WorldWideScience

Sample records for vh indices derived

  1. Antiangiogenic Effects of VH02, a Novel Urea Derivative: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwadee Phowichit

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 is a vital target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. We have recently described a computer-based drug design for a small molecule VEGFR2 inhibitor named VH02 (1-((1-(1H-indazol-6-yl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylmethyl-3-(3-chloromethylphenylurea. This study aimed to further explore the anti-angiogenic activity of VH02 both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro assays include cell viability, capillary-like tube formation, MMP activity, and western blot analyses of signaling through VEGFR2 while the in vivo anti-angiogenic response were performed to evaluate the effect on vascularization in Matrigel plug applied in C57BL/6L mice. VH02 reduced angiogenesis behavior of EA.hy926 including cell viability, migration, adhesion, capillary-like tube formation, and MMP-2 activity induced by VEGF. Furthermore, VH02 regulated angiogenesis by directly inhibiting VEGFR2 on Tyr1175 signaling pathway leading to the inhibition of Akt-mediated cell survival and migration. Disruption of phosphorylation at VEGFR2-Tyr1175 by VH02 abolished FAK-Tyr397 signaling but not phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. This suggests that blockade of FAK by VH02 apparently associated with reduction of endothelial cell motility. Actin cytoskeleton rearrangement was diminished by VH02 in human endothelial cells. The anti-angiogenic effect of VH02 was confirmed in the in vivo model, revealing the reduction of vascular density in Matrigel plug after VH02 treatment. Additionally, the pericyte-like cells surrounding blood vessels in the plugs were significantly reduced as well as vascular density and p-Akt intensity. Our findings indicate that VH02 successfully inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo models. The compound could be further developed as an antiangiogenesis agent for cancer therapy.

  2. VH replacement in primary immunoglobulin repertoire diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Amy; Novobrantseva, Tatiana I; Coffre, Maryaline; Hewitt, Susannah L; Jensen, Kari; Skok, Jane A; Rajewsky, Klaus; Koralov, Sergei B

    2015-02-03

    The genes encoding the variable (V) region of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) are assembled from V, D (diversity), and J (joining) elements through a RAG-mediated recombination process that relies on the recognition of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) flanking the individual elements. Secondary V(D)J rearrangement modifies the original Ig rearrangement if a nonproductive original joint is formed, as a response to inappropriate signaling from a self-reactive BCR, or as part of a stochastic mechanism to further diversify the Ig repertoire. VH replacement represents a RAG-mediated secondary rearrangement in which an upstream VH element recombines with a rearranged VHDHJH joint to generate a new BCR specificity. The rearrangement occurs between the cryptic RSS of the original VH element and the conventional RSS of the invading VH gene, leaving behind a footprint of up to five base pairs (bps) of the original VH gene that is often further obscured by exonuclease activity and N-nucleotide addition. We have previously demonstrated that VH replacement can efficiently rescue the development of B cells that have acquired two nonproductive heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements. Here we describe a novel knock-in mouse model in which the prerearranged IgH locus resembles an endogenously rearranged productive VHDHJH allele. Using this mouse model, we characterized the role of VH replacement in the diversification of the primary Ig repertoire through the modification of productive VHDHJH rearrangements. Our results indicate that VH replacement occurs before Ig light chain rearrangement and thus is not involved in the editing of self-reactive antibodies.

  3. Contribution of V(H replacement products in mouse antibody repertoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Huang

    Full Text Available VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated recombination between the cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS near the 3' end of a rearranged VH gene and the 23-bp RSS from an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cRSS, VH replacement leaves a short stretch of nucleotides from the previously rearranged VH gene at the newly formed V-D junction, which can be used as a marker to identify VH replacement products. To determine the contribution of VH replacement products to mouse antibody repertoire, we developed a Java-based VH Replacement Footprint Analyzer (VHRFA program and analyzed 17,179 mouse IgH gene sequences from the NCBI database to identify VH replacement products. The overall frequency of VH replacement products in these IgH genes is 5.29% based on the identification of pentameric VH replacement footprints at their V-D junctions. The identified VH replacement products are distributed similarly in IgH genes using most families of VH genes, although different families of VH genes are used differentially. The frequencies of VH replacement products are significantly elevated in IgH genes derived from several strains of autoimmune prone mice and in IgH genes encoding autoantibodies. Moreover, the identified VH replacement footprints in IgH genes from autoimmune prone mice or IgH genes encoding autoantibodies preferentially encode positively charged amino acids. These results revealed a significant contribution of VH replacement products to the diversification of antibody repertoire and potentially, to the generation of autoantibodies in mice.

  4. Monoclonal immunoglobulin a derived from peritoneal B cells is encoded by both germ line and somatically mutated V-H genes and is reactive with commensal bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, NA; Bun, JCAM; Popma, SH; Cebra, ER; Deenen, GJ; vanderCammen, MJF; Kroese, FGM; Cebra, JJ

    We transferred peritoneal cells from BALB/c mice into C.B17 scid/scid mice, Six to eight months after injection, only cells with the B1 phenotype were retained in the spleens and peritoneal cavities of these mice. The lamina propria of the intestine contained many peritoneal, donor-derived,

  5. Trials and Tribulations with VH Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhao eMeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VH replacement is a type of antibody gene rearrangement in which an upstream heavy chain variable gene segment (VH invades a pre-existing rearrangement (VDJ. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we begin by reviewing the mechanism of VH replacement, its developmental timing and its potential biological consequences. Then we explore the hypothesis that specific sequence motifs called footprints reflect VH replacement vs. other processes. We provide a compilation of footprint sequences from different regions of the antibody heavy chain, include data from the literature and from a high throughput sequencing experiment to evaluate the significance of footprint sequences. We conclude by discussing the difficulties of attributing footprints to VH replacement.

  6. Notch-RBP-J-independent marginal zone B cell development in IgH transgenic mice with VH derived from a natural polyreactive antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Lanhua; Yang, Xinwei; Wang, Yaochun; Zhang, Ping; Hou, Lihong; Hu, Xinbin; Xing, Ying; Liu, Yufeng; Li, Wei; Han, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Both the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling and Notch signaling pathway play important roles in marginal zone (MZ) B cell development; however, if and how these two signaling pathways engage in crosstalk with each other remain unclear. In the present study, IgH transgenic mice (TgV(H)3B4) were crossed with mice with Notch downstream transcription factor RBP-J floxed alleles (RBP-J(f/f)) and Mx-Cre transgene. Subsequently, MZ B cell development was analyzed in 3B4/Cre/RBP-J(f/f) mice that expressed the transgenic 3B4 IgH and exhibited a deficiency in Notch signaling in B cells upon poly (I:C) injection. We observed that MZ B cell numbers were severely reduced, but still detectable in 3B4/Cre/RBP-J(f/f) mice, in contrast to increased numbers of MZ B cells in TgV(H)3B4 mice and almost no MZ B cells in Cre/RBP-J(f/f) mice. The majority of the MZ B cells in the 3B4/Cre/RBP-J(f/f) mice had the same antigen specificity with that of 3B4 antibody, indicating that a particular BCR specificity might direct MZ B cell development in the absence of Notch signaling. The number of MZ B precursor (MZP) cells was reduced sharply in 3B4/Cre/RBP-J(f/f) mice, and the number of transitional stage 1 and transitional stage 2 cells did not change that much, indicating that the interaction between BCR and Notch signaling likely occurred during the T2-MZP stage. Based on the transgenic mouse model, our data indicate that MZ B cells with certain BCR specificity can develop in a Notch-RBP-J independent manner.

  7. Notch-RBP-J-independent marginal zone B cell development in IgH transgenic mice with VH derived from a natural polyreactive antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Both the B cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling and Notch signaling pathway play important roles in marginal zone (MZ B cell development; however, if and how these two signaling pathways engage in crosstalk with each other remain unclear. In the present study, IgH transgenic mice (TgV(H3B4 were crossed with mice with Notch downstream transcription factor RBP-J floxed alleles (RBP-J(f/f and Mx-Cre transgene. Subsequently, MZ B cell development was analyzed in 3B4/Cre/RBP-J(f/f mice that expressed the transgenic 3B4 IgH and exhibited a deficiency in Notch signaling in B cells upon poly (I:C injection. We observed that MZ B cell numbers were severely reduced, but still detectable in 3B4/Cre/RBP-J(f/f mice, in contrast to increased numbers of MZ B cells in TgV(H3B4 mice and almost no MZ B cells in Cre/RBP-J(f/f mice. The majority of the MZ B cells in the 3B4/Cre/RBP-J(f/f mice had the same antigen specificity with that of 3B4 antibody, indicating that a particular BCR specificity might direct MZ B cell development in the absence of Notch signaling. The number of MZ B precursor (MZP cells was reduced sharply in 3B4/Cre/RBP-J(f/f mice, and the number of transitional stage 1 and transitional stage 2 cells did not change that much, indicating that the interaction between BCR and Notch signaling likely occurred during the T2-MZP stage. Based on the transgenic mouse model, our data indicate that MZ B cells with certain BCR specificity can develop in a Notch-RBP-J independent manner.

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of the Fish Pathogen Vibrio harveyi Strains VH2 and VH5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; D'Alvise, Paul; Middelboe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is an important marine pathogen that is responsible for vibriosis outbreaks in cultured fish and invertebrates worldwide. Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of V. harveyi strains VH2 and VH5, isolated from farmed juvenile Seriola dumerili during outbreaks of vibriosis...

  9. Genotypic analysis of B cell colonies by in situ hybridization. Stoichiometric expression of three VH families in adult C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, D H; Kelsoe, G

    1987-07-01

    The filter paper disc method for cloning inducible lymphocytes was used to census the splenic B cell population of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice for the expression of three VH gene-families, VH X-24, -Q52, and -J558. B cell colonies, arising from single founder lymphocytes, were identified by in situ hybridization with VH family- and C mu-specific cDNA probes. Some 6.7 X 10(4) C mu+ colonies were screened. Among C57BL/6- or BALB/c-derived colonies, approximately 3% were VH X-24+, approximately 19% were VH Q52+, and approximately 54% were VH J558+. These frequencies are consistent with a process of equiprobable expression for individual VH segments, and provide direct evidence that normal splenic B lymphocytes use a process of random genetic combinatorics to generate the antibody repertoire.

  10. IgG variable region and VH CDR3 diversity in unimmunized mice analyzed by massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin; Panavas, Tadas; Thys, Kim; Aerssens, Jeroen; Naso, Michael; Fisher, Jamie; Rycyzyn, Michael; Sweet, Raymond W

    2014-02-01

    Most antigen-specific mouse antibodies have been derived by hybridoma technology, predominantly through use of the Balb/c strain. Much of the Balb/c germline repertoire of variable genes (V regions) is known. However, there is little information about the background expressed repertoire of IgG antibodies in mice, which reflects the baseline against which antigen-specific antibodies are generated through immunization. To assess this baseline repertoire, RNA was isolated from splenic B-cells enriched for expression of IgG from three mice. The RNA was individually amplified with three distinct PCR primer sets for comprehensive recovery of the heavy and light chain variable regions. Each PCR product was independently subjected to deep sequencing using 454 pyro-sequencing technology and analysed for redundancy, open reading frame, germline representation, and CDR3 sequence of the heavy chain variable region (VH CDR3) within and across the primer sets and mice. A highly skewed abundance of heavy and light chain variable gene usage was observed for all three primers in all three mice. While showing considerable overlap, there were differences among these profiles indicative of primer bias and animal-to-animal variation. VH CDR3 sequences were likewise highly skewed indicating that the heavy chain genes profiles substantially reflected individual antibodies. This observation was confirmed through analysis of randomly selected complete heavy chain variable sequences. However, there was very little redundancy in VH CDR3 sequences across the different mice. We conclude that the background IgG repertoire in young, unimmunized mice is highly skewed within individual mice and is diverse among them, a pattern similar to that observed in highly immunized mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. VH Replacement Footprint Analyzer-I, a Java-Based Computer Program for Analyses of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes and Potential VH Replacement Products in Human and Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Lange, Miles D; Zhang, Zhixin

    2014-01-01

    VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated secondary recombination between a rearranged VH gene and an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS, TACTGTG) at the 3' end of VH gene coding region, a short stretch of nucleotides from the previous rearranged VH gene can be retained in the newly formed VH-DH junction as a "footprint" of VH replacement. Such footprints can be used as markers to identify Ig heavy chain (IgH) genes potentially generated through VH replacement. To explore the contribution of VH replacement products to the antibody repertoire, we developed a Java-based computer program, VH replacement footprint analyzer-I (VHRFA-I), to analyze published or newly obtained IgH genes from human or mouse. The VHRFA-1 program has multiple functional modules: it first uses service provided by the IMGT/V-QUEST program to assign potential VH, DH, and JH germline genes; then, it searches for VH replacement footprint motifs within the VH-DH junction (N1) regions of IgH gene sequences to identify potential VH replacement products; it can also analyze the frequencies of VH replacement products in correlation with publications, keywords, or VH, DH, and JH gene usages, and mutation status; it can further analyze the amino acid usages encoded by the identified VH replacement footprints. In summary, this program provides a useful computation tool for exploring the biological significance of VH replacement products in human and mouse.

  12. ATLAS VH(bb) Run II Search

    CERN Document Server

    Buzatu, Adrian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs boson discovered at the LHC in 2012 has been observed coupling directly to W and Z bosons and to tau leptons, and indirectly to top quarks. In order to probe if it is indeed the particle predicted by the Standard Model, direct couplings of the Higgs boson to quarks must also be measured. The Higgs boson decays most often to a pair of bottom quarks (with a branching ratio of 58%). When the Higgs boson is produced alone in gluon-gluon fusion, the signal in this decay mode is overwhelmed by the regular multi-jet background. By requiring the Higgs boson to be produced in association with a vector boson V (W or Z), which is further required to decay leptonically, data events can be selected using charged-lepton or missing transverse energy triggers. The Tevatron experiments presented combined results showing evidence for the VH(H to bb) process at a significance level of about 3 standard deviations, while the combined LHC results from Run II data show a 2.6 standard deviation evidence for the H to bb dec...

  13. Screening Obesity by Direct and Derived Anthropometric Indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), some direct and derived anthropometric indices, and ... taken in temperature of 20‑25°C and relative humidity of about 45‑50% in winter season in India, ..... system is capable of transport oxygen to muscles during prolonged exercise. Resting ...

  14. MODERN INDICATORS DERIVED FROM VALUE CREATION AND DISCOUNTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cican Simona

    2013-07-01

    In this article, we will present the connection between discounted cash flow methods and the indicators derived from value creation, based on the business finance theory, which says that firm value will increase if projects with positive net present value are accepted, while it will be destroyed if projects with negative net present value are accepted.

  15. ENSO Indices Based on Patterns of Satellite-Derived Precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert

    2000-08-01

    In this study, gridded observed precipitation datasets are used to construct rainfall-based ENSO indices. The monthly El Niño and La Niña indices (EI and LI) measure the steepest zonal gradient of precipitation anomalies between the equatorial Pacific and the Maritime Continent. This is accomplished by spatially averaging precipitation anomalies using a spatial boxcar filter, finding the maximum and minimum averages within a Pacific and Maritime Continent domain for each month, and taking differences. The EI and LI can be examined separately or combined to produce one El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) precipitation index (ESPI). ESPI is well correlated with traditional sea surface temperature (e.g., Niño-3.4) and pressure indices [e.g., Southern Oscillation index (SOI)], leading Niño-3.4 by a month. ESPI has a tendency to produce stronger La Niñas than does Niño-3.4 and SOI. One advantage satellite-derived precipitation indices have over more conventional indices is describing the strength and position of the Walker circulation. Examples are given of tracking the impact of recent ENSO events on the tropical precipitation fields. The 1982/83 and 1997/98 events were unique in that, during the transition from the warm to the cold phase, precipitation patterns associated with El Niño and La Niña were simultaneously strong. According to EI and ESPI, the 1997/98 El Niño was the strongest event over the past 20 years.

  16. Peripheral VH4+ Plasmablasts Demonstrate Autoreactive B Cell Expansion Toward Brain Antigens in Early Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Jacqueline R.; Ireland, Sara J.; Chkheidze, Rati; Rounds, William H.; Lim, Joseph; Johnson, Jordan; Ramirez, Denise M.O.; Ligocki, Ann J.; Chen, Ding; Guzman, Alyssa A.; Woodhall, Mark; Wilson, Patrick C.; Meffre, Eric; White, Charles; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Waters, Patrick; Cowell, Lindsay G.; Stowe, Ann M.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmablasts are a highly differentiated, antibody secreting B cell subset whose prevalence correlates with disease activity in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). For most patients experiencing partial transverse myelitis (PTM), plasmablasts are elevated in the blood at the first clinical presentation of disease (known as clinically isolated syndrome or CIS). In this study we found that many of these peripheral plasmablasts are autoreactive and recognize primarily gray matter targets in brain tissue. These plasmablasts express antibodies that over-utilize immunoglobulin heavy chain V-region subgroup 4 (VH4) genes, and the highly mutated VH4+ plasmablast antibodies recognize intracellular antigens of neurons and astrocytes. Most of the autoreactive, highly mutated VH4+ plasmablast antibodies recognize only a portion of cortical neurons, indicating that the response may be specific to neuronal subgroups or layers. Furthermore, CIS-PTM patients with this plasmablast response also exhibit modest reactivity toward neuroantigens in the plasma IgG antibody pool. Taken together, these data indicate that expanded VH4+ peripheral plasmablasts in early MS patients recognize brain gray matter antigens. Peripheral plasmablasts may be participating in the autoimmune response associated with MS, and provide an interesting avenue for investigating the expansion of autoreactive B cells at the time of the first documented clinical event. PMID:27730299

  17. VH Replacement Footprint Analyser-I (VHRFA-I, a Java based Computer Program for Analyses of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes and Potential VH Replacement Products in Human and Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eHuang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available VH replacement occurs through RAG-mediated secondary recombination between a rearranged VH gene and an upstream unrearranged VH gene. Due to the location of the cryptic Recombination Signal Sequence (cRSS, TACTGTG at the 3’ end of VH gene coding region, a short stretch of nucleotides from the previous rearranged VH gene can be retained in the newly formed VH-DH junction as a footprint of VH replacement. Such footprints can be used as markers to identify IgH genes potentially generated through VH replacement. To explore the contribution of VH replacement products to the antibody repertoire, we developed a Java based computer program, VH replacement footprint analyzer-I (VHRFA-I, to analyze published or newly obtained IgH genes from human or mouse. The VHRFA-1 program has multiple functional modules: it first uses service provided by the IMGT/V-QUEST program to assign potential VH, DH, and JH germline genes; then, it searches for VH replacement footprint motifs within the VH-DH junction (N1 regions of IgH gene sequences to identify potential VH replacement products; it can also analyze the frequencies of VH replacement products in correlation with publications, keywords, or VH, DH, and JH gene usages, and mutation status; it can further analyze the amino acid usages encoded by the identified VH replacement footprints. In summary, this program provides a useful computation tool for exploring the biological significance of VH replacement products in human and mouse.

  18. Directed evolution of human heavy chain variable domain (VH using in vivo protein fitness filter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sik Kim

    Full Text Available Human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable domains (VH are promising scaffolds for antigen binding. However, VH is an unstable and aggregation-prone protein, hindering its use for therapeutic purposes. To evolve the VH domain, we performed in vivo protein solubility selection that linked antibiotic resistance to the protein folding quality control mechanism of the twin-arginine translocation pathway of E. coli. After screening a human germ-line VH library, 95% of the VH proteins obtained were identified as VH3 family members; one VH protein, MG2x1, stood out among separate clones expressing individual VH variants. With further screening of combinatorial framework mutation library of MG2x1, we found a consistent bias toward substitution with tryptophan at the position of 50 and 58 in VH. Comparison of the crystal structures of the VH variants revealed that those substitutions with bulky side chain amino acids filled the cavity in the VH interface between heavy and light chains of the Fab arrangement along with the increased number of hydrogen bonds, decreased solvation energy, and increased negative charge. Accordingly, the engineered VH acquires an increased level of thermodynamic stability, reversible folding, and soluble expression. The library built with the VH variant as a scaffold was qualified as most of VH clones selected randomly were expressed as soluble form in E. coli regardless length of the combinatorial CDR. Furthermore, a non-aggregation feature of the selected VH conferred a free of humoral response in mice, even when administered together with adjuvant. As a result, this selection provides an alternative directed evolution pathway for unstable proteins, which are distinct from conventional methods based on the phage display.

  19. Microwave vegetation indices derived from satellite microwave radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation indices are valuable in many fields of geosciences. Conventional, visible-near infrared, indices are often limited by the effects of atmosphere, background soil conditions, and saturation at high levels of vegetation. In this study, the theoretical basis for a new type of passive microwav...

  20. Evaluating derived vegetation indices and cover fraction to estimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two major factors affecting the quality and conditions of the rangelands, namely rainfall zones and grazing intensities, were used to define sampling classes to represent the predominantly Savanah environment. Remote sensing vegetation indices (NDVI and SAVI) and vegetation cover fraction (SMA) were used to quantify ...

  1. Screening Obesity by Direct and Derived Anthropometric Indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The available information regarding the obesity pattern of the undergraduate female students of Kolkata is inadequate, though there are several reports which indicate the complications and/or awful consequences of obesity on female health particularly, during the reproductive years. Aim: The present ...

  2. Cost-derived indices for building design and construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    predict fairly accurately the actual building costs. Also as multiples of gfi, substructure cost index, sci and roofing cost index, rci could predict componental costs of substructure and roofing for phased development purposes. Keywords: Cost Indices, Building Design, Building Construction Journal of Modeling, Design and ...

  3. Screening Obesity by Direct and Derived Anthropometric Indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in an urban Palestine population. Int J Obs Rel Met Dis. 2001;25:1736‑40. 31. Roy JS. Epidemiological indices, anthropometric and cadaver estimates of body composition. Body Composition In. Biological Anthropology. Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology. Cambridge: University. Press; 1991. p.

  4. Screening Obesity by Direct and Derived Anthropometric Indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical fitness [57.60 (3.90)] and higher energy expenditure [5.61 (0.72)]. Conclusion: The findings of the present obesity screening reports almost one of four female students (24 out of 100 participants) are overweight/obese, indicated higher body fat distribution and increased propensity of being obese with age. Thus, the ...

  5. Screening Obesity by Direct and Derived Anthropometric Indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were found to have poor to moderate physical fitness [57.60 (3.90)] and higher energy expenditure [5.61 (0.72)]. Conclusion: The findings of the present obesity screening reports almost one of four female students (24 out of 100 participants) are overweight/obese, indicated higher body fat distribution and increased ...

  6. VH3 Gene Usage in Neutralizing Human Antibodies Specific for the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc Lectin Heavy Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Katsuomi; Cheng, Xun-Jia; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Kaneda, Yoshimasa; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ihara, Seiji; Petri, Jr., William A.

    2003-01-01

    A combinatorial human immunoglobulin gene library was constructed from peripheral lymphocytes of an asymptomatic Entamoeba histolytica cyst passer and screened for the production of Fab antibody to the parasite. One of the Fab clones, CP33, recognized the 260-kDa galactose- and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (Gal/GalNAc)-specific lectin of E. histolytica. By shuffling the heavy and light chains of CP33 with the heavy and light chains of two libraries derived from the cyst passer and a liver abscess patient, 18 additional clones were obtained. Sequence analysis of the heavy-chain genes, including CP33-H, revealed that all the nearest V-segment germ lines belonged to the VH3 family (VH3-21, VH3-30, VH3-48, and VH3-53), but the levels of homology were only 85 to 95%. The closest D-segment germ line was D2-2 or D6-6, and for the J-segment the closest germ line was JH4b or JH6b. On the other hand, all the light-chain genes, including CP33-L, belonged to the Vκ1 family, in which the closest Vκ germ line gene was 02/012 or L5, with the Jκ1, Jκ2, Jκ4, or Jκ5 segment. CP33 and three other Fabs obtained by light-chain shuffling were purified and analyzed further. All of these Fabs recognized the cysteine-rich domain of the 170-kDa heavy subunit of the Gal/GalNAc lectin. Preincubation of E. histolytica trophozoites with these Fabs significantly inhibited amebic adherence to Chinese hamster ovary cells and also inhibited erythrophagocytosis. The ability of the neutralizing antibodies to block erythrophagocytosis for the first time implicates the lectin in phagocytosis and VH3 antibodies in defense against parasitic infections. These results demonstrate the utility of a combinatorial human immunoglobulin gene library for identifying and characterizing neutralizing antibodies from humans with amebiasis. PMID:12874307

  7. Deriving vulnerability indicators for crop production regions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdinan; Atmaja, Tri; Sehabuddin, Ujang; Sugiarto, Yon; Febrianti, Lina; Farysca Adi, Ryco

    2017-01-01

    Food supply is considered as one of the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Higher temperature and changes in rainfall patterns and intensity may adversely impact crop production, which will eventually affect the food supply. Consequently, adaptation strategies should be devised to minimize the potential adverse impacts and maximize its potential benefits. The adaptation strategies should be devised by considering factors contributed to causing vulnerability following the concept of food supply chain, starting from production to consumption. This study focuses on identifying the contributed factors to vulnerability of crop production regions in Indonesia. The contributed factors were identified by defining indicators for each component of the food supply chain using an example of crop production centers in Indonesia, the West Java Province. The identification considers existing issues of the food supply chain, covering aspects of production, post-harvest and storage, distribution, and consumption, based on the field surveys conducted in Indramayu district of the West Java, the main grower of paddy production, and Garut district of the West Java, the main grower of corn production. The selection of the vulnerability indicators was also considered the data availability for the study area. The analysis proposed a list of indicators classified into production, post-harvest and storage, distribution and consumption that are proposed to assess the regional vulnerability of crop production regions in Indonesia. This result is expected to contribute in understanding the process of devising climate change adaptation intended for enhancing food supply resilience to climate change.

  8. Meaningful wind chill indicators derived from heat transfer principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, Neima; Shacham, M.

    1995-03-01

    The wind chill index (WCI) and the more widely used wind chill equivalent temperature represent an attempt to combine several weather-related variables (temperature, wind velocity and solar radiation) into a single index which can indicate human comfort. Since its introduction in 1945, the WCI has been criticized mainly on the ground that the underlying model does not comply with modern heat transfer theory. In spite of that, the WCI, “calibrated” to human comfort, has proven to be successful in predicting discomfort and tolerance of man to the cold. Nevertheless, neither the WCI nor the wind chill equivalent temperature can be actually measured and, therefore, without the additional ‘calibration’ they are meaningless. In this study we have shown that the WCI represents the instantaneous rate of heat loss from bare skin at the moment of exposure to the cold, and as such, it correlates reasonably well with measurable variables that represent a feeling of cold. Two new wind chill indicators have been introduced: exposed skin temperature and maximum exposure time. These indicators yield more information than the WCI provides, are measurable, have physical meaning and are based on established heat transfer principles.

  9. Indications for radioiodine administration in follicular-derived thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, C; Ghander, C; le Marois, E; Leenhardt, L

    2015-02-01

    Indications for radioiodine administration after thyroid cancer surgery have shifted in recent years toward personalized management, adapted to the individual risk of tumor progression. The most recent guidelines and studies favor de-escalation in indications for administration, dosage and means of preparation with exogenous recombinant TSH stimulation as treatment of choice. Radioiodine administration has 3 possible objectives: • ablation of normal thyroid tissue remnants in patients with low risk of progression, using low radioiodine activity levels, with the advantage of completing disease staging on whole-body scintigraphy performed after administration of the radioiodine capsule, and of facilitating follow-up by thyroglobulin assay; • adjuvant treatment for suspected microscopic metastases in patients with intermediate or high risk of progression, using higher activity levels, with the theoretic aim of limiting recurrence and mortality; • curative treatment in high-risk patients with proven metastases, using exclusively high activity levels, with a view to improving specific survival. In future, indications for ablation and/or activity prescription may be governed by an algorithm incorporating individual baseline progression risk (essentially founded of pTNM staging) and postoperative data such as thyroglobulin level and neck ultrasound results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A triazole derivative as a new acid-base indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Numan Bulut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a new pH indicator, 3-benzyl-4-p-nitrobenzylidenamino-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-5-on (BPNBAT, soluble in acetonitrile:water (1:4, was developed. The estimation of pH is possible either from the position of the absorption maxima or from the absorbance intensity at a constant wavelength. This feature allowed us to determine the basic transition range of the medium because BPNBAT is colorless at pH lower than 8.5 and showed strong yellow-green color with high extinction coefficient in the pH range of 8.5–10.1. pKa, pH at equivalent point and the molar absorptivity (in the aqueous medium at 380 nm of BPNBAT are determined as 9.3, 8.3 and 8.8 x 103 L.mol-1.cm-1, respectively. The color change at the transition range can be attributed to the resonance structures of BPNBAT. The triazole compound was compared with thymolphthalein for accuracy test.

  11. Aerosol Indices Derived from MODIS Data for Indicating Aerosol-Induced Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junliang He

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol optical depth (AOD is a critical variable in estimating aerosol concentration in the atmosphere, evaluating severity of atmospheric pollution, and studying their impact on climate. With the assistance of the 6S radiative transfer model, we simulated apparent reflectancein relation to AOD in each Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS waveband in this study. The closeness of the relationship was used to identify the most and least sensitive MODIS wavebands. These two bands were then used to construct three aerosol indices (difference, ratio, and normalized difference for estimating AOD quickly and effectively. The three indices were correlated, respectively, with in situ measured AOD at the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET Lake Taihu, Beijing, and Xianghe stations. It is found that apparent reflectance of the blue waveband (band 3 is the most sensitive to AOD while the mid-infrared wavelength (band 7 is the least sensitive. The difference aerosol index is the most accurate in indicating aerosol-induced atmospheric pollution with a correlation coefficient of 0.585, 0.860, 0.685, and 0.333 at the Lake Taihu station, 0.721, 0.839, 0.795, and 0.629 at the Beijing station, and 0.778, 0.782, 0.837, and 0.643 at the Xianghe station in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. It is concluded that the newly proposed difference aerosol index can be used effectively to study the level of aerosol-induced air pollution from MODIS satellite imagery with relative ease.

  12. Suitable indicators using stem diameter variation-derived indices to monitor the water status of greenhouse tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhaojiang; Duan, Aiwang; Chen, Deli; Dassanayake, Kithsiri Bandara; Wang, Xiaosen; Liu, Zugui; LIU Hao; Gao, Shengguo

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to seek a simple nondestructive method to continuously measure plant water status for irrigation scheduling. Changes in stem diameter in response to plant water status and soil water content (SWC) were experimentally investigated during the growing seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 in pot-cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in a plastic greenhouse. This study was conducted to determine suitable SDV (stem diameter variation)-derived indices as indicators...

  13. ATLAS Searches for VH, HH, VV, V+$\\gamma$/$\\gamma\\gamma$ Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider motivates searches for physics beyond the Standard Model in channels involving coupling to the Higgs boson. A search for massive resonances decaying into couples of bosons is described. The considered final states are: $HH$, $VH$, $VV$, $V\\gamma$ and $\\gamma\\gamma$ with $V$ indicating either the $W$ or the $Z$ boson. Final states with different number of leptons or photons and where, in many cases, at least one Higgs decays into a b-quark pair are studied using different jet reconstruction techniques which allow to optimize the signal acceptance for low or Higgs boson transverse momentum. The most recent diboson resonance searches using LHC Run 2 data are described.

  14. A stable cytosolic expression of VH antibody fragment directed against PVY NIa protein in transgenic potato plant confers partial protection against the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Donia; Ayadi, Malika; Bidani, Amira; Rouis, Souad; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma; Jellouli, Raïda; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2009-04-01

    The expression of recombinant antibodies in transgenic plants has been proved to be an efficient approach for large-scale production. However, the stability of these molecules and their accumulation level depend on their molecular properties and cellular targeting. The expression of single-domain antibody fragment (VH) can be advantageous since it offers small length, high expression, solubility and stability. It can therefore be preferred to other antibody derivatives avoiding the expression difficulties related to immunoglobulin domain folding via the formation of disulfide bridge. This report describes the production of transgenic potato plants expressing a VH antibody directed against the NIa protease of potato virus Y. The antibody was driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S RNA promoter. The expression cassette was transferred into potato plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. All transgenic lines showed detectable levels of VH protein confirming the efficient translation and stability of this protein. The cellular localisation of the VH antibody was investigated. Transgenic and control plants were transferred in the greenhouse and mechanically inoculated by PVY(o) suspension. Some of the transgenic lines showed delayed symptoms at the first period post inoculation and then displayed a recovery phenomenon while the virions were still detected in the leaves. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties in previous and present JET configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.T.C.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Bures, M.; Christiansen, J.P.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Fishpool, G.; Jarvis, O.N.; Koenig, R.; Lawson, K.D.; Lomas, P.J.; Marcus, F.B.; Sartori, R.; Schunke, B.; Smeulders, P.; Stork, D.; Taroni, A.; Thomas, P.R.; Thomsen, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    In JET VH modes, there is a distinct confinement transition following the cessation of ELMs, observed in a wide variety of tokamak operating conditions, using both NBI and ICRF heating methods. Important factors which influence VH mode accessibility such as magnetic configuration and vessel conditions have been identified. The new JET pumped divertor configuration has much improved plasma shaping control and power and particle exhaust capability and should permit exploitation of plasmas with VH confinement properties over an even wider range of operating regimes, particularly at high plasma current; first H-modes have been obtained in the 1994 JET operating period and initial results are reported. (authors). 7 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Suitable indicators using stem diameter variation-derived indices to monitor the water status of greenhouse tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaojiang; Duan, Aiwang; Chen, Deli; Dassanayake, Kithsiri Bandara; Wang, Xiaosen; Liu, Zugui; Liu, Hao; Gao, Shengguo

    2017-01-01

    It is very important to seek a simple nondestructive method to continuously measure plant water status for irrigation scheduling. Changes in stem diameter in response to plant water status and soil water content (SWC) were experimentally investigated during the growing seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 in pot-cultivated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in a plastic greenhouse. This study was conducted to determine suitable SDV (stem diameter variation)-derived indices as indicators of tomato plant water status for irrigation scheduling. The experiment was designed as a two-factor randomized block using the SWC and growth stages as variables. The SWC was controlled at 70-80% (well-watered), 60-70% (slightly deficit watered), 50-60% (moderately deficit watered) of the field capacity (FC), and the prescribed growing stages were vegetative, flowering and fruit-forming, and harvesting stages. Regression analysis showed that the SD6 (the difference between the stem diameter value at 06:00 am and the initial sensor reading) was closely related to the SWC (p<0.01) during rapid vegetative growth, whereas the MDS (the maximum daily shrinkage) was closely related to the SWC (p<0.01) during slow vegetative growth. Our results suggest that SDV-derived indicators can be used for determining plant water status and for scheduling irrigation at different growth/developmental stages.

  17. Factor Structure of Indices of the Second Derivative of the Finger Photoplethysmogram with Metabolic Components and Other Cardiovascular Risk Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kawada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG is an indicator of arterial stiffness. The present study was conducted to clarify the factor structure of indices of the SDPTG in combination with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, to elucidate the significance of the SDPTG among various cardiovascular risk factors.MethodsThe SDPTG was determined in the second forefinger of the left hand in 1,055 male workers (mean age, 44.2±6.4 years. Among 4 waves of SDPTG components, the ratios of the height of the "a" wave to that of the "b" and "d" waves were expressed as b/a and d/a, and used as SDPTG indices for the analysis.ResultsPrincipal axis factoring analysis was conducted using age, SDPTG indices, components of MetS, and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and uric acid. Three factors were extracted, and the SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age as the third factor. Metabolic components and the SDPTG indices were independently categorized. These three factors explained 44.4% of the total variation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age, d/a, serum uric acid, serum CRP, and regular exercise as independent determinants of the risk of MetS. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were 1.08 (1.04 to 1.11, 0.10 (0.01 to 0.73, 1.24 (1.06 to 1.44, 3.59 (2.37 to 5.42, and 0.48 (0.28 to 0.82, respectively.ConclusionThe SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age, and they differed in characteristics from components of MetS or inflammatory markers. In addition, this cross-sectional study also revealed decrease of the d/a as a risk factor for the development of MetS.

  18. Self-reactive VH4-34-expressing IgG B cells recognize commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Glauzy, Salomé; Ng, Yen-Shing; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Massad, Christopher; Isnardi, Isabelle; Katz, Nathan; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M; Picard, Capucine; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Meffre, Eric

    2017-07-03

    The germline immunoglobulin (Ig) variable heavy chain 4-34 (VH4-34) gene segment encodes in humans intrinsically self-reactive antibodies that recognize I/i carbohydrates expressed by erythrocytes with a specific motif in their framework region 1 (FWR1). VH4-34-expressing clones are common in the naive B cell repertoire but are rarely found in IgG memory B cells from healthy individuals. In contrast, CD27(+)IgG(+) B cells from patients genetically deficient for IRAK4 or MYD88, which mediate the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except TLR3, contained VH4-34-expressing clones and showed decreased somatic hypermutation frequencies. In addition, VH4-34-encoded IgGs from IRAK4- and MYD88-deficient patients often displayed an unmutated FWR1 motif, revealing that these antibodies still recognize I/i antigens, whereas their healthy donor counterparts harbored FWR1 mutations abolishing self-reactivity. However, this paradoxical self-reactivity correlated with these VH4-34-encoded IgG clones binding commensal bacteria antigens. Hence, B cells expressing germline-encoded self-reactive VH4-34 antibodies may represent an innate-like B cell population specialized in the containment of commensal bacteria when gut barriers are breached. © 2017 Schickel et al.

  19. Syntheses of Azo-Imine Derivatives from Vanillin as an Acid Base Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Preparations of azo, imine and azo-imine derivatives from vanillin as an indicator of acid-base titration have been carried out. The azo derivative of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-(phenylazobenzaldehyde 2 was produced by diazotitation reaction of vanillin in 37.04% yield. The azo product was then refluxed with aniline in ethanol to yield azo-imine derivatives, 2-methoxy-6-(phenylazo-4-((phenyliminomethylphenol 1 in 82.21% yield. The imine derivative, 2-methoxy-4-((phenyliminomethyl-phenol 3 was obtained by refluxing of vanillin and aniline mixture in ethanol solvent and produced 82.17% yield. The imine product was then reacted with benzenediazonium chloride salt. However, the products indicated hydrolyzed product of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-(phenylazobenzaldehyde 2 in 22.15% yield. The 2-methoxy-4-((phenyliminomethylphenol 2 could be used as an indicator for titration of NaOH by H2C2O4 with maximum concentration of H2C2O4 0.1 M while the target compound 1 could be used as titration indicator for titration of NaOH with H2C2O4 with same result using phenolphthalein indicator.

  20. Variability of basin scale water resources indicators derived from global hydrological and land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Micha; Blyth, Eleanor; Schellekens, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    Global hydrological and land-surface models are becoming increasingly available, and as the resolution of these improves, as well how hydrological processes are represented, so does their potential. These offer consistent datasets at the global scale, which can be used to establish water balances and derive policy relevant indicators in medium to large basins, including those that are poorly gauged. However, differences in model structure, model parameterisation, and model forcing may result in quite different indicator values being derived, depending on the model used. In this paper we explore indicators developed using four land surface models (LSM) and five global hydrological models (GHM). Results from these models have been made available through the Earth2Observe project, a recent research initiative funded by the European Union 7th Research Framework. All models have a resolution of 0.5 arc degrees, and are forced using the same WATCH-ERA-Interim (WFDEI) meteorological re-analysis data at a daily time step for the 32 year period from 1979 to 2012. We explore three water resources indicators; an aridity index, a simplified water exploitation index; and an indicator that calculates the frequency of occurrence of root zone stress. We compare indicators derived over selected areas/basins in Europe, Colombia, Southern Africa, the Indian Subcontinent and Australia/New Zealand. The hydrological fluxes calculated show quite significant differences between the nine models, despite the common forcing dataset, with these differences reflected in the indicators subsequently derived. The results show that the variability between models is related to the different climates types, with that variability quite logically depending largely on the availability of water. Patterns are also found in the type of models that dominate different parts of the distribution of the indicator values, with LSM models providing lower values, and GHM models providing higher values in some

  1. Comparison of rainfall based SPI drought indices with SMDI and ETDI indices derived from a soil water budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houcine, A.; Bargaoui, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Modelling soil water budget is a key issue for assessing drought awareness indices based on soil moisture estimation. The aim of the study is to compare drought indices based on rainfall time series to those based on soil water content time series and evapotranspiration time series. To this end, a vertically averaged water budget over the root zone is implemented to assist the estimation of evapotranspiration flux. A daily time step is adopted to run the water budget model for a lumped watershed of 250 km2 under arid climate where recorded meteorological and hydrological data are available for a ten year period. The water balance including 7 parameters is computed including evapotranspiration, runoff and leakage. Soil properties related parameters are derived according to pedo transfer functions while two remaining parameters are considered as data driven and are subject to calibration. The model is calibrated using daily hydro meteorological data (solar radiation, air temperature, air humidity, mean areal rainfall) as well as daily runoff records and also average annual (or regional) evapotranspiration. The latter is estimated using an empirical sub-model. A set of acceptable solutions is identified according to the values of the Nash coefficients for annual and decadal runoffs as well as the relative bias for average annual evapotranspiration. Using these acceptable solutions several drought indices are computed: SPI (standard precipitation index), SMDI (soil moisture deficit index) and ETDI (evapotranspiration deficit index). While SPI indicators are based only on monthly precipitation time series, SMDI are based on weekly mean soil water content as computed by the hydrological model. On the other hand ETDI indices are based on weekly mean potential and actual evapotranspirations as estimated by the meteorological and hydrological models. For SPI evaluation various time scales are considered from one to twelve months (SPI1, SPI3, SPI6, SPI9 and SPI12). For all

  2. Molecular indicators of diagenesis in lignite diastereomeric configuration of triterpenoid derived aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaffee, A.L. (CSIRO, Menai, NSW (Australia). Division of Fuel Technology)

    1990-01-01

    The ratio of tetramethyloctaahydropicene diastereomers I and II is shown to vary as a function of (a) depth, (b) lithotype and (c) seam in a 100 m core of continuous coal taken from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria. This is the first illustration that triterpenoid derived aromatic hydrocarbon diastereomers can be used as molecular indicators of diagenesis. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Deriving Multidimensional Poverty Indicators: Methodological Issues and an Empirical Analysis for Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coromaldi, Manuela; Zoli, Mariangela

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies have recently adopted a multidimensional concept of poverty. There is considerable debate about the most appropriate degree of multidimensionality to retain in the analysis. In this work we add to the received literature in two ways. First, we derive indicators of multiple deprivation by applying a particular…

  4. SYNTHESIS OF AZO COMPOUNDS DERIVATIVE FROM EUGENOL AND ITS APPLICATION AS A TITRATION INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of azo compounds from eugenol has been carried out by diazotation reaction. The diazonium salt was produced by reaction of aniline and sodium nitrite in acid condition at 0-5 °C temperature to yield benzenediazonium chloride salt. The salt was then reacted with eugenol to produce the azo derivatives. The azo product was analyzed by IR, 1H-NMR, dan GC-MS spectrometer. The results showed that the reaction of benzenediazonium chloride with eugenol gave 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-hydroxyazobenzene in 34.27% yield for 30 minutes reaction. The derivative of azo compound was dissolved in ethanol and then the color changing was observed in range of pH 9.8-11.1 from yellow to red. Application for titration indicator for acetic acid titrated with sodium hydroxide showed error less than 3.20% compared with phenol phtaline indicator.   Keywords: Eugenol, Azo compound, titration indicator

  5. The pathogenic human monoclonal anti-DNA that induces experimental systemic lupus erythematosus in mice is encoded by a VH4 gene segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, A; Shoenfeld, Y; Blank, M; Ruiz, P J; Mozes, E

    1995-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be induced in mice by immunization with a human anti-DNA IgM mAb that was derived from a patient with cold agglutinin disease. The latter anti-DNA mAb expresses the common idiotype (Id) designated 16/6 Id. The original human hybridoma 16/6 that secreted an IgM antibody that bound ssDNA and carried the 16/6 Id had switched in culture to secrete an IgG molecule. Herein we show that the IgG 16/6 antibody contains the previously reported characteristics of the original IgM 16/6 mAb: it expresses the 16/6 Id and is capable of inducing experimental SLE in susceptible mouse strains. The identify of the IgG 16/6 anti-DNA mAb to the original IgM mAb was shown both by serological techniques and at the T cell level. The human IgG 16/6 mAb was found to be encoded by a germline gene from the human VH4 gene family, with high similarity to the germline gene VH4.21 that was previously shown to code for anti-DNA antibodies isolated from SLE patients. The VH4.21 germline gene was found to also code for most antibodies with cold agglutinin activity that were isolated from patients with cold agglutinin disease.

  6. Human anti-V3 HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies encoded by the VH5-51/VL lambda genes define a conserved antigenic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Miroslaw K; Sampson, Jared; Li, Huiguang; Jiang, Xunqing; Totrov, Maxim; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Williams, Constance; O'Neal, Timothy; Volsky, Barbara; Li, Liuzhe; Cardozo, Timothy; Nyambi, Phillipe; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Preferential usage of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes that encode antibodies (Abs) against various pathogens is rarely observed and the nature of their dominance is unclear in the context of stochastic recombination of Ig genes. The hypothesis that restricted usage of Ig genes predetermines the antibody specificity was tested in this study of 18 human anti-V3 monoclonal Abs (mAbs) generated from unrelated individuals infected with various subtypes of HIV-1, all of which preferentially used pairing of the VH5-51 and VL lambda genes. Crystallographic analysis of five VH5-51/VL lambda-encoded Fabs complexed with various V3 peptides revealed a common three dimensional (3D) shape of the antigen-binding sites primarily determined by the four complementarity determining regions (CDR) for the heavy (H) and light (L) chains: specifically, the H1, H2, L1 and L2 domains. The CDR H3 domain did not contribute to the shape of the binding pocket, as it had different lengths, sequences and conformations for each mAb. The same shape of the binding site was further confirmed by the identical backbone conformation exhibited by V3 peptides in complex with Fabs which fully adapted to the binding pocket and the same key contact residues, mainly germline-encoded in the heavy and light chains of five Fabs. Finally, the VH5-51 anti-V3 mAbs recognized an epitope with an identical 3D structure which is mimicked by a single mimotope recognized by the majority of VH5-51-derived mAbs but not by other V3 mAbs. These data suggest that the identification of preferentially used Ig genes by neutralizing mAbs may define conserved epitopes in the diverse virus envelopes. This will be useful information for designing vaccine immunogen inducing cross-neutralizing Abs.

