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Sample records for vh sex race

  1. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of ...

  2. Sex, race, gender, and the presidential vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan B. Hansen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Racial resentment has been shown to have a significant impact on voting by whites in recent presidential elections, and a much larger impact than the traditional gender-gap measure based on the male-female dichotomy. This analysis will use data from the American National Election Studies [ANES] to compare broader indicators of race and gender applicable to the Democratic and Republican parties as well as to respondents’ opinions of appropriate roles for women. Since the 1980s the parties have diverged considerably on abortion and women’s issues, and voters now view the Democrats as more supportive than Republicans of equality for women and reproductive rights. Perceptions of party differences on women’s issues strongly influenced vote choice, 1988–2008, and in 2008 had greater impact on whites’ votes than opinions on aid to blacks, abortion, gay marriage, or the economy. Although racial resentment was a strong predictor of the white vote in 2012 as in previous years, presidential voting was also significantly influenced by respondent sex as well as opinions on gender roles. Voters regarded the Democratic Party as “better for the interests of women,” and this proved to be a highly effective wedge issue for the Democrats in 2012.

  3. Race and Sex Differences in Sex Role Attitudes of Southern College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated race and sex differences in sex role attitudes of southern college students (N=5,750). Black and white men shared similar sex role orientation; black and white women shared a similar world view. Blacks were more likely than whites to feel that woman's real fulfillment comes from motherhood and that it was appropriate for mothers with…

  4. Gendered Race: Are Infants’ Face Preferences Guided by Intersectionality of Sex and Race?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin I Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available People occupy multiple social categories simultaneously (e.g., a White female, and this complex intersectionality affects fundamental aspects of social perception. Here, we examined the possibility that infant face processing may be susceptible to effects of intersectionality of sex and race. Three- and 10-month-old infants were shown a series of computer-generated face pairs (5 s each that differed according to sex (F or M or race (Asian, Black, or White. All possible combinations of face pairs were tested, and preferences were recorded with an eye tracker. Infants showed preferences for more feminine faces only when they were White, but we found no evidence that White or Asian faces were preferred even though they are relatively more feminized. These findings challenge the notions that infants’ social categories are processed independently of one another and that infants’ preferences for sex or race can be explained from mere exposure.

  5. Race, Sex, Causal Attribution, and Help-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Harold E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the help-seeking behaviors of college students needing assistance with personal problems. Using attribution theory and the learned helplessness paradigm, found that race and sex differences but not causal attribution (seeing problems as caused by internal or external factors) were related to seeking out assistance. Discusses the recurrent…

  6. Estimation and evidence in forensic anthropology: sex and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2009-05-01

    Forensic anthropology typically uses osteological and/or dental data either to estimate characteristics of unidentified individuals or to serve as evidence in cases where there is a putative identification. In the estimation context, the problem is to describe aspects of an individual that may lead to their eventual identification, whereas in the evidentiary context, the problem is to provide the relative support for the identification. In either context, individual characteristics such as sex and race may be useful. Using a previously published forensic case (Steadman et al. (2006) Am J Phys Anthropol 131:15-26) and a large (N = 3,167) reference sample, we show that the sex of the individual can be reliably estimated using a small set of 11 craniometric variables. The likelihood ratio from sex (assuming a 1:1 sex ratio for the "population at large") is, however, relatively uninformative in "making" the identification. Similarly, the known "race" of the individual is relatively uninformative in "making" the identification, because the individual was recovered from an area where the 2000 US census provides a very homogenous picture of (self-identified) race. Of interest in this analysis is the fact that the individual, who was recovered from Eastern Iowa, classifies very clearly with [Howells 1973. Cranial Variation in Man: A Study by Multivariate Analysis of Patterns of Difference Among Recent Human Populations. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology; 1989. Skull Shape and the Map: Craniometric Analyses in the Dispersion of Modern Homo. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. Easter Islander sample in an analysis with uninformative priors. When the Iowa 2000 Census data on self-reported race are used for informative priors, the individual is clearly identified as "American White." This analysis shows the extreme importance of an informative prior in any forensic application. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 203 - Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ethnicity, Race, and Sex B Appendix B to Part 203 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... to Part 203—Form and Instructions for Data Collection on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex I. Instructions on Collection of Data on Ethnicity, Race, and Sex You may list questions regarding the ethnicity, race, and sex...

  8. Race and Sex Disparities in Prehospital Recognition of Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Prasanthi; Friedman, Benjamin T.; Delgadillo, James Q.; Ghilarducci, David; Cook, Lawrence J.; Grimes, Barbara; McCulloch, Charles; Johnston, S. Claiborne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine prehospital provider recognition of stroke by race and sex. Methods Diagnoses at emergency department (ED) and hospital discharge from a statewide database in California were linked to prehospital diagnoses from an electronic database from two counties in Northern California from January 2005 to December 2007 using probabilistic linkage. All patients 18 years and older, transported by ambulances (n = 309,866) within the two counties, and patients with hospital-based discharge diagnoses of stroke (n = 10,719) were included in the study. Logistic regression was used to analyze the independent association of race and sex with the correct prehospital diagnosis of stroke. Results There were 10,719 patients discharged with primary diagnoses of stroke. Of those, 3,787 (35%) were transported by emergency medical services providers. Overall, 32% of patients ultimately diagnosed with stroke were identified prehospital. Correct prehospital recognition of stroke was lower among Hispanic patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61 to 0.96), Asians (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.80), and others (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.94), when compared with non-Hispanic whites, and in women compared with men (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.94). Specificity for recognizing stroke was lower in females than males (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.90). Conclusions Significant disparities exist in prehospital stroke recognition. PMID:25728356

  9. Race and sex disparities in prehospital recognition of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Prasanthi; Friedman, Benjamin T; Delgadillo, James Q; Ghilarducci, David; Cook, Lawrence J; Grimes, Barbara; McCulloch, Charles E; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine prehospital provider recognition of stroke by race and sex. Diagnoses at emergency department (ED) and hospital discharge from a statewide database in California were linked to prehospital diagnoses from an electronic database from two counties in Northern California from January 2005 to December 2007 using probabilistic linkage. All patients 18 years and older, transported by ambulances (n = 309,866) within the two counties, and patients with hospital-based discharge diagnoses of stroke (n = 10,719) were included in the study. Logistic regression was used to analyze the independent association of race and sex with the correct prehospital diagnosis of stroke. There were 10,719 patients discharged with primary diagnoses of stroke. Of those, 3,787 (35%) were transported by emergency medical services providers. Overall, 32% of patients ultimately diagnosed with stroke were identified in the prehospital setting. Correct prehospital recognition of stroke was lower among Hispanic patients (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61 to 0.96), Asians (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.80), and others (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.94), when compared with non-Hispanic whites, and in women compared with men (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.71 to 0.94). Specificity for recognizing stroke was lower in females than males (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.90). Significant disparities exist in prehospital stroke recognition. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  10. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  11. The influence of sex, race, and age on pain assessment and treatment decisions using virtual human technology: a cross-national comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calia A Torres,1 Emily J Bartley,1 Laura D Wandner,1 Ashraf F Alqudah,2 Adam T Hirsh,3 Michael E Robinson11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Psychology, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; 3Department of Psychology, Indiana University–Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: Studies in the United States have found that patients' sex, race, and age influence the pain assessment and treatment decisions of laypeople and medical professionals. However, there is limited research as to whether people of other nationalities make pain management decisions differently based on demographic characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the following study was to compare pain assessment and treatment decisions of undergraduate students in Jordan and the United States as a preliminary examination of nationality as a potential proxy for cultural differences in pain decisions.Methods: Virtual human (VH technology was used to examine the influences of patients' sex (male or female, race (light-skinned or dark-skinned, and age (younger or older on students' pain management decisions. Seventy-five American and 104 Jordanian undergraduate students participated in this web-based study.Results: American and Jordanian students rated pain intensity higher in females and older adults and were more likely to recommend medical help to these groups, relative to males and younger adults. Furthermore, Jordanian participants rated pain intensity higher and were more likely to recommend medical help for all patient demographic groups (ie, sex, race, age than American participants.Conclusion: This is the first cross-national study that compares pain decisions between undergraduate students. The results suggest that sex, race, and age cues are used in pain assessment and treatment by both Americans and Jordanians, with Jordanians more likely to rate pain higher and recommend medical help to

  12. Race is gendered: how covarying phenotypes and stereotypes bias sex categorization.

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    Johnson, Kerri L; Freeman, Jonathan B; Pauker, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    We argue that race and sex categories are psychologically and phenotypically confounded, affecting social categorizations and their efficiency. Sex categorization of faces was facilitated when the race category shared facial phenotypes or stereotypes with the correct sex category (e.g., Asian women and Black men) but was impaired when the race category shared incompatible phenotypes or stereotypes with the correct sex category (e.g., Asian men and Black women). These patterns were evident in the disambiguation of androgynous faces (Study 1) and the efficiency of judgments (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5). These patterns emerged due to common facial phenotypes for the categories Black and men (Studies 3 and 5) and due to shared stereotypes among the categories Black and men and the categories Asian and women (Studies 4 and 5). These findings challenge the notion that social categories are perceived independent of one another and show, instead, that race is gendered.

  13. Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0652 TITLE: Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0652 Mechanisms Underlying Stress Fracture and the Influence of Sex and Race/Ethnicity 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...to stress fracture risk. In particular, in Study 1, we will perform advanced skeletal imaging along with gait-assessments in subjects with history of

  14. Race/Ethnicity, Gender and Socioeconomic Wellbeing of Individuals in Same-sex Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Kastanis, Angel; Wilson, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Similar patterns of racial disparities in income and employment exist among individuals in same-sex and different-sex couples. The report also found that racial/ethnic minority individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of individuals of their own race or ethnicity. Among same-sex couples, African-American, Latino, American-Indian and Alaskan Native respondents have lower incomes, lower college completion rates and higher unemployment rat...

  15. 13 CFR 113.3-1 - Consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. 113.3-1 Section 113.3-1 Business Credit and... of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national origin. (a) This regulation does not prohibit the consideration of race, color, religion, sex, marital status, handicap, or national...

  16. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex, national...

  17. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Latent constructs in psychosocial factors associated with cardiovascular disease: an examination by race and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Jo Clark

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study examines race and sex differences in the latent structure of a wide range of psychosocial measures and whether the identified factors are related to self-reported history of coronary heart disease (CHD. Materials and Methods : The sample included 4,128 participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA with oblique geomin rotation was used to identify latent factors among 10 psychosocial measures. Multi-group comparisons of the EFA model were conducted using exploratory structural equation modeling. Measurement invariance was defined by a difference in the CFI of less than 0.01. For invariant factor(s, a factor-based scale score was created. Differences in mean scale scores across race-sex subgroups were tested with analysis of variance and Sheffe’s test. Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between the factor score(s and CHD adjusting for relevant confounders. Effect modification of the relationship by race-sex subgroup was tested.Results : A two-factor model fit the data well (CFI=0.986; TLI=0.969; RMSEA=0.039. Factor I was comprised of depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived stress, and low life satisfaction. Factor II was comprised of social engagement, spirituality, social networks, and extraversion. Only Factor I, renamed Distress, showed measurement invariance across subgroups, although the level of Distress varied by race and sex. Distress was significantly related to report of CHD (odds ratio: 1.37; p-value < 0.0001. This effect did not differ by race or sex (interaction p-value=0.43. Conclusions: This study found two underlying latent constructs among a large range of psychosocial variables, but only one, Distress, was validly measured across race-sex subgroups. This construct was also robustly related to prevalent CHD, highlighting the potential importance of latent constructs as predictors of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Race, sex, and risk factors in radiographic worsening of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, Ernest R; Ran, Di; Ashbeck, Erin L; Ratzlaff, Charles; Kwoh, C Kent

    2017-08-31

    Characterize radiographic worsening in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) by race and sex over 4 years and evaluate the role of established risk factors in observed race/sex differences. Whites (WHs) (694 males and 929 females) and African-Americans (AAs) (92 males and 167 females) at risk for radiographic KOA were eligible. Cox shared frailty models were used to estimate race and sex group differences in radiographic worsening, defined by Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) and OARSI joint space narrowing (JSN). Mixed effect models for repeated measures were used to estimate race- and sex-specific mean medial and lateral fixed joint space width (fJSW) over 4 years of follow-up, as well as annual loss of fJSW. Risk of OARSI medial JSN grade worsening was higher among AA males than WH females [HR = 2.28, (95% CI: 1.14-4.57)], though adjustment for KOA risk factors attenuated the association. Compared to WH females, WH males had lower risk of K-L grade worsening [adjusted HR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.96)]. Mean baseline medial fJSW (mm) was 6.49 in WH and AA males, 5.42 in WH females, and 5.41 in AA females. Annual change in mean medial fJSW was greater in AA males (-0.19mm/year) than in other subgroups (-0.09 WH males, -0.07 WH females, -0.10 AA females, p space loss. Controlling for established risk factors attenuated associations between race/sex and disease worsening, suggesting that risk factors such as obesity, history of knee injury, and bony finger joint enlargements largely explain race/sex variations in rates of KOA development and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Sex and Race Differences in Perceived Workplace Mistreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Mallory A; Joseph, Dana L; Dhanani, Lindsay Y; Beus, Jeremy M

    2017-10-09

    Despite the growing number of meta-analyses published on the subject of workplace mistreatment and the expectation that women and racial minorities are mistreated more frequently than men and Whites, the degree of subgroup differences in perceived workplace mistreatment is unknown. To address this gap in the literature, we meta-analyzed the magnitude of sex and race differences in perceptions of workplace mistreatment (e.g., harassment, discrimination, bullying, incivility). Results indicate that women perceive more sex-based mistreatment (i.e., mistreatment that explicitly targets a person's sex) in the workplace than men (δ = .46; k = 43), whereas women and men report comparable perceptions of all other forms of mistreatment (δ = .02; k = 300). Similarly, although racial minorities perceive more race-based mistreatment (i.e., mistreatment that explicitly targets a person's race) in the workplace than Whites (δ = .71; k = 18), results indicate smaller race differences in all other forms of workplace mistreatment (δ = .10; k = 61). Results also indicate that sex and race differences have mostly decreased over time, although for some forms of mistreatment, subgroup differences have increased over time. We conclude by offering explanations for the observed subgroup differences in workplace mistreatment and outline directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Gender, Race, and Risk: Intersectional Risk Management in the Sale of Sex Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Jessica D; Harrison, Kristen

    2016-09-01

    Sex worker experience of risk (e.g., physical violence or rape) is shaped by race, gender, and context. For web-based sex workers, experience of risk is comparatively minimal; what is unclear is how web-based sex workers manage risk and if online advertising plays a role in risk management. Building on intersectionality theory and research exploring risk management in sex work, we content-analyzed 600 escort advertisements from Backpage.com ( http://www.backpage.com ) to explore risk management in web-based sex work. To guide our research we asked: Do advertisements contain risk management messages? Does the use of risk management messaging differ by sex worker race or gender? Which groups have the highest overall use of risk management messages? Through a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) we found that advertisements contained risk management messages and that uses of these phrases varied by race and gender. Blacks, women, and transgender women drove the use of risk management messages. Black and White transgender women had the highest overall use of these phrases. We conclude that risk management is an intersectional practice and that the use of risk management messages is a venue-specific manifestation of broader risk management priorities found in all venues where sex is sold.

  2. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsson M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnus Carlsson,1,2 Hannes Assarsson,1 Tomas Carlsson1,2 1School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, 2Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8 were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042, S3 (P=0.0049, S4 (P=0.010, and S1–S4 (P<0.001, whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001, S7 (P<0.001, S8 (P=0.0088, and S5–S8 (P<0.001. For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years in S3 (P=0.0029, and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions skied faster in S1 (P<0.001 and S1–S4 (P=0.0054; inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063. In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. Keywords: pacing strategy, cross-country skiing, endurance performance, sex difference

  3. Race, space, place: notes on the racialisation and spatialisation of commercial sex work in Dubai, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Pardis

    2010-11-01

    This paper focuses on the perceived racialisation and resultant spatialisation of commercial sex in Dubai. In recent years, the sex industry in Dubai has grown to include women from the Middle East, Eastern Europe, East Asia and Africa. With the increase in sex workers of different nationalities has come a form of localised racism that is embedded in structures and desires seen within specific locations. The physical spatialisation of sex work hinges on perceived race and produces distinct income generating potential for women engaged in the sex industry in Dubai. The social and physical topography of Dubai is important in marginalising or privileging these various groups of sex workers, which correlates race, space and place with rights and assistance. I begin with a description of the multidirectional flows of causality between race, space, place and demand. I then discuss how these various groups are inversely spatialised within the discourse on assistance, protection and rights. The findings presented here are based on ethnographic research conducted with transnational migrants in the UAE in 2004, 2008 and 2009.

  4. Perception of the Occupational Opportunity Structure and Socialization to Achievement as Related to Sex and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara F.

    This study investigated the relationship of race and sex to college students' perceptions of occupational discrimination against blacks and against women. Blacks perceived more discrimination against black people than did whites. Black females perceived more discrimination against women than did either black males or white males. White females,…

  5. The Effects of Race and Sex Discrimination on Early-Career Earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Andrew I.; Roderick, Roger D.

    The study uses a multiple-equation model of earnings determination to assess and measure the impact of labor market discrimination according to race and sex. Focusing on full-time, nonresident workers 18-25 years of age in 1968-69, the observed intercolor and intersex wage differentials are decomposed according to their sources. While less than…

  6. Occupational and Educational Goals and Expectations: The Effects of Race and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gerald S.; Haug, Marie R.

    1975-01-01

    Findings indicate that societal changes in the opportunity structure have had some limited impact on black men, but have not yet materially affected women. The key component in understanding mobility orientations is level of aspiration, a variable closely related to sex-race characteristics. (Author/AM)

  7. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  8. Fragile differences, relational effects: stories about the materiality of race and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'charek, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the materiality of difference, about race, sex and sexual differences among others. To find out about these differences and their materialities, this article looks not into bodies but rather at how bodies are positioned in spaces and how they are enacted in practice. In the

  9. Sex, race/ethnicity, and context in school-associated student homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joanne M; Hall, Jeffrey E; Zagura, Michelle

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the importance of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context for incidents of school-associated student homicides between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1999, covering 5 academic years. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Associated Violent Deaths Study (n = 125 incidents), we compared percentages and medians of victim, offender, motive, and school characteristics for incidents by geographic context and race/ethnicity of the offenders. Most incidents involved urban areas (53.6%), Black and Latino offenders and victims, moderately high youth poverty, and male on male violence (77.6%) driven by disputes and gang-related motives. Suburban area incidents (31.2%) often involved offenders and victims of a different race/ethnicity (51.3%). Multiple victims and White offenders were more common in rural areas (15.2%). More than 50% of the rural incidents involved male offenders and female victims. White offender incidents more often included multiple victims and female victims while Black and Latino offenders more often included single victims of the same sex. These results emphasize the utility of an incident-based analysis of school-associated student homicides in highlighting important variations by intersections of sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic context.

  10. Race, ethnicity, and sex affect risk for polyps >9 mm in average-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A; Williams, J Lucas; Holub, Jennifer L; Morris, Cynthia D; Logan, Judith R; Eisen, Glenn M; Carney, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer risk differs based on patient demographics. We aimed to measure the prevalence of significant colorectal polyps in average-risk individuals and to determine differences based on age, sex, race, or ethnicity. In a prospective study, colonoscopy data were collected, using an endoscopic report generator, from 327,785 average-risk adults who underwent colorectal cancer screening at 84 gastrointestinal practice sites from 2000 to 2011. Demographic characteristics included age, sex, race, and ethnicity. The primary outcome was the presence of suspected malignancy or large polyp(s) >9 mm. The benchmark risk for age to initiate screening was based on white men, 50-54 years old. Risk of large polyps and tumors increased progressively in men and women with age. Women had lower risks than men in every age group, regardless of race. Blacks had higher risk than whites from ages 50 through 65 years and Hispanics had lower risk than whites from ages 50 through 80 years. The prevalence of large polyps was 6.2% in white men 50-54 years old. The risk was similar among the groups of white women 65-69 years old, black women 55-59 years old, black men 50-54 years old, Hispanic women 70-74 years old, and Hispanic men 55-59 years old. The risk of proximal large polyps increased with age, female sex, and black race. There are differences in the prevalence and location of large polyps and tumors in average-risk individuals based on age, sex, race, and ethnicity. These findings could be used to select ages at which specific groups should begin colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Women's Race-and Sex-Based Social Attitudes: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Jonason

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available How do individual differences in personality and sexuality relate to social attitudes? We contend that personality traits and sexual orientation are descriptions of underlying biases (e.g., perceptual that exert top-down influences into all of life's domains including social attitudes. The present study (N=200 women examined individual differences in sex-based and race-based social attitudes as a function of the Big Five traits, the Dark Triad traits, and sexual orientation. We found that affiliative-based motivations in the form of agreeableness, openness, and narcissism predicted the desire and tendency to affiliate with other women. We also found fear-based (i.e., neuroticism and entitlement-based (i.e., narcissism traits were associated with efforts towards political action for gender equality. We found a "go-along" disposition (i.e., agreeableness and openness was associated with greater endorsement of traditional gender roles. We replicated associations between the Big Five traits (i.e., openness and agreeableness and race-based social attitudes. Uniquely, Machiavellianism was associated with more race-based social attitudes but with diminished endorsement of traditional gender roles. And last, we suggest that experienced discrimination among bisexual women may lead them to be less likely to hold both undesirable race-based and sex-based social attitudes.

  12. Trials and Tribulations with VH Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhao eMeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VH replacement is a type of antibody gene rearrangement in which an upstream heavy chain variable gene segment (VH invades a pre-existing rearrangement (VDJ. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we begin by reviewing the mechanism of VH replacement, its developmental timing and its potential biological consequences. Then we explore the hypothesis that specific sequence motifs called footprints reflect VH replacement vs. other processes. We provide a compilation of footprint sequences from different regions of the antibody heavy chain, include data from the literature and from a high throughput sequencing experiment to evaluate the significance of footprint sequences. We conclude by discussing the difficulties of attributing footprints to VH replacement.

  13. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  14. VH replacement in primary immunoglobulin repertoire diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Amy; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Coffre, Maryaline; Hewitt, Susannah L; Jensen, Kari; Skok, Jane A; Rajewsky, Klaus; Koralov, Sergei B

    2015-02-03

    The genes encoding the variable (V) region of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) are assembled from V, D (diversity), and J (joining) elements through a RAG-mediated recombination process that relies on the recognition of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) flanking the individual elements. Secondary V(D)J rearrangement modifies the original Ig rearrangement if a nonproductive original joint is formed, as a response to inappropriate signaling from a self-reactive BCR, or as part of a stochastic mechanism to further diversify the Ig repertoire. VH replacement represents a RAG-mediated secondary rearrangement in which an upstream VH element recombines with a rearranged VHDHJH joint to generate a new BCR specificity. The rearrangement occurs between the cryptic RSS of the original VH element and the conventional RSS of the invading VH gene, leaving behind a footprint of up to five base pairs (bps) of the original VH gene that is often further obscured by exonuclease activity and N-nucleotide addition. We have previously demonstrated that VH replacement can efficiently rescue the development of B cells that have acquired two nonproductive heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements. Here we describe a novel knock-in mouse model in which the prerearranged IgH locus resembles an endogenously rearranged productive VHDHJH allele. Using this mouse model, we characterized the role of VH replacement in the diversification of the primary Ig repertoire through the modification of productive VHDHJH rearrangements. Our results indicate that VH replacement occurs before Ig light chain rearrangement and thus is not involved in the editing of self-reactive antibodies.

  15. Race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mahesh J; Batch, Bryan C; Svetkey, Laura P; Bain, James R; Turer, Christy Boling; Haynes, Carol; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Stevens, Robert D; Newgard, Christopher B; Shah, Svati H

    2013-12-01

    In overweight/obese individuals, cardiometabolic risk factors differ by race and sex categories. Small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormone levels might also differ across these categories and contribute to risk factor heterogeneity. To explore this possibility, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of fasting plasma levels of 69 small-molecule metabolites and 13 metabolic hormones in 500 overweight/obese adults who participated in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Principal-components analysis (PCA) was used for reduction of metabolite data. Race and sex-stratified comparisons of metabolite factors and metabolic hormones were performed. African Americans represented 37.4% of the study participants, and females 63.0%. Of thirteen metabolite factors identified, three differed by race and sex: levels of factor 3 (branched-chain amino acids and related metabolites, phormones regulating body weight homeostasis. Among overweight/obese adults, there are significant race and sex differences in small-molecule metabolites and metabolic hormones; these differences may contribute to risk factor heterogeneity across race and sex subgroups and should be considered in future investigations with circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones.

  16. Vocational interests after recent spinal cord injury: comparisons related to sex and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Saunders, Lee L; Staten, David; Rohe, Daniel E

    2011-04-01

    To compare vocational interests as a function of sex and race among persons with recent spinal cord injury (SCI), because previous research used almost exclusively white men. Limited research from nearly 2 decades ago suggested SCI selectively occurs to men whose vocational interests are consistent with the Realistic theme of the Holland typology, indicative of a preference for activities and occupations requiring physical strength and dexterity. The Strong Interest Inventory (SII) was completed an average of 50 days after SCI onset. Data were collected at a specialty hospital and analyzed at a medical university. Adults with traumatic SCI (N=500) were assessed during inpatient rehabilitation. Not applicable. The SII, a 317-item measure of vocational interests. Although the findings for white men were consistent with elevation of the Realistic theme when compared with the reference group, the interests of women and black participants were substantially different. Women scored highest on Social, Enterprising, and Conventional themes compared with the reference group. Black participants reported significantly higher elevations than whites on 5 themes (all except Realistic), with elevations on the Social, Enterprising, and Conventional themes exceeding standardized norms. The Artistic and Investigative themes were least descriptive of the overall sample. Rehabilitation professionals should be aware of likely differences in patterns of vocational interests as a function of race and sex, and use vocational interests as a means of facilitating postinjury adaptation. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is educational achievement a turning point for incarcerated delinquents across race and sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Thomas G; Bales, William D; Piquero, Alex R

    2012-02-01

    Research has linked the role of education to delinquency, but much of the focus has been on general population samples and with little attention to demographic differences. Employing a cumulative disadvantage framework that integrates elements of informal social control and labeling theories, this article examines whether academic achievement serves as a positive turning point and re-directs juvenile delinquents away from subsequent offending. Attention is also given to race/sex contingencies. Using a sample of 4,147 delinquents released from Florida correctional institutions (86% male, 57% non-White, average age at release = 16.8 years), propensity score analysis yielded two findings: youth with above average academic achievement while incarcerated were significantly more likely to return to school post-release, and youth with above average attendance in public school were significantly less likely to be re-arrested in the 1-year post-release period. While the academic gains were pronounced among African-American males, the preventive effects of school attendance are similar across race and sex, suggesting that education can be a part of a larger prevention effort that assists juvenile delinquents in successful community re-entry.

  18. Race and sex differences in the correlates of blood pressure change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, S R; Heiss, G; Davis, C E; Hames, C G; Tyroler, H A

    1988-03-01

    Potential predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure change between 1960 and 1967 in the biracial population of Evans County, Georgia, were investigated. An all possible regressions multiple linear regression analysis was used. For systolic blood pressure change, the level of systolic blood pressure, age, and change in Quetelet index were significant (p less than 0.05) correlates in white men. The level of systolic blood pressure, the level and change of socioeconomic status, change in Quetelet index, and change in cholesterol were significant correlates for white women. The level of Quetelet index was of borderline significance (p less than 0.055) when the other significant variables were included in the model for white women. The change in Quetelet index was the only significant correlate of systolic blood pressure change in blacks. For diastolic blood pressure change, age, change in hematocrit, and change in Quetelet index were significant correlates for white men. Age, level and change of socioeconomic status, level and change of Quetelet index, and change in hematocrit were the significant correlates in white women. In black men, change in Quetelet index and age were significant. In black women, only age was a significant correlate of diastolic blood pressure change. These results indicate that there may be important differences in these correlates between race-sex groups and thus in the mechanism of blood pressure change for different race-sex groups. groups.

  19. Disability Prevalence According to a Class, Race, and Sex (CSR) Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Disability has been shown to be related in definite ways to social class. In modern industrial societies, disability is influenced by and has the potential to contribute to the production and reproduction of social inequality. However, markers of social stratification processes are sometimes ignored determinants of health. A Class, Race, Sex (CRS) hypothesis is presented to argue that a "low-education disadvantage"; "racial-minority disadvantage"; and "female disadvantage" will compound to affect the risks for being disable. In particular, the CRS hypothesis posits that class is more important than race and the latter more than sex when predicting presence or severity of disability. The cross-sectional study of community-dwelling adults between the ages of 45 and 64 uses data from the American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 2008-2012 file. By using 3,429,523 individuals-which weighted equal to 61,726,420-the results of the study suggest the CRS hypothesis applies to both Non-Latino-Blacks and Non-Latino-Whites. There is a "male disadvantage" exception for Non-Latino-Whites. Decreasing between-group differences in health may be achieved by making the age-health association at lower socioeconomic stratum similar to that of the upper socioeconomic strata.

  20. Atrial Fibrillation Symptoms and Sex, Race, and Psychological Distress: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Kelly T; Nazarian, Saman; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R

    2017-06-17

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) symptoms are a major component of treatment decisions for patients with AF and impact quality of life and functional ability yet are poorly understood. This review aimed to determine what is known about the prevalence of symptoms and the association of symptoms to AF characteristics, psychological distress, sex, and race. We performed a structured review of AF symptoms as of March 2016 using PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL and reference searches of retrieved articles. Full-text, published, peer-reviewed, English-language articles were examined. Articles were included if they reported original research data on symptom prevalence and type among patients with AF. The 3 most common symptoms were dyspnea, palpitations, and fatigue. The results suggested that, although AF characteristics are not a significant predictor of symptoms, tachycardia, female sex, race, and psychological distress have a positive association to symptoms. There is a scarcity of research examining symptoms in AF. Furthermore, the inconsistency in measurement methods and the failure to include diverse populations in AF research make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions from the current literature. Given the prevalence of AF in the United States and the impact of symptoms on quality of life and healthcare use, further research examining predictors of symptoms and interventions to alleviate symptoms is crucial.

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of the Fish Pathogen Vibrio harveyi Strains VH2 and VH5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; D'Alvise, Paul; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is an important marine pathogen that is responsible for vibriosis outbreaks in cultured fish and invertebrates worldwide. Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of V. harveyi strains VH2 and VH5, isolated from farmed juvenile Seriola dumerili during outbreaks of vibriosis...

  2. Fall-related pediatric brain injuries: the role of race, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Pamela F; Tepas, Joseph J; Wludyka, Peter S; Masnita-Iusan, Carmen

    2009-07-01

    Falls remain a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. To improve effectiveness of our prevention program, we used our electronic injury surveillance database to analyze patient variables and the incidence of fall-related brain injury. The database was queried for all injuries treated in the pediatric emergency department for which the word "fall" was listed as part of the chief complaint. Age, sex, and mechanism variables were cross tabulated for analysis with traumatic brain injury (TBI) codes. Between June 2005 and June 2008, the electronic surveillance system reported 39,718 injury-related visits to the pediatric emergency department. Falls were reported in 3,436 patients (2,107 males, 1,329 females). TBI occurred from falls in 171 patients. Although black children had a higher fall rate (69.24%) than white children (23.75%) and non-black, non-white children (7.01%), white children had the highest TBI rate from falls (9.47%). TBI from falls occurred at a lower mean age for females (5.40 +/- 4.45) than males (6.6 +/- 5.15) and for non-whites (5.98 +/- 4.88) than whites (6.21 +/- 4.93). Multiple logistic regression demonstrated a significant influence of age, race, and sex on the likelihood that a fall results in TBI. Females have a higher risk of TBI from falls than males from ages 0 to 11.5. This runs contrary to previous studies suggesting that toddler males are at highest risk for TBI. A disproportionate number of infants, toddlers, and adolescents sustain brain injury from falls. Race and sex group differences mandate enhanced focus on environmental safety and risk-taking behaviors.

  3. Past 15-year trends in adolescent marijuana use: Differences by race/ethnicity and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C Debra M

    2015-10-01

    The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999 to 2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, past 30-day use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999 to 2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Science Majors and Degrees among Asian-American Students: Influences of Race and Sex in "model Minority" Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yu; Hanson, Sandra L.

    Both race and sex continue to be factors that stratify entry into science education and occupations in the United States. Asian-Americans (men and women) have experienced considerable success in the sciences and have earned the label of "model minority." The complexities and patterns involved in this success remain elusive. We use several concepts coming out of the status attainment framework and a multicultural gender perspective to explore the way in which race and sex come together to influence choices of science major and degree. Our sample consists of Asian-American and white students in the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Findings suggest that being male and being Asian-American are both associated with higher chances of pursuing majors and degrees in science. The male advantage is greater than the Asian-American advantage. Findings also suggest that race and sex interact in the science decision. For example, race differences (with an Asian-American advantage) in choice of science major are significant for women but not men. Sex differences (with a male advantage) in choice of science major are significant in the white, but not the Asian-American sample. A different set of race and sex patterns is revealed in the science degree models. Processes associated with family socioeconomic status and student characteristics help to explain race and sex patterns. Findings suggest that when Asian-American youths have closer ties to the Asian culture, they are more likely to choose science majors and degrees. Implications for policy, practice, and research in science education are discussed.

  5. Race and Sex Differences of Long-Term Blood Pressure Profiles From Childhood and Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Zhang, Huijie; Xi, Bo; Shen, Hongbing; Fernandez, Camilo; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood in black-white and sex groups and examine the association between childhood level-independent trajectories of BP and adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2732 adults who had body mass index and BP measured 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years). Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP and body mass index at childhood age points were calculated at 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively. Linear and nonlinear curve parameters differed significantly between race-sex groups; BP levels showed race and sex differences 15 years of age onward. Hypertensives had higher long-term BP levels than normotensives in race-sex groups. Although linear and nonlinear slope parameters of BP were race and sex specific, they differed consistently, significantly between hypertension and normotension groups. BP trajectories during young adulthood (20-35 years) were significantly greater in hypertensives than in normotensives; however, the trajectories during middle-aged adulthood (36-51 years) were significantly smaller in hypertensives than in normotensives. Level-independent linear slopes of systolic BP showed significantly negative associations (odds ratio=0.50≈0.76; P hypertension, adjusting for covariates. These associations were consistent across race-sex groups. These observations indicate that adult hypertension originates in childhood, with different longitudinal BP trajectory profiles during young and middle-aged adulthood in black-white and sex groups. Puberty is a crucial period for the development of hypertension in later life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. The context of discrimination: workplace conditions, institutional environments, and sex and race discrimination charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, C Elizabeth; Kornrich, Sabino

    2008-03-01

    This article explores the organizational conditions under which discrimination charges occur. Drawing on structural and organizational theories of the workplace, the authors demonstrate how organizational conditions affect workers' and regulatory agents' understandings of unlawful discrimination. Using a national sample of work establishments, matched to discrimination-charge data obtained from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the authors examine how characteristics of the workplace and institutional environment affect variation in the incidence of workers' charges of sex and race discrimination and in the subset of discrimination claims that are verified by EEOC investigators. The findings indicate that workplace conditions, including size, composition, and minority management, affect workers' charges as well as verified claims; the latter are also affected by institutional factors, such as affirmative action requirements, subsidiary status, and industrial sector. These results suggest that internal workplace conditions affect both workers' and regulatory agents' interpretations of potentially discriminatory experiences, while institutional conditions matter only for regulatory agents' interpretations of those events.

  8. Sex and Race Differences in the Association Between Statin Use and the Incidence of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Julie M; Barthold, Douglas; Brinton, Roberta Diaz; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    To our knowledge, no effective treatments exist for Alzheimer disease, and new molecules are years away. However, several drugs prescribed for other conditions have been associated with reducing its risk. To analyze the association between statin exposure and Alzheimer disease incidence among Medicare beneficiaries. We examined the medical and pharmacy claims of a 20% sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2006 to 2013 and compared rates of Alzheimer disease diagnosis for 399 979 statin users 65 years of age or older with high or low exposure to statins and with drug molecules for black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white people, and men and women of Asian, Native American, or unkown race/ethnicity who are referred to as "other." The main outcome was incident diagnosis of Alzheimer disease based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. We used Cox proportional hazard models to analyze the association between statin exposure and Alzheimer disease diagnosis for different sexes, races and ethnicities, and statin molecules. The 399 979 study participants included 7794 (1.95%) black men, 24 484 (6.12%) black women, 11 200 (2.80%) Hispanic men, 21 458 (5.36%) Hispanic women, 115 059 (28.77%) white men, and 195 181 (48.80%) white women. High exposure to statins was associated with a lower risk of Alzheimer disease diagnosis for women (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% CI, 0.82-0.89; PAlzheimer disease risk for white women (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.92; PAlzheimer disease diagnosis for white women (HR, 0.84, 95% CI, 0.78-0.89), black women (HR, 0.81, 95% CI, 0.67-0.98), and Hispanic men (HR, 0.61, 95% CI, 0.42-0.89) and women (HR, 0.76, 95% CI, 0.60-0.97). Pravastatin and rosuvastatin were associated with reduced Alzheimer disease risk for white women only (HR, 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.95 and HR, 0.81, 95% CI, 0.67-0.98, respectively). High statin exposure was not associated with a statistically significant lower Alzheimer disease risk

  9. A Meta-analysis of the Association of Estimated GFR, Albuminuria, Age, Race, and Sex With Acute Kidney Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grams, Morgan E.; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Kimm, Heejin; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Naimark, David; Oien, Cecilia; Smith, David H.; Coresh, Josef; Sarnak, Mark J.; Stengel, Benedicte; Tonelli, Marcello; de Zeeuw, Dick; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van der Harst, Pim; Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Hillege, Hans L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious global public health problem. We aimed to quantify the risk of AKI associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]), age, sex, and race (African American and white). Study Design:

  10. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Caucasian and African-American Adolescents : Relationships with Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines, and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a

  11. The Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Political Orientation on the Sex Role Attitudes of College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottes, Ilsa L.; Kuriloff, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    Examined effects of gender, race, religion, and political orientation on 4 sex role measures among 556 first-year college students. Liberals as compared to conservatives and Jews as compared to Protestants were less traditional in their attitudes toward female sexuality, less accepting of male dominance and negative attitudes toward homosexuality,…

  12. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  13. Multistage carcinogenesis and the incidence of thyroid cancer in the US by sex, race, stage and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Chang, Joanne T

    2015-08-18

    Thyroid cancer has the fastest growing incidence in the US. However, the underlying causes are still under debate. We analyzed thyroid cancer incidence in the SEER-9 registry from 1973-2010 using multistage carcinogenesis and age-period-cohort models. Multistage models were used to investigate differences in initiation, promotion and malignant conversion rates of thyroid tumors by sex, race, stage, and histology. Models were adjusted for period and cohort trends to investigate the contributions of each factor, and determine whether birth- or diagnosis-year better correlate with observed incidence patterns. Significant increases in thyroid cancer incidence by period or calendar-year were found for all sex, race, stage and histology combinations, particularly for localized cases (a 3- and 4-fold increase from 1973-2010 for females and males, respectively). Multistage analyses suggest that the 3-fold higher incidence in women could be explained by 1.5-fold higher initiation and promotion rates. Analyses by race suggest that the lower incidence in blacks can be attributed to lower promotion rates versus whites. Analysis by histology showed considerable decreases in follicular cancer incidence by birth-cohort since the early 1900s. Multistage modeling suggests that variations in thyroid cancer initiation and promotion can explain the observed differences in incidence by sex, race and histology. The consistent increases in incidence by calendar-year for all sex-race-histology-stage combinations suggest that the rise may be predominantly due to more intensive screening-diagnostics, although an environmental factor may be also at play. Our analyses constitute a first step towards the development of thyroid cancer natural history models.

  14. Prevalence of Combined Somatic and Mental Health Multimorbidity: Patterns by Age, Sex, and Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William V; Yawn, Barbara P; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Grossardt, Brandon R; Boyd, Cynthia M; Rocca, Walter A

    2016-11-01

    The coexistence of chronic mental health conditions with somatic conditions (somatic-mental multimorbidity, or SMM) is common and has been associated with greater symptom burden and functional impairment, higher costs, and excess mortality. However, most existing literature focused on the co-occurrence of an index mental health condition with specific additional conditions. By contrast, we studied the prevalence and patterns of SMM more broadly considering 19 selected conditions, and we focused on differences by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. The Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system was used to identify all residents of Olmsted County, MN, on April 1, 2010. We identified individuals with each of 19 common chronic conditions, including 5 mental health conditions, using the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes received from any health care provider between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2010. Among the 138,858 residents of the county, 52.4% were women, and 7.9% had SMM. SMM increased steeply with older age, was 1.7 times more common in women, and was lower in Asians compared with whites. Of the 10,903 persons with SMM, 7,739 (71.0%) were younger than 65 years. Depressive and anxiety disorders were the most common conditions involved in SMM. The dyads that were observed more frequently or less frequently than expected by chance varied in composition by age and sex. SMM that reaches medical attention is highly prevalent across all age groups, is more frequent in women, is less frequent in Asians, and encompasses a wide range of conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. On the Threshold of Discrimination: the Burden of Sex and Race Attributes in Brazil (1989- 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Biderman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is characterized by high levels of income inequality between blacks and whites, men and women. To undertake a solid analysis of the level of discrimination which prevails in the labor market, we sought, in this paper, to control the effects of individual attributes (such as age and schooling and of workplace characteristics (formal labor relations, geographical location and job ladder position. Based on a comparison between two microdata sources provided by PNAD (National Research by Domicile Sampling, relative to the years of 1989 and 1999, it was possible to establish three different results. In the first place, it was perceived that, in relation to women, market discrimination is even higher than that measured by the mere difference between their income and the income of men; in relation to black men and women, the net effect which could be attributed to income discrimination does not appear as high, since other, and at times more important, factors act simultaneously, explaining the significant salary differences which distinguish them from white workers. In the second place, it was observed that the 1990’s usher a reduction in the intensity with which factors connected to race and sex discrimination affect such inequalities; this reduction, however, is still small, deriving mainly from the important losses in the average salary of men, especially white men. In the third place, when observed in relation to the different positions in income distribution, inequality determinants vary in importantce, and factors related to sex and color discrimination appear as the most decisive, especially among women and blacks who may reach top positions in the social ladder.

