality as explicit policy goals. This article examines what I am calling the dialectics -- i.e. moments of negation that allow for creation -- and dilemmas inhering in the complex…

  3. A cross-dialectal acoustic study of Saterland Frisian vowels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormann, Heike; Heeringa, W.J.; Peters, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Previous investigations on Saterland Frisian report a large vowel inventory, including up to 20 monophthongs and 16 diphthongs in stressed position. Conducting a cross-dialectal acoustic study on Saterland Frisian vowels in Ramsloh, Scharrel, and Strücklingen, the second objective is to identify

  4. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,

  5. Deferring Totality: An Anti-Dialectic Theory of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David M.; Noel, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Using Derrida's concept of deferring totality, Deleuze's concept of the logic of multiplicities, and Butler's "sliding scale," this paper presents an anti-dialectic theory of identity, one that recognizes the permanent deferral of the very concept of identity--a non-synthesized, non-resolved identity--that values the hybridity of identities.…

  6. Confronting Local Dialect and Culture Issues in the EFL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Valerie; Carter, Beverly-Anne

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experience of preparing Venezuelan English-as-a-Foreign-Language students at lower intermediate level to perform a Trinidadian dialect play before an international audience during a short course. The exercise was used to teach local culture in relation to the native culture of the students and also to teach functional and grammatical…

  7. The Challenge of White Dialectics: Making the "Invisible" Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on the substance of Todd and Abrams's study on "White Dialectics: A New Framework for Theory, Research, and Practice With White Students" (2011). The study is a major contribution to the importance of raising awareness of how Whiteness, White privilege, and one's own complicity in the perpetuation of racism are…

  8. Russell's second paradox: a dialectical analysis of 'On denoting'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukema, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    Analytical philosophers are used to assume, as a matter of course, that any sound analysis must be un-dialectical. This tenet is based on the axiom of absolute identity or external difference: nothing can differ from itself; nothing can assume different forms. Eventually, this axiom leads to the

  9. Dialectics and the Megamachine: A Critique of Ersatz Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that the learning environment matters, and that there are qualitative differences in online versus face-to-face classes. While online education provides some benefits, they also narrow the opportunities for dialectical conflict that thoroughly challenge student thinking, an interaction more likely to be found in real-time…

  10. Effectiveness of dialectical behaviour therapy in reduction of test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recommended that conscious efforts should be made by clinical, counselling, and educational psychologists as well as other stakeholders working with students with learning disabilities to adopt the therapy (DBT) when handling test anxiety among people with cognitive impairment. Keywords: Dialectical behaviour ...

  11. Normative Data and Dialectical Effects on Nasalance in Flemish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Bettens, Kim; De Mets, Sarah; De Moor, Valerie; Van Lierde, Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of dialect and gender and to obtain normative nasalance values for Flemish adults as measured with the Nasometer II. One hundred and sixty-four adult subjects from the five regions in Flanders corresponding to different dialects were included in the study. The group consisted of 71 adult men and 93 adult women with a mean age of 43 years and an age range between 20 and 82 years (SD 16). Nasalance scores of connected speech using an oral, an oronasal and a nasal text were measured with the Nasometer II model 6450. The nasalance scores for the oral, oronasal and nasal texts are provided in this study. No significant differences were found across the five dialects and between men and women. This study provides new Flemish normative data as measured with the Nasometer II model 6450. The results of this study are very important for clinical purposes and for future Flemish studies collecting nasalance scores of subjects with different dialects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Social, geographical, and lexical influence on Dutch dialect pronunciations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, Vinnie; Wieling, Martijn; Wit, Ernst; Nerbonne, John; Krijnen, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Wieling et al. (2011) combined generalized additive modeling (GAM) with mixed-effects regression modeling to identify the influence of social, lexical, and geographical variables on the variation of Dutch dialect pronunciations. The conclusion of their study was that the pronunciation distance from

  13. Sustained efficacy of dialectical behaviour therapy for borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Louisa M. C.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Stijnen, Theo; Verheul, Roel; van den Brink, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is considered one of the most promising treatments for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recently, we reported significantly positive effects of 12 months DBT on parasuicidal behaviour and impulsivity in a mixed group of female BPD patients with and without

  14. Proverbial Space and the Dialectics of Place and Displacement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current paper examines Adeniran's attempt at creating a large proverbial space through her conscious use and structural arrangement of proverb in language. It foregrounds the dialectic of place and displacement, and location and dislocation as a crucible for her identity formation and major factor in appreciating her ...

  15. The necessity of dialectics according to Plato and Adorno

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Eggert

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the notion of philosophy as, on the one hand, an academic or scientific discipline and, on the other, something perhaps superior to the disciplines and in any case dealing with what is not a 'disciplinary' matter. Through an interpretation of Plato's concept of dialectics...

  16. Think Twice and Then: Combining or Choosing in Dialectical Bootstrapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Stefan M.; Hertwig, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can partly recreate the "wisdom of crowds" within their own minds by combining nonredundant estimates they themselves have generated. Herzog and Hertwig (2009) showed that this accuracy gain could be boosted by urging people to actively think differently when generating a 2nd estimate ("dialectical bootstrapping").…

  17. Onomasticon of a Dialect Speaker: A Lexicographic Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Ivantsova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes the conception of a dictionary reflecting the system of proper names of a traditional culture bearer. The dictionary is supposed to focus upon the onomasticon of a dialect speaker retrieved from the oral discourse of one person; it aims to treat all types of proper names of the respective idiolexicon and to reflect their diverse functions in the speaker’s communication. The dictionary in question is a part of the collection of dictionaries created by the Tomsk Linguistic School and oriented to a comprehensive study of the language of one particular dialect speaker. Methodologically, the Idiolect Onomasticon of a Siberian Old-Timer follows the published Comprehensive Dictionary of a Dialect Language Personality, the basic dictionary of the informant’s appellative lexicon, with some transformations induced by the specificity of names as an object of lexicographic description. The author discusses the sources of the Onomasticon, its general structure, the peculiarities of the presentation of proper names in the three sections of the dictionary dealing with personal names, place names and other types of names. The article contains examples of entries from all the three sections. The author also outlines possible applications of the dictionary to idiolect studies, onomastics, dialectology, namely, to the study of the structure and the meaning of lexical units, their functioning, the specificity of a dialect speaker’s metalinguistic reflection and linguistic worldview.

  18. Dialectical Re-Lexicalization in Festus Iyayi's Literary Idiolect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A conflation of factors such as the social situation that provides the universe of discourse in Festus Iyayi's novels, the ideological leaning of the writer and the paradigms of the characters of the literary works condition the literary idiom of the three novels under study- Violence, The contract and Heroes. The dialectics of ...

  19. The Effect of Dialect on Rating of Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Franklin, Godfrey; Hixon, Mamie

    2009-01-01

    To validate the "power of language" theory, the authors set out to ascertain whether there is any relationship between dialect (language) and intelligence rating. This study suggests that language is a barometer by which people measure one's intelligence and education. The study further suggests that nonstandard English may influence the…

  20. Adapting Dialectical Behavior Therapy for College Counseling Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugani, Carla D.

    2017-01-01

    College counseling centers report increased student presentation with severe psychological issues (Gallagher, 2012). Although dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has demonstrated efficacy with multiple clinical populations, standard model DBT is not feasible for many traditional college counseling centers. This article describes the iterative…

  1. A KURDISH-ENGLISH DICTIONARY, DIALECT OF SULAIMANIA, IRAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCARUS, ERNEST N.

    THE VOCABULARY CONTAINED IN THIS DICTIONARY ENCOMPASSES THE FOUR VOLUMES OF THIS COURSE IN KURDISH--(1) THE BASIC COURSE, (2) NEWSPAPER KURDISH, (3) KURDISH ESSAYS, AND (4) KURDISH SHORT STORIES. ALSO INCLUDED ARE ITEMS FROM OTHER SELECTIONS FROM THE KURDISH PRESS AND EXPRESSIONS RECORDED FROM NATIVE SPEAKERS OF THE SULAIMANIA DIALECT. THE SCRIPT…

  2. Stability and change in vocal dialects of the yellow-naped amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    WRIGHT, TIMOTHY F.; DAHLIN, CHRISTINE R.; SALINAS-MELGOZA, ALEJANDRO

    2008-01-01

    Cultural evolution is an important force in creating and maintaining behavioral variation in some species. Vocal dialects have provided a useful model for the study of cultural evolution and its interactions with genetic evolution. This study examined the acoustic and geographic changes in vocal dialects over an eleven-year span in the yellow-naped amazon, Amazona auropalliata, in Costa Rica. Contact calls were recorded at 16 communal night roosts in 1994 and 19 roosts in 2005, with 12 roosts sampled in both surveys. In both surveys three dialects were found, each characterized by a distinctive contact call type and each encompassing multiple roosts. The limits between two of these dialects, the North and South dialects, was found to be geographically stable, while at the boundary between the North and Nicaraguan dialect there was introgression of each call type into roosts in the bordering dialect. Acoustic measurements and cross-correlations of spectrograms detected no change in the acoustic structure of contact calls in the South dialect but did show significant differences in the calls of both the North and Nicaraguan dialect between 1994 and 2005. These results are consistent with the vocal convergence hypothesis that proposes that dialects are long-term features maintained through some combination of biased transmission of local call types and purifying selection against foreign call types. Migration, copying errors and cultural drift may also play a role in the more subtle changes seen in the acoustic form of dialect call types. PMID:19727330

  3. A safety re-evaluation of the AVR pebble bed reactor operation and its consequences for future HTR concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moormann, R.

    2008-06-15

    The AVR pebble bed reactor (46 MW{sub th}) was operated 1967-88 at coolant outlet temperatures up to 990 C. A principle difference of pebble bed HTRs as AVR to conventional reactors is the continuous movement of fuel element pebbles through the core which complicates thermohydraulic, nuclear and safety estimations. Also because of a lack of other experience AVR operation is still a relevant basis for future pebble bed HTRs and thus requires careful examination. This paper deals mainly with some insufficiently published unresolved safety problems of AVR operation and of pebble bed HTRs but skips the widely known advantageous features of pebble bed HTRs. The AVR primary circuit is heavily contaminated with metallic fission products (Sr-90, Cs-137) which create problems in current dismantling. The amount of this contamination is not exactly known, but the evaluation of fission product deposition experiments indicates that the end of life contamination reached several percent of a single core inventory, which is some orders of magnitude more than precalculated and far more than in large LWRs. A major fraction of this contamination is bound on graphitic dust and thus partly mobile in depressurization accidents, which has to be considered in safety analyses of future reactors. A re-evaluation of the AVR contamination is performed here in order to quantify consequences for future HTRs (400 MW{sub th}). It leads to the conclusion that the AVR contamination was mainly caused by inadmissible high core temperatures, increasing fission product release rates, and not - as presumed in the past - by inadequate fuel quality only. The high AVR core temperatures were detected not earlier than one year before final AVR shut-down, because a pebble bed core cannot yet be equipped with instruments. The maximum core temperatures are still unknown but were more than 200 K higher than calculated. Further, azimuthal temperature differences at the active core margin of up to 200 K were

  4. CRIMEAN TATAR LANGUAGE: RESEARCHES ON SUDAK DIALECTS / KIRIM TATARCASI: SUDAK AĞIZLARI ÜZERİNE ARAŞTIRMALAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Niyar KURTBİLAL

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of our researches are; to analyze the characteristics of Sudak dialects, which are still spoken in the Crimea Peninsula as the prolongation of Anatolian dialects, to examine the differences between Sudak dialects and other dialects in the group of Southern dialects, and to define the role of these dialects in the history of Crimean Tatar Language. In analyzing the characteristics of dialects spoken in the region, the type records, which included the interviews of inhabitants, who had lived in the region before the 1944 mass deportation and managed to come back later, the folk songs of the region and the various written sources of ours were used.

  5. Storage built pebble bed for greenhouse use; Acumulador tipo lecho para uso en invernaderos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistoni, S.; Iriarte, A.; Saravia, L.