  7. Suitability Assessment of Satellite-Derived Drought Indices for Mongolian Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mongolia, drought is a major natural disaster that can influence and devastate large regions, reduce livestock production, cause economic damage, and accelerate desertification in association with destructive human activities. The objective of this article is to determine the optimal satellite-derived drought indices for accurate and real-time expression of grassland drought in Mongolia. Firstly, an adaptability analysis was performed by comparing nine remote sensing-derived drought indices with reference indicators obtained from field observations using several methods (correlation, consistency percentage (CP, and time-space analysis. The reference information included environmental data, vegetation growth status, and region drought-affected (RDA information at diverse scales (pixel, county, and region for three types of land cover (forest steppe, steppe, and desert steppe. Second, a meteorological index (PED, a normalized biomass (NorBio reference indicator, and the RDA-based drought CP method were adopted for describing Mongolian drought. Our results show that in forest steppe regions the normalized difference water index (NDWI is most sensitive to NorBio (maximum correlation coefficient (MAX_R: up to 0.92 and RDA (maximum CP is 87%, and is most consistent with RDA spatial distribution. The vegetation health index (VHI and temperature condition index (TCI are most correlated with the PED index (MAX_R: 0.75 and soil moisture (MAX_R: 0.58, respectively. In steppe regions, the NDWI is most closely related to soil moisture (MAX_R: 0.69 and the VHI is most related to the PED (MAX_R: 0.76, NorBio (MCC: 0.95, and RDA data (maximum CP is 89%, exhibiting the most consistency with RDA spatial distribution. In desert steppe areas, the vegetation condition index (VCI correlates best with NorBio (MAX_R: 0.92, soil moisture (MAX_R: 0.61, and RDA spatial distribution, while TCI correlates best with the PED (MAX_R: 0.75 and the RDA data (maximum CP is 79

  8. Distinguishing plant population and variety with UAV-derived vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Joseph; Balota, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Variety selection and seeding rate are two important choice that a peanut grower must make. High yielding varieties can increase profit with no additional input costs, while seeding rate often determines input cost a grower will incur from seed costs. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect that seeding rate has on different peanut varieties. With the advent of new UAV technology, we now have the possibility to use indices collected with the UAV to measure emergence, seeding rate, growth rate, and perhaps make yield predictions. This information could enable growers to make management decisions early in the season based on low plant populations due to poor emergence, and could be a useful tool for growers to use to estimate plant population and growth rate in order to help achieve desired crop stands. Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and near-infrared (NIR) images were collected from a UAV platform starting two weeks after planting and continued weekly for the next six weeks. Ground NDVI was also collected each time aerial images were collected. Vegetation indices were derived from both the RGB and NIR images. Greener area (GGA- the proportion of green pixels with a hue angle from 80° to 120°) and a* (the average red/green color of the image) were derived from the RGB images while Normalized Differential Vegetative Index (NDVI) was derived from NIR images. Aerial indices were successful in distinguishing seeding rates and determining emergence during the first few weeks after planting, but not later in the season. Meanwhile, these aerial indices are not an adequate predictor of yield in peanut at this point.

  9. Pre-conceptual-schema-based patterns for deriving key performance indicators from strategic objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Zapata Jaramillo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement is crucial for achieving business success. Moreover, such success is also related to the fulfillment of the organizational strategic objectives. Hence, an adequate determination of relevant performance indicators—or key performance indicators (KPIs—and their relationships to organizational objectives is needed. Even though several approaches for treating KPIs and objective-KPI relationships have been proposed, they exhibit some drawbacks associated with the lack of reusability and traceability. We attempt to fill this gap by proposing a set of patterns based on pre-conceptual schemas for supporting the systematic derivation of KPIs and their relationships to organizational objectives. In this way, the proposed patterns guarantee a reusable and traceable derivation process of a set of candidate KPIs from organizational strategic objectives. Lastly, we provide a lab study in order to illustrate the usefulness of this proposal.

  10. GOES-derived fog and low cloud indices for coastal north and central California ecological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Cindy Combs,; Peters, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Fog and low cloud cover (FLCC) changes the water, energy, and nutrient flux of coastal ecosystems. Easy-to-use FLCC data are needed to quantify the impacts of FLC on ecosystem dynamics during hot, dry Mediterranean climate summers. FLCC indices were generated from 26,000 hourly night and day FLCC maps derived from Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite (GOES) data for June, July, August, and September, 1999- 2009 for coastal California, latitude 34.50°N, south of Monterey Bay, to latitude 41.95°N, north of Crescent City. Monthly FLCC average hours per day (h/d) range from juts into the prevailing NW winds and is lowest in the lee of major capes. FLCC advects furthest inland through low-lying NW ocean-facing valleys. At night hours of FLCC is higher more frequently on land than over the ocean. Interannual FLCC coefficient of variation shows long term geographic stability strongly associated with landform position. Contours delineating homogeneous zones of FLCC, derived from average decadal h/d FLCC, provide data to refine the commonly used term ‘fog belt.’ FLCC indices are available for download from the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative Climate Commons website. FLCC indices can be used to improve analyses of biogeographic and bioclimatic species distribution models, meteorological mechanisms driving FLCC patterns, ecohydrological investigations of evapotranspiration, solar energy feasibility studies, agricultural irrigation demand and viticultural ripening models.

  11. Environmental indicator principium with case references to agricultural soil, water, and air qualities and model-derived indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental indicators are powerful tools for tracking environmental changes, measuring environmental performance, and informing policy makers. With the ubiquitous nature of environmental assets and within the broad themes of environmental disciplines, many diverse environmental indicators, inclu...

  12. Search for the SM Higgs boson in VH(bb) channel using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Conde Mui\\~no, Patricia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS results in the search for the Higgs boson in the VH production mode with the Higgs decaying to a b-quark pair will be given, using approximately 10 fb-1 of pp collision data collected at 13 TeV.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D6VH-3GJFK [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1D6VH-3GJFK 1D6V 3GJF H K QVQLQQSGAELMKPGASVKISCKATGYTFSSY-WIEWVK...ntryChain> 3GJF K 3GJFK DVGGYNYVS...tryChain> 3GJF K 3GJFK QWKSHRSYSC...indel> 2 3GJF K 3GJFK...dex>3 3GJF K 3GJFK

  14. Arctic RCM simulations of temperature and precipitation derived indices relevant to future frozen ground conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinke, A.; Matthes, H.; Christensen, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    in simulated air temperature and derived indices at the end of the century indicate that significant impacts on permafrost conditions should be expected. But the magnitude of the change is regionally conditioned beyond what is obvious: Warm permafrost in the sporadic to discontinuous zone is threatened and may...... degrade or even complete thaw before the end of the century. A decrease in freezing and increase in thawing degree-days is interpreted as potential decrease in seasonal freeze depth and increase in active layer thickness (ALT). We show that for some regions increasing maximum summer temperature...... for classification. Taken together this implies a regionally varying exposure to significant change in permafrost conditions. In addition to these aspects of the general warming trend that would promote an increase in ALT and a northward shift of the southern permafrost boundary, an analysis of the occurrence...

  15. VH and Vκ Segment Structure of Anti-Insulin IgG Autoantibodies in Patients with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Evidence for Somatic Selection1

    OpenAIRE

    Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Ichiyoshi, Yuji; Schettino, Edward W.; Nakamura, Minoru; Casali, Paolo

    1994-01-01

    In some patients with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), autoantibodies to insulin are present at diagnosis. After initiation of the treatment with not only animal but also human insulin, anti-insulin, mainly IgG, autoantibodies become a major component of the autoimmune response in virtually all IDDM patients. Their structure, however, is still relatively unknown. We analyzed the structure of the VH and Vκ segments of three human IgG mAb derived from three IDDM patients. Th...

  16. Insulin sensitivity derived from oral glucose tolerance testing in athletes: disagreement between available indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niakaris, Konstantinos; Magkos, Faidon; Geladas, Nikos; Sidossis, Labros S

    2005-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether available "fasting" and oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity indices could effectively discriminate between individuals with higher than normal insulin sensitivity, and whether they would all provide similar information in clinical practice. Sprint runners (n = 8), endurance runners (n = 8) and sedentary controls (n = 7) received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. All participants were healthy lean males, aged 21-29 years. Besides glucose and insulin responses, a total of nine such indices were computed. Fasting as well as post-load glucose concentrations were similar in the three groups, while basal plasma insulin and the insulinaemic response to glucose were both higher in untrained individuals (at P runners. The results for insulin sensitivity, however, were quite variable: three indices showed that both groups of athletes were more insulin-sensitive than controls; three indicated that this was the case for endurance runners only; one indicated that this was the case for sprint runners only; and two showed that sprint runners were more insulin-sensitive than either sedentary individuals or endurance runners (all differences were significant at P < 0.05). Controlling for total body weight or lean mass did not effectively resolve this disagreement. Apparently, the various insulin sensitivity indices examined provided different quantitative and qualitative information, despite insulin action being greater in both groups of athletes relative to controls, as reflected by their similar glucose tolerance with lower insulin concentrations. We suggest, therefore, that the use and interpretation of such indices among physically active individuals be made with caution.

  17. A composite indicator for assessing habitat quality of riparian forests derived from Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedler, Barbara; Pernkopf, Lena; Strasser, Thomas; Lang, Stefan; Smith, Geoff

    2015-05-01

    Riparian forests are precious, complex habitats fostering high biodiversity where effective monitoring of habitat quality is particularly important. We present a composite indicator, referred to as Riparian Forest composite Indicator: focus on Structure (RFI_S), for the assessment of habitat quality and identification of 'hot-spot' areas where conservation actions need to be taken. The RFI_S is composed of seven indicators derived from very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery and LiDAR data, calculated on patch level. These indicators assess four important attributes of riparian forest quality: (1) tree species composition, (2) vertical forest structure, (3) horizontal forest structure and (4) water regime. For the aggregation of the RFI_S, two different weighting schemes, expert-based and statistical weighting, are applied. Forest patches with high cumulative RFI_S values represent patches of good habitat quality. These patches are primarily found along water bodies, reflecting the importance of water bodies for the structural complexity, an optimum water regime and tree species composition. For forest patches of low habitat quality the RFI_S helps to design suitable measures to improve habitat quality status through its decomposability into the underlying indicators. A sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of the RFI_S shows that the indicator variance in terrain roughness has the strongest influence on the composite indicator. Finally, a comparison with an existing expert-based map on conservation status reveals the potential of a complementary quantitative assessment of habitat quality in the study site. We hence conclude that the RFI_S has a high capability to support sustainable forest management complementing regularly gathered in situ data.

  18. Immunogenetic factors driving formation of ultralong VH CDR3 in Bos taurus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiss, Thaddeus C; Vadnais, Melissa; Wang, Feng; Chen, Patricia L; Torkamani, Ali; Mwangi, Waithaka; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Criscitiello, Michael F; Smider, Vaughn V

    2017-12-04

    The antibody repertoire of Bos taurus is characterized by a subset of variable heavy (VH) chain regions with ultralong third complementarity determining regions (CDR3) which, compared to other species, can provide a potent response to challenging antigens like HIV env. These unusual CDR3 can range to over seventy highly diverse amino acids in length and form unique β-ribbon 'stalk' and disulfide bonded 'knob' structures, far from the typical antigen binding site. The genetic components and processes for forming these unusual cattle antibody VH CDR3 are not well understood. Here we analyze sequences of Bos taurus antibody VH domains and find that the subset with ultralong CDR3 exclusively uses a single variable gene, IGHV1-7 (VHBUL) rearranged to the longest diversity gene, IGHD8-2. An eight nucleotide duplication at the 3' end of IGHV1-7 encodes a longer V-region producing an extended F β-strand that contributes to the stalk in a rearranged CDR3. A low amino acid variability was observed in CDR1 and CDR2, suggesting that antigen binding for this subset most likely only depends on the CDR3. Importantly a novel, potentially AID mediated, deletional diversification mechanism of the B. taurus VH ultralong CDR3 knob was discovered, in which interior codons of the IGHD8-2 region are removed while maintaining integral structural components of the knob and descending strand of the stalk in place. These deletions serve to further diversify cysteine positions, and thus disulfide bonded loops. Hence, both germline and somatic genetic factors and processes appear to be involved in diversification of this structurally unusual cattle VH ultralong CDR3 repertoire.Cellular and Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 4 December 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.117.

  19. Transcranial Doppler Systolic Flow Index and ICP-Derived Cerebrovascular Reactivity Indices in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Cardim, Danilo; Donnelly, Joseph; Menon, David K; Czosnyka, Marek; Smielewski, Peter

    2017-12-18

    The purpose of our study was to explore relationships between transcranial Doppler (TCD) indices of cerebrovascular reactivity and those derived from intracranial pressure (ICP). Goals included: A) confirming previously described co-variance patterns of TCD/ICP indices, and B) describing thresholds for systolic flow index (Sx; correlation between systolic flow velocity [FVs] and cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP]) associated with outcome. In a retrospective cohort of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients: with TCD and ICP monitoring, we calculated various continuous indices of cerebrovascular reactivity: A) ICP (pressure reactivity index [PRx]: correlation between ICP and mean arterial pressure [MAP]; PAx: correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP [AMP] and MAP; RAC: correlation between AMP and CPP) and B) TCD (mean flow index [Mx]: correlation between mean flow velocity [FVm] and CPP; Mx_a: correlation between FVm and MAP; Sx: correlation between FVs and CPP; Sx_a: correlation between FVs and MAP; Dx: correlation between diastolic flow velocity [FVd] and CPP; Dx_a: correlation between FVd and MAP). We assessed the relationships via various statistical techniques, including: principal component analysis, agglomerative hierarchal clustering, and k-means cluster analysis (KMCA). We performed sequential χ2 testing to define thresholds associated with outcome for Sx/Sx_a. Outcome was assessed at 6 months via dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS): A) Favorable (GOS 4 or 5) versus Unfavorable (GOS 3 or less), B) Alive versus Dead. We analyzed 410 recordings in 347 patients. All analyses confirmed our previously described co-variance of Sx/Sx_a with ICP-derived indices. Sx displayed thresholds of -0.15 for unfavorable outcome (p < 0.0001) and -0.20 for mortality (p < 0.0001). Sx_a displayed thresholds of +0.05 (p = 0.019) and -0.10 (p = 0.0001) for alive/dead and favorable/unfavorable outcomes. TCD systolic indices are most closely associated with ICP

  20. Probabilistic drought intensification forecasts using temporal patterns of satellite-derived drought indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sumin; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyeong

    2016-04-01

    A drought occurs when the condition of below-average precipitation in a region continues, resulting in prolonged water deficiency. A drought can last for weeks, months or even years, so can have a great influence on various ecosystems including human society. In order to effectively reduce agricultural and economic damage caused by droughts, drought monitoring and forecasts are crucial. Drought forecast research is typically conducted using in situ observations (or derived indices such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)) and physical models. Recently, satellite remote sensing has been used for short term drought forecasts in combination with physical models. In this research, drought intensification was predicted using satellite-derived drought indices such as Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI), Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI), and Scaled Drought Condition Index (SDCI) generated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products over the Korean Peninsula. Time series of each drought index at the 8 day interval was investigated to identify drought intensification patterns. Drought condition at the previous time step (i.e., 8 days before) and change in drought conditions between two previous time steps (e.g., between 16 days and 8 days before the time step to forecast) Results show that among three drought indices, SDCI provided the best performance to predict drought intensification compared to NDDI and NMDI through qualitative assessment. When quantitatively compared with SPI, SDCI showed a potential to be used for forecasting short term drought intensification. Finally this research provided a SDCI-based equation to predict short term drought intensification optimized over the Korean Peninsula.

  1. Assessment of MODIS-derived indices (2001-2013) to drought across Taiwan's forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Te; Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Huang, Cho-ying

    2017-12-01

    Tropical and subtropical ecosystems, the largest terrestrial carbon pools, are very susceptible to the variability of seasonal precipitation. However, the assessment of drought conditions in these regions is often overlooked due to the preconceived notion of the presence of high humidity. Drought indices derived from remotely sensed imagery have been commonly used for large-scale monitoring, but feasibility of drought assessment may vary across regions due to climate regimes and local biophysical conditions. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the feasibility of 11 commonly used MODIS-derived vegetation/drought index in the forest regions of Taiwan through comparison with the station-based standardized precipitation index with a 3-month time scale (SPI3). The drought indices were further transformed (standardized anomaly, SA) to make them better delineate the spatiotemporal variations of drought conditions. The results showed that the Normalized Difference Infrared Index utilizing the near-infrared and shortwave infrared bands (NDII6) may be more superior to other indices in delineating drought patterns. Overall, the NDII6 SA-SPI3 pair yielded the highest correlation (mean r ± standard deviation = 0.31 ± 0.13) and was most significant in central and south Taiwan (r = 0.50-0.90) during the cold, dry season (January and April). This study illustrated that the NDII6 is suitable to delineate drought conditions in a relatively humid region. The results suggested the better performance of the NDII6 SA-SPI3 across the high climate gradient, especially in the regions with dramatic interannual amplifications of rainfall. This synthesis was conducted across a wide bioclimatic gradient, and the findings could be further generalized to a much broader geographical extent.

  2. GOES-derived fog and low cloud indices for coastal north and central California ecological analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Combs, Cindy; Peters, Jeff

    2016-02-01

    Fog and low cloud cover (FLCC) strongly influences the water, energy, and nutrient flux of coastal ecosystems. Easy-to-use FLCC data are needed to quantify the impacts of FLCC on ecosystem dynamics especially during hot and dry Mediterranean climate summers. Monthly, annual, and decadal FLCC digital maps (indices) were derived for June-September 1999-2009 for coastal California, latitude 34.50°N (south of Monterey Bay) to latitude 41.95°N (north of Crescent City) from 26,000 hourly night and day Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) images. Monthly average FLCC ranges from ocean increases from north (9 h/d) to south (14 h/d), whereas on land, FLCC is highest where land juts into the prevailing NW winds and is lowest in the lee of major capes. FLCC advects farthest inland through low-lying NW ocean-facing valleys. At night, average total hours of FLCC are higher more frequently on land than over the ocean. The interannual FLCC coefficient of variation shows long-term geographic stability that is strongly associated with landform position. FLCC hours per day mapped contours, derived from decadal average FLCC, delineate the commonly used term "fog belt" into FLCC zones with increased locational precision. FLCC indices are available for download from the California Landscape Conservation Cooperative Climate Commons website (http://climate.calcommons.org/datasets/summertime-fog). FLCC indices can improve analyses of biogeographic and bioclimatic species distribution models; understanding meteorological mechanisms driving FLCC patterns; solar energy feasibility studies; investigations of ecohydrology, evapotranspiration, and agricultural irrigation demand; and viticulture ripening models.

  3. Physico-Chemical and Structural Interpretation of Discrete Derivative Indices on N-Tuples Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Martínez-Santiago

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This report examines the interpretation of the Graph Derivative Indices (GDIs from three different perspectives (i.e., in structural, steric and electronic terms. It is found that the individual vertex frequencies may be expressed in terms of the geometrical and electronic reactivity of the atoms and bonds, respectively. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the GDIs are sensitive to progressive structural modifications in terms of: size, ramifications, electronic richness, conjugation effects and molecular symmetry. Moreover, it is observed that the GDIs quantify the interaction capacity among molecules and codify information on the activation entropy. A structure property relationship study reveals that there exists a direct correspondence between the individual frequencies of atoms and Hückel’s Free Valence, as well as between the atomic GDIs and the chemical shift in NMR, which collectively validates the theory that these indices codify steric and electronic information of the atoms in a molecule. Taking in consideration the regularity and coherence found in experiments performed with the GDIs, it is possible to say that GDIs possess plausible interpretation in structural and physicochemical terms.

  4. On the Influence of the Data Sampling Interval on Computer-Derived K-Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bernard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The K index was devised by Bartels et al. (1939 to provide an objective monitoring of irregular geomagnetic activity. The K index was then routinely used to monitor the magnetic activity at permanent magnetic observatories as well as at temporary stations. The increasing number of digital and sometimes unmanned observatories and the creation of INTERMAGNET put the question of computer production of K at the centre of the debate. Four algorithms were selected during the Vienna meeting (1991 and endorsed by IAGA for the computer production of K indices. We used one of them (FMI algorithm to investigate the impact of the geomagnetic data sampling interval on computer produced K values through the comparison of the computer derived K values for the period 2009, January 1st to 2010, May 31st at the Port-aux-Francais magnetic observatory using magnetic data series with different sampling rates (the smaller: 1 second; the larger: 1 minute. The impact is investigated on both 3-hour range values and K indices data series, as a function of the activity level for low and moderate geomagnetic activity.

  5. Physico-Chemical and Structural Interpretation of Discrete Derivative Indices on N-Tuples Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Santiago, Oscar; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Barigye, Stephen J.; Le Thi Thu, Huong; Torres, F. Javier; Zambrano, Cesar H.; Muñiz Olite, Jorge L.; Cruz-Monteagudo, Maykel; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo; Vázquez Infante, Liliana; Artiles Martínez, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the interpretation of the Graph Derivative Indices (GDIs) from three different perspectives (i.e., in structural, steric and electronic terms). It is found that the individual vertex frequencies may be expressed in terms of the geometrical and electronic reactivity of the atoms and bonds, respectively. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the GDIs are sensitive to progressive structural modifications in terms of: size, ramifications, electronic richness, conjugation effects and molecular symmetry. Moreover, it is observed that the GDIs quantify the interaction capacity among molecules and codify information on the activation entropy. A structure property relationship study reveals that there exists a direct correspondence between the individual frequencies of atoms and Hückel’s Free Valence, as well as between the atomic GDIs and the chemical shift in NMR, which collectively validates the theory that these indices codify steric and electronic information of the atoms in a molecule. Taking in consideration the regularity and coherence found in experiments performed with the GDIs, it is possible to say that GDIs possess plausible interpretation in structural and physicochemical terms. PMID:27240357

  6. Ecosystem evaluation (1989-2012) of Ramsar wetland Deepor Beel using satellite-derived indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Chitrini; Tripathi, N K; Tipdecho, Taravudh

    2014-11-01

    The unprecedented urban growth especially in developing countries has laid immense pressure on wetlands, finally threatening their existence altogether. A long-term monitoring of wetland ecosystems is the basis of planning conservation measures for a sustainable development. Deepor Beel, a Ramsar wetland and major storm water basin of the River Brahmaputra in the northeastern region of India, needs particular attention due to its constant degradation over the past decades. A rule-based classification algorithm was developed using Landsat (2011)-derived indices, namely Normalised Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalised Difference Water Index (MNDWI), Normalised Difference Pond Index (NDPI), Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and field data as ancillary information. Field data, ALOS AVNIR and Google Earth images were used for accuracy assessment. A fuzzy accuracy assessment of the classified data sets showed an overall accuracy of 82 % for MAX criteria and 90 % for RIGHT criteria. The rules were used to classify major wetland cover types during low water season (January) in 1989, 2001 and 2012. The statistical analysis of the classified wetland showed heavy manifestation in aquatic vegetation and other features indicating severe eutrophication over the past 23 years. This degradation was closely related to major contributing anthropogenic factors, such as a railway line construction, growing croplands, waste disposal and illegal human settlements in the wetland catchment. In addition, the landscape development index (LDI) indicated a rapid increase in the impact of the surrounding land use on the wetland from 1989 to 2012. The techniques and results from this study may prove useful for top-down landscape analyses of this and other freshwater wetlands.

  7. Beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeulders, P.; Hender, T.C.; Huysmans, G.; Marcus, F.; Ali-Arshad, S.; Alper, B.; Balet, B.; Bures, M.; Deliyanakis, N.; Esch, H. de; Fshpool, G.; Jarvis, O.N.; Jones, T.T.C.; Ketner, W.; Koenig, R.; Lawson, K.; Lomas, P.; O`Brien, D.; Sadler, G.; Stok, D.; Stubberfield, P.; Thomas, P.; Thomen, K.; Wesson, J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    In Hot-ion H- and VH-modes, the highest achieved beta was about 10% below the Troyon value in the best case of discharge 26087. The operational space of the high beta discharges obtained before March 1992 has been explored as function of the parameters H{sub ITER89P}, {beta}{sub n}, q{sub 95}, I{sub p}. Also, a limiting envelope on the fusion reactivity as a function of the average plasma pressure and beta has been observed with R{sub DD} related to {beta}{sub {phi}}{sup 2}.B{sub {phi}}{sup 4}. MHD stability analysis shows that the JET VH modes at the edge are in the second region for ballooning mode stability. The dependence of ballooning stability and the n=1 external kink on the edge current density is analyzed. (authors). 6 figs., 6 refs.

  8. Satellite-Derived NO2 as an Indicator of Urban Air Quality and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Penn, E.; Harkey, M.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is the satellite-derived constituent with the most direct connection to fossil fuel emissions. At present the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite offers the highest resolution NO2retrievals, and new missions under development (TropOMI, TEMPO, GEMS, Sentinel-4) offer the potential for improved data in coming years. We present results applying satellite-derived NO2data to characterize air quality and emissions in U.S. cities. We highlight research findings geared toward increasing the relevance of satellite data to evaluate urban-scale air quality issues. This work reflects activities under the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST), and emerging work under the NASA Health and Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (H-AQAST). Among our results is a characterization of the diurnal cycle of nitrogen oxides using ground-based observations and satellite data. In situ monitoring from the U.S. EPA Air Quality System (AQS) shows that most locations have two daily peaks in NO2 (morning and evening) and a single daily peak in NO (morning). Spaced-based observations from the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), with a mid-morning overpass, and the NASA OMI, with an early afternoon overpass, support a complementary analysis for characterizing diurnal variability in NO2. Both ground-based monitors and satellite data show a reduction in the amplitude of the diurnal NO2 cycle. In the Western U.S., satellite data showed evidence of higher NO2 in urban centers in the afternoon (OMI) and higher NO2 in suburban areas in the morning (GOME-2), consistent with diurnal traffic patterns associated with commuting. Some power plants in the Western U.S. showed an increase in NO2in the afternoon, consistent with peak power demand associated with building air conditioning use. We extend this city-focused analysis satellite-derived HCHO:NO2 ratios as an indicator of ozone production regime, comparing modeled and measured ratios

  9. Resolution Enhancement of MODIS-Derived Water Indices for Studying Persistent Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, L. W.; Kalcic, Maria; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring coastal marshes for persistent flooding and salinity stress is a high priority issue in Louisiana. Remote sensing can identify environmental variables that can be indicators of marsh habitat conditions, and offer timely and relatively accurate information for aiding wetland vegetation management. Monitoring activity accuracy is often limited by mixed pixels which occur when areas represented by the pixel encompasses more than one cover type. Mixtures of marsh grasses and open water in 250m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can impede flood area estimation. Flood mapping of such mixtures requires finer spatial resolution data to better represent the cover type composition within 250m MODIS pixel. Fusion of MODIS and Landsat can improve both spectral and temporal resolution of time series products to resolve rapid changes from forcing mechanisms like hurricane winds and storm surge. For this study, using a method for estimating sub-pixel values from a MODIS time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), using temporal weighting, was implemented to map persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes. Ordinarily NDWI computed from daily 250m MODIS pixels represents a mixture of fragmented marshes and water. Here, sub-pixel NDWI values were derived for MODIS data using Landsat 30-m data. Each MODIS pixel was disaggregated into a mixture of the eight cover types according to the classified image pixels falling inside the MODIS pixel. The Landsat pixel means for each cover type inside a MODIS pixel were computed for the Landsat data preceding the MODIS image in time and for the Landsat data succeeding the MODIS image. The Landsat data were then weighted exponentially according to closeness in date to the MODIS data. The reconstructed MODIS data were produced by summing the product of fractional cover type with estimated NDWI values within each cover type. A new daily time series was produced using both the reconstructed 250

  10. Confinement and stability of VH-mode discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.S.; Osborne, T.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Chan, V.S.; Chu, M.S.; DeBoo, J.C.; Doyle, E.J.; Greenfield, C.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Hsieh, C.L.; Jackson, G.L.; James, R.; Lao, L.L.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lippman, S.I.; Petrie, T.W.; Rettig, C.L.; St. John, H.; Schissel, D.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Strait, E.J.; Turnbull, A.D.; West, W.P.; Winter, J.; Wroblewski, D.

    1992-10-01

    A regime of very high confinement (VH-mode) has been observed in neutral beam-heated deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak with thermal energy confinement times up to [approx]3.6 times that predicted by the ITER-89P L-mode scaling and 2 times that predicted by ELM-free H-mode thermal confinement scalings. This high confinement has led to increased plasma performance, n[sub D] (0)T[sub i](0)[tau][sub E] = 2 [times] 10[sup 20] m[sup [minus]3] keV sec with I[sub p] = 1.6 MA, B[sub T] = 2.1 T, Z[sub eff] [le] 2. Detailed transport analysis shows a correspondence between the large decrease in thermal diffusivity in the region 0.75 [le] [rho] [le] 0.9 and the development of a strong shear in the radial electric field in the same region. This suggests that stabilization of turbulence by sheared E [times] B flow is responsible for the improved confinement in VH-mode. A substantial fraction of the edge plasma entering the second regime of stability may also contribute to the increase in confinement. The duration of the VH-mode phase has been lengthened by feedback controlling the input power to limit plasma beta.

  11. Confinement and stability of VH-mode discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.S.; Osborne, T.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Chan, V.S.; Chu, M.S.; DeBoo, J.C.; Doyle, E.J.; Greenfield, C.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Hsieh, C.L.; Jackson, G.L.; James, R.; Lao, L.L.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lippman, S.I.; Petrie, T.W.; Rettig, C.L.; St. John, H.; Schissel, D.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Strait, E.J.; Turnbull, A.D.; West, W.P.; Winter, J.; Wroblewski, D.

    1992-10-01

    A regime of very high confinement (VH-mode) has been observed in neutral beam-heated deuterium discharges in the DIII-D tokamak with thermal energy confinement times up to {approx}3.6 times that predicted by the ITER-89P L-mode scaling and 2 times that predicted by ELM-free H-mode thermal confinement scalings. This high confinement has led to increased plasma performance, n{sub D} (0)T{sub i}(0){tau}{sub E} = 2 {times} 10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} keV sec with I{sub p} = 1.6 MA, B{sub T} = 2.1 T, Z{sub eff} {le} 2. Detailed transport analysis shows a correspondence between the large decrease in thermal diffusivity in the region 0.75 {le} {rho} {le} 0.9 and the development of a strong shear in the radial electric field in the same region. This suggests that stabilization of turbulence by sheared E {times} B flow is responsible for the improved confinement in VH-mode. A substantial fraction of the edge plasma entering the second regime of stability may also contribute to the increase in confinement. The duration of the VH-mode phase has been lengthened by feedback controlling the input power to limit plasma beta.

  12. Combined search for anomalous pseudoscalar HVV couplings in VH production and H $\\rightarrow$ VV decay

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hazi, Andras; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Jain, Sandhya; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; 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Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Cocoros, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; 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Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Kumar, Ajay; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Petrillo, Gianluca; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-08-10

    A search for anomalous pseudoscalar couplings of the Higgs boson H to electroweak vector bosons V (= W or Z) in a sample of proton-proton collision events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.9 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. Events consistent with the topology of associated VH production, where the Higgs boson decays to a pair of bottom quarks and the vector boson decays leptonically, are analyzed. The consistency of data with a potential pseudoscalar contribution to the HVV interaction, expressed by the effective pseudoscalar cross section fractions $f_{a_3}$, is assessed by means of profile likelihood scans. Results are given for the VH channels alone and for a combined analysis of the VH and previously published H $\\rightarrow$ VV channels. Assuming the standard model ratio of the coupling strengths of the Higgs boson to top and bottom quarks, $ f_{a_3}^{\\mathrm{ZZ}}>0.0034$ is excluded at 95% confidence level in the combination.

  13. vhMentor: An Ontology Supported Mobile Agent System for Pervasive Health Care Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Stella C; Kotsilieris, Theodore; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos; Mylonas, Phivos

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare provision is a set of activities that demands the collaboration of several stakeholders (e.g. physicians, nurses, managers, patients etc.) who hold distinct expertise and responsibilities. In addition, medical knowledge is diversely located and often shared under no central coordination and supervision authority, while medical data flows remain mostly passive regarding the way data is delivered to both clinicians and patients. In this paper, we propose the implementation of a virtual health Mentor (vhMentor) which stands as a dedicated ontology schema and FIPA compliant agent system. Agent technology proves to be ideal for developing healthcare applications due to its distributed operation over systems and data sources of high heterogeneity. Agents are able to perform their tasks by acting pro-actively in order to assist individuals to overcome limitations posed during accessing medical data and executing non-automatic error-prone processes. vhMentor further comprises the Jess rules engine in order to implement reasoning logic. Thus, on the one hand vhMentor is a prototype that fills the gap between healthcare systems and the care provision community, while on the other hand allows the blending of next generation distributed services in healthcare domain.

  14. Deriving evaluation indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffeisen, Renate; Grosfeld, Klaus; Kuhlmann, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the field of climate science have captured intensive attention in recent years as being an important part of research activities. Therefore, the demand and pressure to develop a set of indicators for the evaluation of different activities in this field have increased, too. Research institutes are being asked more and more to build up structures in order to map these activities and, thus, are obliged to demonstrate the success of these efforts. This paper aims to serve as an input to stimulate further reflection on the field of evaluation of knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in the context of climate sciences. The work performed in this paper is embedded in the efforts of the German Helmholtz Association in the research field of earth and environment and is driven by the need to apply suitable indicators for knowledge transfer and dialogue processes in climate research center evaluations. We carry out a comparative analysis of three long-term activities and derive a set of indicators for measuring their output and outcome by balancing the wide diversity and range of activity contents as well as the different tools to realize them. The case examples are based on activities which are part of the regional Helmholtz Climate Initiative Regional Climate Change (REKLIM) and the Climate Office for Polar Regions and Sea Level Rise at the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research. Both institutional units have been working on a wide range of different knowledge transfer and dialogue processes since 2008/2009. We demonstrate that indicators for the evaluation must be based on the unique objectives of the individual activities and the framework they are embedded in (e.g., research foci which provide the background for the performed knowledge transfer and dialogue processes) but can partly be classified in a principle two-dimensional scheme. This scheme might serve as a usable basis for climate

  15. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J; Morley, David W; Atkinson, Peter M; Wardrop, Nicola A; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J

    2015-03-01

    Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J.; Morley, David W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. Methods In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. Results This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. Conclusions These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. PMID:25733559

  17. Prompt Proxy Mapping of Flood Damaged Rice Fields Using MODIS-Derived Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjoo Kwak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood mapping, particularly hazard and risk mapping, is an imperative process and a fundamental part of emergency response and risk management. This paper aims to produce a flood risk proxy map of damaged rice fields over the whole of Bangladesh, where monsoon river floods are dominant and frequent, affecting over 80% of the total population. This proxy risk map was developed to meet the request of the government on a national level. This study represents a rapid, straightforward methodology for estimating rice-crop damage in flood areas of Bangladesh during the large flood from July to September 2007, despite the lack of primary data. We improved a water detection algorithm to achieve a better discrimination capacity to discern flood areas by using a modified land surface water index (MLSWI. Then, rice fields were estimated utilizing a hybrid rice field map from land-cover classification and MODIS-derived indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and enhanced vegetation index (EVI. The results showed that the developed method is capable of providing instant, comprehensive, nationwide mapping of flood risks, such as rice field damage. The detected flood areas and damaged rice fields during the 2007 flood were verified by comparing them with the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS AVNIR-2 images (a 10 m spatial resolution and in situ field survey data with moderate agreement (K = 0.57.

  18. Effects of cystic fibrosis lung disease on gas mixing indices derived from alveolar slope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Alex R; Macleod, Kenneth A; Robson, Andrew G; Lenney, Jill; Bell, Nicholas J; Cunningham, Steve; Greening, Andrew P; Gustafsson, Per M; Innes, J Alastair

    2008-08-31

    S(cond) and S(acin) are derived from analysis of concentration-normalized phase III slopes (Sn(III)) of a multiple breath inert gas washout. Studies in healthy and COPD subjects suggest these reflect ventilation heterogeneity in conducting and acinar airway zones respectively, but similar studies in cystic fibrosis (CF) are lacking. S(cond), S(acin) and lung clearance index (LCI, a measure of overall gas mixing efficiency) were measured in 22 adults and 18 children with CF and 17 adult and 29 child controls. Plethysmography and gas transfer measurements were performed in adults, and spirometry in all subjects. S(cond) was elevated in almost all CF patients, including children with mild disease and normal LCI. However, S(cond) did not correlate with other measurements and appeared to reach a maximum; further increase in ventilation heterogeneity being restricted to S(acin). The nature and/or severity of CF lung disease may invalidate assumptions underlying the ability to separate phase III slope analysis of ventilation heterogeneity into proximal and peripheral components, and LCI may be a better indicator of gas mixing in this population.

  19. A general method to derive robust organ-specific gene expression-based differentiation indices: application to thyroid cancer diagnostic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomás, G; Tarabichi, M; Gacquer, D; Hébrant, A; Dom, G; Dumont, J E; Keutgen, X; Fahey, 3rd, T J; Maenhaut, C; Detours, V

    2012-01-01

    .... Hence, a quantitative assessment of differentiation would be most useful. We propose an unbiased method to derive organ-specific differentiation indices from gene expression data and demonstrate its usefulness in thyroid cancer diagnosis...

  20. Assessment of spatially distributed values of Kc using vegetation indices derived from medium resolution satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M.; Simoniello, T.; Lanfredi, M.; Russo, A. L.

    2010-09-01

    In the last years, the theme of suitable assessment of irrigation water supply has been raised relevant interest for both general principles of sustainable development and optimization of water resources techniques and management. About 99% of the water used in agriculture is lost by crops as evapotranspiration (ET). Thus, it becomes crucial to drive direct or indirect measurement in order to perform a suitable evaluation of water loss by evapotranspiration (i.e. actual evapotranspiration) as well as crop water status and its effect on the production. The main methods used to measure evapotranspiration are available only at field scale (Bowen ratio, eddy correlation system, soil water balance) confined to a small pilot area, generally due to expense and logistical constraints. This led over the last 50 years to the development of a large number of empirical methods to estimate evapotranspiration through different climatic and meteorological variables as well as combining models, based on aerodynamic theory and energy balance, taking into account both canopy properties and meteorological conditions. Among these, the Penman-Monteith equation seems to give the best results providing a robust and consistent method world wide accepted. Such conventional methods only provide accurate evapotranspiration assessment for a homogeneous region nearby the meteorological gauge station and cannot be extrapolated to other different sites; whereas remote sensing techniques allow for filling up such a gap. Some of these satellite techniques are based on the use of thermal band signals as inputs for energy balance equations. Another common approach is mainly based on the FAO method for estimating crop evapotranspiration, in which evapotranspiration data are multiplied by crop coefficients, Kc, derived from satellite multispectral vegetation indices obtained. The rationale behind such a link considers that Kc and vegetation indices are sensitive to both leaf area index and fractional

  1. Antibody repertoire diversification through VH gene replacement in mice cloned from an IgA plasma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bach, Martina P; Mainoldi, Federica; Maruya, Mikako; Kishigami, Satoshi; Jumaa, Hassan; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kanagawa, Osami; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Casola, Stefano

    2015-02-03

    In mammals, VDJ recombination is responsible for the establishment of a highly diversified preimmune antibody repertoire. Acquisition of a functional Ig heavy (H) chain variable (V) gene rearrangement is thought to prevent further recombination at the IgH locus. Here, we describe VHQ52(NT); Vκgr32(NT) Ig monoclonal mice reprogrammed from the nucleus of an intestinal IgA(+) plasma cell. In VHQ52(NT) mice, IgA replaced IgM to drive early B-cell development and peripheral B-cell maturation. In VHQ52(NT) animals, over 20% of mature B cells disrupted the single productive, nonautoimmune IgH rearrangement through VH replacement and exchanged it with a highly diversified pool of IgH specificities. VH replacement occurred in early pro-B cells, was independent of pre-B-cell receptor signaling, and involved predominantly one adjacent VH germ-line gene. VH replacement was also identified in 5% of peripheral B cells of mice inheriting a different productive VH rearrangement expressed in the form of an IgM H chain. In summary, editing of a productive IgH rearrangement through VH replacement can account for up to 20% of the IgH repertoire expressed by mature B cells.

  2. Development of consensus-derived quality indicators for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogryn, Shannon; Park, Jason; Hardy, Krista; Vergis, Ashley

    2017-02-01

    Synoptic operative reporting is a solution to the poor quality of narrative reports. To develop operative report quality indicators (QI) for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) to generate validated parameters by which these reports can be evaluated and improved. University hospital in Canada. A Delphi protocol was used to determine QIs for LRYGB reporting. Bariatric surgeons across Canada were recruited along with key physician stakeholders to participate via a secure web-based platform. Participants initially submitted potential QIs. These were grouped by theme. Items were rated on 9-point Likert scales in subsequent rounds. Scores of 70% or greater were used for inclusion consensus, and 30% or less denoted exclusion. Elements scoring 30% to 70% were recirculated by runoff in subsequent rounds to generate the final list of QIs. Four community and 4 academic bariatric surgeons were invited, representing all provinces performing LRYGB. The 4 multidisciplinary invitees included 1 minimally invasive/acute care surgeon, 1 tertiary abdominal radiologist, 1 gastroenterologist performing advanced endoscopy, and 1 general surgeon with expertise in synoptic reporting. Round 1 achieved an 83.3% (10/12) response and identified 91 potential items for consideration. Round 2 had a 100% response, and 69 items reached inclusion consensus. The third round achieved a 100% response and resulted in 75 QIs reaching final inclusion consensus. This study established consensus-derived multidisciplinary QIs for LRYGB operative reports. This will allow further assessment of the quality of narrative reports and afford the development of a synoptic operative report that may ameliorate identified deficiencies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tissue Doppler-derived indices predict exercise capacity in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jong-Won; Cho, Jung-Rae; Kim, Jin-Mi; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Choi, Eui-Young; Kang, Seok-Min; Rim, Se-Joong; Chung, Namsik

    2005-11-01

    Although impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function is a prominent feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), diastolic function and its relation to exercise capacity in apical HCM (ApHCM) has not been explored previously. This study was sought to determine the relationship between diastolic mitral annular velocities combined with conventional Doppler indexes and exercise capacity in patients with ApHCM. Twenty-nine patients with ApHCM (24 men; mean age +/- SD, 57 +/- 10 years) underwent supine bicycle exercise with simultaneous respiratory gas analysis and two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic study. The mitral inflow velocities (early filling [E], late filling, and deceleration time) were traced and measured. Early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') was measured at the septal corner of mitral annulus by Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) from the apical four-chamber view. Pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) was measured at the time of echocardiography using a quantitative electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. E/E' ratio correlated inversely with maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) [r = - 0.47, p = 0.0106]. There was a significant positive correlation between E' and Vo(2)max (r = 0.41, p = 0.024). However, no correlation was found between conventional two-dimensional, Doppler indices, and proBNP and Vo(2)max). Of all the echocardiographic and clinical parameters assessed, E/E' ratio had the best correlation with exercise capacity (r - 0.47) and was the strongest independent predictor of Vo(2)max by multivariate analysis (p = 0.0106). DTI-derived indexes (E', E/E' ratio), an estimate of myocardial relaxation and LV filling pressures, correlate with exercise capacity in patients with ApHCM, suggesting that abnormal diastolic function may be a factor limiting exercise capacity.

  4. Estudio de Relaciones Espectrales V/H Asociado al Sistema de Fallas de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    López Moreno, Eduardo Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    La ciudad de Quito se asienta sobre un sistema de fallas ciegas inversas, el modelo neotectónico considera 5 segmentos de fallas que se extiende aproximadamente a lo largo de 60 km., sin embargo no se tiene un conocimiento adecuado del peligro sísmico asociado a este sistema de fallas para la componente vertical del movimiento del suelo. En este estudio, se van a determinar relaciones espectrales V/H utilizando los modelos de movimiento fuerte del suelo correspondientes al programa Next Gener...

  5. Austral electrojet indices derived for the great storm of March 1989 1177

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Zossi de Artigas

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Available magnetic records from eight stations in the Antarctica, for the March 1989 geomagnetic storm, are used to construct the southern hemisphere auroral indices, analogous to the boreal ones. The results show a diurnal variation depending on the distribution of the stations. An acceptable correlation between the northern and southern hemisphere indices are found except for the index indicating the presence of the eastward auroral electrojet. However, differences in the amplitudes of both auroral electrojet indices were observed.

  6. An Algorithm for Deriving Fiscal Equity Indicators of a School Financing Structure: Application to Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, F. Gregory

    1980-01-01

    By algebraically defining a school finance structure as a total budget system, partial derivatives can be used to find the kinds of rewards, incentives, and distributions the structure defines for individual districts and among districts. Equity concerns can also be answered. (Author/IRT)

  7. Redirecting Specificity of T cells Using the Sleeping Beauty System to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptors by Mix-and-Matching of VL and VH Domains Targeting CD123+ Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thokala, Radhika; Olivares, Simon; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra; Deniger, Drew; Huls, Helen; Torikai, Hiroki; Singh, Harjeet; Champlin, Richard E; Laskowski, Tamara; McNamara, George; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy infusing T cells with engineered specificity for CD19 expressed on B- cell malignancies is generating enthusiasm to extend this approach to other hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). CD123, or interleukin 3 receptor alpha, is overexpressed on most AML and some lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and has been an effective target for T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The prototypical CAR encodes a VH and VL from one monoclonal antibody (mAb), coupled to a transmembrane domain and one or more cytoplasmic signaling domains. Previous studies showed that treatment of an experimental AML model with CD123-specific CAR T cells was therapeutic, but at the cost of impaired myelopoiesis, highlighting the need for systems to define the antigen threshold for CAR recognition. Here, we show that CARs can be engineered using VH and VL chains derived from different CD123-specific mAbs to generate a panel of CAR+ T cells. While all CARs exhibited specificity to CD123, one VH and VL combination had reduced lysis of normal hematopoietic stem cells. This CAR's in vivo anti-tumor activity was similar whether signaling occurred via chimeric CD28 or CD137, prolonging survival in both AML and ALL models. Co-expression of inducible caspase 9 eliminated CAR+ T cells. These data help support the use of CD123-specific CARs for treatment of CD123+ hematologic malignancies.

  8. Redirecting Specificity of T cells Using the Sleeping Beauty System to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptors by Mix-and-Matching of VL and VH Domains Targeting CD123+ Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Thokala

    Full Text Available Adoptive immunotherapy infusing T cells with engineered specificity for CD19 expressed on B- cell malignancies is generating enthusiasm to extend this approach to other hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML. CD123, or interleukin 3 receptor alpha, is overexpressed on most AML and some lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, and has been an effective target for T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs. The prototypical CAR encodes a VH and VL from one monoclonal antibody (mAb, coupled to a transmembrane domain and one or more cytoplasmic signaling domains. Previous studies showed that treatment of an experimental AML model with CD123-specific CAR T cells was therapeutic, but at the cost of impaired myelopoiesis, highlighting the need for systems to define the antigen threshold for CAR recognition. Here, we show that CARs can be engineered using VH and VL chains derived from different CD123-specific mAbs to generate a panel of CAR+ T cells. While all CARs exhibited specificity to CD123, one VH and VL combination had reduced lysis of normal hematopoietic stem cells. This CAR's in vivo anti-tumor activity was similar whether signaling occurred via chimeric CD28 or CD137, prolonging survival in both AML and ALL models. Co-expression of inducible caspase 9 eliminated CAR+ T cells. These data help support the use of CD123-specific CARs for treatment of CD123+ hematologic malignancies.

  9. Phenology and trend indicators derived from spatially dynamic bi-weekly satellite imagery to support ecosystem monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron J. Orr; Grant M. Casady; Daniel G. Tuttle; Willem J. D. van Leeuwen; Laura E. Baker; Colleen I. McDonald; Stuart E. Marsh

    2005-01-01

    Ground-based ecosystem monitoring presents some practical challenges to natural resource managers and ecologists tasked with assessing vegetation dynamics across large areas through time. RangeView (http://rangeview.arizona.edu) provides online access to spatially and temporally explicit biweekly vegetation indices derived from satellite data. It also permits side-by-...

  10. Derivation of indices of socioeconomic status for health services research in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arul Earnest

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: These indices may prove useful for policy-makers to identify spatially varying risk factors, and in turn help identify geographically targeted intervention programs, which can be more cost effective to conduct.

  11. Modified Rand method to derive quality indicators: a case study in cardiac rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Engen-Verheul, Mariëtte; Kemps, Hareld; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik; de Keizer, Nicolette; Peek, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Quality indicators (QIs) are increasingly used to summarize quality of care and to give professionals' performance feedback. We have previously developed a continuous multifaceted guideline implementation strategy that integrates computerized decision support with feedback on QIs and benchmarking.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF AZO COMPOUNDS DERIVATIVE FROM EUGENOL AND ITS APPLICATION AS A TITRATION INDICATOR

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Purwono; Catur Mahardiani

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of azo compounds from eugenol has been carried out by diazotation reaction. The diazonium salt was produced by reaction of aniline and sodium nitrite in acid condition at 0-5 °C temperature to yield benzenediazonium chloride salt. The salt was then reacted with eugenol to produce the azo derivatives. The azo product was analyzed by IR, 1H-NMR, dan GC-MS spectrometer. The results showed that the reaction of benzenediazonium chloride with eugenol gave 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-hydroxyaz...