  16. Testing Stereotype Threat: Does Anxiety Explain Race and Sex Differences in Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2001-07-01

    Steele's (1992, 1997) stereotype-threat theory attempts to explain underperformance of minority students in academic domains and of women in mathematics. Steele argues that situational self-relevance of negative group stereotypes in testing situations increases the anxiety these students experience and that these differential anxiety levels explain performance differences. Research shows that manipulation of stereotype threat can affect academic performance. However, there has been little research testing whether anxiety does at least partially explain the relationship between race and achievement. The goal of this study was to examine whether anxiety will explain racial differences in academic performance and gender differences in math performance in the context of a nationally representative sample of high school seniors. Partial mediation was observed, with anxiety explaining significant portions of the racial differences in academic performance. Anxiety also partially explained sex differences in math achievement, although the effect sizes were very small. These results provide general support for Steele's stereotype-threat hypothesis. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Cultures of Abuse: ‘Sex Grooming’, Organised Abuse and Race in Rochdale, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Salter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Revelations of organised abuse by men of Asian heritage in the United Kingdom have become a recurrent feature of international media coverage of sexual abuse in recent years. This paper reflects on the similarities between the highly publicised ‘sex grooming’ prosecutions in Rochdale in 2012 and the allegations of organised abuse in Rochdale that emerged in 1990, when twenty children were taken into care after describing sadistic abuse by their parents and others. While these two cases differ in important aspects, this paper highlights the prominence of colonial ideologies of civilisation and barbarism in the investigation and media coverage of the two cases and the sublimation of the issue of child welfare. There are important cultural and normative antecedents to sexual violence but these have been misrepresented in debates over organised abuse as racial issues and attributed to ethnic minority communities. In contrast, the colonialist trope promulgating the fictional figure of the rational European has resulted in the denial of the cultural and normative dimensions of organised abuse in ethnic majority communities by attributing sexual violence to aberrant and sexually deviant individuals whose behaviours transgress the boundaries of accepted cultural norms. This paper emphasises how the implicit or explicit focus on race has served to obscure the power dynamics underlying both cases and the continuity of vulnerability that places children at risk of sexual and organised abuse.

  18. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Baldassari Rebeis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent. RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11-40 years old; however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent.

  19. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  20. Sex and Race/Ethnic Disparities in Food Security and Chronic Diseases in U.S. Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan A. Vaccaro PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among sex, race/ethnicity, and food security with the likelihood of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and lung disease for older adults. Method: Complex sample analysis by logistic regression models for chronic diseases were conducted from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 to 2012 and 2013 to 2014, for N = 3,871 adults aged ≥55 years. Results: Being female with low food security was associated with lung disease and diabetes. Poverty, rather than low food security, was associated with cardiovascular diseases. Minority status was independently associated with low food security and diabetes. Discussion: Food insecurity, sex, and race/ethnicity were associated with chronic diseases in a representative sample of U.S. older adults.

  1. A meta-analysis of the association of estimated GFR, albuminuria, age, race, and sex with acute kidney injury

    OpenAIRE

    Grams, Morgan E.; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Ron T Gansevoort; Kimm, Heejin; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Naimark, David; Oien, Cecilia; Smith, David H; Coresh, Josef; Sarnak, Mark J.; Stengel, Benedicte; Tonelli, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious global public health problem. We aimed to quantify the risk of AKI associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]), age, sex, and race (African American and white). STUDY DESIGN: Collaborative meta-analysis. SETTING & POPULATION: 8 general-population cohorts (1,285,049 participants) and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohorts (79,519 participants). SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: Av...

  2. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Sex and race differences in caloric intake during sleep restriction in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2014-08-01

    Evidence indicates that men and African Americans may be more susceptible to weight gain resulting from sleep loss than women and whites, respectively. Increased daily caloric intake is a major behavioral mechanism that underlies the relation between sleep loss and weight gain. We sought to assess sex and race differences in caloric intake, macronutrient intake, and meal timing during sleep restriction. Forty-four healthy adults aged 21-50 y (mean ± SD: 32.7 ± 8.7 y; n = 21 women, n = 16 whites) completed an in-laboratory protocol that included 2 consecutive baseline nights [10 or 12 h time in bed (TIB)/night; 2200-0800 or 2200-1000] followed by 5 consecutive sleep-restriction nights (4 h TIB/night; 0400-0800). Caloric intake and meal-timing data were collected during the 2 d after baseline sleep and the first 3 d after sleep restriction. During sleep restriction, subjects increased daily caloric intake (P sleep restriction, exhibited a greater increase in caloric intake during sleep restriction (d = 0.62), and consumed a higher percentage of daily calories during late-night hours (d = 0.78, Ps sleep restriction, or meal timing. However, African Americans consumed more carbohydrates, less protein, and more caffeine-free soda and juice than whites did during the study (Ps sleep loss than women due to a larger increase in daily caloric intake, particularly during late-night hours. These findings are relevant to the promotion of public health awareness by highlighting nutritional risk factors and modifiable behaviors for weight gain related to sleep-wake timing. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Friends Like Me: Associations in Overweight/Obese Status among Adolescent Friends by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Friendship Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Kim, Sunkyung; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about how interpersonal friend relationships are associated with obesity in young people, particularly with regard to how race/ethnicity, type of friendship, and sex affect the association between friends' and adolescents' weight status. This study examined associations in weight status among adolescents and their friends, exploring magnitudes of associations across friendship type, sex, and race/ethnicity. Methods: As part of EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), friend nominations and anthropometrics were obtained from adolescents (n = 2099: 54% female; 80% nonwhite; mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 years). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to test associations between adolescents' overweight/obese status and friends' (i.e., friend group, female friends, male friends, female best friends, and male best friends) overweight/obese status. Interactions by adolescent race/ethnicity were examined. Results: The majority of significant associations were observed among white female adolescents' who had a 22–40% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity if their friends were overweight compared to white females whose friends were not overweight. In contrast, there were few significant differences for other adolescent female and male racial/ethnic groups for girls and boys. Results for friend groups and best friends were generally similar to one another. Conclusions: The association between friend and adolescent overweight/obese status depended on adolescents' sex, race/ethnicity, and friendship type. Given the similarities among friends, obesity interventions targeting youth, especially white females, should consider involving friends. PMID:26655453

  5. VH Replacement Footprint Analyzer-I, a Java-Based Computer Program for Analyses of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes and Potential VH Replacement Products in Human and Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Lange, Miles D; Zhang, Zhixin

    2014-01-01

    VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated secondary recombination between a rearranged VH gene and an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS, TACTGTG) at the 3' end of VH gene coding region, a short stretch of nucleotides from the previous rearranged VH gene can be retained in the newly formed VH-DH junction as a "footprint" of VH replacement. Such footprints can be used as markers to identify Ig heavy chain (IgH) genes potentially generated through VH replacement. To explore the contribution of VH replacement products to the antibody repertoire, we developed a Java-based computer program, VH replacement footprint analyzer-I (VHRFA-I), to analyze published or newly obtained IgH genes from human or mouse. The VHRFA-1 program has multiple functional modules: it first uses service provided by the IMGT/V-QUEST program to assign potential VH, DH, and JH germline genes; then, it searches for VH replacement footprint motifs within the VH-DH junction (N1) regions of IgH gene sequences to identify potential VH replacement products; it can also analyze the frequencies of VH replacement products in correlation with publications, keywords, or VH, DH, and JH gene usages, and mutation status; it can further analyze the amino acid usages encoded by the identified VH replacement footprints. In summary, this program provides a useful computation tool for exploring the biological significance of VH replacement products in human and mouse.

  6. The prognostic role of sex, race, and human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal and nonoropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Carole; Westra, William H; Wang, Steven J; van Zante, Annemieke; Zhang, Yuehan; Rettig, Eleni; Yin, Linda X; Ryan, William R; Ha, Patrick K; Wentz, Alicia; Koch, Wayne; Richmon, Jeremy D; Eisele, David W; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established prognostic marker for oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC). Because of the limited numbers of women and nonwhites in studies to date, sex and racial/ethnic differences in prognosis have not been well explored. In this study, survival differences were explored by the tumor HPV status among 1) patients with OPSCCs by sex and race and 2) patients with nonoropharyngeal (non-OP) head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs). This retrospective, multi-institution study included OPSCCs and non-OP HNSCCs of the oral cavity, larynx, and nasopharynx diagnosed from 1995 to 2012. Race/ethnicity was categorized as white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, Asian non-Hispanic, and Hispanic of any race. Tumors were centrally tested for p16 overexpression and the presence of HPV by HPV16 DNA and high-risk HPV E6/E7 messenger RNA in situ hybridization. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate overall survival (OS). The study population included 239 patients with OPSCC and 621 patients with non-OP HNSCC with a median follow-up time of 3.5 years. After adjustments for the tumor HPV status, age, current tobacco use, and stage, the risk of death was lower for women versus men with OPSCC (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.55; P = .04). The results were similar with p16. In contrast, for non-OP HNSCCs, HPV positivity, p16 positivity, and sex were not associated with OS. For OPSCC, there are differences in survival by sex, even after the tumor HPV status has been taken into account. For non-OP HNSCC, the HPV status and the p16 status are not of prognostic significance. Cancer 2017;123:1566-1575. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Racing performance of Standardbred trotting horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath and age- and sex-matched control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Johansson, Bengt C; Zetterström, Sandra M; McOnie, Rebecca C

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine factors affecting race speed in Swedish Standardbred horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath (CFS), to investigate whether preoperative racing speed was associated with specific intraoperative findings and whether horses returned to racing, and to compare the performance of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS with that of age- and sex-matched control horses. ANIMALS 149 Swedish Standardbred trotters undergoing surgery of the CFS and 274 age- and sex-matched control horses. PROCEDURES Medical records of CFS horses were examined. Racing data for CFS and control horses were retrieved from official online records. Generalizing estimating equations were used to examine overall and presurgery racing speeds and the association of preoperative clinical and intraoperative findings with preoperative and postoperative speeds. Multivariable regression analysis was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare career longevity between CFS and control horses. RESULTS CFS horses were significantly faster than control horses. The CFS horses that raced before surgery were slower as they approached the surgery date, but race speed increased after surgery. There were 124 of 137 (90.5%) CFS horses that raced after surgery. No intrathecal pathological findings were significantly associated with preoperative racing speed. Career longevity did not differ between CFS and control horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses undergoing surgery of the CFS had a good prognosis to return to racing after surgery. Racing careers of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS were not significantly different from racing careers of control horses.

  8. Race/ethnicity, acculturation, and sex differences in the relationship between parental social support and children's overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Toni Terling; Martinez-Ramos, Gloria; Majumdar, Debarun

    2012-11-01

    In the present study we use the 2007 National Survey of Child Health to examine whether parental social support is associated with children's overweight/obesity and if this relationship is moderated by race/ethnicity, acculturation, and/or parent's sex. Results reveal that Hispanics (English and Spanish-speaking) and African Americans have considerably higher rates of child overweight/obesity and are less likely to have social support with parenting than Whites. Social support emerged as a significant predictor of overweight/obesity only for English-speaking Hispanic fathers. However, the magnitude of this effect was substantial. English-speaking Hispanic fathers were more than twice as likely as White fathers to have an overweight/obese child, but with social support, the odds declined by 80%. Findings suggest a need to understand better how race/ethnicity and acculturative stress shape fathers' parenting practices and how social support serves to buffer these strains.

  9. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittenger, D.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  10. Prevalence of lumbar facet arthrosis and its relationship to age, sex, and race: an anatomic study of cadaveric specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Jason David; Lee, Michael J; Cassinelli, Ezequiel; Ahn, Nicholas U

    2007-09-01

    An anatomic, epidemiologic study of facet arthrosis in cadaveric lumbar spines. To define the prevalence of lumbar facet arthrosis in a large population sample and to examine its association with age, sex, and race. Arthrosis of lumbar facet joints is a common radiographic finding and has been linked to low back pain. However, no population studies have specifically defined the prevalence of facet arthrosis in the lumbar spine in relation to age, sex, and race. A total of 647 cadaveric lumbar spines were examined by a single examiner for evidence of lumbar facet arthrosis. Information on race, age, and sex were collected. Arthrosis at each facet was graded from 0 to 4 on a continuum from no arthritis to complete ankylosis. Facet arthrosis was present in 53% (L1-L2), 66% (L2-L3), 72% (L3-L4), 79% (L4-L5), and 59% (L5-S1). By decade, facet arthrosis was present in 57% of 20- to 29-year-olds, 82% of 30- to 39-year-olds, 93% of 40- to 49-year-olds, 97% in 50- to 59-year-olds, and 100% in those >60 years old. Fisher exact test and t test demonstrated that men had a greater prevalence and degree of facet arthrosis than women at all lumbar levels (P prevalence and degree of arthrosis was the L4-L5 level, as compared with each of the other levels (P arthrosis between right versus left facet joints (P > 0.5). Facet arthrosis is a universal finding in the human lumbar spine. Evidence of arthrosis begins early, with more than one half of adults younger than 30 years demonstrating arthritic changes in the facets. The most common arthritic level appears to be L4-L5. Men have a higher prevalence and degree of facet arthrosis than women.

  11. Race-sex differences in the management of hyperlipidemia: the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Monika M; Gamboa, Christopher M; Durant, Raegan W; Brown, Todd M; Glasser, Stephen P; Shikany, James M; Zweifler, Richard M; Howard, George; Muntner, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Lipid management is less aggressive in blacks than whites and women than men. To examine whether differences in lipid management for race-sex groups compared to white men are due to factors influencing health services utilization or physician prescribing patterns. Because coronary heart disease (CHD) risk influences physician prescribing, Adult Treatment Panel III CHD risk categories were constructed using baseline data from REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study participants (recruited 2003-2007). Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hyperlipidemia were examined for race-sex groups across CHD risk categories. Multivariable models conducted in 2013 estimated prevalence ratios adjusted for predisposing, enabling, and need factors influencing health services utilization. The analytic sample included 7,809 WM; 7,712 white women; 4,096 black men; and 6,594 black women. Except in the lowest risk group, black men were less aware of hyperlipidemia than others. A higher percentage of white men in the highest risk group was treated (83.2%) and controlled (72.8%) than others (treatment, 68.6%-72.1%; control, 52.2%-65.5%), with black women treated and controlled the least. These differences remained significant after adjustment for predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Stratified analyses demonstrated that treatment and control were lower for other race-sex groups relative to white men only in the highest risk category. Hyperlipidemia was more aggressively treated and controlled among white men compared with white women, black men, and especially black women among those at highest risk for CHD. These differences were not attributable to factors influencing health services utilization. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Meta-analysis of the Association of Estimated GFR, Albuminuria, Age, Race, and Sex With Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Morgan E; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Gansevoort, Ron T; Kimm, Heejin; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Naimark, David; Oien, Cecilia; Smith, David H; Coresh, Josef; Sarnak, Mark J; Stengel, Benedicte; Tonelli, Marcello

    2015-10-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious global public health problem. We aimed to quantify the risk of AKI associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria (albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]), age, sex, and race (African American and white). Collaborative meta-analysis. 8 general-population cohorts (1,285,049 participants) and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) cohorts (79,519 participants). Available eGFR, ACR, and 50 or more AKI events. Age, sex, race, eGFR, urine ACR, and interactions. Hospitalized with or for AKI, using Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs of AKI and random-effects meta-analysis to pool results. 16,480 (1.3%) general-population cohort participants had AKI over a mean follow-up of 4 years; 2,087 (2.6%) CKD participants had AKI over a mean follow-up of 1 year. Lower eGFR and higher ACR were strongly associated with AKI. Compared with eGFR of 80mL/min/1.73m(2), the adjusted HR of AKI at eGFR of 45mL/min/1.73m(2) was 3.35 (95% CI, 2.75-4.07). Compared with ACR of 5mg/g, the risk of AKI at ACR of 300mg/g was 2.73 (95% CI, 2.18-3.43). Older age was associated with higher risk of AKI, but this effect was attenuated with lower eGFR or higher ACR. Male sex was associated with higher risk of AKI, with a slight attenuation in lower eGFR but not in higher ACR. African Americans had higher AKI risk at higher levels of eGFR and most levels of ACR. Only 2 general-population cohorts could contribute to analyses by race; AKI identified by diagnostic code. Reduced eGFR and increased ACR are consistent strong risk factors for AKI, whereas associations of AKI with age, sex, and race may be weaker in more advanced stages of CKD. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Examination of Sex and Race Differences in Longitudinal Predictors of the Initiation of Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined longitudinal predictors of dating violence perpetration and determined if predictors varied by sex and race. Analyses were with 1,666 adolescents who completed questionnaires in a fall and spring semester. Depression, marijuana use, and aggression against peers predicted perpetration by girls but not by boys. Anxiety predicted perpetration by white adolescents and anger predicted perpetration by black adolescents. Number of friends using dating violence was a predictor for all groups. Black girls were more likely to initiate dating violence than all other groups. The findings can inform the development of programs for the primary prevention of adolescent dating violence. PMID:25484571

  14. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  15. Rates of firearm homicide by Chicago region, age, sex, and race/ethnicity, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Garth Nyambi; McLone, Suzanne; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen

    2016-10-01

    The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System conducts routine surveillance of violent deaths. Decedents were selected according to the following criteria: manner of death was homicide, weapon type was firearm, and location of injury that led to death was the City of Chicago. Location of injury was broken down by regions: North, Northwest, Center, West, South, Southwest, and Far South. Multiyear rates per 100,000 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. There were 2,254 victims of homicide by firearm in the City of Chicago. The overall rate across Chicago for all demographics was 12.9 (12.1-13.5 per 100,000) with an average age of 27.4. The highest age group (20-24) for firearm homicide rates was 43.2 (39.7-46.7) per 100,000. For the youngest age group (10-14), only the Southwest (3.3-10.4) region reported any firearm incidence. The 20 to 24 age group reported the highest rates of all age groups within the South (107.9-151.7), West (80.3-108.2), and Far South (69.6-105.3) regions, whereas the North and Northwest reported the lowest rates for all regions by age. Black firearm homicide rates were 33.5 (31.9-35.1) per 100,000 versus Hispanic and non-Hispanic white firearm homicide rates of 8.5 (7.7-9.3) and 1.2 (1-1.5) per 100,000, respectively. Lastly, the West reported the highest firearm rates at 29.1 (657). In conclusion

  16. Same-sex cohabitors and health: the role of race-ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Reczek, Corinne; Brown, Dustin

    2013-03-01

    A legacy of research finds that marriage is associated with good health. Yet same-sex cohabitors cannot marry in most states in the United States and therefore may not receive the health benefits associated with marriage. We use pooled data from the 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Surveys to compare the self-rated health of same-sex cohabiting men (n = 1,659) and same-sex cohabiting women (n = 1,634) with that of their different-sex married, different-sex cohabiting, and unpartnered divorced, widowed, and never-married counterparts. Results from logistic regression models show that same-sex cohabitors report poorer health than their different-sex married counterparts at the same levels of socioeconomic status. Additionally, same-sex cohabitors report better health than their different-sex cohabiting and single counterparts, but these differences are fully explained by socioeconomic status. Without their socioeconomic advantages, same-sex cohabitors would report similar health to nonmarried groups. Analyses further reveal important racial-ethnic and gender variations.

  17. Obesity is associated with race/sex disparities in diabetes and hypertension prevalence, but not cardiovascular disease, among HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Amanda L; Westfall, Andrew O; Overton, E Turner; Mugavero, Michael J; Burkholder, Greer A; Kim, David; Chamot, Eric; Raper, James L; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Willig, James H

    2015-09-01

    Race/sex differences are observed in cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk and prevalence in the context of treated, chronic HIV infection, and these differences could be exacerbated by disparities in obesity prevalence. We sought to determine the effect of obesity on these disparities among people living with HIV. Prevalence of CMD (dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease) was determined for patients seen at the University of Alabama at Birmingham HIV clinic between 7/2010 and 6/2011. Staged logistic regression was used to examine the impact of race/sex on comorbidities adjusting for key confounders including/excluding obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)). Of 1,800 participants, 77% were male, 54% were black, and 25% were obese. Obesity prevalence differed by race/sex: black women 49%, black men 24%, white women 24%, white men 15% (pcardiovascular disorders (pobesity was included in the models. Other group differences remained significant. Disparities in obesity prevalence do not explain race/sex differences in all CMD among people with HIV. Obesity accounted for associations with diabetes/hypertension for black women, who may benefit from weight reduction to decrease disease risk. Further investigations into the etiology and treatment of CMD in people living with HIV should consider unique race/sex treatment issues.

  18. Neutropenia and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in a healthy Korean population: race and sex should be considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, O J; Lee, M-K; Kim, H-J; Chung, J-W; Choi, S-H; Kim, H R

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and severity of asymptomatic neutropenia in a healthy Korean population according to sex and age. We explored normal neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in an asymptomatic Korean population and the association of these ratios with biomarkers related to inflammation, rheumatoid disease, and glucose metabolism. We analyzed complete blood cell counts in 83 740 subjects who participated in a routine health check-up program. NLR and PLR were compared to age, rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin A1c, and fasting glucose levels. Of the entire study population, 7.48% exhibited neutropenia; 8.61% of females and 6.69% of males. The neutropenia was more severe in females compared to males (P neutropenia should be re-established according to sex and race. NLR and PLR cutoff values for disease evaluation should be established separately according to race and age. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Developmental Trends and Determinants of Physical Activity From Adolescence to Adulthood Differ by Ethnicity/Race and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan; Pereira, Mark; Wolfson, Julian; Laska, Melissa; Nelson, Toben; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-02-09

    Interventions to raise population physical activity generally show modest effects; one possible reason is that trends and determinants of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) differ between population subgroups. This study examined differences in trends and determinants of reported MVPA by ethnicity/race and sex in a 15-year longitudinal study. Participants (n = 2092) in the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults study were surveyed on MVPA behavior and potential determinants from adolescence to young adulthood. Generalized estimating equations were used to model age trends in MVPA and associations with determinants. Mean MVPA declined by 2.1 hours per week over 15 years of follow-up from adolescence to young adulthood. Asian males reported the lowest levels of MVPA at each age. Nonwhite females reported less MVPA than white females at each age. The association of body mass index (BMI) with MVPA differed by sex and ethnicity/race. Asian males and females showed lower levels of MVPA at both low and high BMI. Interventions to increase MVPA may need to begin earlier among Asian men and nonwhite women than among other groups. Asian adolescents with lower BMI show lower MVPA and may benefit from additional intervention efforts compared with Asian adolescents with normal BMI.

  20. The effects of gender, race, religion, and political orientation on the sex role attitudes of college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottes, I L; Kuriloff, P J

    1992-01-01

    Freshmen (N = 556) at a large eastern private university were administered a questionnaire during the first week of classes. A social learning perspective was used to examine the effects of gender, race (Asian, black, and white), religion (Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant), and political orientation (liberal and conservative) on four areas of sex role ideology--traditional attitudes toward female sexuality, justification of male dominance, negative attitudes toward homosexuality, and attitudes toward feminism. Although all four independent variables produced a significant effect on at least one measure of sex role ideology, religion and political orientation produced significant differences on all four sex role measures. Liberals as compared to conservatives and Jews as compared to Protestants were less traditional in their attitudes toward female sexuality, less accepting of male dominance and negative attitudes toward homosexuality, and more accepting of feminist attitudes. The results support the view that entering freshmen have established sex role belief systems that tend to be organized around constellations of traditional/conservative versus egalitarian/liberal attitudes.

  1. Does the "Negro" "Still" Need Separate Schools? Single-Sex Educational Settings as Critical Race Counterspaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…

  2. ATLAS VH(bb) Run II Search

    CERN Document Server

    Buzatu, Adrian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs boson discovered at the LHC in 2012 has been observed coupling directly to W and Z bosons and to tau leptons, and indirectly to top quarks. In order to probe if it is indeed the particle predicted by the Standard Model, direct couplings of the Higgs boson to quarks must also be measured. The Higgs boson decays most often to a pair of bottom quarks (with a branching ratio of 58%). When the Higgs boson is produced alone in gluon-gluon fusion, the signal in this decay mode is overwhelmed by the regular multi-jet background. By requiring the Higgs boson to be produced in association with a vector boson V (W or Z), which is further required to decay leptonically, data events can be selected using charged-lepton or missing transverse energy triggers. The Tevatron experiments presented combined results showing evidence for the VH(H to bb) process at a significance level of about 3 standard deviations, while the combined LHC results from Run II data show a 2.6 standard deviation evidence for the H to bb dec...

  3. Race-Based Sexual Stereotyping and Sexual Partnering Among Men Who Use the Internet to Identify Other Men for Bareback Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Valera, Pamela; Ventuneac, Ana; Balan, Ivan; Rowe, Matt; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used sexual scripting theory to explore sexual stereotyping and sexual partnering practices among a racially diverse sample of men who use the Internet to engage in “bareback” sex with other men. The sample included 81 (73%) HIV-negative and 30 (27%) HIV-positive men who were recruited on Web sites where men seek other men to have bareback sex. Participants completed a semi-structured interview that included topics on their racial identification, their sexual experiences tied to race, and their experiences having sex with men of different racial groups. The findings suggested that a variety of race-based sexual stereotypes were used by participants. Sexual stereotyping appeared to directly and indirectly affect the sexual partnering decisions of participants. Sexual scripts may reinforce and facilitate race-based sexual stereotyping, and this behavior may structure sexual networks. PMID:19337934

  4. Disparities in Temporal and Geographic Patterns of Declining Heart Disease Mortality by Race and Sex in the United States, 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam S; Quick, Harrison; Pathak, Elizabeth B; Kramer, Michael R; Casper, Michele

    2015-12-15

    Examining small-area differences in the strength of declining heart disease mortality by race and sex provides important context for current racial and geographic disparities and identifies localities that could benefit from targeted interventions. We identified and described temporal trends in declining county-level heart disease mortality by race, sex, and geography between 1973 and 2010. Using a Bayesian hierarchical model, we estimated age-adjusted mortality with diseases of the heart listed as the underlying cause for 3099 counties. County-level percentage declines were calculated by race and sex for 3 time periods (1973-1985, 1986-1997, 1998-2010). Strong declines were statistically faster or no different than the total national decline in that time period. We observed county-level race-sex disparities in heart disease mortality trends. Continual (from 1973 to 2010) strong declines occurred in 73.2%, 44.6%, 15.5%, and 17.3% of counties for white men, white women, black men, and black women, respectively. Delayed (1998-2010) strong declines occurred in 15.4%, 42.0%, 75.5%, and 76.6% of counties for white men, white women, black men, and black women, respectively. Counties with the weakest patterns of decline were concentrated in the South. Since 1973, heart disease mortality has declined substantially for these race-sex groups. Patterns of decline differed by race and geography, reflecting potential disparities in national and local drivers of these declines. Better understanding of racial and geographic disparities in the diffusion of heart disease prevention and treatment may allow us to find clues to progress toward racial and geographic equity in heart disease mortality. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Exploring alcohol-use behaviors among heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents: intersections with sex, age, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Hughes, Tonda L; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths.

  6. Exploring Alcohol-Use Behaviors Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents: Intersections With Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Results. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths. PMID:24328614

  7. Who Has the Advantage? Race and Sex Differences in Returns to Social Capital at Home and at School*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufur, Mikaela J.; Parcel, Toby L.; Hoffmann, John P.; Braudt, David B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that social capital is a valuable resource for children and youth, and that returns to that capital can increase academic success. However, relatively little is known about whether youth from different backgrounds build social capital in the same way and whether they receive the same returns to that capital. We examine the creation of and returns to social capital in family and school settings on academic achievement, measured as standardized test scores, for white boys, black boys, white girls, and black girls who were seniors in high school in the United States. Our findings suggest that while youth in different groups build social capital in largely the same way, differences exist by race and sex as to how family social capital affects academic achievement. Girls obtain greater returns to family social capital than do boys, but no group receives significant returns to school social capital after controlling for individual- and school-level characteristics. PMID:27594731

  8. Sex and race stereotypes in images of textbooks in primary physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Bastida Torróntegui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the images that appear in textbooks of Physical Education in the third cycle of Primary Education and see if the stereotypes about gender and race have been eliminated in its contents. We performed a descriptive study using content analysis as a technique of the research. The sample consisted of 997 images from five different publishers (Anaya, Inde, Human Kinetics, Bruno and Rowan who have published their textbooks from the current Education Act 2/2006. For image analysis, we used the category system developed by Táboas (2009, in a similar study in Secondary Education, adapted to primary education. For information processing using the statistical package SPSS version 17.0. The results obtained confirm the hypotheses, and therefore, the permanence of a dominant male model, white, practiced fitness activities and sports.

  9. Detailed Occupation and Years of School Completed by Age, for the Civilian Labor Force by Sex, Race, and Spanish Origin: 1980 Census of Population Supplementary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, John A.; And Others

    The report presents tabular data on occupation and years of school completed by age for the civilian labor force, by sex, race and Spanish origin, obtained from the 1980 Census/Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Special File. All tables list males and females separately for each category. Table 1 lists totals for 613 labor force categories, then…

  10. Examination of the association of sex and race/ethnicity with appearance concerns: A Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network (SPIN) cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jewett, L.R.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Carrier, M.E.; Malcarne, V.L.; Bartlett, S.J.; Furst, D.E.; Gottesman, K.; Mayes, M.D.; Assassi, S.; Harcourt, D.; Williamson, H.; Johnson, S.R.; Körner, A.; Steen, V.; Fox, R.S.; Gholizadeh, S.; Mills, S.D.; Molnar, J.C.; Rice, D.B.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Appearance concerns are common in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and have been linked to younger age and more severe disease. No study has examined their association with sex or race/ethnicity. METHODS: SSc patients were sampled from the Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network

  11. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  12. More Men Run Relatively Fast in U.S. Road Races, 1981–2006: A Stable Sex Difference in Non-Elite Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Deaner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that more men than women run fast relative to sex-specific world records and that this sex difference has been historically stable in elite U.S. runners. These findings have been hypothesized to reflect an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness in “show-off” domains. The current study tests this hypothesis in non-elite runners by analyzing 342 road races that occurred from 1981–2006, most in or near Buffalo, NY. Both absolutely and as a percentage of same-sex finishers, more men ran relatively fast in most races. During the 1980s, as female participation surged, the difference in the absolute number of relatively fast men and women decreased. However, this difference was stable for races that occurred after 1993. Since then, in any given race, about three to four times as many men as women ran relatively fast. The stable sex difference in relative performance shown here for non-elites constitutes new support for the hypothesis of an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness.

  13. Race and Sex Equality in the Workplace: A Challenge and an Opportunity. Proceedings of a Conference (Hamilton, Ontario, September 28-29, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Harish C., Ed.; Carroll, Diane, Ed.

    These proceedings contain the addresses and panel and workshop presentations made at the September 1979 Conference on Race and Sex Equality in the Workplace: A Challenge and an Opportunity. (Purpose of the conference was to promote a better understanding of human rights legislation and current equal employment and affirmative action programs and…

  14. Age-, sex-, and race-based differences among patients enrolled versus not enrolled in acute lung injury clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin R; Erickson, Sara E; Watkins, Timothy R; Matthay, Michael A; Hudson, Leonard D; Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the participation of racial/ethnic minorities, women, and the elderly into critical care clinical trials. We sought to characterize the representation of racial and ethnic minorities, women, and older patients in clinical trials of patients with acute lung injury and to determine the reasons for nonenrollment. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of pooled screening logs from 44 academic hospitals participating in three multicentered, randomized, controlled trials conducted by the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network from 1996 to 2005. None. We calculated odds ratios of enrollment for age, sex, racial groups, and the odds ratio for the presence of each exclusion criterion by age, sex, and race adjusted for demographics, acute lung injury risk factor, study, and study center. A total of 10.4% of 17,459 screened patients with acute lung injury were enrolled. The median (range) enrollment by center was 15% (2% to 88%). Older patients of both sexes were less likely to be enrolled, but older women were more likely to be enrolled than older men. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for enrollment among men > or =75 yrs of age was 0.59 (0.45 to 0.77) and for women > or =75 yrs of age was 0.45 (0.32 to 0.62) compared with men enrollment among all racial/ethnic groups. Older patients and men were less likely to be enrolled because of medical comorbidity. Among all patients who were not enrolled, black patients and their families refused participation more often than white patients. Older patients are less likely to be enrolled in acute lung injury clinical trials. There is no evidence that women or racial/ethnic minorities are underrepresented in acute lung injury clinical trials.

  15. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex , and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munjal S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sagar Munjal,1 Anirudh Gautam,2 Alan M Rapoport,3 Dennis M Fisher4 1Department of Neurology Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Pharmacokinetics, Modeling and Simulation & Bioanalysis, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd, Hyderabad, India; 3Department of Neurology, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, 4P Less Than, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective/background: Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI], age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods: We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL; or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL. Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax, area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2, and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞ were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others. Results: Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex

  16. 'Not that cheapo China con-job': Alterity, Race and Same Sex Desire in 'Jarum Halus', a Malaysian Film Adaptation of 'Othello'

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Mark Thornton

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses Jarum Halus (dir. Mark Tan, 2008), a Malaysian film adaptation of Othello, in terms of interlinked figures of difference and alterity. In particular, the essay argues that the film “translates” Shakespeare in such a way as to understand race and same-sex desire as urgently linked thematics. As Chinese, Daniel/Othello functions as the central figure of alterity, with the film highlighting the extent to which his non-Malay status reflects back on discourses of race inside c...

  17. Inequalities in multiple health outcomes by education, sex, and race in 93 US counties: why we should measure them all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yukiko; Whipp, Alyce; Kindig, David; Billard, Beverly; Rudolph, Barbara

    2014-06-13

    Regular reporting of health inequalities is essential to monitoring progress of efforts to reduce health inequalities. While reporting of population health became increasingly common, reporting of a subpopulation group breakdown of each indicator of the health of the population is rarely a standard practice. This study reports education-, sex-, and race-related inequalities in four health outcomes in each of the selected 93 counties in the United States in a systematic and comparable manner. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of large, publicly available data, 2008, 2009, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Selected Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) and 2008, 2009, and 2010 United States Birth Records from the National Vital Statistics System. The study population is American adults older than 25 years of age residing in the selected 93 counties, representing about 30% of the US population, roughly equally covering all geographic regions of the country. Main outcome measures are: (1) Attribute (group characteristic)-specific inequality: education-, sex-, or race-specific inequality in each of the four health outcomes (poor or fair health, poor physical health days, poor mental health days, and low birthweight) in each county; (2) Overall inequality: the average of these three attribute-specific inequalities for each health outcome in each county; and (3) Summary inequality in total morbidity: the weighted average of the overall inequalities across the four health outcomes in each county. The range of inequality across the counties differed considerably by health outcome; inequality in poor or fair health had the widest range and the highest median among inequalities in all health outcomes. In more than 70% of the counties, education-specific inequality was the largest in all health outcomes except for low birthweight. It is feasible to extend population health reporting to include reporting of a subpopulation group

  18. Race-based sexual stereotypes and their effects on sexual risk behavior in racially diverse young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks.

  19. Race-Based Sexual Stereotypes and their Effects on Sexual Risk Behavior in Racially-Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially-diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks. PMID:26116010

  20. Reported Sports Participation, Race, Sex, Ethnicity, and Obesity in US Adolescents From NHANES Physical Activity (PAQ_D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert W; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Peterson, Camilla J; Skinner, Asheley C

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To understand the relationships between participation in different types of leisure time sport activity and adolescent obesity, and how those relationships might differ based on race, gender, and household income. Methods. Data consisted of 6667 students that took part in the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The authors used adjusted Wald tests to examine differences in the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >95th percentile for age and sex) by sport for boys and girls separately. Results. Among adolescent youth age 12 to 19 years, 16.6% of male leisure time sport participants and 15.3% of female sport participants were obese, compared with 23.6% for male nonathlete participant-in-other-activities and 17.0% obesity rate for female nonathlete/participant-in-other-activities. For both males and females, reported participation in leisure time sports decreased between middle school and high school, and this reduction was associated with higher body mass index.

  1. Contribution of V(H replacement products in mouse antibody repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated recombination between the cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS near the 3' end of a rearranged VH gene and the 23-bp RSS from an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cRSS, VH replacement leaves a short stretch of nucleotides from the previously rearranged VH gene at the newly formed V-D junction, which can be used as a marker to identify VH replacement products. To determine the contribution of VH replacement products to mouse antibody repertoire, we developed a Java-based VH Replacement Footprint Analyzer (VHRFA program and analyzed 17,179 mouse IgH gene sequences from the NCBI database to identify VH replacement products. The overall frequency of VH replacement products in these IgH genes is 5.29% based on the identification of pentameric VH replacement footprints at their V-D junctions. The identified VH replacement products are distributed similarly in IgH genes using most families of VH genes, although different families of VH genes are used differentially. The frequencies of VH replacement products are significantly elevated in IgH genes derived from several strains of autoimmune prone mice and in IgH genes encoding autoantibodies. Moreover, the identified VH replacement footprints in IgH genes from autoimmune prone mice or IgH genes encoding autoantibodies preferentially encode positively charged amino acids. These results revealed a significant contribution of VH replacement products to the diversification of antibody repertoire and potentially, to the generation of autoantibodies in mice.

  2. VH Replacement Footprint Analyser-I (VHRFA-I, a Java based Computer Program for Analyses of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes and Potential VH Replacement Products in Human and Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eHuang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated secondary recombination between a rearranged VH gene and an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cryptic Recombination Signal Sequence (cRSS, TACTGTG at the 3’ end of VH gene coding region, a short stretch of nucleotides from the previous rearranged VH gene can be retained in the newly formed VH-DH junction as a footprint of VH replacement. Such footprints can be used as markers to identify IgH genes potentially generated through VH replacement. To explore the contribution of VH replacement products to the antibody repertoire, we developed a Java based computer program, VH replacement footprint analyzer-I (VHRFA-I, to analyze published or newly obtained IgH genes from human or mouse. The VHRFA-1 program has multiple functional modules: it first uses service provided by the IMGT/V-QUEST program to assign potential VH, DH, and JH germline genes; then, it searches for VH replacement footprint motifs within the VH-DH junction (N1 regions of IgH gene sequences to identify potential VH replacement products; it can also analyze the frequencies of VH replacement products in correlation with publications, keywords, or VH, DH, and JH gene usages, and mutation status; it can further analyze the amino acid usages encoded by the identified VH replacement footprints. In summary, this program provides a useful computation tool for exploring the biological significance of VH replacement products in human and mouse.

  3. Trends in Disparity by Sex and Race/Ethnicity for the Leading Causes of Death in the United States-1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Man-Huei; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Athar, Heba M; Truman, Benedict I

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in disparities in the leading causes of death within and between US demographic subgroups indicate the need for and success of interventions to prevent premature death in vulnerable populations. Studies that report recent trends are limited and outdated. To describe temporal trends in disparities in death rates by sex and race/ethnicity for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States during 1999-2010. We used underlying cause of death data and population estimates from the National Vital Statistics System to calculate age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death during 1999-2010. We measured absolute and relative disparities by sex and race/ethnicity for each cause and year of death; we used weighted linear regression to test for significance of trends over time. Of the 10 leading causes of death, age-adjusted death rates by sex and race/ethnicity declined during 1999-2010 for 6 causes and increased for 4 causes. But sex and racial/ethnic disparities between groups persisted for each year and cause of death. In the US population, the decreasing trend during 1999-2010 was greatest for cerebrovascular disease (-36.5%) and the increasing trend was greatest for Alzheimer disease (52.4%). For each sex and year, the disparity in death rates between Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) and other groups varied significantly by cause of death. In 2010, the API-non-Hispanic black disparity was largest for heart disease, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, and nephritis; the API-American Indian/Alaska Native disparity was largest for unintentional injury, diabetes mellitus, influenza and pneumonia, and suicide; and the API-non-Hispanic white disparity was largest for chronic lower respiratory diseases and Alzheimer disease. Public health practitioners can use these findings to improve policies and practices and to evaluate progress in eliminating disparities and their social determinants in vulnerable populations.

  4. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  5. Concurrent partnerships in Cape Town, South Africa: race and sex differences in prevalence and duration of overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Beauclair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Concurrent partnerships (CPs have been suggested as a risk factor for transmitting HIV, but their impact on the epidemic depends upon how prevalent they are in populations, the average number of CPs an individual has and the length of time they overlap. However, estimates of prevalence of CPs in Southern Africa vary widely, and the duration of overlap in these relationships is poorly documented. We aim to characterize concurrency in a more accurate and complete manner, using data from three disadvantaged communities of Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a sexual behaviour survey (n=878 from June 2011 to February 2012 in Cape Town, using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing to collect sexual relationship histories on partners in the past year. Using the beginning and end dates for the partnerships, we calculated the point prevalence, the cumulative prevalence and the incidence rate of CPs, as well as the duration of overlap for relationships begun in the previous year. Linear and binomial regression models were used to quantify race (black vs. coloured and sex differences in the duration of overlap and relative risk of having CPs in the past year. Results: The overall point prevalence of CPs six months before the survey was 8.4%: 13.4% for black men, 1.9% for coloured men, 7.8% black women and 5.6% for coloured women. The median duration of overlap in CPs was 7.5 weeks. Women had less risk of CPs in the previous year than men (RR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.32–0.57 and black participants were more at risk than coloured participants (RR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.17–2.97. Conclusions: Our results indicate that in this population the prevalence of CPs is relatively high and is characterized by overlaps of long duration, implying there may be opportunities for HIV to be transmitted to concurrent partners.