    2004-07-01

    To heat greenhouses during the night it is necessary to use storage systems. Our region shows high radiation levels, even in winter, so during the day stored energy inside of a greenhouse is more than necessary. If the excess of energy is stored up, it can be used during the night when it is necessary. In this paper the performance of a storage built with plastic bottles with water inside them are studied and it is compared with a pebble bed. A model and its solution using the electric- thermal analogy are presented. The results show that it is feasible and economic to build a storage like the proposed. It is important to mention that the simulation is very simple because of the computational program used. (Author)

  6. Computational Model for the Neutronic Simulation of Pebble Bed Reactor’s Core Using MCNPX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Very high temperature reactor (VHTR designs offer promising performance characteristics; they can provide sustainable energy, improved proliferation resistance, inherent safety, and high temperature heat supply. These designs also promise operation to high burnup and large margins to fuel failure with excellent fission product retention via the TRISO fuel design. The pebble bed reactor (PBR is a design of gas cooled high temperature reactor, candidate for Generation IV of Nuclear Energy Systems. This paper describes the features of a detailed geometric computational model for PBR whole core analysis using the MCNPX code. The validation of the model was carried out using the HTR-10 benchmark. Results were compared with experimental data and calculations of other authors. In addition, sensitivity analysis of several parameters that could have influenced the results and the accuracy of model was made.

  7. Gas reactor international cooperative program interim report: German Pebble Bed Reactor design and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    This report describes and evaluates several gas-cooled reactor plant concepts under development within the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The concepts, based upon the use of a proven Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) fuel element design, include nuclear heat generation for chemical processes and electrical power generation. Processes under consideration for the nuclear process heat plant (PNP) include hydrogasification of coal, steam gasification of coal, combined process, and long-distance chemical heat transportation. The electric plant emphasized in the report is the steam turbine cycle (HTR-K), although the gas turbine cycle (HHT) is also discussed. The study is a detailed description and evaluation of the nuclear portion of the various plants. The general conclusions are that the PBR technology is sound and that the HTR-K and PNP plant concepts appear to be achievable through appropriate continuing development programs, most of which are either under way or planned.

  8. 3.3 CM JVLA OBSERVATIONS OF TRANSITIONAL DISKS: SEARCHING FOR CENTIMETER PEBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: lzapata@crya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-10

    We present sensitive (rms-noises ∼4–25 μ Jy) and high angular resolution (∼1″–2″) 8.9 GHz (3.3 cm) Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of 10 presumed transitional disks associated with young low-mass stars. We report the detection of radio continuum emission in 5 out of the 10 objects (RXJ1615, UX Tau A, LkCa15, RXJ1633, and SR 24s). In the case of LkCa15, the centimeter emission is extended, and has a similar morphology to that of the transitional disk observed at millimeter wavelengths with an inner depression. For these five detections, we construct the spectral energy distributions from the centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths, and find that they can be well fitted with a single (RXJ1633 and UX Tau A) or a two-component power law (LkCa15, RXJ1615, and SR 24s). For the cases where a single power law fits the data well, the centimeter emission is likely produced by optically thin dust with large grains (i.e., centimeter-size pebbles) present in the transitional disks. For the cases where a double power law fits the data, the centimeter emission might be produced by the combination of photoevaporation and a free–free jet. We conclude that RXJ1633 and UX Tau A are excellent examples of transitional disks where the structure of the emission from centimeter/millimeter pebbles can be studied. In the other cases, some other physical emitting mechanisms are also important in the centimeter regime.

  9. Sustainability of thorium-uranium in pebble-bed fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of thorium fuel in a Pebble-Bed Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (PB-FHR is investigated to find the feasible region of high discharge burnup and negative Flibe (2LiF-BeF2 salt Temperature Reactivity Coefficient (TRC. Dispersion fuel or pellet fuel with SiC cladding and SiC matrix is used to replace the tristructural-isotropic (TRISO coated particle system for increasing fuel loading and decreasing excessive moderation. To analyze the neutronic characteristics, an equilibrium calculation method of thorium fuel self-sustainability is developed. We have compared two refueling schemes (mixing flow pattern and directional flow pattern and two kinds of reflector materials (SiC and graphite. This method found that the feasible region of breeding and negative Flibe TRC is between 20 vol% and 62 vol% fuel loading in the fuel. A discharge burnup could be achieved up to about 200 MWd/kgHM. The case with directional flow pattern and SiC reflector showed superior burnup characteristics but the worst radial power peak factor, while the case with mixing flow pattern and SiC reflector, which was the best tradeoff between discharge burnup and radial power peak factor, could provide burnup of 140 MWd/kgHM and about 1.4 radial power peak factor with 50 vol% dispersion fuel. In addition, Flibe salt displays good neutron properties as a coolant of quasi-fast reactors due to the strong 9Be(n,2n reaction and low neutron absorption of 6Li (even at 1000 ppm in fast spectrum. Preliminary thermal hydraulic calculation shows good safety margin. The greatest challenge of this reactor may be the decades irradiation time of the pebble fuel.

  10. 3.3 CM JVLA Observations of Transitional Disks: Searching for Centimeter Pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina

    2017-01-01

    We present sensitive (rms-noises ˜4-25 μJy) and high angular resolution (˜1″-2″) 8.9 GHz (3.3 cm) Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of 10 presumed transitional disks associated with young low-mass stars. We report the detection of radio continuum emission in 5 out of the 10 objects (RXJ1615, UX Tau A, LkCa15, RXJ1633, and SR 24s). In the case of LkCa15, the centimeter emission is extended, and has a similar morphology to that of the transitional disk observed at millimeter wavelengths with an inner depression. For these five detections, we construct the spectral energy distributions from the centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths, and find that they can be well fitted with a single (RXJ1633 and UX Tau A) or a two-component power law (LkCa15, RXJ1615, and SR 24s). For the cases where a single power law fits the data well, the centimeter emission is likely produced by optically thin dust with large grains (i.e., centimeter-size pebbles) present in the transitional disks. For the cases where a double power law fits the data, the centimeter emission might be produced by the combination of photoevaporation and a free-free jet. We conclude that RXJ1633 and UX Tau A are excellent examples of transitional disks where the structure of the emission from centimeter/millimeter pebbles can be studied. In the other cases, some other physical emitting mechanisms are also important in the centimeter regime.

  11. Comparative evaluation of pebble-bed and prismatic fueled high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Bartine, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative evaluation has been performed of the HTGR and the Federal Republic of Germany's Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) for potential commercial applications in the US. The evaluation considered two reactor sizes (1000 and 3000 MW(t)) and three process applications (steam cycle, direct cycle, and process heat, with outlet coolant temperatures of 750, 850, and 950/sup 0/C, respectively). The primary criterion for the comparison was the levelized (15-year) cost of producing electricity or process heat. Emphasis was placed on the cost impact of differences between the prismatic-type HTGR core, which requires periodic refuelings during reactor shutdowns, and the pebble bed PBR core, which is refueled continuously during reactor operations. Detailed studies of key technical issues using reference HTGR and PBR designs revealed that two cost components contributing to the levelized power costs are higher for the PBR: capital costs and operation and maintenance costs. A third cost component, associated with nonavailability penalties, tended to be higher for the PBR except for the process heat application, for which there is a large uncertainty in the HTGR nonavailability penalty at the 950/sup 0/C outlet coolant temperature. A fourth cost component, fuel cycle costs, is lower for the PBR, but not sufficiently lower to offset the capital cost component. Thus the HTGR appears to be slightly superior to the PBR in economic performance. Because of the advanced development of the HTGR concept, large HTGRs could also be commercialized in the US with lower R and D costs and shorter lead times than could large PBRs. It is recommended that the US gas-cooled thermal reactor program continue giving primary support to the HTGR, while also maintaining its cooperative PBR program with FRG.

  12. HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program cores 9 & 10: columnar hexagonal point-on-point packing with a 1:1 moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  13. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  14. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    The Deep-Burn (DB) concept [ ] focuses on the destruction of transuranic nuclides from used light water reactor (LWR) fuel. These transuranic nuclides are incorporated into tri-isotopic (TRISO) coated fuel particles and used in gas-cooled reactors with the aim of a fractional fuel burnup of 60 to 70% in fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA). This high performance is expected through the use of multiple recirculation passes of the fuel in pebble form without any physical or chemical changes between passes. In particular, the concept does not call for reprocessing of the fuel between passes. In principle, the DB pebble bed concept employs the same reactor designs as the presently envisioned low-enriched uranium core designs, such as the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR-400) [ ]. Although it has been shown in the previous Fiscal Year (FY) (2009) that a PuO2 fueled pebble bed reactor concept is viable, achieving a high fuel burnup while remaining within safety-imposed prescribed operational limits for fuel temperature, power peaking, and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients for the entire temperature range, is challenging. The presence of the isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Pu that have resonances in the thermal energy range significantly modifies the neutron thermal energy spectrum as compared to a standard, UO2-fueled core. Therefore, the DB pebble bed core exhibits a relatively hard neutron energy spectrum. However, regions within the pebble bed that are near the graphite reflectors experience a locally softer spectrum. This can lead to power and temperature peaking in these regions. Furthermore, a shift of the thermal energy spectrum with increasing temperature can lead to increased absorption in the resonances of the fissile Pu isotopes. This can lead to a positive temperature reactivity coefficient for the graphite moderator under certain operating conditions. Regarding the coated particle performance, the FY 2009 investigations showed that no

  15. Some Aspects of Verbal Politeness in Maghrebi Arabic Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca D'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Positive politeness, on the other hand, seems to be frequently employed, without the occurrence of any FTA, in standardised and predictable ways, thus questioning Brown and Levinson’s theory to a certain extent. The two scholars, in facts, considered the necessity to redress a FTA as the primary reason for the existence of verbal politeness, leaving all the phenomena that contradicted this tenet to the vague domain of the speakers’ spontaneous verbal inventiveness. The expressions observed in Maghrebi dialects, on the contrary, are not spontaneous, but part of the competence of all mature native speakers, who are usually expected to perform them. This independent existence of verbal politeness, thus, represents one of the most interesting features of Maghrebi Arabic dialects and a field that still calls for further research and investigation.

  16. Heat Transfer in Pebble-Bed Nuclear Reactor Cores Cooled by Fluoride Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddar, Lakshana Ravindranath

    With electricity demand predicted to rise by more than 50% within the next 20 years and a burgeoning world population requiring reliable emissions-free base-load electricity, can we design advanced nuclear reactors to help meet this challenge? At the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) Fluoride-salt-cooled High Temperature Reactors (FHR) are currently being investigated. FHRs are designed with better safety and economic characteristics than conventional light water reactors (LWR) currently in operation. These reactors operate at high temperature and low pressure making them more efficient and safer than LWRs. The pebble-bed FHR (PB-FHR) variant includes an annular nuclear reactor core that is filled with randomly packed pebble fuel. It is crucial to characterize the heat transfer within this unique geometry as this informs the safety limits of the reactor. The work presented in this dissertation focused on furthering the understanding of heat transfer in pebble-bed nuclear reactor cores using fluoride salts as a coolant. This was done through experimental, analytical and computational techniques. A complex nuclear system with a coolant that has never previously been in commercial use requires experimental data that can directly inform aspects of its design. It is important to isolate heat transfer phenomena in order to understand the underlying physics in the context of the PB-FHR, as well as to make decisions about further experimental work that needs to be done in support of developing the PB-FHR. Certain organic oils can simulate the heat transfer behaviour of the fluoride salt if relevant non-dimensional parameters are matched. The advantage of this method is that experiments can be done at a much lower temperature and at a smaller geometric scale compared to FHRs, thereby lowering costs. In this dissertation, experiments were designed and performed to collect data demonstrating similitude. The limitations of these experiments were also elucidated by

  17. Recovery and recycling of lithium value from spent lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the first generation fusion reactors the fusion of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) is considered to produce energy to meet the future energy demand. Deuterium is available in nature whereas, tritium is not. Lithium-6 (Li6) isotope has the ability to produce tritium in the n, α nuclear reaction with neutrons. Thus lithium-based ceramics enriched by Li6 isotope are considered for the tritium generation for its use in future fusion reactors. Lithium titanate is one such Li-based ceramic material being considered for its some attractive properties viz., high thermal and chemical stability, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium solubility. It is reported in the literature, that the burn up of these pebbles in the fusion reactor will be limited to only 15-17 atomic percentage. At the end of life, the pebbles will contain more than 45% unused Li6 isotope. Due to the high cost of enriched Li6 and the waste disposal considerations, it is necessary to recover the unused Li from the spent lithium titanate pebbles. Till date, only the feasibilities of different processes are reported, but no process details are available. Experiments were carried out for the recovery of Li from simulated Li2TiO3 pebbles and to reuse of lithium in lithium titanate pebble fabrication. The details of the experiments and results are discussed in this paper. Simulated lithium titanate (Li2TiO3) pebbles. The objective of the study is to develop a process which can be used to recover lithium value form the spent Li2TiO3 pebbles from future fusion reactor. The Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study were synthesized and fabricated by the solid state reaction process developed by Mandal et al. described in details somewhere else [1,2]. Spherical Li2TiO3 pebbles of size 1.0 mm were used and the properties of the Li2TiO3 pebbles used in the study are shown in Table 1. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), of 99.8% purity, purchased from Merck and Loba Chemicals, Mumbai, India. To leach lithium from Li2TiO3

  18. Dialect Variation Influences the Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Word Processing in Sentences. Electrophysiological Evidence from a Cross-Dialectal Comprehension Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanwermeyer, Manuela; Henrich, Karen; Rocholl, Marie J.; Schnell, Hanni T.; Werth, Alexander; Herrgen, Joachim; Schmidt, Jürgen E.