  13. Analysis of API2-MALT1 fusion, trisomies, and immunoglobulin VH genes in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjing; Nakayama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Hidenori; Yamada, Seiji; Sato, Fumihiko; Takino, Hisashi; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is unique in that chronic inflammation is rare and that API2-MALT1 fusion, resulting from t(11;18)(q21;q21), occurs frequently. In this study, we examined 20 cases for API2-MALT1 fusion using the multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and looked for trisomy 3, trisomy 18, and abnormalities of MALT1 and IGH genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed VH genes by subcloning of the monoclonal polymerase chain reaction products. Of 20 cases studied, we detected gene abnormalities in 16: API2-MALT1 fusion in 9, trisomy 3 in 5, trisomy 18 in 4, MALT1 abnormality in 13, and IGH abnormality in 1. MALT1 gene abnormalities were concordant with API2-MALT1 fusion or trisomy 18. One case showed API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. On detection of API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomies, we were able to divide our cases into 3 groups, API2-MALT1 positive, trisomy positive, and no detectable gene abnormality, suggesting that tumor development had processed along different genetic pathways. All 20 cases were analyzed for VH genes. Most of the VH genes selected by the lymphomas belonged to the VH3 family, but there was no restriction to any particular VH fragment. Of interest, VH genes were unmutated in 7 cases, suggesting that T-cell-independent extrafollicular B-cell maturation may be important in the development of this lymphoma. In addition, both mutated and unmutated tumor cases were found to carry the API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. This observation suggests that these gene abnormalities may occur in microenvironments found before or outside of follicular germinal centers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of platelet-derived indices for the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hernando Aponte-Barrios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Platelet-derived indices have a well-established correlation with the differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia in adult-based research. These indices include mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, and platelet-large cell ratio. Objective. To determine the values of platelet-derived indices in a pediatric population with diagnoses of thrombocytopenia and their etiologic correlation. Materials and methods. Analytic observational diagnostic-test study. The population for this analytical study was pediatric patients between 6 months and 18 years of age who had thrombocytopenia (<100x10(9/L. The study period was 18 months long. Results. Of 54 subjects, 18 (33.3% were diagnosed with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and 36 (66.7% were diagnosed with acute leukemia. Mean age was 7.4 years and 6.8 years for immune thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia, respectively. Mean platelet distribution width values for immune thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia were 15.08 fL and 10.73, respectively. Mean MPV for immune thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia was 11.7 fL and 9.8 fL, respectively. Mean platelet-large cell ratio was 38.26% and 24.97% for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia, respectively. Differences in these three distinct platelet indices between idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and acute leukemia were statistically significant (p=0.00. The area under the ROC curve for platelet-derived indices showed that they were adequate for defining the causes of thrombocytopenia. MPV and platelet-large cell ratio had an area under the curve of 0.89 and 0.88, respectively, while platelet size deviation width had an area under the curve of 0.903. Conclusions. Platelet-derived indices could be useful in the initial approach for the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients with thrombocytopenia.

  15. Leaf Area Index derivation from hyperspectral vegetation indices and the red edge position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darvishzadeh, R.; Atzberger, C.; Skidmore, A.K.; Abkar, A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of various narrowband vegetation indices in estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) of structurally different plant species having different soil backgrounds and leaf optical properties. The study uses a dataset collected during a controlled laboratory

  16. An automated system for access to derived climate indices in support of ecological impacts assessments and resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Morisette, J. T.; Talbert, C.; Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.

    2012-12-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey team is working with several providers to establish standard data services for the climate projection data they host. To meet the needs of climate adaptation science and landscape management communities, the team is establishing a set of climate index calculation algorithms that will consume data from various providers and provide directly useful data derivatives. Climate projections coming from various scenarios, modeling centers, and downscaling methods are increasing in number and size. Global change impact modeling and assessment, generally, requires inputs in the form of climate indices or values derived from raw climate projections. This requirement puts a large burden on a community not familiar with climate data formats, semantics, and processing techniques and requires storage capacity and computing resources out of the reach of most. In order to fully understand the implications of our best available climate projections, assessments must take into account an ensemble of climate projections and potentially a range of parameters for calculation of climate indices. These requirements around data access and processing are not unique from project to project, or even among projected climate data sets, pointing to the need for a reusable tool to generate climate indices. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a pilot application and supporting web service framework that automates the generation of climate indices. The web service framework consists of standards-based data servers and a data integration broker. The resulting system allows data producers to publish and maintain ownership of their data and data consumers to access climate derivatives via a simple to use "data product ordering" workflow. Data access and processing is completed on enterprise "cloud" computing resources and only the relatively small, derived climate indices are delivered to the scientist or land manager. These services will assist the scientific and land

  17. Appraisal of active tectonics in Hindu Kush: Insights from DEM derived geomorphic indices and drainage analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Amer Mahmood

    2012-07-01

    The results obtained from these indices were combined to yield an index of relative active tectonics (IRAT using GIS. The average of the seven measured geomorphic indices was used to evaluate the distribution of relative tectonic activity in the study area. We defined four classes to define the degree of relative tectonic activity: class 1__very high (1.0 ≤ IRAT < 1.3; class 2__high (1.3 ≥ IRAT < 1.5; class 3—moderate (1.5 ≥ IRAT < 1.8; and class 4—low (1.8 ≥ IRAT. In view of the results, we conclude that this combined approach allows the identification of the highly deformed areas related to active tectonics. Landsat imagery and field observations also evidence the presence of active tectonics based on the deflected streams, deformed landforms, active mountain fronts and triangular facets. The indicative values of IRAT are consistent with the areas of known relative uplift rates, landforms and geology.

  18. Usage of Smartphone Data to Derive an Indicator for Collaborative Mobility between Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Toader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thepotentialofgeospatialbigdatahasbeendrawingattentionfor afewyears. Despitethe larger and larger market penetration of portable technologies (nomadic and wearable devices like smartphones and smartwatches, their opportunities for travel behavior analysis are still relatively unexplored. The main objective of our study is to extract the human mobility patterns from GPS tracesin order toderivean indicatorfor enhancing CollaborativeMobility (CM betweenindividuals. The first step, extracting activity duration and location, is done using state-of-the-art automated recognition tools. Sensors data are used to reconstruct individual’s activity location and duration across time. For constructing the indicator, in a second step, we defined different variables and methods for specific case studies. Smartphone sensor data are being collected from a limited number of individuals and for one week. These data are used to evaluate the proposed indicator. Based on the value of the indicator, we analyzed the potential for identifying CM among groups of users, such as sharing traveling resources (e.g., carpooling, ridesharing, parking sharing and time (rescheduling and reordering activities.

  19. Estimating daily climatologies for climate indices derived from climate model data and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlstein, Irina; Spirig, Christoph; Liniger, Mark A; Appenzeller, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Climate indices help to describe the past, present, and the future climate. They are usually closer related to possible impacts and are therefore more illustrative to users than simple climate means. Indices are often based on daily data series and thresholds. It is shown that the percentile-based thresholds are sensitive to the method of computation, and so are the climatological daily mean and the daily standard deviation, which are used for bias corrections of daily climate model data. Sample size issues of either the observed reference period or the model data lead to uncertainties in these estimations. A large number of past ensemble seasonal forecasts, called hindcasts, is used to explore these sampling uncertainties and to compare two different approaches. Based on a perfect model approach it is shown that a fitting approach can improve substantially the estimates of daily climatologies of percentile-based thresholds over land areas, as well as the mean and the variability. These improvements are relevant for bias removal in long-range forecasts or predictions of climate indices based on percentile thresholds. But also for climate change studies, the method shows potential for use. Key Points More robust estimates of daily climate characteristics Statistical fitting approach Based on a perfect model approach PMID:26042192

  20. QUALITATIVE RISK COVERAGE IN AGRICULTURE THROUGH DERIVATIVE FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS BASED ON SELYANINOV INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian KEVORCHIAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The financial product designed by the authors belongs to the class of derivative financial instruments, having “weather conditions” as basic variable; the settlement is oriented to options on OTC markets, which are able to adapt to the farmers’ risk exposure level. Unfortunately, they cause certain problems at position liquidation, and, moreover, due to lack of stock prices, they require proper evaluation models. The transformation of the weather risk into financial risk and its trading on financial markets relies on the willingness for risk taking of those groups of farmers which are using this particular financial instrument. One needs to emphasize that the proposed product is covering the risk for the production segment only of a specific crop that cannot be covered by the regular agricultural insurance, and it is based upon the Selyaninov index. The calculation formulae for a put type option will be presented: pay-off, strike, tick,and the level of the insurance premium for cereals. The reference weather stations will be: Tulcea, Brăila, Buzău, Galaţi, Focşani and Medgidia.

  1. Ocean Monitoring Indicators for the Mediterranean Sea biogeochemistry derived from a high-resolution reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidoro, Cosimo; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Bolzon, Giorgio; Salon, Stefano; Teruzzi, Anna; Lazzari, Paolo; Crise, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    In recent years the interest in multi-decadal reanalyses of the status of the Mediterranean marine ecosystem has been rising constantly, also in light of the need of information for a proper implementation of European directives (e.g. MSFD). State-of-art reanalyses of the Mediterranean Sea biogeochemistry - being an optimal integration of multi-platforms data and numerical models - constitute an extremely relevant source of information in evaluating the ecosystem status at basin and sub-basin scale. Furthermore, they provide highly valuable data to be used as boundary conditions for local studies. The objective of this work is to produce sensible environmental indicators useful to characterize the environmental status of the Mediterranean starting from an upgraded high-resolution reanalysis of Mediterranean Sea biogeochemistry delivered in the frame of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Services (CMEMS). The reanalysis was qualified by a comparison against several available data sets, in terms of the main surface and sub-surface biogeochemical essential climate variables (chlorophyll, carbon dioxide partial pressure, ocean acidity, nutrients, oxygen). The reanalysis outputs reproduced spatial patterns, seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability of the assessed variables, allowing for a proper description of recent trends and present status of the Mediterranean Sea biogeochemistry. Our results confirm the vision of the Mediterranean as a mainly oligotrophic ecosystem with the presence of significant biogeochemical gradients from the eastern to the western sub-basins (e.g. in chlorophyll, nutrients, primary production). Our reanalysis can be used to contribute estimating eutrophication MFSD descriptors, atmospheric carbon sequestration fluxes, first assessment of potential resources available for the higher trophic levels and more. Indeed, the reanalysis data set provides a suitable basis for the estimation of the so-called Ocean Monitoring Indicators

  2. Amphipathic variable region heavy chain peptides derived from monoclonal human Wegener's anti-PR3 antibodies stimulate lymphocytes from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peen, E; Malone, C; Myers, C; Williams, R C; Peck, A B; Csernok, E; Gross, W L; Staud, R

    2001-01-01

    Amphipathic variable-region heavy chain 11-mer peptides from monoclonal human IgM antiproteinase-3 antibodies were studied for peripheral blood lymphocyte stimulation in 21 patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), connective tissue disease controls and normal control subjects. Positive T-cell activation was observed in most experiments with WG patients' lymphocytes using amphipathic VH-region peptides from four different human monoclonal anti-PR3 antibodies. Control peptides of the same length but without amphipathic characteristics along with other amphipathic peptides not derived from monoclonal anti-PR3 sequence were employed as controls. No significant lymphocyte stimulation was observed with normal controls, but positive stimulation with amphipathic VH peptides was also recorded in other connective tissue disease controls mainly patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Amphipathic peptides not derived from anti-PR3 sequence did not stimulate WG lymphocytes. Our findings indicate that lymphocyte reactivity as an element of cell-mediated immunity may be activated by amphipathic VH-region amino acid sequences of autoantibodies which are themselves associated with diseases such as WG. PMID:11529926

  3. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Blondin, Stacy A.; Mueller, Megan P.; Bakun, Peter J.; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Economos, Christina D.

    2015-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs) among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998?2007) by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323). DPs were derived ...

  4. Derivation of multivariate indices of milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yield in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, M G; Serdino, J; Gaspa, G; Urgeghe, P; Ibba, I; Contu, M; Fresi, P; Macciotta, N P P

    2016-06-01

    Milk composition and its technological properties are traits of interest for the dairy sheep industry because almost all milk produced is processed into cheese. However, several variables define milk technological properties and a complex correlation pattern exists among them. In the present work, we measured milk composition, coagulation properties, and individual cheese yields in a sample of 991 Sarda breed ewes in 47 flocks. The work aimed to study the correlation pattern among measured variables and to obtain new synthetic indicators of milk composition and cheese-making properties. Multivariate factor analysis was carried out on individual measures of milk coagulation parameters; cheese yield; fat, protein, and lactose percentages; somatic cell score; casein percentage; NaCl content; pH; and freezing point. Four factors that were able to explain about 76% of the original variance were extracted. They were clearly interpretable: the first was associated with composition and cheese yield, the second with udder health status, the third with coagulation, and the fourth with curd characteristics. Factor scores were then analyzed by using a mixed linear model that included the fixed effect of parity, lambing month, and lactation stage, and the random effect of flock-test date. The patterns of factor scores along lactation stages were coherent with their technical meaning. A relevant effect of flock-test date was detected, especially on the 2 factors related to milk coagulation properties. Results of the present study suggest the existence of a simpler latent structure that regulates relationships between variables defining milk composition and coagulation properties in sheep. Heritability estimates for the 4 extracted factors were from low to moderate, suggesting potential use of these new variables as breeding goals. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring the QSAR's predictive truthfulness of the novel N-tuple discrete derivative indices on benchmark datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Santiago, O; Marrero-Ponce, Y; Vivas-Reyes, R; Rivera-Borroto, O M; Hurtado, E; Treto-Suarez, M A; Ramos, Y; Vergara-Murillo, F; Orozco-Ugarriza, M E; Martínez-López, Y

    2017-05-01

    Graph derivative indices (GDIs) have recently been defined over N-atoms (N = 2, 3 and 4) simultaneously, which are based on the concept of derivatives in discrete mathematics (finite difference), metaphorical to the derivative concept in classical mathematical analysis. These molecular descriptors (MDs) codify topo-chemical and topo-structural information based on the concept of the derivative of a molecular graph with respect to a given event (S) over duplex, triplex and quadruplex relations of atoms (vertices). These GDIs have been successfully applied in the description of physicochemical properties like reactivity, solubility and chemical shift, among others, and in several comparative quantitative structure activity/property relationship (QSAR/QSPR) studies. Although satisfactory results have been obtained in previous modelling studies with the aforementioned indices, it is necessary to develop new, more rigorous analysis to assess the true predictive performance of the novel structure codification. So, in the present paper, an assessment and statistical validation of the performance of these novel approaches in QSAR studies are executed, as well as a comparison with those of other QSAR procedures reported in the literature. To achieve the main aim of this research, QSARs were developed on eight chemical datasets widely used as benchmarks in the evaluation/validation of several QSAR methods and/or many different MDs (fundamentally 3D MDs). Three to seven variable QSAR models were built for each chemical dataset, according to the original dissection into training/test sets. The models were developed by using multiple linear regression (MLR) coupled with a genetic algorithm as the feature wrapper selection technique in the MobyDigs software. Each family of GDIs (for duplex, triplex and quadruplex) behaves similarly in all modelling, although there were some exceptions. However, when all families were used in combination, the results achieved were quantitatively

  6. Derivation of Nationally Consistent Indices Representing Urban Intensity Within and Across Nine Metropolitan Areas of the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Falcone, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Two nationally consistent multimetric indices of urban intensity were developed to support studies of the effects of urbanization on streams in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States: Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Denver, Colorado; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Portland, Oregon; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Salt Lake City, Utah. These studies were conducted as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These urban intensity indices were used to define gradients of urbanization and to interpret biological, physical, and chemical changes along these gradients. Ninety census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables obtained from nationally available databases were evaluated. Only variables that exhibited a strong and consistent linear relation with 2000 population density were considered for use in the indices. Housing-unit density (HUDEN), percentage of basin area in developed land (P_NLCD1_2), and road density (ROADDEN) were selected as the best representatives of census, land-cover, and infrastructure variables. The metropolitan area national urban intensity index (MA-NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity within each metropolitan area and ranged from 0 (little or no urban) to 100 (maximum urban) for sites within each metropolitan area. The national urban intensity index (NUII) was scaled to represent urban intensity across all nine metropolitan areas and ranged from 0 to 100 for all sites. The rates at which HUDEN, P_NLCD1_2, and ROADDEN changed with changes in population density varied among metropolitan areas. Therefore, these variables were adjusted to obtain a more uniform rate of response across metropolitan areas in the derivation of the NUII. The NUII indicated that maximum levels of urban intensity occurred in the West and Midwest rather than in the East primarily because small inner-city streams in eastern metropolitan areas are

  7. Chang SSM/I Derived Monthly Rain Indices 5 x 5 degree V2.3 (RAIN_CHANG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SSM/I Derived Oceanic Monthly Rainfall Indices data set is a GlobalbPrecipitaton Climate Project (GPCP) product. Monthly rainfall indices overnthe oceans are...

  8. Hemispheric ozone variability indices derived from satellite observations and comparison to a coupled chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Erbertseder

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Total column ozone is used to trace the dynamics of the lower and middle stratosphere which is governed by planetary waves. In order to analyse the planetary wave activity a Harmonic Analysis is applied to global multi-year total ozone observations from the Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer (TOMS. As diagnostic variables we introduce the hemispheric ozone variability indices one and two. They are defined as the hemispheric means of the amplitudes of the zonal waves number one and two, respectively, as traced by the total ozone field. The application of these indices as a simple diagnostic for the evaluation of coupled chemistry-climate models (CCMs is demonstrated by comparing results of the CCM ECHAM4.L39(DLR/CHEM (hereafter: E39/C against satellite observations. It is quantified to what extent a multi-year model simulation of E39/C (representing "2000" climate conditions is able to reproduce the zonal and hemispheric planetary wave activity derived from TOMS data (1996–2004, Version 8. Compared to the reference observations the hemispheric ozone variability indices one and two of E39/C are too high in the Northern Hemisphere and too low in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, where the agreement is generally better, E39/C produces too strong a planetary wave one activity in winter and spring and too high an interannual variability. For the Southern Hemisphere we reveal that the indices from observations and model differ significantly during the ozone hole season. The indices are used to give reasons for the late formation of the Antarctic ozone hole, the insufficient vortex elongation and eventually the delayed final warming in E39/C. In general, the hemispheric ozone variability indices can be regarded as a simple and robust diagnostic to quantify model-observation differences concerning planetary wave activity. It allows a first-guess on how the dynamics is represented in a model simulation before applying costly and more

  9. Screening obesity by direct and derived anthropometric indices with evaluation of physical efficiency among female college students of kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, P; Chaudhuri, P; Bhattacharya, K

    2013-10-01

    The available information regarding the obesity pattern of the undergraduate female students of Kolkata is inadequate, though there are several reports which indicate the complications and/or awful consequences of obesity on female health particularly, during the reproductive years. The present investigation has thus been carried out to report their present physiological status along with the prevalence of obesity, based on their body mass index (BMI), some direct and derived anthropometric indices, and physical fitness. This small-scale cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected 100 female students of different colleges of Kolkata with the age of 18-22 [mean age 20.4 (2.3)] years. Measurements of body composition included total 24 variables, with thirteen direct and eleven derived anthropometric variables; while physical efficiency parameters were physical fitness index, VO2max, energy expenditure and anaerobic power. The data of the experimental group were compared with those of the control group by t-test, using SPSS v.15.0 and MS-Excel v.2013. Analysis of collected data showed majority of the students have normal range of BMI (67.95%), but, 21.95% of students found to be overweight and 3.84% are obese. They also showed higher fat mass [14.40 (4.11)], but, lower waist-to-hip ratio and conicity index. They were found to have poor to moderate physical fitness [57.60 (3.90)] and higher energy expenditure [5.61 (0.72)]. The findings of the present obesity screening reports almost one of four female students (24 out of 100 participants) are overweight/obese, indicated higher body fat distribution and increased propensity of being obese with age. Thus, the overall data along with their low physical fitness points out to health risks among female undergraduates of Kolkata.

  10. Combined search for anomalous pseudoscalar HVV couplings in VH(H→bb‾ production and H→VV decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khachatryan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A search for anomalous pseudoscalar couplings of the Higgs boson H to electroweak vector bosons V (=W or Z in a sample of proton–proton collision events corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.9 fb−1 at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV is presented. Events consistent with the topology of associated VH production, where the Higgs boson decays to a pair of bottom quarks and the vector boson decays leptonically, are analyzed. The consistency of data with a potential pseudoscalar contribution to the HVV interaction, expressed by the effective pseudoscalar cross section fractions fa3, is assessed by means of profile likelihood scans. Results are given for the VH channels alone and for a combined analysis of the VH and previously published H→VV channels. Under certain assumptions, fa3ZZ>0.0034 is excluded at 95% confidence level in the combination. Scenarios in which these assumptions are relaxed are also considered.

  11. Stability-indicating methods for the determination of a mixture of almitrine and raubasine by derivative spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mohammad A

    2009-06-01

    A second-derivative spectrophotometric method ((2)D) and a derivative ratio spectrum zero crossing ((1)DD) method were used to determine raubasine and almitrine dismesylate in the presence of raubasine degradation product, using methanol as a solvent. Linear relationships were obtained in the range from 6-20 microg ml(-1) raubasine for the ((2)D) method and 12-24 microg ml(-1) almitrine dismesylate for the ((1)DD) method. By applying these methods it was possible to determine raubasine in its pure powdered form with an accuracy of 99.93 +/- 1.116 (n = 8) for the ((2)D) method and almitrine dismesylate with an accuracy of 99.98 +/- 0.602 (n = 7) for the ((1)DD) method.Laboratory-prepared mixtures containing different ratios of raubasine, almitrine dismesylate and raubasine degradation product were analysed and the proposed methods were valid up to 50% of raubasine degradation product. They were found to be suitable stability-indicating assay methods for raubasine and almitrine dismesylate in pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. HIV-1 receptor binding site-directed antibodies using a VH1-2 gene segment orthologue are activated by Env trimer immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjon Navis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs isolated from chronically HIV-1 infected individuals reveal important information regarding how antibodies target conserved determinants of the envelope glycoprotein (Env spike such as the primary receptor CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Many CD4bs-directed bNAbs use the same heavy (H chain variable (V gene segment, VH1-2*02, suggesting that activation of B cells expressing this allele is linked to the generation of this type of Ab. Here, we identify the rhesus macaque VH1.23 gene segment to be the closest macaque orthologue to the human VH1-2 gene segment, with 92% homology to VH1-2*02. Of the three amino acids in the VH1-2*02 gene segment that define a motif for VRC01-like antibodies (W50, N58, flanking the HCDR2 region, and R71, the two identified macaque VH1.23 alleles described here encode two. We demonstrate that immunization with soluble Env trimers induced CD4bs-specific VH1.23-using Abs with restricted neutralization breadth. Through alanine scanning and structural studies of one such monoclonal Ab (MAb, GE356, we demonstrate that all three HCDRs are involved in neutralization. This contrasts to the highly potent CD4bs-directed VRC01 class of bNAb, which bind Env predominantly through the HCDR2. Also unlike VRC01, GE356 was minimally modified by somatic hypermutation, its light (L chain CDRs were of average lengths and it displayed a binding footprint proximal to the trimer axis. These results illustrate that the Env trimer immunogen used here activates B cells encoding a VH1-2 gene segment orthologue, but that the resulting Abs interact distinctly differently with the HIV-1 Env spike compared to VRC01.

  13. Validated stability-indicating derivative and derivative ratio methods for the determination of some drugs used to alleviate respiratory tract disorders and their degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassib, Sonia T; El-Zaher, Asmaa A; Fouad, Marwa A

    2011-05-01

    Derivative and derivative ratio methods are presented for the determination of butamirate citrate, formoterol fumarate, montelukast sodium, and sodium cromoglycate. Using the second derivative ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry, butamirate citrate and formoterol fumarate were determined by measuring the peak amplitude at 260.4 and 261.8 nm, respectively, without any interference of their degradation products. Butamirate citrate degradation product, 2-phenyl butyric acid, was determined by the measurement of its second derivative amplitude at 246.7 nm where butamirate citrate displays zero crossing. Formoterol fumarate degradation product, desformyl derivative, could be evaluated through the use of the first derivative at peak amplitude of 264.8 nm where interference of formoterol fumarate is negligible. In the first mode, the zero-crossing technique was applied at 305 nm for the determination of montelukast sodium in the presence of its photodegradation product, cis-isomer. The derivative of ratio spectra of montelukast sodium and its cis- isomer were used to determine both isomers using the first derivative of the ratio spectra by measuring the amplitudes of the trough at 305 nm and the peak at 308 nm, respectively. The later technique was also used for the determination of a ternary mixture of sodium cromoglycate and its two degradation products using zero-crossing method. In the derivative ratio spectra of the ternary mixture, trough depths were measured at 271.6, 302.8 and 302.2 nm, using the second, the first, and the second mode to evaluate sodium cromoglycate, degradation product (1) and degradation product (2), respectively. All the methods were applied successfully to the pharmaceutical preparation and were validated according to ICH guidelines. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Mueller, Megan P; Bakun, Peter J; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F; Tucker, Katherine L; Economos, Christina D

    2015-12-24

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs) among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998-2007) by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323). DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF) and (BMI) and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides) were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk.

  15. Cross-Sectional Associations between Empirically-Derived Dietary Patterns and Indicators of Disease Risk among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy A. Blondin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a unique period during which lifelong dietary habits are shaped. Dietary patterns (DPs among young adults attending college have not been adequately described, and associations between DPs and indicators of disease risk are not well understood in this age group. Dietary data were collected from undergraduates participating in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS; 1998–2007 by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ; n = 1323. DPs were derived using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Scree plots; eigenvalues; factor loadings; and previous studies were used to determine and label the DPs retained. Cross-sectional relationships between DP scores and anthropometric measures (percent body fat (PBF and (BMI and lipid biomarkers (total; HDL and LDL cholesterol; and triglycerides were assessed with multivariable regression models; adjusted for demographics; physical activity; smoking; intention to gain/lose weight; and total energy intake. Effect modification by sex was tested. Three DPs were identified: Prudent; Western; and Alcohol. Greater adherence to the Prudent DP was associated with favorable anthropometric outcomes. The Alcohol DP was associated with a favorable lipid profile. Associations between the Western DP and blood lipids differed by sex; with unfavorable impact observed only among males. Our findings add to the literature linking DPs in young adults with measurable adiposity and cardiometabolic outcomes; suggesting that improving nutrition among college students could reduce chronic disease risk.

  16. Entropy-Based Fusion of Water Indices and DSM Derivatives for Automatic Water Surfaces Extraction and Flood Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramate Horkaew

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable water surface extraction is essential for river delineation and flood monitoring. Obtaining such information from fine resolution satellite imagery has attracted much interest for geographic and remote sensing applications. However, those images are often expensive and difficult to acquire. This study proposes a more cost-effective technique, employing freely available Landsat images. Despite its extensive spectrum and robust discrimination capability, Landsat data are normally of medium spatial resolution and, as such, fail to delineate smaller hydrological features. Based on Multivariate Mutual Information (MMI, the Landsat images were fused with Digital Surface Model (DSM on the spatial domain. Each coinciding pixel would then contain not only rich indices but also intricate topographic attributes, derived from its respective sources. The proposed data fusion ensures robust, precise, and observer-invariable extraction of water surfaces and their branching, while eliminating spurious details. Its merit was demonstrated by effective discrimination of flooded regions from natural rivers for flood monitoring. The assessments we completed suggest improved extraction compared to traditional methods. Compared with manual digitizing, this method also exhibited promising consistency. Extraction using Dempster–Shafer fusion provided a 91.81% F-measure, 93.09% precision, 90.74% recall, and 98.25% accuracy, while using Majority Voting fusion resulted in an 84.91% F-measure, 75.44% precision, 97.37% recall, and 97.21% accuracy.

  17. Selection of therapeutic H5N1 monoclonal antibodies following IgVH repertoire analysis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sean A; Moore, Margaret; VandenEkart, Emily J; Roque, Richard P; Bowen, Richard A; Van Hoeven, Neal; Wiley, Steven R; Clegg, Christopher H

    2016-07-01

    The rapid rate of influenza virus mutation drives the emergence of new strains that inflict serious seasonal epidemics and less frequent, but more deadly, pandemics. While vaccination provides the best protection against influenza, its utility is often diminished by the unpredictability of new pathogenic strains. Consequently, efforts are underway to identify new antiviral drugs and monoclonal antibodies that can be used to treat recently infected individuals and prevent disease in vulnerable populations. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and the analysis of antibody gene repertoires is a valuable tool for Ab discovery. Here, we describe a technology platform for isolating therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by analyzing the IgVH repertoires of mice immunized with recombinant H5N1 hemagglutinin (rH5). As an initial proof of concept, 35 IgVH genes were selected using a CDRH3 search algorithm and co-expressed in a murine IgG2a expression vector with a panel of germline murine kappa genes. Culture supernatants were then screened for antigen binding. Seventeen of the 35 IgVH MAbs (49%) bound rH5VN1203 in preliminary screens and 8 of 9 purified MAbs inhibited 3 heterosubtypic strains of H5N1 virus when assayed by HI. Two of these MAbs demonstrated prophylactic and therapeutic activity in virus-challenged mice. This is the first example in which an NGS discovery platform has been used to isolate anti-influenza MAbs with relevant therapeutic activity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fundamental characteristics of the immunoglobulin VH repertoire of chickens in comparison with those of humans, mice, and camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leeying; Oficjalska, Katarzyna; Lambert, Matthew; Fennell, Brian J; Darmanin-Sheehan, Alfredo; Ní Shúilleabháin, Deirdre; Autin, Bénédicte; Cummins, Emma; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Bloom, Laird; Paulsen, Janet; Gill, Davinder; Cunningham, Orla; Finlay, William J J

    2012-01-01

    Examination of 1269 unique naive chicken V(H) sequences showed that the majority of positions in the framework (FW) regions were maintained as germline, with high mutation rates observed in the CDRs. Many FW mutations could be clearly related to the modulation of CDR structure or the V(H)-V(L) interface. CDRs 1 and 2 of the V(H) exhibited frequent mutation in solvent-exposed positions, but conservation of common structural residues also found in human CDRs at the same positions. In comparison with humans and mice, the chicken CDR3 repertoire was skewed toward longer sequences, was dominated by small amino acids (G/S/A/C/T), and had higher cysteine (chicken, 9.4%; human, 1.6%; and mouse, 0.25%) but lower tyrosine content (chicken, 9.2%; human, 16.8%; and mouse 26.4%). A strong correlation (R(2) = 0.97) was observed between increasing CDR3 length and higher cysteine content. This suggests that noncanonical disulfides are strongly favored in chickens, potentially increasing CDR stability and complexity in the topology of the combining site. The probable formation of disulfide bonds between CDR3 and CDR1, FW2, or CDR2 was also observed, as described in camelids. All features of the naive repertoire were fully replicated in the target-selected, phage-displayed repertoire. The isolation of a chicken Fab with four noncanonical cysteines in the V(H) that exhibits 64 nM (K(D)) binding affinity for its target proved these constituents to be part of the humoral response, not artifacts. This study supports the hypothesis that disulfide bond-constrained CDR3s are a structural diversification strategy in the restricted germline v-gene repertoire of chickens.

  19. IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: Indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae, Hemiptera (Anthocoridae, Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae, and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae. These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet, carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl, pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin and the oxadiazine indoxacarb. Toxicity to coccinellid and lacewing species was assessed by treating 1st instar larvae with the recommended field rate of commercial products, and two 10 fold dilutions of these materials, in topical spray applications. Adult Aphytis melinus Debach and 2nd instar Orius insidiosus (Say were exposed to leaf residues of the same concentrations for 24 h. ANOVA performed on composite survival indices derived from these data resolved significant differences among materials with respect to their overall toxicity to beneficial insects. Cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin and zeta-cypermethrin all increased the developmental time of the lacewing and one or more coccinellid species for larvae that survived topical applications. Bifenthrin increased developmental time for two coccinellid species and decreased it in a third. Indoxacarb (Avaunt® WG, DuPont Corp. ranked highest overall for safety to beneficial insects, largely because of its low dermal toxicity to all species tested. Zeta-cypermethrin (Super Fury®, FMC Corporation received the second best safety rating, largely because of its low toxicity as a leaf residue to A. melinus and O. insidiosus. Phosmet (Imidan® 70W, Gowan Co. and methidathion (Supracide® 25W, Gowan Co. ranked high for safety to coccinellid species, but compounds currently recommended for use in citrus such as fenpropathrin (Danitol® 2.4EC, Sumimoto Chem. Co. and carbaryl (Sevin® XLR EC, Rhone Poulenc Ag. Co. ranked very low for IPM

  20. IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: Indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J.P.; Grant, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae), Hemiptera (Anthocoridae), Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae), and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae). These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet), carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl), pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin) and the oxadiazine indoxacarb. Toxicity to coccinellid and lacewing species was assessed by treating 1st instar larvae with the recommended field rate of commercial products, and two 10 fold dilutions of these materials, in topical spray applications. Adult Aphytis melinus Debach and 2nd instar Orius insidiosus (Say) were exposed to leaf residues of the same concentrations for 24 h. ANOVA performed on composite survival indices derived from these data resolved significant differences among materials with respect to their overall toxicity to beneficial insects. Cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin and zeta-cypermethrin all increased the developmental time of the lacewing and one or more coccinellid species for larvae that survived topical applications. Bifenthrin increased developmental time for two coccinellid species and decreased it in a third. Indoxacarb (Avaunt® WG, DuPont Corp.) ranked highest overall for safety to beneficial insects, largely because of its low dermal toxicity to all species tested. Zeta-cypermethrin (Super Fury®, FMC Corporation) received the second best safety rating, largely because of its low toxicity as a leaf residue to A. melinus and O. insidiosus. Phosmet (Imidan® 70W, Gowan Co.) and methidathion (Supracide® 25W, Gowan Co.) ranked high for safety to coccinellid species, but compounds currently recommended for use in citrus such as fenpropathrin (Danitol® 2.4EC, Sumimoto Chem. Co.) and carbaryl (Sevin® XLR EC, Rhone Poulenc Ag. Co.) ranked very low for IPM

  1. IPM-compatibility of foliar insecticides for citrus: indices derived from toxicity to beneficial insects from four orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J P; Grant, A K

    2003-01-01

    A series of compounds representing four major pesticide groups were tested for toxicity to beneficial insects representing four different insect orders: Coleoptera (Coccinellidae), Hemiptera (Anthocoridae), Hymenoptera (Aphelinidae), and Neuroptera (Chrysopidae). These materials included organophosphates (methidathion, esfenvalerate and phosmet), carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl and carbaryl), pyrethroids (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, zeta-cypermethrin, cyfluthrin and permethrin) and the oxadiazine indoxacarb. Toxicity to coccinellid and lacewing species was assessed by treating 1st instar larvae with the recommended field rate of commercial products, and two 10 fold dilutions of these materials, in topical spray applications. Adult Aphytis melinus Debach and 2nd instar Orius insidiosus (Say) were exposed to leaf residues of the same concentrations for 24 h. ANOVA performed on composite survival indices derived from these data resolved significant differences among materials with respect to their overall toxicity to beneficial insects. Cyfluthrin, fenpropathrin and zeta-cypermethrin all increased the developmental time of the lacewing and one or more coccinellid species for larvae that survived topical applications. Bifenthrin increased developmental time for two coccinellid species and decreased it in a third. Indoxacarb (Avaunt WG, DuPont Corp.) ranked highest overall for safety to beneficial insects, largely because of its low dermal toxicity to all species tested. Zeta-cypermethrin (Super Fury), FMC Corporation) received the second best safety rating, largely because of its low toxicity as a leaf residue to A. melinus and O. insidiosus. Phosmet (Imidan 70W, Gowan Co.) and methidathion (Supracide 25W, Gowan Co.) ranked high for safety to coccinellid species, but compounds currently recommended for use in citrus such as fenpropathrin (Danitol 2.4EC, Sumimoto Chem. Co.) and carbaryl (Sevin XLR EC, Rhone Poulenc Ag. Co.) ranked very low for IPM-compatibility based on

  2. Changes of reanalysis-derived Northern Hemisphere summer warm extreme indices during 1948-2006 and links with climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xingqin; Wang, Anyu; Fong, Soi-kun; Lin, Wenshi; Liu, Ji

    2008-08-01

    those on NH-water. TX90P increases more rapidly than TN90P and significant upward (downward) trends in TX90P have more (less) areal coverage than significant upward (downward) trends in TN90P on NH-land during 1948-2006. ENSO mainly modulates interannual variations, especially during PDO warm phase after the 1980s, and it has opposite impacts in Indian Ocean, South China Sea, south and southeast Asia coasts and in the interior Asia. PDO mainly controls the long-term significant upward trend in the central tropical Atlantic and downward trend in Mongolia and north China. NAO indices of different seasons have different impacted locations, the most obvious positive trend reversion in the late 1970s in south Greenland offshore is related to the interdecadal variation of summer NAO. An abrupt shift of NH summer diurnal temperature range in NCEP reanalysis data in 1967 suggests that the derived results related to the very high minimum temperature on NH-land before 1967 be accepted with care.

  3. New indices and calibrations derived from the distribution of crenarchaeal isoprenoid tetraether lipids: Implications for past sea surface temperature reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; van der Meer, Jaap; Schouten, Stefan; Helmke, Peer; Willmott, Veronica; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Koç, Nalân; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have shown that there is a strong relationship between the distribution of crenarchaeotal isoprenoid glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) and sea surface temperature (SST). Based on this, a ratio of certain GDGTs, called TEX 86 (TetraEther indeX of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbon atoms), was developed as a SST proxy. In this study, we determined the distribution of crenarchaeotal isoprenoid GDGTs in 116 core-top sediments mostly from (sub)polar oceans and combined these data with previously published core-top data. Using this extended global core-top dataset ( n = 426), we re-assessed the relationship of crenarchaeal isoprenoid GDGTs with SST. We excluded data from the Red Sea from the global core-top dataset to define new indices and calibration models, as the Red Sea with its elevated salinity appeared to behave differently compared to other parts of the oceans. We tested our new indices and calibration models on three different paleo datasets, representing different temperature ranges. Our results indicate that the crenarchaeol regio-isomer plays a more important role for temperature adaptation in (sub)tropical oceans than in (sub)polar oceans, suggesting that there may be differences in membrane adaptation of the resident crenarchaeotal communities at different temperatures. We, therefore, suggest to apply two different calibration models. For the whole calibration temperature range (-3 to 30 °C), a modified version of TEX 86 with a logarithmic function which does not include the crenarchaeol regio-isomer, called TEX86L, is shown to correlate best with SST: SST=67.5×TEX86L+46.9 ( r2 = 0.86, n=396, p <0.0001). Application of TEX86L on sediments from the subpolar Southern Ocean results in realistic absolute SST estimates and a similar SST trend compared to a diatom SST record from the same core. TEX86H, which is defined as the logarithmic function of TEX 86, yields the best correlation with SST, when the data from the (sub

  4. Application of normal fluorescence and stability-indicating derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the determination of gliquidone in presence of its fluorescent alkaline degradation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-ghobashy, Mohamed R.; Yehia, Ali M.; Helmy, Aya H.; Youssef, Nadia F.

    2018-01-01

    Simple, smart and sensitive normal fluorescence and stability-indicating derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of gliquidone in the drug substance and drug product. Normal spectrofluorimetric method of gliquidone was established in methanol at λ excitation 225 nm and λ emission 400 nm in concentration range 0.2-3 μg/ml with LOD equal 0.028. The fluorescence quantum yield of gliquidone was calculated using quinine sulfate as a reference and found to be 0.542. Stability-indicating first and third derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy were successfully utilized to overcome the overlapped spectra in normal fluorescence of gliquidone and its alkaline degradation product. Derivative synchronous methods are based on using the synchronous fluorescence of gliquidone and its degradation product in methanol at Δ λ50 nm. Peak amplitude in the first derivative of synchronous fluorescence spectra was measured at 309 nm where degradation product showed zero-crossing without interference. The peak amplitudes in the third derivative of synchronous fluorescence spectra, peak to trough were measured at 316,329 nm where degradation product showed zero-crossing. The different experimental parameters affecting the normal and synchronous fluorescence intensity of gliquidone were studied and optimized. Moreover, the cited methods have been validated as per ICH guidelines. The peak amplitude-concentration plots of the derivative synchronous fluorescence were linear over the concentration range 0.05-2 μg/ml for gliquidone. Limits of detection were 0.020 and 0.022 in first and third derivative synchronous spectra, respectively. The adopted methods were successfully applied to commercial tablets and the results demonstrated that the derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful stability-indicating method, suitable for routine use with a short analysis time. Statistical comparison between

  5. Depth-dependent Vertical-to-Horizontal (V/H) Ratios of Free-Field Ground Motion Response Spectra for Deeply Embedded Nuclear Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Braverman, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Miranda, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rosario, M. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Costantino, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report documents the results of a study to determine the depth-dependent V/H ratios of ground motion response spectra in the free field. The V/H ratios reported herein were developed from a worldwide database of surface and downhole acceleration recordings obtained from 45 vertical array stations. This database was specifically compiled for this project, and includes information from a diversity of active tectonic regions (California, Alaska, Taiwan, Japan), site conditions (rock to soft soil), ground motion intensity levels (PGAs between 0.01 g and 0.50 g), magnitudes (between ML 2.78 and JMA 8.1), epicentral distances (between 3.2 km and 812 km), and source depths (between 1.2 km and 112 km), as well as sensors at surface and at a wide range of depths relevant to the project. To study the significance of the depth effect, V/H ratios from all the records were sorted into a number of depth bins relevant to the project, and statistics (average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, 16th, 50th, and 84th percentiles) of the V/H ratios within each bin were computed. Similar analyses were repeated, controlling for different site conditions, ground motion intensity levels, array locations, and source depths, to study their relative effect on the V/H ratios. Our findings confirm the importance of the depth effect on the V/H ratios. The research findings in this report can be used to provide guidance on the significance of the depth effect, and the extent to which this effect should be considered in the seismic design of deeply embedded SMR structures and NPP structures in general.

  6. Repertoire diversification in mice with an IgH-locus-targeted transgene for the rearranged VH domain of a physiologically selected anti-ssDNA antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Geissal, Erik D; Li, Wenqin; Stollar, B David

    2005-08-01

    To test the fate of developing B cells with autoreactive receptor components, we studied mice homozygous for a knock-in transgene coding the VH domain of an IgM ssDNA-binding antibody. The transgene has unmutated C57 BL/6 V gene segments. Homozygous knock-in mice developed normal numbers of spleen and bone marrow B cells and normal serum Ig concentrations, and had the same low level of serum anti-ssDNA antibody as non-transgenic mice. Mature B cells expressed the transgene, and it underwent mutation and class switching. In young knock-in animals, nearly all IgM and some IgG cDNA clones from bone marrow and spleen contained the transgene V(H)D(H)J(H), with few or no mutations. In many IgM clones from older animals, however, and many IgG clones from both young and old mice, VH domains were revised by productive replacement with a new V(H)D(H) segment. VL segments were diverse. Immunized homozygous knock-in mice produced serum antibodies to polysaccharide, nucleic acid and protein antigens. Monoclonal IgM and IgG antibodies to nucleic acids used either transgenic or revised VH domains; but all of 20 IgG monoclonal antibodies to thyroglobulin used revised VH domain genes. Thus, B cells expressing an autoreactive (ssDNA-binding) VH domain did progress through development and were precursors for cells producing IgM and IgG, but underwent extensive VH gene revision in diversification of antibody responses.

  7. second vertical derivatives and trend surface analysis of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    900. Gunn, P.J., 1997. Quantitative methods for interpreting aeromagnetic data: a subjective review; AGSO. Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics,. 17,(2): pp.105 -113. Gupta, V.H. and Ramani, S.D., 1982. Optimum second vertical derivative application in geologic mapping and mineral exploration; Geophysics,.

  8. Impact of levosimendan on right ventricular functions by using novel tissue Doppler derived indices in patients with ischaemic left ventricular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Gurbuz, Ozlem Zeynep; Oner, Ender; Yurdakul, Selen; Erguney, Mecdi

    2013-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction complicates advanced left ventricular (LV) heart failure (HF) and contributes to a poor prognosis. Levosimendan is a positive inotropic agent improving cardiac contractility without increasing myocardial oxygen consumption in HF. To evaluate the effect of levosimendan therapy on RV systolic function, by using derived tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in patients with ischaemic HF. The study consisted of 30 patients with HF who were admitted to our hospital due to new onset of decompensated HF, having LV ejection fraction functional status class III-IV, according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA). TDI-derived systolic velocities of tricuspid annulus (isovolumic myocardial acceleration [IVA], peak myocardial velocity during isovolumic contraction [IVV], peak systolic velocity during ejection period [Sa]) and diastolic indices (early [Ea] and late diastolic [Aa] velocities, Ea/Aa, E/Ea ratios and myocardial performance index [Tei index]) were measured. 72 hours after treatment, all measurements were re-evaluated. Considering TDI-derived systolic indices of the RV, IVA and IVV increased significantly, whereas Tei index decreased, after the therapy. Also, there was a significant decrease in serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide. No significant change was observed in TDI derived diastolic indices of the RV. Levosimendan improves RV systolic function as expressed by TDI-derived parameters in patients with acutedecompensated HF.

  9. Urban water metabolism indicators derived from a water mass balance - Bridging the gap between visions and performance assessment of urban water resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, M A; Serrao-Neumann, S; Kenway, S J; Morgan, E A; Low Choy, D

    2017-10-01

    Improving resource management in urban areas has been enshrined in visions for achieving sustainable urban areas, but to date it has been difficult to quantify performance indicators to help identify more sustainable outcomes, especially for water resources. In this work, we advance quantitative indicators for what we refer to as the 'metabolic' features of urban water management: those related to resource efficiency (for water and also water-related energy and nutrients), supply internalisation, urban hydrological performance, sustainable extraction, and recognition of the diverse functions of water. We derived indicators in consultation with stakeholders to bridge this gap between visions and performance indicators. This was done by first reviewing and categorising water-related resource management objectives for city-regions, and then deriving indicators that can gauge performance against them. The ability for these indicators to be quantified using data from an urban water mass balance was also examined. Indicators of water efficiency, supply internalisation, and hydrological performance (relative to a reference case) can be generated using existing urban water mass balance methods. In the future, indicators for water-related energy and nutrient efficiencies could be generated by overlaying the urban water balance with energy and nutrient data. Indicators of sustainable extraction and recognising diverse functions of water will require methods for defining sustainable extraction rates and a water functionality index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Difference of performance in response to disease admissions between daily time air quality indices and those derived from average and entropy functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li

    2017-06-01

    Daily time air quality indices, which can reflect air quality in 1 day, are suitable for identifying daily exposure during conditions of poor air quality. The aim of this study is to compare the main effectiveness of four daily time indices in representing variation in the number of disease admissions. These indices include pollution standard index (PSI), air quality index (AQI) and their respective indices derived from mean and entropy functions: MEPSI and MEAQI. The hourly concentrations of fine particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM 10 ), PM 2.5 , O 3 , CO, NO 2 and SO 2 from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010 were obtained from 14 air quality monitoring stations owned by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in the Kaoping region, Taiwan.Instead of circulatory system disease admissions, the indices were correlative with the number of respiratory disease admissions with correlative coefficients of 0.49 to 0.56 (P air quality indices derived from mean and entropy functions improved their performance of reactive range and air pollution identification. The reactive range of MEPSI and MEAQI was 1.4-3 times that of the original indices. The MEPSI and MEAQI increased identification from 40 to 180 in index scale and revealed one to two additional categories of public health effect information. In comparison with other indices, MEAQI is more effective for application to pollution events with multiple air pollutants.