  6. Energy and Nutrient Intakes from Processed Foods Differ by Sex, Income Status, and Race/Ethnicity of US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-06-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends nutrients to increase and to decrease for US adults. The contributions processed foods make to the US intake of nutrients to increase and decrease may vary by the level of processing and by population subgroup. The hypotheses that the intakes of nutrients to increase or decrease, as specified by the DGA, are contributed exclusively from certain processed food categories and consumed differentially by population subgroups by sex, poverty-income ratio (ratio of household income to poverty threshold), and race/ethnicity was tested along with the hypothesis that specific processed food categories are responsible for nutrient intake differences between the population subgroups. The 24-hour dietary recall data from the cross-sectional 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to determine population subgroup energy and nutrient intake differences among processed food categories defined by the International Food Information Council Foundation Continuum of Processed Foods. Fifteen thousand fifty-three US adults aged ≥19 years. The mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed food categories reported by population subgroups were compared using regression analysis to determine covariate-adjusted least square means. Processed food categories that contributed to energy and nutrient intake differences within subgroups did not uniformly or exclusively contribute nutrients to increase or decrease per DGA recommendations. The between-group differences in mean daily intake of both nutrients to increase and decrease contributed by the various processed food categories were diverse and were not contributed exclusively from specific processed food categories. Recommendations for a diet adhering to the DGA should continue to focus on the energy and nutrient content, frequency of consumption, and serving size of individual foods rather than the level of processing. Copyright © 2015

  7. Directed evolution of human heavy chain variable domain (VH using in vivo protein fitness filter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sik Kim

    Full Text Available Human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable domains (VH are promising scaffolds for antigen binding. However, VH is an unstable and aggregation-prone protein, hindering its use for therapeutic purposes. To evolve the VH domain, we performed in vivo protein solubility selection that linked antibiotic resistance to the protein folding quality control mechanism of the twin-arginine translocation pathway of E. coli. After screening a human germ-line VH library, 95% of the VH proteins obtained were identified as VH3 family members; one VH protein, MG2x1, stood out among separate clones expressing individual VH variants. With further screening of combinatorial framework mutation library of MG2x1, we found a consistent bias toward substitution with tryptophan at the position of 50 and 58 in VH. Comparison of the crystal structures of the VH variants revealed that those substitutions with bulky side chain amino acids filled the cavity in the VH interface between heavy and light chains of the Fab arrangement along with the increased number of hydrogen bonds, decreased solvation energy, and increased negative charge. Accordingly, the engineered VH acquires an increased level of thermodynamic stability, reversible folding, and soluble expression. The library built with the VH variant as a scaffold was qualified as most of VH clones selected randomly were expressed as soluble form in E. coli regardless length of the combinatorial CDR. Furthermore, a non-aggregation feature of the selected VH conferred a free of humoral response in mice, even when administered together with adjuvant. As a result, this selection provides an alternative directed evolution pathway for unstable proteins, which are distinct from conventional methods based on the phage display.

  8. Mortality and potential years of life lost attributable to alcohol consumption by race and sex in the United States in 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Shield

    Full Text Available Alcohol has been linked to health disparities between races in the US; however, race-specific alcohol-attributable mortality has never been estimated. The objective of this article is to estimate premature mortality attributable to alcohol in the US in 2005, differentiated by race, age and sex for people 15 to 64 years of age.Mortality attributable to alcohol was estimated based on alcohol-attributable fractions using indicators of exposure from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and risk relations from the Comparative Risk Assessment study. Consumption data were corrected for undercoverage (the observed underreporting of alcohol consumption when using survey as compared to sales data using adult per capita consumption from WHO databases. Mortality data by cause of death were obtained from the US Department of Health and Human Services. For people 15 to 64 years of age in the US in 2005, alcohol was responsible for 55,974 deaths (46,461 for men; 9,513 for women representing 9.0% of all deaths, and 1,288,700 PYLL (1,087,280 for men; 201,420 for women representing 10.7% of all PYLL. Per 100,000 people, this represents 29 deaths (29 for White; 40 for Black; 82 for Native Americans; 6 for Asian/Pacific Islander and 670 PYLL (673 for White; 808 for Black; 1,808 for Native American; 158 for Asian/Pacific Islander. Sensitivity analyses showed a lower but still substantial burden without adjusting for undercoverage.The burden of mortality attributable to alcohol in the US is unequal among people of different races and between men and women. Racial differences in alcohol consumption and the resulting harms explain in part the observed disparities in the premature mortality burden between races, suggesting the need for interventions for specific subgroups of the population such as Native Americans.

  9. Difference by sex but not by race/ethnicity in the visceral adipose tissue-depressive symptoms association: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Allison, Matthew A; Schreiner, Pamela J; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Diez Roux, Ana V; Jensky, Nicole; Golden, Sherita H

    2014-09-01

    Prior studies have investigated the association of clinical depression and depressive symptoms with body weight (i.e. body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference), but few have examined the association between depressive symptoms and intra-abdominal fat. Of these a limited number assessed the relationship in a multi-racial/ethnic population. Using data on 1017 men and women (45-84 years) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Body Composition, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Study, we examined the cross-sectional association between elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) and CT-measured visceral fat mass at L2-L5 with multivariable linear regression models. EDS were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression score ≥16 and/or anti-depressant use. Covariates included socio-demographics, inflammatory markers, health behaviors, comorbidities, and body mass index (BMI). Race/ethnicity (Whites [referent group], Chinese, Blacks and Hispanics) and sex were also assessed as potential modifiers. The association between depressive symptoms and visceral fat differed significantly by sex (p=0.007), but not by race/ethnicity. Among men, compared to participants without EDS, those with EDS had greater visceral adiposity adjusted for BMI and age (difference=122.5 cm2, 95% CI=34.3, 210.7, p=0.007). Estimates were attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment by socio-demographics, inflammatory markers, health behaviors and co-morbidities (difference=94.7 cm2, 95% CI=10.5, 178.9, p=0.028). Among women, EDS was not significantly related to visceral adiposity in the fully adjusted model. Sex, but not race/ethnicity, was found to modify the relationship between EDS and visceral fat mass. Among men, a significant positive association was found between depressive symptoms and visceral adiposity. No significant relationship was found among women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex and race/ethnic disparities in the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and muscle mass: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Allison, Matthew A; Schreiner, Pamela J; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leuotsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Jensky, Nicole; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-09-18

    The cross-sectional area of total muscle mass has been reported to decrease by about 40% for those 20-60 years of age. Depressive symptoms may discourage motivation to engage in physical activity such as strength training shown to negate muscle loss. Inflammation related to depressive symptoms may also contribute to muscle atrophy. Physiological differences by sex and race/ethnicity may also modify the association between depression and muscle mass. Evidence on the relationship between depression (or depressive symptoms) and adiposity has been mounting; however, little is known about the depressive symptoms-muscle mass association. We sought to determine the association between elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) and lean muscle mass and whether this varies by sex and race/ethnicity. Evaluating 1605 adults (45-84 years of age) from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Abdominal Body Composition, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Study, we examined the cross-sectional association between EDS (Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale score≥16 and/or antidepressant use) and computed tomography-measured abdominal lean muscle mass using linear regression. Muscles were evaluated as a whole and by functionality (locomotion vs. stabilization/posture). Covariates included height, body mass index, sociodemographics, comorbidities, inflammatory markers and health behaviors (pack-years of smoking, alcohol locomotion compared to men, total intentional exercise, daily caloric intake). Sex and race/ethnicity were assessed as potential modifiers. Statistical significance was at a pdepressive symptoms had 5.9 cm2 lower lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to men without EDS, fully-adjusted (CI=-10.5, -1.4, p=0.011). This was statistically significantly different from the null finding among women (interaction p=0.05). Chinese participants with EDS had 10.2 cm2 lower abdominal lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to those without EDS (fully

  11. Children's Attitudes toward Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Juliet L.

    An implicit assumption in the majority of literature looking at development of prejudice in children is that race prejudice and sex prejudice are equivalent across groups; that is, sex bias is not conditional on race, and likewise race bias is not conditional on sex bias of the child. However, Warner, Fishbein, Ritchey and Case (2001) found strong…

  12. Post-9/11/2001 lung function trajectories by sex and race in World Trade Center-exposed New York City emergency medical service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossbrinck, Madeline; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Hall, Charles B; Schwartz, Theresa; Moir, William; Webber, Mayris P; Cohen, Hillel W; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K; Prezant, David J

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether lung function trajectories after 9/11/2001 (9/11) differed by sex or race/ethnicity in World Trade Center-exposed Fire Department of the City of New York emergency medical service (EMS) workers. Serial cross-sectional study of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) taken between 9/11 and 9/10/2015. We used data from routine PFTs (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1% predicted), conducted at 12-18 month intervals. FEV1 and FEV1% predicted were assessed over time, stratified by sex, and race/ethnicity. We also assessed FEV1 and FEV1% predicted in current, former and never-smokers. Among 1817 EMS workers, 334 (18.4%) were women, 979 (53.9%) self-identified as white and 939 (51.6%) were never-smokers. The median follow-up was 13.1 years (IQR 10.5-13.6), and the median number of PFTs per person was 11 (IQR 7-13). After large declines associated with 9/11, there was no discernible recovery in lung function. In analyses limited to never-smokers, the trajectory of decline in adjusted FEV1 and FEV1% predicted was relatively parallel for men and women in the 3 racial/ethnic groups. Similarly, small differences in FEV1 annual decline between groups were not clinically meaningful. Analyses including ever-smokers were essentially the same. 14 years after 9/11, most EMS workers continued to demonstrate a lack of lung function recovery. The trajectories of lung function decline, however, were parallel by sex and by race/ethnicity. These findings support the use of routine, serial measures of lung function over time in first responders and demonstrate no sex or racial sensitivity to exposure-related lung function decline. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Obesity, diabetes, serum glucose, and risk of primary liver cancer by birth cohort, race/ethnicity, and sex: Multiphasic health checkup study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Jessica L; Freedman, Neal D; Demuth, Jane; Yang, Baiyu; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Engel, Lawrence S; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and diabetes have been associated with liver cancer. However, recent US-based studies have suggested a lack of association between obesity and liver cancer among blacks and women. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Multiphasic Health Checkup (MHC) cohort of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) members. Liver cancer was diagnosed using the KPNC Cancer Registry. Detailed self-administered questionnaires and a standardized examination that included measurement of height and weight and a 1-h glucose tolerance test were completed prior to diagnosis of liver cancer for cases (n=450) and matched controls (4489). Height and weight were utilized to calculate BMI (kg/m(2)) as a measure of adiposity: underweight (15-≤8.5kg/m(2)), normal weight (18.5-≤25kg/m(2)), overweight (25-≤30kg/m(2)), and obese (≥30kg/m(2)). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between BMI, diabetes, and serum glucose with subsequent incidence of liver cancer, in models that were stratified by birth cohort, race/ethnicity, and sex. Compared to normal weight individuals, obese individuals had a 2.4-fold increased risk of liver cancer (OR=2.38, 95% CI: 1.68-3.36), and overweight individuals had a 32% increased risk (OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). This association did not differ when stratified by birth cohort, race/ethnicity, or sex (pint>0.05). Among blacks and women, obesity was associated with at least a 2-fold increased risk of liver cancer (OR=2.29, 95% CI: 1.22-4.28 and OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.14-3.52, respectively). More moderate increased odds ratios were noted for diabetes (OR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.65-2.54) and serum glucose ≥200mg/dL (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 0.48-5.55), although the results did not attain statistical significance. In summary, our finding of a positive association between obesity and liver cancer suggests that a higher BMI may increase the risk of liver cancer in the US

  14. The Sex, Age, Medical History, Treatment, Tobacco Use, Race Risk (SAMe TT2R2) Score Predicts Warfarin Control in a Singaporean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole; Ching, Chi Keong; Chen, Liping; Hon, Jin Shing; Teo, Siew Chong; Davey, Andrew K; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2017-01-01

    Warfarin reduces stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients but requires ongoing monitoring. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) is used as a measure of warfarin control, with a TTR less than 60% associated with adverse patient outcomes. The Sex, Age, Medical history, Treatment, Tobacco use, Race (SAMe-TT2R2) score has been identified as a model able to predict warfarin control, but this has been tested in mainly Caucasian populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the ability of the SAMe-TT2R2 score to predict warfarin control in a Singaporean population consisting of Chinese, Malay, and Indian race. Retrospective data were collected from the National Heart Centre Singapore for AF patients receiving warfarin between January and June 2014. The TTR and the SAMe-TT2R2 score were calculated for each patient. The 1137 non-valvular AF patients had a mean TTR of 58.0 ± 34.3% and a median SAMe-TT2R2 score of 3. The categorized SAMe-TT2R2 scores (2 versus >2) showed a significant reduction in mean TTR for the entire population (63.2% versus 55.8%, P = .0004) and also when categorized according to race for Chinese (62.7% versus 56.9%, P = .0075) and Malay (68.4% versus 50.6%, P = .0131) populations. The SAMe-TT2R2 tool is effective in predicting warfarin control in a Singaporean population as patients with a score greater than 2 had poor control. The minimum score for non-Caucasian patients is 2; thus, in these patients, the presence of any additional risk factors identified in the SAMe-TT2R2 tool categorizes them as unlikely to achieve adequate warfarin control and possible candidates for alternative anticoagulants. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nouvelles migrations sud-américaines au Chili : Rapports de sexe, classe, et « race » en santé

    OpenAIRE

    Liberona, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    L’arrivée de nouveaux usagers immigrants sud-américains dans le système public de santé chilien a généré de nouvelles relations interethniques entre agents, administratifs et soignants, et soignés, ainsi qu’entre usagers nationaux et étrangers. Cette situation a provoqué des inégalités, des discriminations et des mauvais traitements cliniques auprès des immigrants. Cet article cherche à montrer le rôle des rapports sociaux de sexe, de classe et de « race » dans les différentes formes de trait...

  16. Pleasure, affection, and love among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) versus MSM of other races: countering dehumanizing stereotypes via cross-race comparisons of reported sexual experience at last sexual event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa R; Novak, David S

    2015-10-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U.S. men ages 18-87 (M Age = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010-2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72-87  % orgasmed, 57-82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70-91 % kissed, 47-90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three.

  17. Antiangiogenic Effects of VH02, a Novel Urea Derivative: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwadee Phowichit

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 is a vital target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. We have recently described a computer-based drug design for a small molecule VEGFR2 inhibitor named VH02 (1-((1-(1H-indazol-6-yl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylmethyl-3-(3-chloromethylphenylurea. This study aimed to further explore the anti-angiogenic activity of VH02 both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro assays include cell viability, capillary-like tube formation, MMP activity, and western blot analyses of signaling through VEGFR2 while the in vivo anti-angiogenic response were performed to evaluate the effect on vascularization in Matrigel plug applied in C57BL/6L mice. VH02 reduced angiogenesis behavior of EA.hy926 including cell viability, migration, adhesion, capillary-like tube formation, and MMP-2 activity induced by VEGF. Furthermore, VH02 regulated angiogenesis by directly inhibiting VEGFR2 on Tyr1175 signaling pathway leading to the inhibition of Akt-mediated cell survival and migration. Disruption of phosphorylation at VEGFR2-Tyr1175 by VH02 abolished FAK-Tyr397 signaling but not phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. This suggests that blockade of FAK by VH02 apparently associated with reduction of endothelial cell motility. Actin cytoskeleton rearrangement was diminished by VH02 in human endothelial cells. The anti-angiogenic effect of VH02 was confirmed in the in vivo model, revealing the reduction of vascular density in Matrigel plug after VH02 treatment. Additionally, the pericyte-like cells surrounding blood vessels in the plugs were significantly reduced as well as vascular density and p-Akt intensity. Our findings indicate that VH02 successfully inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo models. The compound could be further developed as an antiangiogenesis agent for cancer therapy.

  18. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  19. Determinants of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Low-Income Children: Are There Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Age, and Sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasevska, Natasha; DeLia, Derek; Lorts, Cori; Yedidia, Michael; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-12-01

    Understanding determinants of high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), a highly prevalent obesogenic behavior, will help build effective customized public health interventions. Our aim was to identify child and parent lifestyle and household demographic factors predictive of high SSB consumption frequency in children from low-income, ethnically diverse communities that may help inform public health interventions. We used a cross-sectional telephone household survey. Participants were 717 boys and 686 girls aged 3 to 18 years old from the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study living in five low-income cities (Camden, New Brunswick, Newark, Trenton, and Vineland). The adult most knowledgeable about household food shopping completed a questionnaire over the telephone inquiring about their and their child's dietary and physical activity habits, and household-, parent-, and child-level demographics. Child's SSB consumption frequency was measured. Multivariate ordered logit models were designed to investigate a variety of variables hypothesized to affect the frequency of SSB consumption. Exploratory stratified analyses by race, sex, and age were also conducted. Eight percent of our study participants never consumed SSBs, 45% consumed SSBs at least once per day, and 23% consumed twice or more per day. SSB consumption was higher among children 12 to 18 years vs 3 to 5 years (P<0.0001), of non-Hispanic black vs non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity (P=0.010), who were moderate fast food consumers vs never consumers (P=0.003), and those whose parents were high vs low SSB consumers (P<0.0001). Living in a non-English-speaking household (P=0.030), having a parent with a college or higher education vs less than high school (P=0.003), and having breakfast 6 to 7 days/wk vs never to 2 days/wk or less were associated with lower SSB consumption (P=0.001). We identified a number of household-, parent-, and child-level predictors of SSB consumption, which varied by race, sex

  20. Independent associations between a metabolic syndrome severity score and future diabetes by sex and race: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study and Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Golden, Sherita H; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; Vishnu, Abhishek; Guo, Yi; Cardel, Michelle; Pearson, Thomas A; DeBoer, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to assess for an association between the degree of severity of the metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes beyond that conferred by the individual components of the metabolic syndrome. We assessed HRs for an Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) metabolic syndrome score (ATP-III MetS) and a sex- and race-specific continuous metabolic syndrome severity z score related to incident diabetes over a median of 7.8 years of follow-up among participants of two observational cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 10,957) and the Jackson Heart Study (n = 2137). The ATP-III MetS had an HR for incident diabetes of 4.36 (95% CI 3.83, 4.97), which was attenuated in models that included the individual metabolic syndrome components. By contrast, participants in the fourth quartile of metabolic syndrome severity (compared with the first quartile) had an HR of 17.4 (95% CI 12.6, 24.1) for future diabetes; in models that also included the individual metabolic syndrome components, this remained significant, with an HR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.42, 5.64). There was a race × metabolic syndrome interaction in these models such that HR was greater for black participants (5.30) than white participants (2.24). When the change in metabolic syndrome severity score was included in the hazard models, this conferred a further association, with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≥0.5 having a HR of 2.66 compared with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≤0. Use of a continuous sex- and race-specific metabolic syndrome severity z score provided an additional prediction of risk of diabetes beyond that of the individual metabolic syndrome components, suggesting an added risk conferred by the processes underlying the metabolic syndrome. Increases in this score over time were associated with further risk, supporting the potential clinical utility of following metabolic syndrome severity over time.

  1. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries incurred during racing and training in thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estberg, L; Stover, S M; Gardner, I A; Johnson, B J; Case, J T; Ardans, A; Read, D H; Anderson, M L; Barr, B C; Daft, B M; Kinde, H; Moore, J; Stoltz, J; Woods, L W

    1996-01-01

    To characterize and contrast data from Thoroughbreds that incurred a fatal musculoskeletal injury (FMI; injury resulting in death or euthanasia) during racing or training and data from all California race entrants during a 9-month period in 1991. Case-control study. Thoroughbreds that incurred a FMI during racing or training at a California race-meet and all California race entrants from January through June and October through December 1991. Age and sex were compared with chi 2 and Fisher's exact tests among horses fatally injured while racing and training. A log-linear model was fit to assess the relationship between race-meet and age and sex of California race entrants. Incidence risk of racing FMI was estimated per 1,000 race entrants, and the relationship between the occurrence of FMI during racing with race-meet, age, and sex was evaluated by logistic regression. Injury type and sex-specific age distributions differed among the horses fatally injured during racing and training. Age and sex distributions of the race entrants were not independent and varied among race-meets. Overall incidence risk of racing FMI was estimated at 1.7/1,000 race entrants. Risk of racing FMI in male horses was about twofold that in female horses, and in 4-year-olds was twofold that in 3-year-olds. Age and sex-related differences in risk of incurring a FMI during racing should be considered when comparing fatal injury rates among race-meets.

  2. Black gay men as sexual subjects: race, racialisation and the social relations of sex among Black gay men in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Winston; Makoroka, Lydia; Walcott, Rinaldo; Adam, Barry D; George, Clemon; Remis, Robert S; Rourke, Sean B

    2013-01-01

    In this study of Black gay and bisexual men in Toronto, sexually active survey participants reported on their sexual behaviours with male partners of different ethnoracial backgrounds, and interview participants reflected on how their sexual relationships emerged in the context of race and interracial desire. Most survey participants reported sexual relationships with other Black men. Participants were more likely to be insertive with White and other ethnoracial men than with Black men. A significant number of participants who were receptive or versatile with Black partners switched to the insertive role when their sexual partners were not Black. Interview participants ascribed a sense of fulfilment to their sexual relationships with other Black men, but avoided relationships with White men or interpreted such relationships as either purely sexual and/or inflected by their racialised objectification. Others avoided sexual relationships with other Black men or preferred relationships with White men, sometimes in opposition to experiences of oppressive masculinity from some Black partners but mindful of the possibility of racialised encounters with their White partners. Study participants emerge as informed sexual subjects, self-conscious about their sexual relationships and variously inclined to negotiate or resist racialisation and oppression in the private and public spheres.

  3. VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties in previous and present JET configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.T.C.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Bures, M.; Christiansen, J.P.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Fishpool, G.; Jarvis, O.N.; Koenig, R.; Lawson, K.D.; Lomas, P.J.; Marcus, F.B.; Sartori, R.; Schunke, B.; Smeulders, P.; Stork, D.; Taroni, A.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    In JET VH modes, there is a distinct confinement transition following the cessation of ELMs, observed in a wide variety of tokamak operating conditions, using both NBI and ICRF heating methods. Important factors which influence VH mode accessibility such as magnetic configuration and vessel conditions have been identified. The new JET pumped divertor configuration has much improved plasma shaping control and power and particle exhaust capability and should permit exploitation of plasmas with VH confinement properties over an even wider range of operating regimes, particularly at high plasma current; first H-modes have been obtained in the 1994 JET operating period and initial results are reported. (authors). 7 refs., 6 figs.

  4. A Novel Modeling Approach for Estimating Patterns of Migration into and out of San Francisco by HIV Status and Race among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alison J; Chen, Yea-Hung; Scheer, Susan; Raymond, H Fisher

    2017-06-01

    In the early 1980s, men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco were one of the first populations to be affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, and they continue to bear a heavy HIV burden. Once a rapidly fatal disease, survival with HIV improved drastically following the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996. As a result, the ability of HIV-positive persons to move into and out of San Francisco has increased due to lengthened survival. Although there is a high level of migration among the general US population and among HIV-positive persons in San Francisco, in- and out-migration patterns of MSM in San Francisco have, to our knowledge, never been described. Understanding migration patterns by HIV serostatus is crucial in determining how migration could influence both HIV transmission dynamics and estimates of the HIV prevalence and incidence. In this article, we describe methods, results, and implications of a novel approach for indirect estimation of in- and out-migration patterns, and consequently population size, of MSM by HIV serostatus and race in San Francisco. The results suggest that the overall MSM population and all the MSM subpopulations studied decreased in size from 2006 to 2014. Further, there were differences in migration patterns by race and by HIV serostatus. The modeling methods outlined can be applied by others to determine how migration patterns contribute to HIV-positive population size and output from these models can be used in a transmission model to better understand how migration can impact HIV transmission.

  5. Accessing physical activity among young adults attending a university: the role of sex, race/ethnicity, technology use, and sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D. Towne

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying factors associated with recommended physical activity (PA levels are critical in efforts to combat the obesity epidemic and related comorbidities. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analyses of college students (n = 490 enrolled in a large southern state university in October of 2014. Our aim was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, technology use, and sleep patterns among college students and their independent relationship to recommended PA. An online survey was sent to all enrolled students. Logistic regression predicted achieving recommended ≥150 min per week of moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA versus not (≤149 min MVPA. Results Approximately 69% of study participants were males, 18% were Hispanic, and more than half (60% were within the normal body mass index (12% were obese. The average age of students was 21 years. On a daily average, individuals used smartphones most often (nearly 4.4 h, followed by laptops at 4.0 h, desktops at 1.2 h, and tablets at 0.6 h. The mean number of hours individuals reported sleeping was 6.7. Sociodemographic factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included being male (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 2.2–7.1 versus female, being non-Hispanic White (OR = 1.8, CI 1.1–3.2 versus being a member of minority race group. Behavioral factors associated with reporting ≥150 min of MVPA included technology use (being moderate-heavy (OR = 2.3, CI 1.1–4.8 or heavy (OR = 3.4, CI 1.6–7.5 users of technology, and receiving low-moderate (OR = 1.9, 1.01–3.7 levels of sleep versus the lowest level of sleep. Conclusions In the current study, minority status and being female were the strongest sociodemographic factors associated with inadequate PA levels, while high technology use (primarily driven by smartphone use were associated with recommended PA levels. Identifying factors associated with being physically active will allow for targeted interventions to

  6. The beneficial effect of family meals on obesity differs by race, sex, and household education: the national survey of children's health, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brandi Y; Belue, Rhonda Z; Francis, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    Studies have indicated that family meals may be a protective factor for childhood obesity; however, limited evidence is available in children with different racial, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine family meal frequency as a protective factor for obesity in a US-based sample of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic children age 6 to 11 years, and to identify individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors that moderate this association. Data were from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health (n=16,770). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between family meal frequency and weight status, and the moderating effects of household structure, education, poverty level, and sex, by racial group. Non-Hispanic white children who consumed family meals every day were less likely to be obese than those eating family meals zero or a few days per week. A moderating effect for sex was observed in non-Hispanic black children such that family meal frequency was marginally protective in boys but not in girls. Higher family meal frequency was a marginal risk factor for obesity in Hispanic boys from low-education households, but not in girls from similar households. In conclusion, family meals seem to be protective of obesity in non-Hispanic white children and non-Hispanic black boys, whereas they may put Hispanic boys living in low-education households at risk. Greater emphasis is needed in future research on assessing why this association differs among different race/ethnic groups, and evaluating the influence of the quality and quantity of family meals on child obesity. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Data-Driven Simulation of HIV Spread Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: Role of Age and Race Mixing and STIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ekkehard C; Birkett, Michelle; Armbruster, Benjamin; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in the United States have a high HIV incidence with substantial racial disparities that are poorly understood. We use a data-driven simulation model to understand the impact of network-level mechanisms and sexually transmitted infections on the spread of HIV among YMSM. We designed and parameterized a stochastic agent-based network simulation model using results of a longitudinal cohort study of YMSM in Chicago. Within this model, YMSM formed and dissolved partnerships over time, and partnership types were stratified by length of partnership, sex, and age of the partner. In each partnership, HIV, gonorrhea, and chlamydia could be transmitted. Counterfactual scenarios were run to examine drivers of HIV. Over a 15-year simulation, the HIV epidemic among YMSM continued to rise, with Latino/white YMSM facing a steeper increase in the HIV burden compared with black YMSM. YMSM in partnerships with older MSM, in particular black YMSM with older black MSM, were at highest risk for HIV, and 1 infection prevented with an older partner would prevent 0.8 additional infections among YMSM. Additionally, racial disparities in HIV were driven by differences in the HIV prevalence of YMSM partners. Finally, of all HIV infections among YMSM, 14.6% were attributable to NG and CT infections. Network-level mechanisms and sexually transmitted infections play a significant role in the spread of HIV and in racial disparities among YMSM. HIV prevention efforts should target YMSM across race, and interventions focusing on YMSM partnerships with older MSM might be highly effective.

  8. Monetary Value of Diet Is Associated with Dietary Quality and Nutrient Adequacy among Urban Adults, Differentially by Sex, Race and Poverty Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beydoun, May A.; Fanelli-Kuczmarski, Marie T.; Allen, Allyssa; Beydoun, Hind A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The association between monetary value of the diet (MVD, $/day) with dietary quality was examined using a large sample of urban US adults, differentially by socio-demographic factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 2,111 participants, aged 30–64y, using data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study. Dietary quality indices included Healthy Eating Index–2010 (HEI–2010) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), (two 24-hr recalls). A national food price database was used to estimate MVD. Multiple linear/logistic regression analyses were conducted stratifying separately by sex, race and poverty status. Results Women had significantly higher HEI-2010 scores than men (43.35 vs 41.57 out of 100, respectively), whereas MAR scores were higher for men (76.8 vs 69.9, out of 100), reflecting energy intake gender differentials. Importantly, a $3/day higher MVD (IQR: $3.70/d (Q1) to $6.62/d (Q4)) was associated with a 4.98±0.35 higher total HEI-2010 and a 3.88±0.37 higher MAR score, after energy-adjustment and control for key confounders. For HEI-2010 and MAR, stronger associations were observed among participants above poverty and among women, whilethe MVD vs. HEI-2010 association was additionally stronger among Whites. Sex and poverty status differentials were observed for many MAR and some HEI-2010 components. Conclusions Despite positive associations between measures of dietary quality and MVD, particularly above poverty and among women, approaching compliance with the Dietary Guidelines (80 or more for HEI-2010) requires a substantially higher MVD. Thus, nutrition education may further improve people’s decision-making regarding food venues and dietary choices. PMID:26536243

  9. Self-reactive VH4-34-expressing IgG B cells recognize commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Glauzy, Salomé; Ng, Yen-Shing; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Massad, Christopher; Isnardi, Isabelle; Katz, Nathan; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M; Picard, Capucine; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meffre, Eric

    2017-07-03

    The germline immunoglobulin (Ig) variable heavy chain 4-34 (VH4-34) gene segment encodes in humans intrinsically self-reactive antibodies that recognize I/i carbohydrates expressed by erythrocytes with a specific motif in their framework region 1 (FWR1). VH4-34-expressing clones are common in the naive B cell repertoire but are rarely found in IgG memory B cells from healthy individuals. In contrast, CD27(+)IgG(+) B cells from patients genetically deficient for IRAK4 or MYD88, which mediate the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except TLR3, contained VH4-34-expressing clones and showed decreased somatic hypermutation frequencies. In addition, VH4-34-encoded IgGs from IRAK4- and MYD88-deficient patients often displayed an unmutated FWR1 motif, revealing that these antibodies still recognize I/i antigens, whereas their healthy donor counterparts harbored FWR1 mutations abolishing self-reactivity. However, this paradoxical self-reactivity correlated with these VH4-34-encoded IgG clones binding commensal bacteria antigens. Hence, B cells expressing germline-encoded self-reactive VH4-34 antibodies may represent an innate-like B cell population specialized in the containment of commensal bacteria when gut barriers are breached. © 2017 Schickel et al.

  10. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment on human immunodeficiency virus death rates among adults, 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P; Fransua, Mesfin; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-11-12

    Overall declines in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality may mask patterns for subgroups, and prior studies of disparities in mortality have used area-level vs individual-level socioeconomic status measures. The aim of this study was to examine temporal trends in HIV mortality by sex, race/ethnicity, and individual level of education (as a proxy for socioeconomic status). We examined HIV deaths among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic men and women aged 25 to 64 years in 26 states (1993-2007; N=91 307) reported to the National Vital Statistics System. The main outcome measures were age-standardized HIV death rates, rate differences, and rate ratios by educational attainment and between the least- and the most-educated (≤12 vs ≥16 years) individuals. Between 1993-1995 and 2005-2007, mortality declined for most men and women by race/ethnicity and educational levels, with the greatest absolute decreases for nonwhites owing to their higher baseline rates. Among men with the most education, rates per 100 000 population decreased from 117.89 (95% CI, 101.08-134.70) to 15.35 (12.08-18.62) in blacks vs from 26.42 (24.93-27.92) to 1.79 (1.50-2.08) in whites. Rates were unchanged for the least-educated black women (26.76; 95% CI, 24.30-29.23; during 2005-2007) and remained high for similarly educated black men (52.71; 48.96-56.45). Relative declines were greater with increasing levels of education (P educated) increased from 1.04 (95% CI, 0.89-1.21) during 1993-1995 to 3.43 (2.74-4.30) during 2005-2007 for blacks and from 0.98 (0.91-1.05) to 2.82 (2.34-3.40) for whites. Although absolute declines in HIV mortality were greatest for nonwhites, rates remain high among blacks, especially in the lowest educated groups, underscoring the need for additional interventions.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes of emergency department patients regarding radiation risk of CT: Effects of age, sex, race, education, insurance, body mass index, pain, and seriousness of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Kevin M; Estepa, Adrian T; Shofer, Frances S

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge and attitudes about radiation from CT among emergency department patients with symptoms prompting CT who were stratified on the basis of demographic variables, pain, and perceived illness. This survey study was based on three knowledge and three attitude questions asked of patients who underwent any CT examination from June 23 through July 31, 2008. Data were analyzed with chi-square for categoric data and the Student's t test or analysis of variance for continuous data. The survey was completed by 383 patients (mean age, 48 ± 18 years; 60% women; 40% black; 52% white; 8% other race). In answering the three knowledge-based questions, 79% and 83% of patients correctly estimated their risk of cancer from chest radiography and CT, respectively, as none, small, or very small. Patients who were white, more educated, and had lower pain scores were more likely to be correct. Only 34% of all patients correctly thought that CT gave more radiation than chest radiography; the more educated patients were more likely to be correct. In answering the three attitude questions, 74% of patients believed having their condition diagnosed with CT was more important than worrying about radiation. Patients preferred a better test with more radiation, although 68% wanted their physician to take the time to discuss the risk and benefits rather than using their judgment to order the best test. Privately insured patients preferred to have their condition diagnosed with CT rather than worry about radiation. Blacks and patients with less pain wanted the risks and benefits explained at the expense of time. Whites preferred a more definitive test at the expense of more radiation. Patients did not estimate the risk of development of cancer from their imaging examinations as high and were more concerned about having their condition diagnosed with CT than about the risk of future cancer. Knowledge and attitudes differed by age, race, education

  13. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Zingg, Matthias,; Rüst, Christoph,; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. METHODS: The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. RESULTS: For the annual fastest, swim...

  14. Heritability of racing performance in the Australian Thoroughbred racing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Hamilton, N A; Wade, C M

    2015-02-01

    Performance data for 164,046 Thoroughbreds entered in a race or official barrier trial in Australia were provided by Racing Information Services Australia. Analyses estimating the heritability for a range of racing performance traits using a single-trait animal model were performed using ASREML-R. Log of cumulative earnings (LCE; 0.19 ± 0.01), log of earnings per race start (0.23 ± 0.02) and best race distance (0.61 ± 0.03) were all significantly heritable. Fixed effects for sex were significant (P racing industry, contemporary heritability estimates from the current population of Thoroughbreds will play a vital role in identifying which traits are better suited to selection and in the development of more accurate genomic evaluations for racing performance. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Gender, Race, and Friendship Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. L.

    Studies that included either gender or race in assessing the nature of friendships for children and adolescents were reviewed. Findings indicate that a sex and race cleavage in friendships is evident from the preschool years and persists throughout adolescence. Girls have more reciprocated and intimate friendships than boys, especially during…

  16. Self-reported temporomandibular joint disorder symptoms, oral health, and quality of life of children in kindergarten through grade 5: Do sex, race, and socioeconomic background matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglehart, Marita R; Patel, Manan H; Widmalm, Sven-Erik; Briskie, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    The authors' objectives were to determine the percentage of children in kindergarten through grade 5 who reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD); to assess whether sex, race, and socioeconomic background mattered; and to explore the relationships between TMJD and children's oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The research team conducted face-to-face interviews with 8,302 children in kindergarten through grade 5 (51% female, 49% male; 53% African American, 42% white). They conducted oral health screenings with 7,439 children. Overall, 23.6% of the children reported pain when chewing tough food, and 18.8% reported pain when opening their mouth wide; 23.2% reported hearing a sound (clicking) when opening their mouth wide. Female students were more likely than male students and African American children were more likely than white children to report TMJD symptoms. The prevalence of TMJD symptoms did not correlate with whether the children had a need for oral health care services or whether they had an abscess or carious teeth with pulpal involvement. TMJD symptoms were associated significantly with children's OHRQoL. Considerable percentages of 4- to 12-year-old children reported TMJD symptoms, with girls and African American children being more likely than their counterparts to be affected. Experiencing TMJD symptoms was associated significantly with poorer OHRQoL. Dental practitioners need to be aware that substantial percentages of kindergarten and elementary school-aged children experience TMJD symptoms. Taking a dental history and conducting an oral examination, therefore, should include assessments of the signs and symptoms of TMJD; treatment recommendations should be provided for affected children. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Race-based differentials in the impact of mental health and stigma on HIV risk among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Gamarel, Kristi E; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-08-01

    In the U.S., young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, with YMSM of color being the most impacted by the epidemic. To advance prevention research, we examined race-based differences in gay-related stress in conjunction with the moderating role of mental health on substance use and sexual risk among 206 high-risk YMSM, recruited September, 2007-2010. Negative binomial regressions and 3-way interaction graphs indicated that psychological distress and acute gay-related stigma placed all participants at most risk for HIV acquisition. Low psychological distress appeared to "buffer" all YMSM against HIV risk, whereas the reverse was evidenced for those reporting low gay-related stigma and psychological distress. YMSM of color reported more risk behavior, and less decreases in risk with attenuated psychological distress, compared with White YMSM. We hypothesize these trends to be associated with experiencing multiple stigmatized identities, indicating points of intervention for YMSM of color to achieve positive identity integration. There were sharper increases in HIV risk behavior for White YMSM with increasing gay-related stigma than for YMSM of color, which could be attributed to the latter's prolonged exposure to discrimination necessitating building coping skills to manage the influx of adversity. Emphases on: (a) identity-based interventions for YMSM of color; and (b) skills-based interventions for White YMSM should supplement existing successful HIV risk-reduction programs. Lastly, mental health needs to be a target of intervention, as it constitutes a protective factor against HIV risk for all YMSM. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Attractiveness of own-race, other-race, and mixed-race faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Lee, Kieran; Palermo, Romina; Weiss, Mahi; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Clissa, Peter; Williams, Tamsyn; Peters, Marianne; Winkler, Chris; Jeffery, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Averaged face composites, which represent the central tendency of a familiar population of faces, are attractive. If this prototypicality contributes to their appeal, then averaged composites should be more attractive when their component faces come from a familiar, own-race population than when they come from a less familiar, other-race population. We compared the attractiveness of own-race composites, other-race composites, and mixed-race composites (where the component faces were from both races). In experiment 1, Caucasian participants rated own-race composites as more attractive than other-race composites, but only for male faces. However, mixed-race (Caucasian/Japanese) composites were significantly more attractive than own-race composites, particularly for the opposite sex. In experiment 2, Caucasian and Japanese participants living in Australia and Japan, respectively, selected the most attractive face from a continuum with exaggerated Caucasian characteristics at one end and exaggerated Japanese characteristics at the other, with intervening images including a Caucasian averaged composite, a mixed-race averaged composite, and a Japanese averaged composite. The most attractive face was, again, a mixed-race composite, for both Caucasian and Japanese participants. In experiment 3, Caucasian participants rated individual Eurasian faces as significantly more attractive than either Caucasian or Asian faces. Similar results were obtained with composites. Eurasian faces and composites were also rated as healthier than Caucasian or Asian faces and composites, respectively. These results suggest that signs of health may be more important than prototypicality in making average faces attractive.

  19. Differential inequality trends over time in survival among U.S. children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia by race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, and sex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Linwei; Bhatia, Smita; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Yasui, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    ...) have changed over time in different race/ethnicity groups. Children diagnosed with a first primary malignant ALL at ages 0 to 19 years in 1975-2010 in the nine Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries were included...

  20. Suicide Trends Among and Within Urbanization Levels by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Age Group, and Mechanism of Death - United States, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey-Stephenson, Asha Z; Crosby, Alex E; Jack, Shane P D; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Kresnow-Sedacca, Marcie-Jo

    2017-10-06

    of suicide by firearms and hanging/suffocation occurred across all urbanization levels; rates of suicide by firearms in nonmetropolitan/rural counties were almost two times that of rates in larger metropolitan counties. Suicide rates in nonmetropolitan/rural counties are consistently higher than suicide rates in metropolitan counties. These trends also are observed by sex, race/ethnicity, age group, and mechanism of death. Interventions to prevent suicides should be ongoing, particularly in rural areas. Comprehensive suicide prevention efforts might include leveraging protective factors and providing innovative prevention strategies that increase access to health care and mental health care in rural communities. In addition, distribution of socioeconomic factors varies in different communities and needs to be better understood in the context of suicide prevention.

  1. Search for the SM Higgs boson in VH(bb) channel using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Conde Mui\\~no, Patricia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS results in the search for the Higgs boson in the VH production mode with the Higgs decaying to a b-quark pair will be given, using approximately 10 fb-1 of pp collision data collected at 13 TeV.