    2016-01-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study examines the influence of dialectal competence differences (merged vs. unmerged dialect group) on cross-dialectal comprehension between Southern German dialects. It focuses on the question as to whether certain dialect phonemes (/oa⌢/, /oƱ⌢/), which are attributed to different lexemes in two dialect areas (Central Bavarian, Bavarian-Alemannic transition zone) evoke increased neural costs during sentence processing. In this context, the phonological and semantic processing of lexemes is compared in three types of potentially problematic communication settings (misunderstanding, incomprehension, allophonic variation = potential comprehension). For this purpose, an oddball design including whole sentences was combined with a semantic rating task. Listeners from the unmerged Central Bavarian dialect area heard sentences including either native or non-native lexemes from the merged neighboring dialect. These had to be evaluated with regard to their context acceptability. The main difference between the lexemes can be attributed to the fact that they have different meanings in the respective dialect areas or are non-existent in the linguistic competence of the Central Bavarians. The results provide evidence for the fact that non-native lexemes containing the /oa⌢/-diphthong lead to enhanced neural costs during sentence processing. The ERP results show a biphasic pattern (N2b/N400, LPC) for non-existent lexemes (incomprehension) as well as for semantically incongruous lexemes (misunderstanding), reflecting an early error detection mechanism and enhanced costs for semantic integration and evaluation. In contrast, allophonic /oƱ⌢/ deviations show reduced negativities and no LPC, indexing an unproblematic categorization and evaluation process. In the light of these results, an observed change of /oa⌢/ to /oƱ⌢/ in the Bavarian-Alemannic transition zone can be interpreted as a facilitation strategy of cross-dialectal

  19. DEMONSTRATIVES IN A BEDOUIN ARABIC DIALECT OF WESTERN SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This article aims at describing the forms, the distribution and the functions of demonstratives in Kordofanian Baggara Arabic, an Arabic dialect spoken by semi-nomadic cattle herders living in the Southern Kordofan State of the Republic of Sudan. Based on an oral corpus gathered on field, the study analyses in typological perspective the morphosyntactic and the pragmatic features of demonstrative pronouns and determiners as well as of sentential and locational demonstr...

  20. The Linguistic and Social Aspects of the Bedouin Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El Salman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a sociolinguistic study that tries to investigate the peculiarity of the Bedouin dialect regardless of the place where it is used. Some variants that are used in their dialect are used wherever they are from. Two sounds in particular were chosen to carry out this study. These are the /ʤ/ variant of the (Q variable, and the /ts/ variant of the (K variable. The study shows that some sounds that are known to be exclusively used by Bedouins, are still used by the old Bedouins wherever they live. For example, Old informants from Jordan used the /ts/ variant within the tribe domains, and the old informants from other tribes living in Saudi Arabia used it as well. This is also seen with regard to the /ʤ/ sound.  The /ʤ/ is used also in relatively high percentage in the speech of the old in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. This shows that belonging to the Bedouin group per se, is what matters in determining the sound used regardless of the region to which one belongs. Unlike the rural people who might use the different alternates of the (Q variable depending on the region to which they belong, for example, [k] is used in some parts of Palestine while [q] is used in other parts like Tirat Haifa village in the northern part of Palestine. Bedouins are consistent in using the [g] variant or the /ʤ/ of the (Q variable regardless of the area where they live. In other words, the two sounds appear in the dialects of the Bedouins whether they live in Jordan or Saudi Arabia.  This raises the possibility that their sharing the same culture (being Bedouins leads to their sharing these linguistic features. Part of their culture is belonging to their tribes as they are traditionally divided into tribes. The dialect of the tribe remains important where ever they are. Keywords. Linguistic variation, variant

  1. Language and dialect in Epena district south | Leitch | Annales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En plus l'étude montre qu'il y a une grande variété linguistique dans l'aire Dibole. Employant des critères lexicaux et phonologiques, nous avons pu identifier 3 dialectes principaux. Un classement provisoire dans le système Guthrie est proposé pour le Dibole. Ce document est une version remaniée et révisée d'un rapport ...

  2. [Psychiatric concept of health--its dialectic and reflective determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, M

    1983-01-01

    The subjectivity of the subject of psychiatry calls for a specific method, which cannot be developed in analogy to objectifying methodologies. Taking the current discussion of normative methods as an example, it is suggested to integrate the method of Hegel's logic into psychiatric thinking. In the following study, this suggestion is explained with reference to the problem of the scientific approach and to the dialectical constitution of illness and health.

  3. Dialects of the DNA uptake sequence in Neisseriaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan A Frye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In all sexual organisms, adaptations exist that secure the safe reassortment of homologous alleles and prevent the intrusion of potentially hazardous alien DNA. Some bacteria engage in a simple form of sex known as transformation. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and in related bacterial species, transformation by exogenous DNA is regulated by the presence of a specific DNA Uptake Sequence (DUS, which is present in thousands of copies in the respective genomes. DUS affects transformation by limiting DNA uptake and recombination in favour of homologous DNA. The specific mechanisms of DUS-dependent genetic transformation have remained elusive. Bioinformatic analyses of family Neisseriaceae genomes reveal eight distinct variants of DUS. These variants are here termed DUS dialects, and their effect on interspecies commutation is demonstrated. Each of the DUS dialects is remarkably conserved within each species and is distributed consistent with a robust Neisseriaceae phylogeny based on core genome sequences. The impact of individual single nucleotide transversions in DUS on meningococcal transformation and on DNA binding and uptake is analysed. The results show that a DUS core 5'-CTG-3' is required for transformation and that transversions in this core reduce DNA uptake more than two orders of magnitude although the level of DNA binding remains less affected. Distinct DUS dialects are efficient barriers to interspecies recombination in N. meningitidis, N. elongata, Kingella denitrificans, and Eikenella corrodens, despite the presence of the core sequence. The degree of similarity between the DUS dialect of the recipient species and the donor DNA directly correlates with the level of transformation and DNA binding and uptake. Finally, DUS-dependent transformation is documented in the genera Eikenella and Kingella for the first time. The results presented here advance our understanding of the function and evolution of DUS and genetic

  4. Dialects of the DNA Uptake Sequence in Neisseriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Stephan A.; Nilsen, Mariann; Tønjum, Tone; Ambur, Ole Herman

    2013-01-01

    In all sexual organisms, adaptations exist that secure the safe reassortment of homologous alleles and prevent the intrusion of potentially hazardous alien DNA. Some bacteria engage in a simple form of sex known as transformation. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and in related bacterial species, transformation by exogenous DNA is regulated by the presence of a specific DNA Uptake Sequence (DUS), which is present in thousands of copies in the respective genomes. DUS affects transformation by limiting DNA uptake and recombination in favour of homologous DNA. The specific mechanisms of DUS–dependent genetic transformation have remained elusive. Bioinformatic analyses of family Neisseriaceae genomes reveal eight distinct variants of DUS. These variants are here termed DUS dialects, and their effect on interspecies commutation is demonstrated. Each of the DUS dialects is remarkably conserved within each species and is distributed consistent with a robust Neisseriaceae phylogeny based on core genome sequences. The impact of individual single nucleotide transversions in DUS on meningococcal transformation and on DNA binding and uptake is analysed. The results show that a DUS core 5′-CTG-3′ is required for transformation and that transversions in this core reduce DNA uptake more than two orders of magnitude although the level of DNA binding remains less affected. Distinct DUS dialects are efficient barriers to interspecies recombination in N. meningitidis, N. elongata, Kingella denitrificans, and Eikenella corrodens, despite the presence of the core sequence. The degree of similarity between the DUS dialect of the recipient species and the donor DNA directly correlates with the level of transformation and DNA binding and uptake. Finally, DUS–dependent transformation is documented in the genera Eikenella and Kingella for the first time. The results presented here advance our understanding of the function and evolution of DUS and genetic transformation

  5. Turkish Loan-Words in Rural Dialects in Slavonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Andrić

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the proportion of Turkish loan-words in rural dialects in Slavonia. Works describing the Turkish-Orient cultural tradition on the territory of former Yugoslavia most frequently treated the Islamic population, whereas the area of Slavonia, being “atypical”, remained outside of the framework of interest. The goal of this paper was to isolate the vocabulary of Turkish origin that exists in rural dialects, and then to analyse the distribution and meanings of Turkish loan-words in every individual segment of rural life, to confirm the areas that were influenced by contact with Turkish civilisation, as well as the relative intensities of this contact on them. Loans mainly pertain to material culture, and therefore nouns are most frequent. In this regard, it is understood that adaptation of a new, foreign term or “label”, did not always imply adoption of the labelled “item”, although the process involved was certainly the result of intercultural contacts and influences. Analysis was based on the valuable case-study descriptions of the villages Otok (near Vinkovci by Josip Lovretić and Varoš (near Slavonski Brod by Luka Lukić, excellent sources for gaining an understanding of folk life and also, which is important for this, of rural dialects. The lists of Turkish loan-words given by Lovretić and Lukić only partially reveal the layer of Turkish loans that is alive in the rural speech of Slavonia. Even today it is possible to find a much larger number of them in rural dialects, although they are gradually being lost or suppressed, since rapid changes in the way of life have led to the disappearance of the items they pertained to. In future studies of this theme – more extensive, more basic and more systematic ones – ethnographical

  6. Word Length Selection Method for Controller Implementation on FPGAs Using the VHDL-2008 Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urriza I

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a word length selection method for the implementation of digital controllers in both fixed-point and floating-point hardware on FPGAs. This method uses the new types defined in the VHDL-2008 fixed-point and floating-point packages. These packages allow customizing the word length of fixed and floating point representations and shorten the design cycle simplifying the design of arithmetic operations. The method performs bit-true simulations in order to determine the word length to represent the constant coefficients and the internal signals of the digital controller while maintaining the control system specifications. A mixed-signal simulation tool is used to simulate the closed loop system as a whole in order to analyze the impact of the quantization effects and loop delays on the control system performance. The method is applied to implement a digital controller for a switching power converter. The digital circuit is implemented on an FPGA, and the simulations are experimentally verified.

  7. Dialects in Animals: Evidence, Development and Potential Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Henry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dialects are one of the parallels that have long been established between human language and animal communication. We discuss the potential functional parallels between human and animal dialects, arguing that in both cases different mechanisms and functions may be at stake where large geographical versus very localized (e.g. social variations are concerned. Birdsong studies in particular, but also recent studies of mammal vocalizations, show that the use of the term “dialect” to refer to within-species vocal variations in animal species is more than a metaphor and that animal dialects offer a possibility to explore the causes and functions of linguistic variation and change, one of the challenges in exploring the origin of diversity of language families. We present here an original view, as our approach was not “primate-centered,” and take into consideration “homoplasy” (analogy as a potential mechanism to explain that different taxa have evolved the same functional response to social constraints.

  8. Sub-dialectal Coronal and Non-coronal Assimilation in Yemeni Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhim Abdulamalek Aldubai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is an investigation of the assimilation process across word boundaries of the four main dialects of Yemeni Arabic. Twenty native speakers of these dialects have been asked to read the collected data, five from each dialect. The reading of the phrases has been transcribed for the analysis. The data under investigation uncovers the fact that assimilation in the four Yemeni dialects can be classified into symmetrical and asymmetrical categories. Symmetrical assimilation does not lead to irregularity. However, asymmetrical assimilation can cause irregularity among the four Yemeni dialects. The asymmetrical category of assimilation is investigated in terms of place, voicing, and emphasis. These irregularities are analogous to earlier typological work undertaken by Lehn (1963, Mohanon (1993, Watson (2002, Zuraiq and Zhang (2006, and Zuraiq and Abu Joudeh (2013. The study provides informative phonetic data useful for the foundation of a cross-dialectal study of assimilation in YA consonants.