  11. Expression of a novel autoantibody defined by the VH3-15 gene in inflammatory bowel disease and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberian, L S; Valles-Ayoub, Y; Gordon, L K; Targan, S R; Braun, J

    1994-10-15

    This study newly introduces anti-VH mAbs to assess the role of clonal B cell activity in inflammatory bowel disease. Immunohistochemistry of colonic biopsies in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), but not unaffected individuals, demonstrated uniform staining of intravascular erythrocytes with BK2, a monoclonal specific for the VH3-15 Ig heavy chain gene product. Staining was caused by erythrocytes opsinized in vivo by anti-erythrocyte Abs present in patient sera and by using the VH3-15 gene product. The erythrocyte Ag was identified by immunoprecipitation as 22- and 28-kDa membrane proteins. A direct flow cytometric assay was developed to measure this serum autoantibody and was tested in 101 individuals with UC, CD, other acute or chronic colitis, and healthy controls. Compared with normal subjects, BK2+ anti-erythrocyte Abs were elevated in most sera from patients with CD and UC (including postcolectomy). BK2+ anti-erythrocyte Abs also were elevated in 10 of 38 noninflammatory bowel disease patients, all of whom had Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis. These findings suggest that a common immunopathogenetic factor, manifested by VH3-15 B cell activation may be shared in UC, CD, and Campylobacter jejuni enterocolitis.

  12. Correlation of SUV-Derived Indices With Tumoral Aggressiveness of Gliomas in Static 18F-FDOPA PET: Use in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Lucile; Olivier, Pierre; Blonski, Marie; Morel, Olivier; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Karcher, Gilles; Taillandier, Luc; Verger, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    Glioma grading is necessary for prognostic evaluation and optimal treatment decisions. The aims of this study were to establish whether a correlation between F-FDOPA uptake with tumor grade was observed and to determine which of the SUV-derived indices was the best correlated. Thirty-one patients were retrospectively included (mean [SD] age, 36.8 [12.1] years) including 21 proven low-grade tumors due to histology, imaging, and clinical follow-up and 10 histologically proven high-grade tumors. Static PET acquisitions were postreconstructed between the 10th and 30th minute after injection of F-FDOPA. Regions of interest of 20 mm were applied to tumors, and isocontoured volumes were defined at levels of 50% and 80% of the peak intensity voxel. Background was quantified with 30-mm-diameter regions of interest on contralateral striatum and centrum semioval. Tumoral uptake was evaluated with the following SUV-derived indices: SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVmax, and SUVmean of isocontoured volume, tumor/striatum ratio (T/S), and tumor/normal brain ratio (T/N). All the SUV-derived indices tested were significantly correlated with tumor grade, considering low-grade and high-grade groups (P < 0.05), except for the SUVmean 50%. The 2 best-correlated indices were SUVmean T/N and SUVmean T/S, with correlation coefficients of 0.561 and 0.522, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis defined optimal thresholds of 1.33 and 1 for sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 100% and 67% and 100%, respectively. F-FDOPA PET SUV-derived indices are routinely available information that enables accurate discrimination of low-grade and high-grade gliomas. The best-correlated indices were SUVmean T/N and SUVmean T/S with thresholds of 1.33 and 1.

  13. Application of normal fluorescence and stability-indicating derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the determination of gliquidone in presence of its fluorescent alkaline degradation product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghobashy, Mohamed R; Yehia, Ali M; Helmy, Aya H; Youssef, Nadia F

    2018-01-05

    Simple, smart and sensitive normal fluorescence and stability-indicating derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of gliquidone in the drug substance and drug product. Normal spectrofluorimetric method of gliquidone was established in methanol at λ excitation 225nm and λ emission 400nm in concentration range 0.2-3μg/ml with LOD equal 0.028. The fluorescence quantum yield of gliquidone was calculated using quinine sulfate as a reference and found to be 0.542. Stability-indicating first and third derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy were successfully utilized to overcome the overlapped spectra in normal fluorescence of gliquidone and its alkaline degradation product. Derivative synchronous methods are based on using the synchronous fluorescence of gliquidone and its degradation product in methanol at Δ λ50nm. Peak amplitude in the first derivative of synchronous fluorescence spectra was measured at 309nm where degradation product showed zero-crossing without interference. The peak amplitudes in the third derivative of synchronous fluorescence spectra, peak to trough were measured at 316,329nm where degradation product showed zero-crossing. The different experimental parameters affecting the normal and synchronous fluorescence intensity of gliquidone were studied and optimized. Moreover, the cited methods have been validated as per ICH guidelines. The peak amplitude-concentration plots of the derivative synchronous fluorescence were linear over the concentration range 0.05-2μg/ml for gliquidone. Limits of detection were 0.020 and 0.022 in first and third derivative synchronous spectra, respectively. The adopted methods were successfully applied to commercial tablets and the results demonstrated that the derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful stability-indicating method, suitable for routine use with a short analysis time. Statistical comparison between the

  14. Satellite- versus temperature-derived green wave indices for predicting the timing of spring migration of avian herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati Najafabadi, M.; Najafabadi, M.S.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; Kölzsch, A.; Vrieling, A.; Nolet, B.A.; Exo, K.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Stahl, J.; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    According to the green wave hypothesis, herbivores follow the flush of spring growth of forage plants during their spring migration to northern breeding grounds. In this study we compared two green wave indices for predicting the timing of the spring migration of avian herbivores: the

  15. Correlation of intra-tumor 18F-FDG uptake heterogeneity indices with perfusion CT derived parameters in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Tixier

    Full Text Available Thirty patients with proven colorectal cancer prospectively underwent integrated 18F-FDG PET/DCE-CT to assess the metabolic-flow phenotype. Both CT blood flow parametric maps and PET images were analyzed. Correlations between PET heterogeneity and perfusion CT were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation analysis.Blood flow visualization provided by DCE-CT images was significantly correlated with 18F-FDG PET metabolically active tumor volume as well as with uptake heterogeneity for patients with stage III/IV tumors (|ρ|:0.66 to 0.78; p-value<0.02.The positive correlation found with tumor blood flow indicates that intra-tumor heterogeneity of 18F-FDG PET accumulation reflects to some extent tracer distribution and consequently indicates that 18F-FDG PET intra-tumor heterogeneity may be associated with physiological processes such as tumor vascularization.

  16. Indices of cardiovascular function derived from peripheral pulse wave analysis using radial applanation tonometry: a measurement repeatability study

    OpenAIRE

    Crilly, Mike; Coch, Christoph; Bruce, Margaret; Clark, Hazel; Williams, David

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Pulse wave analysis (PWA) using applanation tonometry is a non-invasive technique for assessing cardiovascular function. It produces three important indices: ejection duration index (ED%), augmentation index adjusted for heart rate (AIX@75), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR%). The aim of this study was to assess within- and between-observer repeatability of these measurements. After resting supine for 15 minutes, 20 ambulant patients (16 male) in sinus rhythm under...

  17. The Vh2 and Vh4 scab resistance genes in two differential hosts derived from Russian apple R12740-7A map to the same linkage group of apple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, V.G.M.; Rikkerink, E.H.A.; Weg, van de W.E.; Rusholme, R.L.; Gardiner, S.E.; Bassett, H.C.M.; Kodde, L.P.; Parisi, L.; Laurens, F.N.D.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Plummer, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Russian apple R12740-7A is the designation for an accession grown from seed collected in Russia, which was found to be highly resistant to apple scab. The resistance has historically been attributed to a naturally pyramided complex involving three major genes: one race-nonspecific gene, Vr,

  18. Tumour-derived exosomes as a signature of pancreatic cancer - liquid biopsies as indicators of tumour progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzhat, Zarin; Kinhal, Vyjayanthi; Sharma, Shayna; Rice, Gregory E; Joshi, Virendra; Salomon, Carlos

    2017-03-07

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of death due to cancer in the world. It is known to have a poor prognosis, mostly because early stages of the disease are generally asymptomatic. Progress in pancreatic cancer research has been slow, leaving several fundamental questions pertaining to diagnosis and treatment unanswered. Recent studies highlight the putative utility of tissue-specific vesicles (i.e. extracellular vesicles) in the diagnosis of disease onset and treatment monitoring in pancreatic cancer. Extracellular vesicles are membrane-limited structures derived from the cell membrane. They contain specific molecules including proteins, mRNA, microRNAs and non-coding RNAs that are secreted in the extracellular space. Extracellular vesicles can be classified according to their size and/or origin into microvesicles (~150-1000 nm) and exosomes (~40-120 nm). Microvesicles are released by budding from the plasmatic membrane, whereas exosomes are released via the endocytic pathway by fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasmatic membrane. This endosomal origin means that exosomes contain an abundance of cell-specific biomolecules which may act as a 'fingerprint' of the cell of origin. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, particularly the potential role of EVs in these facets of disease management. In particular, we suggest that as exosomes contain cellular protein and RNA molecules in a cell type-specific manner, they may provide extensive information about the signature of the tumour and pancreatic cancer progression.

  19. Trends and Bioclimatic Assessment of Extreme Indices: Emerging Insights for Rainfall Derivative Crop Microinsurance in Central-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awolala, D. O.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific predictions have forecasted increasing economic losses by which farming households will be forced to consider new adaptation pathways to close the food gap and be income secure. Pro-poor adaptation planning decisions therefore must rely on location-specific details from systematic assessment of extreme climate indices to provide template for most suitable financial adaptation instruments. This paper examined critical loss point to water stress in maize production and risk-averse behaviour to extreme local climate in Central West Nigeria. Trends of extreme indices and bio-climatic assessment based on RClimDex for numerical weather predictions were carried out using a 3-decade time series daily observational climate data of the sub-humid region. The study reveals that the flowering and seed formation stage was identified as the most critical loss point when seed formation is a function of per unit soil water available for uptake. The sub-humid has a bi-modal rainfall pattern but faces longer dry spell with a fast disappearing mild climate measured by budyko evaporation of 80.1%. Radiation index of dryness of 1.394 confirms the region is rapidly becoming drier at an evaporation rate of 949 mm/year and rainfall deficit of 366 mm/year. Net primary production from rainfall is fast declining by 1634 g(DM)/m2/year. These conditions influenced by monthly rainfall uncertainties are associated with losses of standing crops because farmers are uncertain of rainfall probability distribution especially during most important vegetative stage. In a simulated warmer climate, an absolute dryness of months was observed compared with 4 dry months in a normal climate which explains triggers of food deficits and income losses. Positive coefficients of tropical nights (TR20), warm nights (TN90P) and warm days (TX90P), and the negative coefficient of cold days (TX10P) with time are significant at Pfinancial instruments capable of sharing covariate shocks with farmers within an

  20. Purification and identification of anti-inflammatory peptides derived from simulated gastrointestinal digests of velvet antler protein (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify anti-inflammatory peptides from simulated gastrointestinal digest (pepsin–pancreatin hydrolysate of velvet antler protein. The hydrolysate was purified using ultrafiltration and consecutive chromatographic methods. The anti-inflammatory activity of the purified fraction was evaluated by the inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Four anti-inflammatory peptides, VH (Val–His, LAN (Leu–Ala–Asn, AL (Ala–Leu, and IA (Ile–Ala, were identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Each of these peptides demonstrated a U-shaped dose–effect relationship. VH, LAN, AL and IA showed the strongest anti-inflammatory activities at 200 μg/mL, that is, 15.5%, 13.0%, 16.0% and 11.2% inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production, respectively. Additionally, the enhanced NO inhibitory activity was observed for the peptides mixture, indicating the possible synergistic effects. These results suggested that the peptides derived from velvet antler protein could potentially be used as a promising ingredient in functional foods or nutraceuticals against inflammatory diseases.

  1. An observational cohort study of weight- and length-derived anthropometric indicators with body composition at birth and 5 mo: the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perng, Wei; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H; Sauder, Katherine A; Starling, Anne P; Belfort, Mandy B; Dabelea, Dana

    2017-08-01

    Background: Despite widespread use of weight- and length-based anthropometric indexes as proxies for adiposity, little is known regarding the extent to which they correspond with fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) during infancy. Objective: This study aimed to examine associations of 3 derived indicators-weight-for-age z score (WFAZ), weight-for-length score (WFLZ), and body mass index z score (BMIZ)-with FM, percentage of FM, and FFM measured by air-displacement plethysmography during the first 5 mo of life. Design: Applying prospectively collected data from 1027 infants in a Colorado prebirth cohort, we used multivariate regression to evaluate associations between the derived indicators and body composition at birth and at 5 mo, and with change (Δ) during follow-up. Results: At birth, all 3 derived indicators were more strongly associated with FFM than with FM. Each unit of WFAZ corresponded with 0.342 kg FFM (95% CI: 0.331, 0.351 kg FFM), compared with 0.121 kg FM (95% CI: 0.114, 0.128 kg FM) ( P FM than with FFM, whereas WFAZ correlated similarly with the 2 components of body composition. ΔWFLZ and ΔBMIZ were both more strongly related to ΔFM than to ΔFFM; however, a direct comparison of the 2 indexes with respect to change in the percentage of FM indicated that ΔBMIZ was the optimal proxy of adiposity gain ( P indexes are poor surrogates for newborn adiposity. However, at 5 mo, WFLZ and BMIZ are suitable proxies of FM. When assessing adiposity gain, ΔBMIZ is the best indicator of fat accrual during the first 5 postnatal months. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02273297. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Indices of cardiovascular function derived from peripheral pulse wave analysis using radial applanation tonometry: a measurement repeatability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilly, Mike; Coch, Christoph; Bruce, Margaret; Clark, Hazel; Williams, David

    2007-08-01

    Pulse wave analysis (PWA) using applanation tonometry is a non-invasive technique for assessing cardiovascular function. It produces three important indices: ejection duration index (ED%), augmentation index adjusted for heart rate (AIX@75), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR%). The aim of this study was to assess within- and between-observer repeatability of these measurements. After resting supine for 15 minutes, 20 ambulant patients (16 male) in sinus rhythm underwent four PWA measurements on a single occasion. Two nurses (A & B) independently and alternately undertook PWA measurements using the same equipment (Omron HEM-757; SphygmoCor with Millar hand-held tonometer) blind to the other nurse's PWA measurements. Within- and between-observer differences were analysed using the Bland-Altman ;limits of agreement' approach (mean difference +/- 2 standard deviations, 2SD). Mean age was 56 (blood pressure, BP 136/79; pulse rate 64). BP/PWA measurements remained stable during assessment. Based on the average of two PWA measurements the mean +/- 2SD between-observer difference in ED% was 0.3 +/- 2.0; AIX@75 1.0 +/- 3.9; and SEVR% 1.7 +/- 14.2. Based on a single PWA measurement the between-observer difference was ED% 0.3 +/- 3.3; AIX@75 1.7 +/- 6.9; and SEVR% 0.6 +/- 22.6. Within-observer differences for nurse-A were ED% 0.0 +/- 5.4; AIX@75 1.5 +/- 7.0; and SEVR% 1.7 +/- 39.0 (nurse-B: 0.1 +/- 3.8; 0.1 +/- 8.0; and 0.6 +/- 23.3, respectively). PWA demonstrates high levels of repeatability even when used by relatively inexperienced staff and has the potential to be included in the routine cardiovascular assessment of ambulant patients.

  3. Deriving ICD-10 Codes for Patient Safety Indicators for Large-scale Surveillance Using Administrative Hospital Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Danielle A; Burnand, Bernard; Droesler, Saskia E; Flemons, Ward; Forster, Alan J; Gurevich, Yana; Harrison, James; Quan, Hude; Pincus, Harold A; Romano, Patrick S; Sundararajan, Vijaya; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Ghali, William A

    2017-03-01

    Existing administrative data patient safety indicators (PSIs) have been limited by uncertainty around the timing of onset of included diagnoses. We undertook de novo PSI development through a data-driven approach that drew upon "diagnosis timing" information available in some countries' administrative hospital data. Administrative database analysis and modified Delphi rating process. All hospitalized adults in Canada in 2009. We queried all hospitalizations for ICD-10-CA diagnosis codes arising during hospital stay. We then undertook a modified Delphi panel process to rate the extent to which each of the identified diagnoses has a potential link to suboptimal quality of care. We grouped the identified quality/safety-related diagnoses into relevant clinical categories. Lastly, we queried Alberta hospital discharge data to assess the frequency of the newly defined PSI events. Among 2,416,413 national hospitalizations, we found 2590 unique ICD-10-CA codes flagged as having arisen after admission. Seven panelists evaluated these in a 2-round review process, and identified a listing of 640 ICD-10-CA diagnosis codes judged to be linked to suboptimal quality of care and thus appropriate for inclusion in PSIs. These were then grouped by patient safety experts into 18 clinically relevant PSI categories. We then analyzed data on 2,381,652 Alberta hospital discharges from 2005 through 2012, and found that 134,299 (5.2%) hospitalizations had at least 1 PSI diagnosis. The resulting work creates a foundation for a new set of PSIs for routine large-scale surveillance of hospital and health system performance.

  4. Associations of Milk Consumption and Vitamin B2 and Β12 Derived from Milk with Fitness, Anthropometric and Biochemical Indices in Children. The Healthy Growth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Moschonis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B2 and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9–13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined. Data were collected on children’s dietary intake, using 24 h recalls, as well as on fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices. Regression analyses were performed for investigating the research hypothesis, adjusting for potential confounders and for B-vitamin status indices (i.e., plasma riboflavin, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine concentrations, dietary calcium intake and plasma zinc concentrations that could possibly act as effect modifiers. Milk consumption was positively associated with the number of stages performed in the endurance run test (ERT (β = 0.10; p = 0.017 and negatively with body mass index (BMI (β = −0.10; p = 0.014, after adjusting for several potential confounders and effect modifiers. Dietary intakes of vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were also positively associated with the number of ERT stages (β = 0.10; p = 0.015 and β = 0.10; p = 0.014 respectively. In conclusion, higher intake of milk as well as vitamin B2 and B12 derived from milk were independently associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in Greek preadolescents. The key roles of these B-vitamins in substrate oxidation, energy production, haemoglobin synthesis and erythropoiesis could provide a basis for interpreting these associations. However, further research is needed to confirm this potential interpretation.

  5. Search for $VH\\rightarrow$ leptons + $b\\bar{b}$ with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079589

    The search for a Higgs boson decaying to a $b\\bar{b}$ pair is one of the key analyses ongoing at the ATLAS experiment. Despite being the largest branching ratio decay for a Standard Model Higgs boson, a large dataset is necessary to perform this analysis because of the very large backgrounds affecting the measurement. To discriminate the electroweak $H\\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ signal from the large QCD backgrounds, the associated production of the Higgs with a $W$ or a $Z$ boson decaying leptonically is used. Different techniques have been proposed to enhance the signal over background ratio in the $VH(b\\bar{b})$ channel, from dedicated kinematic cuts, to a single large radius jet to identify the two collimated $b$'s in the Higgs high transverse momentum regime, to multivariate techniques. The high-$p_{\\mathrm{T}}$ approach, using a large radius jet to identify the $b$'s coming from the Higgs decay, has been tested against an analysis based on kinematic cuts for a dataset of $4.7$ fb$^{-1}$ luminosity at $\\sqrt{s...

  6. Biomarker-indicated extent of oxidation of plant-derived organic carbon (OC) in relation to geomorphology in an arsenic contaminated Holocene aquifer, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Daniel; Richards, Laura A; Polya, David A; Bryant, Charlotte; Jones, Merren; van Dongen, Bart E

    2017-10-12

    The poisoning of rural populations in South and Southeast Asia due to high groundwater arsenic concentrations is one of the world's largest ongoing natural disasters. It is important to consider environmental processes related to the release of geogenic arsenic, including geomorphological and organic geochemical processes. Arsenic is released from sediments when iron-oxide minerals, onto which arsenic is adsorbed or incorporated, react with organic carbon (OC) and the OC is oxidised. In this study we build a new geomorphological framework for Kandal Province, a highly studied arsenic affected region of Cambodia, and tie this into wider regional environmental change throughout the Holocene. Analyses shows that the concentration of OC in the sediments is strongly inversely correlated to grainsize. Furthermore, the type of OC is also related to grain size with the clay containing mostly (immature) plant derived OC and sand containing mostly thermally mature derived OC. Finally, analyses indicate that within the plant derived OC relative oxidation is strongly grouped by stratigraphy with the older bound OC more oxidised than younger OC.

  7. Revisiting keratoconus diagnosis and progression classification based on evaluation of corneal asymmetry indices, derived from Scheimpflug imaging in keratoconic and suspect cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis1 1Laservision.gr Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To survey the standard keratoconus grading scale (Pentacam®-derived Amsler–Krumeich stages compared to corneal irregularity indices and best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA. Patients and methods: Two-hundred and twelve keratoconus cases were evaluated for keratoconus grading, anterior surface irregularity indices (measured by Pentacam imaging, and subjective refraction (measured by CDVA. The correlations between CDVA, keratometry, and the Scheimpflug keratoconus grading and the seven anterior surface Pentacam-derived topometric indices – index of surface variance, index of vertical asymmetry, keratoconus index, central keratoconus index, index of height asymmetry, index of height decentration, and index of minimum radius of curvature – were analyzed using paired two-tailed t-tests, coefficient of determination (r2, and trendline linearity. Results: The average ± standard deviation CDVA (expressed decimally was 0.626 ± 0.244 for all eyes (range 0.10–1.00. The average flat meridian keratometry was (K1 46.7 ± 5.89 D; the average steep keratometry (K2 was 51.05 ± 6.59 D. The index of surface variance and the index of height decentration had the strongest correlation with topographic keratoconus grading (P< 0.001. CDVA and keratometry correlated poorly with keratoconus severity. Conclusion: It is reported here for the first time that the index of surface variance and the index of height decentration may be the most sensitive and specific criteria in the diagnosis, progression, and surgical follow-up of keratoconus. The classification proposed herein may present a novel benchmark in clinical work and future studies. Keywords: diagnosis and classification, Pentacam topometric indices, Amsler–Krumeich keratoconus grading, surface variance, vertical asymmetry

  8. Assessment of Vegetation Indices Derived by UAV Imagery for Durum Wheat Phenotyping under a Water Limited and Heat Stressed Mediterranean Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyratzis, Angelos C; Skarlatos, Dimitrios P; Menexes, George C; Vamvakousis, Vasileios F; Katsiotis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest for using Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI) derived by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery as a fast and cost-efficient tool for plant phenotyping. The development of such tools is of paramount importance to continue progress through plant breeding, especially in the Mediterranean basin, where climate change is expected to further increase yield uncertainty. In the present study, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI) derived from UAV imagery were calculated for two consecutive years in a set of twenty durum wheat varieties grown under a water limited and heat stressed environment. Statistically significant differences between genotypes were observed for SVIs. GNDVI explained more variability than NDVI and SR, when recorded at booting. GNDVI was significantly correlated with grain yield when recorded at booting and anthesis during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively, while NDVI was correlated to grain yield when recorded at booting, but only for the 1st year. These results suggest that GNDVI has a better discriminating efficiency and can be a better predictor of yield when recorded at early reproductive stages. The predictive ability of SVIs was affected by plant phenology. Correlations of grain yield with SVIs were stronger as the correlations of SVIs with heading were weaker or not significant. NDVIs recorded at the experimental site were significantly correlated with grain yield of the same set of genotypes grown in other environments. Both positive and negative correlations were observed indicating that the environmental conditions during grain filling can affect the sign of the correlations. These findings highlight the potential use of SVIs derived by UAV imagery for durum wheat phenotyping under low yielding Mediterranean conditions.

  9. Assessment of Vegetation Indices Derived by UAV Imagery for Durum Wheat Phenotyping under a Water Limited and Heat Stressed Mediterranean Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyratzis, Angelos C.; Skarlatos, Dimitrios P.; Menexes, George C.; Vamvakousis, Vasileios F.; Katsiotis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest for using Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI) derived by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery as a fast and cost-efficient tool for plant phenotyping. The development of such tools is of paramount importance to continue progress through plant breeding, especially in the Mediterranean basin, where climate change is expected to further increase yield uncertainty. In the present study, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI) derived from UAV imagery were calculated for two consecutive years in a set of twenty durum wheat varieties grown under a water limited and heat stressed environment. Statistically significant differences between genotypes were observed for SVIs. GNDVI explained more variability than NDVI and SR, when recorded at booting. GNDVI was significantly correlated with grain yield when recorded at booting and anthesis during the 1st and 2nd year, respectively, while NDVI was correlated to grain yield when recorded at booting, but only for the 1st year. These results suggest that GNDVI has a better discriminating efficiency and can be a better predictor of yield when recorded at early reproductive stages. The predictive ability of SVIs was affected by plant phenology. Correlations of grain yield with SVIs were stronger as the correlations of SVIs with heading were weaker or not significant. NDVIs recorded at the experimental site were significantly correlated with grain yield of the same set of genotypes grown in other environments. Both positive and negative correlations were observed indicating that the environmental conditions during grain filling can affect the sign of the correlations. These findings highlight the potential use of SVIs derived by UAV imagery for durum wheat phenotyping under low yielding Mediterranean conditions. PMID:28694819

  10. C27-C30 neohop-13(18)-enes and their saturated and aromatic derivatives in sediments: Indicators for diagenesis and water column stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; Volkman, John K.

    2014-05-01

    A limited suite of C27, C29 and C30 rearranged hopenes identified as neohop-13(18)-enes have been reported in immature Recent and ancient marine/lacustrine sediments and their presence has been explained by dehydration and isomerisation of ubiquitous hopanols or hopenes. Here we investigated the source and fate of neohop-13(18)-enes in a range of Recent and ancient sediments. The analysis of δ13C values of hop-17(21)-ene and neohop-13(18)-ene in Arabian Sea surface sediments, in the Monterey Formation and in immature Cenomanian black shales show that they differ by 2-3‰, suggesting that the C30 neohop-13(18)-ene has a source different from those of the non-rearranged C30 hopenes. A new member of the family of neohop-13(18)-enes, the C28 hopene 28,30-dinorhop-13(18)-ene, was identified based on comparison of its mass spectral data with that of other members of the family of neohopenes. Its occurrence explains the formation of a series of orphan aromatic hopanoids bearing an ethyl group at C-21, known to occur in high concentrations in some organic-rich ancient sediments. Circumstantial evidence for this formation pathway is provided by identical δ13C values for the C28 28,30-dinorhop-13(18)-ene and two aromatic hopanoids in two Cretaceous black shales. Relatively abundant C28 28,30-dinorhopene and related aromatic derivatives were present in ancient sediments where the distribution of other biomarkers (i.e. isorenieratene derivatives) indicated a stratified palaeo water column. Therefore, it is suggested that these compounds are derived from bacteria dwelling at or below the chemocline and may be used as indicators of stratified water bodies in the past. 28,30-Dinorhop-13(18)-ene may also be a precursor of the unusual C28 desmethylhopane 28,30-dinorhopane found in high concentrations in anoxic sediments and a limited suite of crude oils, which is consistent with the proposal that it too ultimately derives from bacteria living at the oxic-anoxic interface.

  11. An Application of the Direct Coulomb Electron Pair Production Process to the Energy Measurement of the "VH-Group" in the "Knee" Region of the "All-Particle" Energy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrickson, J. H.; Wu, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The "all-particle" cosmic ray energy spectrum appears to be exhibiting a significant change in the spectral index just above approximately 3000 TeV. This could indicate (1) a change in the propagation of the cosmic rays in the galactic medium, and/or (2) the upper limit of the supernova shock wave acceleration mechanism, and/or (3) a new source of high-energy cosmic rays. Air shower and JACEE data indicate the spectral change is associated with a composition change to a heavier element mixture whereas DICE does not indicate this. A detector concept will be presented that utilizes the energy dependence of the production of direct Coulomb electron-positron pairs by energetic heavy ions. Monte Carlo simulations of a direct electron pair detector consisting of Pb target foils interleaved with planes of 1-mm square scintillating optical fibers will be discussed. The goal is to design a large area, non-saturating instrument to measure the energy spectrum of the individual cosmic ray elements in the "VH-group" for energies greater than 10 TeV/nucleon.

  12. Comparison of atmospheric instability indices derived from radiosonde observations and precipitation values measured with a weather radar and a rain gauge network in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mauro; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Gusev, Anatoly; De Abreu, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    Radio soundings are carried out daily in more than 800 stations throughout the world. The data collected in the soundings are used in many meteorological applications such as numerical weather prediction and climate models. Despite the relatively large number of sounding stations, they are unevenly distributed over the globe. It is generally assumed that the desired distance between stations is 300 km. In this study, we performed a comparison of 20 soundings of two stations located 85 km apart (State of São Paulo, Brazil; 23.511811° S, 46.637528° W, and 23.212578° S, 45.866581° W) to determine whether there is a concordance between atmospheric instability indices derived from the data collected by soundings at the these different locations. Additionally, precipitation data obtained by a meteorological radar and a rain gauge network during the same period as the soundings are compared to the stability indices to establish a correlation between precipitation values and these indices.

  13. Delta13C values of grasses as a novel indicator of pollution by fossil-fuel-derived greenhouse gas CO2 in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtfouse, Eric; Lichtfouse, Michel; Jaffrézic, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A novel fossil fuel pollution indicator based on the 13C/12C isotopic composition of plants has been designed. This bioindicator is a promising tool for future mapping of the sequestration of fossil fuel CO2 into urban vegetation. Theoretically, plants growing in fossil-fuel-CO2-contaminated areas, such as major cities, industrial centers, and highway borders, should assimilate a mixture of global atmospheric CO2 of delta13C value of -8.02 per thousand and of fossil fuel CO2 of average delta13C value of -27.28 per thousand. This isotopic difference should, thus, be recorded in plant carbon. Indeed, this study reveals that grasses growing near a major highway in Paris, France, have strikingly depleted delta13C values, averaging at -35.08 per thousand, versus rural grasses that show an average delta13C value of -30.59 per thousand. A simple mixing model was used to calculate the contributions of fossil-fuel-derived CO2 to the plant tissue. Calculation based on contaminated and noncontaminated isotopic end members shows that urban grasses assimilate up to 29.1% of fossil-fuel-CO2-derived carbon in their tissues. The 13C isotopic composition of grasses thus represents a promising new tool for the study of the impact of fossil fuel CO2 in major cities.

  14. Prediction of the chemo- and regioselectivity of Diels-Alder reactions of o-benzoquinone derivatives with thiophenes by means of DFT-based reactivity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomri, Amina; Mekelleche, Sidi Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Global and local reactivity indices derived from density functional theory were used to elucidate the regio- and chemoselectivity of Diels-Alder reactions of masked o-benzoquinones with thiophenes acting as dienophiles. The polarity of the studied reactions is evaluated in terms of the difference of electrophilicity powers between the diene and dienophile partners. Preferential cyclisation modes of these cycloadditions are predicted using Domingo's polar model based on the local electrophilicity index, ωk, of the electrophile and the local nucleophilicity index, Nuk, of the nucleophile. The theoretical calculations, carried out at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory, are in good agreement with experimental findings.

  15. How reliable are field-derived biomagnification factors and trophic magnification factors as indicators of bioaccumulation potential? Conclusions from a case study on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, James

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the usefulness of the metrics BMF (biomagnification factor) and TMF (trophic magnification factor), derived from field measurements of the levels of contaminants in naturally occurring biota, for characterizing the bioaccumulation potential ("B") of chemicals. Trophic magnification factor and BMF values greater than 1.0 are often considered to be the most conclusive indicators of B status, and the TMF criterion has been referred to as the "gold standard" for B categorization. Although not wishing to dispute the theoretical primacy of field-derived BMFs and TMFs as B metrics, we make the case that, in practice, the study-to-study (and even within-study) variability of the results is so great that they are of very restricted usefulness for assessing B status, at least in the case of the per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), on which we focus here. This conclusion is based on an analysis of the results of 24 peer-reviewed studies reporting field-derived BMFs or TMFs for 14 PFASs, for which BMF values often range over several orders of magnitude from 1.0, sometimes even in the same study. For TMFs, the range is a factor of approximately 20 for the most intensely studied PFASs (perfluorooctanoic acid [PFOA] and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid [PFOS]). We analyze the possible causes for such variability: To some extent it results from the differing ways in which the metrics are expressed, but most of the scatter is likely attributable to such factors as nonachievement of the tacitly assumed steady-state conditions, uncertainties in the feeding ecology, the impact of metabolism of precursor compounds, and so forth. As more trustworthy alternatives to field-derived BMFs and TMFs, we suggest the implementation of dietary BMF studies performed under strictly controlled conditions on aquatic, terrestrial, and avian species, as well as the consideration of measured elimination half-lives, which have been demonstrated to be directly related to BMF

  16. Application of molecular connectivity and electro-topological indices in quantitative structure-activity analysis of pyrazole derivatives as inhibitors of factor Xa and thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnasamy, Chandravel; Raghuraman, Arjun; Kier, Lemont B; Desai, Umesh R

    2008-12-01

    Factor Xa and thrombin, two critical pro-coagulant enzymes of the clotting cascade, are the primary target of current anticoagulation research that aims to develop potent, orally bioavailable, synthetic small-molecule inhibitors. To determine structural features that might play important roles in factor Xa and thrombin recognition and oral bioavailability, quantitative structure-activity and structure-property analyses were performed on the factor Xa and thrombin inhibition data and Caco-2 cell-permeability data of 3-substituted pyrazole-5-carboxamides reported by Pinto et al. (J. Med. Chem. 2001, 44, 566). The factor Xa and thrombin inhibition potencies, and Caco-2 cell permeability of the 3-substituted pyrazole-5-carboxamides could be quantitatively described through molecular connectivity and atom level E-state indices. Different quantitative structure-activity and structure-property models were derived for each of the three biological properties. The models are statistically relevant with correlation coefficients of at least 0.9, and contain only two or three molecular descriptor variables. The study demonstrates the use of molecular connectivity and E-state indices in understanding factor Xa and thrombin inhibition. In addition, the models may be useful for predictive purposes in generating molecules with better potency, specificity, and oral bioavailability.

  17. Assessment of sustained effects of levosimendan and dobutamine on left ventricular systolic functions by using novel tissue Doppler derived indices in patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Ender; Erturk, Mehmet; Birant, Ali; Kurtar Mansıroglu, Aslı; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Karakurt, Huseyin; Yalcin, Ahmet Arif; Uzun, Fatih; Somuncu, Mustafa Umut; Yildirim, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies comparing levosimendan vs. dobutamine have revealed that levosimendan is better in relieving symptoms. Echocardiographic studies have been done using second measurements immediately following a dobutamine infusion or while it was still being administered. The aim of our study was assessment of sustained effects of 24 h levosimendan and dobutamine infusions on left ventricular systolic functions. A total of 61 patients with acutely decompensated heart failure with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV symptoms were randomized to receive either levosimendan or dobutamine 2:1 in an open label fashion. Before and 5 days after the initiation of infusions, functional class was assessed, N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), mitral inflow peak E and A wave velocity, and E/A ratios were measured; using tissue Doppler imaging, isovolumic myocardial acceleration (IVA), peak myocardial velocity during isovolumic contraction (IVV), peak systolic velocity during ejection period (Sa), early (E') and late (A') diastolic velocities, and E'/A' and E/E' ratios were measured. The NYHA class improved in both groups, but improvements were prominent in the levosimendan group. NT-proBNP levels were significantly reduced in the levosimendan group. Improvements in LVEF and diastolic indices were significant in the levosimendan group. Tissue Doppler-derived systolic indices of IVV and IVA increased significantly in the levosimendan group. Improvements in left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions continue after a levosimendan infusion.

  18. Biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats treated with novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives or their complexes with polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kоbylinska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of new synthetic 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (potential anticancer compounds denoted as 3882, 3288 and 3833 and doxorubicin (positive control in free form and in their complexes with synthetic polyethylene glycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier on the biochemical indicators of nephrotoxicity in blood serum of rats. The concentration of total protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, ions of sodium, potassium, calcium, iron and chloride was measured. It was found that after injection of the investigated compounds, the concentration of sodium cations and chloride anions in blood serum was increased compared with control (untreated animals. Doxorubicin’s injection was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of iron cations. The concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine decreased under the influence of the studied compounds. Complexation of these аntineoplastic substances with a synthetic polymeric nanocarrier lowered the concentration of the investigated metabolites substantially compared to the effect of these compounds in free form. The normalization of concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine in blood serum of rats treated with complexes of the studied compounds with the polymeric carrier comparing with increased concentration of these indicators at the introduction of such compounds in free form was found.

  19. Circulating CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cell is an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with ESCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haitao; Zhang, Guangbo; Li, Guangbin; Ma, Haitao; Zhang, Xueguang

    2015-09-01

    Accumulating evidences demonstrate that a population of suppressive cells known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is key immune modulators which suppress antitumor immunity. In this study, we found that the level of circulating CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells in patients was significantly higher than that of healthy donors and was correlated with tumor burden, lymph node metastasis, and tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) clinical stage. More importantly, we for the first time find the level of CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) is a biological indicator of poor prognosis through the analysis of 3-year overall survival. Furthermore, we evidenced that the proportion of CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells in the tumor metastatic tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) was notably higher compared to tumor-free TDLNs. Additionally, CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients expressed dramatically increased programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) comparing to that from healthy control. Subsequently, blocking PD-L1 pathway by antibody could effectively reverse the suppressive effect on autologous T cell proliferation mediated by CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells in vitro. In conclusion, our data revealed CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs which increase in ESCC patients is a novel poor prognostic indicator and may exert immunosuppressive properties through PD-L1/PD-1 pathway.

  20. Anatomical and Physiological Changes after Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon for Atherosclerotic De Novo Coronary Lesions: Serial IVUS-VH and FFR Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Hee Ann

    Full Text Available To assess the serial changes of de novo coronary lesions treated with paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB using intravascular ultrasound virtual histology (IVUS-VH and fractional flow reserve (FFR.This prospective observational study enrolled 27 patients with coronary artery disease treated with PCB who underwent coronary angiography, IVUS-VH and FFR before, immediately after intervention and at 9 months. 28 de novo lesions were successfully treated with PCB. Angiographic late luminal loss was 0.02 ± 0.27 mm. Mean vessel and lumen areas showed increase at 9 months (12.0 ± 3.5 mm(2 to 13.2 ± 3.9 mm(2, p <0.001; and 5.4 ± 1.2 mm(2 to 6.5 ± 1.8 mm(2, p <0.001, respectively. Although mean plaque area was unchanged (6.6 ± 2.6 mm2 to 6.6 ± 2.4 mm(2, p = 0.269, percent atheroma volume decreased significantly (53.4 ± 7.9% to 49.5 ± 6.4%, p = 0.002. The proportion of plaque compositions including fibrous, fibrofatty, dense calcium and necrotic core by IVUS-VH was unchanged at 9 months. The FFR of the treated lesion was 0.71 ± 0.13 pre-procedure, 0.87 ± 0.06 post-procedure and 0.84 ± 0.06 at follow-up.De novo coronary lesions treated with PCB showed persistent anatomical and physiological patency with plaque redistribution and vessel remodeling without chronic elastic recoil or plaque compositional change during follow-up.

  1. Different pattern of immunoglobulin gene usage by HIV-1 compared to non-HIV-1 antibodies derived from the same infected subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liuzhe; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Banerjee, Sagarika; Volsky, Barbara; Williams, Constance; Virland, Diana; Nadas, Arthur; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Xuemin; Spearman, Paul; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gorny, Miroslaw K

    2012-01-01

    A biased usage of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes is observed in human anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) resulting probably from compensation to reduced usage of the VH3 family genes, while the other alternative suggests that this bias usage is due to antigen requirements. If the antigen structure is responsible for the preferential usage of particular Ig genes, it may have certain implications for HIV vaccine development by the targeting of particular Ig gene-encoded B cell receptors to induce neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies. To address this issue, we have produced HIV-1 specific and non-HIV-1 mAbs from an infected individual and analyzed the Ig gene usage. Green-fluorescence labeled virus-like particles (VLP) expressing HIV-1 envelope (Env) proteins of JRFL and BaL and control VLPs (without Env) were used to select single B cells for the production of 68 recombinant mAbs. Ten of these mAbs were HIV-1 Env specific with neutralizing activity against V3 and the CD4 binding site, as well as non-neutralizing mAbs to gp41. The remaining 58 mAbs were non-HIV-1 Env mAbs with undefined specificities. Analysis revealed that biased usage of Ig genes was restricted only to anti-HIV-1 but not to non-HIV-1 mAbs. The VH1 family genes were dominantly used, followed by VH3, VH4, and VH5 among anti-HIV-1 mAbs, while non-HIV-1 specific mAbs preferentially used VH3 family genes, followed by VH4, VH1 and VH5 families in a pattern identical to Abs derived from healthy individuals. This observation suggests that the biased usage of Ig genes by anti-HIV-1 mAbs is driven by structural requirements of the virus antigens rather than by compensation to any depletion of VH3 B cells due to autoreactive mechanisms, according to the gp120 superantigen hypothesis.

  2. Different pattern of immunoglobulin gene usage by HIV-1 compared to non-HIV-1 antibodies derived from the same infected subject.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuzhe Li

    Full Text Available A biased usage of immunoglobulin (Ig genes is observed in human anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs resulting probably from compensation to reduced usage of the VH3 family genes, while the other alternative suggests that this bias usage is due to antigen requirements. If the antigen structure is responsible for the preferential usage of particular Ig genes, it may have certain implications for HIV vaccine development by the targeting of particular Ig gene-encoded B cell receptors to induce neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies. To address this issue, we have produced HIV-1 specific and non-HIV-1 mAbs from an infected individual and analyzed the Ig gene usage. Green-fluorescence labeled virus-like particles (VLP expressing HIV-1 envelope (Env proteins of JRFL and BaL and control VLPs (without Env were used to select single B cells for the production of 68 recombinant mAbs. Ten of these mAbs were HIV-1 Env specific with neutralizing activity against V3 and the CD4 binding site, as well as non-neutralizing mAbs to gp41. The remaining 58 mAbs were non-HIV-1 Env mAbs with undefined specificities. Analysis revealed that biased usage of Ig genes was restricted only to anti-HIV-1 but not to non-HIV-1 mAbs. The VH1 family genes were dominantly used, followed by VH3, VH4, and VH5 among anti-HIV-1 mAbs, while non-HIV-1 specific mAbs preferentially used VH3 family genes, followed by VH4, VH1 and VH5 families in a pattern identical to Abs derived from healthy individuals. This observation suggests that the biased usage of Ig genes by anti-HIV-1 mAbs is driven by structural requirements of the virus antigens rather than by compensation to any depletion of VH3 B cells due to autoreactive mechanisms, according to the gp120 superantigen hypothesis.

  3. HPLC, TLC, and first-derivative spectrophotometry stability-indicating methods for the determination of tropisetron in the presence of its acid degradates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Laila S; El-Sherif, Zeinab A; Kilani, Khadiga M; El-Haddad, Dalia A

    2010-01-01

    Three stability-indicating assay methods were developed for the determination of tropisetron in a pharmaceutical dosage form in the presence of its degradation products. The proposed techniques are HPLC, TLC, and first-derivative spectrophotometry (1D). Acid degradation was carried out, and the degradation products were separated by TLC and identified by IR, NMR, and MS techniques. The HPLC method was based on determination of tropisetron in the presence of its acid-induced degradation product on an RP Nucleosil C18 column using methanol-water-acetonitrile-trimethylamine (65 + 20 + 15 + 0.2, v/v/v/v) mobile phase and UV detection at 285 nm. The TLC method was based on the separation of tropisetron and its acid-induced degradation products, followed by densitometric measurement of the intact spot at 285 nm. The separation was carried out on silica gel 60 F254 aluminum sheets using methanol-glacial acetic acid (22 + 3, v/v) mobile phase. The 1D method was based on the measurement of first-derivative amplitudes of tropisetron in H2O at the zero-crossing point of its acid-induced degradation product at 271.9 nm. Linearity, accuracy, and precision were found to be acceptable over concentration ranges of 40-240 microg/mL, 1-10 microg/spot, and 6-36 micro/mL for the HPLC, TLC, and 1D methods, respectively. The suggested methods were successfully applied for the determination of the drug in bulk powder, laboratory-prepared mixtures, and a commercial sample.

  4. Circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health: data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

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    Erin Golden

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides its well-established role in nerve cell survival and adaptive plasticity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is also involved in energy homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. Although BDNF is present in the systemic circulation, it is unknown whether plasma BDNF correlates with circulating markers of dysregulated metabolism and an adverse cardiovascular profile.To determine whether circulating BDNF correlates with indices of metabolic and cardiovascular health, we measured plasma BDNF levels in 496 middle-age and elderly subjects (mean age approximately 70, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Linear regression analysis revealed that plasma BDNF is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, regardless of age. In females, BDNF was positively correlated with BMI, fat mass, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, and inversely correlated with folate. In males, BDNF was positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, free thiiodo-thyronine (FT3, and bioavailable testosterone, and inversely correlated with sex-hormone binding globulin, and adiponectin.Plasma BDNF significantly correlates with multiple risk factors for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular dysfunction. Whether BDNF contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders or functions in adaptive responses to cellular stress (as occurs in the brain remains to be determined.

  5. Remote sensing and water quality indicators in the Korean West coast: Spatio-temporal structures of MODIS-derived chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids.

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    Kim, Hae-Cheol; Son, Seunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Nam, Jungho; Chang, Won Keun; Lee, Jung-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, Jongseong

    2017-08-15

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow marginal sea with a large tidal range. In this study, ten areas located along the western coast of the Korean Peninsula are investigated with respect to remotely sensed water quality indicators derived from NASA MODIS aboard of the satellite Aqua. We found that there was a strong seasonal trend with spatial heterogeneity. In specific, a strong six-month phase-lag was found between chlorophyll-a and total suspended solid owing to their inversed seasonality, which could be explained by different dynamics and environmental settings. Chlorophyll-a concentration seemed to be dominantly influenced by temperature, while total suspended solid was largely governed by local tidal forcing and bottom topography. This study demonstrated the potential and applicability of satellite products in coastal management, and highlighted find that remote-sensing would be a promising tool in resolving orthogonality of large spatio-temporal scale variabilities when combining with proper time series analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human antibody expression in transgenic rats: comparison of chimeric IgH loci with human VH, D and JH but bearing different rat C-gene regions.