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D6VH-3GJFK [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1D6VH-3GJFK 1D6V 3GJF H K QVQLQQSGAELMKPGASVKISCKATGYTFSSY-WIEWVK...ntryChain> 3GJF K 3GJFK DVGGYNYVS...tryChain> 3GJF K 3GJFK QWKSHRSYSC...indel> 2 3GJF K 3GJFK...dex>3 3GJF K 3GJFK

  3. Internalised homophobia is differentially associated with sexual risk behaviour by race/ethnicity and HIV serostatus among substance-using men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansergh, Gordon; Spikes, Pilgrim; Flores, Stephen A; Koblin, Beryl A; McKirnan, David; Hudson, Sharon M; Colfax, Grant N

    2015-08-01

    There is a continuing need to identify factors associated with risk for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), including a need for further research in the ongoing scientific debate about the association of internalised homophobia and sexual risk due partly to the lack of specificity in analysis. We assess the association of internalised homophobia by race/ethnicity within HIV serostatus for a large sample of substance-using MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition or transmission. Convenience sample of substance-using (non-injection) MSM reporting unprotected anal sex in the prior 6 months residing in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. The analytic sample included HIV-negative and HIV-positive black (n=391), Latino (n=220), and white (n=458) MSM. Internalised homophobia was assessed using a published four-item scale focusing on negative self-perceptions and feelings of their own sexual behaviour with men, or for being gay or bisexual. Analyses tested associations of internalised homophobia with recent risk behaviour, stratified by laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus within race/ethnicity, and controlling for other demographic variables. In multivariate analysis, internalised homophobia was inversely associated (p<0.05) with recent unprotected anal sex among black MSM, and not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviour among white and Latino MSM. More research is needed to further identify nuanced differences in subpopulations of MSM, but these results suggest differentially targeted intervention messages for MSM by race/ethnicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Immunogenetic factors driving formation of ultralong VH CDR3 in Bos taurus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiss, Thaddeus C; Vadnais, Melissa; Wang, Feng; Chen, Patricia L; Torkamani, Ali; Mwangi, Waithaka; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Criscitiello, Michael F; Smider, Vaughn V

    2017-12-04

    The antibody repertoire of Bos taurus is characterized by a subset of variable heavy (VH) chain regions with ultralong third complementarity determining regions (CDR3) which, compared to other species, can provide a potent response to challenging antigens like HIV env. These unusual CDR3 can range to over seventy highly diverse amino acids in length and form unique β-ribbon 'stalk' and disulfide bonded 'knob' structures, far from the typical antigen binding site. The genetic components and processes for forming these unusual cattle antibody VH CDR3 are not well understood. Here we analyze sequences of Bos taurus antibody VH domains and find that the subset with ultralong CDR3 exclusively uses a single variable gene, IGHV1-7 (VHBUL) rearranged to the longest diversity gene, IGHD8-2. An eight nucleotide duplication at the 3' end of IGHV1-7 encodes a longer V-region producing an extended F β-strand that contributes to the stalk in a rearranged CDR3. A low amino acid variability was observed in CDR1 and CDR2, suggesting that antigen binding for this subset most likely only depends on the CDR3. Importantly a novel, potentially AID mediated, deletional diversification mechanism of the B. taurus VH ultralong CDR3 knob was discovered, in which interior codons of the IGHD8-2 region are removed while maintaining integral structural components of the knob and descending strand of the stalk in place. These deletions serve to further diversify cysteine positions, and thus disulfide bonded loops. Hence, both germline and somatic genetic factors and processes appear to be involved in diversification of this structurally unusual cattle VH ultralong CDR3 repertoire.Cellular and Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 4 December 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.117.

  5. Trends in premature mortality in the USA by sex, race, and ethnicity from 1999 to 2014: an analysis of death certificate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Meredith S; Chernyavskiy, Pavel; Anderson, William F; Best, Ana F; Haozous, Emily A; Hartge, Patricia; Rosenberg, Philip S; Thomas, David; Freedman, Neal D; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy

    2017-03-11

    Reduction of premature mortality is a UN Sustainable Development Goal. Unlike other high-income countries, age-adjusted mortality in the USA plateaued in 2010 and increased slightly in 2015, possibly because of rising premature mortality. We aimed to analyse trends in mortality in the USA between 1999 and 2014 in people aged 25-64 years by age group, sex, and race and ethnicity, and to identify specific causes of death underlying the temporal trends. For this analysis, we used cause-of-death and demographic data from death certificates from the US National Center for Health Statistics, and population estimates from the US Census Bureau. We estimated annual percentage changes in mortality using age-period-cohort models. Age-standardised excess deaths were estimated for 2000 to 2014 as observed deaths minus expected deaths (estimated from 1999 mortality rates). Between 1999 and 2014, premature mortality increased in white individuals and in American Indians and Alaska Natives. Increases were highest in women and those aged 25-30 years. Among 30-year-olds, annual mortality increases were 2·3% (95% CI 2·1-2·4) for white women, 0·6% (0·5-0·7) for white men, and 4·3% (3·5-5·0) and 1·9% (1·3-2·5), respectively, for American Indian and Alaska Native women and men. These increases were mainly attributable to accidental deaths (primarily drug poisonings), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, and suicide. Among individuals aged 25-49 years, an estimated 111 000 excess premature deaths occurred in white individuals and 6600 in American Indians and Alaska Natives during 2000-14. By contrast, premature mortality decreased substantially across all age groups in Hispanic individuals (up to 3·2% per year), black individuals (up to 3·9% per year), and Asians and Pacific Islanders (up to 2·6% per year), mainly because of declines in HIV, cancer, and heart disease deaths, resulting in an estimated 112 000 fewer deaths in Hispanic individuals, 311 000 fewer deaths

  6. Racing extinction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barton, Alan; Doubilet, David; Goodall, Jane; Hilton, Paul; Johnson, Kirk R; Novacek, Michael J; Pimm, Stuart L; Smith, Lyman; Veron, J. E. N; Psihoyos, Louie; Sartore, Joel; Hall, Adrienne; Schwartzberg, Louis; Stevens, Fisher; Brown, Lester; Clark, Christopher W; Richards, Austin; Worm, B; Kolbert, Elizabeth; Greenberg, Jerry; Monroe, Mark; Ralph, J; Richman, Geoffrey; Zeldes, Jason; Kirby, Sean; Behrens, John; Ahnemann, Olivia; Paulmann, Dieter; Heinrichs, Shawn; Peacock, Synte; Hall-Spencer, Jason; Dewey, Bill; Mao Ji, Zhang; Goode, Eric; Munter, Leilani; Stepanek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    .... Spanning the globe to infiltrate the world's most dangerous black markets and using high tech tactics to document the link between carbon emissions and species extinction, Racing Extinction reveals...

  7. Beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeulders, P.; Hender, T.C.; Huysmans, G.; Marcus, F.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Alper, B.; Balet, B.; Bures, M.; Deliyanakis, N.; Esch, H. de; Fshpool, G.; Jarvis, O.N.; Jones, T.T.C.; Ketner, W.; Koenig, R.; Lawson, K.; Lomas, P.; O`Brien, D.; Sadler, G.; Stok, D.; Stubberfield, P.; Thomas, P.; Thomen, K.; Wesson, J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    In Hot-ion H- and VH-modes, the highest achieved beta was about 10% below the Troyon value in the best case of discharge 26087. The operational space of the high beta discharges obtained before March 1992 has been explored as function of the parameters H{sub ITER89P}, {beta}{sub n}, q{sub 95}, I{sub p}. Also, a limiting envelope on the fusion reactivity as a function of the average plasma pressure and beta has been observed with R{sub DD} related to {beta}{sub {phi}}{sup 2}.B{sub {phi}}{sup 4}. MHD stability analysis shows that the JET VH modes at the edge are in the second region for ballooning mode stability. The dependence of ballooning stability and the n=1 external kink on the edge current density is analyzed. (authors). 6 figs., 6 refs.

  8. Confinement and stability of VH-mode discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.S.; Osborne, T.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Chan, V.S.; Chu, M.S.; DeBoo, J.C.; Doyle, E.J.; Greenfield, C.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Hsieh, C.L.; Jackson, G.L.; James, R.; Lao, L.L.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lippman, S.I.; Petrie, T.W.; Rettig, C.L.; St. John, H.; Schissel, D.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Strait, E.J.; Turnbull, A.D.; West, W.P.; Winter, J.; Wroblewski, D.

    1992-10-01

    A regime of very high confinement (VH-mode) has been observed in neutral beam-heated deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak with thermal energy confinement times up to [approx]3.6 times that predicted by the ITER-89P L-mode scaling and 2 times that predicted by ELM-free H-mode thermal confinement scalings. This high confinement has led to increased plasma performance, n[sub D] (0)T[sub i](0)[tau][sub E] = 2 [times] 10[sup 20] m[sup [minus]3] keV sec with I[sub p] = 1.6 MA, B[sub T] = 2.1 T, Z[sub eff] [le] 2. Detailed transport analysis shows a correspondence between the large decrease in thermal diffusivity in the region 0.75 [le] [rho] [le] 0.9 and the development of a strong shear in the radial electric field in the same region. This suggests that stabilization of turbulence by sheared E [times] B flow is responsible for the improved confinement in VH-mode. A substantial fraction of the edge plasma entering the second regime of stability may also contribute to the increase in confinement. The duration of the VH-mode phase has been lengthened by feedback controlling the input power to limit plasma beta.

  9. Confinement and stability of VH-mode discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.S.; Osborne, T.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Chan, V.S.; Chu, M.S.; DeBoo, J.C.; Doyle, E.J.; Greenfield, C.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Hsieh, C.L.; Jackson, G.L.; James, R.; Lao, L.L.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lippman, S.I.; Petrie, T.W.; Rettig, C.L.; St. John, H.; Schissel, D.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Strait, E.J.; Turnbull, A.D.; West, W.P.; Winter, J.; Wroblewski, D.

    1992-10-01

    A regime of very high confinement (VH-mode) has been observed in neutral beam-heated deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak with thermal energy confinement times up to {approx}3.6 times that predicted by the ITER-89P L-mode scaling and 2 times that predicted by ELM-free H-mode thermal confinement scalings. This high confinement has led to increased plasma performance, n{sub D} (0)T{sub i}(0){tau}{sub E} = 2 {times} 10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} keV sec with I{sub p} = 1.6 MA, B{sub T} = 2.1 T, Z{sub eff} {le} 2. Detailed transport analysis shows a correspondence between the large decrease in thermal diffusivity in the region 0.75 {le} {rho} {le} 0.9 and the development of a strong shear in the radial electric field in the same region. This suggests that stabilization of turbulence by sheared E {times} B flow is responsible for the improved confinement in VH-mode. A substantial fraction of the edge plasma entering the second regime of stability may also contribute to the increase in confinement. The duration of the VH-mode phase has been lengthened by feedback controlling the input power to limit plasma beta.

  10. Combined search for anomalous pseudoscalar HVV couplings in VH production and H $\\rightarrow$ VV decay

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Jain, Sandhya; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Gecit, Fehime Hayal; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozcan, Merve; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Jesus, Orduna; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Kumar, Ajay; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-08-10

    A search for anomalous pseudoscalar couplings of the Higgs boson H to electroweak vector bosons V (= W or Z) in a sample of proton-proton collision events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.9 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. Events consistent with the topology of associated VH production, where the Higgs boson decays to a pair of bottom quarks and the vector boson decays leptonically, are analyzed. The consistency of data with a potential pseudoscalar contribution to the HVV interaction, expressed by the effective pseudoscalar cross section fractions $f_{a_3}$, is assessed by means of profile likelihood scans. Results are given for the VH channels alone and for a combined analysis of the VH and previously published H $\\rightarrow$ VV channels. Assuming the standard model ratio of the coupling strengths of the Higgs boson to top and bottom quarks, $ f_{a_3}^{\\mathrm{ZZ}}>0.0034$ is excluded at 95% confidence level in the combination.

  11. vhMentor: An Ontology Supported Mobile Agent System for Pervasive Health Care Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Stella C; Kotsilieris, Theodore; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare provision is a set of activities that demands the collaboration of several stakeholders (e.g. physicians, nurses, managers, patients etc.) who hold distinct expertise and responsibilities. In addition, medical knowledge is diversely located and often shared under no central coordination and supervision authority, while medical data flows remain mostly passive regarding the way data is delivered to both clinicians and patients. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a virtual health Mentor (vhMentor) which stands as a dedicated ontology schema and FIPA compliant agent system. Agent technology proves to be ideal for developing healthcare applications due to its distributed operation over systems and data sources of high heterogeneity. Agents are able to perform their tasks by acting pro-actively in order to assist individuals to overcome limitations posed during accessing medical data and executing non-automatic error-prone processes. vhMentor further comprises the Jess rules engine in order to implement reasoning logic. Thus, on the one hand vhMentor is a prototype that fills the gap between healthcare systems and the care provision community, while on the other hand allows the blending of next generation distributed services in healthcare domain.

  12. Genotypic analysis of B cell colonies by in situ hybridization. Stoichiometric expression of three VH families in adult C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, D H; Kelsoe, G

    1987-07-01

    The filter paper disc method for cloning inducible lymphocytes was used to census the splenic B cell population of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice for the expression of three VH gene-families, VH X-24, -Q52, and -J558. B cell colonies, arising from single founder lymphocytes, were identified by in situ hybridization with VH family- and C mu-specific cDNA probes. Some 6.7 X 10(4) C mu+ colonies were screened. Among C57BL/6- or BALB/c-derived colonies, approximately 3% were VH X-24+, approximately 19% were VH Q52+, and approximately 54% were VH J558+. These frequencies are consistent with a process of equiprobable expression for individual VH segments, and provide direct evidence that normal splenic B lymphocytes use a process of random genetic combinatorics to generate the antibody repertoire.

  13. Antibody repertoire diversification through VH gene replacement in mice cloned from an IgA plasma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bach, Martina P; Mainoldi, Federica; Maruya, Mikako; Kishigami, Satoshi; Jumaa, Hassan; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kanagawa, Osami; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Casola, Stefano

    2015-02-03

    In mammals, VDJ recombination is responsible for the establishment of a highly diversified preimmune antibody repertoire. Acquisition of a functional Ig heavy (H) chain variable (V) gene rearrangement is thought to prevent further recombination at the IgH locus. Here, we describe VHQ52(NT); Vκgr32(NT) Ig monoclonal mice reprogrammed from the nucleus of an intestinal IgA(+) plasma cell. In VHQ52(NT) mice, IgA replaced IgM to drive early B-cell development and peripheral B-cell maturation. In VHQ52(NT) animals, over 20% of mature B cells disrupted the single productive, nonautoimmune IgH rearrangement through VH replacement and exchanged it with a highly diversified pool of IgH specificities. VH replacement occurred in early pro-B cells, was independent of pre-B-cell receptor signaling, and involved predominantly one adjacent VH germ-line gene. VH replacement was also identified in 5% of peripheral B cells of mice inheriting a different productive VH rearrangement expressed in the form of an IgM H chain. In summary, editing of a productive IgH rearrangement through VH replacement can account for up to 20% of the IgH repertoire expressed by mature B cells.

  14. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  15. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  16. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of a given number ...

  17. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Ganji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569. Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L. Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p < 0.001 and age (p < 0.001 but not with sex (p = 0.057. In this large US population based study, serum MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status.

  18. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist...

  19. Racing Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of…

  20. RELAY RACE

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  1. Direct and Indirect Messages African American Women Receive from Their Familial Networks about Intimate Relationships and Sex: The Intersecting Influence of Race, Gender, and Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Christina M.; Brubaker, Sarah Jane; Corneille, Maya A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the sexual socialization experienced by emerging adult, African American women, ages 18 to 26 years, who received services at a sexually transmitted infection clinic. Data obtained from in-depth interviews revealed that women received information about sex and relationships from three primary sources: women of the…

  2. Race, Sex, and Social Mobility: An Exploration of Occupational Aspirations and Expectations Among Black and White Youth in Four New York State Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Nathaniel J., And Others

    This study explores the occupational aspirations and expectations of some 531 black and white high school youth of both sexes from predominantly lower and lower middle socioeconomic status families in four New York State communities; Megalopolis (New York City), Middletown (Elmira), Exurbia (Patchogue), and Capitol City (Albany). Data were…

  3. Estudio de Relaciones Espectrales V/H Asociado al Sistema de Fallas de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    López Moreno, Eduardo Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    La ciudad de Quito se asienta sobre un sistema de fallas ciegas inversas, el modelo neotectónico considera 5 segmentos de fallas que se extiende aproximadamente a lo largo de 60 km., sin embargo no se tiene un conocimiento adecuado del peligro sísmico asociado a este sistema de fallas para la componente vertical del movimiento del suelo. En este estudio, se van a determinar relaciones espectrales V/H utilizando los modelos de movimiento fuerte del suelo correspondientes al programa Next Gener...

  4. Sex, race, and the adverse effects of social stigma vs. other quality of life factors among primary care patients with moderate to severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Christina C; Davis, Roger B; Chiodi, Sarah; Huskey, Karen W; Hamel, Mary B

    2015-02-01

    Patients with obesity face widespread social bias, but the importance of this social stigma to patients relative to other quality of life (QOL) factors is unclear. Our aim was to examine the importance of obesity-related social stigma relative to other QOL factors on reducing patients' overall well-being. We used a cross-sectional telephone interview. The study was conducted at four diverse primary care practices in Greater Boston. Three hundred and thirty-seven primary care patients aged 18-65 years and with a body mass index (BMI) of 35 kg/m(2) or higher participated in the study. Patients' health utility (preference-based QOL measure) was determined via responses to a series of standard gamble scenarios assessing willingness to risk death to lose various amounts of weight or to achieve perfect health. We used the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-lite instrument to assess QOL domains specific to obesity (physical function, self-esteem, sexual life, public distress or social stigma, and work), and we examined variation in utility explained by these domains. Depending on patients' race/ethnicity, mean health utilities ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 among men and from 0.89 to 0.93 among women. After adjustment for race, BMI, and education, none of the QOL domains explained much of the variation in utility among men, except for work function among Hispanic men. In contrast, social stigma was the leading QOL contributor to utility for Caucasian women (explaining 6 % of the marginal variation beyond demographics and BMI). In contrast, sexual function was the most important contributor among African American women (3 % marginal variation), and work life was most important among Hispanic women (> 20 % in variation). Lower scores in one domain did not always translate into lower well-being. Moreover, QOL summary scores often explained less of the variation than some individual domains. Obesity-related social stigma had disproportionate adverse effects on Caucasian women

  5. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Mauro, Pia M; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Utilizing data from the 2002-2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Between 2002 and 2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000-49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12-17 and 18-25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008-2012. Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are Partner Race and Intimate Partner Violence Associated with Incident and Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in African-American Men Who Have Sex with Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beymer, Matthew R; Harawa, Nina T; Weiss, Robert E; Shover, Chelsea L; Toynes, Brian R; Meanley, Steven; Bolan, Robert K

    2017-06-14

    Black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM) experience a disparate rate of HIV infections among MSM. Previous analyses have determined that STI coinfection and undiagnosed HIV infection partly explain the disparity. However, few studies have analyzed the impact of partner-level variables on HIV incidence among BMSM. Data were analyzed for BMSM who attended the Los Angeles LGBT Center from August 2011 to July 2015 (n = 1974) to identify risk factors for HIV infection. A multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze predictors for HIV prevalence among all individuals at first test (n = 1974; entire sample). A multivariable survival analysis was used to analyze predictors for HIV incidence (n = 936; repeat tester subset). Condomless receptive anal intercourse at last sex, number of sexual partners in the last 30 days, and intimate partner violence (IPV) were significant partner-level predictors of HIV prevalence and incidence. Individuals who reported IPV had 2.39 times higher odds (CI 1.35-4.23) and 3.33 times higher hazard (CI 1.47-7.55) of seroconverting in the prevalence and incidence models, respectively. Reporting Black partners only was associated with increased HIV prevalence, but a statistically significant association was not found with incidence. IPV is an important correlate of both HIV prevalence and incidence in BMSM. Further studies should explore how IPV affects HIV risk trajectories among BMSM. Given that individuals with IPV history may struggle to negotiate safer sex, IPV also warrants consideration as a qualifying criterion among BMSM for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

  7. Population Reference Values for Serum Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations and Its Relationship with Age, Sex, Race-Ethnicity, Supplement Use, Kidney Function and Serum Vitamin B12 in the Post-Folic Acid Fortification Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R.

    2018-01-01

    Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) is elevated in vitamin B-12 deficiency and in kidney dysfunction. Population reference values for serum MMA concentrations in post-folic acid fortification period are lacking. Aims of this study were to report the population reference values for serum MMA and to evaluate the relation between serum MMA and sex, age, race-ethnicity, kidney dysfunction and vitamin B-12. We used data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1999–2000, 2001–2002 and 2003–2004 conducted after folic acid fortification commenced (n = 18,569). Geometric mean MMA was ≈22.3% higher in non-Hispanic white compared to non-Hispanic black (141.2 vs. 115.5 nmol/L) and was ≈62.7% higher in >70 years old persons compared to 21–30 years old persons (196.9 vs. 121.0 nmol/L). Median serum MMA was ≈28.5% higher in the 1st the quartile of serum vitamin B-12 than in the 4th quartile of serum vitamin B-12 and was ≈35.8% higher in the 4th quartile of serum creatinine than in the 1st quartile of serum creatinine. Multivariate-adjusted serum MMA concentration was significantly associated with race-ethnicity (p MMA concentrations presented here reflect the post-folic acid fortification scenario. Serum MMA concentrations begin to rise at the age of 18–20 years and continue to rise afterwards. Age-related increase in serum MMA concentration is likely to be due to a concomitant decline in kidney function and vitamin B-12 status. PMID:29329201

  8. Age-Specific Race and Ethnicity Disparities in HIV Infection and Awareness Among Men Who Have Sex With Men--20 US Cities, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wejnert, Cyprian; Hess, Kristen L; Rose, Charles E; Balaji, Alexandra; Smith, Justin C; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Over half of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United States occur among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among MSM, 16% of estimated new infections in 2010 occurred among black MSM HIV Behavioral Surveillance data on MSM from 20 cities. Poisson models were used to test racial disparities, by age, in HIV prevalence, HIV awareness, and sex behaviors among MSM in 2014. Data from 2008, 2011, and 2014 were used to examine how racial/ethnic disparities changed across time. While black MSM did not report greater sexual risk than other MSM, they were most likely to be infected with HIV and least likely to know it. Among black MSM aged 18-24 years tested in 2014, 26% were HIV positive. Among white MSM aged 18-24 years tested in 2014, 3% were HIV positive. The disparity in HIV prevalence between black and white MSM increased from 2008 to 2014, especially among young MSM. Disparities in HIV prevalence between black and white MSM continue to increase. Black MSM may be infected with HIV at younger ages than other MSM and may benefit from prevention efforts that address the needs of younger men. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Analysis of API2-MALT1 fusion, trisomies, and immunoglobulin VH genes in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjing; Nakayama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Hidenori; Yamada, Seiji; Sato, Fumihiko; Takino, Hisashi; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is unique in that chronic inflammation is rare and that API2-MALT1 fusion, resulting from t(11;18)(q21;q21), occurs frequently. In this study, we examined 20 cases for API2-MALT1 fusion using the multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and looked for trisomy 3, trisomy 18, and abnormalities of MALT1 and IGH genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed VH genes by subcloning of the monoclonal polymerase chain reaction products. Of 20 cases studied, we detected gene abnormalities in 16: API2-MALT1 fusion in 9, trisomy 3 in 5, trisomy 18 in 4, MALT1 abnormality in 13, and IGH abnormality in 1. MALT1 gene abnormalities were concordant with API2-MALT1 fusion or trisomy 18. One case showed API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. On detection of API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomies, we were able to divide our cases into 3 groups, API2-MALT1 positive, trisomy positive, and no detectable gene abnormality, suggesting that tumor development had processed along different genetic pathways. All 20 cases were analyzed for VH genes. Most of the VH genes selected by the lymphomas belonged to the VH3 family, but there was no restriction to any particular VH fragment. Of interest, VH genes were unmutated in 7 cases, suggesting that T-cell-independent extrafollicular B-cell maturation may be important in the development of this lymphoma. In addition, both mutated and unmutated tumor cases were found to carry the API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. This observation suggests that these gene abnormalities may occur in microenvironments found before or outside of follicular germinal centers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. HIV-infected men who have sex with men, before and after release from jail: the impact of age and race, results from a multi-site study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagenas, Panagiotis; Zelenev, Alexei; Altice, Frederick L; Di Paola, Angela; Jordan, Alison O; Teixeira, Paul A; Frew, Paula M; Spaulding, Anne C; Springer, Sandra A

    2016-01-01

    The US HIV/AIDS epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). Black men are disproportionately affected by incarceration and Black MSM experience higher infection rates and worse HIV-related health outcomes compared to non-Black MSM. We compared HIV treatment outcomes for Black MSM to other HIV-infected men from one of the largest cohorts of HIV-infected jail detainees (N = 1270) transitioning to the community. Of the 574 HIV-infected men released, 113 (19.7%) self-identified as being MSM. Compared to other male subgroups, young Black MSM (link to HIV care. Interventions that effectively link and retain young HIV-infected Black MSM in care in communities before incarceration and post-release from jail are urgently needed.

  11. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  12. Disparities by Race, Age, and Sex in the Improvement of Survival for Major Cancers: Results From the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program in the United States, 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Wen, Wanqing; Morgans, Alicia K; Pao, William; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Substantial progress has been made in cancer diagnosis and treatment, resulting in a steady improvement in cancer survival. The degree of improvement by age, race, and sex remains unclear. To quantify the degree of survival improvement over time by age, race, and sex in the United States. Longitudinal analyses of cancer follow-up data from 1990 to 2010, from 1.02 million patients who had been diagnosed as having cancer of the colon or rectum, breast, prostate, lung, liver, pancreas, or ovary from 1990 to 2009 and who were included in 1 of 9 population-based registries of the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for cancer-specific death were estimated for patients diagnosed as having any of these cancers during 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004, and 2005 to 2009, compared with those diagnosed in 1990 to 1994. Significant improvements in survival were found for cancers of the colon or rectum, breast, prostate, lung, and liver. Improvements were more pronounced for younger patients. For patients aged 50 to 64 years and diagnosed from 2005 to 2009, adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.57 (95% CI, 0.55-0.60), 0.48 (95% CI, 0.45-0.51), 0.61 (95% CI, 0.57-0.69), and 0.32 (95% CI, 0.30-0.36), for cancer of the colon or rectum, breast, liver, and prostate, respectively, compared with the same age groups of patients diagnosed during 1990 to 1994. However, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for elderly patients (those 75-85 years old) were only 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69-0.84), and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.61-0.70), for the same 4 cancer sites, respectively. A similar, although weaker, age-related period effect was observed for lung and pancreatic cancers. The adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for lung cancer were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.77) and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.81-0.86), respectively, for patients aged 50 to 64 years and 75 to 85 years diagnosed between 2005 and 2009, compared with the same

  13. ATLAS Searches for VH, HH, VV, V+$\\gamma$/$\\gamma\\gamma$ Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider motivates searches for physics beyond the Standard Model in channels involving coupling to the Higgs boson. A search for massive resonances decaying into couples of bosons is described. The considered final states are: $HH$, $VH$, $VV$, $V\\gamma$ and $\\gamma\\gamma$ with $V$ indicating either the $W$ or the $Z$ boson. Final states with different number of leptons or photons and where, in many cases, at least one Higgs decays into a b-quark pair are studied using different jet reconstruction techniques which allow to optimize the signal acceptance for low or Higgs boson transverse momentum. The most recent diboson resonance searches using LHC Run 2 data are described.

  14. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-11-01

    HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and discrimination

  15. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro.HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and

  16. Age, race/ethnicity, and behavioral risk factors associated with per contact risk of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hyman M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Irvin, Risha; Sachdev, Darpun; Liu, Albert; Gurwith, Marc; Buchbinder, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) and MSM of color have the highest HIV incidence in the United States. To explore possible explanations for these disparities and known individual risk factors, we analyzed the per contact risk (PCR) of HIV seroconversion in the early highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Data from 3 longitudinal studies of MSM (HIV Network for Prevention Trials Vaccine Preparedness Study, EXPLORE behavioral efficacy trial, and VAX004 vaccine efficacy trial) were pooled. The analysis included visits where participants reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URA), protected receptive anal intercourse, or unprotected insertive anal intercourse (UIA) with an HIV seropositive, unknown HIV serostatus, or an HIV seronegative partner. We used regression standardization to estimate average PCRs for each type of contact, with bootstrap confidence intervals. The estimated PCR was highest for URA with an HIV seropositive partner (0.73%; 95% bootstrap confidence interval [BCI]: 0.45% to 0.98%) followed by URA with a partner of unknown HIV serostatus (0.49%; 95% BCI: 0.32% to 0.62%). The estimated PCR for protected receptive anal intercourse and UIA with an HIV seropositive partner was 0.08% (95% BCI: 0.0% to 0.19%) and 0.22% (95% BCI: 0.05% to 0.39%), respectively. Average PCRs for URA and UIA with HIV seropositive partners were higher by 0.14%-0.34% among younger participants and higher by 0.08% for UIA among Latino participants compared with white participants. Estimated PCRs increased with the increasing number of sexual partners, use of methamphetamines or poppers, and history of sexually transmitted infection. Susceptibility or partner factors may explain the higher HIV conversion risk for younger MSM, some MSM of color, and those reporting individual risk factors.

  17. Peripheral VH4+ Plasmablasts Demonstrate Autoreactive B Cell Expansion Toward Brain Antigens in Early Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Jacqueline R.; Ireland, Sara J.; Chkheidze, Rati; Rounds, William H.; Lim, Joseph; Johnson, Jordan; Ramirez, Denise M.O.; Ligocki, Ann J.; Chen, Ding; Guzman, Alyssa A.; Woodhall, Mark; Wilson, Patrick C.; Meffre, Eric; White, Charles; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Waters, Patrick; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Stowe, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmablasts are a highly differentiated, antibody secreting B cell subset whose prevalence correlates with disease activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). For most patients experiencing partial transverse myelitis (PTM), plasmablasts are elevated in the blood at the first clinical presentation of disease (known as clinically isolated syndrome or CIS). In this study we found that many of these peripheral plasmablasts are autoreactive and recognize primarily gray matter targets in brain tissue. These plasmablasts express antibodies that over-utilize immunoglobulin heavy chain V-region subgroup 4 (VH4) genes, and the highly mutated VH4+ plasmablast antibodies recognize intracellular antigens of neurons and astrocytes. Most of the autoreactive, highly mutated VH4+ plasmablast antibodies recognize only a portion of cortical neurons, indicating that the response may be specific to neuronal subgroups or layers. Furthermore, CIS-PTM patients with this plasmablast response also exhibit modest reactivity toward neuroantigens in the plasma IgG antibody pool. Taken together, these data indicate that expanded VH4+ peripheral plasmablasts in early MS patients recognize brain gray matter antigens. Peripheral plasmablasts may be participating in the autoimmune response associated with MS, and provide an interesting avenue for investigating the expansion of autoreactive B cells at the time of the first documented clinical event. PMID:27730299

  18. Disparities by race, age, and sex in the improvement of survival for major cancers: Results from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program in United States, 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Wen, Wanqing; Morgans, Alicia K.; Pao, William; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Substantial progress has been made in cancer diagnosis and treatment, resulting in a steady improvement in cancer survival. The degree of improvement by age, race and sex remains unclear. OBJECTIVE to quantify the degree of survival improvement over time by age, race and sex in the United States. DESIGN Longitudinal analyses of cancer follow-up data. SETTING Cancer diagnosis data for 1990–2009 and follow-up data to 2010 from nine population-based registries, part of the NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. PARTICIPANTS Approximately 1.02 million patients from SEER registries diagnosed with cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, liver, pancreas, or ovary from 1990–2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific death were estimated for patients diagnosed with any of these cancers during, 1995–1999, 2000–2004, and 2005–2009, compared diagnoses in 1990–1994. RESULTS Significant improvements in survival were found for cancers of the colon/rectum, breast, prostate, lung, and liver. Improvements were more pronounced for younger patients. For example, for patients aged 50–64 and diagnosed between 2005–2009, adjusted HRs (95%CI) were 0.57 (0.55–0.60), 0.48 (0.45–0.51), 0.61 (0.57–0.68), and 0.32 (0.30–0.36), for cancer of the colon/rectum, breast, liver and prostate, respectively, compared with the same age group of patients diagnosed during 1990–94. However, the corresponding HRs (95% CIs) for elderly patients (aged 75–85) were only 0.88 (0.84–0.82), 0.88 (0.84–0.92), 0.76 (0.69–0.84), and 0.65 (0.61–0.70), for the same four cancer sites, respectively. A similar, although weaker, age-related period effect was observed for lung and pancreatic cancers. The adjusted HRs (95%CIs) for lung cancer were 0.75 (95%CI, 0.73–0.77) and 0.84 (95%CI, 0.81–0.86), respectively, for patients aged 50 to 64 years and 75 to 85 years diagnosed

  19. HIV, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation, and Sex Work: A Qualitative Study of Intersectional Stigma Experienced by HIV-Positive Women in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H.; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). Conclusions HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being—as well as opportunities for coping—in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the

  20. Heritability of racing durability traits in the Australian and Hong Kong Thoroughbred racing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Hamilton, N A; Wade, C M

    2016-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to improve the well-being of racing Thoroughbreds through improvements in management and veterinary care. However, these attempts are often limited by the industry's ability to regulate a large number of environmental variables and as a result have arguably had limited success in providing long-lasting change for the breed. To identify heritable durability traits for Thoroughbred horses racing in Australia and Hong Kong. Heritability analysis of a longitudinal dataset. Performance data on the Thoroughbred populations racing in Australia and Hong Kong between 2000 and 2011 (n = 168,993) were used to estimate the heritabilities and probability values of fixed effects and covariates for a range of racing durability traits. Heritabilities for all durability traits were estimated using a single trait animal model. Each model included, as a minimum, the effects of sex and trainer. Racing longevity (0.12 ± 0.01), racing persistence (0.10 ± 0.01), racing frequency (0.03 ± 0.01), spells (a time period between consecutive races, official trials and/or jump-outs greater than 90 days in length) per year (0.05 ± 0.01), spells per 10 starts (0.03 ± 0.01) and variation of days between races (0.08 ± 0.03) were all significantly heritable for horses racing in Australia. Racing longevity (0.08 ± 0.02), racing persistence (0.04 ± 0.02), spells per year (0.06 ± 0.02) and spells per 10 starts (0.11 ± 0.04) were significantly heritable for horses racing in Hong Kong. The heritabilities estimated for durability traits in this study provide support for the successful and practical application of genetic selection methodologies to improving the well-being of racing Thoroughbreds. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  1. VH3 Gene Usage in Neutralizing Human Antibodies Specific for the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc Lectin Heavy Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Katsuomi; Cheng, Xun-Jia; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Kaneda, Yoshimasa; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ihara, Seiji; Petri, Jr., William A.

    2003-01-01

    A combinatorial human immunoglobulin gene library was constructed from peripheral lymphocytes of an asymptomatic Entamoeba histolytica cyst passer and screened for the production of Fab antibody to the parasite. One of the Fab clones, CP33, recognized the 260-kDa galactose- and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc)-specific lectin of E. histolytica. By shuffling the heavy and light chains of CP33 with the heavy and light chains of two libraries derived from the cyst passer and a liver abscess patient, 18 additional clones were obtained. Sequence analysis of the heavy-chain genes, including CP33-H, revealed that all the nearest V-segment germ lines belonged to the VH3 family (VH3-21, VH3-30, VH3-48, and VH3-53), but the levels of homology were only 85 to 95%. The closest D-segment germ line was D2-2 or D6-6, and for the J-segment the closest germ line was JH4b or JH6b. On the other hand, all the light-chain genes, including CP33-L, belonged to the Vκ1 family, in which the closest Vκ germ line gene was 02/012 or L5, with the Jκ1, Jκ2, Jκ4, or Jκ5 segment. CP33 and three other Fabs obtained by light-chain shuffling were purified and analyzed further. All of these Fabs recognized the cysteine-rich domain of the 170-kDa heavy subunit of the Gal/GalNAc lectin. Preincubation of E. histolytica trophozoites with these Fabs significantly inhibited amebic adherence to Chinese hamster ovary cells and also inhibited erythrophagocytosis. The ability of the neutralizing antibodies to block erythrophagocytosis for the first time implicates the lectin in phagocytosis and VH3 antibodies in defense against parasitic infections. These results demonstrate the utility of a combinatorial human immunoglobulin gene library for identifying and characterizing neutralizing antibodies from humans with amebiasis. PMID:12874307

  2. Predictors of race-day jockey falls in flat racing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Peta Lee; Blizzard, Christopher Leigh; Jones, Graeme; Day, Lesley; Fell, James

    2010-10-01

    Riding thoroughbred racehorses is a hazardous occupation. In this study, we investigated risk factors associated with falls by licensed thoroughbred racing jockeys participating in flat races conducted in Australia. Data on race-day falls were extracted from stewards' reports. Denominator data were provided by Racing Information Services Australia on races conducted in Australia from August 2002 until July 2006. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by race grade (maiden, class, open/restricted). In multivariable analyses, factors associated with falls were female sex of jockey (IRR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.23), being an apprentice jockey (IRR 1.51; 95% CI 1.39 to 1.63), being an amateur jockey (IRR 1.44; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.86), drier tracks (p<0.001), younger horse age (p<0.001), shorter race distance (p<0.001), lower field size (p=0.013) and lower race grade (p<0.001). The IRRs for five factors associated with falls differed by category of race grade: those for apprentice jockey (interaction p=0.003), higher prize money (interaction p<0.001) and shorter race distance (interaction p=0.041) were greater in lower race grades, while those for fewer previous rides this meeting (interaction p=0.027) and drier track rating (interaction p=0.035) were greater in higher race grades. Female jockeys had a significantly higher incidence of falls when riding horses under 4 years of age in open and restricted races (interaction p=0.038), and the effects of lower field size in maiden races, and of shorter races, were more pronounced for falls occurring before the race. We identified a range of factors associated with falls to thoroughbred racing jockeys riding in flat races that adds to the evidence base for formulating strategies to improve occupational health and safety standards in the thoroughbred racing industry.

  3. An empirical study of race times in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Vertosick, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time. Sex, age, BMI and race training were associated with mean race velocity for all race distances. The difference in velocity between males and females decreased with increasing distance. Tempo runs were more strongly associated with velocity for shorter distances, while typical weekly training mileage and interval training had similar associations with velocity for all race distances. The commonly used Riegel formula for race time prediction was well-calibrated for races up to a half-marathon, but dramatically underestimated marathon time, giving times at least 10 min too fast for half of runners. We built two models to predict marathon time. The mean squared error for Riegel was 381 compared to 228 (model based on one prior race) and 208 (model based on two prior races). Our findings can be used to inform race training and to provide more accurate race time predictions for better pacing.

  4. Differential Achievement: Race, Sex, and Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treas, Judith

    1978-01-01

    Black men and women get lower status jobs than their white counterparts. Analysis of data from the 1967 National Longitudinal Survey of Work Experience of Women 30-44 Years of Age and the 1962 Occupational Changes in a Generation Survey demonstrates that lower social origins and educational attainments are insufficient explanations of blacks'…

  5. Combined search for anomalous pseudoscalar HVV couplings in VH(H→bb‾ production and H→VV decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khachatryan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A search for anomalous pseudoscalar couplings of the Higgs boson H to electroweak vector bosons V (=W or Z in a sample of proton–proton collision events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.9 fb−1 at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. Events consistent with the topology of associated VH production, where the Higgs boson decays to a pair of bottom quarks and the vector boson decays leptonically, are analyzed. The consistency of data with a potential pseudoscalar contribution to the HVV interaction, expressed by the effective pseudoscalar cross section fractions fa3, is assessed by means of profile likelihood scans. Results are given for the VH channels alone and for a combined analysis of the VH and previously published H→VV channels. Under certain assumptions, fa3ZZ>0.0034 is excluded at 95% confidence level in the combination. Scenarios in which these assumptions are relaxed are also considered.

  6. Relationship between race start characteristics and risk of catastrophic injury in thoroughbreds: 78 cases (1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estberg, L; Stover, S M; Gardner, I A; Johnson, B J; Jack, R A; Case, J T; Ardans, A; Read, D H; Anderson, M L; Barr, B C; Daft, B M; Kinde, H; Moore, J; Stoltz, J; Woods, L

    1998-02-15

    To investigate relationships of several racehorse characteristics and race conditions with risk of a catastrophic musculoskeletal injury (CMI) resulting in euthanasia in Thoroughbreds during racing in California in 1992. Retrospective longitudinal study. Thoroughbreds that incurred CMI during racing and all California race entrants in 1992. Necropsy records were reviewed, and race start information was obtained. Incidence risk of CMI/1,000 race entrants was estimated. Relationships between CMI during racing and race-meet, entrant age and sex, race type and length, and racing surface type and condition were evaluated by use of logistic regression. Incidence risk of CMI was 1.7/1,000 entrants. A higher risk of CMI was found at 2 fair race-meets, with incidence risks of 4.9 and 5.5/1,000 entrants. Risk of injury in male horses was 1.7 times greater than that in female horses, and influence of age on risk depended on race type. Risk of injury for horses 2 to 5 years old was two times greater for claiming horses than for maiden horses. Race length or racing surface type (dirt vs turf) or condition (fast, muddy, yielding) were not significantly associated with risk of CMI. Incidence of CMI was similar among 12 of 14 major and fair race-meets and among various race lengths and racing surface types and conditions, whereas incidence of CMI was influenced by entrant age and sex as well as race type. Investigators should consider controlling for age and sex, race-meet, and race type whenever possible in studies of risk of CMI.

  7. HIV-1 receptor binding site-directed antibodies using a VH1-2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjon Navis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs isolated from chronically HIV-1 infected individuals reveal important information regarding how antibodies target conserved determinants of the envelope glycoprotein (Env spike such as the primary receptor CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Many CD4bs-directed bNAbs use the same heavy (H chain variable (V gene segment, VH1-2*02, suggesting that activation of B cells expressing this allele is linked to the generation of this type of Ab. Here, we identify the rhesus macaque VH1.23 gene segment to be the closest macaque orthologue to the human VH1-2 gene segment, with 92% homology to VH1-2*02. Of the three amino acids in the VH1-2*02 gene segment that define a motif for VRC01-like antibodies (W50, N58, flanking the HCDR2 region, and R71, the two identified macaque VH1.23 alleles described here encode two. We demonstrate that immunization with soluble Env trimers induced CD4bs-specific VH1.23-using Abs with restricted neutralization breadth. Through alanine scanning and structural studies of one such monoclonal Ab (MAb, GE356, we demonstrate that all three HCDRs are involved in neutralization. This contrasts to the highly potent CD4bs-directed VRC01 class of bNAb, which bind Env predominantly through the HCDR2. Also unlike VRC01, GE356 was minimally modified by somatic hypermutation, its light (L chain CDRs were of average lengths and it displayed a binding footprint proximal to the trimer axis. These results illustrate that the Env trimer immunogen used here activates B cells encoding a VH1-2 gene segment orthologue, but that the resulting Abs interact distinctly differently with the HIV-1 Env spike compared to VRC01.

  8. Willingness to date across race: differences among gay and heterosexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, William D; Scott, Alison J; Dawson, Bryan L; Locker, Lawrence

    2011-06-01

    Willingness to date members of other races was examined among 200 men with same-sex dating preference (n = 100) and opposite-sex dating preference (n = 100), and 200 women with same-sex dating preference (n = 100) and opposite-sex dating preference (n = 100) who were randomly selected from an Internet dating web site. Overall, results indicated a greater willingness among gay participants than heterosexual participants to date people of other races. A 2 (Sex) x 2 (Sexual Orientation) analysis of variance showed an interaction, with lesbian women more willing to date other races than gay men, while among heterosexual participants men were more willing than women to date other races. The role of mate selection theory, and the importance of the status afforded various races in U.S. society, were applied to interpret people's willingness to date other races.