  9. USGS exploration geochemistry studies at the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Alaska-pdf of presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.; Fey, David L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Minsley, Burke J.; Smith, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    From 2007 through 2010, scientists in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been conducting exploration-oriented geochemical and geophysical studies in the region surrounding the giant Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The Cretaceous Pebble deposit is concealed under tundra, glacial till, and Tertiary cover rocks, and is undisturbed except for numerous exploration drill holes. These USGS studies are part of a nation-wide research project on evaluating and detecting concealed mineral resources. This report focuses on exploration geochemistry and comprises illustrations and associated notes that were presented as a case study in a workshop on this topic. The workshop, organized by L.G. Closs and R. Glanzman, is called 'Geochemistry in Mineral Exploration and Development,' presented by the Society of Economic Geologists at a technical conference entitled 'The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Integrative Exploration and New Discoveries,' held at Keystone, Colorado, October 2-5, 2010.

  10. Engineering studies to support a liquid sodium cooled pebble bed target/blanket for an accelerator breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, K.C.; Malenfant, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary calculations on using a liquid sodium cooled pebble bed of thorium metal for the target and blanket of a particle accelerator to convert fertile material to fissile have indicated the concept has considerable merit. Fuel management is simple and continuous on-line feed is effected. Additional features include excellent heat transfer, low pressure drop, minimization of structures and enhanced safety. Promising features strongly suggest that the work be continued to further refine the studies. Although specific to the target and blanket of the accelerator breeder concept, the work is readily extended to a high efficiency liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor employing a pebble bed as the fuel. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Geochemical Data for Samples Collected in 2007 Near the Concealed Pebble Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Deposit, Southwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Granitto, Matthew; Giles, Stuart A.; Smith, Steven M.; Eppinger, Robert G.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began an exploration geochemical research study over the Pebble porphyry copper-gold-molydenum (Cu-Au-Mo) deposit in southwest Alaska. The Pebble deposit is extremely large and is almost entirely concealed by tundra, glacial deposits, and post-Cretaceous volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. The deposit is presently being explored by Northern Dynasty Minerals, Ltd., and Anglo-American LLC. The USGS undertakes unbiased, broad-scale mineral resource assessments of government lands to provide Congress and citizens with information on national mineral endowment. Research on known deposits is also done to refine and better constrain methods and deposit models for the mineral resource assessments. The Pebble deposit was chosen for this study because it is concealed by surficial cover rocks, it is relatively undisturbed (except for exploration company drill holes), it is a large mineral system, and it is fairly well constrained at depth by the drill hole geology and geochemistry. The goals of the USGS study are (1) to determine whether the concealed deposit can be detected with surface samples, (2) to better understand the processes of metal migration from the deposit to the surface, and (3) to test and develop methods for assessing mineral resources in similar concealed terrains. This report presents analytical results for geochemical samples collected in 2007 from the Pebble deposit and surrounding environs. The analytical data are presented digitally both as an integrated Microsoft 2003 Access? database and as Microsoft 2003 Excel? files. The Pebble deposit is located in southwestern Alaska on state lands about 30 km (18 mi) northwest of the village of Illiamna and 320 km (200 mi) southwest of Anchorage (fig. 1). Elevations in the Pebble area range from 287 m (940 ft) at Frying Pan Lake just south of the deposit to 1146 m (3760 ft) on Kaskanak Mountain about 5 km (5 mi) to the west. The deposit is in an area of

  12. Flow characteristics analysis of purge gas in unitary pebble beds by CFD simulation coupled with DEM geometry model for fusion blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Youhua [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chen, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Luo, Guangnan [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A unitary pebble bed was built to analyze the flow characteristics of purge gas based on DEM-CFD method. • Flow characteristics between particles were clearly displayed. • Porosity distribution, velocity field distribution, pressure field distribution, pressure drop and the wall effects on velocity distribution were studied. - Abstract: Helium is used as the purge gas to sweep tritium out when it flows through the lithium ceramic and beryllium pebble beds in solid breeder blanket for fusion reactor. The flow characteristics of the purge gas will dominate the tritium sweep capability and tritium recovery system design. In this paper, a computational model for the unitary pebble bed was conducted using DEM-CFD method to study the purge gas flow characteristics in the bed, which include porosity distribution between pebbles, velocity field distribution, pressure field distribution, pressure drop as well as the wall effects on velocity distribution. Pebble bed porosity and velocity distribution with great fluctuations were found in the near-wall region and detailed flow characteristics between pebbles were displayed clearly. The results show that the numerical simulation model has an error with about 11% for estimating pressure drop when compared with the Ergun equation.

  13. Tritium release from EXOTIC-7 orthosilicate pebbles. Effect of burnup and contact with beryllium during irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-03-01

    EXOTIC-7 was the first in-pile test with {sup 6}Li-enriched (50%) lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) pebbles and with DEMO representative Li-burnup. Post irradiation examinations of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} have been performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), mainly to investigate the tritium release kinetics as well as the effect of Li-burnup and/or contact with beryllium during irradiation. The release rate of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from pure Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} bed of capsule 28.1-1 is characterized by a broad main peak at about 400degC and by a smaller peak at about 800degC, and that from the mixed beds of capsule 28.2 and 26.2-1 shows again these two peaks, but most of the tritium is now released from the 800degC peak. This shift of release from low to high temperature may be due to the higher Li-burnup and/or due to contact with Be during irradiation. Due to the very difficult interpretation of the in-situ tritium release data, residence times have been estimated on the basis of the out-of-pile tests. The residence time for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from caps. 28.1-1 irradiated at 10% Li-burnup agrees quite well with that of the same material irradiated at Li-burnup lower than 3% in the EXOTIC-6 experiment. In spite of the observed shift in the release peaks from low to high temperature, also the residence time for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from caps. 26.2-1 irradiated at 13% Li-burnup agrees quite well with the data from EXOTIC-6 experiment. On the other hand, the residence time for Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} from caps. 28.2 (Li-burnup 18%) is about a factor 1.7-3.8 higher than that for caps. 26.2-1. Based on these data on can conclude that up to 13% Li-burnup neither the contact with beryllium nor the Li-burnup have a detrimental effect on the tritium release of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles, but at 18% Li-burnup the residence time is increased by about a factor three. (J.P.N.)

  14. The Optimization of Radiation Protection in the Design of the High Temperature Reactor-Pebble-Bed Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sida Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of radiation protection is an important task in both the design and operation of a nuclear power plant. Although this topic has been considerably investigated for pressurized water reactors, there are very few public reports on it for pebble-bed reactors. This paper proposes a routine that jointly optimizes the system design and radiation protection of High Temperature Reactor-Pebble-Bed Module (HTR-PM towards the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA principle. A systematic framework is also established for the optimization of radiation protection for pebble-bed reactors. Typical calculations for the radiation protection of radioactivity-related systems are presented to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of the optimization routine, which achieve 23.3%~90.6% reduction of either dose rate or shielding or both of them. The annual collective doses of different systems are reduced through iterative optimization of the dose rates, designs, maintenance procedures, and work durations and compared against the previous estimates. The comparison demonstrates that the annual collective dose of HTR-PM is reduced from 0.490 man-Sv/a before optimization to 0.445 man-Sv/a after optimization, which complies with the requirements of the Chinese regulatory guide and proves the effectiveness of the proposed routine and framework.

  15. Virtue Existential Career Model: A Dialectic and Integrative Approach Echoing Eastern Philosophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Shu-Hui; Hung, Jui-Ping; Peng, Hsin-I; Chang, Chia-Hui; Lu, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    .... With dialectical philosophy and virtue-practice derived from the Classic of Changes, our VEC theoretical foundation incorporates merits from Holland typology, Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment...

  16. METHOD MATTERS IN DIALECT ROUTS / AĞIZ ARAŞTIRMALARINDA YÖNTEM SORUNLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ali AKAR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important language areas of Turkish is the dialects. Several studies on different aspects of these dialects have been done both in Turkey and in the other parts of the world. However, these studies pose some important methodological problems. These can be classified as problems with the act of compilation, the subject of compilation, the source subject, and the process of examination. We noticed that the dialect studies that we have examined demonstrate a lack of standard and a lack of methodology. In this study, these problems are discussed and some methods concerning the study of dialects are proposed.

  17. Experimental and numerical studies on penetration of shaped charge into concrete and pebble layered targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on penetrating into concrete and pebble layered targets were performed by shaped charge with different cone angles, liner wall thicknesses, length to diameter ratios and charge diameters at different standoffs. Based on the experimental data, the influence of shaped charge’s structural parameters on crater diameter, hole diameter, crater depth and penetration depth was analyzed in detail. Meanwhile, formation and penetration processes of all shaped charges were simulated by AUTODYN software for investigating the more intrinsic mechanisms, in which the numerical models are the same as those set up in the experiments. The results obtained in this paper indicate that there are obvious differences between jetting projectile charge (JPC and explosively formed projectile (EFP in penetrating into multi-layer targets. For the same charge diameter, the values of hole diameter formed by EFP were much larger than JPC. However, for the same standoff, the penetration depth caused by JCP were larger than EFP. The interfacial effect exists in the penetration progress of JPC.

  18. Simulation in CFD of a Pebble Bed: Advanced high temperature reactor core using OpenFOAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Pamela M.; Su, Jian, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Numerical simulations of a Pebble Bed nuclear reactor core are presented using the multi-physics tool-kit OpenFOAM. The HTR-PM is modeled using the porous media approach, accounting both for viscous and inertial effects through the Darcy and Forchheimer model. Initially, cylindrical 2D and 3D simulations are compared, in order to evaluate their differences and decide if the 2D simulations carry enough of the sought information, considering the savings in computational costs. The porous medium is considered to be isotropic, with the whole length of the packed bed occupied homogeneously with the spherical fuel elements. Steady-state simulations for normal equilibrium operation are performed, using a semi sine function of the power density along the vertical axis as the source term for the energy balance equation.Total pressure drop is calculated and compared with that obtained from literature for a similar case. At a second stage, transient simulations are performed, where relevant parameters are calculated and compared to those of the literature. (author)

  19. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses of a Pebble Bed HTGR Loss of Cooling Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Strydom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Very High Temperature Reactor Methods Development group at the Idaho National Laboratory identified the need for a defensible and systematic uncertainty and sensitivity approach in 2009. This paper summarizes the results of an uncertainty and sensitivity quantification investigation performed with the SUSA code, utilizing the International Atomic Energy Agency CRP 5 Pebble Bed Modular Reactor benchmark and the INL code suite PEBBED-THERMIX. Eight model input parameters were selected for inclusion in this study, and after the input parameters variations and probability density functions were specified, a total of 800 steady state and depressurized loss of forced cooling (DLOFC transient PEBBED-THERMIX calculations were performed. The six data sets were statistically analyzed to determine the 5% and 95% DLOFC peak fuel temperature tolerance intervals with 95% confidence levels. It was found that the uncertainties in the decay heat and graphite thermal conductivities were the most significant contributors to the propagated DLOFC peak fuel temperature uncertainty. No significant differences were observed between the results of Simple Random Sampling (SRS or Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS data sets, and use of uniform or normal input parameter distributions also did not lead to any significant differences between these data sets.

  20. Applying Pebble-Rotating Game to enhance the robustness of DHTs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Ren

    Full Text Available Distributed hash tables (DHTs are usually used in the open networking environment, where they are vulnerable to Sybil attacks. Pebble-Rotating Game (PRG mixes the nodes of the honest and the adversarial randomly, and can resist the Sybil attack efficiently. However, the adversary may have some tricks to corrupt the rule of PRG. This paper proposes a set of mechanisms to make the rule of PRG be obliged to obey. A new joining node must ask the Certificate Authority (CA for its signature and certificate, which records the complete process on how a node joins the network and obtains the legitimacy of the node. Then, to prevent the adversary from accumulating identifiers, any node can make use of the latest certificate to judge whether one identifier is expired with the help of the replacement property of RPG. This paper analyzes in details the number of expired certificates which are needed to store in every node, and gives asymptotic solution of this problem. The analysis and simulations show that the mean number of the certificates stored in each node are [Formula: see text], where n is the size of the network.