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    Ma, Biao; Osborn, Michael J; Avis, Suzanne; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; Ménoret, Séverine; Anegon, Ignacio; Buelow, Roland; Brüggemann, Marianne

    2013-12-31

    Expression of human antibody repertoires in transgenic animals has been accomplished by introducing large human Ig loci into mice and, more recently, a chimeric IgH locus into rats. With human VH, D and JH genes linked to the rat C-region antibody expression was significantly increased, similar to wild-type levels not found with fully human constructs. Here we compare four rat-lines containing the same human VH-region (comprising 22 VHs, all Ds and all JHs in natural configuration) but linked to different rat CH-genes and regulatory sequences. The endogenous IgH locus was silenced by zinc-finger nucleases. After breeding, all lines produced exclusively chimeric human H-chain with near normal IgM levels. However, in two lines poor IgG expression and inefficient immune responses were observed, implying that high expression, class-switching and hypermutation are linked to optimal enhancer function provided by the large regulatory region at the 3' end of the IgH locus. Furthermore, exclusion of Cδ and its downstream interval region may assist recombination. Highly diverse IgG and immune responses similar to normal rats were identified in two strains carrying diverse and differently spaced C-genes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA/AB in human serum are potential indicators of the proliferative capacity of human synovial mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Mitsuru; Katano, Hisako; Otabe, Koji; Komori, Keiichiro; Matsumoto, Yukie; Fujii, Shizuka; Ozeki, Nobutake; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Koga, Hideyuki; Muneta, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2015-12-10

    For expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), autologous human serum is safer than fetal bovine serum in clinical situations. One of the problems with the use of autologous human serum is that its proliferative effect on MSCs varies widely between donors. The threefold goals of this study were: (1) to demonstrate an improved method for preparing human serum; (2) to identify growth factors predictive of proliferative potential; and (3) to identify a cytokine to promote MSC proliferation in human serum. Fresh blood was collected using a closed bag system containing glass beads. The bag was shaken at 20 °C for 30 minutes for rapid preparation, or kept stationary at 4 °C for 24 hours for slow preparation. Passage 0 synovial MSCs derived from four donors were cultured with 10 % conventional rapid preparation serum or modified slow preparation serum from four different donors. To perform the colony-forming unit assay, synovial MSCs were cultured in these serums. The protein expression profile in serum was analyzed using cytokine array. The candidate proteins were speculated from the correlation between the colony-forming ability and protein expression. As an evaluation of the candidate proteins, proliferation ability, surface marker phenotype and differentiation capability of synovial MSCs were examined. Compared with rapid preparation serum, slow preparation serum resulted in a significantly higher total colony number and twofold higher expression levels of nine proteins (angiopoietin-1, BDNF, EGF, ENA-78, IGFBP-2, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA, PDGF-AB/BB, RANTES and TfR). Colony number was positively correlated with PDGF-AA/AB concentrations. Exogenous PDGF-AA significantly promoted proliferation of synovial MSCs, whereas PDGF receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor decreased it. Addition of PDGFs or PDGFR inhibitor did not affect surface epitopes of synovial MSCs. Pretreatment with PDGFs or PDGFR inhibitor did not affect chondrogenic, adipogenic, or

  8. Spatial patterns of primary productivity derived from the Dynamic Habitat Indices predict patterns of species richness and distributions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttidate, Naparat

    Humans are changing the Earth's ecosystems, which has profound consequences for biodiversity. To understand how species respond to these changes, biodiversity science requires accurate assessments of biodiversity. However, biodiversity assessments are still limited in tropical regions. The Dynamic Habitat Indices (DHIs), derived from satellite data, summarize dynamic patterns of annual primary productivity: (a) cumulative annual productivity, (b) minimum annual productivity, and (c) seasonal variation in productivity. The DHIs have been successfully used in temperate regions, but not yet in the tropics. My goal was to evaluate the importance of primary productivity measured via the DHIs for assessing patterns of species richness and distributions in Thailand. First, I assessed the relationships between the DHIs and tropical bird species richness. I also evaluated the complementarity of the DHIs and topography, climate, latitudinal gradients, habitat heterogeneity, and habitat area in explaining bird species richness. I found that among three DHIs, cumulative annual productivity was the most important factor in explaining bird species richness and that the DHIs outperformed other environmental variables. Second, I developed texture measures derive from DHI cumulative annual productivity, and compared them to habitat composition and fragmentation as predictors of tropical forest bird distributions. I found that adding texture measures to habitat composition and fragmentation models improved the prediction of tropical bird distributions, especially area- and edge-sensitive tropical forest bird species. Third, I predicted the effects of trophic interactions between primary productivity, prey, and predators in relation to habitat connectivity for Indochinese tigers (Panthera tigris). I found that including trophic interactions improved habitat suitability models for tigers. However, tiger habitat is highly fragmented with few dispersal corridors. I also identified

  9. A comparison of REACH-derived no-effect levels for workers with EU indicative occupational exposure limit values and national limit values in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, Sallamari; Santonen, Tiina; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of occupational exposure limits values (OELs) is to regulate exposure to chemicals and minimize the risk of health effects at work. National authorities are responsible for the setting and updating of national OELs. In addition, the EU sets indicative occupational exposure limit values (IOELVs), which have to be considered by the Member States. Under the new European legislation on chemicals (REACH), manufacturers and importers are obliged to establish derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for chemicals that are manufactured or imported in quantities >10 tonnes per year. Chemical safety data sheets must report both OELs and the DNEL values, if such have been set. This may cause confusion at workplaces, especially if the values differ from each other. In this study, we explored how EU IOELVs and Finnish national OELs [Haitallisiksi tunnetut pitoisuudet (HTP) values] correlate with worker inhalation DNELs for substances registered under REACH. The long-term DNEL value for workers (inhalation) was identical to the corresponding IOELV for the majority of the substances (64/87 cases). Comparison of DNELs with HTP values revealed that the values were identical or close to each other in 159 cases (49%), whereas the DNEL was considerably higher in 69 cases, and considerably lower in 87 cases. Examples of cases with high differences between Finnish national OELs and DNELs are given. However, as the DNELs were not systematically lower than the OELs, the default assessment factors suggested by REACH technical guidance had obviously not been used in many of the REACH registrations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  10. Assessing the impact of environmental forcing on the condition of anchovy larvae in the Cadiz Gulf using nucleic acid and fatty acid-derived indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodósio, M. A.; Garrido, S.; Peters, J.; Leitão, F.; Ré, P.; Peliz, A.; Santos, A. M. P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the environmental processes affecting fish larvae survival is critical for population dynamics, conservation purposes and to ecosystem-based fishery management. Using anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) of the Cadiz Gulf as a study case and considering the "Ocean Triad" hypothesis, we investigate the larval ecophysiological status and potential survival in relation to oceanographic variables. Therefore, this study aims to describe the nutritional condition of anchovy larvae during spawning season (peak in summer) through nucleic acid- and fatty acid (FA)-derived indices and to analyze the effects of the major environmental parameters (Depth, Temperature, Salinity, Plankton biomass) on anchovy survival potential at early phases. Fish larvae were collected in August from 30 m to 400 m depth at 35 stations off the southern Iberian coast. A previous upwelling event influenced the oceanographic conditions of the more western stations off Cape São Vicente (CSV). Along the coast, the water became warmer from west to the east through Cape Santa Maria (CSM) ending at Guadiana estuary, where easterly winds originated the development of a counter current. The standardized RNA/DNA (sRD) of anchovy larvae decreased throughout larval ontogeny, reflecting a reduction of growth during the development. Essential FA concentrations also decreased, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular was highly conserved even after the reduction of total FA concentration in anchovy larvae related to the onset of swimming abilities (post-flexion phase). The oceanographic conditions (west upwelling, east counter current, and stratification) led to a nearshore aggregation of plankton and anchovy larvae with good ecophysiological conditions in the central area of the southern coast, where an optimal range of temperature and chlorophyll, as an indirect food proxy for anchovy larval development, were registered. The study proves that the oceanographic conditions of the study area are

  11. Phosphorescent cellular probes and uptake indicators derived from cyclometalated iridium(III) bipyridine complexes appended with a glucose or galactose entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wendell Ho-Tin; Lee, Lawrence Cho-Cheung; Louie, Man-Wai; Liu, Hua-Wei; Ang, Tim Wai-Hung; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing

    2013-11-18

    A series of phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) polypyridine complexes appended with a β-D-glucose moiety [Ir(N^C)2(bpy-TEG-ONCH3-β-D-glc)](PF6) [bpy-TEG-ONCH3-β-D-glc = 4-(10-N-methyl-N-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-amino-oxy-2,5,8-trioxa-dec-1-yl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine; HN^C = 2-((1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl)benzothiazole) (Hbt) (1a), 2-phenylpyridine (Hppy) (2a), 2-phenylquinoline (Hpq) (3a), 7,8-benzoquinoline (Hbzq) (4a)] has been synthesized and characterized. The D-galactose counterparts [Ir(N^C)2(bpy-TEG-ONCH3-β-D-gal)](PF6) [bpy-TEG-ONCH3-β-D-gal = 4-(10-N-methyl-N-(β-D-galactopyranosyl)-amino-oxy-2,5,8-trioxa-dec-1-yl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine; HN^C = Hbt (1b), Hppy (2b), Hpq (3b), Hbzq (4b)] and a sugar-free bt complex [Ir(bt)2(bpy-TEG-OMe)](PF6) [bpy-TEG-OMe = 4-(2,5,8,11-tetraoxa-dodec-1-yl)-4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridine] (1c) have also been prepared. Upon photoexcitation, all the complexes displayed intense and long-lived triplet metal-to-ligand charge-transfer ((3)MLCT) [dπ(Ir) → π*(N^N)] or triplet intraligand ((3)IL) (π → π*) (N^C and N^N) emission. The lipophilicity, the cellular uptake efficiency, and cytotoxicity of the complexes toward human cervix epithelioid carcinoma cells (HeLa) have been examined. Temperature dependence and chemical inhibition experiments indicated that the transport of bt-glucose complex 1a across the cell membrane occurred through an energy-requiring process such as endocytosis, in additional to a pathway that was mediated by glucose transporters (GLUTs). Importantly, the cellular uptake efficiency of this complex was found to be strongly dependent on hormonal stimulation and inhibition, rendering it a new phosphorescent metabolic indicator. Additionally, laser-scanning confocal microscopy revealed that the complex was localized in the mitochondria and highly resistant to photobleaching compared to a fluorescent organic glucose derivative 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG).

  12. Cross-Comparison of Vegetation Indices Derived from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS are currently operational for routine Earth observation. There are substantial differences between instruments onboard both satellites. The enhancements achieved with Landsat-8 refer to the scanning technology (replacing of whisk-broom scanners with two separate push-broom OLI and TIRS scanners, an extended number of spectral bands (two additional bands provided and narrower bandwidths. Therefore, cross-comparative analysis is very necessary for the combined use of multi-decadal Landsat imagery. In this study, 3,311 independent sample points of four major land cover types (primary forest, unplanted cropland, swidden cultivation and water body were used to compare the spectral bands of ETM+ and OLI. Eight sample plots with different land cover types were manually selected for comparison with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI, the Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR. These indices were calculated with six pairs of ETM+ and OLI cloud-free images, which were acquired over the border area of Myanmar, Laos and Thailand just two days apart, when Landsat-8 achieved operational obit. Comparative results showed that: (1 the average surface reflectance of each band differed slightly, but with a high degree of similarities between both sensors. In comparison with ETM+, the OLI had higher values for the near-infrared band for vegetative land cover types, but lower values for non-vegetative types. The new sensor had lower values for the shortwave infrared (2.11–2.29 µm band for all land cover types. In addition, it also basically had higher values for the shortwave infrared (1.57–1.65 µm band for non-water land cover types. (2 The subtle differences of vegetation indices derived from both sensors and their high linear correlation

  13. Humanized-Single Domain Antibodies (VH/VHH that Bound Specifically to Naja kaouthia Phospholipase A2 and Neutralized the Enzymatic Activity

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    Wanpen Chaicumpa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Naja kaouthia (monocled cobra venom contains many isoforms of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2. The PLA2 exerts several pharmacologic and toxic effects in the snake bitten subject, dependent or independent on the enzymatic activity. N. kaouthia venom appeared in two protein profiles, P3 and P5, after fractionating the venom by ion exchange column chromatography. In this study, phage clones displaying humanized-camel single domain antibodies (VH/VHH that bound specifically to the P3 and P5 were selected from a humanized-camel VH/VHH phage display library. Two phagemid transfected E. coli clones (P3-1 and P3-3 produced humanized-VHH, while another clone (P3-7 produced humanized-VH. At the optimal venom:antibody ratio, the VH/VHH purified from the E. coli homogenates neutralized PLA2 enzyme activity comparable to the horse immune serum against the N. kaouthia holo-venom. Homology modeling and molecular docking revealed that the VH/VHH covered the areas around the PLA2 catalytic groove and inserted their Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs into the enzymatic cleft. It is envisaged that the VH/VHH would ameliorate/abrogate the principal toxicity of the venom PLA2 (membrane phospholipid catabolism leading to cellular and subcellular membrane damage which consequently causes hemolysis, hemorrhage, and dermo-/myo-necrosis, if they were used for passive immunotherapy of the cobra bitten victim. The speculation needs further investigations.

  14. Derivation of the canopy conductance from surface temperature and spectral indices for estimating evapotranspiration in semiarid vegetation; Monitorizacion de conductancia en vegetacion semiarida a partir de indices espectrales y temperatura de supeficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillas, L.; Garcia, M.; Zarco-Tejada, P.; Ladron de Guevara, M.; Villagarcia, L.; Were, A.; Domingo, F.

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the possibilities for estimating stomata conductance (C) and leaf transpiration (Trf) at the ecosystem scale from radiometric indices and surface temperature. The relationships found between indices and the transpiration component of the water balance in a semiarid tussock ecosystem in SE Spain are discussed. Field data were collected from spring 2008 until winter 2009 in order to observe the annual variability of the relationships and the behaviour of spectral indices and surface temperature. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. Critical Thresholds of ICP Derived Continuous Cerebrovascular Reactivity Indices for outcome prediction in Non-Craniectomized TBI Patients: PRx, PAx and RAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick Adam; Donnelly, Joseph; Smieleweski, Peter; Menon, David; Hutchinson, Peter John; Czosnyka, Marek

    2017-12-14

    To compare ICP derived cerebrovascular reactivity indices in their ability to predict 6-month outcome, and to determine/compare critical thresholds related to outcome for each index, in adult non-craniectomized traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using a retrospective cohort of non-decompressive craniectomy (non-DC) TBI patients, we performed univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression outcome analysis of: pressure reactivity index (PRx), pulse amplitude index (PAx) and a newly described index calculated as the Regression coefficient between intracranial pressure (ICP) waveform Amplitude and Cerebral perfusion pressure RAC (CPP). Finally, we performed sequential chi-square threshold analysis for each index as they related to 6-month binary outcomes. Outcome was assessed via dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scores (GOS): A. Favourable (GOS 4 or 5) vs. Unfavourable (GOS 3 or less), B. Alive vs. Dead. 358 non-DC TBI patients were included in all aspects of the analysis. In an analysis of the entire recording period for all patients using univariate binary logistic regression, the AUCs for favourable vs. unfavourable outcome were: PRx (0.573, p<0.0001), PAx (0.606, p<0.0001), and RAC (0.655, p<0.0001). Similarly, the AUCs for Alive vs. Dead outcome were: PRx (0.651, p<0.0001), PAx (0.705, p<0.0001), and RAC (0.722, p<0.0001). RAC displayed superior AUC statistics compared to PRx and PAx, using both univariate and multivariate regression. RAC displayed more stable critical thresholds related to 6-month outcomes. Thresholds for both Favourable vs. Unfavourable and Alive vs. Dead outcomes for PRx, PAx and RAC across the entire recording period were: +0.35 and +0.35, 0 and +0.25, -0.10 and -0.05; respectively. In non-DC TBI patients, RAC appears to be superior to PRx and PAx in 6-month outcome prediction, using both univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Further, RAC displayed more stable critical thresholds associated with binary outcomes at 6 months. Further

  16. Using Ordinary Digital Cameras in Place of Near-Infrared Sensors to Derive Vegetation Indices for Phenology Studies of High Arctic Vegetation

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    Helen B. Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To remotely monitor vegetation at temporal and spatial resolutions unobtainable with satellite-based systems, near remote sensing systems must be employed. To this extent we used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI sensors and normal digital cameras to monitor the greenness of six different but common and widespread High Arctic plant species/groups (graminoid/Salix polaris; Cassiope tetragona; Luzula spp.; Dryas octopetala/S. polaris; C. tetragona/D. octopetala; graminoid/bryophyte during an entire growing season in central Svalbard. Of the three greenness indices (2G_RBi, Channel G% and GRVI derived from digital camera images, only GRVI showed significant correlations with NDVI in all vegetation types. The GRVI (Green-Red Vegetation Index is calculated as (GDN − RDN/(GDN + RDN where GDN is Green digital number and RDN is Red digital number. Both NDVI and GRVI successfully recorded timings of the green-up and plant growth periods and senescence in all six plant species/groups. Some differences in phenology between plant species/groups occurred: the mid-season growing period reached a sharp peak in NDVI and GRVI values where graminoids were present, but a prolonged period of higher values occurred with the other plant species/groups. In particular, plots containing C. tetragona experienced increased NDVI and GRVI values towards the end of the season. NDVI measured with active and passive sensors were strongly correlated (r > 0.70 for the same plant species/groups. Although NDVI recorded by the active sensor was consistently lower than that of the passive sensor for the same plant species/groups, differences were small and likely due to the differing light sources used. Thus, it is evident that GRVI and NDVI measured with active and passive sensors captured similar vegetation attributes of High Arctic plants. Hence, inexpensive digital cameras can be used with passive and active NDVI devices to establish a near remote sensing network for

  17. Immunocytochemical localization of V-H(+) -ATPase, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase in gill lamellae of adult freshwater euryhaline shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraschi, Anieli Cristina; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2015-08-01

    Physiological (organismal), biochemical, and molecular biological contributions to the knowledge of the osmoregulatory plasticity of palaemonid freshwater shrimps has provided a fairly complete model of transporter localization in their branchial epithelium. Direct immunological demonstration of the main enzymes in the gill epithelia of adult palaemonids is, however, still incipient. The diadromous freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium acanthurus was exposed to increased salinity (25‰ for 24 hr), and its responses at the systemic level were evaluated through the assays of hemolymph osmolality and muscle hydration, and at cellular and subcellular levels through the activity and localization of the V-H(+) -ATPase, the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, and the carbonic anhydrase. Results showed an increase in hemolymph osmolality (629 ± 5.3 mOsm/kg H2 O) and a decrease in muscle hydration (73.8 ± 0.5%), comparing values after 24 hr in 25‰ with control shrimps in freshwater (respectively 409.5 ± 15.8 mOsm/kg H2 O and 77.5 ± 0.4%). V-H(+) -ATPase was localized in pillar cells, whereas Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in the septal cells. The main novelty of this study was that carbonic anhydrase was localized in the whole branchial tissue, in pillar and septal cells. Exposure to high salinity for 24 hr led to no detectable changes in their localization or in vitro activity. Immunolocalization data corroborated the literature and current models of palaemonid gill ion transport. The absence of changes reinforces the need for the constant expression of these enzymes to account for the euryhalinity of these shrimps. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The name cranial ovarian suspensory ligaments in mammalian anatomy should be used only to indicate the structures derived from the foetal cranial mesonephric and gonadal ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Schoot (P.)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe term ovarian suspensory ligament appears ambiguous when human adult anatomy textbooks are compared with human embryology or with general mammalian anatomy textbooks. The term ovarian suspensory ligament in laboratory rodents and domestic animals indicates homologous structures during

  19. BET_VH probabilistic assessment of pyroclastic flows hazard at El Misti volcano, South Peru, based on geological record and numerical simulations with TITAN2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, R.; Thouret, J. C.; Sandri, L.; Irimus, I. A.; Stefanescu, R.

    2012-04-01

    Pyroclastic density currents, which include pyroclastic surges and pyroclastic flows (PFs), are among the most dangerous volcanic phenomena. We present a probabilistic hazard assessment of the PFs generated from eruptive column collapse at El Misti volcano (5822 m) in South Peru. The high relief of the cone, the location of the city of Arequipa (~1,000,000 people) on two large volcanoclastic fans and the H (3.5 km)/L (17 km) ratio (0.2) between the summit and the city center, make PFs a direct threat. We consider three eruption scenario sizes: small Vulcanian/Phreatomagmatic (VEI 2), medium Sub-Plinian (VEI 3-4), and large Plinian (VEI 4+). We use the Event-Tree approach in a Bayesian scheme with BET_VH (Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Hazard) software. Quantitative data that stem from numerical simulations from TITAN2D (termed prior models) and from stratigraphic record (termed past data) are input to BET_VH, which enables us to compute the probabilities (in a 1-year time window) of (i) having an eruption (ii) in a selected location/vent (iii) of a specific size, (iv) and that this eruption will produce PFs (v) that will reach a location of interest around El Misti. TITAN2D simulation runs, expressed as color-coded thicknesses of PDC deposits, fit well the extent of past PFs deposits, including thick confined deposits (0.5-7 m) in the Rio Chili canyon and its tributary ravines (Quebradas San Lazaro, Huarangal and Agua Salada).The unconfined, thinner (≤10cm) deposits, as displayed by simulation runs on the interfluves, is attributed to ash-cloud surges. Such thin, fine ash deposits have not been emphasized in geological maps either because they have been removed away or remain yet unrecognized. The simulated Vulcanian flows, restricted to the upper part of the cone, become confined (0.1-1m thick) in the ravines which converge towards each of the three Quebradas. The simulated Subplinian PF deposits reach 0.1 to 1 m thick in the Quebradas and 1-4 m WNW of El

  20. octene derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrasonication; trimethylsilyloxy-derivatives; bicyclo[2.2.2]octene; Diels–Alder reaction; crystal structure; C–H. . . O and π...π interactions. 1. ... of silyl- derivatives were studied.8 The structural studies indicated a self-assembly ..... Technology (DST), New Delhi, India for the financial assistance. References. 1. Zhao F, Zhang ...

  1. Perfusion MRI derived indices of microvascular shunting and flow control correlate with tumor grade and outcome in patients with cerebral glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietze, Anna; Mouridsen, Kim; Lassen-Ramshad, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Deficient microvascular blood flow control is thought to cause tumor hypoxia and increase resistance to therapy. In glioma patients, we tested whether perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) based indices of microvascular flow control provide more information on tumor grade and patient outcome...... than does the established PWI angiogenesis marker, cerebral blood volume (CBV). Material and Methods: Seventy-two glioma patients (sixty high-grade, twelve low-grade gliomas) were included. Capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) and COV, its ratio to blood mean transit time, provide indices...

  2. Human-derived IgG level as an indicator for EBV-associated lymphoma model in Hu-PBL/SCID chimeras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunlian; He, Rongfang; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Fang; Cheng, Ailan; Wu, Yimou; Gan, Runliang

    2011-05-09

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has a close association with various types of human lymphomas. Animal models are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of human EBV-associated lymphomas. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between human IgG concentration and EBV-associated lymphoma development in huPBL/SCID mice. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL) from EBV-seropositive donors were inoculated intraperitoneally into SCID mouse. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine differentiated antigens of tumor cells. EBV infection of the induced tumors was detected by in situ hybridization. IgG concentrations in the serums of 12 SCID mice were measured by unidirectional immunodiffusion assay. 21 out of 29 mice developed tumors in their body. Immunohistochemical staining showed that all induced tumors were LCA (leukocyte common antigen) positive, B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a) positive, and T-cell markers (both CD3 and CD45RO) negative. The tumors can be diagnosed as human B-cell lymphomas by these morphological and immunohistochemical features. In situ hybridization exhibited resultant tumor cells had EBV encoded small RNA-1 (EBER-1). Human-derived IgG could be found in the serum from SCID mice on the 15th day following hu-PBL transplantation, and IgG levels increased with the tumor development in 6 hu-PBL/SCID chimeras. Intraperitoneal transfer of hu-PBLs from EBV+ donors to SCID mice leads to high human IgG levels in mouse serum and B cell lymphomas. Our findings suggest that increasing levels of human-derived IgG in peripheral blood from hu-PBL/SCID mice could be used to monitor EBV-related human B-cell lymphoma development in experimental animals.

  3. Human-derived IgG level as an indicator for EBV-associated lymphoma model in Hu-PBL/SCID chimeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Ailan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has a close association with various types of human lymphomas. Animal models are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of human EBV-associated lymphomas. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association between human IgG concentration and EBV-associated lymphoma development in huPBL/SCID mice. Methods Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (hu-PBL from EBV-seropositive donors were inoculated intraperitoneally into SCID mouse. Immunohistochemical staining was used to examine differentiated antigens of tumor cells. EBV infection of the induced tumors was detected by in situ hybridization. IgG concentrations in the serums of 12 SCID mice were measured by unidirectional immunodiffusion assay. Results 21 out of 29 mice developed tumors in their body. Immunohistochemical staining showed that all induced tumors were LCA (leukocyte common antigen positive, B-cell markers (CD20, CD79a positive, and T-cell markers (both CD3 and CD45RO negative. The tumors can be diagnosed as human B-cell lymphomas by these morphological and immunohistochemical features. In situ hybridization exhibited resultant tumor cells had EBV encoded small RNA-1 (EBER-1. Human-derived IgG could be found in the serum from SCID mice on the 15th day following hu-PBL transplantation, and IgG levels increased with the tumor development in 6 hu-PBL/SCID chimeras. Conclusions Intraperitoneal transfer of hu-PBLs from EBV+ donors to SCID mice leads to high human IgG levels in mouse serum and B cell lymphomas. Our findings suggest that increasing levels of human-derived IgG in peripheral blood from hu-PBL/SCID mice could be used to monitor EBV-related human B-cell lymphoma development in experimental animals.

  4. Hydrogeochemical and Isotopic Indicators of Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Shallow Groundwater and Stream Water, derived from Dameigou Shale Gas Extraction in the Northern Qaidam Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoxian; Zhang, Hongda; Chen, Zongyu; Li, Xufeng; Zhu, Pucheng; Cui, Xiaoshun

    2017-06-06

    Most of the shale gas production in northwest China is from continental shale. Identifying hydrogeochemical and isotopic indicators of toxic hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) has great significance in assessing the safety of drinking water from shallow groundwater and streamwater. Hydrogeochemical and isotopic data for HFFF from the Dameigou shale formations (Cl/Br ratio (1.81 × 10-4-6.52 × 10-4), Ba/Sr (>0.2), δ11B (-10-1‰), and εSWSr (56-65, where εSWSr is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104)) were distinct from data for the background saline shallow groundwater and streamwater before fracturing. Mixing models indicated that inorganic elemental signatures (Br/Cl, Ba/Sr) and isotopic fingerprints (δ11B, εSWSr) can be used to distinguish between HFFF and conventional oil-field brine in shallow groundwater and streamwater. These diagnostic indicators were applied to identify potential releases of HFFF into shallow groundwater and streamwater during fracturing, flowback and storage. The monitored time series data for shallow groundwater and streamwater exhibit no clear trends along mixing curves toward the HFFF end member, indicating that there is no detectable release occurring at present.

  5. Quality indicators for the detection and management of chronic kidney disease in primary care in Canada derived from a modified Delphi panel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Karen; Bevan, Lindsay; Hunter, Katie; Rogers, Jess; Young, Jacqueline; Nesrallah, Gihad

    2017-01-01

    The detection and management of chronic kidney disease lies within primary care; however, performance measures applicable in the Canadian context are lacking. We sought to develop a set of primary care quality indicators for chronic kidney disease in the Canadian setting and to assess the current state of the disease's detection and management in primary care. We used a modified Delphi panel approach, involving 20 panel members from across Canada (10 family physicians, 7 nephrologists, 1 patient, 1 primary care nurse and 1 pharmacist). Indicators identified from peer-reviewed and grey literature sources were subjected to 3 rounds of voting to develop a set of quality indicators for the detection and management of chronic kidney disease in the primary care setting. The final indicators were applied to primary care electronic medical records in the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD) to assess the current state of primary care detection and management of chronic kidney disease in Ontario. Seventeen indicators made up the final list, with 1 under the category Prevalence, Incidence and Mortality; 4 under Screening, Diagnosis and Risk Factors; 11 under Management; and 1 under Referral to a Specialist. In a sample of 139 993 adult patients not on dialysis, 6848 (4.9%) had stage 3 or higher chronic kidney disease, with the average age of patients being 76.1 years (standard deviation [SD] 11.0); 62.9% of patients were female. Diagnosis and screening for chronic kidney disease were poorly performed. Only 27.1% of patients with stage 3 or higher disease had their diagnosis documented in their cumulative patient profile. Albumin-creatinine ratio testing was only performed for 16.3% of patients with a low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and for 28.5% of patients with risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Family physicians performed relatively better with the management of chronic kidney disease, with 90.4% of patients with

  6. Evaluating the Environmental Health Effect of Bamboo-Derived Volatile Organic Compounds through Analysis the Metabolic Indices of the Disorder Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Hu, Zheng Qing; Strong, P James; Smit, Anne-Marie; Xu, Jian Wei; Fan, Jun; Wang, Hai Long

    2015-08-01

    To identify the bamboo VOCs (volatile organic compounds) effect on animal physiological indices, which associated with human health. GC/MS was used to analyze the volatile organic compounds from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocyla cv. pubescens). The effect of VOCs on environmental health was evaluated by analyzing the metabolic indices of the type 2 diabetic mouse model. Spectra of VOC generated by GC/MS were blasted against an in-house MS library confirming the identification of 33 major components that were manually validated. The relative constituent compounds as a percentage of total VOCs determined were alcohols (34.63%), followed by ether (22.02%), aldehyde (15.84%), ketone (11.47%), ester (4.98%), terpenoid (4.38%), and acids (3.83%). Further experimentation established that the metabolic incidence of the disease can be improved if treated with vanillin, leaf alcohol, β-ionone and methyl salicylate. The effects of these VOCs on type 2 diabetes were evident in the blood lipid and blood glucose levels. Our model suggests that VOCs can potentially control the metabolic indices in type 2 diabetes mice. This experiment data also provides the scientific basis for the comprehensive utilization of ornamental bamboos and some reference for other similar study of environmental plants. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  7. Involvement of Two Latex-Clearing Proteins during Rubber Degradation and Insights into the Subsequent Degradation Pathway Revealed by the Genome Sequence of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans Strain VH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiessl, Sebastian; Schuldes, Jörg; Thürmer, Andrea; Halbsguth, Tobias; Bröker, Daniel; Angelov, Angel; Liebl, Wolfgang; Daniel, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The increasing production of synthetic and natural poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) rubber leads to huge challenges in waste management. Only a few bacteria are known to degrade rubber, and little is known about the mechanism of microbial rubber degradation. The genome of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2, which is one of the most effective rubber-degrading bacteria, was sequenced and annotated to elucidate the degradation pathway and other features of this actinomycete. The genome consists of a circular chromosome of 5,669,805 bp and a circular plasmid of 174,494 bp with average GC contents of 67.0% and 65.7%, respectively. It contains 5,110 putative protein-coding sequences, including many candidate genes responsible for rubber degradation and other biotechnically relevant pathways. Furthermore, we detected two homologues of a latex-clearing protein, which is supposed to be a key enzyme in rubber degradation. The deletion of these two genes for the first time revealed clear evidence that latex-clearing protein is essential for the microbial utilization of rubber. Based on the genome sequence, we predict a pathway for the microbial degradation of rubber which is supported by previous and current data on transposon mutagenesis, deletion mutants, applied comparative genomics, and literature search. PMID:22327575

  8. Genomic analysis of a 1 Mb region near the telomere of Hessian fly chromosome X2 and avirulence gene vH13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ming-Shun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To have an insight into the Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly genome, we performed an in silico comparative genomic analysis utilizing genetic mapping, genomic sequence and EST sequence data along with data available from public databases. Results Chromosome walking and FISH were utilized to identify a contig of 50 BAC clones near the telomere of the short arm of Hessian fly chromosome X2 and near the avirulence gene vH13. These clones enabled us to correlate physical and genetic distance in this region of the Hessian fly genome. Sequence data from these BAC ends encompassing a 760 kb region, and a fully sequenced and assembled 42.6 kb BAC clone, was utilized to perform a comparative genomic study. In silico gene prediction combined with BLAST analyses was used to determine putative orthology to the sequenced dipteran genomes of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and to infer evolutionary relationships. Conclusion This initial effort enables us to advance our understanding of the structure, composition and evolution of the genome of this important agricultural pest and is an invaluable tool for a whole genome sequencing effort.

  9. Predictive models of insulin resistance derived from simple morphometric and biochemical indices related to obesity and the metabolic syndrome in baboons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastarrachea Raúl A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primates are valuable models for the study of insulin resistance and human obesity. In baboons, insulin sensitivity levels can be evaluated directly with the euglycemic clamp and is highly predicted by adiposity, metabolic markers of obesity and impaired glucose metabolism (i.e. percent body fat by DXA and HbA1c. However, a simple method to screen and identify obese insulin resistant baboons for inclusion in interventional studies is not available. Methods We studied a population of twenty baboons with the euglycemic clamp technique to characterize a population of obese nondiabetic, insulin resistant baboons, and used a multivariate linear regression analysis (adjusted for gender to test different predictive models of insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose uptake = Rd using abdominal circumference and fasting plasma insulin. Alternatively, we tested in a separate baboon population (n = 159, a simpler model based on body weight and fasting plasma glucose to predict the whole-body insulin sensitivity (Rd/SSPI derived from the clamp. Results In the first model, abdominal circumference explained 59% of total insulin mediated glucose uptake (Rd. A second model, which included fasting plasma insulin (log transformed and abdominal circumference, explained 64% of Rd. Finally, the model using body weight and fasting plasma glucose explained 51% of Rd/SSPI. Interestingly, we found that percent body fat was directly correlated with the adipocyte insulin resistance index (r = 0.755, p Conclusion In baboons, simple morphometric measurements of adiposity/obesity, (i.e. abdominal circumference, plus baseline markers of glucose/lipid metabolism, (i.e. fasting plasma glucose and insulin provide a feasible method to screen and identify overweight/obese insulin resistant baboons for inclusion in interventional studies aimed to study human obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Comparison of the image-derived radioactivity and blood-sample radioactivity for estimating the clinical indicators of the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isohashi, Kayako; Shimosegawa, Eku; Naka, Sadahiro; Kanai, Yasukazu; Horitsugi, Genki; Mochida, Ikuko; Matsunaga, Keiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Kato, Hiroki; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), positron emission tomography (PET) with 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) is the only method to estimate an accumulation of 10B to target tumor and surrounding normal tissue after administering 10B carrier of L-paraboronophenylalanine and to search the indication of BNCT for individual patient. Absolute concentration of 10B in tumor has been estimated by multiplying 10B concentration in blood during BNCT by tumor to blood radioactivity (T/B) ratio derived from FBPA PET. However, the method to measure blood radioactivity either by blood sampling or image data has not been standardized. We compared image-derived blood radioactivity of FBPA with blood sampling data and studied appropriate timing and location for measuring image-derived blood counts. We obtained 7 repeated whole-body PET scans in five healthy subjects. Arterialized venous blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, heated in a heating blanket. Time-activity curves (TACs) of image-derived blood radioactivity were obtained using volumes of interest (VOIs) over ascending aorta, aortic arch, pulmonary artery, left and right ventricles, inferior vena cava, and abdominal aorta. Image-derived blood radioactivity was compared with those measured by blood sampling data in each location. Both the TACs of blood sampling radioactivity in each subject, and the TACs of image-derived blood radioactivity showed a peak within 5 min after the tracer injection, and promptly decreased soon thereafter. Linear relationship was found between blood sampling radioactivity and image-derived blood radioactivity in all the VOIs at any timing of data sampling (p < 0.001). Image-derived radioactivity measured in the left and right ventricles 30 min after injection showed high correlation with blood radioactivity. Image-derived blood radioactivity was lower than blood sampling radioactivity data by 20 %. Reduction of blood radioactivity of FBPA in left ventricle

  11. Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K. K.; Moody, G. B.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Larson, M. G.; Levy, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite much recent interest in quantification of heart rate variability (HRV), the prognostic value of conventional measures of HRV and of newer indices based on nonlinear dynamics is not universally accepted. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have designed algorithms for analyzing ambulatory ECG recordings and measuring HRV without human intervention, using robust methods for obtaining time-domain measures (mean and SD of heart rate), frequency-domain measures (power in the bands of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz [VLF], 0.01 to 0.15 Hz [LF], and 0.15 to 0.5 Hz [HF] and total spectral power [TP] over all three of these bands), and measures based on nonlinear dynamics (approximate entropy [ApEn], a measure of complexity, and detrended fluctuation analysis [DFA], a measure of long-term correlations). The study population consisted of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) case patients and sex- and age-matched control subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. After exclusion of technically inadequate studies and those with atrial fibrillation, we used these algorithms to study HRV in 2-hour ambulatory ECG recordings of 69 participants (mean age, 71.7+/-8.1 years). By use of separate Cox proportional-hazards models, the conventional measures SD (P.3), were not. In multivariable models, DFA was of borderline predictive significance (P=.06) after adjustment for the diagnosis of CHF and SD. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that HRV analysis of ambulatory ECG recordings based on fully automated methods can have prognostic value in a population-based study and that nonlinear HRV indices may contribute prognostic value to complement traditional HRV measures.

  12. Perfusion MRI derived indices of microvascular shunting and flow control correlate with tumor grade and outcome in patients with cerebral glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tietze

    Full Text Available Deficient microvascular blood flow control is thought to cause tumor hypoxia and increase resistance to therapy. In glioma patients, we tested whether perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI based indices of microvascular flow control provide more information on tumor grade and patient outcome than does the established PWI angiogenesis marker, cerebral blood volume (CBV.Seventy-two glioma patients (sixty high-grade, twelve low-grade gliomas were included. Capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH and the coefficient of variation (COV, its ratio to blood mean transit time, provide indices of microvascular flow control and the extent to which oxygen can be extracted by tumor tissue. The ability of these parameters and CBV to differentiate tumor grade were assessed by receiver operating characteristic curves and logistic regression. Their ability to predict time to progression and overall survival was examined by the Cox proportional-hazards regression model, and by survival curves using log-rank tests.The best prediction of grade (AUC = 0.876; p < 0.05 was achieved by combining knowledge of CBV and CTH in the enhancing tumor and peri-focal edema, and patients with glioblastoma multiforme were identified best by CTH (AUC = 0.763; p<0.001. CTH outperformed CBV and COV in predicting time to progression and survival in all gliomas and in a subgroup consisting of only high-grade gliomas.Our study confirms the importance of microvascular flow control in tumor growth by demonstrating that determining CTH improves tumor grading and outcome prediction in glioma patients compared to CBV alone.

  13. Correlations Between retention indices and molecular structure of aliphatic alcohols and of their benzoyl derivatives on phenyl substituted polysiloxane stationary phases; Cromatografia en fase gaseosa sobre metilfenilpolisiloxanos. Estructura molecular y parametros de retencion para alcoholes y sus derivados benzoilados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pias, J. B.; Gasco, L.

    1976-07-01

    The retention indices of aliphatic alcohols of carbon number up to C{sub g}, and of their benzoyl derivatives up to C{sub 7}, were determined in columns packed with Chromo sorb G (AW-DMCS-HP) coated previously with 5% methyl, and methyl phenyl polysiloxanes with increasing polarity (SE-30, 0V-3, 0V-7, 0V-11, 0V-17 and OV-25). Correlations between retention indices and chain length for 1-alcohols, 2-alcohols, 3-alcohols, 1 , on -3-alcohols, 2-methyl-1-alcohols and for their corresponding benzoyl derivatives were calculated at 100, 120 and 140 degree centigree. In alcohols, a -CH{sub 2}- group increases I approximately 100 units, and in their benzoyl derivatives from 80 to 100 units. Dispersion indices {delta}l , and positional and structural increments {delta}I, were evaluated for -OH and benzoyl groups in terms of phase polarity and chain length. Effects of chain length, chain branching and double bond location on retention parameters were also studied. (Author) 23 refs.

  14. Geochemical data as indicators of environmental change and human impact in sediments derived from downstream marshes of an ephemeral river, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Ping; Zhai, Zheng-Li

    2008-01-01

    Recent sedimentary history of natural environmental change and anthropogenic influence in an ephemeral river catchment has been reconstructed using selected major and trace elements, element ratios, and their different geochemical phases ( Tessier sequential extraction methods), pollen, and grain size combined with 210Pb- and 137Cs-dating method in marsh sedimentary cores. Attempts were made to use selected element ratios with different geochemical phases—residual phase of Ti, Al, V, Cr, Ni, Rb, K, Sr, and Ba; mobile Sr and Ba—combined with 210Pb- and 137Cs-chronology to interpret certain time information of environmental changes saved within the marsh sediments. Results indicate that there were two marked humid periods during 1850-1860 ad and 1890-1920 ad, and sand storm activities prevailed during 1920-1930 ad. After about 1900 ad, soil erosion has increased with the extensive agricultural activities in the Huolin River catchments, and further intensified after 1950s. After 1980, soil erosion has become even more intense, which is consistent with the reinforcement of human activities, the drastic loss of vegetation cover in the upstream lands, especially, the exploitation of the open cast coalmine in the upstream of Huolin River at that time. Influenced by the inundation of the Huolin River, the heavy metal pollution historical trends in Xianghai marsh wetland could be roughly divided into three periods by analysis of sediment enrichment factor (KSEF) and the index of geoaccumulation ( I geo):1760-1880 ad, 1880-1980 ad, and 1980-now. Human activities accelerate the inputs of heavy metal, which leads to degradation of the marsh. This study also investigated on source of marsh sediments (by Ti/Al), redox condition [by V/Cr and V/(V + Ni)], and salinization indicators (by Sr/Ba and Rb/K). The results demonstrate that sources of sediments and redox conditions were partly similar for both riparian and depressional marshes. Besides, some differences in degree of

  15. Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandegan, Arash; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul B; Lemon, Peter Wr

    2017-05-01

    Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise."Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1-13C]phenylalanine to 13CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique].Methods: Eight men (means ± SDs: age, 22.5 ± 1.7 y; weight, 83.9 ± 11.6 kg; 13.0% ± 6.3% body fat) were studied at rest on a nontraining day, on several occasions (4-8 times) each with protein intakes ranging from 0.1 to 3.5 g · kg-1 · d-1, for a total of 42 experiments. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times each individual's measured resting energy expenditure and were isoenergetic across all treatments. Protein was fed as an amino acid mixture based on the protein pattern in egg, except for phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained at constant amounts across all protein intakes. For 2 d before the study, all participants consumed 1.5 g protein · kg-1 · d-1 On the study day, the protein requirement was determined by identifying the breakpoint in the F13CO2 with graded amounts of dietary protein [mixed-effects change-point regression analysis of F13CO2 (labeled tracer oxidation in breath)].Results: The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of protein and the upper 95% CI RDA for these young male bodybuilders were 1.7 and 2.2 g · kg-1 · d-1, respectively.Conclusion: These IAAO data suggest that the protein EAR and recommended intake for male bodybuilders at rest on a nontraining day exceed the current recommendations of the Institute of Medicine by ∼2.6-fold. This trial was

  16. Remote Sensing and Water Quality Indicators in the West Flood Canal Semarang City: Spatio-temporal Structures of Lansat-8 Derived Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri

    2017-12-01

    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters of West Flood Canal in Semarang City which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the Western City of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So, it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in the estuary of the West Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Lansat-8 Satellite images data from April, June, and August, 2017 and there are three selected algorithms. Based on the results of TSS and Chlorophyll-A processing, the TSS shows values greater than or equal to 100 which can be said that West Flood Canal is damaged (hypertrophic). While the chlorophyll-a shows a value less than 100 indicating Eutrophic status (threatened). This is caused by the number of suspended materials in the water surface and also because of the disturbance of water vegetation in the form of weeds that destroy the function of the actual West Canal Flood.

  17. Summarizing multiple deprivation indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Cappellari, Lorenzo; Jenkins, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Deprivation scales derived from multiple, typically dichotomous, indicators, are widely used to monitor households’ standards of living, and to complement measures of living standards based on income. We use an item response modelling (IRM) framework to address several issues concerning the derivation of deprivation scales in general and the use of sum-score deprivation indices in particular. Although we favour the IRM approach over the sum-score one in principle, we find in an illustrative...

  18. Effect of β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan derived from oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobsikova, Radka; Blahova, Jana; Franc, Ales; Jakubik, Juraj; Mikulikova, Ivana; Modra, Helena; Novotna, Kamila; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    Effect of long-term oral administration of three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%) of micronized β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan derived from oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus, Hiratake) on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices of half-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was assessed in the study. Rainbow trout were feed commercial feed pellets containing β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan in the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% for 85 days. Biometrical indices consisted in total and standard length, body and liver weight, from which derived somatic parameters such as Fulton´s condition factor and hepatosomatic index were calculated. Haematological parameters were evaluated according to unified methods for haematological examination in fish. Plasma biochemical profile was analysed using biochemical analyser Konelab 20i and Easy Lyte Analyzer. A phagocyte cells metabolic activity (induced chemiluminescence of phagocytes) was determined as an immunological parameter by a microplate luminometric method on Immunotech LM-01T. No clinical signs of behavioral, respiratory, or neurologic distress were observed in rainbow trout. Fish showed normal feeding behavior. As for biometric parameters, no significant changes in total and standard length, body weight, liver weight, as well as in condition factor and hepatosomatic index of experimental and control fish were found. In the course of the study, weight gains in rainbow trout were similar and continuous. Shifts in PCV (prainbow trout was not altered by oyster mushroom β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan administration. After long-term oral administration of three concentrations of micronized β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan derived from oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus, Hiratake) shifts in haematological and biochemical profiling were found in half-year-old rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in environmental conditions of a commercial rainbow trout fishery. Biometrical indices were not found significantly altered. No

  19. 228Ra/226Ra ratio and 7Be concentration in the Sea of Japan as indicators for water transport: comparison with migration pattern of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP-derived 134Cs and 137Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Furusawa, Y; Fujimoto, K; Minakawa, M; Kofuji, H; Nagao, S; Yamamoto, M; Hamajima, Y; Yoshida, K; Nakano, Y; Hayakawa, K; Oikawa, S; Misonoo, J; Isoda, Y

    2013-12-01

    To assess the migration patterns of radiocesium emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), we analyzed (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios and (7)Be concentrations and compared them with (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in seawater samples collected within the Sea of Japan before and after the FDNPP accident (i.e., during the period 2007-2012) using low-background γ-spectrometry. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in surface waters exhibited lateral and seasonal variations, reflecting the flow patterns of surface water. This indicates the transport patterns of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium by surface water. Cosmogenic (7)Be (half-life: 53.3 d) exhibited markedly high concentrations (5-10 mBq/L) at depths shallower than 50 m, with concentrations decreasing steeply (0.2-2 mBq/L) at depths of 50-250 m. The distribution of (7)Be concentrations suggests that the downward delivery of the FDNPP-derived radiocesium to below 50 m depth was negligible for a few months prior to its removal from the Sea of Japan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Statistical test of reproducibility and operator variance in thin-section modal analysis of textures and phenocrysts in the Topopah Spring member, drill hole USW VH-2, Crater Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.M.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Broxton, D.E.

    1989-06-01

    A thin-section operator-variance test was given to the 2 junior authors, petrographers, by the senior author, a statistician, using 16 thin sections cut from core plugs drilled by the US Geological Survey from drill hole USW VH-2 standard (HCQ) drill core. The thin sections are samples of Topopah Spring devitrified rhyolite tuff from four textural zones, in ascending order: (1) lower nonlithophysal, (2) lower lithopysal, (3) middle nonlithophysal, and (4) upper lithophysal. Drill hole USW-VH-2 is near the center of the Crater Flat, about 6 miles WSW of the Yucca Mountain in Exploration Block. The original thin-section labels were opaqued out with removable enamel and renumbered with alpha-numeric labels. The sliders were then given to the petrographer operators for quantitative thin-section modal (point-count) analysis of cryptocrystalline, spherulitic, granophyric, and void textures, as well as phenocryst minerals. Between operator variance was tested by giving the two petrographers the same slide, and within-operator variance was tested by the same operator the same slide to count in a second test set, administered at least three months after the first set. Both operators were unaware that they were receiving the same slide to recount. 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  2. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also......In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...

  3. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. RBC indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this. The results are used to diagnose different types of anemia . ... These test results indicate the type of anemia: MCV below normal. Microcytic anemia (may be due to low iron levels, lead poisoning, or thalassemia ). MCV normal. Normocytic anemia (may ...

  5. Geographical Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Anechitoae Constantin; Grigoru? Lavinia-Maria

    2011-01-01

    “The denomination of origin” may be the name of a region, a specific place or country used to describe an agricultural or food product. "The geographical indication" may be the name of a region, a specific place or a country, used to describe an agricultural or food product. The indication of provenance and the denomination of origin serve to identify the source and origin of goods or services.

  6. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations....... On the process view, an index is not a syntactic object at all, but rather, an indication of the output of a resolution process.In this paper we argue that a recent body of data provides a clear empirical basis for distinguishing between these two views of indices. We argue that cases of sloppy VP ellipsis pose...

  7. Position indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  8. yield indicators

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YIELD INDICATORS. P. NTAWURUHUNGA, P.R. RUBAIHAYOI, J.B.A. WHYTE, A.G.O. DIXONZ and use. osnzu1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, East and Southern Africa, Centre, PO. Box 7878, l Kampala ... most important sources of food energy in several ... efficiency in selecting and identifying cassava.

  9. Anthropometric indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, V. M.; Nwose, E. U.; Skinner, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current anthropometric indices used for diagnosis of cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) in sub-Saharan Africa are those widely validated in the western world. We hereby aim to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tools in identifying risk factors for CMS. METHOD: The study...