  9. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  10. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  11. Racing under water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    Students of TU Delft won second place with their Wasub III at the International Submarine Race in the United States. But the race left them with a bitter aftertaste, as the submarine crashed into the side of the course twice.

  12. Performance selection for Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Hamilton, N A; Wade, C M

    2015-01-01

    Different indicators of racing performance are commonly used in the racing industry to assess the genetic superiority of racing Thoroughbreds. However, how well these indicators predict the performance of future progeny or siblings varies depending on the population and circumstances in which the indicators were recorded or achieved. To identify heritable indicators of racing performance for horses racing in Hong Kong. Heritability analysis of racing performance traits. Performance data on the population of Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 3 September 2000 and 12 March 2011 (n = 4947) were acquired and used to estimate the heritabilities and probability values of fixed effects and covariates for a range of racing performance traits. Heritabilities for all performance traits were estimated using a single trait animal model. Each model included, as a minimum, the effects of sex, region of origin and trainer. Heritability estimates for traits relating to finish position ranged from 0.01 to 0.06. Average handicap weight had a heritability of 0.07 ± 0.03. The effects of sex (fixed) and trainer (random) were significant (Pracing performance can be reliably used to predict the performance of the individual's progeny or siblings. However, despite Hong Kong's controlled racing environment, these indicators appear to be no more heritable than in other less controlled racing environments. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.

  14. Selection of therapeutic H5N1 monoclonal antibodies following IgVH repertoire analysis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sean A; Moore, Margaret; VandenEkart, Emily J; Roque, Richard P; Bowen, Richard A; Van Hoeven, Neal; Wiley, Steven R; Clegg, Christopher H

    2016-07-01

    The rapid rate of influenza virus mutation drives the emergence of new strains that inflict serious seasonal epidemics and less frequent, but more deadly, pandemics. While vaccination provides the best protection against influenza, its utility is often diminished by the unpredictability of new pathogenic strains. Consequently, efforts are underway to identify new antiviral drugs and monoclonal antibodies that can be used to treat recently infected individuals and prevent disease in vulnerable populations. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and the analysis of antibody gene repertoires is a valuable tool for Ab discovery. Here, we describe a technology platform for isolating therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by analyzing the IgVH repertoires of mice immunized with recombinant H5N1 hemagglutinin (rH5). As an initial proof of concept, 35 IgVH genes were selected using a CDRH3 search algorithm and co-expressed in a murine IgG2a expression vector with a panel of germline murine kappa genes. Culture supernatants were then screened for antigen binding. Seventeen of the 35 IgVH MAbs (49%) bound rH5VN1203 in preliminary screens and 8 of 9 purified MAbs inhibited 3 heterosubtypic strains of H5N1 virus when assayed by HI. Two of these MAbs demonstrated prophylactic and therapeutic activity in virus-challenged mice. This is the first example in which an NGS discovery platform has been used to isolate anti-influenza MAbs with relevant therapeutic activity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fundamental characteristics of the immunoglobulin VH repertoire of chickens in comparison with those of humans, mice, and camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leeying; Oficjalska, Katarzyna; Lambert, Matthew; Fennell, Brian J; Darmanin-Sheehan, Alfredo; Ní Shúilleabháin, Deirdre; Autin, Bénédicte; Cummins, Emma; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Bloom, Laird; Paulsen, Janet; Gill, Davinder; Cunningham, Orla; Finlay, William J J

    2012-01-01

    Examination of 1269 unique naive chicken V(H) sequences showed that the majority of positions in the framework (FW) regions were maintained as germline, with high mutation rates observed in the CDRs. Many FW mutations could be clearly related to the modulation of CDR structure or the V(H)-V(L) interface. CDRs 1 and 2 of the V(H) exhibited frequent mutation in solvent-exposed positions, but conservation of common structural residues also found in human CDRs at the same positions. In comparison with humans and mice, the chicken CDR3 repertoire was skewed toward longer sequences, was dominated by small amino acids (G/S/A/C/T), and had higher cysteine (chicken, 9.4%; human, 1.6%; and mouse, 0.25%) but lower tyrosine content (chicken, 9.2%; human, 16.8%; and mouse 26.4%). A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.97) was observed between increasing CDR3 length and higher cysteine content. This suggests that noncanonical disulfides are strongly favored in chickens, potentially increasing CDR stability and complexity in the topology of the combining site. The probable formation of disulfide bonds between CDR3 and CDR1, FW2, or CDR2 was also observed, as described in camelids. All features of the naive repertoire were fully replicated in the target-selected, phage-displayed repertoire. The isolation of a chicken Fab with four noncanonical cysteines in the V(H) that exhibits 64 nM (K(D)) binding affinity for its target proved these constituents to be part of the humoral response, not artifacts. This study supports the hypothesis that disulfide bond-constrained CDR3s are a structural diversification strategy in the restricted germline v-gene repertoire of chickens.

  16. IgG variable region and VH CDR3 diversity in unimmunized mice analyzed by massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Panavas, Tadas; Thys, Kim; Aerssens, Jeroen; Naso, Michael; Fisher, Jamie; Rycyzyn, Michael; Sweet, Raymond W

    2014-02-01

    Most antigen-specific mouse antibodies have been derived by hybridoma technology, predominantly through use of the Balb/c strain. Much of the Balb/c germline repertoire of variable genes (V regions) is known. However, there is little information about the background expressed repertoire of IgG antibodies in mice, which reflects the baseline against which antigen-specific antibodies are generated through immunization. To assess this baseline repertoire, RNA was isolated from splenic B-cells enriched for expression of IgG from three mice. The RNA was individually amplified with three distinct PCR primer sets for comprehensive recovery of the heavy and light chain variable regions. Each PCR product was independently subjected to deep sequencing using 454 pyro-sequencing technology and analysed for redundancy, open reading frame, germline representation, and CDR3 sequence of the heavy chain variable region (VH CDR3) within and across the primer sets and mice. A highly skewed abundance of heavy and light chain variable gene usage was observed for all three primers in all three mice. While showing considerable overlap, there were differences among these profiles indicative of primer bias and animal-to-animal variation. VH CDR3 sequences were likewise highly skewed indicating that the heavy chain genes profiles substantially reflected individual antibodies. This observation was confirmed through analysis of randomly selected complete heavy chain variable sequences. However, there was very little redundancy in VH CDR3 sequences across the different mice. We conclude that the background IgG repertoire in young, unimmunized mice is highly skewed within individual mice and is diverse among them, a pattern similar to that observed in highly immunized mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  18. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  19. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  20. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  1. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...

  2. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  3. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  4. Evaluation of sex, race, body mass index and pre-vaccination serum progesterone levels and post-vaccination serum anti-anthrax protective immunoglobulin G on injection site adverse events following anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) in the CDC AVA human clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondo, Tracy; Rose, Charles E; Martin, Stacey W; Keitel, Wendy A; Keyserling, Harry L; Babcock, Janiine; Parker, Scott; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A; McNeil, Michael M

    2014-06-12

    Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) administered intramuscularly (IM) results in fewer adverse events (AEs) than subcutaneous (SQ) administration. Women experience more AEs than men. Antibody response, female hormones, race, and body mass index (BMI) may contribute to increased frequency of reported injection site AEs. We analyzed data from the CDC AVA human clinical trial. This double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial enrolled 1563 participants and followed them through 8 injections (AVA or placebo) over a period of 42 months. For the trial's vaccinated cohort (n=1267), we used multivariable logistic regression to model the effects of study group (SQ or IM), sex, race, study site, BMI, age, and post-vaccination serum anti-PA IgG on occurrence of AEs of any severity grade. Also, in a women-only subset (n=227), we assessed effect of pre-vaccination serum progesterone level and menstrual phase on AEs. Participants who received SQ injections had significantly higher proportions of itching, redness, swelling, tenderness and warmth compared to the IM study group after adjusting for other risk factors. The proportions of redness, swelling, tenderness and warmth were all significantly lower in blacks vs. non-black participants. We found arm motion limitation, itching, pain, swelling and tenderness were more likely to occur in participants with the highest anti-PA IgG concentrations. In the SQ study group, redness and swelling were more common for obese participants compared to participants who were not overweight. Females had significantly higher proportions of all AEs compared to males. Menstrual phase was not associated with any AEs. Female and non-black participants had a higher proportion of AVA associated AEs and higher anti-PA IgG concentrations. Antibody responses to other vaccines may also vary by sex and race. Further studies may provide better understanding for higher proportions of AEs in women and non-black participants. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Race-ing Class Ladies: Lineages of Privilege in an Elite South African School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on fieldwork done in Greystone School in South Africa, a single sex girls' school. I explore how the legacy of coloniser and colonised is reconfigured through the history of the school and the particular racialised politics of South Africa, where race and class have always been imbricated in differently nuanced ways before, during…

  6. The Biological Case Against Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Joseph L., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Though modern science considers race a social concept, not a scientific truth, many still believe there are innate racial differences among people. Discusses the development of biology and race theory; basic definitions of race; genes, human variation, and race; genetic variation within and between races; modern genome studies that dismiss…

  7. Depth-dependent Vertical-to-Horizontal (V/H) Ratios of Free-Field Ground Motion Response Spectra for Deeply Embedded Nuclear Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Braverman, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miranda, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rosario, M. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Costantino, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report documents the results of a study to determine the depth-dependent V/H ratios of ground motion response spectra in the free field. The V/H ratios reported herein were developed from a worldwide database of surface and downhole acceleration recordings obtained from 45 vertical array stations. This database was specifically compiled for this project, and includes information from a diversity of active tectonic regions (California, Alaska, Taiwan, Japan), site conditions (rock to soft soil), ground motion intensity levels (PGAs between 0.01 g and 0.50 g), magnitudes (between ML 2.78 and JMA 8.1), epicentral distances (between 3.2 km and 812 km), and source depths (between 1.2 km and 112 km), as well as sensors at surface and at a wide range of depths relevant to the project. To study the significance of the depth effect, V/H ratios from all the records were sorted into a number of depth bins relevant to the project, and statistics (average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 16th, 50th, and 84th percentiles) of the V/H ratios within each bin were computed. Similar analyses were repeated, controlling for different site conditions, ground motion intensity levels, array locations, and source depths, to study their relative effect on the V/H ratios. Our findings confirm the importance of the depth effect on the V/H ratios. The research findings in this report can be used to provide guidance on the significance of the depth effect, and the extent to which this effect should be considered in the seismic design of deeply embedded SMR structures and NPP structures in general.

  8. Repertoire diversification in mice with an IgH-locus-targeted transgene for the rearranged VH domain of a physiologically selected anti-ssDNA antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Geissal, Erik D; Li, Wenqin; Stollar, B David

    2005-08-01

    To test the fate of developing B cells with autoreactive receptor components, we studied mice homozygous for a knock-in transgene coding the VH domain of an IgM ssDNA-binding antibody. The transgene has unmutated C57 BL/6 V gene segments. Homozygous knock-in mice developed normal numbers of spleen and bone marrow B cells and normal serum Ig concentrations, and had the same low level of serum anti-ssDNA antibody as non-transgenic mice. Mature B cells expressed the transgene, and it underwent mutation and class switching. In young knock-in animals, nearly all IgM and some IgG cDNA clones from bone marrow and spleen contained the transgene V(H)D(H)J(H), with few or no mutations. In many IgM clones from older animals, however, and many IgG clones from both young and old mice, VH domains were revised by productive replacement with a new V(H)D(H) segment. VL segments were diverse. Immunized homozygous knock-in mice produced serum antibodies to polysaccharide, nucleic acid and protein antigens. Monoclonal IgM and IgG antibodies to nucleic acids used either transgenic or revised VH domains; but all of 20 IgG monoclonal antibodies to thyroglobulin used revised VH domain genes. Thus, B cells expressing an autoreactive (ssDNA-binding) VH domain did progress through development and were precursors for cells producing IgM and IgG, but underwent extensive VH gene revision in diversification of antibody responses.

  9. The Kinesiology of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Myosha

    2014-01-01

    In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…

  10. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast respon...

  11. Expression of a novel autoantibody defined by the VH3-15 gene in inflammatory bowel disease and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberian, L S; Valles-Ayoub, Y; Gordon, L K; Targan, S R; Braun, J

    1994-10-15

    This study newly introduces anti-VH mAbs to assess the role of clonal B cell activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Immunohistochemistry of colonic biopsies in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), but not unaffected individuals, demonstrated uniform staining of intravascular erythrocytes with BK2, a monoclonal specific for the VH3-15 Ig heavy chain gene product. Staining was caused by erythrocytes opsinized in vivo by anti-erythrocyte Abs present in patient sera and by using the VH3-15 gene product. The erythrocyte Ag was identified by immunoprecipitation as 22- and 28-kDa membrane proteins. A direct flow cytometric assay was developed to measure this serum autoantibody and was tested in 101 individuals with UC, CD, other acute or chronic colitis, and healthy controls. Compared with normal subjects, BK2+ anti-erythrocyte Abs were elevated in most sera from patients with CD and UC (including postcolectomy). BK2+ anti-erythrocyte Abs also were elevated in 10 of 38 noninflammatory bowel disease patients, all of whom had Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. These findings suggest that a common immunopathogenetic factor, manifested by VH3-15 B cell activation may be shared in UC, CD, and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis.

  12. A stable cytosolic expression of VH antibody fragment directed against PVY NIa protein in transgenic potato plant confers partial protection against the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Donia; Ayadi, Malika; Bidani, Amira; Rouis, Souad; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma; Jellouli, Raïda; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2009-04-01

    The expression of recombinant antibodies in transgenic plants has been proved to be an efficient approach for large-scale production. However, the stability of these molecules and their accumulation level depend on their molecular properties and cellular targeting. The expression of single-domain antibody fragment (VH) can be advantageous since it offers small length, high expression, solubility and stability. It can therefore be preferred to other antibody derivatives avoiding the expression difficulties related to immunoglobulin domain folding via the formation of disulfide bridge. This report describes the production of transgenic potato plants expressing a VH antibody directed against the NIa protease of potato virus Y. The antibody was driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S RNA promoter. The expression cassette was transferred into potato plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. All transgenic lines showed detectable levels of VH protein confirming the efficient translation and stability of this protein. The cellular localisation of the VH antibody was investigated. Transgenic and control plants were transferred in the greenhouse and mechanically inoculated by PVY(o) suspension. Some of the transgenic lines showed delayed symptoms at the first period post inoculation and then displayed a recovery phenomenon while the virions were still detected in the leaves. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The first nanocar race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapenne, Gwénaël; Joachim, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The first race involving molecular 'cars' stimulated technical advances in scanning tunnelling microscopy and provided insights in surface science and synthetic chemistry — it also attracted wide interest from the public.

  14. Space race functional responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey...

  15. Factors influencing pre-race serum concentration of total carbon dioxide in Thoroughbred horses racing in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N D; Stanley, S D; Arthur, R M; Wang, N

    2006-11-01

    Many racing jurisdictions monitor pre-race serum concentration of total carbon dioxide (TCO2) among racing horses. To our knowledge, factors influencing concentration of TCO2 among horses participating in racing have not been systematically evaluated and reported. To determine if characteristics of horses and racing conditions routinely recorded were significantly associated with pre-race concentration of TCO2, while accounting for and estimating effects of trainer and horse. Pre-race serum TCO2 concentrations from 5028 starts made by 2,349 horses trained by 287 trainers at 2 racetracks in California during 2005 were examined. Data regarding characteristics of starters and race conditions obtained from a commercial database were recorded for each start. Data were analysed using mixed-effects, with TCO2 concentration as the dependent variable, and trainer and horse nested within trainer as random effects. Sex, class and distance of race, frusemide administration and cloudy weather conditions were significantly (Prace TCO2 concentration. Horses that finished in the top 3 positions had values that were slightly (0.2 mmol/) but significantly (Phorses not finishing in the top 3. There were significant effects of trainer on pre-race TCO2 concentration. A variety of factors may influence pre-race TCO2 concentration in horses. Horses with better performance tend to have higher pre-race TCO2 concentrations. TCO2 concentration is associated with improved performance although the magnitude of effect was quite small. Regulatory programmes based on monitoring should consider the influence of other factors on TCO2 concentration.

  16. America's Churning Races: Race and Ethnicity Response Changes Between Census 2000 and the 2010 Census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn A; Porter, Sonya R; Fernandez, Leticia E; Noon, James M; Ennis, Sharon R

    2017-02-01

    A person's racial or ethnic self-identification can change over time and across contexts, which is a component of population change not usually considered in studies that use race and ethnicity as variables. To facilitate incorporation of this aspect of population change, we show patterns and directions of individual-level race and Hispanic response change throughout the United States and among all federally recognized race/ethnic groups. We use internal U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2000 and 2010 censuses in which responses have been linked at the individual level (N = 162 million). Approximately 9.8 million people (6.1 %) in our data have a different race and/or Hispanic-origin response in 2010 than they did in 2000. Race response change was especially common among those reported as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, in a multiple-race response group, or Hispanic. People reported as non-Hispanic white, black, or Asian in 2000 usually had the same response in 2010 (3 %, 6 %, and 9 % of responses changed, respectively). Hispanic/non-Hispanic ethnicity responses were also usually consistent (13 % and 1 %, respectively, changed). We found a variety of response change patterns, which we detail. In many race/Hispanic response groups, we see population churn in the form of large countervailing flows of response changes that are hidden in cross-sectional data. We find that response changes happen across ages, sexes, regions, and response modes, with interesting variation across racial/ethnic categories. Researchers should address the implications of race and Hispanic-origin response change when designing analyses and interpreting results.

  17. Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in steeplechase races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Stefler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.

  18. Search for $VH\\rightarrow$ leptons + $b\\bar{b}$ with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079589

    The search for a Higgs boson decaying to a $b\\bar{b}$ pair is one of the key analyses ongoing at the ATLAS experiment. Despite being the largest branching ratio decay for a Standard Model Higgs boson, a large dataset is necessary to perform this analysis because of the very large backgrounds affecting the measurement. To discriminate the electroweak $H\\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ signal from the large QCD backgrounds, the associated production of the Higgs with a $W$ or a $Z$ boson decaying leptonically is used. Different techniques have been proposed to enhance the signal over background ratio in the $VH(b\\bar{b})$ channel, from dedicated kinematic cuts, to a single large radius jet to identify the two collimated $b$'s in the Higgs high transverse momentum regime, to multivariate techniques. The high-$p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ approach, using a large radius jet to identify the $b$'s coming from the Higgs decay, has been tested against an analysis based on kinematic cuts for a dataset of $4.7$ fb$^{-1}$ luminosity at $\\sqrt{s...

  19. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  20. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  1. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  2. The Vh8 locus of a new gene-for-gene interaction between Venturia inaequalis and the wild apple Malus sieversii is closely linked to the Vh2 locus in Malus pumila R12740-7A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, V.G.M.; Laurens, F.N.D.; Weg, van de W.E.; Rusholme, R.L.; Gardiner, S.E.; Bassett, H.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    The wild apple (Malus sieversii) is a large-fruited species from Central Asia, which is used as a source of scab resistance in cultivar breeding. Phytopathological tests with races of Venturia inaequalis were performed to differentiate scab-resistance genes in Malus as well as an avirulence gene in

  3. The Vh2 and Vh4 scab resistance genes in two differential hosts derived from Russian apple R12740-7A map to the same linkage group of apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, V.G.M.; Rikkerink, E.H.A.; Weg, van de W.E.; Rusholme, R.L.; Gardiner, S.E.; Bassett, H.C.M.; Kodde, L.P.; Parisi, L.; Laurens, F.N.D.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Plummer, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Russian apple R12740-7A is the designation for an accession grown from seed collected in Russia, which was found to be highly resistant to apple scab. The resistance has historically been attributed to a naturally pyramided complex involving three major genes: one race-nonspecific gene, Vr,

  4. Human anti-V3 HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies encoded by the VH5-51/VL lambda genes define a conserved antigenic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Miroslaw K; Sampson, Jared; Li, Huiguang; Jiang, Xunqing; Totrov, Maxim; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Williams, Constance; O'Neal, Timothy; Volsky, Barbara; Li, Liuzhe; Cardozo, Timothy; Nyambi, Phillipe; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Preferential usage of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes that encode antibodies (Abs) against various pathogens is rarely observed and the nature of their dominance is unclear in the context of stochastic recombination of Ig genes. The hypothesis that restricted usage of Ig genes predetermines the antibody specificity was tested in this study of 18 human anti-V3 monoclonal Abs (mAbs) generated from unrelated individuals infected with various subtypes of HIV-1, all of which preferentially used pairing of the VH5-51 and VL lambda genes. Crystallographic analysis of five VH5-51/VL lambda-encoded Fabs complexed with various V3 peptides revealed a common three dimensional (3D) shape of the antigen-binding sites primarily determined by the four complementarity determining regions (CDR) for the heavy (H) and light (L) chains: specifically, the H1, H2, L1 and L2 domains. The CDR H3 domain did not contribute to the shape of the binding pocket, as it had different lengths, sequences and conformations for each mAb. The same shape of the binding site was further confirmed by the identical backbone conformation exhibited by V3 peptides in complex with Fabs which fully adapted to the binding pocket and the same key contact residues, mainly germline-encoded in the heavy and light chains of five Fabs. Finally, the VH5-51 anti-V3 mAbs recognized an epitope with an identical 3D structure which is mimicked by a single mimotope recognized by the majority of VH5-51-derived mAbs but not by other V3 mAbs. These data suggest that the identification of preferentially used Ig genes by neutralizing mAbs may define conserved epitopes in the diverse virus envelopes. This will be useful information for designing vaccine immunogen inducing cross-neutralizing Abs.

  5. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  6. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  7. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  8. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  9. 2005 CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.

  10. 47th Relay Race!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...

  11. Racing into Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tina R.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which race cars are designed and constructed out of edible materials. Students explore relationships between speed, distance, and time using both math and science. Includes a chart that shows alignment with the National Science Education Standards. (DDR)

  12. Racing with the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In 1,950 mile Australian race, the General Motors Sunraycer, was powered by space-derived solar cell technology incorporating a number of other aerospace technologies. The 547 lb one seater averaged better than 41 miles per hour and finished 600 miles ahead of the nearest competitor.

  13. Affectivity and Race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  14. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  15. Race and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ernest R.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the connection between race and education policy in the United States, focusing on the interplay between the U.S. population's belief in democracy, national racist beliefs, and the inability of many white citizens to comprehend the depth of racism in the United States. (SLD)

  16. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...

  17. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour...

  18. Running the rat race

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SASA Refresher Course Texts: Running the rat race. 74. 2014;20(1) ... and feelings of existential despair which characterise the human condition, to emerge as they are today: whole, satisfied, well .... Pure efficiency only exists on paper. In the ...

  19. Are human races cladistic subspecies?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mncube, Zinhle

    2015-01-01

    In the article titled 'A new perspective on the race debate',Robin O. Andreasen argues that contrary to popular scientific belief, human races are biologically real-it is just that we are wrong about them...

  20. The pathogenic human monoclonal anti-DNA that induces experimental systemic lupus erythematosus in mice is encoded by a VH4 gene segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, A; Shoenfeld, Y; Blank, M; Ruiz, P J; Mozes, E

    1995-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be induced in mice by immunization with a human anti-DNA IgM mAb that was derived from a patient with cold agglutinin disease. The latter anti-DNA mAb expresses the common idiotype (Id) designated 16/6 Id. The original human hybridoma 16/6 that secreted an IgM antibody that bound ssDNA and carried the 16/6 Id had switched in culture to secrete an IgG molecule. Herein we show that the IgG 16/6 antibody contains the previously reported characteristics of the original IgM 16/6 mAb: it expresses the 16/6 Id and is capable of inducing experimental SLE in susceptible mouse strains. The identify of the IgG 16/6 anti-DNA mAb to the original IgM mAb was shown both by serological techniques and at the T cell level. The human IgG 16/6 mAb was found to be encoded by a germline gene from the human VH4 gene family, with high similarity to the germline gene VH4.21 that was previously shown to code for anti-DNA antibodies isolated from SLE patients. The VH4.21 germline gene was found to also code for most antibodies with cold agglutinin activity that were isolated from patients with cold agglutinin disease.

  1. Heritability and factors associated with number of harness race starts in the Spanish Trotter horse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Valera, M; Gómez, M D; Sölkner, J; Molina, A; Mészáros, G

    2017-05-01

    Longevity/durability is a relevant trait in racehorses. Genetic analysis and knowledge of factors that influence number of harness race starts would be advantageous for both horse welfare and the equine industry. To perform a genetic analysis on harness racing using number of races as a measure of longevity/durability and to identify factors associated with career length in Spanish Trotter Horses (STH). Longitudinal study. Performance data (n = 331,970) on the STH population for harness racing at national level between 1990 and 2014 were used. A grouped data model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of ending harness racing career and to estimate the heritability and breeding values for total number of harness races starts as an indicator of horses' longevity and durability. The model included sex, age at first race and first start earnings as time-independent effects, and the calendar year, driver, trainer, racetrack category and season of competition as time-dependent effects. Across the whole dataset, the average number of harness races horses achieved in Spain was 54.7 races, and this was associated with the horses' sex, age at first race and first start earnings, calendar year, driver, racetrack category, and season. The heritability estimated (0.17 ± 0.01) for number of harness race starts indicates that a beneficial response to direct genetic selection can be expected. Data on horses' health status were not available. Horses' total number of harness race starts is a promising tool for genetic analysis and the evaluation of racing longevity and durability. The estimated heritability provides evidence to support the application of genetic selection of total career number of races to improve longevity/durability of STH. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  2. The Nativist Triangle: Sexuality, Race and Religion in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkenhol, M.; Mepschen, P.; Duyvendak, J.W.; Duyvendak, J.W.; Geschiere, P.; Tonkens, E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter offers an innovative analysis of Dutch nativism by looking at the intersection of race, religion and sexuality. In the Netherlands, we argue, nativism exercises its exclusionary power through this triangular construction of alterity. Sex talk in the Netherlands constructs a number of

  3. Biogeographical ancestry and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    The use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research is controversial-for example, in the comparison of disease risk in different groups or as a means of making use of or controlling for population structure in the mapping of genes to chromosomes. Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) has been recommended as a more accurate and appropriate category. BGA is a product of the collaboration between biological anthropologist Mark Shriver from Pennsylvania State University and molecular biologist Tony Frudakis from the now-defunct biotechnology start-up company DNAPrint genomics, Inc. Shriver and Frudakis portray BGA as a measure of the 'biological', 'genetic', 'natural', and 'objective' components of race and ethnicity, what philosophers of science would call a natural kind. This paper argues that BGA is not a natural kind that escapes social and political connotations of race and ethnicity, as Shriver and Frudakis and other proponents believe, but a construction that is built upon race-as race has been socially constructed in the European scientific and philosophical traditions. More specifically, BGA is not a global category of biological and anthropological classification but a local category shaped by the U.S. context of its production, especially the forensic aim of being able to predict the race or ethnicity of an unknown suspect based on DNA found at the crime scene. Therefore, caution needs to be exercised in the embrace of BGA as an alternative to the use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Own-Race-Absent Racism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Strauss

    all members of these races share certain traits and tendencies with each other that they do not share with .... lief that he is the member of a race and that that belief figures as an element in his race-based judgments. .... racially invisible – the ghosts of modernity, whites could assume power as the norm of humanity, as the ...

  5. Race, Beyond Fact and Fiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'charek, A.

    2011-01-01

    What is biological race and how is it made relevant in specific practices? How to address the materiality of biological race without fixing it? And how to write about it without reifying race as a singular object? These are the central questions in this short essay. Instead of debunking or

  6. Race Is...Race Isn't: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laurence, Ed.; Deyhle, Donna, Ed.; Villenas, Sofia, Ed.

    Critical race theory offers a way to understand how ostensibly race-neutral structures in education--knowledge, merit, objectivity, and "good education"--in fact help form and police the boundaries of white supremacy and racism. Critical race theory can be used to deconstruct the meaning of "educational achievement," to…

  7. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  8. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING RACING TIME OF TROTTER HORSES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuba Štrbac

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed, the most important trait in trotter horses, forms the basis for examining their racing ability, and is calculated according to the time it takes to run a certain distance. The phenotypic manifestation of a horse’s speed is controlled by numerous genes and larger or smaller impacts of environmental factors. To improve trotter horse selection to be more successful and faster in genetic progress it is very important to determine the impacts of such gene-related and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of year and month of birth, sex, year and season of race, age, racetrack, distance and type of start on trotter horse racing times. Data from the Association for Trotting Sport of Serbia (UKSS for the registered horses and races in the period from 1998 to 2010 were used. The database is comprised of data for 1263 horses over a total of 14398 races. After calculating descriptive statistics of racing times, the effect of fixed factors using the general linear model (GLM was examined. The average racing time achieved was 84.21s, and ranged from 73.8 to 132.2s. All of the tested factors had a statistically significant effect on the observed racing times. Thus, each of these factors should be included in future models for genetic prediction of the suitability of animals use as parents of further generations of racing trotters. This should increase the rate of genetic progress and competitiveness of the animals at both national and international levels.

  10. Space race functional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  12. The racing dragon

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  13. Sex determination and sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giovanna; Parma, Pietro; Radi, Orietta; Valentini, Stella

    2006-06-01

    Sex determination in mammals is based on a genetic cascade that controls the fate of the gonads. Gonads will then direct the establishment of phenotypic sex through the production of hormones. Different types of sex reversal are expected to occur if mutations disrupt one of the three steps of gonadal differentiation: formation of the gonadal primordia, sex determination, and testis or ovary development.

  14. Anatomical and Physiological Changes after Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon for Atherosclerotic De Novo Coronary Lesions: Serial IVUS-VH and FFR Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Hee Ann

    Full Text Available To assess the serial changes of de novo coronary lesions treated with paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB using intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (IVUS-VH and fractional flow reserve (FFR.This prospective observational study enrolled 27 patients with coronary artery disease treated with PCB who underwent coronary angiography, IVUS-VH and FFR before, immediately after intervention and at 9 months. 28 de novo lesions were successfully treated with PCB. Angiographic late luminal loss was 0.02 ± 0.27 mm. Mean vessel and lumen areas showed increase at 9 months (12.0 ± 3.5 mm(2 to 13.2 ± 3.9 mm(2, p <0.001; and 5.4 ± 1.2 mm(2 to 6.5 ± 1.8 mm(2, p <0.001, respectively. Although mean plaque area was unchanged (6.6 ± 2.6 mm2 to 6.6 ± 2.4 mm(2, p = 0.269, percent atheroma volume decreased significantly (53.4 ± 7.9% to 49.5 ± 6.4%, p = 0.002. The proportion of plaque compositions including fibrous, fibrofatty, dense calcium and necrotic core by IVUS-VH was unchanged at 9 months. The FFR of the treated lesion was 0.71 ± 0.13 pre-procedure, 0.87 ± 0.06 post-procedure and 0.84 ± 0.06 at follow-up.De novo coronary lesions treated with PCB showed persistent anatomical and physiological patency with plaque redistribution and vessel remodeling without chronic elastic recoil or plaque compositional change during follow-up.

  15. Doing race and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses race and ethnicity as social practices among young students at a Danish public sports school and explores how these practices engage with emotional well-being in the institutional context. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in two school classes in 2012......–2013 using multiple qualitative methods. Taking a phenomenological practice approach, the article addresses how racial (and ethnic) practices affect everyday school life. The analysis shows how a common-sense, habitual background of whiteness positions non-white bodies as different and ‘non-belonging’, thus...

  16. Race and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest R. House

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Beliefs about race have played a central role in American history, literature, and education. Racial beliefs are embedded in the national identity in complex and disguised ways. These beliefs attribute presumed character traits to African Americans and other minorities, who are thought of as different in character and ability, especially the ability to govern themselves. These beliefs lead to education policies which separate, differentiate, and mandate different curricula and treatment for minorities, policies justified as being fair and democratic. These beliefs influence not only curriculum content, but how the schools are organized, financed, and administered at a deeper level than is commonly understood.

  17. Bike Racing Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  18. VH and Vκ Segment Structure of Anti-Insulin IgG Autoantibodies in Patients with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence for Somatic Selection1

    OpenAIRE

    Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Ichiyoshi, Yuji; Schettino, Edward W.; Nakamura, Minoru; Casali, Paolo

    1994-01-01

    In some patients with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), autoantibodies to insulin are present at diagnosis. After initiation of the treatment with not only animal but also human insulin, anti-insulin, mainly IgG, autoantibodies become a major component of the autoimmune response in virtually all IDDM patients. Their structure, however, is still relatively unknown. We analyzed the structure of the VH and Vκ segments of three human IgG mAb derived from three IDDM patients. Th...

  19. P2-38: What Gives a Face its Race?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonmo Jung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By biological criteria, human “races” do not exist (e.g., Cosmides et al., 2003. Nevertheless, every-day life and research from various fields show that we robustly and reliably perceive humans as belonging to different race groups. Here, we investigate the bases for our quick and easy judgments, by measuring the influence of manipulated facial features on race classification. Asian and Caucasian faces of our 3-dimensional face database (http://faces.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de were paired according to sex, age, and overall appearance. With these Asian-Caucasian face pairs we created a variety of mixed-race faces, by exchanging facial features between both faces of a pair: eyes, nose, mouth, “outer” features, shape, or texture. Original and modified faces were shown in a simple race classification task. We tested 24 Westerners (Germany and 24 Easterners (South Korea. In both groups, eyes and texture were major determinants for race classification, followed by face shape, and then outer features, mouth, nose, which only had a weak influence on perceived face. Eastern participants classified Caucasian original faces better than Asian original faces, while Western participants were similarly good at classifying both races. Western participants—but not their Eastern counterparts—were less susceptible to eye, shape, and texture manipulations in other-race faces than in their own-race faces. A closer look at the data suggests that this effect mainly originates from differences in processing male and female faces in Western participants only. Our results provide more evidence of differences between observers from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds in face perception and processing.

  20. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapists have graduate degrees and can demonstrate their competence in sex therapy by becoming credentialed by the ... ways to resolve your concerns and improve your communication and intimacy. Talking about sex and intimacy may ...

  1. Profiling the careers of Thoroughbred horses racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Stewart, B D; Lam, K; Wade, C M; Hamilton, N A

    2013-11-01

    Research in Thoroughbred racehorses is often specific to horses from a given racing population or region. In order to investigate trends in racehorse careers across populations accurately, population-specific benchmarks for performance outcomes must be established. To provide summary statistics for performance outcomes for Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 2000 and 2010 and to document and provide evidence on the current differences in racing careers across sexes and regions of origin for horses racing in Hong Kong. Performance data on the population of Thoroughbreds racing in Hong Kong between 3 September 2000 and 12 March 2011 (n = 4950) were acquired and used to describe and compare the careers of Thoroughbred racehorses in Hong Kong. Career length, number of career starts and number of spells from racing per year were evaluated. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, stratified by sex, age group, country of origin and region of origin were produced for career length. A Cox's proportional hazards model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of retirement from racing in Hong Kong. Log-rank tests for equality of career length survivor functions showed significant differences (Pcareer outcomes within a racing population appear to be influenced partly by the region from which a horse originates, with specific effects on each performance outcome also varying between regions. Future research should take into account these potential differences when comparing results across populations. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  2. The Relationship of Foot Strike Pattern, Shoe Type, and Performance in a 50-km Trail Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2016-06-01

    Recent "in-race" studies have observed the foot strike patterns of runners in traditional road marathon races. However, similar studies have not been conducted for trail runners, which have been estimated to account for 11% of all runners. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence in a 50-km trail race and compare with traditional road marathon races; (b) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike and sex in a 50-km trail race; and (c) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. One hundred sixty-five runners were videotaped at the 8.1-km mark of the 2012 Ice Age Trail 50-km race. Foot strike analysis revealed RFS prevalence of 85.1%, less than previously reported in traditional road marathon races. There was no relationship found between sex and foot strike (p = 0.60). A significant effect of shoe type on foot strike (RFS was less common among runners in minimalist shoes, p foot strike and performance was observed (p = 0.83). This study suggests that most trail runners, albeit less than road runners, prefer an RFS pattern, which is accompanied by biomechanical consequences unique from a non-RFS pattern and, therefore, likely carries a unique injury profile. In addition, the findings in this study suggest that minimalist shoes may represent a reasonable training modification to improve performance.

  3. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Sex headaches By Mayo Clinic Staff Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  4. Human antibody expression in transgenic rats: comparison of chimeric IgH loci with human VH, D and JH but bearing different rat C-gene regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Osborn, Michael J; Avis, Suzanne; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; Ménoret, Séverine; Anegon, Ignacio; Buelow, Roland; Brüggemann, Marianne

    2013-12-31

    Expression of human antibody repertoires in transgenic animals has been accomplished by introducing large human Ig loci into mice and, more recently, a chimeric IgH locus into rats. With human VH, D and JH genes linked to the rat C-region antibody expression was significantly increased, similar to wild-type levels not found with fully human constructs. Here we compare four rat-lines containing the same human VH-region (comprising 22 VHs, all Ds and all JHs in natural configuration) but linked to different rat CH-genes and regulatory sequences. The endogenous IgH locus was silenced by zinc-finger nucleases. After breeding, all lines produced exclusively chimeric human H-chain with near normal IgM levels. However, in two lines poor IgG expression and inefficient immune responses were observed, implying that high expression, class-switching and hypermutation are linked to optimal enhancer function provided by the large regulatory region at the 3' end of the IgH locus. Furthermore, exclusion of Cδ and its downstream interval region may assist recombination. Highly diverse IgG and immune responses similar to normal rats were identified in two strains carrying diverse and differently spaced C-genes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Teacher Race and School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…

  6. Racing for an Early Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    States jockey for position as the U.S. Education Department readies billions of dollars in "Race to the Top" awards--the stimulus program's grand prize. Even before they've finished spending their first block of federal stimulus aid, states are getting a head start in a national "race to the top" for better public education,…

  7. Intersectionality and Critical Race Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePouw, Christin

    2018-01-01

    This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…

  8. Solar powered model vehicle races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nazmi; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Koç University SPIE student chapter has been organizing the solar powered model vehicle race and outreaching K-12 students. The solar powered model vehicle race for car, boat, blimp, all solar panel boat, submarine, underwater rower, amphibian, and glider have been successfully organized.

  9. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  10. 2008 annual CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch

  11. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  12. Means of Transportation to Work by Race

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — Except where noted, 'race' refers to people reporting only one race. 'Hispanic' refers to an ethnic category; Hispanics may be of any race. An entry of '+/-0' in...

  13. Race, Income, and Disease Outcomes in Juvenile Dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Kathryn; Hoeltzel, Mark; Byun Robinson, Angela; Kim, Susan

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationships among race, income, and disease outcomes in children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Data from 438 subjects with JDM enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Legacy Registry were analyzed. Demographic data included age, sex, race, annual family income, and insurance status. Clinical outcomes included muscle strength, presence of rash, calcinosis, weakness, physical function, and quality of life measures. Disease outcomes were compared based on race and income. Minority subjects were significantly more likely to have low annual family income and significantly worse scores on measures of physical function, disease activity, and quality of life measures. Subjects with lower annual family income had worse scores on measures of physical function, disease activity, and quality of life scores, as well as weakness. Black subjects were more likely to have calcinosis. Despite these differences in outcome measures, there were no significant differences among the racial groups in time to diagnosis or duration of disease. Using calcinosis as a marker of disease morbidity, black race, annual family income 12 months were associated with calcinosis. Minority race and lower family income are associated with worse morbidity and outcomes in subjects with JDM. Calcinosis was more common in black subjects. Further studies are needed to examine these associations in more detail, to support efforts to address health disparities in subjects with JDM and improve disease outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Humanized-Single Domain Antibodies (VH/VHH that Bound Specifically to Naja kaouthia Phospholipase A2 and Neutralized the Enzymatic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpen Chaicumpa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra venom contains many isoforms of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2. The PLA2 exerts several pharmacologic and toxic effects in the snake bitten subject, dependent or independent on the enzymatic activity. N. kaouthia venom appeared in two protein profiles, P3 and P5, after fractionating the venom by ion exchange column chromatography. In this study, phage clones displaying humanized-camel single domain antibodies (VH/VHH that bound specifically to the P3 and P5 were selected from a humanized-camel VH/VHH phage display library. Two phagemid transfected E. coli clones (P3-1 and P3-3 produced humanized-VHH, while another clone (P3-7 produced humanized-VH. At the optimal venom:antibody ratio, the VH/VHH purified from the E. coli homogenates neutralized PLA2 enzyme activity comparable to the horse immune serum against the N. kaouthia holo-venom. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that the VH/VHH covered the areas around the PLA2 catalytic groove and inserted their Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs into the enzymatic cleft. It is envisaged that the VH/VHH would ameliorate/abrogate the principal toxicity of the venom PLA2 (membrane phospholipid catabolism leading to cellular and subcellular membrane damage which consequently causes hemolysis, hemorrhage, and dermo-/myo-necrosis, if they were used for passive immunotherapy of the cobra bitten victim. The speculation needs further investigations.

  15. Assortative matching among same-sex and different-sex couples in the United States, 1990–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schwartz; Nikki Graff

    2009-01-01

    Same-sex couples are less likely to be homogamous than different-sex couples on a variety of characteristics including race/ethnicity, age, and education. This study confirms results from previous studies which used 1990 U.S. census data and extends previous analyses to examine changes from 1990 to 2000. We find that same-sex male cohabitors are generally the least likely to resemble one another, followed by same-sex female cohabitors, different-sex cohabitors, and different-sex married coupl...

  16. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACE Groundfish Survey Photo Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Groundfish Assessment Program (GAP) is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and...

  17. Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

  18. Social Change, Parental Values, and the Salience of Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, John G.; Cranston, Julie E.

