WorldWideScience

Sample records for vfr cruising altitude

  1. Air transport cruise altitude restrictions to minimize contrail formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, V.; Noland, R.B. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Transport Studies; Toumi, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    2003-09-01

    While quantification of the effects of NO{sub x} and water vapor is still at an early stage there is evidence that contrail formation could make a significant contribution to global warming. This paper builds on previous research that analyzed a policy of restricting air transport cruise altitudes to eliminate contrail formation. Our previous work [Transport Res. D 7(6) (2002) 451] examined altitude restrictions in European airspace and concluded that this could be a beneficial policy for reducing climate change impacts from aviation. Since most of the flights in European airspace are short-haul flights, this paper evaluates the trade-offs between altitude restrictions, fuel burn and journey times for longer haul flights of up to 6000 nm. Our focus is on the North Atlantic and US airspace and we examine potential contrail fraction to determine optimal cruise altitudes for reducing contrail formation. Changes in fuel burn and travel times associated with flight levels of 18,000 and 31,000 ft for different aircraft types are analyzed. We find that, in most cases, CO{sub 2} emission increases would be unlikely to entirely counteract the benefit of possible reductions in contrail formation. For some aircraft types, the percentage increase in emitted CO{sub 2} was found to be strongly dependent on journey length. In general, journey times appear not to be a major issue except for some aircraft types. Our results suggest that reducing aircraft cruise altitudes could be a beneficial policy for mitigating climate change impacts from the aviation sector. This is clearly dependent on aircraft type and the distances traveled, but more importantly on ambient atmospheric conditions which can vary significantly between regions and due to daily variation. This suggests that real time flight planning to minimize contrail formation should be investigated as a possible climate mitigation policy. (author)

  2. Cosmic Rays with Portable Geiger Counters: From Sea Level to Airplane Cruise Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic ray count rates with a set of portable Geiger counters were measured at different altitudes on the way to a mountain top and aboard an aircraft, between sea level and cruise altitude. Basic measurements may constitute an educational activity even with high school teams. For the understanding of the results obtained, simulations of extensive…

  3. Reducing the climate change impacts of aviation by restricting cruise altitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, V.; Noland, R.B. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Transport Studies; Toumi, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    2002-11-01

    Two of the ways in which air travel affects climate are the emission of carbon dioxide and the creation of high-altitude contrails. One possible impact reduction strategy is to significantly reduce the formation of contrails. This could be achieved by limiting the cruise altitude of aircraft. If implemented, this could severely constrain air space capacity, especially in parts of Europe. In addition, carbon emissions would likely be higher due to less efficient aircraft operation at lower cruise altitudes. This paper describes an analysis of these trade-offs using an air space simulation model as applied to European airspace. The model simulates the flight paths and altitudes of each aircraft and is here used to calculate emissions of carbon dioxide and changes in the journey time. For a one-day Western European traffic sample, calculations suggest annual mean CO{sub 2} emissions would increase by only 4% if cruise altitudes were restricted to prevent contrail formation. The change in journey time depended on aircraft type and route, but average changes were less than 1 min. Our analysis demonstrates that altitude restrictions on commercial aircraft could be an effective means of reducing climate change impacts, though it will be necessary to mitigate the increased controller workload conflicts that this will generate.(author)

  4. The impact of cruise altitude on contrails and related radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichter, C. [Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling (Germany); Dalton Research Inst., Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Manchester (United Kingdom); Marquart, S. [Inst. fuer Umweltphysik, Univ. Heidelberg (Germany); Sausen, R. [Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling (Germany); Lee, D.S. [Dalton Research Inst., Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    Within the framework of the European Fifth Framework Project TRADEOFF, the impact of changing cruise altitudes on contrail coverage and corresponding radiative forcing was investigated. On the basis of the reference year 1992, a series of aircraft emissions inventories with changed flight altitudes was prepared. These emission scenarios provide flown distances, fuel consumption and NO{sub x} emissions on a three-dimensional grid. The vertical resolution of these inventories was significantly increased over that used in former inventories. With a downshift of cruise altitude by 2000 ft (Throughout this paper we denote flight levels in ft. 2000 ft convert to approximately 610 m.), 4000 ft, and 6000 ft global annual mean contrail coverage is reduced in an approximately linear manner, reaching a maximum decrease of almost 45% for a 6000 ft lower cruise altitude. Contrary to this, a slight increase by 6% of global annual mean contrail coverage resulted for a 2000 ft higher maximum flight altitude. Relative changes of corresponding radiative forcing were shown to be very similar to those of contrail coverage. For changes in contrail coverage and radiative forcing associated with changes in flight altitudes, a strong seasonal and regional variability was found. This study only considers contrail radiative forcing. Trade-offs from other aviation related radiative impacts, e.g., from CO{sub 2} or O{sub 3}, have not been studied. (orig.)

  5. The effect of sudden depressurization on pilots at cruising altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlemann, Thomas; Holper, Lisa; Wenzel, Juergen; Wittkowski, Martin; Wolf, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The standard flight level for commercial airliners is ∼12 km (40 kft; air pressure: ∼ 200 hPa), the maximum certification altitude of modern airliners may be as high as 43-45 kft. Loss of structural integrity of an airplane may result in sudden depressurization of the cabin potentially leading to hypoxia with loss of consciousness of the pilots. Specialized breathing masks supply the pilots with oxygen. The aim of this study was to experimentally simulate such sudden depressurization to maximum design altitude in a pressure chamber while measuring the arterial and brain oxygenation saturation (SaO(2) and StO(2)) of the pilots. Ten healthy subjects with a median age of 50 (range 29-70) years were placed in a pressure chamber, breathing air from a cockpit mask. Pressure was reduced from 753 to 148 hPa within 20 s, and the test mask was switched to pure O(2) within 2 s after initiation of depressurization. During the whole procedure SaO(2) and StO(2) were measured by pulse oximetry, respectively near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS; in-house built prototype) of the left frontal cortex. During the depressurization the SaO(2) dropped from median 93% (range 91-98%) to 78% (62-92%) by 16% (6-30%), while StO(2) decreased from 62% (47-67%) to 57% (43-62%) by 5% (3-14%). Considerable drops in oxygenation were observed during sudden depressurization. The inter-subject variability was high, for SaO(2) depending on the subjects' ability to preoxygenate before the depressurization. The drop in StO(2) was lower than the one in SaO(2) maybe due to compensation in blood flow.