  10. No evidence for the use of DIR, D-D fusions, chromosome 15 open reading frames or VH replacement in the peripheral repertoire was found on application of an improved algorithm, JointML, to 6329 human immunoglobulin H rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohm-Laursen, Line; Nielsen, Morten; Larsen, Stine R

    2006-01-01

    Antibody diversity is created by imprecise joining of the variability (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments of the heavy and light chain loci. Analysis of rearrangements is complicated by somatic hypermutations and uncertainty concerning the sources of gene segments and the precise way...... in which they recombine. It has been suggested that D genes with irregular recombination signal sequences (DIR) and chromosome 15 open reading frames (OR15) can replace conventional D genes, that two D genes or inverted D genes may be used and that the repertoire can be further diversified by heavy chain V...... gene (VH) replacement. Safe conclusions require large, well-defined sequence samples and algorithms minimizing stochastic assignment of segments. Two computer programs were developed for analysis of heavy chain joints. JointHMM is a profile hidden Markow model, while JointML is a maximum...

  11. Biological indicators and biological indication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseloff, H.P.

    1982-02-01

    Pollutants in the environment cause more and more situations of burden for living beings. In certain organisms, i.e. in biological indicators, there is a correlation between the extent of the damage and the degree of the burden. That is why environmental burdens can be recognized and, in part, be quantitatively recorded. Depending of the choice of materials and the damage parameters the respective differentiated statements can be made. Compared to technical measuring stations biological indicators facilitate the assessment of situations of burden with the help of biological-ecological parameters.

  12. Serum miRNA Signatures Are Indicative of Skeletal Fractures in Postmenopausal Women With and Without Type 2 Diabetes and Influence Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmeier, Ursula; Hackl, Matthias; Skalicky, Susanna; Weilner, Sylvia; Schroeder, Fabian; Vierlinger, Klemens; Patsch, Janina M; Baum, Thomas; Oberbauer, Eleni; Lobach, Iryna; Burghardt, Andrew J; Schwartz, Ann V; Grillari, Johannes; Link, Thomas M

    2016-12-01

    Standard DXA measurements, including Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores, have shown limitations in assessing fracture risk in Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), underscoring the need for novel biomarkers and suggesting that other pathomechanisms may drive diabetic bone fragility. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are secreted into the circulation from cells of various tissues proportional to local disease severity and were recently found to be crucial to bone homeostasis and T2D. Here, we studied, if and which circulating miRNAs or combinations of miRNAs can discriminate best fracture status in a well-characterized study of diabetic bone disease and postmenopausal osteoporosis (n = 80 postmenopausal women). We then tested the most discriminative and most frequent miRNAs in vitro. Using miRNA-qPCR-arrays, we showed that 48 miRNAs can differentiate fracture status in T2D women and that several combinations of four miRNAs can discriminate diabetes-related fractures with high specificity and sensitivity (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve values [AUCs], 0.92 to 0.96; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.98). For the osteoporotic study arm, 23 miRNAs were fracture-indicative and potential combinations of four miRNAs showed AUCs from 0.97 to 1.00 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.00). Because a role in bone homeostasis for those miRNAs that were most discriminative and most present among all miRNA combinations had not been described, we performed in vitro functional studies in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells to investigate the effect of miR-550a-5p, miR-188-3p, and miR-382-3p on osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and cell proliferation. We found that miR-382-3p significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation (p women and should be further investigated for their diagnostic potential and their detailed function in diabetic bone. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003371.htm Hemoglobin derivatives To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemoglobin derivatives are altered forms of hemoglobin . Hemoglobin is ...

  14. A Distinct Class of Antibodies May Be an Indicator of Gray Matter Autoimmunity in Early and Established Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann J. Ligocki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available * These authors contributed equally to the work in this manuscript.We have previously identified a distinct class of antibodies expressed by B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of early and established relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients that is not observed in healthy donors. These antibodies contain a unique pattern of mutations in six codons along VH4 antibody genes that we termed the antibody gene signature (AGS. In fact, patients who have such B cells in their CSF are identified as either having RRMS or developing RRMS in the future. As mutations in antibody genes increase antibody affinity for particular antigens, the goal for this study was to investigate whether AGS+ antibodies bind to brain tissue antigens. Single B cells were isolated from the CSF of 10 patients with early or established RRMS. We chose 32 of these B cells that expressed antibodies enriched for the AGS for further study. We generated monoclonal full-length recombinant human antibodies (rhAbs and used both immunological assays and immunohistochemistry to investigate the capacity of these AGS+ rhAbs to bind brain tissue antigens. AGS+ rhAbs did not recognize myelin tracts in the corpus callosum. Instead, AGS+ rhAbs recognized neuronal nuclei and/or astrocytes, which are prevalent in the cortical gray matter. This pattern was unique to the AGS+ antibodies from early and established RRMS patients, as AGS+ antibodies from an early neuromyelitis optica patient did not display the same reactivity. Prevalence of CSF-derived B cells expressing AGS+ antibodies that bind to these cell types may be an indicator of gray matter-directed autoimmunity in early and established RRMS patients.

  15. The analysis of VH and VL genes repertoires of Fab library built from peripheral B cells of human rabies virus vaccinated donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houimel, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    A human combinatorial Fab antibody library was generated from immune repertoire based on peripheral B cells of ten rabies virus vaccinated donors. The analysis of random Fab fragments from the unselected library presented some bias of V gene usage towards IGHV-genes and IGLV-gen families. The screening of the Fab library on rabies virus allowed specific human Fab antibody fragments characterized for their gene encoding sequences, binding and specificities to RV. Genetic analysis of selected Fabs indicated that the IGHV and IGLV differ from the germ-line sequence. At the level of nucleotide sequences, the IGHV and IGLV domains were found to share 74-92% and 90-96% homology with sequences encoded by the corresponding human germ-line genes respectively. IGHV domains are characterized most frequently by IGHV3 genes, and large proportions of the anti-RV heavy chain IGHV domains are obtained following a VDJ recombination process that uses IGHD3, IGHD2, IGHD1 and IGHD6 genes. IGHJ3 and IGHJ4 genes are predominantly used in RV-Fab. The IGLV domains are dominated by IGKV1, IGLV1 and IGLV3 genes. Numerous somatic hypermutations in the RV-specific IGHV are detected, but only limited amino acid replacement in most of the RV-specific IGLV particularly in those encoded by J proximal IGLV or IGKV genes are found. Furthermore, IGHV3-IGKV1, IGHV3-IGVL1, and IGHV3-IGLV3 germ-line family pairings are preferentially enriched after the screening on rabies virus. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Financial Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary derivatives mark the development of capital and constitute a novel form of ownership. By reconfiguring the temporal, spatial and legal character of ownership derivatives present a substantive challenge to the tax collecting state. While fiscal systems are nationally bounded and inheren...

  17. ATLAS Searches for VH and HH Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Wade Cameron; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) motivates searches for physics beyond the Standard Model (SM) in channels involving coupling to the Higgs boson. A search for a massive resonance decaying into a standard model Higgs boson (h) and a W or Z boson or two a standard model Higgs bosons is performed. Final states with different number of leptons and where the Higgs decays into a b-quark pair are studied using different jet reconstruction techniques which are complementary in their acceptance for low and high mass transverse momentum. This talk summarizes ATLAS searches for diboson resonances including at least one H bosons in the final state with LHC Run 2 data.

  18. Global Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    approaches to dealing in the global business environment." - Sharon Brown-Hruska, Commissioner, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, USA. "This comprehensive survey of modern risk management using derivative securities is a fine demonstration of the practical relevance of modern derivatives theory to risk......""In Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective", Torben Juul Andersen has succeeded to gather in one book a complete and thorough summary and an easy-to-read explanation of all types of derivative instruments and their background, and their use in modern management of risk......." - Steen Parsholt, Chairman and CEO, Aon Nordic Region. "Andersen has done a wonderful job of developing a comprehensive text that deals with risk management in global markets. I would recommend this book to any student or businessman who has a need to better understand the risks and risk management...

  19. Derivative chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.noller08@imperial.ac.uk [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    We consider generalized chameleon models where the conformal coupling between matter and gravitational geometries is not only a function of the chameleon field φ, but also of its derivatives via higher order co-ordinate invariants (such as ∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ,□φ,...). Specifically we consider the first such non-trivial conformal factor A(φ,∂{sub μ}φ∂{sup μ}φ). The associated phenomenology is investigated and we show that such theories have a new generic mass-altering mechanism, potentially assisting the generation of a sufficiently large chameleon mass in dense environments. The most general effective potential is derived for such derivative chameleon setups and explicit examples are given. Interestingly this points us to the existence of a purely derivative chameleon protected by a shift symmetry for φ → φ+c. We also discuss potential ghost-like instabilities associated with mass-lifting mechanisms and find another, mass-lowering and instability-free, branch of solutions. This suggests that, barring fine-tuning, stable derivative models are in fact typically anti-chameleons that suppress the field's mass in dense environments. Furthermore we investigate modifications to the thin-shell regime and prove a no-go theorem for chameleon effects in non-conformal geometries of the disformal type.

  20. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  1. Complex derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  2. Evaluating derived vegetation indices and cover fraction to estimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nahom

    management and decision-making is the detection and quantitative assessment of green vegetation. (Silleos et al. ... environmental change, especially in the context of drought, land degradation risk assessment and rangeland .... precipitation. The climate of the province is characterised by well-defined seasons with hot.

  3. Indicators of Climate Change in the Derived Savannah Niche of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These glaring changes have implications on the development of Agriculture and preservation of biodiversity. Therefore, capacity building among native researchers to conduct locally relevant, policy-oriented research needed to support cogent decisions about adaptation and mitigation, and to provide reasonable options for ...

  4. Indicators+: a proposal for everyday peace indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Ginty, Roger

    2013-02-01

    Many of the approaches to measuring peace favoured by international organisations, INGOs and donor governments are deficient. Their level of analysis is often too broad or too narrow, and their aggregated statistical format often means that they represent the conflict-affected area in ways that are meaningless to local communities. This article takes the form of a proposal for a new generation of locally organised indicators that are based in everyday life. These indicators are inspired by practice from sustainable development in which indicators are crowd sourced. There is the potential for these to become 'indicators+' or part of a conflict transformation exercise as communities think about what peace might look like and how it could be realised. The article advocates a form of participatory action research that would be able to pick up the textured 'hidden transcript' found in many deeply divided societies and could allow for better targeted peacebuilding and development assistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fractional Derivative as Fractional Power of Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2007-01-01

    Definitions of fractional derivatives as fractional powers of derivative operators are suggested. The Taylor series and Fourier series are used to define fractional power of self-adjoint derivative operator. The Fourier integrals and Weyl quantization procedure are applied to derive the definition of fractional derivative operator. Fractional generalization of concept of stability is considered.

  6. Design and synthesis of 2-substituted-5-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl-sulphonamido)benzoxazole derivatives as human GST P1-1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan-Bolelli, Tugba; Bolelli, Kayhan; Musdal, Yaman; Yildiz, Ilkay; Aki-Yalcin, Esin; Mannervik, Bengt; Yalcin, Ismail

    2017-05-14

    The glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a family of widely distributed Phase II detoxification enzymes. GST P1-1 is frequently overexpressed in rat and human tumours. It is suggested that overexpression of hGST P1-1 by human tumor cells may play a role in resistance to cancer chemotherapy. Hence, hGST P1-1 can be a promising target for cancer treatment. In this study, new hGST P1-1 inhibitors, 2-(4-substitutedphenyl/benzyl)-5-(4-trifluoromethylphenylsulphonamido) benzoxazole derivatives (Va-Vk) have been designed and synthesized. Surprisingly, in vitro hGST P1-1 enzyme inhibition studies demonstrated that all of the tested compounds except Vj had better activity than the reference drug EA and it is also correlated with the docking results. Additionally we compared the interactions with hGST P1-1 enzyme of newly synthesized compound Vh (bearing CF3 group) and previously synthesized compound 5f (bearing NO2 group). According to the docking results, compound Vh bound to the hGST P1-1 enzyme with a higher affinity compared to 5f. Therefore, we can consider that these data make a sense and can explain its higher activity. The compounds that obtained from this research could be used as scaffolds in design of new potent hGST P1-1 inhibitors useful in the treatment of the resistance of cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Simulation of titration curves indicated with two indicator electrodes (biamperometry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmann, P; Peter, B; Stark, C

    1996-09-01

    A rigorous method to simulate titration curves with indication using two indicator electrodes (biamperometry) is presented. Computer simulations can be carried out for reversible as well as for irreversible systems. The different parameters like the area of the individual electrodes, applied potential difference, heterogeneous rate constant, and the kinetic parameter alpha were varied and investigated as to their influence upon the shape of the titration curves. The theoretically derived effects match with the effects obtained by experiment. Considering the effects described here, it is possible to tailor the shape of the titration curve by the experimental conditions for specific applications in order to get an optimum shape at the end point of the titration.

  8. On $n$-derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Sattari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the notion of $n-$derivation is introduced for all integers $ngeq 2$. Although all derivations are $n-$derivations,  in general these notions are not equivalent. Some properties of ordinary derivations are  investigated for $n-$derivations. Also, we show that under certain mild condition  $n-$derivations are derivations.

  9. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  10. CASSCF/CI calculations for first row transition metal hydrides - The TiH(4-phi), VH(5-delta), CrH(6-sigma-plus), MnH(7-sigma-plus), FeH(4,6-delta) and NiH(2-delta) states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, S. P.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations are performed for the predicted ground states of TiH(4-phi), VH(5-delta), CrH(6-sigma-plus), MnH(7-sigma-plus), Fett(4,6-delta) and NiH(2-delta). For FeH both the 6-delta and 4-delta states are studied, since both are likely candidates for the ground state. The ground state symmetries are predicted based on a combination of atomic coupling arguments and coupling of 4s(2)3d(n) and 4s(1)3d(n+1) terms in the molecular system. Electron correlation is included by a CASSCF/CI (SD) treatment. The CASSCF includes near-degeneracy effects, while correlation of the 3d electrons in included at the CI level.

  11. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  12. Cloning and molecular characterization of the cDNAs encoding the variable regions of an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanehbandi, Dariush; Majidi, Jafar; Kazemi, Tohid; Baradaran, Behzad; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili

    2017-01-01

    CD20-based targeting of B-cells in hematologic malignancies and autoimmune disorders is associated with outstanding clinical outcomes. Isolation and characterization of VH and VL cDNAs encoding the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is necessary to produce next generation MAbs and their derivatives such as bispecific antibodies (bsAb) and single-chain variable fragments (scFv). This study was aimed at cloning and characterization of the VH and VL cDNAs from a hybridoma cell line producing an anti-CD20 MAb. VH and VL fragments were amplified, cloned and characterized. Furthermore, amino acid sequences of VH, VL and corresponding complementarity-determining regions (CDR) were determined and compared with those of four approved MAbs including Rituximab (RTX), Ibritumomab tiuxetan, Ofatumumab and GA101. The cloned VH and VL cDNAs were found to be functional and follow a consensus pattern. Amino acid sequences corresponding to the VH and VL fragments also indicated noticeable homologies to those of RTX and Ibritumomab. Furthermore, amino acid sequences of the relating CDRs had remarkable similarities to their counterparts in RTX and Ibritumomab. Successful recovery of VH and VL fragments encourages the development of novel CD20 targeting bsAbs, scFvs, antibody conjugates and T-cells armed with chimeric antigen receptors.

  13. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them......Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed...

  14. Climate Change Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  15. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...

  16. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... in management of eHealth systems....

  17. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  18. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis......, creating an essential basis for future indicator development....

  19. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    2004-01-01

    Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis......, creating an essential basis for future indicator development....

  20. Indicators of Antarctic ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Bodeker

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An assimilated data base of total column ozone measurements from satellites has been used to generate a set of indicators describing attributes of the Antarctic ozone hole for the period 1979 to 2003, including (i daily measures of the area over Antarctica where ozone levels are below 150 DU, below 220 DU, more than 30% below 1979 to 1981 norms, and more than 50% below 1979 to 1981 norms, (ii the date of disappearance of 150 DU ozone values, 220 DU ozone values, values 30% below 1979 to 1981 norms, and values 50% below 1979 to 1981 norms, for each year, (iii daily minimum total column ozone values over Antarctica, and (iv daily values of the ozone mass deficit based on a O3<220 DU threshold. The assimilated data base combines satellite-based ozone measurements from 4 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS instruments, 3 different retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME, and data from 4 Solar Backscatter Ultra-Violet (SBUV instruments. Comparisons with the global ground-based Dobson spectrophotometer network are used to remove offsets and drifts between the different data sets to produce a global homogeneous data set that combines the advantages of good spatial coverage of satellite data with good long-term stability of ground-based measurements. One potential use of the derived indices is detection of the expected recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. The suitability of the derived indicators to this task is discussed in the context of their variability and their susceptibility to saturation effects which makes them less responsive to decreasing stratospheric halogen loading. It is also shown that if the corrections required to match recent Earth Probe TOMS measurements to Dobson measurements are not applied, some of the indictors are affected so as to obscure detection of the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole.

  1. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  2. Arctic Indicators of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J. C.; Trainor, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing unprecedented change. Indicators of change enable better decision-making at the community to policy levels. The results presented here focus on a subset of physical, biological, societal, and economic indicators of Arctic change recommended in one of a group of papers emanating from the earlier National Climate Indicators System (NCIS) work led by Kenney et al. (2016). The intent of the NCIS was to establish a "system of physical, natural, and societal indicators that communicate and inform decisions about key aspects of the physical climate, climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and preparedness" in support of the sustained U.S. National Climate Assessment. Our analysis, guided by a tailored selection and recommendation criteria, resulted in a list of "existing" indicators, as well as those "in development", "recommended", and "aspirational". A goal of this effort is to identify a set of both lagging and leading indicators that is based on reliable and sustained data sources with known user communities. We intend for these indicators to guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change, and ideally help inform decisions of groups like the Arctic Council and U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) as they develop plans and priorities.

  3. Fishery Performance Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  4. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  5. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp......It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio....... This is experimentally verified on several benchmark functions by comparing the approximation quality of the multi-objective covariance matrix evolution strategy (MO-CMA-ES) with the classic hypervolume indicator and the MO-CMA-ES with the logarithmic hypervolume indicator....

  6. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  7. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar Indices Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2017. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  15. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  16. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  17. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Birčiaková Naďa; Stávková Jana; Antošová Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determin...

  18. Evaluating spectral indices for winter wheat health status monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetation index relationships for winter wheat in order to determine indices that are sensitive to changes in the wheat health status. The indices were derived from Landsat 8 scenes over the wheat growing area across Bloemfontein, South Africa.

  19. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......, journal articles, book chapters/conference papers and monographs. Journal Crown Indicator (JCI) calculations was based on WoS. Three PPIs are proposed: thePublication Point Ratio (PPR), which measures the sum of obtained publiacation points over the sum of the ideal pointws for the same set of documents...

  20. Role of Structure-Based Changes due to Somatic Mutation in Highly Homologous DNA-Binding and DNA-Hydrolyzing Autoantibodies Exemplified by A23P Substitution in the VH Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Kozyr, A. V.; Kolesnikov, A. V.; Khlyntseva, A. E.; A. G. Bogun; Savchenko, G. A.; I. G. Shemyakin; A G Gabibov

    2012-01-01

    Anti-DNA autoantibodies are responsible for tissue injury in lupus. A subset of DNA-specific antibodies capable of DNA cleavage can be even more harmful after entering the living cells by destroying nuclear DNA. Origins of anti-DNA autoantibodies are not fully understood, and the mechanism of induction of DNA-cleaving activity remains speculative. The autoantibody BV04-01 derived from lupus-prone mouse is the only DNA-hydrolyzing immunoglobulin with known 3D structure. Identification and ana...

  1. Dimensionality reduction of quality of life indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jindrová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting indicators for assessing the quality of life at the regional level is not unambigous. Currently, there are no precisely defined indicators that would give comprehensive information about the quality of life on a local level. In this paper we focus on the determination (selection of groups of indicators that can be interpreted, on the basis of studied literature, as factors characterizing the quality of life. Furthermore, on the application of methods to reduce the dimensionality of these indicators, from the source of the database CULS KROK, which provides statistics on the regional and districts level. To reduce the number of indicators and the subsequent creation of derived variables that capture the relationships between selected indicators multivariate statistical analysis methods, especially method of principal components and factor analysis were used. This paper also indicates the methodology grant project “Methodological Approaches to assess Subjective Aspects of the life quality in regions of the Czech Republic”.

  2. Societal health and urban sustainability indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrich, C.H.; Tonn, B.E.

    1996-08-27

    Without the social will, no city can successfully Undertake the planning and programs necessary for meaningful progress toward sustainability. Social will derives from wellsprings of vital societal health. This paper presents an approach to helping cities in APEC member economies initiate a program for developing indicators of sustainability. Representative indicators of social capital and other aspects of civic engagement, as proxies for societal health, are presented.

  3. Grassroots indicators for desertification

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Naomi Kipuri. 110. The Use of Trees, Birds and Animal Behavior as Measures of Environmental Change by the Shona People of Zimbabwe ... In 1994–95, an opportunity arose to bring the topic of grassroots indicators into the specific context of natural resource management in Eastern and Southern Africa. The focus of this ...

  4. Indicators: Dissolved Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen that is present in water. It is an important measure of water quality as it indicates a water body's ability to support aquatic life. Water bodies receive oxygen from the atmosphere and from aquatic plants.

  5. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  6. Science & Engineering Indicators--1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. National Science Board.

    This volume is the ninth in the biennial "Science Indicators" series initiated by the National Science Board. The series provides a broad base of quantitative information about the structure and function of United States science and technology and comparisons with other advanced industrial countries. An overview of science and technology…

  7. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  8. SD indicators for education

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2006-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Commission made the following proposal to the Department for Education and Skills and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs concerning the indicator of education for sustainable development announced in the UK Government strategy 'Securing the Future'. Publisher PDF

  9. [Indications for retrosternal esophagocoloplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králík, J; Tomsů, M; Král, V

    1989-04-01

    The authors define, based on experience with 55 retrosternal oesophagocoloplasties, the indications for this operation. They divide the indications into three groups and describe them as 1. the most suitable operation, 2. as the only possible replacement of the oesophagus, 3. as a palliative operation in an otherwise insolvable disphagia due to an inoperable tumour. They emphasize the wide range of indications for the operation which can be implemented without influencing the basic disease of the oesophagus and which makes it possible to apply combined treatment. The operation, though pretentious and time consuming, has the advantage of an extrathoracic approach. As to technical aspects, the authors emphasize the importance to select a portion of the gut with an adequate blood supply. This demand is usually met by the transverse colon on a vascular pedicle of the vasa colica sin.; they also mention the conditions of safe deposition of the gut in the retrosternal tunnel. The paper is supplemented by several case-histories of particularly interesting and difficult situations. If the indication range of the operation and its technical principles are respected and the surgeon is experienced, the failures of the operation are proportional to the severity of the basic disease.

  10. Indications for colonoscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indication, 'other', produced a combined yield of 66,7%; the majority of patients in this group were known to have colitis. On the basis of these findings we propose that where facilities and expertise do not allow for routine colonoscopy, some fonn ofpatient selection should be employed and we believe this selection ...

  11. Lichen indicator [Section 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest

    2009-01-01

    Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...

  12. ZERO-TIME INDICATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, H.H.

    1960-08-30

    The travel time of a nuclear shock wave from its point of origin to a location can be determined accurately by an apparatus for noting and comparably recording both zerotime, as indicated by the electromagnetic transient associated with the nuclear detonation, and shock wave arrival time.

  13. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…

  14. Relationship between global indices of reactivity, electrodonating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 5. Relationship between global indices of reactivity, electrodonating and electroaccepting powers, and the hammet constant in isatoic anhydride derivatives. J S Durand-Niconoff L Cruz-Kuri M H Matus J Correa-Basurto J S Cruz-Sánchez F R Ramos- ...

  15. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings....

  16. Indices of thyroid epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This brief communication proposes various indices of epidemicity and endemicity which may be used to predict the future prevalence of hypothyroidism. Taking advantage of knowledge related to the natural progression of autoimmune thyroid disease, it uses data from two recent Indian epidemiological studies to assess the epidemicity or endemicity of thyroid disease in the country. The hypothesis generated in this communication will be of help to clinicians as well as policy makers.

  17. indicators and trends

    OpenAIRE

    Mir, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present work had the objective to show the development of indicators of institutionalization of mentally ill in historic time series. Further aim of the work was to determine the prevalence rates of substance use disorders and comorbid mental disorders in newly admitted women in the prison system. Treatment histories in psychiatry of prison inmates should yield further information on the interdependence of the psychiatric treatment system and penal justice system. Method...

  18. Green Economy Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszawska, Bożena

    2015-01-01

    The chapter is an attempt to answer the question: how is the actual green economy implementation process underway to be measured? The answers were given firstly by the international organizations OECD, UNEP, Word Bank, Global Green Growth Institute, as well as the consulting company Dual Citizen. Also the author of this chapter proposed the Green Economy Index. There is a growing awareness concerning the need for international unification of the indicators used to measure a green economy. Exi...

  19. Indicators for Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2007-01-01

    The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  20. Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  1. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  2. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, S.

    Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building s...... in the Netherlands. It identifies lines of conflict and areas of consent betweeen the relevant actors and elaborates scenarios for a possible closure of ongoing debate about environmental indicators for buildings.......Whenever we shop, the products we consider buying are labelled with the economical price we have to pay if we want to purchase them - an important parameter in our decisions as purchasers. The increrasing awareness for environmental limits and backlashes of human activities also in the building...... sector have fostered the wish to define 'the ecological price' of a building as a help for environmental conscious decision-making. In a social constructivist approach this Ph.D. thesis looks across and beyond the manifold existing approaches for environmental indicators for buildings. It acknowledges...

  3. Generalized Riemann derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Radulescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by Marshall Ash in 1966, the study of generalized Riemann derivative draw significant attention of the mathematical community and numerous studies where carried out since then. One of the major areas that benefits from these developments is the numerical analysis, as the use of generalized Riemann derivatives leads to solving a wider class of problems that are not solvable with the classical tools. This article studies the generalized Riemann derivative and its properties and establishes relationships between Riemann generalized derivative and the classical one. The existence of classical derivative implies the existence of the Riemann generalized derivative, and we study conditions necessary for the generalized Riemann derivative to imply the existence of the classical derivative. Furthermore, we provide conditions on the generalized Riemann derivative that are sufficient for the existence of the classical derivative.

  4. Synthetic Bioluminescent Coelenterazine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Ryo; Citterio, Daniel; Suzuki, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The development of coelenterazine (CTZ) derivatives resulting in superior optical characteristics is an efficient method to extend the range of its possible applications. Here, we describe the synthesis of three C-6 substituted CTZ derivatives retaining the recognition by Renilla luciferase (RLuc) and its derivatives. The novel derivatives are useful as bright blue-shifted CTZ derivatives, which can be used as an alternative to hitherto reported compound DeepBlueC™.

  5. Teriparatide - Indications beyond osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lee Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of impaired bone strength that results in an increased risk of fracture. The current and most popular pharmacological options for the treatment of osteoporosis include antiresorptive therapy, in particular, oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate. Anabolic agents like teriparatide have widened our therapeutic options. They act by directly stimulating bone formation and improving bone mass quantity and quality. Two forms of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH are available : full-length PTH (PTH 1-84; approved in the EU only and the 1-34 N-terminal active fragment of PTH (teriparatide, US FDA approved. This review aims to discuss the benefits of teriparatide beyond the currently licensed indications like fracture healing, dental stability, osteonecrosis of jaw, hypoparathyroidism, and hypocalcemia.

  6. Gasgeochemical indicators seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obzhirov, Anatoly

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory of Gasgeochemistry of POI FEB RAS is studying gas distribution in lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere from 1977 years. Method consist is sampling from its in expedition, take gas from samples of sediment, water and atmosphere to use method degassing and analysis gas in chromatograph, to measure CH4, C2-C4, O2, N2, H2, He and some time Rn. Gas is using like indicators to search oil-gas deposits, gas hydrate, mapping zones faults, to determine seismic activity, to calculate green house gas (CH4, CO2). The next geological, geophysics and hydro-acoustics characteristics assist which help to explain to form methane bubbles fluxes and gas hydrate in the Okhotsk Sea. The methane fluxes are mostly located in the zones faults and it increase in period seismic activity.

  7. ORGANIC CARBON AND CARBON STOCK: RELATIONS WITH PHYSICAL INDICATORS AND SOIL AGGREGATION IN AREAS CULTIVATED WITH SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tolentino de Lima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon and carbon stock influence, directly or indirectly, most of soil aggregate stability indicators. The objective of this study was to quantify the production of dry biomass (DB, total organic carbon (TOC and carbon stock (CStk in soil, and to evaluate their influence on some indicators of aggregation in an Oxisol at a Cerrado biome in Uberaba-MG, Brazil. The design was completely randomized blocks, in two evaluation periods: three and six cuts, at six depths (0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, 0.2-0.3, 0.3-0.4, 0.4-0.5 and 0.5-0.6 m. It was evaluated: soil density (SD, volumetric humidity (VH, aggregate stability index (AEI, weighted mean diameter (WDA, mean diameter (GDA, index of aggregates with diameter greater than 2 mm (AI and sensitivity index (SI, replicated by 4. The best AEI of the soil and the highest TOC contents were found in the most superficial layers, 0 to 0.2 m, for both cuttings. The greater values of TOC and CStk, occurred at the sixth cut area, where there was a higher amount of DB on soil surface. The higher levels of organic matter did not provide higher AEI in the area of sixth cut, when compared to that of the third cut. The TOC and CStk levels in both areas generally had a positive influence on soil aggregation indicators for both cuts.

  8. New power quality indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonowicz, Z. [Wroclaw Univ. of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The proliferation of nonlinear loads connected to power systems has led to growing concerns about power quality. This study used a high-resolution spectrum estimation method to measure the spectral parameters of distorted waveforms encountered in power systems. Power quality indices were developed using the method, and the frequency and amplitude estimation errors were compared with errors obtained using Fourier-based techniques. The root multiple signal classification (MUSIC) method used an estimated covariance matrix to compute the signal zeros from the power system. The MUSIC method was compared with the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT), which used the naturally existing shift invariance between discrete time series that resulted in rotational invariance between corresponding signal subspaces. The study demonstrated that the main sources of errors using ESPRIT occurred in estimates of the matrix. Matrix errors cause errors in eigenvalue estimations, which can in turn be regarded as a performance index of ESPRIT. The mean square error method was computed. The study showed that the ESPRIT method was faster during shorter data runs, but became slower than the MUSIC method as data lengths increased. The study also demonstrated that higher values obtained using Fourier-based techniques were caused by spectral leakage. It was concluded that parametric spectral estimation methods can be used to accurately analyze waveforms in power systems. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Ergodicity of financial indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, A. V.; Rühl, T.

    2010-05-01

    We introduce the concept of the ensemble averaging for financial markets. We address the question of equality of ensemble and time averaging in their sequence and investigate if these averagings are equivalent for large amount of equity indices and branches. We start with the model of Gaussian-distributed returns, equal-weighted stocks in each index and absence of correlations within a single day and show that even this oversimplified model captures already the run of the corresponding index reasonably well due to its self-averaging properties. We introduce the concept of the instant cross-sectional volatility and discuss its relation to the ordinary time-resolved counterpart. The role of the cross-sectional volatility for the description of the corresponding index as well as the role of correlations between the single stocks and the role of non-Gaussianity of stock distributions is briefly discussed. Our model reveals quickly and efficiently some anomalies or bubbles in a particular financial market and gives an estimate of how large these effects can be and how quickly they disappear.

  10. Solar Indices Forecasting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, Carl John; Shurkin, Kathleen; Arge, Charles; Hill, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Progress to forecast key space weather parameters using SIFT (Solar Indices Forecasting Tool) with the ADAPT (Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport) model is highlighted in this presentation. Using a magnetic flux transport model, ADAPT, we estimate the solar near-side field distribution that is used as input into empirical models for predicting F10.7(solar 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz, radio flux), the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, and selected bands of solar far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Input to the ADAPT model includes the inferred photospheric magnetic field from the NISP ground-based instruments, GONG & VSM. Besides a status update regarding ADAPT and SIFT models, we will summarize the findings that: 1) the sum of the absolute value of strong magnetic fields, associated with sunspots, is shown to correlate well with the observed daily F10.7 variability (Henney et al. 2012); and 2) the sum of the absolute value of weak magnetic fields, associated with plage regions, is shown to correlate well with EUV and FUV irradiance variability (Henney et al. 2015). This work utilizes data produced collaboratively between Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The ADAPT model development is supported by AFRL. The input data utilized by ADAPT is obtained by NISP (NSO Integrated Synoptic Program). NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The 10.7 cm solar radio flux data service, utilized by the ADAPT/SIFT F10.7 forecasting model, is operated by the National Research Council of Canada and National Resources Canada, with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  11. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  12. The Optimal Weighting of Indicators for a Crawling Peg

    OpenAIRE

    William H. Branson; Jorge Braga de Macedo

    1980-01-01

    This paper derives optimal weights for current-account and reserve indicators for adjusting the exchange rate (a "crawling peg"). Keven (1975)showed that use of a current account indicator alone would not stabi1iereserves, while a reserve indicator results in unstable fluctuations in the exchange rate. This paper begins by analyzing the problem in the frame work of Phillips (1954), in which the current account indicator is "proportional" and the reserve indicator is "integral." We then analyz...

  13. Intrarectal artemisinin derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nosten, F.; van Vugt, M.; White, N. J.

    1998-01-01

    The artemisinin derivatives are the most potent antimalarials. They are rapidly absorbed orally, parenterally and intra-rectally. The latter mode of administration is particularly interesting in rural tropics. Preliminary studies have shown that artemisinin and its derivatives artesunate and

  14. The Ungraded Derived Category

    OpenAIRE

    Stai, Torkil Utvik

    2012-01-01

    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  15. Lipoprotein metabolism indicators improve cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël B van Schalkwijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease risk increases when lipoprotein metabolism is dysfunctional. We have developed a computational model able to derive indicators of lipoprotein production, lipolysis, and uptake processes from a single lipoprotein profile measurement. This is the first study to investigate whether lipoprotein metabolism indicators can improve cardiovascular risk prediction and therapy management. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculated lipoprotein metabolism indicators for 1981 subjects (145 cases, 1836 controls from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort in which NMR lipoprotein profiles were measured. We applied a statistical learning algorithm using a support vector machine to select conventional risk factors and lipoprotein metabolism indicators that contributed to predicting risk for general cardiovascular disease. Risk prediction was quantified by the change in the Area-Under-the-ROC-Curve (ΔAUC and by risk reclassification (Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI. Two VLDL lipoprotein metabolism indicators (VLDLE and VLDLH improved cardiovascular risk prediction. We added these indicators to a multivariate model with the best performing conventional risk markers. Our method significantly improved both CVD prediction and risk reclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Two calculated VLDL metabolism indicators significantly improved cardiovascular risk prediction. These indicators may help to reduce prescription of unnecessary cholesterol-lowering medication, reducing costs and possible side-effects. For clinical application, further validation is required.

  16. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... with the scope of sections 29-33 of the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt and the tax consequences for the covered financial contracts. In the analysis of taxation of derivatives, the fundamental issues of qualification and tax treatment of the instruments are dealt with....... are known as futures, forwards, options and swaps. Derivatives are traded for the purpose of hedging financial or business risk, speculating in future spot prices and taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities. This market has increased tremendously in recent years. The term derivative is not used...

  17. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  18. Higher derivative mimetic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic gravity in the presence of classified higher derivative terms which can make the mimetic perturbations stable. We show that the quadratic higher derivative terms which are independent of curvature and the cubic higher derivative terms which come from curvature corrections are sufficient to remove instabilities in mimetic perturbations. The classified higher derivative terms have the same dimensions but they contribute differently in the background and perturbed equations. Therefore, we can control both the background and the perturbation equations allowing us to construct the higher derivative extension of mimetic dark matter and the mimetic nonsingular bouncing scenarios. The latter can be thought as a new higher derivative effective action for the loop quantum cosmology scenario in which the equations of motion coincide with those suggested by loop quantum cosmology. We investigate a possible connection between the mimetic cosmology and the Randall-Sundrum cosmology.

  19. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  20. Use of remote sensing for analysis and estimation of vector-borne disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atiqur

    An epidemiological data of malaria cases were correlated with satellite-based vegetation health (VH) indices to investigate if they can be used as a proxy for monitoring the number of malaria cases. Mosquitoes, which spread malaria in Bangladesh, are very sensitive to environmental conditions, especially to changes in weather. Therefore, VH indices, which characterize weather conditions, were tested as indicators of mosquitoes' activities in the spread of malaria. Satellite data were presented by the following VH indices: Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), and Vegetation Health Index (VHI). They were derived from radiances and measured by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on NOAA afternoon polar orbiting satellites. Assessment of sensitivity of the VH was performed using correlation and regression analysis. Estimation models were validated using of Jackknife Cross-Validation procedure. Results show that the VH indices can be used for detection, and numerical estimate of the number of malaria cases. During the cooler months (January--April) when mosquitoes are less active, the correlation is low and increases considerably during the warm and wet season (April--November), for TCI in early October and for VCI in mid September. All analysis and estimation model developed here are based on data obtained for Bangladesh.

  1. Derivative actions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of derivative action was expected to be actively used by shareholders to protect their interests. In fact, it turned out that this reform effort seemed futile as the right to engage in such actions was rarely exercised. This raises a question about the role of derivative actions in China; namely, should a derivative action system play a key role in protecting shareholder interests? If the answer is positive, the next question is how such a system could be improved...

  2. Global Derivatives Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankovska Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

  3. Endohedral Metallofullerene Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Harry C. (Inventor); Iezzi, Erick B. (Inventor); Duchamp, James (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives and their preparation are described. The trimetallic nitride endohedral metallofullerene derivatives have the general formula A(sub 3-n)X(sub n)@C(sub m)(R) where n ranges from 0 to 3, A and X may be trivalent metals and may be either rare earth metal or group IIIB metals, m is between about 60 and about 200, and R is preferably an organic group. Derivatives where the R group forms cyclized derivatives with the fullerene cage are also described.

  4. Synthesis of Trishomocubane Amino Acid Derivatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Fmoc group is base-labile and a ninhydrin test indicated that some deprotection of a dry sample had occurred after three weeks of storage in a refrigerator. As indicated in the introduction, synthesizing trishomocubane amino acid derivatives (such as 8 and 9) suitable for peptide synthesis, is a worthwhile goal. However ...

  5. PLANKTON RESPIRATION AND BIOMASS AS FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS OF RECOVERY IN RESTORED PRAIRIE WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable ecological indicators of wetland integrity are necessary for assessing recovery of restored wetlands, yet little consensus currently exists on which indicators are most appropriate. We employed indicators derived from simple, standard measures of ecosystem function selec...

  6. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the...

  7. vh@nnlo-Higgs Strahlung at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brein, Oliver; Harlander, Robert V.; Zirke, Tom J. E.

    2013-03-01

    A numerical program for the evaluation of the inclusive cross section for associated Higgs production with a massive weak gauge boson at hadron colliders is described, σ(pp/pp¯→HV), V∈{W,Z}. The calculation is performed in the framework of the Standard Model and includes next-to-next-to-leading order QCD as well as next-to-leading order electro-weak effects. Catalogue identifier: AEOF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 32835 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 206496 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77, C++. Computer: Personal computer. Operating system: Unix/Linux, Mac OS. RAM: A few 100 MB Classification: 11.1. External routines: LHAPDF (http://lhapdf.hepforge.org/), CUBA (http://www.feynarts.de/cuba/) Nature of problem: Calculation of the inclusive total cross section for associated Higgs- and W- or Z- boson production at hadron colliders through next-to-next-to-leading order QCD. Solution method: Numerical Monte Carlo integration. Running time: A few seconds for a single set of parameters.

  8. Expression of Immunoglobulin Receptors with Distinctive Features Indicating Antigen Selection by Marginal Zone B Cells from Human Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Jenny; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Calevo, Maria Grazia; De Santanna, Amleto; Truini, Mauro; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2013-01-01

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells, identified as surface (s)IgMhighsIgDlowCD23low/−CD21+CD38− B cells, were purified from human spleens, and the features of their V(D)J gene rearrangements were investigated and compared with those of germinal center (GC), follicular mantle (FM) and switched memory (SM) B cells. Most MZ B cells were CD27+ and exhibited somatic hypermutations (SHM), although to a lower extent than SM B cells. Moreover, among MZ B-cell rearrangements, recurrent sequences were observed, some of which displayed intraclonal diversification. The same diversifying sequences were detected in very low numbers in GC and FM B cells and only when a highly sensitive, gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was used. This result indicates that MZ B cells could expand and diversify in situ and also suggested the presence of a number of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-expressing B cells in the MZ. The notion of antigen-driven expansion/selection in situ is further supported by the VH CDR3 features of MZ B cells with highly conserved amino acids at specific positions and by the finding of shared (“stereotyped”) sequences in two different spleens. Collectively, the data are consistent with the notion that MZ B cells are a special subset selected by in situ antigenic stimuli. PMID:23877718

  9. Stochastic Indicators for Waste Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, George; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    1996-08-01

    Site characterization is an important prerequisite of risk assessment and remediation strategies. Evaluation of the health effects of groundwater and soil contamination depends on the adequate analysis of spatial heterogeneity, exceedance levels, and uncertainties. In this work we formulate and calculate stochastic indicators that provide a rigorous characterization of exposure levels in sites with heterogeneous contaminant distributions and offer valuable information for a cost-effective cleanup analysis. These site indicators are general and can be used for different types and distributions of groundwater and soil contaminants. Important properties of the stochastic indicators are examined which can evaluate the potential for contamination at large scales, and improve understanding of threatened and damaged ecosystems. Analytically tractable formulas are derived that allow the practical estimation of site indicators on the basis of experimental data. Scale and modeling effects on contaminant level analysis are examined in terms of the stochastic indicators. Site cleanup costs depend directly on inferred characteristics of the stochastic indicators, which thus can play an important role in waste site management. Applications are discussed that offer insight regarding certain aspects of stochastic site characterization. Analytical methods of site characterization are compared to numerical simulations. It is shown that the latter can provide a practical alternative to the former, but they could lead to inaccurate results if they are not interpreted carefully.

  10. The Dangers of Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1994-01-01

    Heavy investment in derivatives, whose value derives from the price movement of some underlying security, has meant heavy losses for some colleges and universities despite the fact that institutional investors are required to assure that they understand the risks of such investment. (MSE)

  11. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.

    2009-01-01

    is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life living...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  12. Indicators for Danish Greenhouse Gas Emissions from 1990 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Erik; Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    This report describes and documents data origin and aggregation for the derivation of indicators according to EU Monitoring Mechanism decisions, which oblige EU member states to report indicators to the EU Commission. The decision was put in force February 11, 2004 and member states are to report...

  13. Indicators of safety culture - selection and utilization of leading safety performance indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Teemu; Pietikaeinen, Elina (VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    Safety indicators play a role in providing information on organizational performance, motivating people to work on safety and increasing organizational potential for safety. The aim of this report is to provide an overview on leading safety indicators in the domain of nuclear safety. The report explains the distinction between lead and lag indicators and proposes a framework of three types of safety performance indicators - feedback, monitor and drive indicators. Finally the report provides guidance for nuclear energy organizations for selecting and interpreting safety indicators. It proposes the use of safety culture as a leading safety performance indicator and offers an example list of potential indicators in all three categories. The report concludes that monitor and drive indicators are so called lead indicators. Drive indicators are chosen priority areas of organizational safety activity. They are based on the underlying safety model and potential safety activities and safety policy derived from it. Drive indicators influence control measures that manage the socio technical system; change, maintain, reinforce, or reduce something. Monitor indicators provide a view on the dynamics of the system in question; the activities taking place, abilities, skills and motivation of the personnel, routines and practices - the organizational potential for safety. They also monitor the efficacy of the control measures that are used to manage the socio technical system. Typically the safety performance indicators that are used are lagging (feedback) indicators that measure the outcomes of the socio technical system. Besides feedback indicators, organizations should also acknowledge the important role of monitor and drive indicators in managing safety. The selection and use of safety performance indicators is always based on an understanding (a model) of the socio technical system and safety. The safety model defines what risks are perceived. It is important that the safety

  14. NEFSC Survey Indices of Abundance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Fisheries Survey Bottom trawl survey indices of abundance such as stratified mean number per tow or mean weight per tow by species stock. Includes indices...

  15. Hamilton's indicators of the force of selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baudisch, Annette

    2005-01-01

    To quantify the force of selection, Hamilton [Hamilton, W. D. (1966) J. Theor. Biol. 12, 12-45] derived expressions for the change in fitness with respect to age-specific mutations. Hamilton's indicators are decreasing functions of age. He concluded that senescence is inevitable: survival...... and fertility decline with age. I show that alternative parameterizations of mutational effects lead to indicators that can increase with age. I then consider the case of deleterious mutations with age-specific effects. In this case, it is the balance between mutation and selection pressure that determines...... the equilibrium number of mutations in a population. In this balance, the effects of different parameterizations cancel out, but only to a linear approximation. I show that mutation accumulation has little impact at ages when this linear approximation holds. When mutation accumulation matters, nonlinear effects...

  16. Technical indicators of financial performance in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer...... or the consultant, and they were derived from expected cause-effect relations between technical performance and financial performance at the herd level. The study included the indicators shape of lactation curve, reproduction efficiency, heifer management, variation between cows in lactation curve persistency...... cow was analyzed as the measure of financial performance. The potential effects of the selected indicators on the gross margin were estimated by means of an ANOVA. The final model allowed estimation of the financial value of specific changes within the key performance indicators. This study indicated...

  17. The SJR indicator: A new indicator of journals' scientific prestige

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Pereira, Borja; Guerrero-Bote, Vicente; Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator of journals' scientific prestige, the SJR indicator, for ranking scholarly journals based on citation weighting schemes and eigenvector centrality to be used in complex and heterogeneous citation networks such Scopus. Its computation methodology is described and the results after implementing the indicator over Scopus 2007 dataset are compared to an ad-hoc Journal Impact Factor both generally and inside specific scientific areas. The results showed that SJR...

  18. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel...... reached agreement on two types of indicators. (a) Cancer prevalence indicators. These were proposed as a means of characterising the burden of cancer rehabilitation needs by time from diagnosis and patient health status. These indicators can be estimated from cancer registry data or by collecting data...... on follow-up and treatments for samples of cases archived in cancer registries. (b) Indicators of rehabilitation success. These include: return to work, quality of life, and satisfaction of specific rehabilitation needs. Studies can be performed to estimate these indicators in individual countries...

  19. ASTEROID LIGHTCURVE DERIVED DATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of published rotational parameters derived from lightcurve data for asteroids, based on the Warner et al. (2009) Asteroid Lightcurve Database....

  20. Teaching Cournot without Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Presents a simple technique for teaching the Cournot model to first-year microeconomic students. Involves demonstrating, without the use of derivatives, that out of all rectangles with a common perimeter, the square has the greatest area. (RLH)

  1. The azobenzene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Ionica; Radulescu, Cristiana; Poinescu, Aurora Anca; Anghelina, Florina Violeta; Bunghez, Raluca; Ion, Rodica-Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Azobenzene derivatives constitute a group of dyes which have photochromic properties and have been investigated as promising systems for diverse applications in the unconventional optic area, their properties can be moulded with help of light.

  2. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  3. Brain derived neurotrophic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Gede, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies are curre......Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin with important functions in neuronal development and neuroplasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in BDNF expression levels underlie a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Indeed, BDNF therapies...

  4. American derivatives : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.

    1997-01-01

    The paper gives an overview over the theory of pricing and hedging financial derivatives that can be exercised at any time during a fixed time interval [0, T]. The analysis makes use of the theory of optimal stopping, and as such it constitutes an interesting application of probability theory to the theory of financial economics. In this paper we concentrate on the main principles involved only, which means, for example, that we abstract from derivatives where the underlying asset pays ou...