    1981-01-01

    Using National Opinion Research Center Social Survey data, predictors of stance on sex education were identified as: attitude toward premarital sex; attitude toward race integration of schools; and the interaction of farm/small town origins, being supervised at work, and having a low educational level. (Author/JAC)

  19. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  1. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-480x360.wmv', 'false', 288, 216, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-posterframe-480x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  2. Gender profiling: a gendered race perspective on person-position fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erika V; Galinsky, Adam D; Phillips, Katherine W

    2015-06-01

    The current research integrates perspectives on gendered race and person-position fit to introduce the concept of a gender profile. We propose that both the "gender" of a person's biological sex and the "gender" of a person's race (Asians are perceived as feminine and Blacks as masculine) help comprise an individual's gender profile-the overall femininity or masculinity associated with their demographic characteristics. We also propose that occupational positions have gender profiles. Finally, we argue that the overall gender profile of one's demographics, rather than just one's biological sex, determines one's fit and hirability for feminine or masculine occupational roles. The current five studies establish the gender profiles of different races and sexes, and then demonstrate that individuals with feminine-typed and masculine-typed gender profiles are selected for feminine and masculine positions, respectively. These studies provide new insights on who gets ahead in different environments. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Analysing race inequality in employment

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Elisabeth Griffiths, principal lecturer at Northumbria Law School at Northumbria University, explores employment issues in the recent review by the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) of prejudice and unlawful behaviour because of race.

  4. When Does Race Matter? Race, Sex, and Dating at an Elite University

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Elizabeth Aura

    2010-01-01

    This paper unites quantitative and qualitative data from the College Social Life Survey (n = 732) to describe and explain patterns of racial homophily in undergraduate sexual/romantic relationships at an elite university, a closed social setting. It expands the literature on interracial romantic unions by comparing homophily in hookups…

  5. Critical Race Theory and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Mike; Ikeno, Norio; Komatsu, Mariko; Kawaguchi, Hiromi; Goto, Kenjiro

    2010-01-01

    This paper recapitulates the lecture which Mike Cole, the Professor of Bishop Grosseteste University College Lincoln gave on the 15th September 2009 at the Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University. The title of his lecture was "Critical Race Theory and Education". The purpose was to introduce the nature of Critical Race Theory (CRT) and examine the theory from the perspective of Marxist. First, Cole explained two major tenets of CRT: '"white supremacy" rather than racism' and '"...

  6. Adventure Racing for the Rest of Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…

  7. Hypogammaglobulinemia in racing Alaskan sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, E; Lupfer, C; Banse, H; Hinchcliff, K; Love, S; Nelson, S; Davis, M; Payton, M; Pastey, M

    2010-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin dynamics have not been studied in racing sled dogs, despite hypoglobulinemia having been reported during racing events. Hypoglobulinemia in racing sled dogs is associated with decreases in serum IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgM concentrations during prolonged exercise. One hundred and fifty-seven Alaskan sled dogs that successfully completed a 1,000 mile race. Serum was obtained from 118 sled dogs within 1 month before the race and within 12 hours after completing the race. Serum also was obtained after 4 months of rest from 51 dogs that successfully completed the race, including 12 previously sampled dogs. Serum total protein ([TP]), albumin, and globulin ([Gl]) were measured, and serum IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgM were quantified by ELISA. The proportion of dogs with [Gl] racing (38 of 118 dogs, 32.2%) than before racing (21 of 118 dogs, 17.8%, P = .005). Four months after racing, [Gl] was racing compared with 4 months after racing (18.88 +/- 5.76). Serum [IgM] and [IgE] were higher and [IgA] was lower before racing compared with immediately after racing. Sled dogs participating in long-distance racing have substantial decreases in [IgG] in addition to decreases in [IgM] and [IgE]. The pronounced hypogammaglobulinemia observed in a large proportion of racing sled dogs might predispose them to infectious disease.

  8. Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  9. Sex Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Richard G.

    This article uses findings from several previous studies to define the kinds of sex stereotyping present in our society. The author considers sex roles as dealt with in children's literature, public schools, advertising, and vocational counseling. He describes, in particular, the situation at an unnamed state university, and cites the woman's…

  10. Immunocytochemical localization of V-H(+) -ATPase, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase in gill lamellae of adult freshwater euryhaline shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraschi, Anieli Cristina; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2015-08-01

    Physiological (organismal), biochemical, and molecular biological contributions to the knowledge of the osmoregulatory plasticity of palaemonid freshwater shrimps has provided a fairly complete model of transporter localization in their branchial epithelium. Direct immunological demonstration of the main enzymes in the gill epithelia of adult palaemonids is, however, still incipient. The diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus was exposed to increased salinity (25‰ for 24 hr), and its responses at the systemic level were evaluated through the assays of hemolymph osmolality and muscle hydration, and at cellular and subcellular levels through the activity and localization of the V-H(+) -ATPase, the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and the carbonic anhydrase. Results showed an increase in hemolymph osmolality (629 ± 5.3 mOsm/kg H2 O) and a decrease in muscle hydration (73.8 ± 0.5%), comparing values after 24 hr in 25‰ with control shrimps in freshwater (respectively 409.5 ± 15.8 mOsm/kg H2 O and 77.5 ± 0.4%). V-H(+) -ATPase was localized in pillar cells, whereas Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the septal cells. The main novelty of this study was that carbonic anhydrase was localized in the whole branchial tissue, in pillar and septal cells. Exposure to high salinity for 24 hr led to no detectable changes in their localization or in vitro activity. Immunolocalization data corroborated the literature and current models of palaemonid gill ion transport. The absence of changes reinforces the need for the constant expression of these enzymes to account for the euryhalinity of these shrimps. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Breaking the race barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minrath, M

    1985-08-01

    Through the reflective process of analyzing one's own feelings and reactions to the ethnic minority patient, the white therapist develops an inner clarity that serves as a resource to cope with the unique conflicts one must confront in interracial practice. Only when the therapist has come to some resolution of his or her own feelings about the plight of ethnic minorities in this country can this acumen develop. Although the therapeutic skills applied in psychotherapy with ethnic minorities are in no way different from overall therapeutic skills, certain techniques may be especially useful in interracial practice. For instance, a discussion of the meaning of race and ethnicity in the relationship may curtail racial distortion, prevent stereotyping, and lead to the creation of a therapeutic alliance. When dealing with transference and countertransference issues, the therapist must be particularly attentive to the representation of these same distortions and stereotypes. Formulating clinical problems from dual perspectives, theoretical and sociocultural, is an arduous, but necessary task. Finally, the white therapist must be able to view ethnic minority patients as individuals. Although these patients cope with special problems which must be acknowledged and dealt with in therapy, the therapist must realize there is a common ground on which to communicate. On this common ground, therapists discover the foundation of interracial clinical practice is the ability to accept and respect their patients and themselves as individuals who may have similar anxieties, problems, experiences, and goals. It is through the recognition and sharing of the fundamental human bond that ethnic and racial differences, which may have detrimental effects on interpersonal relationships, are transcended.

  12. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle A Mode

    Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  13. The sex ratio at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, E

    1967-10-01

    Several aspects of the disparity in birth ratio of males over females are discussed including variations among different races, variations by order of birth, by age of the parent, and in multiple births. Avenues of statistical exploration are suggested in an attempt to indicate certain peculiarities in nature. The Negro population in the United States has a sex ratio of 102 males to 100 females as opposed to 105:100 for whites, a highly significant difference. Inferences from these statistics are suggested for study of the sex ratios of mixed unions. The group classified as Mulatto show a lower sex ratio and further analysis of this was suggested including examination of slave records. For the white population sex ratio declines from 106.2 to 102.9 between 1st order and 7th order births. This is highly significant. However, nonwhite determinations were more irregular. Data limitations on sex ratio by age of parent prevented conclusive results. Multiple births among whites show a decline from 105.3 for single live births to 103.2 for twins and 86.1 for all other plural deliveries. Among nonwhites these ratios are 102.3, 99.7, and 102.6 respectively. Further information should be developed using the multiple facts relating to the sex ratio at birth.

  14. Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Jennifer K.; Yu, Joon?Ho; Ifekwunigwe, Jayne O.; Harrell, Tanya M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Royal, Charmaine D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversies over race conceptualizations have been ongoing for centuries and have been shaped, in part, by anthropologists. Objective To assess anthropologists' views on race, genetics, and ancestry. Methods In 2012 a broad national survey of anthropologists examined prevailing views on race, ancestry, and genetics. Results Results demonstrate consensus that there are no human biological races and recognition that race exists as lived social experiences that can have important effe...

  15. Effects of oxytocin on behavioral and ERP measures of recognition memory for own-race and other-race faces in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit; Bird, Christopher W; Freeman, Megan; Curran, Tim

    2013-10-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to affect human social information processing including recognition memory for faces. Here we investigated the neural processes underlying the effect of oxytocin on memorizing own-race and other-race faces in men and women. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between-subject study, participants received either oxytocin or placebo before studying own-race and other-race faces. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during both the study and recognition phase to investigate neural correlates of oxytocin's effect on memory encoding, memory retrieval, and perception. Oxytocin increased the accuracy of familiarity judgments in the recognition test. Neural correlates for this effect were found in ERPs related to memory encoding and retrieval but not perception. In contrast to its facilitating effects on familiarity, oxytocin impaired recollection judgments, but in men only. Oxytocin did not differentially affect own-race and other-race faces. This study shows that oxytocin influences memory, but not perceptual processes, in a face recognition task and is the first to reveal sex differences in the effect of oxytocin on face memory. Contrary to recent findings in oxytocin and moral decision making, oxytocin did not preferentially improve memory for own-race faces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Safe sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths.

  17. Phenotypic and genetic parameter estimates for racing traits of Arabian horses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiz, B; Kocak, O

    2005-10-01

    The racing records for Arabian horses used in the study were obtained from the Turkish Jockey Club. The traits used in the study were racing time, best racing time, rank, annual earnings, earnings per start, log annual earnings and log earnings per start. Genetic parameters were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedure using the DFREML program. The effects of age, sex and origin of horse were significant for each trait. The effect of year was significant on time and earning traits, but not rank. The effect of month on time traits was also significant. Heritability estimates of the entire data set were 0.280, 0.281, 0.069, 0.139, 0.174, 0.152 and 0.171 for racing time, best racing time, rank, annual earnings, earnings per start, log annual earnings and log earnings per start respectively. Estimates of repeatability varied from 0.349 to 0.500 for racing time, from 0.430 to 0.524 for best racing time and from 0.129 to 0.171 for rank depending on the data set used in the analyses. Best racing time was the most appropriate trait for selection in this study, as this might lead to genetic improvement than other traits.

  18. Pain Assessment and Treatment Decisions for Virtual Human Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven Z.; Lok, Benjamin C.; Torres, Calia A.; Chuah, Joon Hao; Robinson, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Laypeople and healthcare professionals use demographic cues when making pain management decisions. These decisions can negatively affect patient outcomes. This study examined whether laypeople base their pain management decisions in part on pain-related postures and demographic cues. Virtual human (VH) technology was used to research whether sex and race, as well as body posture, influenced pain management decisions. Ninety-seven laypersons examined VH patients exhibiting low back pain related body postures whose demographic cues varied by VH sex and VH race. T tests validated that participants were able to distinguish between high pain related body postures and low pain related body postures. The participants assessed male VH patients to be experiencing more pain than female VH patients. This study suggests that participants use sex as a cue when assessing pain. Participants may perceive VH male patients as experiencing high pain intensity if the participants are willing to counter male stereotypes and acknowledge that the male VH patients display pain behaviors. PMID:23971429

  19. Association of Race Consciousness With the Patient–Physician Relationship, Medication Adherence, and Blood Pressure in Urban Primary Care Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Race consciousness (the frequency with which one thinks about his or her own race) is a measure that may be useful in assessing whether racial discrimination negatively impacts blood pressure (BP). However, the relation between race consciousness and BP has yet to be empirically tested, especially within the context of the patient–physician relationship and medication adherence. METHODS Race-stratified generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship of race consciousness on BP, measures of the patient–physician relationship, and self-reported medication adherence, controlling for patients being nested within physicians and for patient age and sex. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 61.3 years, 62% were black, and 65% were women. Black patients were more likely to ever think about race than were white patients (49% vs. 21%; P Race-conscious blacks had significantly higher diastolic BP (79.4 vs. 74.5mm Hg; P = 0.004) and somewhat higher systolic BP (138.8 vs. 134.7mm Hg; P = 0.13) than blacks who were not race conscious. Race-conscious whites were more likely to perceive respect from their physician (57.1% vs. 25.8%; P = 0.01) but had lower medication adherence (62.4% vs. 82.9%; P = 0.05) than whites who were not race-conscious. CONCLUSIONS Among blacks, race consciousness was associated with higher diastolic BP. In contrast, among whites, there was no association between race consciousness and BP, but race consciousness was associated with poor ratings of adherence, despite more favorable ratings of the patient–physician relationship. Future work should explore disparities in race consciousness and its impact on health and health-care disparities. PMID:23864583

  20. An Empirical Approach to Salary Discrimination: With Case Study of Sex Discrimination in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie A.; Murphy, Norman C.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical method to determine sex discrimination in salaries considered known differential variables which can legitimately be used to determine salary level apart from discrimination based on improper criteria, such as race, sex, religion, etc. This case study of a group of educators exemplifies salary discrimination based on sex. (Author/MV)

  1. Eight Americas: Investigating Mortality Disparities across Races, Counties, and Race-Counties in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher J. L; Kulkarni, Sandeep C; Michaud, Catherine; Tomijima, Niels; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Iandiorio, Terrell J; Ezzati, Majid

    2006-01-01

    Background The gap between the highest and lowest life expectancies for race-county combinations in the United States is over 35 y. We divided the race-county combinations of the US population into eight distinct groups, referred to as the “eight Americas,” to explore the causes of the disparities that can inform specific public health intervention policies and programs. Methods and Findings The eight Americas were defined based on race, location of the county of residence, population density, race-specific county-level per capita income, and cumulative homicide rate. Data sources for population and mortality figures were the Bureau of the Census and the National Center for Health Statistics. We estimated life expectancy, the risk of mortality from specific diseases, health insurance, and health-care utilization for the eight Americas. The life expectancy gap between the 3.4 million high-risk urban black males and the 5.6 million Asian females was 20.7 y in 2001. Within the sexes, the life expectancy gap between the best-off and the worst-off groups was 15.4 y for males (Asians versus high-risk urban blacks) and 12.8 y for females (Asians versus low-income southern rural blacks). Mortality disparities among the eight Americas were largest for young (15–44 y) and middle-aged (45–59 y) adults, especially for men. The disparities were caused primarily by a number of chronic diseases and injuries with well-established risk factors. Between 1982 and 2001, the ordering of life expectancy among the eight Americas and the absolute difference between the advantaged and disadvantaged groups remained largely unchanged. Self-reported health plan coverage was lowest for western Native Americans and low-income southern rural blacks. Crude self-reported health-care utilization, however, was slightly higher for the more disadvantaged populations. Conclusions Disparities in mortality across the eight Americas, each consisting of millions or tens of millions of Americans

  2. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 23, 2015. Sex headaches Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Advertising & ...

  3. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  4. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking.

  5. The Neural Correlates of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tiffany A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral analyses are a natural choice for understanding the wide-ranging behavioral consequences of racial stereotyping and prejudice. However, neuroimaging and electrophysiological research has recently considered the neural mechanisms that underlie racial categorization and the activation and application of racial stereotypes and prejudice, revealing exciting new insights. Work reviewed here points to the importance of neural structures previously associated with face processing, semantic knowledge activation, evaluation, and self-regulatory behavioral control, allowing for the specification of a neural model of race processing. We show how research on the neural correlates of race can serve to link otherwise disparate lines of evidence on the neural underpinnings of a broad array of social-cognitive phenomena, and consider implications for effecting change in race relations. PMID:19896410

  6. Impact of Race Versus Education and Race Versus Income on Patients' Motivation to Participate in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Anita; Kincaid, Hope; Semler, Lauren; Jacoby, Jeanne L; Johnson, Melanie B; Careyva, Beth A; Stello, Brian; Friel, Timothy; Smulian, John C; Knouse, Mark C

    2017-12-26

    Our study investigates whether levels of motivation and barriers to participation in clinical trials vary with patients' education and income. A self-administered survey asked outpatients to rank potential influential factors on a "0" to "4" significance scale for their motivation to participate in clinical trials. Principal component analysis (PCA), analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests analyzed the impact of race, education, and income on their motivation to participate. Analysis included 1841 surveys; most respondents had a high school education or some college, and listed annual income motivation scale 1 scores (p = .0261). Compared with their counterparts, subjects with less education/lower income ranked monetary compensation (p = .0420 and p motivator. Minorities and patients with less education and lower income appear to be more influenced by their desire to please the doctor, the race and sex of the doctor, and the language spoken by the doctor being the same as theirs. For all races, education appeared to have a direct relationship with motivation to participate, except for African-Americans, whose motivation appeared to decline with more education. Income appeared to have an inverse relationship with motivation to participate for all races.

  7. Racing to the Future: Security in the Gigabit Race?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Mark A; Cradduck, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    This research seeks to identify the differing national perspectives towards security and the "gigabit race" as those nations transition to their next generation broadband networks. Its aim is to critically appraise the rationales for their existing digital security frameworks in order to determine whether (and what) Australia can learn…

  8. BET_VH probabilistic assessment of pyroclastic flows hazard at El Misti volcano, South Peru, based on geological record and numerical simulations with TITAN2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, R.; Thouret, J. C.; Sandri, L.; Irimus, I. A.; Stefanescu, R.

    2012-04-01

    Pyroclastic density currents, which include pyroclastic surges and pyroclastic flows (PFs), are among the most dangerous volcanic phenomena. We present a probabilistic hazard assessment of the PFs generated from eruptive column collapse at El Misti volcano (5822 m) in South Peru. The high relief of the cone, the location of the city of Arequipa (~1,000,000 people) on two large volcanoclastic fans and the H (3.5 km)/L (17 km) ratio (0.2) between the summit and the city center, make PFs a direct threat. We consider three eruption scenario sizes: small Vulcanian/Phreatomagmatic (VEI 2), medium Sub-Plinian (VEI 3-4), and large Plinian (VEI 4+). We use the Event-Tree approach in a Bayesian scheme with BET_VH (Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Hazard) software. Quantitative data that stem from numerical simulations from TITAN2D (termed prior models) and from stratigraphic record (termed past data) are input to BET_VH, which enables us to compute the probabilities (in a 1-year time window) of (i) having an eruption (ii) in a selected location/vent (iii) of a specific size, (iv) and that this eruption will produce PFs (v) that will reach a location of interest around El Misti. TITAN2D simulation runs, expressed as color-coded thicknesses of PDC deposits, fit well the extent of past PFs deposits, including thick confined deposits (0.5-7 m) in the Rio Chili canyon and its tributary ravines (Quebradas San Lazaro, Huarangal and Agua Salada).The unconfined, thinner (≤10cm) deposits, as displayed by simulation runs on the interfluves, is attributed to ash-cloud surges. Such thin, fine ash deposits have not been emphasized in geological maps either because they have been removed away or remain yet unrecognized. The simulated Vulcanian flows, restricted to the upper part of the cone, become confined (0.1-1m thick) in the ravines which converge towards each of the three Quebradas. The simulated Subplinian PF deposits reach 0.1 to 1 m thick in the Quebradas and 1-4 m WNW of El

  9. Street racing: a neglected research area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Smart, Reginald G

    2009-04-01

    To review: (1) the extent and frequency of street racing and its consequences; (2) the characteristics of street racers; (3) explanatory theories for street racing; (4) the legal issues; and (5) the best methods of preventing street racing. Review of academic and other literature. Very limited official statistics are available on street racing offenses and related collisions, in part because of the different jurisdictional operational definitions of street racing and the ability of police to determine whether street racing was a contributing factor. Some data on prevalence of street racing have been captured through social surveys and they found that between 18.8 and 69.0 percent of young male drivers from various international jurisdictions have reported street racing. Moreover, street racing is found to be associated with other risky behaviors, substance abuse, and delinquent activities. The limited evidence available on street racing suggests that it has increased in the last decade. Street racing is a neglected research area and the time has come to examine the prevalence and causes of street racing and the effectiveness of various street racing countermeasures.

  10. Racing toward the Finish Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents replies to published comments on the authors' original article (R. L. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, and K. K. Kidd. G. Carey cited in his response to their article a study by Tang et al. (2005) showing that "of 3,636 subjects of varying race/ethnicity, only 5 (0.14%) showed genetic cluster membership different from their…

  11. Race and the Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Irwin, Ed.; Gurin, Patricia, Ed.

    The focus of this collection of essays is on the formulation of research goals and strategies needed for practical solutions to improve race relations. Herbert H. Hyman writes on the effect of Negro social change on white attitudes about the Negro. Thomas F. Pettigrew defines research priorities for desegregation in the public schools. A broad…

  12. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  13. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  14. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued.

  15. Transactional Sex With Regular and Casual Partners Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Detroit Metro Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, José A; Eaton, Lisa; Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S

    2017-05-01

    Transactional sex refers to the commodification of the body in exchange for shelter, food, and other goods and needs. Transactional sex has been associated with negative health outcomes including HIV infection, psychological distress, and substance use and abuse. Compared with the body of research examining transactional sex among women, less is known about the prevalence and correlates of transactional sex among men. Using data from a cross-sectional survey of young men who have sex with men (ages 18-29) living in the Detroit Metro Area ( N = 357; 9% HIV infected; 49% Black, 26% White, 16% Latino, 9% Other race), multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between transactional sex with regular and casual partners and key psychosocial factors (e.g., race/ethnicity, education, poverty, relationship status, HIV status, prior sexually transmitted infections [STIs], mental health, substance use, and residential instability) previously identified in the transactional sex literature. Forty-four percent of the current sample reported engaging in transactional sex. Transactional sex was associated with age, employment status, relationship status, and anxiety symptoms. When stratified, transactional sex with a regular partner was associated with age, educational attainment, employment status, relationship status, anxiety, and alcohol use. Transactional sex with a casual partner was associated with homelessness, race/ethnicity, employment status, and hard drug use. The implications of these findings for HIV/STI prevention are discussed, including the notion that efforts to address HIV/STIs among young men who have sex with men may require interventions to consider experiences of transactional sex and the psychosocial contexts that may increase its likelihood.

  16. Party Animals or Responsible Men: Social Class, Race, and Masculinity on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Studies of collegiate party and hookup culture tend to overlook variation along social class and racial/ethnic lines. Drawing on interview data at a "party school" in the Midwest, I examine the meanings and practices of drinking and casual sex for a group of class and race-diverse fraternity men. While more privileged men draw on ideas…

  17. Foot strike patterns and ground contact times during high-calibre middle-distance races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Phil; Caplan, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine ground contact characteristics, their relationship with race performance, and the time course of any changes in ground contact time during competitive 800 m and 1500 m races. Twenty-two seeded, single-sex middle-distance races totalling 181 runners were filmed at a competitive athletics meeting. Races were filmed at 100 Hz. Ground contact time was recorded one step for each athlete, on each lap of their race. Forefoot and midfoot strikers had significantly shorter ground contact times than heel strikers. Forefoot and midfoot strikers had significantly faster average race speed than heel strikers. There were strong large correlations between ground contact time and average race speed for the women's events and men's 1500 m (r = -0.521 to -0.623; P < 0.05), whereas the men's 800 m displayed only a moderate relationship (r = -0.361; P = 0.002). For each event, ground contact time for the first lap was significantly shorter than for the last lap, which might reflect runners becoming fatigued.

  18. The Plight of Mixed Race Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Roland G. Fryer, Jr; Lisa Kahn; Steven D. Levitt; Jörg L. Spenkuch

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 40 years the fraction of mixed race black-white births has increased nearly nine-fold. There is little empirical evidence on how these children fare relative to their single-race counterparts. This paper describes basic facts about the plight of mixed race individuals during their adolescence and early adulthood. As one might expect, on a host of background and achievement characteristics, mixed race adolescents fall in between whites and blacks. When it comes to engaging in ris...

  19. Effects of racing on equine fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairanen, J; Katila, T; Virtala, A-M; Ojala, M

    2011-03-01

    Racing and fertility are connected with each other in many ways. Stress and increased body temperature induced by racing may have negative effects on fertility, but on the other hand, high quality nutrition and management of racing horses may have positive effects. Fertility may also be genetically associated with racing performance. The analysed data consisted of Finnish mating records of Standardbreds (n=33,679) and Finnhorses (n=32,731), from 1991 to 2005, and the harness racing records of both mares and stallions. Fertility was measured by foaling outcome, and racing performance was measured by best time and number of races. We used racing results from the mating year and from the entire career, to study both short-term and long-term effects of racing on fertility. The analyses were conducted with a linear mixed model, where racing was fitted as a fixed factor. In a separate bivariate analysis we measured the genetic correlation of racing and fertility, applying a threshold model for the fertility trait. For mares, racing after the first mating or more than 10 times during the mating year diminished the foaling outcome. However, racing only before the first mating or 1-5 times during the mating year had positive effects on mare fertility. Stallion fertility did not suffer from racing during the mating year. The mares with the best career racing records had the highest foaling rates, but this was probably due to preferential treatment. The genetic correlation between best racing record and fertility was favourable but weak in the Finnhorse (-0.24±0.08), and negligible in the Standardbred (-0.15±0.11). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Involvement of Two Latex-Clearing Proteins during Rubber Degradation and Insights into the Subsequent Degradation Pathway Revealed by the Genome Sequence of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans Strain VH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiessl, Sebastian; Schuldes, Jörg; Thürmer, Andrea; Halbsguth, Tobias; Bröker, Daniel; Angelov, Angel; Liebl, Wolfgang; Daniel, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The increasing production of synthetic and natural poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) rubber leads to huge challenges in waste management. Only a few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, and little is known about the mechanism of microbial rubber degradation. The genome of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, which is one of the most effective rubber-degrading bacteria, was sequenced and annotated to elucidate the degradation pathway and other features of this actinomycete. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 5,669,805 bp and a circular plasmid of 174,494 bp with average GC contents of 67.0% and 65.7%, respectively. It contains 5,110 putative protein-coding sequences, including many candidate genes responsible for rubber degradation and other biotechnically relevant pathways. Furthermore, we detected two homologues of a latex-clearing protein, which is supposed to be a key enzyme in rubber degradation. The deletion of these two genes for the first time revealed clear evidence that latex-clearing protein is essential for the microbial utilization of rubber. Based on the genome sequence, we predict a pathway for the microbial degradation of rubber which is supported by previous and current data on transposon mutagenesis, deletion mutants, applied comparative genomics, and literature search. PMID:22327575

  1. Genomic analysis of a 1 Mb region near the telomere of Hessian fly chromosome X2 and avirulence gene vH13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming-Shun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To have an insight into the Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly genome, we performed an in silico comparative genomic analysis utilizing genetic mapping, genomic sequence and EST sequence data along with data available from public databases. Results Chromosome walking and FISH were utilized to identify a contig of 50 BAC clones near the telomere of the short arm of Hessian fly chromosome X2 and near the avirulence gene vH13. These clones enabled us to correlate physical and genetic distance in this region of the Hessian fly genome. Sequence data from these BAC ends encompassing a 760 kb region, and a fully sequenced and assembled 42.6 kb BAC clone, was utilized to perform a comparative genomic study. In silico gene prediction combined with BLAST analyses was used to determine putative orthology to the sequenced dipteran genomes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and to infer evolutionary relationships. Conclusion This initial effort enables us to advance our understanding of the structure, composition and evolution of the genome of this important agricultural pest and is an invaluable tool for a whole genome sequencing effort.

  2. Predictors of race-day jockey falls in jumps racing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, P; Blizzard, L; Jones, G; Day, L; Fell, J

    2011-05-01

    Thoroughbred jumps racing jockeys have a fall rate greater than their flat racing counterparts. Previous studies have focused on factors that contribute to falls by horses but, to date, there has not been a study of risk factors for falls to jockeys in jumps races. Data on race-day falls were extracted from stipendiary stewards reports lodged with Principal Racing Authorities following each race meeting. Denominator data were provided by Racing Information Services Australia on races conducted from August 2002 until July 2009. Univariable and multivariable analyses, estimating incidence rate ratios, were conducted using Poisson regression. In multivariable analysis in hurdle racing, important predictors of falls were higher club level, larger field size, greater prize money, provisionally licensed jockeys and older jockeys. There were significant interactions between jockey licence and prize money; jockey age and previous rides this meeting; race grade and race distance; horse age and field size; and club level and field size. In steeplechase racing, important predictors were type of jump with lowest fall rates in races over Mark III jumps compared to standard fences, provisionally licensed jockeys, jockeys having had previous rides at a meeting, and larger field size. There were significant interactions between the number of previous starts by the horse and field size; race distance and prize money; and race distance and previous rides this meeting. This study has identified factors for falls in jumps racing that could form the basis for targeted strategies to improve occupational health and safety standards. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Race-Religion Intersection: A European Contribution to the Critical Philosophy of Race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topolski, A.R.

    2018-01-01

    This article traces the hidden race-religion constellation in Europe. The term “race-religion constellation” refers to the connection or co-constitution of the categories of race and “religion.” Specifically, the term “race-religion constellation” is used to refer to the practice of classifying

  4. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  5. Understanding the Influence of Stigma and Medical Mistrust on Engagement in Routine Healthcare Among Black Women Who Have Sex with Women

    OpenAIRE

    Brenick, Alaina; Romano, Kelly; Kegler, Christopher; Eaton, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: For Black women who have sex with women (BWSW), obtaining routine healthcare can be obstructed by a number of psychosocial barriers, including experiences of stigma, related to both sexual orientation and race, and medical mistrust, both race-based and global. Previous research demonstrates that sexual orientation and race-based stigma, as well as global and race-based medical mistrust, each have a negative impact on health outcomes and engagement in care (EIC) independently. This st...

  6. Na ante-sala da discriminação: o preço dos atributos de sexo e cor no Brasil (1989-1999 On the threshold of discrimination: the burden of sex and race attributes in Brazil (1989-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Biderman

    2004-08-01

    undertake a solid analysis of the level of discrimination which prevails in the labor market, we sought, in this paper, to control the effects of individual attributes (such as age and schooling and of workplace characteristics (formal labor relations, geographical location and job ladder position. Based on a comparison between two microdata sources provided by PNAD (National Research by Domicile Sampling, relative to the years of 1989 and 1999, it was possible to establish three different results. In the first place, it was perceived that, in relation to women, market discrimination is even higher than that measured by the mere difference between their income and the income of men; in relation to black men and women, the net effect which could be attributed to income discrimination does not appear as high, since other, and at times more important, factors act simultaneously, explaining the significant salary differences which distinguish them from white workers. In the second place, it was observed that the 1990's usher a reduction in the intensity with which factors connected to race and sex discrimination affect such inequalities; this reduction, however, is still small, deriving mainly from the important losses in the average salary of men, especially white men. In the third place, when observed in relation to the different positions in income distribution, inequality determinants vary in importantce, and factors related to sex and color discrimination appear as the most decisive, especially among women and blacks who may reach top positions in the social ladder.

  7. Racing performance of Thoroughbreds with superficial digital flexor tendonitis treated with desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon: 332 cases (1989-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Alaine J; Bramlage, Larry R

    2014-06-15

    To assess postoperative probability of racing, career longevity, and convalescent time in Thoroughbred racehorses with moderate to severe superficial digital flexor tendonitis (SDFT) in the forelimbs treated by desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon (ie, superior check ligament desmotomy [SCLD]). Retrospective case series. 332 Thoroughbred racehorses with SDFT consecutively treated by means of SCLD. Medical records and racing records were reviewed to assess return to racing, number of races completed, time to first race, and lifetime performance. The horses were categorized as raced or unraced prior to and after surgery. Descriptive statistics including age and treated limb were also recorded. Of 332 horses, 228 (69%) returned to racing following injury and treatment. Seventy-eight of 118 (66%) horses that had not raced prior to injury and 150 of 214 (70%) horses that had raced prior to injury raced after treatment. Seventeen of 39 (44%) horses ≥ 5 years old raced following injury and treatment and 211 of 293 (72%) horses ≤ 4 years old returned to racing. There was no difference in the percentages of horses returning to racing for 2-, 3-, or 4-year olds. Postoperative infections occurred in 6 of the 332 (2%) horses. Median time to first race for horses that raced after surgery was 302 days (range, 48 to 1,120 days; mean ± SD, 341 ± 153 days), with a median of 8 starts/horse after surgery (range, 1 to 109 starts; mean ± SD, 14 ± 15.8 starts). Of 228 horses that returned to racing, 159 (70%) raced ≥ 5 times after surgery. Sex and treated limb did not have a significant effect on return to racing. However, horses ≥ 5 years old were significantly less likely to return to racing, compared with younger horses. In horses with unilateral SDFT and racing was not significantly different between horses treated bilaterally versus unilaterally. 228 of 332 (69%) horses with SDFT of the forelimb treated with SCLD successfully

  8. Redirecting Specificity of T cells Using the Sleeping Beauty System to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptors by Mix-and-Matching of VL and VH Domains Targeting CD123+ Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokala, Radhika; Olivares, Simon; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra; Deniger, Drew; Huls, Helen; Torikai, Hiroki; Singh, Harjeet; Champlin, Richard E; Laskowski, Tamara; McNamara, George; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy infusing T cells with engineered specificity for CD19 expressed on B- cell malignancies is generating enthusiasm to extend this approach to other hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). CD123, or interleukin 3 receptor alpha, is overexpressed on most AML and some lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and has been an effective target for T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The prototypical CAR encodes a VH and VL from one monoclonal antibody (mAb), coupled to a transmembrane domain and one or more cytoplasmic signaling domains. Previous studies showed that treatment of an experimental AML model with CD123-specific CAR T cells was therapeutic, but at the cost of impaired myelopoiesis, highlighting the need for systems to define the antigen threshold for CAR recognition. Here, we show that CARs can be engineered using VH and VL chains derived from different CD123-specific mAbs to generate a panel of CAR+ T cells. While all CARs exhibited specificity to CD123, one VH and VL combination had reduced lysis of normal hematopoietic stem cells. This CAR's in vivo anti-tumor activity was similar whether signaling occurred via chimeric CD28 or CD137, prolonging survival in both AML and ALL models. Co-expression of inducible caspase 9 eliminated CAR+ T cells. These data help support the use of CD123-specific CARs for treatment of CD123+ hematologic malignancies.

  9. Redirecting Specificity of T cells Using the Sleeping Beauty System to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptors by Mix-and-Matching of VL and VH Domains Targeting CD123+ Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Thokala

    Full Text Available Adoptive immunotherapy infusing T cells with engineered specificity for CD19 expressed on B- cell malignancies is generating enthusiasm to extend this approach to other hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML. CD123, or interleukin 3 receptor alpha, is overexpressed on most AML and some lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, and has been an effective target for T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs. The prototypical CAR encodes a VH and VL from one monoclonal antibody (mAb, coupled to a transmembrane domain and one or more cytoplasmic signaling domains. Previous studies showed that treatment of an experimental AML model with CD123-specific CAR T cells was therapeutic, but at the cost of impaired myelopoiesis, highlighting the need for systems to define the antigen threshold for CAR recognition. Here, we show that CARs can be engineered using VH and VL chains derived from different CD123-specific mAbs to generate a panel of CAR+ T cells. While all CARs exhibited specificity to CD123, one VH and VL combination had reduced lysis of normal hematopoietic stem cells. This CAR's in vivo anti-tumor activity was similar whether signaling occurred via chimeric CD28 or CD137, prolonging survival in both AML and ALL models. Co-expression of inducible caspase 9 eliminated CAR+ T cells. These data help support the use of CD123-specific CARs for treatment of CD123+ hematologic malignancies.

  10. Child and Interviewer Race in Forensic Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amy K; Mackey, Tomiko D; Langendoen, Carol; Barnard, Marie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of child race and interviewer race on forensic interviewing outcomes. The results of the regression analysis indicated that child race and interviewer race had a significant effect on interview outcome category (no findings, inconclusive, or findings consistent with sexual abuse). Furthermore, the results indicate that the interaction of child and interviewer race had predictive value for rates of findings consistent with sexual abuse but not in the direction predicted. Cross-race dyads had significantly higher rates of interview outcomes consistent with sexual abuse. These findings suggest that more research into the effect of race on disclosure of child sexual abuse is needed.

  11. Identification of own-race and other-race faces: implications for the representation of race in face space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byatt, Graham; Rhodes, Gillian

    2004-08-01

    Own-race faces are recognized more easily than faces of a different, unfamiliar race. According to the multidimensional space (MDS) framework, the poor discriminability of other-race faces is due to their being more densely clustered in face space than own-race faces. Multidimensional scaling analyses of similarity ratings (Caucasian participants, n = 22) showed that other-race (Chinese) faces are more densely clustered in face space. We applied a formal model to test whether the spatial location of face stimuli could account for identification accuracy of another group of Caucasian participants (n = 30). As expected, own-race (Caucasian) faces were identified more accurately (higher hit rate, lower false alarms, and higher A') than other-race faces, which were more densely clustered than own-race faces. A quantitative model successfully predicted identification performance from the spatial locations of the stimuli. The results are discussed in relation to the standard MDS account of race effects and also an alternative "race-feature" hypothesis.

  12. Number, causes and destinations of horses leaving the Australian Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, P C; Hayek, A R; Jones, B; Evans, D L; McGreevy, P D

    2014-08-01

    Significant proportions of horses leave the Australian Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, which has ramifications for both the economic sustainability and the public perception of racing. The aim of this study was to quantify potential horse wastage, describe the destinations of exiting horses and identify risk factors for horses going to these destinations. Questionnaires were sent to 1258 selected Thoroughbred and 981 Standardbred trainers, with response rates of 30% and 32%, respectively. The survey investigated the role of various risk factors for wastage, including horse age, sex and number of years in training. The destination of departing horses was also examined in relation to these risk factors. Total horse exit rates for the 2002-03 official race year were 39.7% and 38.7% for the Thoroughbred and Standardbred racing industries, respectively. Reasons for leaving included 'poor performance/slow' (36.5% Thoroughbreds, 35.2% Standardbreds), 'illness/injury' (31.0%, 27.1%), 'to breed' (9.4%, 10.1%), 'unsuitable temperament/behaviour' (6.4%, 6.4%) and 'other' (16.8%, 21.2%). Statistically significant (P racing horses included whether the trainer owned the horses, sex, age and reasons for leaving. In addition, some factors were specific to one breed or the other. Improved behaviour training and early identification of the causes of poor performance could assist in reducing wastage. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Race, ethnicity, and the relevance of obesity for social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Vaquera, Elizabeth; Long, Jeanne L

    2012-01-01

    To examine race and ethnic differences in the importance of obesity for social integration using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). A cross-sectional study utilizing survey-adjusted statistics and multivariate logistic and linear regression models. Models were stratified by sex and included interaction terms capturing race, ethnicity and obesity. United States of America. A nationally representative sample of 15,355 respondents grades 7 through 12 who participated in both the In-School and In-Home Wave I surveys of Add Health. Four self-reported and schoolmate-reported indicators of social integration. The consequences of obesity for social integration are greatest for White adolescents, who were selected by almost 2 fewer schoolmates as friends and had half the odds of having their friendships reciprocated compared with non-obese White adolescents. The social disadvantage of obesity was lower for non-White adolescents; though they are selected by significantly fewer schoolmates as friends and were less likely to have their friendships reciprocated, they did not face additional discrimination from being both obese and minority. There are significant differences between obese and non-obese adolescents by race and ethnicity in friendships. As friendships are among the most valued assets in adolescence, understanding the impact of obesity on access to friendships for diverse adolescents is a necessary component to understanding the complex motivations that guide health-related behavior at these formative ages.

  14. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  15. Race in biological and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard S

    2013-11-01

    The concept of race has had a significant influence on research in human biology since the early 19th century. But race was given its meaning and social impact in the political sphere and subsequently intervened in science as a foreign concept, not grounded in the dominant empiricism of modern biology. The uses of race in science were therefore often disruptive and controversial; at times, science had to be retrofitted to accommodate race, and science in turn was often used to explain and justify race. This relationship was unstable in large part because race was about a phenomenon that could not be observed directly, being based on claims about the structure and function of genomic DNA. Over time, this relationship has been characterized by distinct phases, evolving from the inference of genetic effects based on the observed phenotype to the measurement of base-pair variation in DNA. Despite this fundamental advance in methodology, liabilities imposed by the dual political-empirical origins of race persist. On the one hand, an optimistic prediction can be made that just as geology made it possible to overturn the myth of the recent creation of the earth and evolution told us where the living world came from, molecular genetics will end the use of race in biology. At the same time, because race is fundamentally a political and not a scientific idea, it is possible that only a political intervention will relieve us of the burden of race.

  16. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  17. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy Print A ... safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during all stages ...

  18. At the crossroads of conspicuous and concealable: what race categories communicate about sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kerri L; Ghavami, Negin

    2011-03-31

    We found that judgments of a perceptually ambiguous social category, sexual orientation, varied as a function of a perceptually obvious social category, race. Sexual orientation judgments tend to exploit a heuristic of gender inversion that often promotes accuracy. We predicted that an orthogonal social category that is itself gendered, race, would impact both sexual orientation categorizations and their accuracy. Importantly, overlaps in both the phenotypes and stereotypes associated with specific race and sex categories (e.g., the categories Black and Men and the categories Asian and Women) lead race categories to be decidedly gendered. Therefore, we reasoned that race categories would bias judgments of sexual orientation and their accuracy because of the inherent gendered nature. Indeed, both gay and straight perceivers in the United States were more likely to judge targets to be gay when target race was associated with gender-atypical stereotypes or phenotypes (e.g., Asian Men). Perceivers were also most accurate when judging the sexual orientation of the most strongly gender-stereotyped groups (i.e., Asian Women and Black Men), but least accurate when judging the sexual orientation of counter-stereotypical groups (i.e., Asian men and Black Women). Signal detection analyses confirmed that this pattern of accuracy was achieved because of heightened sensitivity to cues in groups who more naturally conform to gendered stereotypes (Asian Women and Black Men). Implications for social perception are discussed.

  19. At the crossroads of conspicuous and concealable: what race categories communicate about sexual orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri L Johnson

    Full Text Available We found that judgments of a perceptually ambiguous social category, sexual orientation, varied as a function of a perceptually obvious social category, race. Sexual orientation judgments tend to exploit a heuristic of gender inversion that often promotes accuracy. We predicted that an orthogonal social category that is itself gendered, race, would impact both sexual orientation categorizations and their accuracy. Importantly, overlaps in both the phenotypes and stereotypes associated with specific race and sex categories (e.g., the categories Black and Men and the categories Asian and Women lead race categories to be decidedly gendered. Therefore, we reasoned that race categories would bias judgments of sexual orientation and their accuracy because of the inherent gendered nature. Indeed, both gay and straight perceivers in the United States were more likely to judge targets to be gay when target race was associated with gender-atypical stereotypes or phenotypes (e.g., Asian Men. Perceivers were also most accurate when judging the sexual orientation of the most strongly gender-stereotyped groups (i.e., Asian Women and Black Men, but least accurate when judging the sexual orientation of counter-stereotypical groups (i.e., Asian men and Black Women. Signal detection analyses confirmed that this pattern of accuracy was achieved because of heightened sensitivity to cues in groups who more naturally conform to gendered stereotypes (Asian Women and Black Men. Implications for social perception are discussed.