  1. Development and applications of methodologies for the neutronic design of the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratoni, Massimiliano

    This study investigated the neutronic characteristics of the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a novel nuclear reactor concept that combines liquid salt (7LiF-BeF2---flibe) cooling and TRISO coated-particle fuel technology. The use of flibe enables operation at high power density and atmospheric pressure and improves passive decay-heat removal capabilities, but flibe, unlike conventional helium coolant, is not transparent to neutrons. The flibe occupies 40% of the PB-AHTR core volume and absorbs ˜8% of the neutrons, but also acts as an effective neutron moderator. Two novel methodologies were developed for calculating the time dependent and equilibrium core composition: (1) a simplified single pebble model that is relatively fast; (2) a full 3D core model that is accurate and flexible but computationally intensive. A parametric analysis was performed spanning a wide range of fuel kernel diameters and graphite-to-heavy metal atom ratios to determine the attainable burnup and reactivity coefficients. Using 10% enriched uranium ˜130 GWd/tHM burnup was found to be attainable, when the graphite-to-heavy metal atom ratio (C/HM) is in the range of 300 to 400. At this or smaller C/HM ratio all reactivity coefficients examined---coolant temperature, coolant small and full void, fuel temperature, and moderator temperature, were found to be negative. The PB-AHTR performance was compared to that of alternative options for HTRs, including the helium-cooled pebble-bed reactor and prismatic fuel reactors, both gas-cooled and flibe-cooled. The attainable burnup of all designs was found to be similar. The PB-AHTR generates at least 30% more energy per pebble than the He-cooled pebble-bed reactor. Compared to LWRs the PB-AHTR requires 30% less natural uranium and 20% less separative work per unit of electricity generated. For deep burn TRU fuel made from recycled LWR spent fuel, it was found that in a single pass through the core ˜66% of the TRU can be

  2. The early ethnic history of Bulaestian dialect speakers through the issue of asynchronous VN-reflexes in the Ukrainian dialectal continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksey Romanchuk

    2017-01-01

    The asynchronous VN-reflexes (Bulaestian /ч’iндреǐ/ ‘generous’ presents a clear example) in the Ukrainian dialects were in depth considered by P. E. Hritsenko and were clearly explained as a “phonetic polonism”. Well, the question is when and how this phenomena appeared in the Bulaestian dialect? We should consider the following facts here: 1) in general, polonisms are presented in the Bulaestian dialect by some early examples mainly; 2) the great part of polonisms known in other Ukrainian dia...

  3. Question Formation and Focus Construction in Owo: A Yoruba Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boluwaji Oshodi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Question formation and focusing are two transformational processes attested in Standard Yorùbá both of which have been extensively discussed in previous studies. However, very little is known about these concepts in Owo (Owò̩̩̀ a south-East Yoruba (Yorùbá dialect. This study examines the concept of questions and focusing in Owo ̩̩̀̀dialect with a comparison of the processes in Standard Yorùbá. The study revealed some differences as well as similarities in the two processes in Owo ̩̩̀̀and standard Yorùbá. Just like in Standard Yorùbá, question markers in Owo ̩̩̀̀normally occur in sentence initial and final positions. However, the question marker de ̩̀constantly appears sentence medially before and before verbs in certain constructions. Furthermore, while the focus marker in Yorùbá normally occurs immediately after the focused item with a stable form, the focus marker in Owo ̩̩̀̀usually occurs at the sentence final position as a reduplicated form of the last syllable of the final item. Also, a pronoun which indicates number and agreement usually occurs immediately after the focused item in Owò̩̩̀. Finally, just like in Yorùbá, there is a syntactic relationship between question and focusing in Owo ̩̩̀̀dialect.

  4. Innovation Dialectics: An Extended Process Perspective on Innovation in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardelli, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    Services are characterised by the involvement of customers and other interest groups in the innovation process. The aim of this study is to understand how and why, in the service context, tensions and potential conflicts between heterogeneous interest groups unfold during processes of innovation...... service context. The findings suggest that tensions and conflicts between heterogeneous interest groups are an intrinsic element of innovation processes in services, and that emphasising them might actually support a clearer understanding of processes of innovation in services. The outcome of the analysis...... is a process model, which proposes innovation dialectics as one of the driving mechanisms of innovation in services....

  5. The Dialectic Between Empathy and Violence: An Opportunity for Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chialant, Doriana; Edersheim, Judith; Price, Bruce H

    2016-02-22

    The authors provide a comprehensive review of the neurobiology of empathy and compare this with the neurobiology of psychopathic predatory violence-the most extreme deficit of empathy. This suggests that the specific areas of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system, which have been associated with violent behavior, also appear to subserve the capacity for empathy. Damage to these regions may result in the emergence of aggression, but not of empathy, suggesting a structurally inverse relationship between the two. The authors examine the evidence for a dialectic between empathy and predatory violence and explore the implications for early interventions with empathy training in treatment-resistant psychopathy.

  6. Assessment through the dialectic: the necessary forgotten link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, H M

    1999-04-01

    Traditional assessment procedures focus on diagnosing psychopathology, thereby implicitly endorsing the medical model. It is equally vital to assess the nonpathological side of the person, the part that strives for increased personal satisfaction and impels the individual to seek psychotherapy. A dialectically based assessment would evaluate both the healthy and unhealthy forces in the person. Such an evaluation would address the nature and extent of participants' experienced pain, the degree to which participants are open to external assistance, and the style of assistance best suited for each individual.

  7. Some Observatitms on the Pamphylian Dialect Sound System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Čepon

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with some aspects of the Pamphylian sound system as attested by an inscription from Syllio dating from the fourth century B. C. It begins by discussing the reasons for the sporadic palatalisation of u, the importance of the transition ερ > αρ to the dialectal determination of Pamphylian, and the reasons for the nonmarking of aspiration in some words. Further issues discussed in the article are the interpretation of the graphemes ϝ, W, ψ and υh, and the etymology of the word διϝια.

  8. Modern Standard Arabic and Rural Palestinian Dialect: Patterns of the Active Participle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Mohammed Mahmoud Talal

    2017-01-01

    This paper was mainly concerned with analyzing the processes of active participle formation in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). It also aimed to examine the Rural Palestinian Dialect (RPD) in order to reveal the derivation of the active participle in this dialect and to describe any patterns that might vary from MSA. The study was based on the…

  9. Insight into the Attitudes of Speakers of Urban Meccan Hijazi Arabic towards Their Dialect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmadi, Sameeha D.

    2016-01-01

    The current study mainly aims to examine the attitudes of speakers of Urban Meccan Hijazi Arabic (UMHA) towards their dialect, which is spoken in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It also investigates whether the participants' age, sex and educational level have any impact on their perception of their dialect. To this end, I designed a 5-point-Likert-scale…

  10. The pragma-dialectical analysis and evaluation of teleological argumentation in a legal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author develops a framework for a pragma-dialectical reconstruction of teleological argumentation in a legal context. Ideas taken from legal theory are integrated in a pragma-dialectical model for analyzing and evaluating argumentation, thus providing a more systematic and

  11. The Dialectical Development of "Storytelling" Learning Organizations: A Case Study of a Public Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillon, Yue Cai; Boje, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Calls for dialectical learning process model development in learning organizations have largely gone unheeded, thereby limiting conceptual understanding and application in the field. This paper aims to unify learning organization theory with a new understanding of Hegelian dialectics to trace the development of the storytelling learning…

  12. Some aspects of medical hermeneutics: the role of dialectic and narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, J D

    1990-03-01

    This essay constructs an argument for a dialectic between the scientific and clinical aspects of medicine using the hermeneutical approach of Paul Ricoeur as a theoretical and philosophical guide. Additionally, the relationship between this dialectic and narrative case histories is examined as a way of expressing this abstract and theoretical concept in more concrete terms.

  13. Using Cognitive Conflict to Promote the Use of Dialectical Learning for Strategic Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision-makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision-makers to integrate conflicting information causing…

  14. "Anything You Can Do I Can Do Better": Dialectical Argument in Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokey, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon my critical appropriation of Alasdair MacIntyre's account of the rationality of traditions, I undertake to explain and demonstrate how the competing conceptual frameworks of distinct traditions of educational inquiry and practice can be assessed through dialectical argument. To illustrate the "method" of dialectic, I argue that the…

  15. Los dialectos de la lengua nahua (Dialects of the Nahuatl Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Juan A.

    1975-01-01

    Nahuatl was the indigenous, prehispanic Mexican language, still spoken today, and related to the nontonal languages of Mesoamerica. Several Nahuatl dialects are mentioned: Cazcan, Pipil, the extinct Pochuteco, and four dialects distinguished geographically, east, north, central, and west. These are discussed with attention to the development of…

  16. Finding Richness in Conflict and Context: The Shimmer and Shadow of Dialectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporek, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    Dialectics provide a framework for deeper understanding of complex constructs and processes and allow for consideration of dynamic range of movement. Context, however, is needed to more deeply understand and use a framework of dialectics. Environment, identity, and developmental processes are suggested as important contextual factors. The metaphor…

  17. White Dialectics: A New Framework for Theory, Research, and Practice with White Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nathan R.; Abrams, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents White dialectics, or the tensions that White students experience as dominant group members in the United States, as a new framework to understand and intervene with White students and counselor trainees. Developed from and supported by our qualitative analysis, the authors present the six dialectics of (a) Whiteness and self,…

  18. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF A DIALECT WORD-FORMATIONAL TYPE FUNCTIONING ON THE TERRITORY OF SMOLENSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Vatlina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the practical application of a cartographical method in the study of a dialect word-formation based on GIS-technologies. The research has proved the importance of lingvogeographical information for the study the specificity of a dialect word-formational type.

  19. THE PERCEPTION OF GENERAL AMERICAN ENGLISH BY SPEAKERS OF SOUTHERN DIALECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LANE, HARLAN; AND OTHERS

    RECENT LINGUISTIC RESEARCH SHOWS THAT THE SPEECH PATTERNS OF SOUTHERN NEGROES CONSTITUTE A LEGITIMATE DIALECT OF ENGLISH WITH PHONOLOGICAL AND GRAMMATICAL RULES SOMEWHAT DIFFERENT FROM GENERAL AMERICAN ENGLISH (GAE). AN EXPERIMENT WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE WHETHER THOSE ASPECTS OF THE NEGRO DIALECT WHICH SET IT APART FROM OTHER ENGLISH DIALECTS…

  20. The Effects of Dialect Awareness Instruction on Nonmainstream American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lakeisha; Terry, Nicole Patton; Connor, Carol McDonald; Thomas-Tate, Shurita

    2017-01-01

    The achievement gaps between poor and more affluent students are persistent and chronic, as many students living in poverty are also members of more isolated communities where dialects such as African American English and Southern Vernacular English are often spoken. Non-mainstream dialect use is associated with weaker literacy achievement. The…

  1. Subordinators and Supradialectal Formulas in the Dialectal Inscriptions from Mainland Greece (Excluding Attica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Toru

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated the usage of subordinators in Ancient Greek dialectal inscriptions and their interactions with supradialectal formulas, i.e., relatively fixed expressions shared across dialectal borders. Subordinators are grammatical elements and therefore are expected to behave in a systematic manner; supradialectal formulas…

  2. Dialectical Inquiry--Does It Deliver? A User Based Research Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, James

    2013-01-01

    Dialectical Enquiry (DI) as a research method was used in the study of customer/student experience and its management (CEM) in not for profit as higher education. The (DI) method is applied to senders, receivers of the customer experience across six English universities to gather real world data using an imposed dialectical structure and analysis.…

  3. [Participant research in reference to historical and dialectical materialism: a contribution to nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M A

    1991-07-01

    Based upon the studies of Castellanos e Salum (1988) and Egry et al (1991), the author makes a theoretical approach of the participant research as an strategy related to the dialectical and historical materialism, emphasizing its in two main lines: - the dialectical method of exposition and the process of becoming aware.

  4. Toward a Dialectical Model of Family Gender Discourse: Body, Identity, and Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Libby Balter; Blume, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a dialectical model representing gender discourse in families. A brief review of literature in sociology, psychology, and gender studies focuses on three dialectical issues: nature versus culture, similarity versus difference, and stability versus fluidity. Deconstructing gender theories from a postmodern feminist perspective, the authors…

  5. Youth Development as Subjectified Subjectivity – a Dialectical-Ecological Model of Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    school, we carry out an analysis of a 16-year old high school student and how her approach to beer, to beer drinking as a part of Danish high school life-style, and to herself changes over time. We suggest a dialectical-ecological model to analyze the dialectical and synthetic movements over time...

  6. PROBLEMS OF TRANSCRIPTION IN THE AREA OF DIALECT RESEARCHES / AĞIZ ARASTIRMALARINDA TRANSKRIPSIYON ISARETLERININ FARKLI KULLANILMASI SORUNU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç DEMİRAY (M.A.H.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dialect researches is one of the most difficult fieldof language. In this area of dialect researches, one of themost important reason of the difficulties, encountered atthe stage of putting voice recordings into the writting andanalyzing the papers, is the differences appeared in theuse of transcription signs. Using transcription signs issuein the dialect researches should be solved and adopted acommon understanding.