  5. Granin-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troger, Josef; Theurl, Markus; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Pasqua, Teresa; Tota, Bruno; Angelone, Tommaso; Cerra, Maria C; Nowosielski, Yvonne; Mätzler, Raphaela; Troger, Jasmin; Gayen, Jaur R; Trudeau, Vance; Corti, Angelo; Helle, Karen B

    2017-07-01

    The granin family comprises altogether 7 different proteins originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system and elements of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The family is dominated by three uniquely acidic members, namely chromogranin A (CgA), chromogranin B (CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII). Since the late 1980s it has become evident that these proteins are proteolytically processed, intragranularly and/or extracellularly into a range of biologically active peptides; a number of them with regulatory properties of physiological and/or pathophysiological significance. The aim of this comprehensive overview is to provide an up-to-date insight into the distribution and properties of the well established granin-derived peptides and their putative roles in homeostatic regulations. Hence, focus is directed to peptides derived from the three main granins, e.g. to the chromogranin A derived vasostatins, betagranins, pancreastatin and catestatins, the chromogranin B-derived secretolytin and the secretogranin II-derived secretoneurin (SN). In addition, the distribution and properties of the chromogranin A-derived peptides prochromacin, chromofungin, WE14, parastatin, GE-25 and serpinins, the CgB-peptide PE-11 and the SgII-peptides EM66 and manserin will also be commented on. Finally, the opposing effects of the CgA-derived vasostatin-I and catestatin and the SgII-derived peptide SN on the integrity of the vasculature, myocardial contractility, angiogenesis in wound healing, inflammatory conditions and tumors will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Indicators of quality of life: some methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    R J Rogerson; Findlay, A. M.; Morris, A.S.; M G Coombes

    1989-01-01

    The importance of combining 'subjective' and 'objective' indicators in assessing the quality of life has been increasingly stated as a research goal. A new methodology for measuring quality of life which is an attempt to satisfy this objective is discussed. It includes a perceptually derived set of weightings and 'objectively' measured indicators of social, economic, and environmental characteristics of the largest thirty-eight cities in Britain. The weighting system, the selected indicators,...

  7. Web indicators for research evaluation a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Thelwall, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing demand for research evaluation within universities and other research-based organisations. In parallel, there has been an increasing recognition that traditional citation-based indicators are not able to reflect the societal impacts of research and are slow to appear. This has led to the creation of new indicators for different types of research impact as well as timelier indicators, mainly derived from the Web. These indicators have been called altmetrics, webometrics or just web metrics. This book describes and evaluates a range of web indicators for aspects of societal or scholarly impact, discusses the theory and practice of using and evaluating web indicators for research assessment and outlines practical strategies for obtaining many web indicators. In addition to describing impact indicators for traditional scholarly outputs, such as journal articles and monographs, it also covers indicators for videos, datasets, software and other non-standard scholarly out...

  8. Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Karl-Heinz

    Semisynthetic derivatives of natural products traditionally occupy a prominent space in natural-product-based drug discovery (1, 2). As many biologically active natural products exhibit a high degree of structural complexity (3), the chemical derivatization of material isolated from natural sources often represents the only feasible means (or at least the only economically viable approach) to explore structure-activity-relationships (SAR) and to produce analogs with more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties than the natural product lead. Examples of clinically important drugs that are semisynthetic derivatives of natural products exist in virtually all disease areas (1, 2); in the treatment of cancer this includes compounds such as etoposide or teniposide (derived from podophyllotoxin) (4-6), irinotecan and topotecan (derived from camptothecin) (7-9), or docetaxel (derived from 10-deacetylbaccatin III) (10, 11). Even for taxol (11), which is a natural product (12), the sustained supply of sufficient quantities of material for widespread clinical use could only be secured through the development of a semisynthetic production process from another natural product, namely, 10-deacetylbaccatin III (13). In light of these facts, it is not surprising that semisynthesis approaches have also featured prominently in the elucidation of the SAR for epothilones and in the discovery of a number of clinical development candidates.

  9. Trade Effects of Geographical Indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution addresses the effects of geographical indications on intra-EU and international trade. Trade is hampered by the exclusiveness of indications like “Protected Designations of Origin or Protected Geographical Indications”, which at the same time is necessary to protect their value. As

  10. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing...

  11. Geomagnetic Kn, Ks, Km Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A full description of the indices Kn, Ks, Km is given in a monography,"Indices Kn, Ks et Km, 1964-1967", edited in 1968 by the Centre National de la Recherche...

  12. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke; Bartsch, Hans Helge; Travado, Luzia; Garami, Miklos; Di Salvo, Francesca; Micheli, Andrea; Veerus, Piret

    Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel

  13. Noncontacting valve-position indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovella, E. A.; Cummins, R. D.; Wada, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Position of sealed valve or other movable part is indicated without penetrating housing. Flux from magnets connected to stem of hydraulic valve penetrates pressure wall and is sensed by Hall-effect transducer outside wall. When valve closes, moving stem and magnets, voltage from transducer decreases; thus, stem position is indicated without physical contact.

  14. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted caref...

  15. Precipitation-Based ENSO Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott

    1998-01-01

    In this study gridded observed precipitation data sets are used to construct rainfall-based ENSO indices. The monthly El Nino and La Nina Indices (EI and LI) measure the steepest zonal gradient of precipitation anomalies between the equatorial Pacific and the Maritime Continent. This is accomplished by spatially averaging precipitation anomalies using a spatial boxcar filter, finding the maximum and minimum averages within a Pacific and Maritime Continent domain for each month, and taking differences. EI and LI can be examined separately or combined to produce one ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI). ESPI is well correlated with traditional sea surface temperature and pressure indices, leading Nino 3.4. One advantage precipitation indices have over more conventional indices, is describing the strength and position of the Walker circulation. Examples are given of tracking the impact of ENSO events on the tropical precipitation fields.

  16. Decision making with environmental indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Dana L.; Ascough, James C.; Keske-Handley, C.; Koontz, Lynne; Burk, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Since Ott's seminal book on environmental indices (1978), the use of indices has expanded into several natural resource disciplines, including ecological studies, environmental policymaking, and agricultural economics. However, despite their increasing use in natural resource disciplines, researchers and public decision makers continue to express concern about validity of these instruments to capture and communicate multidimensional, and sometimes disparate, characteristics of research data and stakeholder interests. Our purpose is to demonstrate how useful indices can be for communicating environmental information to decision makers. We discuss how environmental indices have evolved over four stages: 1) simple; 2) compound multicriteria; 3) the impact matrix and 4) disparate stakeholder management. We provide examples of simple and compound indices that were used by policy decision makers. We then build a framework, called an Impact Matrix (IM), that comprehensively accounts for multiple indices but lets the user decide how to integrate them. The IM was shaped from the concept of a financial risk payoff matrix and applied to ecosystem risk. While the IM offers flexibility, it does not address stakeholder preferences about which index to use. Therefore, the last phase in our evolutionary ladder includes stakeholder indices to specifically address disparate stakeholder preferences. Finally, we assert that an environmental index has the potential to increase resource efficiency, since the number of decision making resources may be reduced, and hence improve upon resource productivity

  17. Análise da dinâmica sazonal de fitofisionomias do bioma Mata Atlântica com base em índices de vegetação do sensor MODIS/TERRA / Analysis of the seasonal dynamics of some Atlantic Forest biome physiognomies with basis of vegetation indices derived from MOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Lennon Dalla Nora

    2010-08-01

    and with a climatic database (temperature and precipitation, for each physiognomy. The results showed that the fragments of seasonal deciduous forest and mixed rain forest present a common seasonal pattern, however, with variations of amplitude in relation to each index. The EVI was more sensible and hence, more efficient to annual variations of the vegetation compared to the NDVI. For both forest formations a positive correlation between profile EVI and NDVI with variations of temperature was established. The spectral/temporal dynamic showed a marked contrast under distinct seasonal conditions converging with the pattern presented for the vegetation indices. Data indicate potentialities of the use of MODIS sensor for the continuous monitoring of the south forest formations with moderate space resolution and high temporal resolution.

  18. Power Quality Indices Estimation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana I. Arango-Zuluaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An interactive platform for estimating the quality indices in single phase electric power systems is presented. It meets the IEEE 1459-2010 standard recommendations. The platform was developed in order to support teaching and research activities in electric power quality. The platform estimates the power quality indices from voltage and current signals using three different algorithms based on fast Fourier transform (FFT, wavelet packet transform (WPT and least squares method. The results show that the algorithms implemented are efficient for estimating the quality indices of the power and the platform can be used according to the objectives established. 

  19. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths......Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...

  20. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  1. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  2. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  3. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  4. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone, NATA Diesel PM, NATA...

  5. Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radar Plan Position Indicator Scope is the collection of weather radar imagery for the period prior to the beginning of the Next Generation Radar (NEXRAD) system...

  6. Sound construction of risk indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Thomsen, Marianne

    . The purpose is to develop a novel approach for risk indicators that can support risk minimization. Risk indicators can identify risk reduction and thus yield a time trend analysis of the progress in risk level. Another option is to evaluate the current condition in relation to a reference condition defined...... indicator values for each of them that can help to find hotspots in risk level. The focus is xenobiotics, but the methodology is useful for many other risk-related problems.   References Sørensen, P.B.; Brüggemann, R; Thomsen M.; Gyldenkærne S.; Kjær C (2008). Aggregation of risk indicators for time trend...... analysis and risk minimization. In prep  ...

  7. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The eight EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone Traffic Proximity...

  8. Performance Indicators of Operating Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A list of Performance Indicators (PI) that are reported to the NRC by licensees at the end of each quarter in accordance with Inspection Manual Chapters (IMC) 0608,...

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — n 2000, the US EPA granted authority to establish up to five Estuarine Indicator Research Programs. These Programs were designed to identify, evaluate, recommend and...

  11. Fuzzy indicators for customer retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Fernández, Leslier; Nicolas, Carolina; Gil-Lafuente, Jaime; Merigó, José M

    2016-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, one cannot ignore the existence of a gap on how to measure this relationship. Following this idea, this study proposes six fuzzy key performance indicators that aims to measure customer retention and loyalty of the portfolio...

  12. Welfare indicators in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, Malin

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern regarding the welfare of laying hens worldwide and there are both ethical and economic reasons for improving their welfare. Although several different welfare indicators are used today, their ability to accurately reflect welfare status is sometimes questioned. This thesis sought to increase knowledge regarding a number of these welfare indicators by investigating whether and to what extent they were affected when layers were exposed to different stressors. Three di...

  13. [Contact lenses: indications and limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhann, T

    1979-10-04

    Contact lens wear may be indicated for cosmetic, professional, optical or therapeutic reasons. For each of these indications the arguments are given, why and when contact lenses are better than spectacle correction and which possibilities there are. Contact lens wear is contraindicated in certain eye diseases and in the case of problems of handling and hygiene. The author's preferences concerning the different contact lens materials are summarized briefly.

  14. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries'...

  15. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  16. Indicators of Information Society Measurement :

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Elwy

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university

  17. amino acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VENU KANDULA

    tor ligands in small libraries of flavone derivatives synthesized by solution phase combinatorial chemistry. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 249 481. 8. Hoult J R S, Moroney M A and Paya M 1994. Actions of flavonoids and coumarins on lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase Methods. Enzymol. 234 443. 9. Parmar V S ...

  18. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    may delegate a wide range of decision rights to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees "proxy-entrepreneurs," and ask how the firm's or-ganizational structure — its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating...

  19. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    to subordinates, who exercise derived judgment. We call these employees `proxy-entrepreneurs', and ask how the firm's organizational structure - its formal and informal systems of rewards and punishments, rules for settling disputes and renegotiating agreements, means of evaluating performance and so on - can...

  20. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    found to be multiple organ carcinogens. The aminoimidazoazaarenes are metabolically activated by hydroxylation of the exocyclic aminogroup to the N-hydroxyamino derivative. The resultant proximate mutagens often need further activation by phase II transferases for formation of reactive species that form...

  1. Gorenstein derived functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    Over any associative ring R it is standard to derive HomR(􀀀;􀀀) using projective resolutions in the rst variable, or injective resolutions in the second variable, and doing this, one obtains Extn R(􀀀;􀀀) in both cases. We examine the situation where projective an...

  2. Petroleum-derived carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacha, J.D.; Newman, J.W.; White, J.L. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The 25 typescript papers in this volume derive from an ACS symposium held at an undisclosed site and date. They are concerned with such subjects as coke, carbon composites, the carbonization process, surface area, etc., and are accompanied by a 12-page index.

  3. Indicators and Methods for Evaluating Economic, Ecosystem ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Human Well-being Index (HWBI) is a composite measure that incorporates economic, environmental, and societal well-being elements through the eight domains of connection to nature, cultural fulfillment, education, health, leisure time, living standards, safety and security, and social cohesion (USEPA 2012a; Smith et al. 2013). Twenty-eight services, represented by a collection of indicators and metrics, have been identified as influencing these domains of human well-being. By taking an inventory of stocks or measuring the results of a service, a relationship function can be derived to understand how changes in the provisioning of that service can influence the HWBI. An extensive review of existing services was performed to identify current services, indicators and metrics in use. This report describes the indicators and methods we have selected to evaluate the provisioning of economic, ecosystem, and social services related to human well-being. Provide metadata and methods for calculating services provisioning scores for HWBI modeling framework

  4. Developing a size indicator for fish populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring temporal and/or spatial variations in fish size-at-age data can often provide fisheries managers with important information about the status of fish stocks and therefore help them identify necessary changes in management policies. However, due to the multivariate nature of size-at-age data, commonly used single-age-based approaches ignore covariance between sizes of different age groups. Different results may therefore be derived when evaluating temporal variations using different age groups for the comparison. The possibility of atypical errors in size-at-age data due to ageing and measurement errors further complicates the comparison. We propose a two-step approach for developing an indicator for monitoring temporal and/or spatial variation in size-at-age data. A robust approach, minimum volume ellipsoid analysis, is used to identify possible outliers in size-at-age data. Then a weighted principal component analysis is applied to the data with the identified outliers down-weighted. An indicator is defined from the resultant principal components for monitoring temporal/spatial variations in size-at-age data. We illustrate the proposed approach with size-at-age data for cod (Gadus morhua in the northwest Atlantic, NAFO subdivision 3Ps. The overall size-at-age indicator identified shows that the pre-1980 year classes tend to have a much higher size-at-age than the post-1980 year classes.

  5. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  6. Structure-activity relationships of bumetanide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Lykke; Töllner, Kathrin; Römermann, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    derivatives in dogs and their inhibition of hNKCC2A (r(2) = 0.817; P ionic residue, for example, an anilinomethyl group, decreased inhibition of hNKCC2A, indicating that an acidic group was required for transporter inhibition. Exchange...

  7. Approximate *-derivations and approximate quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove the stability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on Banach *-algebras. We moreover prove the superstability of *-derivations and of quadratic *-derivations on C*-algebras. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 39B52; 47B47; 46L05; 39B72.

  8. Visualization of relationship between a function and its derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmelita PJANIĆ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The first and second derivatives of a function provide an enormous amount of useful information about function itself as well as of the shape of the graph of the function. Mathematics curriculum in Bosnia and Herzegovina emphasises algebraic representation of a function ant its derivatives. That implies that concept of a derivative of a function is only partialy developed. On the other hand, an important skill to develop is that of producing the graph of the derivative of a function, given the graph of the function and conversely, to producing the graph of a function, given the graph of its derivative. In this paper we describe one possibility of enhancing pupils understanding of relationship between function and its derivative using specially designed Wolfram Mathematica applet. Preliminary results of implementation of the applet during the topic Examination of functions using its derivatives, indicate that visualization support better understanding of concept of function and its derivative.

  9. Preventive Indicators for Creating Brownfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burinskienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the problem of brownfields in urban territories is successfully limited, it is a negative phenomenon of a sustainable city. Moreover, the number of recently created brownfield territories has become higher than that of the regenerated ones. Such territories reduce the quality of the social and economic setting of a city as well as visually and physically affect the life quality of city residents. Unfortunately, methods for the revitalization of brownfield land have been applied to deal with the consequences of the problem rather than to limit the problem itself. The authors of the article have investigated the aspects to be avoided to not create brownfields. The indicators that enable predicting the probability of a territory becoming a brownfield have been analyzed in this paper. Countries develop and exist under different social and economic conditions. Therefore, there is no uniform and universally accepted system of indicators for brownfield prevention that can be applied in any country or city. The authors have attempted to implement a recently developed idea of indicators for prevention under Lithuanian conditions and have selected those facilitating the identification of brownfields with an aim of identifying the most significant ones warning about the potential harm from the creation of brownfields in Lithuania. The selected indicators have been grouped, taking into account social, economic, natural, building and infrastructure settings of the city and ranked by a group of experts in urban planning. The established hierarchy of indicators in the groups of urban setting has allowed the authors to select the most significant preventive indicators for brownfields. The created system of indicators could be applied in practice as a basis for monitoring pertinent data and tracking their change.

  10. Indications for colonoscopy An analysis based on indications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indication, 'other', produced a combined yield of 66,7%; the majority of patients in this group were known to have colitis. On the basis of these findings we propose that where facilities and expertise do not allow for routine colonoscopy, some fonn ofpatient selection should be employed and we believe this selection ...

  11. Fluctuations of indicator and index microbes as indication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected physico-chemical (water temperature, pH, COD, conductivity and alkalinity) and microbiological parameters, including coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci, as 'indicators' of faecal pollution, and Salmonella, Listeria and Staphylococcus, as 'index' of the presence of potential pathogens, were ...

  12. Fluctuations of indicator and index microbes as indication of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-04

    Jul 4, 2013 ... Keywords: Irrigation water, faecal pollution, indicator and index organisms, Plankenburg and Eerste Rivers. INTRODUCTION ...... +. +. +. Pantoea sp. 50–60. -. +. +. +. Salmonella sp. 50. -. +. +. +. S. enteritidis. 74. -. +. +. -. S. typhimurium. 80–90. -. +. +. -. S. odorifera. 50–60. -. +. +. +. S. marcescens. 95. +. +.

  13. Climate indices for vulnerability assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Gunn; Baerring, Lars; Kjellstroem, Erik; Strandberg, Gustav; Rummuk ainen, Markku

    2007-08-15

    The demand is growing for practical information on climate projections and the impacts expected in different geographical regions and different sectors. It is a challenge to transform the vast amount of data produced in climate models into relevant information for climate change impact studies. Climate indices based on climate model data can be used as means to communicate climate change impact relations. In this report a vast amount of results is presented from a multitude of indices based on different regional climate scenarios. The regional climate scenarios described in this report show many similarities with previous scenarios in terms of general evolution and amplitude of future European climate change. The broad features are manifested in increases in warm and decreases in cold indices. Likewise are presented increases in wet indices in the north and dry indices in the south. Despite the extensive nature of the material presented, it does not cover the full range of possible climate change. We foresee a continued interactive process with stakeholders as well as continued efforts and updates of the results presented in the report.

  14. Design of energy management indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Tomás Dalmau García

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work has as a main goal to demostrate the viability of the energy management indicator, that will be a part of the Balanced Scorecard in the organization and the own process of calculation allows to obtain a Balanced Scorecard of energy management. It describes the executive order of the actions that have to be done to reach to the mentioned indicator, based on the selection of the selected period of time; the types of power carriers, the weight of each carrier in the structure of the consumption and the activities where they are used. With these elements several tools are used to reach to the expected results, as the bar charts, comparative tables and indices of power intensity. The indices of energy intensity are recommended as comparative elements for the contribution to the operativity and information level, meaning that not always is necessary to tie them , if not, in some cases, may be other selected indicators that may result as qualitatives type, The Cuban enterprise system uses the model Control of Consumption and Catchment Demand of fuels and lubricants (CDA 002 of the Ministry of Economy and Planning (MEP that is used in the work and it is recommended for the organizations who apply it. The study and application of this method were made in the Company of Raw materials Recovery in an experimental form.

  15. [Enteral feeding in adults: indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuchansky, C

    1991-03-11

    In this overview article the author examines successively: (1) the effects expected from enteral nutrition in adults: general and/or local nutritional effects, temporary arrest in progressive intestinal lesions, partial intestinal function replacement; (2) indications in gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal pathologies and modalities of application to each indication (route of administration, elemental, semi-elemental or polymeric nutrients, incremental or non-incremental calorie intake, necessity or lack of necessity for addition of fibres, value of ambulatory methods); (3) results according to indications: chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, notably Crohn's disease, short small bowel syndromes, fistulae and stomies, preoperative period in gastrointestinal surgery, support of heavy treatments in non-terminal cancers, hypermetabolic states, notably stress; (4) absolute or relative contraindications of enteral nutrition.

  16. Some indicators of (unsuccessful reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we set the aim to determine whether phonological awareness and short-term verbal memory are indicators of a subsequent reading acquisition. The sample consisted of 194 first graders from two primary schools in Belgrade. The results of our research showed that the most significant indicator of the subsequent (unsuccessful reading was phonological awareness. The short-term verbal memory is, to a lesser extent, an indicator of the subsequent reading acquisition defined by the time needed for reading the text and by the text comprehension. Our findings offer basis for proposing that the phonological awareness assessment should be implemented into the regular procedure of assessing child's readiness for school. In this way children in need for preventive stimulation within the inclusive programme in primary schools could be identified.

  17. Website quality indicators for consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2005-11-15

    The rating tool DISCERN was designed for use by consumers without content expertise to evaluate the quality of health information. There is some evidence that DISCERN may be a valid indicator of evidence-based website quality when applied by health professionals. However, it is not known if the tool is a valid measure of evidence-based quality when used by consumers. Since it is a lengthy instrument requiring training in its use, DISCERN may prove impractical for use by the typical consumer. It is therefore important to explore the validity of other simpler potential indicators of site quality such as Google PageRank. This study aimed to determine (1) whether the instrument DISCERN is a valid indicator of evidence-based Web content quality for consumers without specific mental health training, and (2) whether Google PageRank is an indicator of website content quality as measured by an evidence-based gold standard. This was a cross-sectional survey of depression websites using consumer and health professional raters. The main outcome measures were (1) site characteristics, (2) evidence-based quality of content as measured by evidence-based depression guidelines, (3) DISCERN scores, (4) Google PageRank, and (5) user satisfaction. There was a significant association between evidence-based quality ratings and average DISCERN ratings both for consumers (r = 0.62, P = .001) and health professionals (r = 0.80, P PageRank (r = 0.59, P = .002). However, the correlation between DISCERN scores and user satisfaction was higher than the correlation between Google PageRank and user satisfaction. DISCERN has potential as an indicator of content quality when used either by experts or by consumers. Google PageRank shows some promise as an automatic indicator of quality.

  18. THE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  19. Bayesian Sampling using Condition Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    The problem of control quality of components is considered for the special case where the acceptable failure rate is low, the test costs are high and where it may be difficult or impossible to test the condition of interest directly. Based on the classical control theory and the concept...... of condition indicators introduced by Benjamin and Cornell (1970) a Bayesian approach to quality control is formulated. The formulation is then extended to the case where the quality control is based on sampling of indirect information about the condition of the components, i.e. condition indicators...

  20. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that performance indicators in public management have unintended consequences is almost as old as performance measurement itself. But, is ‘unintended consequences’ an appropriate and insightful idea? The very term rests on an identification of intentions and assumptions about validity...... that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...

  1. CHALLENGES WHEN DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing key performance indicators (KPIs represents one step closer to the achievement of objectives and strategic vision of the organization. They are important elements of the pathway towards performance, they evaluate and indicate the level of progress, guide the organizational strategy, they can be considered even the qualitative or quantitative expression of the execution of the strategy. Building reliable and appropriate measurement systems is one of the most difficult stage in the performance evaluation process. Such systems of management will help the executives and the management teams identify and build upon the elements that create competitive advantage and opportunities for better results.

  2. Design of energy management indicator.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Tomás Dalmau García; Carlos Requejo Bravo; Roberto Fernández Collado

    2010-01-01

    This work has as a main goal to demostrate the viability of the energy management indicator, that will be a part of the Balanced Scorecard in the organization and the own process of calculation allows to obtain a Balanced Scorecard of energy management. It describes the executive order of the actions that have to be done to reach to the mentioned indicator, based on the selection of the selected period of time; the types of power carriers, the weight of each carrier in the structure of the c...

  3. Analysis of plant harvest indices for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, A.; Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P. J.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Harvest indices, which are measures of the ratio of edible to total plant weight, are redefined to include edible sugars derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose content of inedible plant components. Compositional analysis and carbohydrate contents of rapeseed, rice, soybeans, cowpea, wheat, sweet potato, white potato, and lettuce were analyzed to develop such generalized harvest indices. Cellulose conversion is shown to extend considerably the food available from plants otherwise grown for their oil and protein content in a bioregenerative life support system.

  4. Quinazolin-4-one derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, Cara A; Acker, Timothy M; Hansen, Kasper Bø

    2010-01-01

    We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives ...... were identified with 50-fold selectivity for recombinant NR2C/D-containing receptors over NR2A/B containing receptors. These compounds represent a new class of noncompetitive subunit-selective NMDA receptor antagonists.......We describe a new class of subunit-selective antagonists of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA)-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors that contain the (E)-3-phenyl-2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one backbone. The inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptor function induced by these quinazolin-4-one derivatives...

  5. 4-Aminoquinoline derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailja; Agarwal, Drishti; Sharma, Kumkum

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic quinoline derivatives continue to be considered as candidates for new drug discovery if they act against CQ-resistant strains of malaria even after the widespread emergence of resistance to CQ. In this study, we explored the activities of two series of new 4-aminoquinoline derivatives....... The ED50 values were calculated to be 2.062, 2.231, 1.431, 1.623 and 1.18 mg/kg of body weight for each of the compounds 1m, 1o, 2c, 2j and amodiaquine, respectively. Total doses of 500 mg/kg of body weight were well received. The study suggests that these new 4-aminoquinolines should be used...

  6. Essays on Derivatives Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    The field of quantitative finance has been criticized in the mainstream media lately and been accused of being one of the causes of the financial crisis. Convenient as this explanation may be, my belief is that a part of the solution to the crisis is to use more (and not less) sophisticated...... financial models, and most importantly, to be aware of their limitations. Following that belief, this thesis consists of three independent and self-contained papers, all dealing with topics in derivatives pricing. The first paper considers the pricing of traffic light options, which are appropriate...... the market for multivariate credit instruments, we take a step back and focus on single-name default modeling and introduce two new model classes for modeling of the default time of a company. Finally, in the third paper we propose a consistent pricing model for index and volatility derivatives...

  7. The Dentascanner. Technique, indications, results.; Le Dentascanner. Technique, indications, resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iffenecker, C.; Savane, S.; Jouan, E.; Benoudiba, F.; Doyon, D. [Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1995-12-31

    Radiological examination of the maxilla and mandible has been for a long time on conventional panoramic and intraoral films. The progress in imaging by the advent of CT and especially the recent coming of Dentascanner software has allowed to study precisely and life size anatomic area. Implantology has the benefit of this new method since several years. However the indications should increase on account of the quality of the information obtained. (authors). 28 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  9. Social Indicators and Library Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Agnes M.; Hall, John H. P.

    1972-01-01

    The library profession must begin to develop some meaningful and usable measures or indicators of how well libraries serve the taxpayers. It is the thesis of this article, that we do not now have any parameters that will enable us to evaluate the effectiveness of library services. (7 references) (Author/NH)

  10. Smart Indicators on Learning Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Smart Indicators on Learning Interactions. In E. Duval, R. Klamma, & M. Wolpers (Eds), Creating New Learning Experiences on a Global Scale: LNCS 4753. Second European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2007 (pp. 56-70). Berlin, Heidelberg:

  11. Indicators of malicious SSL connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, R.; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Bolzoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    Internet applications use SSL to provide data confidentiality to communicating entities. The use of encryption in SSL makes it impossible to distinguish between benign and malicious connections as the content cannot be inspected. Therefore, we propose and evaluate a set of indicators for malicious

  12. Indicators of Malicious SSL Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, Riccardo; Peter, Andreas; Everts, Maarten Hinderik; Bolzoni, D.

    Internet applications use SSL to provide data confidential- ity to communicating entities. The use of encryption in SSL makes it impossible to distinguish between benign and malicious connections as the content cannot be inspected. Therefore, we propose and evaluate a set of indicators for malicious

  13. Participatory evaluation for environmental indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goma, H.C.; Rahim, K.; Nangendo, G.; Riley, J.; Stein, A.

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research has emerged as a powerful tool to identify agro-ecosystem indicators in developing countries. Indigenous knowledge, thus generated complements scientific information to the benefit of all stakeholders. This paper demonstrates the value of participating with farmers and hunters

  14. Performance indicators for the statistical evaluation of digital image classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urso, D' G.; Menenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    A statistical procedure is proposed to evaluate the algorithms for the numerical classification of images. The approach is based on the derivation of performance indicators from measurements of signature separability and thresholding analysis. Although these measurements are not new in image

  15. National tourism indicators : historical estimates, 1986-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1997 edition, new and revised benchmarks were introduced for 1992 and 1988. The indicators are used to monitor supply, demand and employment for tourism in Canada on a timely basis. The annual tables are derived using the National Income and E...

  16. Variabilities of gallbladder contraction indices and a simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the variabilities of gallbladder contraction indices (GBCI) and derive a predictive model for gallbladder and gastric motility. Methods: The gallbladder volume and gastric antral measurements were obtained from 24 healthy male volunteers in preprandial and post-milk ...

  17. The Strategic Data Project's Strategic Performance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Lindsay C.; Fullerton, Jon; Bacher-Hicks, Andrew; Owens, Antoniya; Cohodes, Sarah R.; West, Martin R.; Glover, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Strategic Performance Indicators (SPIs) are summary measures derived from parallel, descriptive analyses conducted across educational agencies. The SPIs are designed to inform agency management and efforts to improve student outcomes. We developed the SPIs to reveal patterns common across partner agencies, to highlight exceptions to those…

  18. Using Key Performance Indicators to Drive Strategic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolence, Michael G.; Norris, Donald M.

    1994-01-01

    A nine-step method for defining and pursuing key performance indicators (KPIs), derived from a strategic planning process, is outlined, and its applications at the University of Northern Colorado and Illinois Benedictine College are described and tabulated. A chart summarizes current and projected KPIs for Illinois Benedictine College for each…

  19. Efficient Fourier based Algorithm Development for Airborne Moving Target Indication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows how the signal model that is commonly used as a starting point in multi-channel Space Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) for airborne Moving Target Indication (MTI) formally corresponds to a model that can be derived from a bi-static Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) model extended for

  20. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  1. New Indices in Scholarship Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, Erin C.; Nahata, Milap C.

    2009-01-01

    Faculty members' contributions to research and scholarship are measured by a variety of indices. Assessment also has become an integral part of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's accreditation process for professional programs. This review describes some of the newer indices available for faculty scholarship assessment. Recently described metrics include the h-index, m-quotient, g-index, h(2) index, a-index, m-index, r-index, ar index, and the creativity index. Of the newer scholarship metrics available, the h-index and m-quotient will likely have the most widespread application in the near future. However, there is no substitute for thoughtful peer review by experienced academicians as the primary method of research and scholarship assessment. PMID:19885080

  2. MEATOTOMIE MOYENNE : INDICATIONS ET RESULTATS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naso-sinusienne. Son principe est le rétablissement de la ventilation et du drainage par les voies naturelles garantis- sant le retour à la normale de la muqueuse inflammée (6,7). Son indication dans le traitement des sinusites chroniques, récidivantes et résistantes au traitement médical, revêt des aspects controversés.

  3. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  4. Spatial Variations in Salinity Stress Across a Coastal Landscape Using Vegetation Indices Derived from Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    morphological traits of Quercus ilex and Rhododendron ferrugineum in the Mediterranean region. Plant Ecol 145:157–165. doi: 10.1023/A:1009826803540...study of spring and summer leaf gas exchange and photobiology of the mediterranean trees Quercus ilex and Phillyrea latifolia. J Environ Exp Bot 319

  5. A triazole derivative as a new acid-base indicator | Numan Bulut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,2,4-triazole-5-on (BPNBAT), soluble in acetonitrile:water (1:4), was developed. The estimation of pH is possible either from the position of the absorption maxima or from the absorbance intensity at a constant wavelength. This feature allowed ...

  6. Instructions for processing of near field reflectivity test data and derivation of far field reflectivity indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, F. de; Lutgendorf, D.; Wessels, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Sound reflectivity is one of the intrinsic acoustical characteristics of noise reducing devices (NRD’s). It describes which percentage of an incident sound field is reflected back towards the opposite side of the road. The reflectivity is determined by the absorption properties of the material of

  7. Evaluation of the impact of alveolar nitrogen excretion on indices derived from multiple breath nitrogen washout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Nielsen

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF. Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored.A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC and lung clearance index (LCI measurements.Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8% in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%, and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6-13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24-49%.Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen.

  8. Criterion 6, indicator 40 : distribution of revenues derived from forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth Skog; James Howard; Rebecca Westby

    2011-01-01

    For the forestry and logging, wood products, paper products, and wood furniture industries, in 2002, of a total $72.5 billion (2005$) in wages, profits and taxes, 80% went to wages, 18% to profits and 2% to taxes; 43% was provided by paper products industries, 35% by wood products industries, 17% by wood furniture industries and 5% by forestry and logging. Revenues to...

  9. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916

  10. Narrow-band and derivative-based vegetation indices for hyperspectral data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorp, K.R.; Tian, L.F.; Yao, H.; Tang, L.

    2004-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery was collected over a soybean field in central Illinois in mid-June 2001 before canopy closure. Estimates of percent vegetation cover were generated through the processing of RGB (red, green, blue) digital images collected on the ground with an automated crop

  11. Camera traps and activity signs to estimate wild boar density and derive abundance indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, G; Coats, J; Lambert, M; Pietravalle, S; Gill, R; Cowan, D

    2017-10-12

    Populations of wild boar and feral pigs are increasing worldwide, in parallel with their significant environmental and economic impact. Reliable methods of monitoring trends and estimating abundance are needed to measure the effects of interventions on population size. The main aims of this study, carried out in five English woodlands were 1. to compare wild boar abundance indexed obtained from camera trap surveys and from activity signs and 2. to assess the precision of density estimates in relation to different densities of camera traps. For each woodland, we calculated a Passive Activity Index (PAI) based on camera trap surveys, rooting activity and wild boar trails on transects and estimated absolute densities based on camera trap surveys. PAIs obtained from different methods showed similar patterns. We found significant between-year differences in abundance of wild boar using PAIs based on camera trap surveys and on trails on transects but not on signs of rooting on transects. The density of wild boar from camera trap surveys varied between 0.7 and 7 animals/km2 . Increasing the density of camera traps above 9/km2 did not increase the precision of the estimate of wild boar density. PAIs based on number of wild boar trails and on camera trap data appear to be more sensitive to changes in population size than PAIs based on signs of rooting. For wild boar densities similar to those recorded in this study, 9 camera traps /km2 are sufficient to estimate the mean density of wild boar. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation and Prediction of Grassland Cover in Western Mongolia Using MODIS-Derived Vegetation Indices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikhail Yu Paltsyn; James P Gibbs; Liza V Iegorova; Giorgos Mountrakis

    2017-01-01

    ...) sensor, for estimating grassland cover measured at ground level on ninety-two 1 x 1 km blocks distributed from semidesert to high montane grasslands in the Sailugem Range of western Mongolia, where...

  13. Thermodynamic indicators for environmental certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzieri, Margherita; Porcelli, Marcello; Pulselli, Federico Maria

    2002-09-01

    The Earth is an open thermodynamic system, that remains in a steady state far from the equilibrium, through energy and matter exchanges with the surrounding environment. These natural constraints, which prevent the system from maximizing its entropy, are threatened by human action and our ecosystem needs urgent protection. In this viewpoint the environmental certification was born, according to international standards ISO 14001, ISO 14040, and European Regulation EMAS. These are voluntary adhesions to a program of environmental protection by companies, administrations and organizations which, starting from the respect of the existing environmental laws and regulations, decide to further improve their environmental performance. To obtain and maintain certification of a system is necessary to apply some indicators to evaluate its environmental performance and to demonstrate its progressive improvement. Here we propose to use for this purpose the thermodynamic indicators produced from energy analysis by Odum. The case study is Montalcino city (Italy) and energy indicators are used to evaluate environmental performance of this system where exist different activities, from agricultural productions, to tourism. Results show that energy analysis could become a valid standard monitoring method for environmental certification, especially in consideration of its wide application field.

  14. Characterization of atmospheric pollution by means of stochastic indicator parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, George; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    Deriving indicator parameters for determining regions at risk and reducing uncertainties is an important part of atmospheric pollution characterization. In this paper we introduce regional indicator parameters that characterize contamination levels by means of stochastic analysis. The expressions obtained are general, and can be used for different types and distributions of pollutant concentrations. We calculate indicator parameters that represent excess contamination above a threshold level specified by the environmental standards, and we study certain scaling properties of the level-crossing contours. Regional indicator parameters are expressed in terms of the pollutant probability distribution, and are calculated explicitly for specific cases. Certain properties of the indicator parameters related to scale effects are also discussed. An application involving a sulfate deposition data set is discussed, which provides valuable insight regarding stochastic indicator parameters and their importance in environmental policy and decision making.

  15. Trophodynamic indicators for an ecosystem approach to fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cury, P. M.; Shannon, L. J.; Roux, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    is evaluated to depict drastic and contrasted ecosystem changes. A few complementary indicators are suggested as needed to detect the trophodynamic impacts of fisheries and ecosystem changes. Trends in indicators are sensitive to the choice of trophic level made for certain species. Trophodynamic indicators......Acknowledging ecological interactions, such as predation, is key to an ecosystem approach to fisheries. Trophodynamic indicators are needed to measure the strength of the interactions between the different living components, and of structural ecosystem changes resulting from exploitation. We review...... trophodynamic indicators derived from models, as well as from emergent patterns such as trophic cascades and regime shifts. From 46 indicators identified in the literature, six (catch or biomass ratios, primary production required to support catch, production or consumption ratios and predation mortality...

  16. Space Derived Air Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  17. Certain legal aspects of derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloney, T J

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.

  18. Validation of data and indicators in the Danish Cholecystectomy Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Kirstine Moll; Anthonsen, Kristian; Bardram, Linda

    2009-01-01

      OBJECTIVES: In The Danish Cholecystectomy Database quality indicators are derived from clinical data in combination with administrative data from the National Patient Registry. The indicators "Length of postoperative stay £ 1 day and no readmission", "Length of stay > 3 days and/or readmission......", "Additional procedures within 30 days", "Reconstructive bile duct surgery", "Other surgery of the bile duct" and "Death within 30 days" are all derived from administrative data. This study investigates the validity of the administrative data and evaluates the association between these indicators...... and postoperative complications RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Data from 1360 medical records of patients undergoing cholecystectomy were compared to the relevant administrative data from the National Patient Registry. The medical records served as the "gold standard". The association between the individual...

  19. Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dangui Yan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H be a complex Hilbert space and B(H the collection of all linear bounded operators, A is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an H, then A is a nest, accordingly alg A={T∈B(H:TN⊆N,  ∀N∈A} is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

  20. Construction and demolition waste indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.

  1. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality...... advanced) prostate cancer....... of life, causing loss of libido, impotence, fatigue, and reduced bone mineral density. Monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen is an attractive therapeutic alternative to castration, offering effective therapy with potential quality-of-life benefits. Of the available nonsteroidal antiandrogens...

  2. [Body fat distribution: anthropometric indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, M; Albala, C

    1995-12-01

    There are two types of fat distribution in obese subjects. The abdominal, superior, android or apple shaped and the gluteo-femoral, gynecoid, inferior or pear shaped. In the former, fat is accumulated in the abdomen and in the latter, in the gluteal region. The superior distribution is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Among anthropometric measurements of fat distribution, the ratio between waist circumference measured at the level of the navel and hip circumference, measured at the level of greater trochanters, is the best indicator. Using the cutoff points of 0.8 for women and 1 for men, it has a good correlation with visceral fat.

  3. Funding climate adaptation strategies with climate derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Richard Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate adaptation requires large capital investments that could be provided not only by traditional sources like governments and banks, but also by derivatives markets. Such markets would allow two parties with different tolerances and expectations about climate risks to transact for their mutual benefit and, in so doing, finance climate adaptation. Here we calculate the price of a derivative called a European put option, based on future sea surface temperature (SST in Tasmania, Australia, with an 18 °C strike threshold. This price represents a quantifiable indicator of climate risk, and forms the basis for aquaculture industries exposed to the risk of higher SST to finance adaptation strategies through the sale of derivative contracts. Such contracts provide a real incentive to parties with different climate outlooks, or risk exposure to take a market assessment of climate change.

  4. Dissociation of inflectional and derivational morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, G; Caramazza, A

    1988-09-01

    A patient is described who makes morphological errors in spontaneous sentence production and in repetition of single words. The great majority of these errors were substitutions of inflectional affixes. The patient did make some derivational errors in repeating derived words but almost never made such errors for nonderived words. The inflectional errors for adjectives and nouns occurred mostly on the plural forms for nouns and adjectives and on the feminine form for adjectives. For verbs, inflectional errors were produced for all tense, aspect, and mood forms. There were no indications that these latter verb features constrained the form of inflectional errors produced. The results are interpreted as support for the thesis that morphological processes are located in the lexicon but that inflectional and derivational processes constitute autonomous subcomponents of the lexicon.

  5. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  6. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  7. Food insecurity measurement and indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez-Escamilla

    Full Text Available The United Nations define food security as "People having at all times, physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life." There are five methods that are commonly applied in national surveys that can be used to assess food insecurity. Of these, four are indirect or derivative measures of food insecurity (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization method, household expenditure surveys, dietary intake assessment and anthropometry. The only method that represents a fundamental or direct measure of food insecurity is the one based on experience-based food insecurity scales. All the methods complement each other and the method of choice depends on the question being answered and the economic and logistical resources available to collect valid data. All the methods have serious measurement error issues that can be reduced by fully understanding the principles underlying them and the use of highly trained and standardized research field workers. As shown in Brazil, the use of experience-based food insecurity measurement scales for mapping, targeting, and understanding the determinants and consequences of food insecurity is very promising. Thus, we recommend the Latin American and Caribbean Region to work towards the adoption of a single regional module that can be adapted to the local contexts based on qualitative cognitive research followed by quantitative confirmation of the scale's psychometric properties. The Brazilian experience-based food insecurity measurement project is likely to provide useful insights to other countries in the region.

  8. Davey-Stewartson Equation with Fractional Coordinate Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jafari

    2013-01-01

    fractional derivatives for the systems under consideration are discussed. Furthermore, comparisons indicate that there is a very good agreement between the solutions of homotopy analysis method and the exact solutions in terms of accuracy.

  9. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  10. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Menière's disease (MD), vestibular migraine (VM), and phobic postural vertigo (PPV). Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research. PMID:20973968

  11. Are biodiversity indices of spontaneous grass covers in olive orchards good indicators of soil degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, E. V.; Arroyo, C.; Lora, A.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Gómez, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous grass covers are an inexpensive soil erosion control measure in olive orchards. Olive farmers allow grass to grow on sloping terrain to comply with the basic environmental standards derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, to date there are very few studies assessing the environmental quality and extent of such covers. In this study, we described and compared the biodiversity indicators associated to herbaceous vegetation in two contrasting olive orchards in order to evaluate its relevance and quality. In addition, biodiversity patterns and their relationships with environmental factors such as soil type and properties, precipitation, topography and soil management were analyzed. Different grass cover biodiversity indices were evaluated in two olive orchard catchments under conventional tillage and no tillage with grass cover, during 3 hydrological years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples ha-1) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shannon's and Pielou's indices. Sorensen's index obtained in the two olive orchard catchments showed notable differences in composition, probably linked with the different site conditions. The catchment with the best site conditions (deeper soil and higher precipitation), with average annual soil losses over 10 t ha-1 and a more intense management, presented the highest biodiversity indices. In absolute terms, the diversity indices were reasonably high in both catchments, despite the fact that agricultural activity usually severely limits the landscape and the variety of species. Finally, a significantly higher content of organic matter in the first 10 cm of soil was found in the catchment with the worst site conditions, average annual soil losses of 2 t ha-1 and the least intense management. Therefore, the biodiversity indicators associated to weeds were not found to be

  12. WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  13. Elevation Derivatives for National Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) is a seamless, nationwide, multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) hydrologic database derived from a version of...

  14. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality...... of life, causing loss of libido, impotence, fatigue, and reduced bone mineral density. Monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen is an attractive therapeutic alternative to castration, offering effective therapy with potential quality-of-life benefits. Of the available nonsteroidal antiandrogens...... with castration, in terms of sexual interest and physical capacity, in patients with either M0 and M1 stage disease. Data from a small subgroup of patients with stage M0 disease suggest that bicalutamide may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis compared with castration. Long-term therapy with bicalutamide 150-mg...

  15. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  16. Platelet indices in SGA newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiluk, A; Dabrowska, M; Osada, J; Jasinska, E; Laudanski, T; Redzko, S

    2011-01-01

    The current study objective was to compare blood platelet indices in full-term small-for-gestational-age newborns (SGA) and full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns (AGA). We introduced to our study 61 SGA newborns (31 females and 30 males) and 70 eutrophic infants (32 females and 38 males). The SGA newborns were divided into two groups: those weighing less than the 5th centile: 35 infants (16 females and 19 males) and those between the 5th and 10th centiles: 26 infants (15 females and 11 males). Platelet indices were estimated in blood samples collected from the umbilical artery. SGA demonstrated a decreased count of blood platelets (238×103/μ) as compared with AGA (286×103/μL), p=0.0001. Platelet hematocrit (PTC) also showed differences in both groups (SGA=0.19% vs. AGA=0.22%; p=0.0005). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was higher in SGA (8.25fl) as compared with AGA (7.84fl); p=0.008. Large platelet count (LPLT) was higher in AGA 6.26% vs. SGA=4.75%; p=0.01. Platelet distribution width (PDW) was found to be nearly the same (SGA=47%, AGA=46%). PDW was higher in SGA newborns SGA infants between the 5th and 10th centiles (52%); p=0.008. A decreased blood platelet count, platelet hematocrit and large metabolically active platelet count, which in addition to reduced synthesis and excessive consumption of coagulation factors in states of hiperclotting is characteristic of IUGR, enhances the possibility of bleeding complications and increases the risk of infections. From a clinical point of view, it is important to take into consideration the degree of intrauterine hypotrophy during the evaluation of hemostatic disorders.

  17. Biological indicators of chrysotile exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, B W

    1994-08-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is retained in lung tissue, where it may be used as a marker of exposure. Studies include analysis of sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but principally lung parenchyma from autopsy or surgically resected specimens. Asbestos bodies form on chrysotile fibres but are generally not a good indicator of human exposure to chrysotile because of their greater probability of formation on amphiboles. Chrysotile fibre analyses in lung have advantages and limitations. Chrysotile concentration is related to the level of environmental and occupational exposure, but in the latter situation owing to deposition, fibre alteration and clearance cumulative exposure and interval between end-exposure and death clearly affect results. Autopsy case series are biased toward increased proportions of asbestos-related diseases as compared to epidemiological cohort data. Analytical problems include potential contamination by chrysotile at autopsy, from fixatives, from post-fixative processing and in the analytical laboratory itself. These may have greatest effect in studies of individuals with low exposure, for tissue other than lung, and for short chrysotile fibres. Selection of control subjects should be contemporaneous with that of cases, and control subjects should fully reflect the hospital population at the time of case death. Limited data are available on fibre analysis in pleural tissue. More are needed. Issues requiring attention include avoidance of contamination, selection of controls, and sample site selection (parietal pleura, or tumour or plaque). For mesothelioma, two case-control studies of lung fibre burden show the principal relationship to be with long amphiboles, but some methodological problems exist. Lung cancer shows no such fibre-type differences. Asbestosis seems to be associated with long-fibre chrysotile and tremolite in one study and short fibres in others. Overall, lung retained dose is a useful indicator of chrysotile exposure if used

  18. Experts’ understanding of partial derivatives using the partial derivative machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roundy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. In this paper, we report on an initial study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering, and mathematics. We report on the central research question of how disciplinary experts understand partial derivatives, and how their concept images of partial derivatives differ, with a focus on experimentally measured quantities. Using the partial derivative machine (PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context without a known functional form. In particular, we investigated which representations were cued by the experts’ interactions with the PDM. Whereas the physicists and engineers were quick to use measurements to find a numeric approximation for a derivative, the mathematicians repeatedly returned to speculation as to the functional form; although they were comfortable drawing qualitative conclusions about the system from measurements, they were reluctant to approximate the derivative through measurement. On a theoretical front, we found ways in which existing frameworks for the concept of derivative could be expanded to include numerical approximation.