  20. Distribution and migration of races of the mourning dove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, J.W.; Duvall, A.J.

    1958-01-01

    The Mourning Dove is a widespread species breeding in the non-boreal regions of North and Middle America and from the West Indies south to Panama. It is hunted extensively in many sections of the United States and in some sections of Canada, the West Indies, and Mexico....The trends in geographic variation of Mourning Doves are from dark coloration in the east to pale coloration in the west and from shorter wing length in tropical areas to longer in the temperate region. More rusty underparts are associated with birds of the West Indies, and extremely saturated coloration and relatively large bills and feet have been developed by the population on Clarion Island off the western coast of Mexico. The combinations of geographic variation result in the recognition of five geographic races, two of which breed on the mainland of North America. The race carolinensis of eastern United States can be distinguished from the western race, marginella, by the color of the wings alone, which makes possible the recognition of these racial components from the wings of doves taken from hunters? bags.....Taking Ridgway?s account in ?Birds of North and Middle America? as a basis, discrepancies in the descriptions of sex and racial characters are pointed out. Two races recognized by Ridgway and one suggested as possibly distinct were not substantiated. The occurrence of dark and pale types among the West Indian populations are considered of possible racial significance, but sufficient breeding material is lacking to study the problem satisfactorily.....The allocation of type specimens and names to the various recognizable races which appears in the most recent literature is considered satisfactory. The ecological boundaries between tropical and temperate life zones and between the western grasslands and eastern deciduous forest zones, generally speaking, separate distinct races from each other.....There is an extensive postbreeding wandering of birds in all directions, particularly

  1. Blood cadmium by race/hispanic origin: The role of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yee, Jennifer; Mortensen, Mary E

    2017-05-01

    There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure. Our sample included 7,368 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014. With direct age adjustment, geometric means of blood cadmium and number of cigarettes smoked per day were estimated for subgroups defined by race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and sex using interval regression, which allows mean estimation in the presence of left- and right-censoring. Among never and former smoking men and women, blood cadmium tended to be higher for non-Hispanic Asian adults than adults of other race/Hispanic origin. Among current smokers, who generally had higher blood cadmium than never and former smokers, non-Hispanic white, black, and Asian adults had similarly elevated blood cadmium compared to Hispanic adults. A separate analysis revealed that non-Hispanic white adults tended to have the highest smoking intensity regardless of sex, than adults of the other race/Hispanic origin groups. The observed pattern provided evidence for smoking as a major source of cadmium exposure, yet factors other than smoking also appeared to contribute to higher blood cadmium of non-Hispanic Asian adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Race and ethnicity in fragile families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Robert A; Hamilton, Erin R

    2010-01-01

    Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born ethnic counterparts. Immigrant-native differences are particularly large for Asians, whites, and blacks. The authors also find racial and ethnic differences in the composition and stability of fragile families over time. Although most parents of all racial and ethnic groups are romantically involved at the time of their child's birth, African American women are less likely to be in a cohabiting relationship than are white and Hispanic mothers. Over time, these racial and ethnic differences become more pronounced, with African American mothers having the lowest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the highest breakup rates, and Mexican immigrant mothers having the highest rates of marriage and cohabitation and the lowest breakup rates. Fragile families have far fewer socioeconomic resources than married families, though resources vary within fragile families by race and ethnicity. White mothers, in general, have more socioeconomic resources than black, Mexican American, and Mexican immigrant mothers; they are more likely to have incomes above the poverty limit, more likely to own a car, less likely to have children from a prior relationship, and more likely to report living in a safe neighborhood. Access to health care and child care follows a similar pattern. The exception is education; black and white unmarried mothers are equally likely to have finished high school, and Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers are less likely to have done so. The authors argue that socioeconomic differences are by far the biggest driver of racial and ethnic differences in marriage and family stability, and they support reforms

  3. Prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra, Anjani; Liddon, Nicole; Fenton, Kevin A; Aral, Sevgi O

    2007-12-15

    Heterosexual anal and oral sex are related to the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. We examined the correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in the general population, using data from the National Survey of Family Growth. The sample included 12,571 men and women aged 15-44 years (79% response rate). One-third of men and women had ever had anal sex, and three-quarters had ever had oral sex. Condom use during last oral or anal sex was relatively uncommon. In separate models for men and women, having ever had anal sex was associated with white race, age of 20-44 years, and having had a non-monogamous sex partner. White race, age of 20-44 years, being married, and having higher numbers of lifetime sex partners were related to having ever given oral sex in men and women. Giving oral sex was associated with having a non-monogamous sex partner in men. Ever receiving oral sex was associated with white race and a non-monogamous sex partner in men and women. It would be beneficial to track the prevalence of heterosexual anal and oral sex and associated condom use on a more frequent basis.

  4. Genes, Race, and Culture in Clinical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Linda M.; Truesdell, Nicole D.; Kreiner, Meta J.

    2015-01-01

    Race, although an unscientific concept, remains prominent in health research and clinical guidelines, and is routinely invoked in clinical practice. In interviews with 58 primary care clinicians we explored how they understand and apply concepts of racial difference. We found wide agreement that race is important to consider in clinical care. They explained the effect of race on health, drawing on common assumptions about the biological, class, and cultural characteristics of racial minorities. They identified specific race-based clinical strategies for only a handful of conditions and were inconsistent in the details of what they said should be done for minority patients. We conclude that using race in clinical medicine promotes and maintains the illusion of inherent racial differences and may result in minority patients receiving care aimed at presumed racial group characteristics, rather than care selected as specifically appropriate for them as individuals. [race and genetics, primary care, health disparities, racial profiling] PMID:23804331

  5. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 106 - Guidelines for Eliminating Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidelines for Eliminating Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in Vocational Education Programs A... RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  6. Race and Rickettsiae: A United States Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlgren, F. Scott; Moonesinghe, Ramal; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2011-01-01

    US surveillance programs for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis collect demographic data on patients, including race and ethnicity. Reporting of these diseases among race groups is not uniform across the United States. Because a laboratory confirmation is required to meet the national surveillance case definition, reporting may be influenced by a patient's access to healthcare. Determining the association between race and ethnicity with incidence of rickettsia...

  7. Critical Race Theory, race equity, and public health: toward antiracism praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Chandra L; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2010-04-01

    Racial scholars argue that racism produces rates of morbidity, mortality, and overall well-being that vary depending on socially assigned race. Eliminating racism is therefore central to achieving health equity, but this requires new paradigms that are responsive to structural racism's contemporary influence on health, health inequities, and research. Critical Race Theory is an emerging transdisciplinary, race-equity methodology that originated in legal studies and is grounded in social justice. Critical Race Theory's tools for conducting research and practice are intended to elucidate contemporary racial phenomena, expand the vocabulary with which to discuss complex racial concepts, and challenge racial hierarchies. We introduce Critical Race Theory to the public health community, highlight key Critical Race Theory characteristics (race consciousness, emphases on contemporary societal dynamics and socially marginalized groups, and praxis between research and practice) and describe Critical Race Theory's contribution to a study on racism and HIV testing among African Americans.

  8. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yull, Denise G

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational...

  9. SEX EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  10. A Case Study of Single-Sex Middle School Mathematics Classes in a Mixed-Sex Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasha, Fridah Singongi Silishebo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to (a) examine the main and interaction effects of gender, race and class-type on mathematics achievement, mathematics attitudes and sources of mathematics self-efficacy, (b) investigate teacher-student interactions in the single-sex mathematics classes and (c) investigate perspectives about single-sex…

  11. A statistical analysis of the effect of warfare on the human secondary sex ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graffelman, J.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Many factors have been hypothesized to affect the human secondary sex ratio (the annual percentage of males among all live births), among them race, parental ages, and birth order. Some authors have even proposed warfare as a factor influencing live birth sex ratios. The hypothesis that during and

  12. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Yull, Denise G.

    2014-01-01

    Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US) school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, ra...

  13. Leucocyte and erythrocyte counts during a multi-stage cycling race ('the Milk Race').

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, P; McCarthy, D A; Passfield, L; Shaker, H A; Wade, A J

    1995-01-01

    Venous blood samples were taken from eight competitors in mid-evening after a racing day, and in the early morning before the next day's race, three times during the course of the Milk Race, 1992. These were used to gather information about the changes in circulating leucocyte levels in response to the exceptionally high sustained daily workload required during a major multi-stage race. The primary objective was to provide knowledge of 'normal' values against which future clinical judgements ...

  14. Fast men slow more than fast women in a 10 kilometer road race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Deaner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have demonstrated that men are more likely than women to slow in the marathon (footrace. This study investigated whether the sex difference in pacing occurs for a shorter race distance. Materials & Methods. Data were acquired from the Bolder Boulder 10 km road race for the years 2008–2013, which encompassed 191,693 performances. There were two pacing measures, percentage change in pace of the first 3 miles relative to the final 3.2 miles and percentage change in pace of the first mile relative to the final 5.2 miles. Pacing was analyzed as a continuous variable and as two categorical variables, as follows: “maintain the pace,” defined as slowing <5% and “marked slowing,” defined as slowing ≥10%. Results. Among the fastest (men < 48:40; women < 55:27 and second fastest (men < 53:54; women < 60:28 sex-specific finishing time sextiles, men slowed significantly more than women with both pacing measures, but there were no consistently significant sex differences in pacing among the slower four sextiles. For the fastest sextile, the odds for women were 1.96 (first pacing measure and 1.36 (second measure times greater than men to maintain the pace. For the fastest sextile, the odds for women were 0.46 (first measure and 0.65 (second measure times that of men to exhibit marked slowing. Multiple regression indicated that being older was associated with lesser slowing, but the sex difference among faster runners persisted when age was controlled. Conclusions. There was a sex difference in pacing during a 10 km race where glycogen depletion is not typically relevant. These results support the hypothesis that the sex difference in pacing partly reflects a sex difference in decision making.

  15. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  16. Sex differences in pacing during 'Ultraman Hawaii'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T

    2016-01-01

    To date, little is known for pacing in ultra-endurance athletes competing in a non-stop event and in a multi-stage event, and especially, about pacing in a multi-stage event with different disciplines during the stages. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of age, sex and calendar year on triathlon performance and variation of performance by events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running) in 'Ultraman Hawaii' held between 1983 and 2015. Within each sex, participants were grouped in quartiles (i.e., Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4) with Q1 being the fastest (i.e., lowest overall time) and Q4 the slowest (i.e., highest overall time). To compare performance among events (i.e., swimming, cycling 1, cycling 2 and running), race time in each event was converted in z score and this value was used for further analysis. A between-within subjects ANOVA showed a large sex × event (p = 0.015, η2 = 0.014) and a medium performance group × event interaction (p = 0.001, η2 = 0.012). No main effect of event on performance was observed (p = 0.174, η2 = 0.007). With regard to the sex × event interaction, three female performance groups (i.e., Q2, Q3 and Q4) increased race time from swimming to cycling 1, whereas only one male performance group (Q4) revealed a similar trend. From cycling 1 to cycling 2, the two slower female groups (Q3 and Q4) and the slowest male group (Q4) increased raced time. In women, the fastest group decreased (i.e., improved) race time from swimming to cycling 1 and thereafter, maintained performance, whereas in men, the fastest group decreased race time till cycling 2 and increased it in the running. In summary, women pace differently than men during 'Ultraman Hawaii' where the fastest women decreased performance on day 1 and could then maintain on day 2 and 3, whereas the fastest men worsened performance on day 1 and 2 but improved on day 3.

  17. Pre-race health status and medical events during the 2005 World Adventure Racing Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham-West, Richard J; Marley, Joanne; Schneiders, Anthony G; Gray, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Adventure racing is a wilderness multisport endurance event with the potential for significant injury and illness; however specific contributing factors have not been extensively studied. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted that collected data during the 2005 Adventure Racing World Championship on pre-, in- and post-race injury and illness and determined pre-race training volumes and health profiles in 184 athletes (46 teams of 4 athletes). In the 6 months prior to the event, 79.9% of athletes reported an injury or illness. Fifty-nine cases of injury or illness were recorded during the race; representing an overall rate of 2.5 injuries per 1000 race-hours and 1.0 illness per 1000 race-hours. This incidence could be considered low compared to some sports, but the rate is tempered by the time on course exposure of 16,774 race-hours. Respiratory conditions were the single-most common condition resulting in race withdrawal. There was a moderate, but not statistically significantly, association (OR=4.61, p=0.083, 95% CI 0.82-26.08) between pre-race illness and in-race illness. Forty-four (95%) teams responded to a post-race questionnaire with 30% of the athletes reporting a new injury and 12% reporting a new illness in the week following the race. Understanding contributing factors to injury and illness during adventure racing will aid implementation of race medical coverage, preventative strategies and increase participation and performance. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Training with Own-Race Faces Can Improve Processing of Other-Race Faces: Evidence from Developmental Prosopagnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; DeNicola, Cristopher; Zink, Tyler; McGlinchey, Regina; Milberg, William

    2011-01-01

    Faces of one's own race are discriminated and recognized more accurately than faces of an other race (other-race effect--ORE). Studies have employed several methods to enhance individuation and recognition of other-race faces and reduce the ORE, including intensive perceptual training with other-race faces and explicitly instructing participants…

  19. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The rate of women getting breast cancer or dying from breast cancer varies by race and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity “Incidence rate” means how many women out of a given number ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity “Incidence rate” means how many men out of a given number ...

  1. Affectivity and Race: Studies from Nordic Contexts,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapina, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Affectivity and Race: Studies from Nordic Contexts,, edited by Rikke Andreassen and Kathrine Vitus, Farnham, Ashgate, 2015, 212 pp., £60.00 (hardcover), ISBN 978-1-4724-5349-5......Affectivity and Race: Studies from Nordic Contexts,, edited by Rikke Andreassen and Kathrine Vitus, Farnham, Ashgate, 2015, 212 pp., £60.00 (hardcover), ISBN 978-1-4724-5349-5...

  2. Teachers Advised to "Get Real" on Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how educators are advised on tackling race-related issues in schools in a book due to be published in June by the New Press, of New York City. Called "Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real About Race in School," the volume contains 65 essays from scholars who offer advice for educators on recognizing when everyday classroom…

  3. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  4. Race- en toerfietsen : mogelijkheden voor meer veiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Gent, P. van

    2015-01-01

    Racing and touring bicycles: opportunities for greater safety; Questionnaire study and expert assessment. Racing and touring cyclists often practise their sport on public roads in the presence of other road users. For this reason, hazardous situations may occur that increasingly result in crashes

  5. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  6. Lessons about Race in Introductory Sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschner, Linda Marie

    2001-01-01

    Uses a relational approach to teach about race showing how it effects whites as well as people of color. Reveals differences in attitudes and feelings on race and age. Uses answers from nine questions submitted by each student as a basis for lecture and guided classroom discussion. (DAJ)

  7. The ploidy races of Atriplex confertifolia (chenopodiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart C. Sanderson

    2011-01-01

    Previous accounts of polyploidy in the North American salt desert shrub Atriplex confertifolia (shadscale) have dealt with the distribution of polyploidy and the morphological and secondary chemical differences between races. The present study amplifies these studies and reveals additional ploidy-flavonoid races, with ploidy levels known to extend from 2x to 12x, and...

  8. Mortality by skin color/race and urbanity of Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2017-08-01

    The skin color/race and urbanity are structural determinants of health. The relationship between these variables produces structure of social stratification that defines inequalities in the experiences of life and death. Thus, this study describes the characteristics of the mortality indicators by skin color/race according level of urbanity and aggregation to the metropolitan region (MR) of 5565 cities in Brazil, controlling for gender and age. Descriptive study which included the calculation of measures relating to 1,050,546 deaths in the year survey of 2010 by skin color/race White, Black, and Brown according to both sexes, for five age groups and three levels of urbanity of cities in Brazil that were aggregated or not to the MR in the year of study. The risk of death was estimated by calculating premature mortality rate (PMR) at 65 years of age, per 100,000 and age adjusted. The structure of mortality by skin color/race Black and Brown reflects worse levels of health and excessive premature deaths, with worse situation for men. The Whites, especially women, tend to live longer and in better health than other racial groups. The age-adjusted PMR indicates distinct risk of death by skin color/race, this risk was higher in men than in women and in Blacks than in other racial groups of both sexes. There have been precarious levels of health in the urban space and the MR has intensified these inequalities. The research pointed out that the racial inequality in the mortality was characterized by interaction of race with other individual and contextual determinants of health. Those Blacks and Browns are the groups most vulnerable to the iniquities associated with occurrence of death, but these differences in the profile and the risk of death depend on the level of urbanity and aggregation MR of Brazilian cities in 2010.

  9. Constituents of political cognition: Race, party politics, and the alliance detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszewski, David; Curry, Oliver Scott; Petersen, Michael Bang; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-07-01

    Research suggests that the mind contains a set of adaptations for detecting alliances: an alliance detection system, which monitors for, encodes, and stores alliance information and then modifies the activation of stored alliance categories according to how likely they will predict behavior within a particular social interaction. Previous studies have established the activation of this system when exposed to explicit competition or cooperation between individuals. In the current studies we examine if shared political opinions produce these same effects. In particular, (1) if participants will spontaneously categorize individuals according to the parties they support, even when explicit cooperation and antagonism are absent, and (2) if party support is sufficiently powerful to decrease participants' categorization by an orthogonal but typically-diagnostic alliance cue (in this case the target's race). Evidence was found for both: Participants spontaneously and implicitly kept track of who supported which party, and when party cross-cut race-such that the race of targets was not predictive of party support-categorization by race was dramatically reduced. To verify that these results reflected the operation of a cognitive system for modifying the activation of alliance categories, and not just socially-relevant categories in general, an identical set of studies was also conducted with in which party was either crossed with sex or age (neither of which is predicted to be primarily an alliance category). As predicted, categorization by party occurred to the same degree, and there was no reduction in either categorization by sex or by age. All effects were replicated across two sets of between-subjects conditions. These studies provide the first direct empirical evidence that party politics engages the mind's systems for detecting alliances and establish two important social categorization phenomena: (1) that categorization by age is, like sex, not affected by alliance

  10. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly

  11. Pheromone races of Cydia splendana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae overlap in host plant association and geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie eBengtsson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the sex pheromone of Cydia splendana (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae by pheromone gland analysis followed by field trapping with synthetic compounds shows the occurrence of two pheromone races. Acorn moth females from Sweden, where oak Quercus robur is the only host plant, use a blend of the E,Z and E,E isomers of 8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. In Central and Southern Europe, where C. splendana feeds on chestnut Castanea sativa and several species of oak, males respond to another isomer blend, E,E and Z,E. The distribution of the two pheromone races of C. splendana overlaps in Northern France, where they share oak as plant host. Differences in sex communication signals lead to behavioural pre-mating isolation between these populations, and emphasize the role of specific mate recognition in speciation events.

  12. School-Based Health Centers and Adolescent Substance Use: Moderating Effects of Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Melina; Paschall, Mallie J.; Fisher, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: School-based health centers (SBHCs) have been associated with many positive health and academic outcomes. The current study extends previous research and examines possible differences in the association between SBHC exposure and adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use by race/ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES).…

  13. Association of race consciousness with the patient-physician relationship, medication adherence, and blood pressure in urban primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, LaPrincess C; Carson, Kathryn A; Williams, David R; Allen, Allyssa; Jones, Camara P; Cooper, Lisa A

    2013-11-01

    Race consciousness (the frequency with which one thinks about his or her own race) is a measure that may be useful in assessing whether racial discrimination negatively impacts blood pressure (BP). However, the relation between race consciousness and BP has yet to be empirically tested, especially within the context of the patient-physician relationship and medication adherence. Race-stratified generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship of race consciousness on BP, measures of the patient-physician relationship, and self-reported medication adherence, controlling for patients being nested within physicians and for patient age and sex. The mean age of the patients was 61.3 years, 62% were black, and 65% were women. Black patients were more likely to ever think about race than were white patients (49% vs. 21%; P patient-physician relationship. Future work should explore disparities in race consciousness and its impact on health and health-care disparities. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2013. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  15. Profiling the careers of Thoroughbred horses racing in Australia between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Wade, C M; Hamilton, N A

    2013-03-01

    Research investigating trends in racehorse careers require a benchmark for accurate comparison. Currently little whole population data exists for horses racing in Australia. To determine the range and variation in career length and number of career starts for horses racing in Australia. To document and provide evidence regarding the current differences between the sexes for career length and careers starts. Racing data were collected for Thoroughbreds over a 10-year period. Career length, number of career starts and spells per year were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package R. A total of 2,782,774 performance records yielded career information for 164,046 horses. Median career length and number of career starts for the population were 14.7 months and 10 starts, respectively. Significant differences (Pcareer outcomes. Between 2000 and 2010, the percentage of Thoroughbreds racing in Australia with careers longer than 12, 24, 36 and 48 months was 56.65, 32.35, 16.66 and 7.74, respectively. Clear differences in career outcomes exist between intact males, females and geldings racing in Australia. Future research should be conscious of these differences when analysing population data. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Street racing among the Ontario adult population: Prevalence and association with collision risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christine M; Smart, Reginald G; Vingilis, Evelyn; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Stoduto, Gina; Mann, Robert E

    2017-06-01

    Street racing has been identified as a significant public health concern, yet, little is known about the prevalence of this behaviour and its impact on collision risk. The current study was designed to address this dearth of knowledge by estimating the prevalence of street racing among the Ontario, Canada adult population, and examining its association to collision risk, controlling for demographics and other risk factors. Data were based on telephone interviews with 11,263 respondents derived from the 2009-2014 cycles of the CAMH Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional survey of adults aged 18+ years. A hierarchical-entry binary logistic regression analysis of collision involvement in the previous 12 months was conducted and included measures of street racing, demographic characteristics (sex, age, marital status, education, income, region), driving exposure, and driving after use of alcohol and use of cannabis. The prevalence of street racing was 0.9%. Based on univariate analyses, street racing was more prevalent among males (1.30%; pracing significantly increased the odds of a crash (OR=5.23, pracing. Even after adjusting for demographics, driving exposure, and driving after use of alcohol and use of cannabis, street racers faced more than a five-fold increase in the odds of a crash. Program and policy options must be considered to target this contingent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Who are you looking at? The influence of face gender on visual attention and memory for own- and other-race faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovén, Johanna; Rehnman, Jenny; Wiens, Stefan; Lindholm, Torun; Peira, Nathalie; Herlitz, Agneta

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that the own-race bias (ORB) in memory for faces is a result of other-race faces receiving less visual attention at encoding. As women typically display an own-gender bias in memory for faces and men do not, we investigated whether face gender and sex of viewer influenced visual attention and memory for own- and other-race faces, and if preferential viewing of own-race faces contributed to the ORB in memory. Participants viewed pairs of female or male own- and other-race faces while their viewing time was recorded. Afterwards, they completed a surprise memory test. We found that (1) other-race males received the initial focus of attention, (2) own-race faces were viewed longer than other-race faces over time, although the difference was larger for female faces, and (3) even though longer viewing time increased the probability of remembering a face, it did not explain the magnified ORB in memory for female faces. Importantly, these findings highlight that face gender moderates attentional responses to and memory for own- and other-race faces.

  18. Racing speeds of quarter horses, thoroughbreds and Arabians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B D; Turner, K K; Ventura, B A; Woodward, A D; O'Connor, C I

    2006-08-01

    While Quarter Horses are recognised as the fastest breed of horse, direct comparisons to race times with other breeds can be misleading. Quarter Horse races begin when the starting gates open. Thoroughbred and Arabian races begin a short distance from the gates after horses have started running. This study compared speeds of these breeds as they accelerate from the starting gates and during the middle and end of races. To compare racing speeds of the 3 breeds, and to compare speeds during various segments of the races. Video tapes of races were obtained from a local track. The various race segments were viewed and the winning horse timed by 5 individuals. Fastest and slowest times were removed and the 3 remaining times averaged. Quarter Horses averaged faster speeds than Thoroughbreds even when Thoroughbreds were raced at a distance (402 m) similar to Quarter Horse races. Both breeds were substantially faster than Arabians. Quarter Horses racing 336 m or less gained speed in each segment of the race while Arabians and Thoroughbreds racing 1006 m ran fastest during the middle of the race and had decreased their speed in the final segment of the race. Despite similar race times reported for 402 m, Quarter Horses averaged faster speeds than Thoroughbreds when timed from a standing start. In short races, both breeds accelerate throughout the race. Arabians, despite being known for endurance, had slowed by the end of the race. This study demonstrates that Quarter Horses achieve faster racing speeds than do other breeds. It also reveals a potential flaw in race-riding strategy as a more consistent pace throughout the Arabian and longer Thoroughbred races may be more efficient and result in a faster overall race time.

  19. Unpacking the “Black Box” of Race-Ethnic Variation in Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Nash, Sue P.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2015-01-01

    Race-ethnic differences in a range of childbearing behaviors are long-standing and well-documented, and these differences are attenuated, but not eliminated, when accounting for socioeconomic disparities. The residual differences are often attributed to vague and untested variation across race-ethnic groups in knowledge, attitudes, psychological attributes, normative beliefs, and social context. We use the longitudinal Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS), which contains a rich set of such factors measured in early adolescence, to assess whether they contribute to race-ethnic differences in having a birth among men and women ages 17–24 (n=1,042). Specifically, we test whether individual attitudes, religiosity, and academic behaviors; knowledge and behaviors regarding sex and dating; peer normative context; and parental communication about sex account for variation in the risk of an early birth. We find that socioeconomic factors attenuate but do not reduce differences between Black, Hispanic, and White respondents. Including adolescent academic performance and early entry into sex reduces the Black-White difference in the odds of early fertility to nonsignificance; however, beyond socioeconomic status, none of the broad range of factors further attenuate Hispanic-White differences, which remain large and statistically significant. PMID:26195990

  20. Unpacking the "Black Box" of Race-Ethnic Variation in Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Nash, Sue P; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A; Giordano, Peggy C

    2015-06-01

    Race-ethnic differences in a range of childbearing behaviors are long-standing and well-documented, and these differences are attenuated, but not eliminated, when accounting for socioeconomic disparities. The residual differences are often attributed to vague and untested variation across race-ethnic groups in knowledge, attitudes, psychological attributes, normative beliefs, and social context. We use the longitudinal Toledo Adolescent Relationship Study (TARS), which contains a rich set of such factors measured in early adolescence, to assess whether they contribute to race-ethnic differences in having a birth among men and women ages 17-24 (n=1,042). Specifically, we test whether individual attitudes, religiosity, and academic behaviors; knowledge and behaviors regarding sex and dating; peer normative context; and parental communication about sex account for variation in the risk of an early birth. We find that socioeconomic factors attenuate but do not reduce differences between Black, Hispanic, and White respondents. Including adolescent academic performance and early entry into sex reduces the Black-White difference in the odds of early fertility to nonsignificance; however, beyond socioeconomic status, none of the broad range of factors further attenuate Hispanic-White differences, which remain large and statistically significant.

  1. Physiology, power output, and racing strategy of a Race Across America finisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Ahlgrim, Christoph; Prettin, Stephan; Pottgiesser, Torben

    2011-05-01

    The Race Across America, a 4800-km nonstop cycle race, is one of the most demanding endurance sports events. We display the racing strategy, power output, HR, hormonal levels, and inflammatory markers of an athlete before and during the race, which he completed in 10 d 23 h.The athlete showed physiological characteristics of a well-trained (nonelite) cyclist (V˙O2peak=63 mL·min·kg, heart volume=11.3 mL·kg). The race was mainly performed at low intensities (mean ± SD: power output=141 ± 76 W, HR=117 ± 14 bpm). During the race, testosterone levels dropped initially by 30-40% and returned to baseline toward the end. Cortisol remained elevated throughout (+75%-90% compared with baseline). Markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein), dehydration, and protein catabolism (albumin) were not affected. The athlete used a race strategy with regular sleeping breaks (total rest=91 h, 45 h of sleep).Contrasting conventional racing strategies for the Race Across America, which aim at minimizing sleep and maximizing ride time, our case demonstrates that by emphasizing regular recovery and sleep, such alternative strategy might lead an equally successful race result. © 2011 by the American College of Sports Medicine

  2. An investigation of racing performance and whip use by jockeys in thoroughbred races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Evans

    Full Text Available Concerns have been expressed concerning animal-welfare issues associated with whip use during Thoroughbred races. However, there have been no studies of relationships between performance and use of whips in Thoroughbred racing. Our aim was to describe whip use and the horses' performance during races, and to investigate associations between whip use and racing performance. Under the Australian Racing Board (ARB rules, only horses that are in contention can be whipped, so we expected that whippings would be associated with superior performance, and those superior performances would be explained by an effect of whipping on horse velocities in the final 400 m of the race. We were also interested to determine whether performance in the latter sections of a race was associated with performance in the earlier sections of a race. Measurements of whip strikes and sectional times during each of the final three 200 metre (m sections of five races were analysed. Jockeys in more advanced placings at the final 400 and 200 m positions in the races whipped their horses more frequently. Horses, on average, achieved highest speeds in the 600 to 400 m section when there was no whip use, and the increased whip use was most frequent in the final two 200 m sections when horses were fatigued. This increased whip use was not associated with significant variation in velocity as a predictor of superior placing at the finish.

  3. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing.

  4. Cardiac troponin I in racing standardbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J; Boston, R C; Soma, L; Reef, V B

    2012-01-01

    Upper reference limits for cTnI have not been established for healthy Standardbred racehorses. To establish cTnI upper reference limits for Standardbred racehorses and determine if increases in plasma cTnI concentration can be detected in 1-2 hours after a race. Samples were obtained from 586 apparently healthy Standardbreds aged 2-14 years before racing and from the winners of 144 races 1-2 hours after the end of the race. Prospective, observational study; convenience sampling; assay validation; and reference limits determinations were performed according to ASCVP guidelines. Plasma cardiac troponin I concentrations before racing were determined, potential outliers identified, and the 95th and 99th percentile upper reference limits calculated using nonparametric methods. The correlation between cTnI concentration and age, differences in median cTnI concentrations by subgroups and differences between cTnI concentrations before and after racing in winning horses were determined. The 95th and 99 th percentile upper reference limits for all horses excluding outliers were race classification (P = .65) and a weak correlation of cTnI with age (ρ = 0.09, P = .03). There were no significant differences between cTnI concentrations before and after racing in winning horses (P = .70). Because of lack of standardization across cTnI assays, the reference limits apply only to the Stratus CS immunoassay. Future studies looking at the effects of high intensity, short duration exercise on cTnI should consider sampling more than 2 hours after racing or using an ultrasensitive assay. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Wilderness medicine race for preclinical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feazel, Leah; Block, Jason; Jayawardena, Asitha; Wehr, Peter; House, Hans; Buresh, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Introducing medical students to wilderness medicine provides skills in leadership, teamwork, improvisation, and managing medical emergencies; however, wilderness medicine (WM) education is typically reserved for senior medical students and often requires expensive travel. Here, we describe the Winter Wilderness Medicine Race (WWMR). The race was held at a large allopathic medical school and targeted towards preclinical medical students. Race planning was performed by senior medical students with the supervision of doctors from the Department of Emergency Medicine. We hypothesized that this intervention in medical education would enhance students' WM knowledge, and build teamwork and improvisational skills. The research involved a one day WM race that required teams of first- and second-year medical students to navigate a 5-km course and complete medical scenarios. Races that were held annually between 2011 and 2014 are included in the study. The educational effectiveness of the race was evaluated by pre- and post-race knowledge assessments of the medical students participating in a WWMR. Qualitative data regarding student perceptions of the skills learned were obtained by focus group interviews. Wilderness medicine provides skills in leadership, teamwork, improvisation and managing medical emergencies Between 2011 and 2014, 122 preclinical medical students from a Midwestern US allopathic medical school participated in the study. Overall, the mean scores for pre- and post-race knowledge assessments were 48 and 85 per cent, respectively, a 37 per cent increase in scores (p Medicine Race (WWMR) enhanced preclinical medical students' wilderness medicine knowledge, teamwork skills and improvisational abilities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Face-blind for other-race faces: Individual differences in other-race recognition impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Dawel, Amy; Pidcock, Madeleine; Hall, Ashleigh; McKone, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i.e., even for own-race faces); but not applying less individuating effort to other-race than own-race faces. Findings provide a potential resolution of contradictory evidence concerning the importance of the other-race effect (ORE), by explaining how it is possible for the mean ORE to be modest in size (suggesting a genuine but minor problem), and simultaneously for individuals to suffer major functional consequences in the real world (e.g., eyewitness misidentification of other-race offenders leading to wrongful imprisonment). Findings imply that, in legal settings, evaluating an eyewitness's chance of having made an other-race misidentification requires information about the underlying face recognition abilities of the individual witness. Additionally, analogy with prosopagnosia (inability to recognize even own-race faces) suggests everyday social interactions with other-race people, such as those between colleagues in the workplace, will be seriously impacted by the ORE in some people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Alcohol, sex, and screens: Modeling media influence on adolescent alcohol and sex co-occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E.; Hennessy, Michael; Khurana, Atika; Jamieson, Patrick; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach is used to predict adolescents’ intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content analysis of mainstream (n=29) and Black-oriented movies (n= 34) from 2014 and 2013–2014, respectively, and 56 television shows (2014–15 season). Content analysis ratings featuring character portrayals of both alcohol and sex within the same 5-minute segment were used to create exposure measures that were linked to online survey data collected from 1,990 14–17 year-old adolescents (50.3% Black, 49.7% White, 48.1% female). Structural equation modeling and group analysis by race were used to test whether attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the effects of media exposure on intention to combine alcohol and sex. Results suggest that for both White and Black adolescents, exposure to media portrayals of alcohol and sex combinations is positively associated with adolescents’ attitudes and norms. These relationships were stronger among White adolescents. Intention was predicted by attitude, norms, and control, but only the attitude-intention relationship was different by race group (stronger for Whites). PMID:28276932

  8. Alcohol, Sex, and Screens: Modeling Media Influence on Adolescent Alcohol and Sex Co-Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Khurana, Atika; Jamieson, Patrick; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach (RAA) is used to predict adolescents' intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content analysis of mainstream (n = 29) and Black-oriented movies (n = 34) from 2014 and 2013-2014, respectively, and 56 television shows (2014-2015 season). Content analysis ratings featuring character portrayals of both alcohol and sex within the same five-minute segment were used to create exposure measures that were linked to online survey data collected from 1,990 adolescents ages 14 to 17 years old (50.3% Black, 49.7% White; 48.1% female). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and group analysis by race were used to test whether attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the effects of media exposure on intention to combine alcohol and sex. Results suggest that for both White and Black adolescents, exposure to media portrayals of alcohol and sex combinations is positively associated with adolescents' attitudes and norms. These relationships were stronger among White adolescents. Intention was predicted by attitude, norms, and control, but only the attitude-intention relationship was different by race group (stronger for Whites).

  9. Statistical test of reproducibility and operator variance in thin-section modal analysis of textures and phenocrysts in the Topopah Spring member, drill hole USW VH-2, Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.M.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Broxton, D.E.

    1989-06-01

    A thin-section operator-variance test was given to the 2 junior authors, petrographers, by the senior author, a statistician, using 16 thin sections cut from core plugs drilled by the US Geological Survey from drill hole USW VH-2 standard (HCQ) drill core. The thin sections are samples of Topopah Spring devitrified rhyolite tuff from four textural zones, in ascending order: (1) lower nonlithophysal, (2) lower lithopysal, (3) middle nonlithophysal, and (4) upper lithophysal. Drill hole USW-VH-2 is near the center of the Crater Flat, about 6 miles WSW of the Yucca Mountain in Exploration Block. The original thin-section labels were opaqued out with removable enamel and renumbered with alpha-numeric labels. The sliders were then given to the petrographer operators for quantitative thin-section modal (point-count) analysis of cryptocrystalline, spherulitic, granophyric, and void textures, as well as phenocryst minerals. Between operator variance was tested by giving the two petrographers the same slide, and within-operator variance was tested by the same operator the same slide to count in a second test set, administered at least three months after the first set. Both operators were unaware that they were receiving the same slide to recount. 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanne M; Fields, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Race is a social environmental element in many nursing knowledge contexts. We explore how race and racism have been conceptualized in nursing research and theory, situating these issues in the debate between Critical Race Theory and postracialism. Contemporarily, racism is more subtle than overt. Subtle racism takes the form of microaggressions in everyday discourse and practices by whites toward African Americans. This occurs with little to no awareness on the part of whites. Using this concept, practice and education are explored. We hold that microaggressions contribute to stress for the target person, which may partly account for racial health disparities.

  11. Nurses' Use of Race in Clinical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Moss, Melissa E; Calzone, Kathleen; Abdallah, Khadijah E; Jenkins, Jean F; Bonham, Vence L

    2016-11-01

    To examine nurses' self-reported use of race in clinical evaluation. This cross-sectional study analyzed data collected from three separate studies using the Genetics and Genomics in Nursing Practice Survey, which includes items about use of race and genomic information in nursing practice. The Racial Attributes in Clinical Evaluation (RACE) scale was used to measure explicit clinical use of race among nurses from across the United States. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine associations between RACE score and individual-level characteristics and beliefs in 5,733 registered nurses. Analysis revealed significant relationships between RACE score and nurses' race and ethnicity, educational level, and views on the clinical importance of patient demographic characteristics. Asian nurses reported RACE scores 1.41 points higher than White nurses (p RACE scores 0.55 points higher than White nurses (p RACE scores (p RACE scores (p RACE scores (p race and ethnicity corresponded to a 0.54-point increase in RACE score (p RACE score (p RACE score (p RACE score (p race among minority nurses may be due, in part, to differential levels of racial self-awareness. A relatively linear positive relationship between level of nursing degree nursing education and use of race suggests that a stronger foundation of knowledge about genetic ancestry, population genetics and the concept "race" and genetic ancestry may increase in clinical decision making could allow nurses to more appropriately use of race in clinical care. Integrating patient demographic characteristics into clinical decisions is an important component of nursing practice. Registered nurses provide care for diverse racial and ethnic patient populations and stand on the front line of clinical care, making them essential for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare delivery. Exploring registered nurses' individual-level characteristics and clinical use of race may provide a more comprehensive

  12. Stress, race, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Karen Hye-cheon; Bursac, Zoran; DiLillo, Vicki; White, Della Brown; West, Delia Smith

    2009-01-01

    Stress has been identified as a significant factor in health and in racial/ethnic health disparities. A potential mediator in these relationships is body weight. Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between stress, race, and body weight were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese women with Type 2 diabetes (n = 217) enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program. Stress (Perceived Stress Scale) was assessed at baseline only and body weight (body mass index) was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Stress was not related to baseline body weight. With every 1 unit lower scored on the baseline stress measure, women lost 0.10 kg +/- .04 more at 6 months (p women were divided into tertiles based on baseline stress scores, those in the lowest stress group had significantly greater weight loss (5.2 kg +/- 4.9) compared with those in the highest stress group (3.0 kg +/- 4.0) (p weight loss has implications for enhancing weight loss programs for women with Type 2 diabetes. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.

  14. The racing-game effect: why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.

  15. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controlled Tanning Is Not Safe Tanning Guidelines for School Programs to Prevent Skin Cancer Research Related Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ...

  16. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  17. Racing to be an indispensable utility

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Every major IT supplier is rushing to be involved in the global computing grid, eager to take advantage of the developments and experience they will gain. Why? Because the race is on to become an IT utility" (1 page).

  18. Race as a Variable in Agenda Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randy E.; Wanta, Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Examines, based on a survey, potential differences between races in the agenda-setting process. Finds that whites and minorities do not have different issue agendas and do not differ on the magnitude of agenda-setting effects. (TB)

  19. Poverty, education, race, and pregnancy outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savitz, David A; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Thorp, Jr, John M; Kaczor, Diane T

    2004-01-01

    .... We assessed pregnancy outcome by race, education, and income (poverty index), using data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina, using binomial regression...

  20. Missouri S&T formula electric racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The Formula Electric racing team will promote Missouri S&Ts engineering excellence by successfully competing against other top : engineering universities in the US and around the world. Students on the team will have the opportunity to reinforce t...

  1. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACEBASE Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Division is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and related ecological and...

  2. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  3. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  4. Differences between racing and non-racing drivers: A simulator study using eye-tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available Motorsport has developed into a professional international competition. However, limited research is available on the perceptual and cognitive skills of racing drivers. By means of a racing simulator, we compared the driving performance of seven racing drivers with ten non-racing drivers. Participants were tasked to drive the fastest possible lap time. Additionally, both groups completed a choice reaction time task and a tracking task. Results from the simulator showed faster lap times, higher steering activity, and a more optimal racing line for the racing drivers than for the non-racing drivers. The non-racing drivers' gaze behavior corresponded to the tangent point model, whereas racing drivers showed a more variable gaze behavior combined with larger head rotations while cornering. Results from the choice reaction time task and tracking task showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Our results are consistent with the current consensus in sports sciences in that task-specific differences exist between experts and novices while there are no major differences in general cognitive and motor abilities.

  5. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise G. Yull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. The effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Ran

    Full Text Available Human beings do not passively perceive important social features about others such as race and age in social interactions. Instead, it is proposed that humans might continuously generate predictions about these social features based on prior similar experiences. Pre-awareness of racial information conveyed by others' faces enables individuals to act in "culturally appropriate" ways, which is useful for interpersonal relations in different ethnicity groups. However, little is known about the effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces. Here, we addressed this issue using high temporal resolution event-related potential techniques. In total, data from 24 participants (13 women and 11 men were analyzed. It was found that the N170 amplitudes elicited by other-race faces, but not own-race faces, were significantly smaller in the predictable condition compared to the unpredictable condition, reflecting a switch to holistic processing of other-race faces when those faces were predictable. In this respect, top-down prediction about face race might contribute to the elimination of the other-race effect (one face recognition impairment. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitudes were observed for the predictable than for unpredictable conditions, which suggested that the prediction of race reduced the neural responses of human brains.