  7. Impact of Dialect Use on a Basic Component of Learning to Read

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan eBrown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Can some black-white differences in reading achievement be traced to differences in language background? Many African American children speak a dialect that differs from the mainstream dialect emphasized in school. We examined how use of alternative dialects affects decoding, an important component of early reading and marker of reading development. Behavioral data show that use of the alternative pronunciations of words in different dialects affects reading aloud in developing readers, with larger effects for children who use more African American English. Mechanisms underlying this effect were explored with a computational model, investigating factors affecting reading acquisition. The results indicate that the achievement gap may be due in part to differences in task complexity: children whose home and school dialects differ are at greater risk for reading difficulties because tasks such as learning to decode are more complex for them.

  8. The Pronominal System of the Soqotri Dialects: A structural and functional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Awadh Bin Mukhashin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing structurally and functionally the pronominal system of the three main dialects of Soqotri, an endangered Modern south Arabian language spoken in the Island of Soqotra, Yemen. A part of the data presented in the study has been taken from my PhD thesis written in 2009. New data were collected from the field in 2012 and added to the study. The Study follows a descriptive method, therefore, showing no argumentation. The study reveals the structure and functions of the Soqotri rich pronominal system. It shows that the three Soqotri dialects (Eastern Soqotri Dialect, Central Soqotri Dialect and Western Soqotri Dialect have personal pronouns, possessive pronouns, demonstrative pronoun, reflexive pronouns, reciprocal pronouns, relative pronouns and interrogative pronouns. It also shows that these pronouns are usually of two types (independent and dependent inflecting for person, number and gender.

  9. Dialect Density in Bilingual Puerto Rican Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Shuriff, Rebecca; Barlow, Jessica A.; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    It is still largely unknown how the two phonological systems of bilingual children interact. In this exploratory study, we examine children's use of dialect features to determine how their speech sound systems interact. Six monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-speaking children and 6 bilingual Puerto Rican Spanish-English speaking children, ages 5-7 years, were included in the current study. Children's single word productions were analyzed for (1) dialect density and (2) frequency of occurrence of dialect features (after Oetting & McDonald, 2002). Nonparametric statistical analyses were used to examine differences within and across language groups. Results indicated that monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar dialect density, but differed on the types of dialect features used. Findings are discussed within the theoretical framework of the Dual Systems Model (Paradis, 2001) of language acquisition in bilingual children. PMID:25009677

  10. Physician-patient argumentation and communication, comparing Toulmin's model, pragma-dialectics, and American sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Francisco Javier Uribe; Artmann, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the application of theories of argumentation and communication to the field of medicine. Based on a literature review, the authors compare Toulmin's model, pragma-dialectics, and the work of Todd and Fisher, derived from American sociolinguistics. These approaches were selected because they belong to the pragmatic field of language. The main results were: pragma-dialectics characterizes medical reasoning more comprehensively, highlighting specific elements of the three disciplines of argumentation: dialectics, rhetoric, and logic; Toulmin's model helps substantiate the declaration of diagnostic and therapeutic hypotheses, and as part of an interpretive medicine, approximates the pragma-dialectical approach by including dialectical elements in the process of formulating arguments; Fisher and Todd's approach allows characterizing, from a pragmatic analysis of speech acts, the degree of symmetry/asymmetry in the doctor-patient relationship, while arguing the possibility of negotiating treatment alternatives.

  11. Precambrian uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates: exploration model and United States resource potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    Uranium has been discovered in fluvial quartz-pebble conglomerates in most of the Precambrian shield areas of the world, including the Canadian, African, South American, Indian, Baltic, and Australian shields. Occurrences in these and other areas are shown. Two of these occurrences, the Huronian supergroup of Canada and the Witwatersrand deposit of South Africa contain 20 to 30 percent of the planet's known uranium reserves. Thus it is critical that we understand the origin of these deposits and develop exploration models that can aid in finding new deposits. Inasmuch as these uranium-bearing conglomerates are confined almost entirely to rocks of Precambrian age, Part I of this review begins with a discussion of Precambrian geology as it applies to the conglomerates. This is followed by a discussion of genetic concepts, a discussion of unresolved problems, and finally a suggested exploration model. Part II summarizes known and potential occurrences of Precambrian fossil placers in the world and evaluates them in terms of the suggested exploration model. Part III discusses the potential for important Precambrian fossil-placer uranium deposits in the United States and includes suggestions that may be helpful in establishing an exploration program in this country. Part III also brings together new (1975-1978) data on uranium occurrences in the Precambrian of the Wyoming Province. Part IV is a complete bibliography of Precambrian fossil placers, divided according to geographical areas. In total, this paper is designed to be a comprehensive review of Precambrian uranium-bearing fossil placers which will be of use to uranium explorationists and to students of Precambrian geology.

  12. Revision of the Western Australian pebble-mimic dragon species-group (Tympanocryptis cephalus: Reptilia: Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Paul; Kealley, Luke; Shoo, Luke P; Melville, Jane

    2015-11-03

    Recent work on species complexes of the pebble-mimic dragons of the Australian genus Tympanocryptis has greatly clarified evolutionary relationships among taxa and also indicated that species diversity has been severely underestimated. Here we provide a morphological and molecular appraisal of variation in the T. cephalus species-group and find evidence for recognizing five species-level lineages from Western Australia. Four species-level lineages are strongly supported with a combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA Bayesian analysis (a fifth population from the Gascoyne region lacked tissue samples). Morphologically, we found subtle, yet consistent, differences among the populations in scalation, color and pattern. True T. cephalus Günther is restricted to the coastal Pilbara region and characterized by five dark blotches on the dorsum, keeled ventrals, and other characters. Two other lineages within the Pilbara, from the Hamersley range and Fortescue/northern Pilbara region, differed from T. cephalus senso stricto by possessing a more elongate body and a plain dorsum. Furthermore, the Hamersley lineage differed from the Fortescue lineage by possessing slightly more reddish coloration and feeble keeling on the snout. Although there are few specimens and no tissue samples available for the Gascoyne population, these individuals are larger, have rugose scales on the snout, and possess scattered enlarged tubercles with three large blotches on the dorsum. The name T. cephalus gigas Mitchell is available for this population. The most widespread lineage, and the one best represented in collections and in field guides, occurs throughout central Western Australia. These Goldfield populations are characterized by a protruding snout, narrow rostral, and uniform reddish-brown coloration, often with a dark wash. Based on the genetic and morphological differences, we redescribe T. cephalus, resurrect and elevate T. gigas to a full species and designate a neotype for this taxon

  13. Some Phonetic Phenomena in the Central Podillia Dialect (Based on the Terminology of Traditional Folk Crafts

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    Kraievska Hanna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the reviewed paper we attempted to investigate the phonetic variation of the Central Podillia dialect on the example of some linguistic phenomena. We found out that many linguists studied the phonetic variation based on the Ukrainians' dialect speech. However, they did not study the terminology of folk crafts of the Central Podillia dialects, that's why we aim to describe the sound differences of the lexical units of this area. Purpose: The purpose of the analysis is to determine some phonetic phenomena of the Central Podillia dialect. First of all, there are changes within the stable word length (metathesis, substantive changes of one sound in the stable surround sound, and changes, accompanied by the word elongation or contraction (prosthesis, epenthesis, elision. Results: The analyzed dialects widely present the consonant changes within the stable word length (г → ґ, т → д, с → ш, з → ж…. The performed study characterizes the Central Podillia dialects by the vowel change within a stable word length – 5 cases. Sound changes are typical for the analyzed dialects affecting the dynamics of the word length (prosthetic sounds - [г], [в], [й], [і], [и]. In opposition to the phonetic processes that help to increase the length of the word, we observe the loss of the sound in the middle of the word in the Central Podillia dialects (reduction – [o], [й], [в]. Discussion: The analysis of some phonetic phenomena of the Central Podillia dialects proved the existence of phonetic features typical for the South-Western dialect. However, we determined the local sound differences of this area, which confirm the identity of the language of this region.

  14. Additives affecting properties of β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in a modified indirect wet chemistry process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheng-Long, E-mail: johnyucl@aliyun.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Liu, Wei; Yang, Long-Tao; Wang, Dao-Yi; Wu, Kang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Zhang, Zeng-Ping [Key Laboratory for Special Area Highway Engineering of Ministry of Education, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Wang, Xiu-Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Lithium metatitanate (β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebbles were fabricated via the modified indirect wet chemistry method. Effect of varied additives, as polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol, and agar on the properties evolution was investigated. The highest density is obtained by adding 2 wt% (weight percent) polyvinyl alcohol, 3 wt% glycerol, and 3 wt% agar, respectively. β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles with relative sintered density of 92.4%T.D. (Theoretical Density), the ratio of the intensity of diffraction peak (002) to that of (−133) of about 2.93, about 1.58 mm in diameter, a better sphericity of 1.02, the particle size of 5–6 μm, and the well-developed surface layered structure are successfully fabricated with 3 wt% glycerol. Glycerol is beneficial to improving the properties by other fabrication method as well. - Highlights: • Polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol, and agar were used to prepare β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. • Properties of the β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were governed by the additives. • Glycerol is beneficial to improving the properties of β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles.

  15. Pebble fabrication of super advanced tritium breeders using a solid solution of Li2+xTiO3+y with Li2ZrO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hoshino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithium titanate with excess lithium (Li2+xTiO3+y is one of the most promising candidates among advanced tritium breeders for demonstration power plant reactors because of its good tritium release characteristics. However, the tritium breeding ratio (TBR of Li2+xTiO3+y is smaller than that of e.g., Li2O or Li8TiO6 because of its lower Li density. Therefore, new Li-containing ceramic composites with both high stability and high Li density have been developed. Thus, this study focused on the development of a solid solution with a new characteristic. The solid-solution pebbles of Li2+xTiO3+y with Li2ZrO3 (Li2+x(Ti,ZrO3+y, designated as LTZO, were fabricated by an emulsion method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of sintered LTZO pebbles are approximately the same as those of Li2+xTiO3+y pebbles, and no peaks attributable to Li2ZrO3 are observed. These results demonstrate that LTZO pebbles are not a two-phase material but rather a solid solution. Furthermore, LTZO pebbles were easily sintered under air. Thus, the LTZO solid solution is a candidate breeder material for super advanced (SA tritium breeders.

  16. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /ɪ/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  17. The Dialectal Provenance of London, Wellcome Library, Ms 5262

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    Esteban-Segura Laura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes into consideration the language found in London, Wellcome Library, MS 5262, a one-volume codex from the early fifteenth century which holds a medical recipe collection. The manuscript, written in Middle English (and with a few fragments in Latin, represents a fine exemplar of a remedybook, a type of writing that has been traditionally considered to be popular. The main aim is to study the dialect of the text contained in folios 3v-61v in order to localise it geographically. The methodology followed for the purpose is grounded on the model supplied by the Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English (LALME (McIntosh et al. 1986, which consists of several stages including the completion of a survey questionnaire, the creation of the linguistic profile of the text and the application of the ‘fit’-technique (McIntosh et al. 1986, vol. 1: 10-12; Benskin 1991. Extralinguistic features of the manuscript may also be taken into consideration. This comprehensive analysis will help us to circumscribe the dialectal provenance and/or local origin of the text accurately.

  18. Dialectical principlism: an approach to finding the most ethical action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Most forensic psychiatrists occasionally face complex situations in forensic work in which ethics dilemmas cause discomfort. They want to determine the most ethical action, but the best choice is unclear. Fostering justice is primary in forensic roles, but secondary duties such as traditional biomedical ethics and personal values like helping society, combating racism, and being sensitive to cultural issues can impinge on or even outweigh the presumptive primary duty in extreme cases. Similarly, in treatment the psychiatrists' primary duty is to patients, but that can be outweighed by secondary duties such as protecting children and the elderly or maintaining security. The implications of one's actions matter. In forensic work, if the psychiatrist determines that he should not assist the party who wants to hire him, despite evidence clearly supporting its side, the only ethical option becomes not to accept the case at all, because the evidence does not support the better side. Sometimes it can be ethical to accept cases only for one side. In ethics-related dilemmas, I call the method of prioritizing and balancing all types of conflicting principles, duties, and personal and societal values in a dialectic to resolve conflicts among them dialectical principlism. This approach is designed to help determine the most ethical action. It is aspirational and is not intended to get the psychiatrist into trouble. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  19. Pacific northwest vowels: A Seattle neighborhood dialect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Jennifer K.; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia

    2005-04-01

    According to current literature a large region encompassing nearly the entire west half of the U.S. belongs to one dialect region referred to as Western, which furthermore, according to Labov et al., ``... has developed a characteristic but not unique phonology.'' [http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono-atlas/NationalMap/NationalMap.html] This paper will describe the vowel space of a set of Pacific Northwest American English speakers native to the Ballard neighborhood of Seattle, Wash. based on the acoustical analysis of high-quality Marantz CDR 300 recordings. Characteristics, such as low back merger and [u] fronting will be compared to findings by other studies. It is hoped that these recordings will contribute to a growing number of corpora of North American English dialects. All participants were born in Seattle and began their residence in Ballard between ages 0-8. They were recorded in two styles of speech: individually reading repetitions of a word list containing one token each of 10 vowels within carrier phrases, and in casual conversation for 40 min with a partner matched in age, gender, and social mobility. The goal was to create a compatible data set for comparison with current acoustic studies. F1 and F2 and vowel duration from LPC spectral analysis will be presented.