  19. Algae Derived Biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahan, Kauser [Rowan Univ., Glassboro, NJ (United States)

    2015-03-31

    One of the most promising fuel alternatives is algae biodiesel. Algae reproduce quickly, produce oils more efficiently than crop plants, and require relatively few nutrients for growth. These nutrients can potentially be derived from inexpensive waste sources such as flue gas and wastewater, providing a mutual benefit of helping to mitigate carbon dioxide waste. Algae can also be grown on land unsuitable for agricultural purposes, eliminating competition with food sources. This project focused on cultivating select algae species under various environmental conditions to optimize oil yield. Membrane studies were also conducted to transfer carbon di-oxide more efficiently. An LCA study was also conducted to investigate the energy intensive steps in algae cultivation.

  20. Dynamic Stability Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Pitching Rotations From Table 3-1Error! Reference source not found.for the pitch-rate characteristic motion  02 cos 1 cos( )a Uz q t      3-3 For...variables can be neglected. 3. All derivatives with respect to the rates-of-change of the motion variables may be neglected except uX  , uZ  , uM  , wX...sin( ) cos( ) u uZ Z Zu U         and 0cos( )v vY Y Yv U        The remaining relationships are obtained in the same manner and are

  1. SEMANTIC DERIVATION OF BORROWINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigapova, F.F.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author carried out the contrastive analysis of the word спикер borrowed into Russian from English and the English word speaker. The findings of the analysis include confirm (1 different derivational abilities and functions of the borrowed word and the native word; (2 distinctive features in the definitions, i.e. semantic structures, registered in monolingual non-abridged dictionaries; (3 heterogeneous parameters of frequencies recorded in the National Corpus of the Russian language and the British National Corpus; (4 absence of bilingual equivalent collocations with words спикер and speaker. The collocations with words studied revealed new lexical and connotative senses in the meaning of the word. Relevance of the study conducted is justified by the new facts revealed about the semantic adaptation of the borrowed word in the system of the Russian language and its paradigmatic and syntagmatic connections in the system of the recipient language.

  2. On Q-derived polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Stroeker (Roel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their

  3. On Q-derived polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Stroeker (Roel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA Q-derived polynomial is a univariate polynomial, defined over the rationals, with the property that its zeros, and those of all its derivatives are rational numbers. There is a conjecture that says that Q-derived polynomials of degree 4 with distinct roots for themselves and all their

  4. Staging of keratoconus indices regarding tomography, topography, and biomechanical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebels, Susanne; Eppig, Timo; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Cayless, Alan; Seitz, Berthold; Langenbucher, Achim

    2015-04-01

    To derive limits of metric keratoconus indices for classification into keratoconus stages. Validity and reliability analysis of diagnostic tools. A total of 126 patients from the keratoconus center of Homburg/Saar were evaluated with respect to Amsler criteria, using Pentacam (Keratoconus Index [KI], Topographic Keratoconus Classification [TKC]), Topographic Modeling System (Smolek/Klyce, Klyce/Maeda), and Ocular Response Analyzer (Keratoconus Match Probability [KMP], Keratoconus Match Index [KMI]). Mean value, standard deviation, 90% confidence interval, and the Youden J index for definition of the thresholds were evaluated. For separation of keratoconus stages 0/1/2/3/4 we derived the following optimum thresholds: for KI 1.05/1.15/1.31/1.49 and for KMI 0.77/0.32/-0.08/-0.3. For Smolek/Klyce and Klyce/Maeda high standard deviations and overlapping confidence intervals were found; therefore no discrete thresholds could be defined. Nevertheless, for them we still found a good sensitivity and specificity in discriminating between healthy (stage 0) and keratoconus (stages 2-4) eyes in comparison with the other indices. We derived thresholds for the metric keratoconus indices KI and KMI, which allow classification of keratoconus stages. These now need to be validated in clinical use. Smolek/Klyce and Klyce/Maeda were not sufficiently sensitive to allow classification into individual stages, but these indices did show a good specificity and sensitivity in discriminating between keratoconus and healthy eyes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. OTC Derivatives and Global Economic Activity: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Bodnar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available That the global market for derivatives has expanded beyond recognition is well known. What is not know is how this market interacts with economic activity. We provide the first empirical characterization of interdependencies between OECD economic activity and the global OTC derivatives market. To this end, we apply a vector-error correction model to OTC derivatives disaggregated across instruments and counterparties. The results indicate that with one exception, the heterogeneity of OTC contracts is too pronounced to be reliably summarized by our measures of economic activity. The one exception is interest-rate derivatives held by Other Financial Institutions.

  6. Quantifying landscape resilience using vegetation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, I. M. S.; Gergel, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Landscape resilience refers to the ability of systems to adapt to and recover from disturbance. In pastoral landscapes, degradation can be measured in terms of increased desertification and/or shrub encroachment. In many countries across Central Asia, the use and resilience of pastoral systems has changed markedly over the past 25 years, influenced by centralized Soviet governance, private property rights and recently, communal resource governance. In Kyrgyzstan, recent governance reforms were in response to the increasing degradation of pastures attributed to livestock overgrazing. Our goal is to examine and map the landscape-level factors that influence overgrazing throughout successive governance periods. Here, we map and examine some of the spatial factors influencing landscape resilience in agro-pastoral systems in the Kyrgyzstan Republic where pastures occupy >50% of the country's area. We ask three questions: 1) which mechanisms of pasture degradation (desertification vs. shrub encroachment), are detectable using remote sensing vegetation indices?; 2) Are these degraded pastures associated with landscape features that influence herder mobility and accessibility (e.g., terrain, distance to other pastures)?; and 3) Have these patterns changed through successive governance periods? Using a chronosequence of Landsat imagery (1999-2014), NDVI and other VIs were used to identify trends in pasture condition during the growing season. Least-cost path distances as well as graph theoretic indices were derived from topographic factors to assess landscape connectivity (from villages to pastures and among pastures). Fieldwork was used to assess the feasibility and accuracy of this approach using the most recent imagery. Previous research concluded that low herder mobility hindered pasture use, thus we expect the distance from pasture to village to be an important predictor of pasture condition. This research will quantify the magnitude of pastoral degradation and test

  7. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments

  8. Indicators of Evidence for Bioequivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Morgenthaler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Some equivalence tests are based on two one-sided tests, where in many applications the test statistics are approximately normal. We define and find evidence for equivalence in Z-tests and then one- and two-sample binomial tests as well as for t-tests. Multivariate equivalence tests are typically based on statistics with non-central chi-squared or non-central F distributions in which the non-centrality parameter λ is a measure of heterogeneity of several groups. Classical tests of the null λ ≥ λ 0 versus the equivalence alternative λ < λ 0 are available, but simple formulae for power functions are not. In these tests, the equivalence limit λ 0 is typically chosen by context. We provide extensions of classical variance stabilizing transformations for the non-central chi-squared and F distributions that are easy to implement and which lead to indicators of evidence for equivalence. Approximate power functions are also obtained via simple expressions for the expected evidence in these equivalence tests.

  9. First Reformulated Zagreb Indices of Some Classes of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kaladevi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A topological index of a graph is a parameter related to the graph; it does not depend on labeling or pictorial representation of the graph. Graph operations plays a vital role to analyze the structure and properties of a large graph which is derived from the smaller graphs. The Zagreb indices are the important topological indices found to have the applications in Quantitative Structure Property Relationship(QSPR and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship(QSAR studies as well. There are various study of different versions of Zagreb indices. One of the most important Zagreb indices is the reformulated Zagreb index which is used in QSPR study.In this paper, we obtain the first reformulated Zagreb indices of some derived graphs such as double graph, extended double graph, thorn graph, subdivision vertex corona graph, subdivision graph and triangle parallel graph. In addition, we compute the first reformulated Zagreb indices of two important transformation graphs such as the generalized transformation graph and generalized Mycielskian graph.

  10. Mute swans: Natural (?) environmental indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the Chesapeake Bay's population of feral mute swans (Cygnus olar), coupled with a dramatic Bay-wide decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), has fueled much of the current debate surrounding the need for a management plan to protect the aquatic food resources that are critical to many species native to the Bay. Crucial to this decision process is a sound understanding of the ecological ramifications of having the year-round presence of a large, nonnative, aquatic herbivore on the Bay. Ultimately, this will require a quantitative assessment of the ecological harm currently posed by mute swans before a biologically defensible management strategy can be developed. Unfortunately, very little new information specific to the Bay's mute swan population has been gathered since Reese first studied them in the late 1960s and 1970s. While the debate over what to do about the rapidly expanding mute swan population continues, there is much that can be gained from study of this beautiful intruder. Several recent studies of the feeding habits of mute swans have shown that mutes can provide a unique barometer, or indicator, of environmental conditions. Because of their reliance on SAV as a primary food source, monitoring the density of swans utilizing a particular area can give some indication of the status of the area's grass beds. This phenomenon was clearly demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when there was a dramatic decline in the number of swans observed around the Eastern Neck NWR, a traditional population stronghold. The shift in bird use was precipitated by a rapid, large-scale collapse of the area's aquatic grass beds, possibly the result of a prolonged drought. During the winter of 2000/2001, a similar ecological assessment was conducted by comparing body weights of swans collected from Tangier Sound, an area with relatively abundant grass beds, and swans from the waters adjacent to Eastern Neck Island. Swans weights tended to reflect the

  11. EFFECTIVE INDICATORS FOR SCIENCE INTERNATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo

    Full Text Available Objective: To review of concepts and actions that aim to analyze the effects of internationalization of science and education, with emphasis in the medical field and its basement in development policies adopted by nations, exploring the potential for international interdisciplinary cooperation of each laboratory, department, university or institute. Method: Search of indicators to assess the degree of internationalization of universities and research institutes in several interconnected levels: organizational, regional, sectoral and global, and policy-making in science, technology innovation and higher education. Result: Scientific research is still carried out individually, but is now much more closely integrated with other social processes. The scientist is no longer a stranger who is allowed to surrender to his hobby to do what it wants. Internationalization of research and medical education, although it is among the topics of greatest need, as the globalized world, is difficult activity to be assessed. The leaders seem to have understood that the knowledge societies, leading to economic policy based on knowledge, can result in economic and social progress of nations. This fact has motivated increasingly the incentive to actions aimed at addressing global problems (eg health, climate change by funding research that generates new knowledge. Conclusion: The consensus is that the internationalization of science is desirable and necessary for the sustainable development of nations. However it cannot be done only by encouraging and promoting the outward students and researchers abroad. It is necessary, in addition, offer conditions to foreign researchers and students teachers to work in collaboration with Brazilian and raise the country to international scientific standards.

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: indications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Alex

    2014-01-01

    At present, it is still debated whether the focus of treatment in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) should be directed toward a symptomatic or histological response, or even toward a combination of both. This question cannot be answered as long as we have no solid data evaluating the long-term consequences of untreated symptoms and untreated inflammation. Nevertheless, today there are at least three established reasons to treat patients with clinically and histologically active EoE. First, dysphagia has a substantial negative impact on the patient's daily life. Despite the fact that patients often cope with this symptom and accept even marked restrictions in their nutritional habits, they usually experience a marked enhancement in quality of life under treatment. Second, untreated EoE harbors the risk of long-lasting food impactions. There is evidence that this unpleasant, unforeseeable and even risky incident can be prevented by efficient treatment of the eosinophilic inflammation. Third, it has been demonstrated in several clinical studies as well as in animal models that unbridled eosinophilic inflammation leads to a so-called remodeling of the esophagus with wall thickening, stiffness of the organ and stricture. Prevention of esophageal damage caused by tissue remodeling is therefore another reason to strongly advocate a consequential treatment. Finally, there is increasing evidence that untreated EoE might be a risk factor for acute infection of the esophagus with herpes simplex virus (HSV), leading to a severe ulcerative and extremely painful esophagitis. Prevention of HSV esophagitis might therefore be a fourth indication for treating EoE. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hyperlanguage, derivation and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marta Furlanetto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has as its background a research on the trends of derivation in cultivated Brazilian Portuguese, whose partial results have allowed a reflection on the synthesis-theme: the functioning of a hyperlanguage. A hyperlanguage (notion developed by Sylvain Auroux, serves subjects, spatially and temporally, with certain linguistic capacities, immersed in a world in which there are, among other things, technical artifacts as grammars and dictionaries, which have a descriptive, but also a normative role. The result is a constant dispute between stabilization and destabilization (centripetal and centrifugal forces, in Bakhtin. By also using the play structure/event, according to the discursive semantics by Michel Pêcheux, my goal is to further reflect on the issues raised, approaching the historical-discursive provisionality of the identities in the production of meaning effects. From the practical standpoint, I point to the emergence of heterogeneous genres, as those which exploit humor, with indefinite authorship, and I propose the discursive reading of a sample.

  14. Piroxicam derivatives THz classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczewski, Lukasz A.; Grzelczak, Michal P.; Nowak, Kacper; Szlachetko, Bogusław; Plinska, Stanislawa; Szczesniak-Siega, Berenika; Malinka, Wieslaw; Plinski, Edward F.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we report a new approach to linking the terahertz spectral shapes of drug candidates having a similar molecular structure to their chemical and physical parameters. We examined 27 newly-synthesized derivatives of a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Piroxicam used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis and chemoprevention of colon cancer. The testing was carried out by means of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS). Using chemometric techniques we evaluated their spectral similarity in the terahertz range and attempted to link the position on the principal component analysis (PCA) score map to the similarity of molecular descriptors. A simplified spectral model preserved 75% and 85.1% of the variance in 2 and 3 dimensions respectively, compared to the input 1137. We have found that in 85% of the investigated samples a similarity of the physical and chemical parameters corresponds to a similarity in the terahertz spectra. The effects of data preprocessing on the generated maps are also discussed. The technique presented can support the choice of the most promising drug candidates for clinical trials in pharmacological research.

  15. Do Scientometric Indices Require Revision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2014-09-01

    that in a scientific domain, more cited articles are in a higher scientific rank, while there are articles that are analyzed and reviewed by researchers due to presenting a contradictory subject, and are frequently cited in spite of their inappropriate scientific value, although these citations are not indicative of their higher quality. The impact factor of journals can also make the comparison and ranking of researchers problematic. It is burdensome to compare two researchers with equal h index but different impact factor of journals in which they have published their papers. However, it should be noted that there are differences between two researchers with similar h index in terms of scientific life, number of publications, total number of citations and impact factor of journals in which their articles have been published. Further, the authors of an article do not have the same role and collaboration in publishing the paper. Imagine a researcher with 100 articles and h=15 has been the corresponding author only in 5 articles, but coauthor in the rest of articles. It seems that scientific index for the corresponding author of each article is more important than allocating similar credits to all authors. Nowadays, h index is extensively used to measure the scientific status of researchers, journals, departments and universities. In some academic centers, however, it is incorrectly used to compare the researchers in different majors. Since the introduction of this index, various variants have been prompted upon it; thereby, pre¬senting different variations such as a, g, m and r indices (3. Although, h index apparently differentiates the prominent researchers from those who have merely published many papers, it cannot reveal a perfect view of the scientific output of a researcher. Application of a scientometric criterion alone cannot determine the precise and valid scientific rank of the researchers. Thus, a proper combination of criteria seems necessary. Furthermore

  16. Evaluation of Stony Coral Indicators for Coral Reef ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonies of reef-building stony corals at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of coral condition were derived from these measurements and assessed for their response to gradients of human disturbance. The purpose of the study was to identify indicators that could be used for regulatory assessments under authority of the Clean Water Act--this requires that indicators distinguish anthropogenic disturbances from natural variation. Stony coral indicators were tested for correlation with human disturbance across gradients located on three different sides of the island. At the most intensely disturbed location, five of eight primary indicators were highly correlated with distance from the source of disturbance: Coral taxa richness, average colony size, the coefficient of variation of colony size (an indicator of colony size heterogeneity), total topographic coral surface area, and live coral surface area. An additional set of exploratory indicators related to rarity, reproductive and spawning mode, and taxonomic identity were also screened for association with disturbance at the same location. For the other two locations, there were no significant changes in indicator values and therefore no discernible effects of human activity. Coral indicators demonstrated sufficient precision to detect levels of change that would be applicable in a regio

  17. A comparison of green space indicators for epidemiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Richard; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Richardson, Elizabeth A

    2011-10-01

    The potential for natural environments to be salutogenic has received growing interest from epidemiologists, but there has been no critical examination of the extent to which associations between green space and health might vary according to the indicator of green space coverage used. Three different indicators of green space coverage were derived for a set of 268 small areas in four cities within Britain. The indicators had different origins and provided a spectrum of sensitivity from larger spaces only, through to ambient greenery. Two indicators reproducible for anywhere in Europe were included. Agreement between the indicators on the quantity of green space in a small area, and their independent association with measures of mortality and self-reported morbidity, were compared. Overall, the indicators showed relatively close overall agreement (all r(2)>0.89, pspaces only found less green space in areas of socioeconomic deprivation than the other two. Despite this difference, all indicators showed similar protective associations with the risk of mortality and self-reported morbidity suggesting that larger green spaces may be more important for health effects than smaller spaces. Associations between green space indicator and health were not sensitive to indicator origin and type. This raises the possibility of trans-European epidemiological studies. Larger green spaces may be the most important for health effects, but may also be less prevalent in more deprived areas.

  18. Halogenated coumarin derivatives as novel seed protectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, N; Windorski, J; Bluml, E

    2008-01-01

    Development of new and improved antifungal compounds that are target-specific is backed by a strong Federal, public and commercial mandate. Many plant-derived chemicals have proven fungicidal properties, including the coumarins (1,2-Benzopyrone) found in a variety of plants such as clover, sweet woodruff and grasses. Preliminary research has shown the coumarins to be a highly active group of molecules with a wide range of antimicrobial activity against both fungi and bacteria. It is believed that these cyclic compounds behave as natural pesticidal defence molecules for plants and they represent a starting point for the exploration of new derivative compounds possessing a range of improved antifungal activity. Within this study, derivatives of coumarin that were modified with halogenated side groups were screened for their antifungal activity against a range of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi. Fungi included in this in vitro screen included Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot), Phytophthora spp. (damping off and seedling rot), Rhizoctonia spp. (damping off and root rot) and Pythium spp. (seedling blight), four phylogenetically diverse and economically important plant pathogens. Studies indicate that these halogenated coumarin derivatives work very effectively in vitro to inhibit fungal growth and some coumarin derivatives have higher antifungal activity and stability as compared to the original coumarin compound alone. The highly active coumarin derivatives are brominated, iodinated and chlorinated compounds and results suggest that besides being highly active, very small amounts can be used to achieve LD100 rates. In addition to the in vitro fungal inhibition assays, results of polymer seed coating compatibility and phytotoxicity testing using these compounds as seed treatments will also be reported. These results support additional research in this area of natural pesticide development.

  19. The role of forest stand structure as biodiversity indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tian; Hedblom, Marcus; Emilsson, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    species composition and canopy stratification. Using data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden and General Linear Mixed Model, plant species diversity (Shannon diversity index, SHDI) and composition (Sørensen-Dice index, SDI) were tested between 26 different stand structure types and nine...... be achieved if indicators are derived from existing data. In this study, a model for classifying forest stand structures was developed and tested as an indicator of overall plant species diversity at stand level. The model combines four stand structure parameters: canopy coverage, age of canopy trees, tree...

  20. Indic Lexicon in the English/Creole of Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Winer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Examines the contemporary lexical component of the English/Creole of Trinidad (TEC that is derived from languages of India. Author focuses on the TEC as spoken among Indo-Trinidadians, but also pays attention to Indic words used in the TEC of Afro-Trinidadians and other groups. Author sketches the history of Indian immigration into Trinidad, explaining how most came from the Bihar province in northern India and spoke Bhojpuri, rather than (closely related Hindi, and how in the 20th c. Indian languages were replaced by English with education. She further focuses on retained Indic words incorporated in current-day TEC, and found 1844 of such words in usage. She discusses words misassigned locally as Indian-derived, but actually from other (European or African languages. Then, she describes most of the Indo-TEC lexicon, categorizing items by their semantic-cultural domain, with major domains for Indian-derived words: religious practice, music, dance and stickfighting, food preparation, agriculture, kinship, and behaviour or appearance. Further, the author discusses to what degree Indic words have been mainstreamed within the non-Indian population of Trinidad, sometimes via standard English, sometimes directly assimilated into TEC, and made salient through the press or street food selling.

  1. Enabling Searches on Wavelengths in a Hyperspectral Indices Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñuela, F.; Cerra, D.; Müller, R.

    2017-10-01

    Spectral indices derived from hyperspectral reflectance measurements are powerful tools to estimate physical parameters in a non-destructive and precise way for several fields of applications, among others vegetation health analysis, coastal and deep water constituents, geology, and atmosphere composition. In the last years, several micro-hyperspectral sensors have appeared, with both full-frame and push-broom acquisition technologies, while in the near future several hyperspectral spaceborne missions are planned to be launched. This is fostering the use of hyperspectral data in basic and applied research causing a large number of spectral indices to be defined and used in various applications. Ad hoc search engines are therefore needed to retrieve the most appropriate indices for a given application. In traditional systems, query input parameters are limited to alphanumeric strings, while characteristics such as spectral range/ bandwidth are not used in any existing search engine. Such information would be relevant, as it enables an inverse type of search: given the spectral capabilities of a given sensor or a specific spectral band, find all indices which can be derived from it. This paper describes a tool which enables a search as described above, by using the central wavelength or spectral range used by a given index as a search parameter. This offers the ability to manage numeric wavelength ranges in order to select indices which work at best in a given set of wavelengths or wavelength ranges.

  2. EFFECTIVE INDICATORS FOR SCIENCE INTERNATIONALIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Melo, José Renan da

    2015-01-01

    To review of concepts and actions that aim to analyze the effects of internationalization of science and education, with emphasis in the medical field and its basement in development policies adopted by nations, exploring the potential for international interdisciplinary cooperation of each laboratory, department, university or institute. Search of indicators to assess the degree of internationalization of universities and research institutes in several interconnected levels: organizational, regional, sectoral and global, and policy-making in science, technology innovation and higher education. Scientific research is still carried out individually, but is now much more closely integrated with other social processes. The scientist is no longer a stranger who is allowed to surrender to his hobby to do what it wants. Internationalization of research and medical education, although it is among the topics of greatest need, as the globalized world, is difficult activity to be assessed. The leaders seem to have understood that the knowledge societies, leading to economic policy based on knowledge, can result in economic and social progress of nations. This fact has motivated increasingly the incentive to actions aimed at addressing global problems (eg health, climate change) by funding research that generates new knowledge. The consensus is that the internationalization of science is desirable and necessary for the sustainable development of nations. However it cannot be done only by encouraging and promoting the outward students and researchers abroad. It is necessary, in addition, offer conditions to foreign researchers and students teachers to work in collaboration with Brazilian and raise the country to international scientific standards. Apresentar revisão dos conceitos e ações que objetivam analisar os efeitos da internacionalização da ciência e da educação, com ênfase na área médica e seu embasamento nas políticas de desenvolvimento adotadas pelas na

  3. Could a B-1 cell derived phagocyte "be one" of the peritoneal macrophages during LPS-driven inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Popi

    Full Text Available The inflammatory response is driven by signals that recruit and elicit immune cells to areas of tissue damage or infection. The concept of a mononuclear phagocyte system postulates that monocytes circulating in the bloodstream are recruited to inflamed tissues where they give rise to macrophages. A recent publication demonstrated that the large increase in the macrophages observed during infection was the result of the multiplication of these cells rather than the recruitment of blood monocytes. We demonstrated previously that B-1 cells undergo differentiation to acquire a mononuclear phagocyte phenotype in vitro (B-1CDP, and we propose that B-1 cells could be an alternative origin for peritoneal macrophages. A number of recent studies that describe the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of B-1 cells in vitro and in vivo support this hypothesis. Based on these findings, we further investigated the differentiation of B-1 cells into phagocytes in vivo in response to LPS-induced inflammation. Therefore, we investigated the role of B-1 cells in the composition of the peritoneal macrophage population after LPS stimulation using osteopetrotic mice, BALB/Xid mice and the depletion of monocytes/macrophages by clodronate treatment. We show that peritoneal macrophages appear in op/op((-/- mice after LPS stimulation and exhibit the same Ig gene rearrangement (VH11 that is often found in B-1 cells. These results strongly suggest that op/op((-/- peritoneal "macrophages" are B-1CDP. Similarly, the LPS-induced increase in the macrophage population was observed even following monocyte/macrophage depletion by clodronate. After monocyte/macrophage depletion by clodronate, LPS-elicited macrophages were observed in BALB/Xid mice only following the transfer of B-1 cells. Based on these data, we confirmed that B-1 cell differentiation into phagocytes also occurs in vivo. In conclusion, the results strongly suggest that B-1 cell derived phagocytes are a component of

  4. The changing graduate labour market: analysis using a new indicator of graduate jobs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Green, Francis; Henseke, Golo

    2016-01-01

    .... Using a novel statistically derived indicator of graduate jobs, based on job skill requirements in three-digit occupations obtained from the British Skills and Employment Survey series, we analyse...

  5. Acute hemodialysis effects on doppler echocardiographic indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional echocardiographic (ECHO parameters of systolic and diastolic func-tion of the left ventricular (LV have been shown to be load dependent. However, the impact of pre-load reduction on tissue Doppler (TD parameters of LV function is incompletely understood. To evaluate the effect of a single hemodialysis (HD session on LV systolic and diastolic function using pulsed Doppler echocardiography and pulsed tissue Doppler imaging (TDI, we studied 81chronic HD patients (40 males; mean age 52.4 ± 16.4 years with these tools. ECHO parameters were obtained 30 min before and 30 min after HD. Fluid volume removed by HD was 1640 ± 730 cm [3] . HD led to reduction in LV end-diastolic volume (P <0.001, end-systolic volume (P <0.001, left atrium area (P <0.001, peak early (E-wave trans-mitral flow velocity (P <0.001, the ratio of early to late Doppler velocities of diastolic mitral inflow (P <0.001 and aortic time velocity integral (P <0.001. No significant change in peak S velocity of pulmonary vein flow after HD was noted. Early and late diastolic (E′ TDI velocities and the ratio of early to late TDI diastolic velocities (E′/A′ on the lateral side of the mitral annulus decreased signi-ficantly after HD (P = 0.013; P = 0.007 and P = 0.008, respectively. Velocity of flow progres-sion (Vp during diastole was not affected by pre-load reduction. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure and the diameter of the inferior vena cava decreased significantly (P <0.001 and P <0.001, respectively after HD. We conclude that most of the Doppler-derived indices of diastolic function are pre-load-dependent and velocity of flow progression was minimally affected by pre-load reduction in HD patients.

  6. [Kidney spiral CT. Indication, method, results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, R; Hundt, W; Breiteneder, T; Beilicke, M; Reiser, M

    1999-05-01

    The introduction on spiral computed tomography (spiral CT) has vastly enriched the methodological diversity of computer-tomographic scans. It allows for the recording of different perfusion or excretion stages of the kidney parenchyma of the urine draining paths by carrying out long-distance, phase-identical multiple examinations of the retroperitoneum. The description of the findings which are characterized by their local and contrasts behavior is possible. The following report describes the indications and technological process of kidney spiral CT using kidney-typical intravenous contrast media. Special emphasis is put on the advantages and limits of multiple phase spiral CT. Decisive preconditions are: 1. specific clinical query, 2. selection of the corresponding phase contrasts of the kidneys and uretra or bladder, 3. exact technical and temporal adjustment of the acquisition parameters. Scanning times are in the range of seconds. The overall examination can be carried out quick and without any major strain on the part of the patient. A sound proof and a general differentiation of focal kidney lesions can be derived from the acquired data. This is also true for kidneys and ureters findings. Bladder findings can be localized and differentiated according to stage. More than two "spiral acquisitions" should be carried out with re-straint taking exposure to radiation into account. Due to the sound registration of focal lesions, its capability of reproduction and its short-time examination, the spiral CT of the kidneys can be said to be the most effective current scanning method of the retroperitoneum following clinical examinations and sonography.

  7. The effect of grazing intensity and supplementation on performance, stress indicators and metabolic profiles of finishing lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Ramos Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of grazing intensity (GI and feed supplementation in sixty-four crossbred Santa Inês lambs was assessed based on performance, blood stress indicators, and metabolic profiles. The GIs analyzed were VH = very high, H = high, L = low, and VL = very low, and were represented by the residual leaf area index (LAIr. The lambs were divided into two groups, supplemented (SP and non-supplemented (NSP. The dry matter intake (DMI and average daily gain (ADG increased linearly with decreasing GI (P < 0.05, and the ADG was higher for the NSP group than the SP group (P < 0.05. The plasma cortisol concentration was higher in the NSP group (P < 0.05, and it was not affected by GIs (P > 0.05. The neutrophil:lymphocyte (N:L ratio decreased linearly with GI (P < 0.05, and the SP group had a higher N:L ratio (P < 0.05. None of the parameters evaluated for protein metabolism were affected by GI (P > 0.05, except albumin, where the SP group had a higher concentration of this metabolite (P < 0.05. Regarding energy metabolism indicators, glucose showed a linear increase with a decrease in GI (P < 0.05 and was higher in the SP group (P < 0.05; however, there was a decreasing linear effect (P < 0.05 and the NSP group had higher serum levels (P < 0.05 of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. The concentration of beta hydroxybutyrate (HBA-B was higher in the SP group (P < 0.05. The concentration of calcium was affected by GI (P < 0.05. The phosphorus concentration was higher in the SP group (P < 0.05, and concentration of magnesium was not affected by any of the treatments (P > 0.05. It was concluded that GI and SP modified the performance, stress indicators, and metabolic profiles of finishing lambs.

  8. Soil salinity mapping and hydrological drought indices assessment in arid environments based on remote sensing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elhag, Mohamed; Bahrawi, Jarbou A.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation indices are mostly described as crop water derivatives. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is one of the oldest remote sensing applications that is widely used to evaluate crop vigor directly and crop water relationships indirectly. Recently, several NDVI derivatives were exclusively used to assess crop water relationships. Four hydrological drought indices are examined in the current research study. The water supply vegetation index (WSVI), the soi...

  9. Metodology for Risk-based Indicators Impementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the principle of creating a riskbased indicators in companies operating in an air transport. The first part deals with the description of safety indicators and introduce the concept of risk-based indicators. The next section describes the procedure for creating the base of risk-based indicators and describes specific examples of developed indicators.

  10. Second derivative spectrophotometric determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemn

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... To our knowledge, there are no derivative spectrophotometric methods concerning the determination of cyclophosphamide in pharmaceutical formulations. Derivative spectrophotometry is an analytical technique of great utility for extracting both qualitative and quanti. *Corresponding author. E-mail: ...

  11. Performance indicators and indices of sludge management in urban wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C; Saldanha Matos, J; Rosa, M J

    2016-12-15

    Sludge (or biosolids) management is highly complex and has a significant cost associated with the biosolids disposal, as well as with the energy and flocculant consumption in the sludge processing units. The sludge management performance indicators (PIs) and indices (PXs) are thus core measures of the performance assessment system developed for urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The key PIs proposed cover the sludge unit production and dry solids concentration (DS), disposal/beneficial use, quality compliance for agricultural use and costs, whereas the complementary PIs assess the plant reliability and the chemical reagents' use. A key PI was also developed for assessing the phosphorus reclamation, namely through the beneficial use of the biosolids and the reclaimed water in agriculture. The results of a field study with 17 Portuguese urban WWTPs in a 5-year period were used to derive the PI reference values which are neither inherent to the PI formulation nor literature-based. Clusters by sludge type (primary, activated, trickling filter and mixed sludge) and by digestion and dewatering processes were analysed and the reference values for sludge production and dry solids were proposed for two clusters: activated sludge or biofilter WWTPs with primary sedimentation, sludge anaerobic digestion and centrifuge dewatering; activated sludge WWTPs without primary sedimentation and anaerobic digestion and with centrifuge dewatering. The key PXs are computed for the DS after each processing unit and the complementary PXs for the energy consumption and the operating conditions DS-determining. The PX reference values are treatment specific and literature based. The PI and PX system was applied to a WWTP and the results demonstrate that it diagnosis the situation and indicates opportunities and measures for improving the WWTP performance in sludge management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A general theory of multimetric indices and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Grace, James B.; Schweiger, E. William

    2012-01-01

    1. Stewardship of biological and ecological resources requires the ability to make integrative assessments of ecological integrity. One of the emerging methods for making such integrative assessments is multimetric indices (MMIs). These indices synthesize data, often from multiple levels of biological organization, with the goal of deriving a single index that reflects the overall effects of human disturbance. Despite the widespread use of MMIs, there is uncertainty about why this approach can be effective. An understanding of MMIs requires a quantitative theory that illustrates how the properties of candidate metrics relates to MMIs generated from those metrics. 2. We present the initial basis for such a theory by deriving the general mathematical characteristics of MMIs assembled from metrics. We then use the theory to derive quantitative answers to the following questions: Is there an optimal number of metrics to comprise an index? How does covariance among metrics affect the performance of the index derived from those metrics? And what are the criteria to decide whether a given metric will improve the performance of an index? 3. We find that the optimal number of metrics to be included in an index depends on the theoretical distribution of signal of the disturbance gradient contained in each metric. For example, if the rank-ordered parameters of a metric-disturbance regression can be described by a monotonically decreasing function, then an optimum number of metrics exists and can often be derived analytically. We derive the conditions by which adding a given metric can be expected to improve an index. 4. We find that the criterion defining such conditions depends nonlinearly of the signal of the disturbance gradient, the noise (error) of the metric and the correlation of the metric errors. Importantly, we find that correlation among metric errors increases the signal required for the metric to improve the index. 5. The theoretical framework presented in this

  13. Environmental indicators for industrial optimization and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konneman, Bram

    2008-01-01

    Companies use standard financial indicators to determine their business success and optimize their business opportunities. However, sustainable development demands for an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social indicators. Although a lot of indicator initiatives are under

  14. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  15. Development of outcome-based, multipollutant mobile source indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachon, Jorge E; Balachandran, Sivaraman; Hu, Yongtao; Mulholland, James A; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Tolbert, Paige E; Russell, Armistead G

    2012-04-01

    Multipollutant indicators of mobile source impacts are developed from readily available CO, NOx, and elemental carbon (EC) data for use in air quality and epidemiologic analysis. Two types of outcome-based Integrated Mobile Source Indicators (IMSI) are assessed. The first is derived from analysis of emissions of EC, CO, and NOx such that pollutant concentrations are mixed and weighted based on emission ratios for both gasoline and diesel vehicles. The emission-based indicators (IMSI(EB)) capture the impact of mobile sources on air quality estimated from receptor models and their uncertainty is comparable to measurement and source apportionment uncertainties. The IMSI(EB) have larger correlation between two different receptor sites impacted by traffic than single pollutants, suggesting they are better indicators of the local impact ofmobile sources. A sensitivity analysis of fractions of pollutants in a two-pollutant mixture and the inclusion in an epidemiologic model is conducted to develop a second set of indicators based on health outcomes. The health-based indicators (IMSI(HB)) are weighted combinations of CO, NOx, and EC pairs that have the lowest P value in their association with cardiovascular disease emergency department visits, possibly due to their better spatial representativeness. These outcome-based, multipollutant indicators can provide support for the setting of multipollutant air quality standards and other air quality management activities.

  16. Tame-wild dichotomy for derived categories

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkert, Viktor I.; Drozd, Yuriy A.

    2003-01-01

    We prove that every finite dimensional algebra over an algebraically closed field is either derived tame or derived wild. The proof is based on the technique of matrix problems (boxes and reduction algorithm). It implies, in particular, that any degeneration of a derived wild algebra is derived wild; respectively, any deformation of a derived tame algebra is derived tame.

  17. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Jordan-H\\"older theorems for derived categories of derived discrete algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Yongyun

    2015-01-01

    For any positive integer $n$, $n$-derived-simple derived discrete algebras are classified up to derived equivalence. Furthermore, the Jordan-H\\"older theorems for all kinds of derived categories of derived discrete algebras are obtained.

  19. Mutagenic activity of quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dmochowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on a series of quaternary ammonium salt (QAS derivatives of glucopyranosides with an elongated hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain. The new N-[6-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxyhexyl]ammonium bromides and their O-acetyl derivatives were analyzed via 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The mutagenic activity of the newly synthesized QAS was investigated using two different techniques: The Vibrio harveyi luminescence assay and the Ames test. The obtained results support previous findings contesting QAS safety and indicate that QAS, specifically pyridinium derivatives, might be mutagenic.

  20. Synthesis and antimicrobial properties of camphorsulfonic acid derived imidazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikláš R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of homochiral imidazolium salts bearing hydrophobic camphor derived moiety and ester or amide functional group were synthesized and characterized. The novel imidazolium bromides were tested as antimicrobial and antifungal agents and their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was evaluated and compared to clinically used benzalkonium bromide (BAB and carbethopendecinium bromide. The MIC values of amide derivatives 2a and 2b were slightly smaller than those for BAB, indicating their good activity. None of the prepared salts was more effective than carbethopendecinium bromide. The biocidal efficacy of amide derivatives was much higher compared to the ester analogues.

  1. Measuring educational quality by means of indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, J; Luyten, H.; van Ravens, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the input-process-outcomes-context framework, introduced in Chapter 1 is used for categorising and describing input indicators, process indicators, outcome indicators and context indicators. The chapter starts out with a review and further illustration of this framework and follows

  2. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  3. Construction and sequencing analysis of scFv antibody fragment derived from monoclonal antibody against norfloxacin (Nor155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Norfloxacin belongs to the group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics which has been approved for treatment in animals. However, its residues in animal products can pose adverse side effects to consumer. Therefore, detection of the residue in different food matrices must be concerned. In this study, a single chain variable fragment (scFv that recognizes norfloxacin antibiotic was constructed. The cDNA was synthesized from total RNA of hybridoma cells against norfloxacin. Genes encoding VH and VL regions of monoclonal antibody against norfloxacin (Nor155 were amplified and size of VH and VL fragments was 402 bp and 363 bp, respectively. The scFv of Nor155 was constructed by an addition of (Gly4Ser3 as a linker between VH and VL regions and subcloned into pPICZαA, an expression vector of Pichia pastoris. The sequence of scFv Nor155 (GenBank No. AJG06891.1 was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The complementarity determining regions (CDR I, II, and III of VH and VL were specified by Kabat method. The obtained recombinant plasmid will be useful for production of scFv antibody against norfloxacin in P. pastoris and further engineer scFv antibody against fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

  4. MAVEN LPW Derived Data Bundle

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains data which have been derived from other data products or determined by fits to other data. These are science quality data produced by the LPW...

  5. Plant-derived antigens as mucosal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, H S; Herbst-Kralovetz, M M

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, researchers have developed robust systems for recombinant subunit vaccine production in plants. Stably and transiently transformed plants have particular advantages that enable immunization of humans and animals via mucosal delivery. The initial goal to immunize orally by ingestion of plant-derived antigens has proven difficult to attain, although many studies have demonstrated antibody production in both humans and animals, and in a few cases, protection against pathogen challenge. Substantial hurdles for this strategy are low-antigen content in crudely processed plant material and limited antigen stability in the gut. An alternative is intranasal delivery of purified plant-derived antigens expressed with robust viral vectors, especially virus-like particles. The use of pattern recognition receptor agonists as adjuvants for mucosal delivery of plant-derived antigens can substantially enhance serum and mucosal antibody responses. In this chapter, we briefly review the methods for recombinant protein expression in plants, and describe progress with human and animal vaccines that use mucosal delivery routes. We do not attempt to compile a comprehensive list, but focus on studies that progressed to clinical trials or those that showed strong indications of efficacy in animals. Finally, we discuss some regulatory concerns regarding plant-based vaccines.

  6. Transchromosomally derived Ig heavy chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, K.L.; Kingzette, M.; Crane, M.A. [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-15

    During an immune response, activated B cells undergo isotype switching and begin to express isotypes other than IgM and IgD. Isotype switching occurs when downstream C{gamma}, C{alpha}, or C{epsilon} genes are rearranged into the S{mu} chromosomal region, resulting in the deletion of the region in between. These rearrangements usually occur in cis, i.e., intrachromosomally. In previous studies, we analyzed allotypic specificities of rabbit secretory IgA and identified a substantial number of IgA heavy chains with V{sub h} and C{alpha} allotypes that were encoded by V{sub h} and C{alpha} genes in trans. In those studies, however, we could not determine whether the trans association of V{sub H} and C{alpha} occurred during VDJ gene rearrangement or during isotype switching. Here, we cloned rabbit cDNA which encodes these trans IgA heavy chains and determined the chromosomal origin of the V{sub H}, J{sub H}, and C{alpha} regions. To determine whether the trans association occurred during VDJ gene rearrangement, we analyzed the nucleotide polymorphism of the J{sub H} region and the V{sub H} allotype encoded by the cDNA. We found that the V{sub H} and J{sub H} genes used in the VDJ gene rearrangements were from the same chromosome, indicating that the V{sub H}, D, and J{sub H} gene rearrangements occurred in cis. Furthermore, we analyzed the DNA polymorphisms of J{sub H} and C{alpha} and showed that the VDJ and C{alpha} genes encoding the trans IgA molecules were derived from different parental chromosomes. We suggest that the trans association occurred during isotype switching. This study shows that V{sub H} and C{sub H} can associate transchromosomally as part of a normal immune response. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Sustainable Housing in the Urban Context: International Sustainable Development Indicator Sets and Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Nessa; Pareja Eastaway, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Housing, an essential aspect of quality of life, is also significant for sustainable development (SD). All of the major international statements on SD refer to housing or settlement strategies. However, indicator sets derived from these statements often fail to include good indicators of sustainable housing. This article outlines the…

  8. Hypoxanthine: A Universal Metabolic Indicator of Training Status in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Jacek; Kusy, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    Cardiorespiratory and biochemical indicators typically used by contemporary elite athletes seem to have limited applicability. According to some recent studies, purine metabolism better reflects exercise response and muscle adaptation in this group. We propose using purine derivatives, especially plasma hypoxanthine concentration, as indicators of training status in consecutive training phases in highly trained athletes.

  9. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles derived from ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased manufacture of TiO2 nano-products has caused concern about the potential toxicity of these products to the environment and in public health. Identification and confirmation of the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles derived from consumer products as opposed to industrial TiO2 NPs warrants examination in exploring the significance of their release and resultant impacts on the environment. To this end we examined the significance of the release of these particles and their toxic effect on the marine diatom algae Thalassiosira pseudonana. Our results indicate that nano-TiO2 sunscreen and toothpaste exhibit more toxicity in comparison to industrial TiO2, and inhibited the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. This inhibition was proportional to the exposure time and concentrations of nano-TiO2. Our findings indicate a significant effect, and therefore further research is warranted in evaluation and assessment of the toxicity of modified nano-TiO2 derived from consumer products and their physicochemical properties. Submit to journal Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

  10. Generative Mechanisms of Romanian Derivational Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Petic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the problem of a Romanian morphologic derivative generator development. The starting point is a lexicon that provides storage of derivatives in a lexicon, which contains not only the graphical representation of derivatives but also their constituent morphemes. This allows studying and formulating rules that would generate derivatives taking into account certain restrictions. The article deals with different cases of derivation, such as: semi-analyzable derivation, regular derivation, the projection process of the derivation with prefixation on the following suffixation, and derivatives with prefixes im-/in.

  11. Review of Urban Sustainability Indicators Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, Florianna Lendai; Noor, Zainura Zainon; Figueroa, Maria Josefina

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines and compares the processes, methodologies and resulting sets of indicators for urban sustainability carried out in three of Asia's developing countries; Malaysia, Taiwan and China. The paper analytically discusses the challenges of developing urban sustainability indicators...

  12. Studying macroeconomic indicators as powerful ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, D.

    2016-01-01

    Macroeconomic indicators - especially inflation, gross domestic product growth, public deficits and unemployment - stand central in economic governance. Policy-makers use them to assess their economies’ health. Citizens evaluate politicians’ performance using them as yardsticks. But these indicators

  13. Overt Indicators of Islamic Extremism in Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Genasci, Andy J

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines characteristics of Islamic extremism in Nigeria. Specifically, the thesis examines the strategic indicators for an Islamic extremist safe haven and the presence of those indicators in Nigeria...

  14. Veterans Health Administration Patient Safety Indicators Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with data on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs). These indicators provide information on...

  15. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  16. [Optimized Spectral Indices Based Estimation of Forage Grass Biomass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hai-bo; Li, Fei; Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Ya-jun

    2015-11-01

    As an important indicator of forage production, aboveground biomass will directly illustrate the growth of forage grass. Therefore, Real-time monitoring biomass of forage grass play a crucial role in performing suitable grazing and management in artificial and natural grassland. However, traditional sampling and measuring are time-consuming and labor-intensive. Recently, development of hyperspectral remote sensing provides the feasibility in timely and nondestructive deriving biomass of forage grass. In the present study, the main objectives were to explore the robustness of published and optimized spectral indices in estimating biomass of forage grass in natural and artificial pasture. The natural pasture with four grazing density (control, light grazing, moderate grazing and high grazing) was designed in desert steppe, and different forage cultivars with different N rate were conducted in artificial forage fields in Inner Mongolia. The canopy reflectance and biomass in each plot were measured during critical stages. The result showed that, due to the influence in canopy structure and biomass, the canopy reflectance have a great difference in different type of forage grass. The best performing spectral index varied in different species of forage grass with different treatments (R² = 0.00-0.69). The predictive ability of spectral indices decreased under low biomass of desert steppe, while red band based spectral indices lost sensitivity under moderate-high biomass of forage maize. When band combinations of simple ratio and normalized difference spectral indices were optimized in combined datasets of natural and artificial grassland, optimized spectral indices significant increased predictive ability and the model between biomass and optimized spectral indices had the highest R² (R² = 0.72) compared to published spectral indices. Sensitive analysis further confirmed that the optimized index had the lowest noise equivalent and were the best performing index in

  17. 32 CFR 2001.22 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative classification. 2001.22 Section 2001... Identification and Markings § 2001.22 Derivative classification. (a) General. Information classified derivatively... guide. (b) Identity of persons who apply derivative classification markings. Derivative classifiers...

  18. Evaluation of Lentil Recombinant Inbred Lines using Drought Tolerance Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Rahimi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To identify drought tolerant lines among 168 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Hindi variety of L3685 (high yielding, erect type and early growth as female parent and Iranian variety of Qazvin (with prostrate growth and late growth as male parent, two experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications under non-stress and drought stress conditions at the experimental Field of Shahrekord University in 2013. Results of combined analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among lines under study in both experimental conditions in terms of grain yield (P≤0.01. Significant interaction of line×conditions revealed that lines responded differently to drought stress based on grain yield. Results also indicates that lines 160, 125 and 129 were promising lines under both conditions in terms of grain yield. Positive and significant correlation between tolerance indices and grain yield under stress and non-stress conditions indicated that the STI, MP, HARM and GMP indices may identify promising from non promising lines. Based on the above criteria, lines 160, 125, 48, 103 and 129 were recognized as drought tolerant lines. According to the results of principal components analysis, the first and second components determined 97.8% of the total variations among genotypes under study for drought resistance indices. The distribution of lines in the biplot showed genetic variations to the drought stress and thus lines 160, 125, 48, 129 and 103 were identified as high yielders under drought stress condition.

  19. Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography | Koen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Studies indicate that computed radiography (CR) can lead to increased radiation dose to patients. It is therefore important to relate the exposure indicators provided by CR manufacturers to the radiation dose delivered so as to assess the radiation dose delivered to patients directly from the exposure indicators.

  20. 47 CFR 73.58 - Indicating instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indicating instruments. 73.58 Section 73.58... Broadcast Stations § 73.58 Indicating instruments. (a) Each AM broadcast station must be equipped with indicating instruments which conform with the specifications described in § 73.1215 for determining power by...