  7. Own-Race-Absent Racism | Martin | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    racepresent racism, the race of the racist figures as a term in her racist thinking; in own-race-absent racism it does not. While own-race-present racism might conform readily to commonsense understandings of racism, own-race-absent racism less clearly ...

  8. From "Race-Consciousness" to "Colour-Consciousness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2010-01-01

    At the heart of the discussion in this special issue on race and affirmative action is the issue of whether race should be used as a category in admissions policies of South African universities. In my contribution I shall argue that there are no races. By race I mean the idea that skin colour (or other phenotypical features) associated with…

  9. Multiple race reporting for children in a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J D; Lucas, J B

    2000-01-01

    The 1997 standard for race and ethnicity data from the Office of Management and Budget requires the collection of data for multiple race groups. The aims of this study were to compare characteristics of multiple race children and describe race reporting for children within interracial and multiple race families. Descriptive statistics were estimated using the 1993-1995 National Health Interview Surveys. In this time period, 2.6% of children had more than one race reported. Multiple race children were a diverse group who differed from each other and their single race counterparts. For example, the percent of children reported as both Black and White who lived in a two-parent household (58.9%), was significantly less than the corresponding percents for other multiple race children (65.8%-79.6%), and between the corresponding percents for single race Black (42.7%) and single race White children (83.2%). The relationships between parental race and child's race varied. Although 3.1% of children in two-parent households lived with interracial parents, fewer than half of these children had more than one race reported. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with child's reported race among interracial families. These findings indicate that generalizations about multiple race children for research or policy purposes will be problematic.

  10. 77 FR 36390 - Special Local Regulations; Annual Bayview Mackinac Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Annual Bayview Mackinac Race... Annual Bayview Mackinac Race, commonly known as the Port Huron to Mackinac Sail Race. This action is... of the race. ] DATES: This rule is effective July 21, 2012. ADDRESSES: Comments and material received...

  11. 77 FR 28538 - Special Local Regulations; Annual Bayview Mackinac Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Annual Bayview Mackinac Race... start of the Annual Bayview Mackinac Race, commonly known as the Port Huron to Mackinac Sail Race. This... during the start of the race. DATES: Comments and related materials must be received by the Coast Guard...

  12. From 'race-consciousness' to 'colour-consciousness' | Le Grange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the heart of the discussion in this special issue on race and affirmative action is the issue of whether race should be used as a category in admissions policies of South African universities. In my contribution I shall argue that there are no races. By race I mean the idea that skin colour (or other phenotypical features) ...

  13. Tilting at Windmills: The Paradox of Researching Mixed-Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Kristen A.

    This paper addresses the growing interest among social scientists in studying the experiences of so-called mixed-race (or multiracial, biracial, or mixed heritage) individuals, when the study of multiraciality risks reinforcing the notion of fixed races. Distinguishing mixed-race people as a category assumes that there are pure races to begin with…

  14. Nutrition assessment of horse-racing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, O Sue; Windish, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers; however, the literature is sparse pertaining to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of "making weight" causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education was expressed to Cooperative Extension of Delaware by representatives of the riders at Delaware Park Race Track. Nutrition assessment was done using the Nutrition Care Process. Twenty jockeys were interviewed using an assessment form developed to target areas of disordered eating. Body mass index (BMI), mean weight loss on race day, methods of weight loss and ease of weight maintenance were examined. The jockeys were also asked for areas they wished to receive nutrition education on in the future. The BMI of the 20 jockeys ranged from 17.0 to 21.4 during racing season, with only one jockey in the "underweight" category. This range increased to 19.1-24.0 when the riders were not riding. The most common method of weight loss was the use of steam rooms, to lose an average 2.5 lb in 1 day. Eight of 20, the most common response, reported it very easy to maintain their racing weight. The jockeys reported interest in future education sessions on meal planning and healthy food ideas. The assessment was used as the basis to develop nutrition education materials and presentations for the riders at the race track.

  15. The Computational Complexity of RaceTrack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Markus; McKenzie, Pierre

    Martin Gardner in the early 1970's described the game of RaceTrack [M. Gardner, Mathematical games - Sim, Chomp and Race Track: new games for the intellect (and not for Lady Luck), Scientific American, 228(1):108-115, Jan. 1973]. Here we study the complexity of deciding whether a RaceTrack player has a winning strategy. We first prove that the complexity of RaceTrack reachability, i.e., whether the finish line can be reached or not, crucially depends on whether the car can touch the edge of the carriageway (racetrack): the non-touching variant is NL-complete while the touching variant is equivalent to the undirected grid graph reachability problem, a problem in L but not known to be L-hard. Then we show that single-player RaceTrack is NL-complete, regardless of whether driving on the track boundary is allowed or not, and that deciding the existence of a winning strategy in Gardner's original two-player game is P-complete. Hence RaceTrack is an example of a game that is interesting to play despite the fact that deciding the existence of a winning strategy is most likely not NP-hard.

  16. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted...... and humanities in areas such as sociology, anthropology, criminology, human geography and history as well as migration studies and gender studies....

  17. Association of discrimination-related trauma with sexual risk among HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fields, Errol L; Bogart, Laura M; Galvan, Frank H; Wagner, Glenn J; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    ...., physical assault because of race), was associated with unprotected anal intercourse, especially when compared with non-discrimination-related trauma, among African American men who have sex with men...

  18. Introduction to the Culture, Health & Sexuality Virtual Special Issue on sex, sexuality and sex work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan; Ditmore, Melissa Hope

    2016-05-18

    This article provides an editorial introduction to a virtual special issue on sex work and prostitution. It offers a brief history of sex work studies as published in the journal Culture, Health & Sexuality; reflects on the breadth and scope of papers the journal has published; considers the contribution of the journal's papers to the wellbeing and sexuality of people who sell sex; and envisions future areas of inquiry for sex work studies. As authors, we identify major themes within the journal's archive, including activism, agency, context, discourse, hazard, health, legalisation, love, place, power, race, relationships, stigma and vulnerabilities. In particular, we reflect on how HIV has created an environment in which issues of culture, health and sexuality have come to be disentangled from the moral agendas of earlier years. As a venue for the dissemination of a reinvigorated scholarship, Culture, Health & Sexuality provides a platform for a community of often like-minded, rigorous thinkers, to provide new and established perspectives, methods and voices and to present important developments in studies of sex, sexuality and sex work.

  19. Sex-related differences and age of peak performance in breaststroke versus freestyle swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrum, Mathias; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-12-19

    Sex-related differences in performance and in age of peak performance have been reported for freestyle swimming. However, little is known about the sex-related differences in other swimming styles. The aim of the present study was to compare performance and age of peak performance for elite men and women swimmers in breaststroke versus freestyle. Race results were analyzed for swimmers at national ranked in the Swiss high score list (during 2006 through 2010) and for international swimmers who qualified for the finals of the FINA World Swimming Championships (during 2003 through 2011). The sex-related difference in swimming speed was significantly greater for freestyle than for breaststroke over 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m race distances for Swiss swimmers, but not for FINA finalists. The sex-related difference for both freestyle and breaststroke swimming speeds decreased significantly with increasing swimming distance for both groups. Race distance did not affect the age of peak performance by women in breaststroke, but age of peak performance was four years older for FINA women than for Swiss women. Men achieved peak swimming performance in breaststroke at younger ages for longer race distances, and the age of peak swimming performance was six years older for FINA men than for Swiss men. In freestyle swimming, race distance did not affect the age of peak swimming performance for Swiss women, but the age of peak swimming performance decreased with increasing race distance for Swiss men and for both sexes at the FINA World Championships. Results of the present study indicate that (i) sex-related differences in swimming speed were greater for freestyle than for breaststroke for swimmers at national level, but not for swimmers at international level, and (ii) both female and male swimmers achieved peak swimming speeds at younger ages in breaststroke than in freestyle. Further studies are required to better understand differences between trends at national and

  20. Sex parties among urban MSM: an emerging culture and HIV risk environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Bland, Sean E; Driscoll, Maura A; Cranston, Kevin; Isenberg, Deborah; VanDerwarker, Rodney; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2011-02-01

    Private sex parties are an emerging risk environment for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2009, 103 participants who reported attending at least one sex party in Massachusetts in the prior 12 months completed an in-depth, interviewer-administered quantitative assessment. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations with having engaged in one or more serodiscordant unprotected anal sex (SDUAS) acts at the most recent sex party attended. Nearly one-third (32%) of the sample reported engaging in SDUAS at the most recent sex party attended. Adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment, variables associated with an increased odds of engaging in SDUAS at the most recent sex party were: total number of unprotected anal receptive sex acts at sex parties in the past 12 months, self-perception of being at-risk for transmitting or acquiring HIV, and sexual sensation seeking. Examined in the same model, if condoms were provided/available at the most recent sex party attended, participants were at a decreased odds of engaging in SDUAS at that sex party. The majority (80%) expressed an interest in HIV prevention activities for MSM who attend sex parties. HIV prevention interventions are needed to reach MSM who attend sex parties and should take into account individual and contextual factors that may contribute to sexual risk. Environmental factors in the sex party setting, in particular the presence and availability of condoms, may potentially mitigate individual-level factors such as unprotected anal sex.

  1. Education and race-ethnicity differences in the lifetime risk of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S E; Breslau, J; Conron, K J; Koenen, K C; Subramanian, S V; Zaslavsky, A M

    2008-03-01

    While lower socioeconomic status (SES) is related to higher risk for alcohol dependence, minority race-ethnicity is often associated with lower risk. This study attempts to clarify the nature and extent of social inequalities in alcohol dependence by investigating the effects of SES and race-ethnicity on the development of alcohol dependence following first alcohol use. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 43,093). Survival analysis was used to model alcohol dependence onset according to education, race-ethnicity and their interaction. United States, 2001-2. Compared with non-Hispanic white people, age-adjusted and sex-adjusted risks of alcohol dependence were lower among black people (odds ratio (OR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.63 to 0.78), Asians (OR = 0.65, CI = 0.49 to 0.86) and Hispanics (OR = 0.68, CI = 0.58 to 0.79) and higher among American Indians (OR = 1.37, CI = 1.09 to 1.73). Individuals without a college degree had higher risks of alcohol dependence than individuals with a college degree or more; however, the magnitude of risk varied significantly by race-ethnicity (chi(2) for the interaction between education and race-ethnicity = 19.7, df = 10, p = 0.03); odds ratios for less than a college degree were 1.12, 1.46, 2.24, 2.35 and 10.99 among Hispanics, white people, black people, Asians, and American Indians, respectively. There was no association between education and alcohol dependence among Hispanics. Race-ethnicity differences in the magnitude of the association between education and alcohol dependence suggest that aspects of racial-ethnic group membership mitigate or exacerbate the effects of social adversity.

  2. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity.

  3. Racial and/or Ethnic Differences in Formal Sex Education and Sex Education by Parents among Young Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderberg, Rachel H; Farkas, Amy H; Miller, Elizabeth; Sucato, Gina S; Akers, Aletha Y; Borrero, Sonya B

    2016-02-01

    We sought to investigate the associations between race and/or ethnicity and young women's formal sex education and sex education by parents. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 1768 women aged 15-24 years who participated in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth. We assessed 6 main outcomes: participants' report of: (1) any formal sex education; (2) formal contraceptive education; (3) formal sexually transmitted infection (STI) education; (4) any sex education by parents; (5) contraceptive education by parents; and (6) STI education by parents. The primary independent variable was self-reported race and/or ethnicity. Nearly all of participants (95%) reported any formal sex education, 68% reported formal contraceptive education, and 92% reported formal STI education. Seventy-five percent of participants reported not having any sex education by parents and only 61% and 56% reported contraceptive and STI education by parents, respectively. US-born Hispanic women were more likely than white women to report STI education by parents (adjusted odds ratio = 1.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.99). No other significant racial and/or ethnic differences in sex education were found. There are few racial and/or ethnic differences in formal sex education and sex education by parents among young women. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. All rights reserved.

  4. Forze hydrogen racing team Delft; TU Delft students develop hydrogen race-car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartvelt, M.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Working towards a sustainable, yet exciting future’ is one of the big challenges in engineering nowadays. A group of students from the TU Delft accepted this challenge and designed a zero-emission hydrogen powered race-car. Combining green technology with racing, Forze wants to show the potential

  5. Appiah on race and identity in the illusions of race: A rejoinder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whether Appiah's concession in [The Illusions of Race, 1992] that there are no races can stand vis-a-vis Masolo's submission in “African Philosophy and the Postcolonial: some Misleading Abstractions about Identity” (1997) that identity is impossible, it is worthy to note that much of what is entailed in human societies tend ...

  6. Discovering Race in a "Post-Racial" World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students about race remains a challenging task for instructors, made even more difficult in the context of a growing "post-racial" discourse. Given this challenge, it is important for instructors to find engaging ways to help students understand the continuing significance of race and racial/ethnic inequality. In this article,…

  7. The DUT racing team; design, produce and race your own car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortenhorst, J.

    2011-01-01

    The DUT Racing Team consists of a group of sixty students that will design and produce a racing car for the Formula Student competition in the period of one academic year. Within the team there is a great variety of people, all from different faculties, nationalities and age. In addition there is an

  8. Reasoning about Race and Pedagogy in Two Preservice Science Teachers: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Douglas B.; Maloney, Tanya; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of two preservice science teachers as they progress through their respective teacher education programs and uses critical race theory to examine the manner in which conceptions about race and its pedagogical implications change over time. Using a longitudinal case study method, participants' conceptual…

  9. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  10. Can Within-Race Achievement Comparisons Help Narrow Between-Race Achievement Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Reports on the low achievement of African American students tend to focus on Black-White achievement gaps. This study draws from official reports that also consider within-race achievement differences. An argument is presented that within-race comparisons are likely to reveal important causal factors that may go unnoticed when between-race…

  11. Sex Differences in Same-Sex Friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Mayta A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    1982-01-01

    College students answered questionnaires regarding number of same sex friends and frequency of interaction, typical and preferred kinds of interactions, and emotional intimacy. Men and women did not differ in number of friends, time spent with friends, nor in value placed on intimate friendships. Sex differences were found, however, in the nature…

  12. No evidence for the use of DIR, D-D fusions, chromosome 15 open reading frames or VH replacement in the peripheral repertoire was found on application of an improved algorithm, JointML, to 6329 human immunoglobulin H rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohm-Laursen, Line; Nielsen, Morten; Larsen, Stine R

    2006-01-01

    Antibody diversity is created by imprecise joining of the variability (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments of the heavy and light chain loci. Analysis of rearrangements is complicated by somatic hypermutations and uncertainty concerning the sources of gene segments and the precise way...... in which they recombine. It has been suggested that D genes with irregular recombination signal sequences (DIR) and chromosome 15 open reading frames (OR15) can replace conventional D genes, that two D genes or inverted D genes may be used and that the repertoire can be further diversified by heavy chain V...... gene (VH) replacement. Safe conclusions require large, well-defined sequence samples and algorithms minimizing stochastic assignment of segments. Two computer programs were developed for analysis of heavy chain joints. JointHMM is a profile hidden Markow model, while JointML is a maximum...

  13. Health insurance disparities among racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships: an intersectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Ortiz, Kasim

    2015-06-01

    We examined disparities in health insurance coverage for racial/ethnic minorities in same-sex relationships. We used data from the 2009 to 2011 American Community Survey on nonelderly adults (aged 25-64 years) in same-sex (n = 32 744), married opposite-sex (n = 2 866 636), and unmarried opposite-sex (n = 268 298) relationships. We used multinomial logistic regression models to compare differences in the primary source of health insurance while controlling for key demographic and socioeconomic factors. Adults of all races/ethnicities in same-sex relationships were less likely than were White adults in married opposite-sex relationships to report having employer-sponsored health insurance. Hispanic men, Black women, and American Indian/Alaska Native women in same-sex relationships were much less likely to have employer-sponsored health insurance than were their White counterparts in married opposite-sex relationships and their White counterparts in same-sex relationships. Differences in coverage by relationship type and race/ethnicity may worsen over time as states follow different paths to implementing health care reform and same-sex marriage.

  14. CERN Relay Race: a great success!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Thursday 1st June marked the traditional Relay Race at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. Once again, the Race lived up to the expectations and the number of participants came close to last year’s all-time high with no less than 715 entries across different categories! In total 116 teams of 6 runners and 19 walkers completed the course at the Meyrin site in bright sunshine. Congratulations to all of them! Our Director-General gave the starting signal for the Race, demonstrating the interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much appreciated commitment! Moreover, a number of very high-level runners came to spice up this 2017 edition. The 1000-meter race was a tight one between Alexandre Roche (top 5 in the “Tour du canton”) and Baptiste Fieux who tore up the race at 2’36 and 2’42 respectively. Baptiste passed the baton to Pierre Baqué, the winner of the 2015 Saint&a...

  15. Deciding on race: a diffusion model analysis of race-categorisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Christopher P; Skinner, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    It has long been known that a person's race can affect their decisions about people of another race; an observation that clearly taps into some deep societal issues. However, in order to behave differently in response to someone else's race, you must first categorise that person as other-race. The current study investigates the process of race-categorisation. Two groups of participants, Asian and Caucasian, rapidly classified facial images that varied from strongly Asian, through racially intermediate, to strongly Caucasian. In agreement with previous findings, there was a difference in category boundary between the two groups. Asian participants more frequently judged intermediate images as Caucasian and vice versa. We fitted a decision model, the Ratcliff diffusion model, to our two choice reaction time data. This model provides an account of the processes thought to underlie binary choice decisions. Within its architecture it has two components that could reasonably lead to a difference in race category boundary, these being evidence accumulation rate and a priori bias. The latter is the expectation or prior belief that a participant brings to the task, whilst the former indexes sensitivity to race-dependent perceptual cues. Whilst we find no good evidence for a difference in a priori bias between our two groups, we do find evidence for a difference in evidence accumulation rate. Our Asian participants were more sensitive to Caucasian cues within the images than were our Caucasian participants (and vice versa). These results support the idea that differences in perceptual sensitivity to race-defining visual characteristics drive differences in race categorisation. We propose that our findings fit with a wider view in which perceptual adaptation plays a central role in the visual processing of own and other race. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin-of-color epidemiology: a report of the most common skin conditions by race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Marsha D; Abboud, Josianne; Cogan, Chad M; Poisson, Laila M; Eide, Melody J; Shwayder, Tor A; Lim, Henry W

    2012-01-01

    To quantify and compare diagnoses according to race in pediatric Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) health plan patients seen in a general dermatology clinic over a 10-year period. Retrospective cohort of health plan pediatric patients seen in the dermatology clinic between 1997 and 2007 was established using an electronic medical record database. Diagnoses and diagnostic codes were recorded according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnostic codes grouped on their first three digits. The proportion of patients with each diagnosis was determined according to race and sex, and the 10 most common diagnoses were determined. The most common diagnoses observed in all pediatric patients were acne (28.6%), dermatitis (19.4%), and warts (16.2%), accounting for more than 60% of dermatologic visits by children. Although acne (29.9%), warts (22.6%), and dermatitis (13.1%) were also the most common diagnoses for Caucasian children, African American pediatric patients were most commonly seen for dermatitis (29.0%), acne (27.5%), and dermatophytosis (10.2%). The three most common diagnoses for Asian patients were dermatitis (29.1%), acne (22.2%), and warts (12.6%). Acne remains one of the most common dermatologic diagnoses in children of all races. Differences in frequency of office visits for dermatitis, warts, and dermatophytosis were seen when comparing children of other races with Caucasian children. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sex Education: Another View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer

    1977-01-01

    The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)

  18. Sex-linked recessive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked recessive; Genetics - sex-linked recessive; X-linked recessive ... X-linked recessive diseases most often occur in males. Males have only one X chromosome. A single recessive gene ...

  19. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  20. Surgical sterilization, regret, and race: contemporary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreffler, Karina M; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L; Johnson, David R

    2015-03-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4592 women ages 25-45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional intake during a simulated adventure race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; Crispim, Cebele Aparecida; Juzwiak, Claudia Ridel; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Edwards, Ben; Waterhouse, Jim; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2008-04-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the food intake of adventure racers during a competition simulated in the laboratory. Ten male athletes with international experience in adventure races took part in the study. The experiment lasted 67 hr (total distance covered 477.3 km), but 3 athletes did not finish the race. Food intake was recorded throughout the simulation. Athletes' total energy expenditure was greater than their total energy intake (24,516 vs. 14,738 kcal), and the athletes obtained significantly more energy from food than from supplements. Carbohydrate intake was below the recommendation of 0.5-1.0 g x kg(-1) x hr(-1). These results indicate that guidelines for multiday adventure races are needed.

  2. Race influences warfarin dose changes associated with genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limdi, Nita A; Brown, Todd M; Yan, Qi; Thigpen, Jonathan L; Shendre, Aditi; Liu, Nianjun; Hill, Charles E; Arnett, Donna K; Beasley, T Mark

    2015-07-23

    Warfarin dosing algorithms adjust for race, assigning a fixed effect size to each predictor, thereby attenuating the differential effect by race. Attenuation likely occurs in both race groups but may be more pronounced in the less-represented race group. Therefore, we evaluated whether the effect of clinical (age, body surface area [BSA], chronic kidney disease [CKD], and amiodarone use) and genetic factors (CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *6, *11, rs12777823, VKORC1, and CYP4F2) on warfarin dose differs by race using regression analyses among 1357 patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study and compared predictive ability of race-combined vs race-stratified models. Differential effect of predictors by race was assessed using predictor-race interactions in race-combined analyses. Warfarin dose was influenced by age, BSA, CKD, amiodarone use, and CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 variants in both races, by CYP2C9*2 and CYP4F2 variants in European Americans, and by rs12777823 in African Americans. CYP2C9*2 was associated with a lower dose only among European Americans (20.6% vs 3.0%, P races, the proportional decrease was higher among European Americans (28.9% vs 19.9%, P = .003) compared with African Americans. Race-stratified analysis improved dose prediction in both race groups compared with race-combined analysis. We demonstrate that the effect of predictors on warfarin dose differs by race, which may explain divergent findings reported by recent warfarin pharmacogenetic trials. We recommend that warfarin dosing algorithms should be stratified by race rather than adjusted for race. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  3. Sex Chromosome Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  4. Neural markers of opposite-sex bias in face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado eProverbio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Some behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggest that adults prefer to view attractive faces of the opposite sex more than attractive faces of the same sex. However, unlike the other-race face effect (ORE; Caldara et al., 2004, little is known regarding the existence of an opposite-/same-sex bias in face processing. In this study, the faces of 130 attractive male and female adults were foveally presented to 40 heterosexual university students (20 men and 20 women who were engaged in a secondary perceptual task (landscape detection. The automatic processing of face gender was investigated by recording ERPs from 128 scalp sites. Neural markers of opposite- vs. same-sex bias in face processing included larger and earlier centro-parietal N400s in response to faces of the opposite sex and a larger late positivity (LP to same-sex faces. Analysis of intra-cortical neural generators (swLORETA showed that facial processing-related (FG, BA37, BA20/21 and emotion-related brain areas (the right parahippocampal gyrus, BA35; uncus, BA36/38; and the cingulate gyrus, BA24 had higher activations in response to opposite- than same-sex faces. The results of this analysis, along with data obtained from ERP recordings, support the hypothesis that both genders process opposite-sex faces differently than same-sex faces. The data also suggest a hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of opposite-/same-sex faces, with the right hemisphere involved in processing same-sex faces and the left hemisphere involved in processing faces of the opposite sex. The data support previous literature suggesting a right lateralization for the representation of self-image and body awareness.

  5. High school seniors by race and SES

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2015-12-01

    In September, we looked at participation in high school physics by race and ethnicity, and we have provided two different views of physics in high school by socioeconomic status (SES). This month, we consider the proportion of seniors attending schools by race and SES. About half of the Hispanics and almost 45% of the African-Americans among high school seniors in 2013 attended a school where the students were determined to be "worse off" economically than their peers in the local area. The converse is true for Asians and Whites with the vast majority attending schools where students are seen as "better off" than their peers.

  6. Plan de Marketing Real Racing Club

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Pairet, Luis Carlos

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN: El presente trabajo se corresponde con el Trabajo de Fin de Máster, en el que se presenta un Plan de Marketing del Real Racing Club. El Racing es un equipo de fútbol y a través de este trabajo se pretende trasladar los conocimientos de marketing adquiridos durante el Master, a un plan de marketing siguiendo la estructura que un plan de marketing debe seguir. El trabajo se encuentra definido en varios apartados. El resumen de lo que nos encontramos en el trabajo es el siguiente: ...

  7. CERN Relay Race: information for drivers

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday, 24 May starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. In addition, there will be a Nordic Walking event which will finish around 12.50. This should not block the roads, but please drive carefully during this time. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race can be found here.

  8. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium....... The organizers provide short summaries of the other competitors. Finally, we summarize the championship results, followed by a discussion about what the organizers learned about 1) the development of high-performing car racing controllers and 2) the organization of scientific competitions....

  9. Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.

  10. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  11. Commentary Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    2008-01-31

    Jan 31, 2008 ... The discovery in reptiles that incubation temperature of the embryo affects its adult sex is about 40 ... environmental effects determine sex in some individuals, then those environmentally-influenced .... same pattern of sex-reversing only the homogametic (XX, ZZ) genotype, not the heterogametic (XY, ZW).

  12. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  13. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-01-01

    Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...

  14. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Cullen, Kevin; Bowie, Janice; Thorpe, Roland; Fakhry, Carole

    2014-01-01

    This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC). This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10) who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69), and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4%) and women (83.2%) had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each pHPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR) of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03), and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96) were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8) and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1). In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  15. Sexing young snowy owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.

    2011-01-01

    We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  16. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Lack of racial and sex stereotypes in the prediction of completed suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Charlitta S; Lester, David

    2013-12-01

    A sample of 252 college students was presented with vignettes and asked to predict the likelihood that the protagonist in each vignette would complete suicide. The crisis confronting the protagonist significantly affected judgments of the likelihood of completed suicide, but neither the race nor the sex of the protagonist affected this judgment, suggesting that sex and racial stereotypes about who completes suicide may no longer exist.

  18. Exercising 'Race' Through the Coronation Physical Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... through their concern with race. The Coronation Physical Training Competition fitted into this agenda. Despite betrayal by the English during the post South African War negotiations, Black political movements and individuals continued seeking means to prove themselves loyal subjects of the King. Black schools therefore ...

  19. Race, ethnicity and the sport media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research

  20. Fractures of the calcaneus in racing greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, P C; Dee, J F; Dee, L G; Hohn, R B

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-one calcaneus fractures associated with (41) or without (10) central tarsal bone (Tc) fractures in racing greyhounds were evaluated and categorized. All calcaneal fractures with no Tc fractures had a plantar proximal intertarsal subluxation. No subluxations were found in dogs with both calcaneal and central tarsal fractures. The calcaneal fractures were treated either with coaptation splints or surgical repair. Surgical techniques included a Steinmann pin with a figure eight tension band device or screw or plate fixation as primary techniques supplemented by Kirschner wires and cerclage wires. In all calcaneal fractures associated with plantar proximal intertarsal subluxation, an arthrodesis of the calcaneoquartal joint was performed. All 22 surgically repaired fractures in dogs available for physical and radiographic reexamination had healed within 1 to 6 months. Eight dogs with fractures of the calcaneus associated with fractures of Tc returned to a racing career. None of the dogs with plantar proximal intertarsal subluxation raced again. Based on the orientation of the fracture lines and on dissection of two tarsi with calcaneal fractures, a hypothesis on the pathogenesis of calcaneal fractures in racing greyhounds was formulated.

  1. CERN Relay Race: a great success!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    On Thursday May 19, the traditional relay race was held at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. In spite of the less than optimal weather, the 127 registered teams were not discouraged. Warmed by their efforts on the roads of CERN, the participants were able to withstand the chilly May weather. The start signal for the race was given by our Director General, demonstrating the interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much appreciated commitment! Can we hope for next year to see a team from the Directorate in the race? The many spectators who had come to cheer on the runners could also visit the stalls staffed by a few clubs and some of Interfon’s commercial partners. Refreshment and food stands contributed to the friendly atmosphere. The organisation of such an event requires however a substantial investment in order to cover all aspects of logistics, from preparation before the race, to the actual establishment ...

  2. Teaching Race Relations from Feature Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    1991-01-01

    Teaches race relations to college students using visual materials. Uses three films, "Gone with the Wind,""Mississippi Burning," and "The White Dawn," to illustrate how films depict history inaccurately and to help students unlearn false images. Includes questions for classroom discussion of U.S. racist culture. (NL)

  3. Race Discourse and the US Confederate Flag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.

    2009-01-01

    Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from…

  4. Race, class, gender, and American environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...

  5. Race Relations Training with Correctional Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Joe; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The model presented in this article is intended to assist correctional counselors and others in facilitating communication among prison guards of a different race from inmates and, further, to illustrate how to train guards in the fundamentals of developing a helping relationship with inmates. (Author)

  6. Catch shares slow the race to fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenbach, Anna M.; Kaczan, David J.; Smith, Martin D.

    2017-04-01

    In fisheries, the tragedy of the commons manifests as a competitive race to fish that compresses fishing seasons, resulting in ecological damage, economic waste, and occupational hazards. Catch shares are hypothesized to halt the race by securing each individual’s right to a portion of the total catch, but there is evidence for this from selected examples only. Here we systematically analyse natural experiments to test whether catch shares reduce racing in 39 US fisheries. We compare each fishery treated with catch shares to an individually matched control before and after the policy change. We estimate an average policy treatment effect in a pooled model and in a meta-analysis that combines separate estimates for each treatment-control pair. Consistent with the theory that market-based management ends the race to fish, we find strong evidence that catch shares extend fishing seasons. This evidence informs the current debate over expanding the use of market-based regulation to other fisheries.

  7. Body composition and exercise in racing pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, W; Maclean, J M; Preston, T

    1990-05-01

    Exercise-related changes in body protein 'turnover' and in the absolute amounts of body protein were studied in racing pigeons. Whole body radioactivity was followed in racing and control (limited exercise) birds after protein labelling by the injection of 75Seselenomethionine. Because of re-utilisation of the label this does not give a true picture of body protein turnover but the comparative data suggested an increased turnover in racing compared to control birds. Carcase analysis on a group of pigeons demonstrated a water content for lean body mass of 72.7 per cent +/- 3.54. Lean body mass and exchangeable body potassium were used as indices of total body protein in a group of pigeons participating in an endurance race (15 + hours of flying). The results indicated that no body protein had been used as an energy source. These findings are compatible with the presence in pigeons of a small labile pool or pools of protein. The presence and characteristics of such pools remains to be determined.

  8. Race, Citizenship and Social Order in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Bala Ruma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of race in Shakespeare’s Othello. It attempts to show that race is a very important issue raised by Shakespeare in the play in his eagerness to highlight the racial problems confronting Europe in the seventeenth century. In this play he attempts to expose the racial prejudice that exists in the Venetian society in particular and Europe in general. He also attempts to subvert the European feelings of racial superiority against the blacks in particular and people of other races in general. He sets out to do this by making a black man (Othello marry a white woman (Desdemona of an aristocratic extraction against the will and wish of her father. This inter-racial marriage may not in reality be possible in the seventeenth century, but all the same Shakespeare contrived it to be so, possibly as a way of foregrounding future change in European attitudes toward other races. The paper also looks at how individual citizens of a city-state like Venice can constitute themselves as threats to its social well being, by allowing their personal interests to override the national ethos. In this regard the activities of Othello, Iago and Roderigo are examined.

  9. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  10. Maybe Shakespeare Was Right about "Race"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ron H.

    1997-01-01

    Explains how the 19th- and 20th-century use of the word "race"--in the media, culture, and in classrooms--is one core element of the problem of racism that remains today. Further, it argues that teachers must critically analyze the words used in the classroom because they are primary active agents in formulating the subsequent actions…

  11. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  12. Race, Racial Projects, and Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Critical scholars have argued that mathematics education is in danger of becoming increasingly influenced by and aligned with neoliberal and neoconservative market-focused projects. Although this larger argument is powerful, there are often 2 peculiar responses to issues of race and racism within these analyses. These responses are characterized…

  13. Exiting whiteness: unthinking race, imagining different paradigms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With Seshadri- Crooks's reminder that race is “a practice of visibility rather than a scientific, anthropological or cultural theory” in mind, I speculate about the role visual culturecould play in giving shape to a non-racial society. I conclude by considering the work of South African artist Berni Searle which disavows the logic of ...

  14. Teaching Race, Place, and History through Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, John C.; Mazzocca, Ann E.; Goetz, Evan; Gibson, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the March 2014 workshop that the authors organized with approximately thirty pre-and in-service teachers from around the state of Virginia. The authors' broad focus in this workshop was the connection between race and the cultural landscape in Virginia. The goals were relatively simple: to get teachers and…

  15. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English ( ...

  16. Teaching Cultural Geography with "The Amazing Race"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    The reality show "The Amazing Race" serves as a useful text for the cultural geography classroom. As competitors travel the world, they complete challenging tasks designed to be both educational and entertaining. Audiences see actual images from destinations around the world and learn about the unique cultures of these places. They also…

  17. Race and Schools and Related Topics (Bibliography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography lists references dealing with race and schools under such topics as history, children, Black woman, American scene, Spanish Americans, Indian Americans, other ethnic groups, teachers, compensatory education, Afro-American Studies, innovative approaches, colleges, law and government, and school and work. (EB)

  18. CDC WONDER: Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates online databases report bridged-race population estimates of the July 1st resident population of the United States,...

  19. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Links Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined ... HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ...

  20. Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese

    2015-01-01

    Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.

  1. The Significance of Race and Selected Socioeconomic and Academic Variables in Program Tracking among Curriculum Students in the North Carolina Community College System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Isaac A.; Shearon, Ronald W.

    In spring 1979, a study was conducted to identify differences in the type of program track enrolled in by students in the North Carolina Community College System according to selected ascriptive variables (i.e., race, sex, occupation of household head, parents' income, and father's occupation); achievement variables (i.e., high school grade point…

  2. Race/Ethnicity and self-reported levels of discrimination and psychological distress, California, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, DeAnnah R

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between discrimination and distress among multiple racial groups because previous studies have focused primarily on either blacks or Asian Americans. The objective of this study was to assess the association between self-reported experiences of racial discrimination and symptoms of psychological distress among 5 racial/ethnic groups in California. I used data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey describing an adult sample of 27,511 non-Hispanic whites, 8,020 Hispanics, 1,813 non-Hispanic blacks, 3,875 non-Hispanic Asians, and 1,660 people of other races/ethnicities. The Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale determined symptoms of psychological distress. I used a single-item, self-reported measure to ascertain experiences of racial discrimination. Reports of racial discrimination differed significantly among racial groups. Self-reported discrimination was independently associated with psychological distress after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, sex, education level, employment status, general health status, nativity and citizenship status, English use and proficiency, ability to understand the doctor at last visit, and geographic location. The relationship between discrimination and psychological distress was modified by the interaction between discrimination and race/ethnicity; the effect of discrimination on distress was weaker for minority groups (ie, blacks and people of other races/ethnicities) than for whites. Self-reported discrimination may be a key predictor of high levels of psychological distress among racial/ethnic groups in California, and race appears to modify this association. Public health practitioners should consider the adverse effects of racial discrimination on minority health.

  3. The influence of health care professional characteristics on pain management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Emily J; Boissoneault, Jeff; Vargovich, Alison M; Wandner, Laura D; Hirsh, Adam T; Lok, Benjamin C; Heft, Marc W; Robinson, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that patient characteristics such as sex, race, and age influence the pain management decisions of health care providers. Although this signifies that patient demographics may be important determinants of health care decisions, pain-related care also may be impacted by the personal characteristics of the health care practitioner. However, the extent to which health care provider characteristics affect pain management decisions is unclear, underscoring the need for further research in this area. A total of 154 health care providers (77 physicians, 77 dentists) viewed video vignettes of virtual human (VH) patients varying in sex, race, and age. Practitioners provided computerized ratings of VH patients' pain intensity and unpleasantness, and also reported their willingness to prescribe non-opioid and opioid analgesics for each patient. Practitioner sex, race, age, and duration of professional experience were included as predictors to determine their impact on pain management decisions. When assessing and treating pain, practitioner sex, race, age, and duration of experience were all significantly associated with pain management decisions. Further, the role of these characteristics differed across VH patient sex, race, and age. These findings suggest that pain assessment and treatment decisions may be impacted by the health care providers' demographic characteristics, effects which may contribute to pain management disparities. Future research is warranted to determine whether findings replicate in other health care disciplines and medical conditions, and identify other practitioner characteristics (e.g., culture) that may affect pain management decisions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quantitative sexing (Q-Sexing) and relative quantitative sexing (RQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samer

    4Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n,. 13005 Ciudad Real, Spain. 5Khankaisky State Biosphere Nature Reserve, Russia. Accepted 26 September, 2012. Here we report a mammal sexing procedure based on the detection of quantitative differences between.

  5. What White Children Need to Know about Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Ali; Bartoli, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    While white parents' intention is to convey to their children the belief that race should not matter, the message their children receive is that race, in fact, does not matter. The intent and aim are noble, but in order for race not to matter in the long run, we have to acknowledge that, currently, it does matter a great deal. If white…

  6. Teacher-Principal Race and Teacher Satisfaction over Time, Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viano, Samantha L.; Hunter, Seth B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to replicate prior findings on teacher-principal race congruence and teacher job satisfaction and extend the literature by investigating trends over time and if the relationship between race congruence and teacher job satisfaction differs by principal race and region. Design/methodology/approach: The study…

  7. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  8. Family Structure, Race, Gender and Poverty: The Case of Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to examine the relationship between race, family structure and gender on one hand, and food deprivation as a measure of poverty on the other hand in South Africa. Main effects were found for race, residence, presence of children and adults, while interaction effect was found for race and family structure.

  9. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm in...

  10. Teaching Race as a Social Construction: Two Interactive Class Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching the social construction of race remains one of the most challenging tasks for instructors, yet understanding this concept is integral to student success in race and other inequality-themed courses. Instructors have access to an array of readings to help students understand race as a social construction, but few known inclass activities to…

  11. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  12. Racial Differences in College Students' Assessments of Campus Race Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; McCallum, Debra M.; Hughes, Michael; Smith, Gabrielle P. A.; McKnight, Utz

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the principles of critical race theory, we sought to understand how race and racism help explain differences in White and Black students' assessments of race relations on a predominantly White college campus. The authors employed data from a campus-wide survey conducted in Spring 2013 at the University of Alabama; the sample numbered…

  13. 76 FR 56183 - Race to the Top Fund Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... in Race to the Top State grant funds in two phases. On March 29, 2010, the Department announced the... 1894-AA01 Race to the Top Fund Phase 3 AGENCY: Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of proposed requirements. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) proposes requirements for Phase 3 of the Race to...

  14. 76 FR 37000 - Seattle Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Seattle Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Unlimited Hydroplane Race Special Local Regulation on Lake Washington, WA from 8:00 a.m. on August 4, 2011 through 11:59 p.m. on August 7, 2011 during hydroplane race times. This action is necessary to ensure...

  15. 33 CFR 100.1301 - Seattle seafair unlimited hydroplane race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydroplane race. 100.1301 Section 100.1301 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... unlimited hydroplane race. (a) This section is in effect annually during the last week in July and the first... hydroplane race course and then to the northerly tip of Ohlers Island in Andrews Bay. The western zone is...

  16. 75 FR 23587 - Seattle Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Seattle Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... regulation supporting the Seattle Seafair Unlimited Hydroplane Race on Lake Washington, WA from 10 a.m. on August 5, 2010 through 6 p.m. on August 8, 2010 during hydroplane race times. This action is necessary to...

  17. Confronting the Categories: Equitable Admissions without Apartheid Race Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Z.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set…

  18. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  19. Race Differences in Diet Quality of Urban Food-Insecure Blacks and Whites Reveals Resiliency in Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Allyssa J; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies shows a link between food insecurity and diet intake or quality. However, the moderating effect of race in this relation has not yet been studied. Food insecurity (USDA Food Security Module) and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010; HEI) were measured in 1741 participants from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Data were collected from 2004 to 2009 and analyzed in 2014. Multivariable regression assessed the interaction of race and food insecurity on HEI scores, adjusting for age, sex, poverty status, single parent status, drug, alcohol and cigarette use, and comorbid diseases. The interaction of food insecurity and race was significantly associated with diet quality (p = 0.001). In the absence of food insecurity, HEI scores were similar across race. However, with each food insecurity item endorsed, HEI scores were substantially lower for Whites compared to Blacks. An ad hoc analysis revealed that Blacks were more likely than Whites to participate in SNAP (p food insecurity with diet quality. Study findings provide the first evidence that the influence of food insecurity on diet quality may be potentiated for Whites, but not Blacks. Additionally, results show that Blacks are more likely to participate in SNAP and show attendant buffering of the effects of food insecurity on diet quality. These findings may have important implications for understanding how food insecurity affects diet quality differentially by race.

  20. Use of individual race results in the estimation of genetic parameters of trotting performance for Finnhorse and Standardbred trotters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. THUNEBERG-SELONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The heritability and repeatability for trotting performance traits were estimated from individual race results. Data comprised of records from 1991 to 1995 for 4808 Finnhorses and from 1993 to 1995 for 5869 Standardbred trotters. The statistical model included the additive genetic effect of an animal and two permanent environmental effects, and the fixed effects of sex, age, starting method*starting lane combination, driver and race. The first permanent environmental effect described repeatability over a horse’s career while the second one characterized repeatability within a racing year. Variance components for three trotting performance traits were estimated by the animal model and the method of restricted maximum likelihood (REML. Heritability and repeatability estimates were moderately high for time at finish (h 2 =0.23–0.28 and r=0.50–0.57, moderate for ranking within a race (h 2 =0.12 and r=0.25 and low for earnings (h 2 =0.05–0.09 and r=0.15–0.18. Time at finish seemed to be the most usable measure of trotting performance because of its wide information substance. However, time at finish does not take into account records of disqualified horses or of those which did not finish, but use of earnings, either from individual race results or preferably from annual records, is one possible way to consider records of such horses.;