  20. [Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Male Adolescents with Borderline Symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Jens; Fleck, Anna; Peteler, Christina; Anker, Sabine; Lieb, Susanne; Behrens, Michael; Schröder, Annette; In-Albon, Tina; Brünger, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Male Adolescents with Borderline Symptomatology The efficacy of Dialectical Behavior Therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) in patients with borderline symptomatology has mainly been shown in female adolescents. However, male adolescents with borderline symptoms are characterized by more aggressive, disruptive, and antisocial behavior. Therefore, the efficacy of the DBT-A has to be investigated in male adolescents. The DBT-A manual was adopted for male adolescents in an inpatient setting. The program has been investigated using a pre-post design in seven male adolescents (on average 14 years of age) with an average of five borderline symptoms according to DSM-IV. Criteria for outcome are symptoms of psychopathology, emotion regulation, aggressive, and self-injurious behavior. After treatment a reduction in aggressive behavior (pre-post effect size d = 1.18) and an improvement in adaptive emotion regulation (d = 0.65) were shown. No improvement could be shown in general symptoms of psychopathology (d = 0.02). The results of these case studies of DBT-A in male adolescents are promising. However, further RCTs with larger sample sizes and a control group will be required.

  1. Culture and/or deception the dialectic of enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimirović Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This text deals with Adornos dialectic critic of culture, within which it tries to clarify the relationship between earlier bourgeois culture, on the one hand, and contemporary forms of mass culture, on the other. Adornos understanding of culture enables us to comprehend many specific social forms in their dialectic relationship and their mutual determination. The text itself, first of all, examines the changes that contemporary industrial society brought in regard to critic potential of culture, namely the way in which it achieves to convert, once useless-provocative, culture into useful-impotent culture. Here is analyzed the influence of manufactural industry of high and mass culture on individual consciousness - namely upon mass consciousness - as well as the way in which individuals are being fooled for the things that are said to be offered by the culture. It is asserted that the triumph of manufacturing in cultural industry fooles men for the offer it seemingly gives, and therefore, that it has today become almost impossible to practice individuation, and therewith to hold a critical distance toward ruling forms of material and spiritual manufacturing.

  2. Dialectical thinking and fairness-based perspectives of affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Ferris, D Lance

    2017-05-01

    Affirmative action (AA) policies are among the most effective means for enhancing diversity and equality in the workplace, yet are also often viewed with scorn by the wider public. Fairness-based explanations for this scorn suggest AA policies provide preferential treatment to minorities, violating procedural fairness principles of consistent treatment. In other words, to promote equality in the workplace, effective AA policies promote inequality when selecting employees, and the broader public perceives this to be procedurally unfair. Given this inconsistency underlies negative reactions to AA policies, we argue that better preparing individuals to deal with inconsistencies can mitigate negative reactions to AA policies. Integrating theories from the fairness and cognitive styles literature, we demonstrate across 4 studies how dialectical thinking-a cognitive style associated with accepting inconsistencies in one's environment-increases support for AA policies via procedural fairness perceptions. Specifically, we found support for our propositions across a variety of AA policy types (i.e., strong and weak preference policies) and when conceptualizing dialectical thinking either as an individual difference or as a state that can be primed-including being primed by the framing of the AA policy itself. We discuss theoretical contributions and insights for policy-making at government and organizational levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Ethics in Research on Learning: Dialectics of Praxis and Praxeology

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    SungWon Hwang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative social research designed to develop ways of understanding and explaining lived experience of human beings is a reflexive human endeavor. It is reflexive in that as researchers attempt to better understand their participants, they also come to better understand themselves. Consequently, research ethics itself becomes an ethical project, for it pertains to participant and researcher at the same time: Both are subjects, knower and known. Particularly in case of research on learning, reflexivity arises from the fact that the research itself constitutes learning about learning. How is ethics in research on learning reflexive of, in its praxis and praxeology, ongoing events and changes of the human learning? In this study, from our experience of conducting a project designed to inquire into "learning in unfamiliar environments," we develop pertinent ethical issues through a dialectical process—not unlike that used by G.W.F. HEGEL in Phenomenology of Spirit—grounded in our lived experience and developed in three theoretical claims concerning a praxeology of ethics. First, ethics is an ongoing historical event; second, ethics is based on the communicative praxis of material bodies; and third, ethics involves the creation of new communicative configurations. We conclude that ethics is grounded in a fundamental answerability of human beings for their actions, which requires communicative action that itself is a dialectical process in opening up possibilities for acting in an answerable manner. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0501198

  4. STUDI DESAIN DOWN SCALE TERAS REAKTOR DAN BAHAN BAKAR PLTN JENIS PEBBLE BED MODULAR REACTOR – HTR 100 MWe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Parmanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian terhadap teras reaktor Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR dengan daya 100 Mwe berbahan bakar UO2. Reaktor ini menggunakan moderator grafit dan helium sebagai pendingin. Studi down scale dilakukan tanpa mengubah geometri teras maupun geometri bahan bakar. Parameter yang dianalisis adalah kritikalitas teras, reaktivitas lebih, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur bahan bakar, moderator dan pendingin serta nilai ekonomis bahan bakar. Dari penelitian ini diharapkan diperoleh desain bahan bakar yang bernilai ekonomis dan memiliki fitur keselamatan melekat. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan program SRAC 2003. Hasil yang diperoleh adalah desain bahan bakar UO2 berbentuk pebble dengan pengkayaan 10% U235 dan 90 ppm racun dapat bakar Gd2O3. Nilai faktor multipilkasi effektif keff pada beginning of life (BOL adalah 1,01115 dan menjadi 1,00588 setelah 2658 hari operasi reaktor (EOL. Koefisien reaktivitas temperatur total diperoleh sebesar - 3,25900E-05 ∆k/k/K saat BOL dan -1,10615E-04 ∆k/k/K saat end of life (EOL. Reaktor ini memenuhi karakteristik keselamatan melekat ditandai dengan nilai koefisien reaktivitas temperatur yang negatif. Kata kunci: PBMR, desain bahan bakar, faktor multipilkasi effektif, reaktivitas lebih, koefisien reaktivitas temperatur.   Research of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR 100 MWe which used UO2 fuel has been done. This reactor uses graphite as moderator and helium as coolant. Down scale studies performed without changing the core and fuel geometry. The parameter being analyzed were core criticality, excess reactivity, fuel, moderator, coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, and fuel economy. This research is expected to obtain the design that has fuel economy and inherent safety features. In this research, we have employed SRAC 2003 code. The calculation show that the UO2 pebble fuel design with 10% enrichment of U235 and 90 ppm burnable poison of Gd2O3 results in the effective multiplication

  5. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies.

  6. Geological analysis of aeromagnetic data from southwestern Alaska: implications for exploration in the area of the Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric D.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Monecke, Thomas; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Shah, Anjana K.; Kelley, Karen D.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data are used to better understand the geology and mineral resources near the Late Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) transformation of regional-scale aeromagnetic data shows that the Pebble deposit is within a cluster of magnetic anomaly highs. Similar to Pebble, the Iliamna, Kijik, and Neacola porphyry copper occurrences are in magnetic highs that trend northeast along the crustal-scale Lake Clark fault. A high-amplitude, short- to moderate-wavelength anomaly is centered over the Kemuk occurrence, an Alaska-type ultramafic complex. Similar anomalies are found west and north of Kemuk. A moderate-amplitude, moderate-wavelength magnetic low surrounded by a moderate-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic high is associated with the gold-bearing Shotgun intrusive complex. The RTP transformation of the district-scale aeromagnetic data acquired over Pebble permits differentiation of a variety of Jurassic to Tertiary magmatic rock suites. Jurassic-Cretaceous basalt and gabbro units and Late Cretaceous biotite pyroxenite and granodiorite rocks produce magnetic highs. Tertiary basalt units also produce magnetic highs, but appear to be volumetrically minor. Eocene monzonite units have associated magnetic lows. The RTP data do not suggest a magnetite-rich hydrothermal system at the Pebble deposit. The 10-km upward continuation transformation of the regional-scale data shows a linear northeast trend of magnetic anomaly highs. These anomalies are spatially correlated with Late Cretaceous igneous rocks and in the Pebble district are centered over the granodiorite rocks genetically related to porphyry copper systems. The spacing of these anomalies is similar to patterns shown by the numerous porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile. These anomalies are interpreted to reflect a Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that is favorable for additional discoveries of Late Cretaceous porphyry copper systems in southwestern

  7. The effects of cross-generational and cross-dialectal variation on vowel identification and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2012-02-01

    Cross-generational and cross-dialectal variation in vowels among speakers of American English was examined in terms of vowel identification by listeners and vowel classification using pattern recognition. Listeners from Western North Carolina and Southeastern Wisconsin identified 12 vowel categories produced by 120 speakers stratified by age (old adults, young adults, and children), gender, and dialect. The vowels /ɝ, o, ʊ, u/ were well identified by both groups of listeners. The majority of confusions were for the front /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ/, the low back /ɑ, ɔ/ and the monophthongal North Carolina /aɪ/. For selected vowels, generational differences in acoustic vowel characteristics were perceptually salient, suggesting listeners' responsiveness to sound change. Female exemplars and native-dialect variants produced higher identification rates. Linear discriminant analyses which examined dialect and generational classification accuracy showed that sampling the formant pattern at vowel midpoint only is insufficient to separate the vowels. Two sample points near onset and offset provided enough information for successful classification. The models trained on one dialect classified the vowels from the other dialect with much lower accuracy. The results strongly support the importance of dynamic information in accurate classification of cross-generational and cross-dialectal variations. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  8. A STUDY ON VOWEL HARMONY IN THE DIALECTS OF AZERBAIJAN TURKISH IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir KHALILZADEH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Vowel harmony (VH is a phonological rule which is mainly related with the vowels, though some degrees of harmony exist between vowels and consonants and also between some consonants in the dialects of Azerbaijan Turkish in Iran . The purpose of this paper is to study the treatment of vowel harmony in the dialects of Azerbaijan Turkish in Iran. In fact, the researcher has made an attempt to find a reliable answer to the question "Is vowel harmony realized in the speech of the Azerbaijan Turks in Iran?" Using the necessary linguistic data collected from the inforants of the dialects and within the framework of generative phonology, the author of the paper has attempted to evaluate the present-day situation of vowel harmony in the above-mentioned dialects of Azerbaijan Turkish (a synchronic study. The results of the study showed that, except some violations mostly observed in the loanwords, there is an innate harmony in the roots of the words and a stronger and more stable harmony between the roots and the suffixes of these dialects, so vowel harmony is realized in these dialects to a relatively high degree. The study demonstrates that vowel harmony is a major and distinctive phonological rule in these dialects.

  9. Unstressed Vowel Reduction Across Majorcan Catalan Dialects: Production and Spoken Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llompart, Miquel; Simonet, Miquel

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the production and auditory lexical processing of words involved in a patterned phonological alternation in two dialects of Catalan spoken on the island of Majorca, Spain. One of these dialects, that of Palma, merges /ɔ/ and /o/ as [o] in unstressed position, and it maintains /u/ as an independent category, [u]. In the dialect of Sóller, a small village, speakers merge unstressed /ɔ/, /o/, and /u/ to [u]. First, a production study asks whether the discrete, rule-based descriptions of the vowel alternations provided in the dialectological literature are able to account adequately for these processes: are mergers complete? Results show that mergers are complete with regards to the main acoustic cue to these vowel contrasts, that is, F1. However, minor differences are maintained for F2 and vowel duration. Second, a lexical decision task using cross-modal priming investigates the strength with which words produced in the phonetic form of the neighboring (versus one's own) dialect activate the listeners' lexical representations during spoken word recognition: are words within and across dialects accessed efficiently? The study finds that listeners from one of these dialects, Sóller, process their own and the neighboring forms equally efficiently, while listeners from the other one, Palma, process their own forms more efficiently than those of the neighboring dialect. This study has implications for our understanding of the role of lifelong linguistic experience on speech performance.

  10. Dialectical lexis represented in Ratko Popović's collection of poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jašović Golub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with dialectical lexics found in a poem collection named Straori written by a well-known author from Kosovo and Metohija, Ratko Popović. The book is consisted of 52 songs, mostly written in prizrensko - southmoravian dialect. Lexical materials were analyzed, classified and compared with data published in the Dictionary of Kosovo and Metohija dialects by Glisa Elezović and also in Dictionary of Ugljare near Priština by Golub Jašović. During the material extraction our main concerns were to use dialecticisms, regionalisms and localisms that are used in the same form in Serbian dialects of Gračanica natives, and also that these elements do not occur in Dictionary of Serbo-Croatian literary language published by Matica srpska. Semantics and form of chosen elements differ from those found in Popović's book and Gračanica's dialects. Lexical, semantical, and formational analysis were used in the research of house and household names, and also in cattle, crop and fruit lexics and terminology. Also, of lexics used in the naming of birds and animals, food and drinks, clothes and also for the names of board games, of faith and believes, administrative names etc. Microtoponyms and oikonyms found in Straori were classified as a special dialectical subgroup. Foreign dialectisms, mostly of Greek and Eastern origins, were also analyzed.

  11. THE FUNCTIONS OF VIENNESE DIALECT IN THE WORKS OF MODERN AUSTRIAN FICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukshis Vadim Andreevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of definition of linguistic status of the Austrian dialects and their functions in Austrian fiction continues to preserve the academic value. The main peculiarities of Viennese dialect are given, the conclusions of its status among the other Austrian dialects are made in the article, the characteristic features of the functions of the Viennese dialect are given in the works of Austrian fiction. The author of the article proceeds from the position that the Viennese dialect is the important stylistic means and makes the conclusion about its functions in the works of Austrian fiction. Three novels and one story of modern Austrian writers have been selected for the analysis: H. Anderle (The Worthy Funeral. The Mortal Histories, E. Menasse (Vienna, F. Nabl (Edhof, P Campa (The Second Travel. The article studies four functions of Viennese dialect based on the research of the texts of the Austrian fiction works. The analysis based on the utterances of the heroes helped to prove that Austrian writers use the Viennese dialect as 1 means of marking the regional characteristics; 2 means of marking the age; 3 means of marking the social type and 4 means of emotions expression. The research of the speech of the heroes permitted to reveal the most common Viennese words and expressions and demonstrate their role in the texts not only as the means of creating the speech portrait of the heroes but only the markers of the originality of modern Austrian German.

  12. Evaluating the Grammars of Children Who Speak Nonmainstream Dialects of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B; Lee, Ryan; Porter, Karmen L

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we review three responses to the study and evaluation of grammar in children who speak nonmainstream dialects of English. Then we introduce a fourth, system-based response that views nonmainstream dialects of English, such as African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as made up of dialect-specific and dialect-universal features. To illustrate the usefulness of a system-based approach and to distinguish our two terms from others in the dialect literature, we present AAE and SWE relative clause data from two previously published studies. Following this, we present new findings from AAE- and SWE-speaking children's use of past tense and past participles to further demonstrate the value of examining larger units (i.e., systems) of a grammar to identify a child's language strengths and weaknesses. We conclude by arguing that a system-based approach moves clinicians, educators, and researchers beyond a preoccupation with the nonmainstream aspects of children's dialects while also moving us beyond Brown's 14 morphemes. Although the focus of the article is on assessment, the content is relevant to the treatment of grammar because effective promotion of any child's grammar (including the grammars of those who speak nonmainstream dialects of English) will occur only when clinicians, educators, and researchers begin to view the child's grammar as a system rather than as a sum of its parts.

  13. Reflection on the Relationship between Cultural-historical Theory and Dialectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafermos M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Challenging dominant positivistic psychology, Vygotsky elaborated culturalhistorical theory in order to overcome the crisis in psychology. Spinoza’s monism, Hegelian dialectics and Marx’s materialistic dialectics inspired Vygotsky to develop a dialectical understanding of the development of higher mental functions. Dialectics as a way of thinking focuses on the study of each concrete object in its mutual connections with other objects, in its internal contradictions and in its process of change. Vygotsky criticized the understanding of dialectics as a sum of universal principles which can be applied in a direct way in the field of psychology and highlighted the complex relationships between philosophy and concrete scientific disciplines. Rethinking cultural-historical psychology in the light of dialectics offers a creative insight into crucial theoretical questions of psychology such as the interconnection between theory and practice, objectivistsubjectivist distinction, etc. Dialectical underpinnings of cultural-historical theory have been forgotten in mainstream, North-Atlantic interpretations and applications of Vygotsky’s theory

  14. Evaluating the Grammars of Children Who Speak Nonmainstream Dialects of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B.; Lee, Ryan; Porter, Karmen L.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we review three responses to the study and evaluation of grammar in children who speak nonmainstream dialects of English. Then we introduce a fourth, system-based response that views nonmainstream dialects of English, such as African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as made up of dialect-specific and dialect-universal features. To illustrate the usefulness of a system-based approach and to distinguish our two terms from others in the dialect literature, we present AAE and SWE relative clause data from two previously published studies. Following this, we present new findings from AAE- and SWE-speaking children’s use of past tense and past participles to further demonstrate the value of examining larger units (i.e., systems) of a grammar to identify a child’s language strengths and weaknesses. We conclude by arguing that a system-based approach moves clinicians, educators, and researchers beyond a preoccupation with the nonmainstream aspects of children’s dialects while also moving us beyond Brown’s 14 morphemes. Although the focus of the article is on assessment, the content is relevant to the treatment of grammar because effective promotion of any child’s grammar (including the grammars of those who speak nonmainstream dialects of English) will occur only when clinicians, educators, and researchers begin to view the child’s grammar as a system rather than as a sum of its parts. PMID:26893531

  15. The aluminum phosphate zone in the Peace River area, land-pebble phosphate field, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, James B.

    1953-01-01

    The Peace River area, comprising T. 30 and 31 S., R. 24 and 25 E., contains a thicker and more persistent aluminum phosphate zone, and one that is higher in P2O5 and uranium content than is known elsewhere in the land-pebble phosphate district. This report has been prepared to bring together all of the information on the aluminum phosphate zone in the area where the first plant to treat this material will probably be located. The area may be divided into three physiographic units, (1) the ridge, (2) the flatwoods, and (3) the valley. Maps showing distribution and grade of the aluminum phosphate zone indicate that the zone is thin or absent in the ridge unit, thickest and most persistent, and of the best grade in P2O5 and uranium in the flatwoods unit, and absent or very low in grade in the valley unit. Maps of thickness and of chemical composition show that even in favorable areas there are places where the aluminum phosphate zone is missing or of questionable economic importance. The distribution maps also show that areas of high P2O5 and high uranium content coincide closely. Areas containing thick aluminum phosphate material usually have high uranium and P2O5 contents. It is estimated that an average of 13,000 tons per day of aluminum phosphate material might be mined from this area. This figure is based on the probable amount of time, per year, that mining would be in favorable ground. When all mines in the area are in favorable ground, the tonnage per day might be about 23,000 tons. Tonnages of aluminum phosphate material have been computed for about 36 percent of the area of T. 30 S., R. 25 E., and for 18 percent of the area of T. 31 S., R. 25 E. The total inferred tonnage is about 150,000,000 short tons, with an average grade of 0.012 percent U3O8.

  16. geoPebble: Combined Seismic, Acoustic, and GPS Sensor with Wireless Communications for Glaciological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandakrishnan, S.; Burkett, P. G.; Long, B.

    2009-12-01

    Glaciologist and geophysicists study many dynamic processes in glaciated environments such as sliding, crevasse formation, and water flow. These processes generate signals that can be interpreted for fundamental parameters needed for numerical models of glacier and ice sheet flow. These signals include microearthquakes beneath glaciers and ice streams during stick-slip processes; seismically identifiable harmonic tremors associated with subglacial water flow; supraglacial lake drainage which can produce rapid uplift of the 1 m/hr. In addition, researchers use active seismic experiments to determine bed properties such as roughness and lubrication. Currently, each process requires different instrumentation and/or different field equipment to collect the data such as a GPS receiver for displacement, a passive seismic instrument for microearthquakes, and a multichannel seismic recorder for active seismic experiments. We report on the development of an instrument specifically designed for observing dynamic glaciated environments in a single platform, reducing the need for multiple field systems and reducing the cost considerably. The geoPebble wireless seismic acquisition system, designed and built at the Pennsylvania State University, comprises 4 channels of 24-bit seismic and acoustic digitizing, an L1 GPS engine, onboard data storage and an 802.15 ZigBee radio. Three of the four ADC channels are intended to be used with a 3 component seismic sensor. The fourth channel is a dedicated to an audio frequency microphone. The 1 Hz L1 GPS system is capable of horizontal position accuracy to better than 10 cm when post-processed against L1/L2 stations within 10 km. Onboard storage is achieved with a Secure Digital card where volumes now exceed 32 GB. The ZigBee radio is capable of forming a mesh network which reduces transmit and receive power requirements while maintaing communication throughout the array and provides state-of-health information as well as sufficient data

  17. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) With Pebble Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip Casey Durst; Mark Schanfein

    2012-08-01

    The following is a guidance document from a series prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), to assist facility designers and operators in implementing international Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). SBD has two main objectives: (1) to avoid costly and time consuming redesign work or retrofits of new nuclear fuel cycle facilities and (2) to make the implementation of international safeguards more effective and efficient at such facilities. In the long term, the attainment of these goals would save industry and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) time, money, and resources and be mutually beneficial. This particular safeguards guidance document focuses on pebble fuel high temperature gas reactors (HTGR). The purpose of the IAEA safeguards system is to provide credible assurance to the international community that nuclear material and other specified items are not diverted from peaceful nuclear uses. The safeguards system consists of the IAEA’s statutory authority to establish safeguards; safeguards rights and obligations in safeguards agreements and additional protocols; and technical measures implemented pursuant to those agreements. Of foremost importance is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the IAEA, concluded pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). According to a 1992 IAEA Board of Governors decision, countries must: notify the IAEA of a decision to construct a new nuclear facility as soon as such decision is taken; provide design information on such facilities as the designs develop; and provide detailed design information based on construction plans at least 180 days prior to the start of construction, and on "as-built" designs at least 180 days before the first receipt of nuclear material. Ultimately, the design information will be captured in an IAEA Design Information

  18. MIT-QCRI Arabic Dialect Identification System for the 2017 Multi-Genre Broadcast Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Shon, Suwon; Ali, Ahmed; Glass, James

    2017-01-01

    In order to successfully annotate the Arabic speech con- tent found in open-domain media broadcasts, it is essential to be able to process a diverse set of Arabic dialects. For the 2017 Multi-Genre Broadcast challenge (MGB-3) there were two possible tasks: Arabic speech recognition, and Arabic Dialect Identification (ADI). In this paper, we describe our efforts to create an ADI system for the MGB-3 challenge, with the goal of distinguishing amongst four major Arabic dialects, as well as Moder...

  19. [Dialectic of the daily life of patients with chronic kidney failure: the unavoidable and the casual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leise Rodrigues; Car, Marcia Regina

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the social reality of patients' daily life with chronic renal failure in hemodialysis. To understand this phenomenon from the theoretical-methodological referential of the historic and dialectic materialism. The interviews were performed with 18 patients submitted to analysis of speech procedure revealing dialectics subjects. These subjects were analyzed regarding the categories: health-disease process; possibility x reality and need x casualness. These patients, considered hemodialysis as a treatment unavoidable and the transplant casual, thus, between this dialectic relationship there is the nursing which needs to extend its comprehension on thr arduous, sad, difficult and monotonous reality and the possibilities o transformation.

  20. Quantitative Metathesis in the Dialect of Cos: Ionic Influence or Local Feature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Nieto Izquierdo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the adjective τέλεως and the «quantitative metathesis» of the type βασιλῆος > βασιλέως in the Ancient Greek Doric dialect of Cos. After presenting the available data, the author refutes the hypothesis that explain this feature as an influence of the nearby Ionic dialect and he provides arguments that prove that the «quantitative metathesis » is a local feature of the dialect of the island.