  6. Propulsion/airframe integration considerations for high altitude hypersonic cruise vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the implications of top-mounted inlet nacelles on propulsion performance and cruise range. The top-mounted nacelle would be less visible from ground-based radar below and ahead of the aircraft. For this study, the nacelle is integrated with a high altitude Mach 5 turbojet/ramjet-powered airplane concept requiring a large nacelle. Results of the study suggest nacelle installation advantages and improved inlet mass flow ratio for the top-mounted nacelle, but at the expense of a higher installed drag at transonic and supersonic speeds.

  7. In situ emission measurements in the wake of subsonic jet airliners at cruise altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, P.; Schlager, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Baughcum, St. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Deidewig, F. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1997-12-31

    In the course of the POLINAT campaigns of 1994 and 1995 several flights were carried out to measure NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} in the young exhaust plumes of commercial wide-bodied jet airlines at altitude. From these measurements in flight NO{sub x} emission indices were derived which were used to test current NO{sub x} emission index prediction methods. Taking into account the error of the measurements and uncertainties in the input parameters for the predictions, the results of the two fuel flow base prediction methods agreed well with the measured values. (author) 13 refs.

  8. Development of a small cruising-type AUV and training of constant altitude swimming; Kogata kokogata kaichu robot no kaihatsu to teikodo koko no kunren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suto, T. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Ura, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1997-08-01

    A small autonomous robot with high software development efficiency was developed to investigate the control system of an autonomous cruising-type AUV in the actual environment. This robot has a minimum of functions required as a cruising type. One researcher can make an experiment on the robot because of its compactness and lightweight. The robot can also automatically cruise around in a small pool. It was confirmed that an adaptive constant altitude swimming controller utilizing a neural network verified by simulation can also be properly adjusted by an actual robot. The switching mechanism of neural networks was introduced to classify environmental patterns. The corresponding controller is adjusted automatically. In this study, a lightweight and compact cruising-type test-bed robot that has not existed until now was developed. This robot is easy to manufacture and construct in software. Therefore, it is to be desired that the researches and development of autonomous functions are promoted using such a robot. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The assessment of the impact of aviation NOx on ozone and other radiative forcing responses - The importance of representing cruise altitudes accurately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, A.; Lee, D. S.; De León, R. R.

    2013-08-01

    Aviation emissions of NOx result in the formation of tropospheric ozone (warming) and destruction of a small amount of methane (cooling), positive and negative radiative forcing effects. In addition, the reduction of methane results in a small long-term reduction in tropospheric ozone (cooling) and, in addition, a long-term reduction in water vapour in the stratosphere (cooling) from reduced oxidation of methane, both negative radiative forcing impacts. Taking all these radiative effects together, aircraft NOx is still thought to result in a positive (warming) radiative effect under constant emissions assumptions. Previously, comparative modelling studies have focussed on the variability between models, using the same emissions database. In this study, we rather quantify the variability and uncertainty arising from different estimations of present-day aircraft NOx emissions. Six different aircraft NOx emissions inventories were used in the global chemical transport model, MOZART v3. The inventories were normalized to give the same global emission of NOx in order to remove one element of uncertainty. Emissions differed in the normalized cases by 23% at cruise altitudes (283-200 hPa, where the bulk of emission occurs, globally). However, the resultant short-term ozone chemical perturbation varied by 15% between the different inventories. Once all the effects that give rise to positive and negative radiative impacts were accounted for, the variability of net radiative forcing impacts was 94%. Using these radiative effects to formulate a net aviation NOx Global Warming Potential (GWP) for a 100-year time horizon resulted in GWPs ranging from 60 to 4, over an order of magnitude. It is concluded that the detailed placement of emissions at chemically sensitive cruise altitudes strongly affects the assessment of the total radiative impact, introducing a hitherto previously unidentified large fraction of the uncertainty of impacts between different modelling assessments. It

  10. Gaseous ion-composition measurements in the young exhaust plume of jet aircraft at cruising altitudes. Implications for aerosols and gaseous sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, F.; Wohlfrom, K.H.; Klemm, M.; Schneider, J.; Gollinger, K. [Max-Planck-Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schumann, U.; Busen, R. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Mass spectrometric measurements were made in the young exhaust plume of an Airbus (A310) at cruising altitudes at distances between 400 and 800 m behind the Airbus (averaged plume age: 3.4 sec). The measurements indicate that gaseous sulfuric acid (GSA) number densities were less than 1.3 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3} which is smaller than the expected total sulfuric acid. Hence the missing sulfuric acid must have been in the aerosol phase. These measurements also indicate a total aerosol surface area density A{sub T} {<=} 5.4 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} per cm{sup 3} which is consistent with simultaneously measured soot and water contrail particles. However, homogeneous nucleation leading to (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}){sub x}(H{sub 2}O){sub y}-clusters can not be ruled out. (author) 16 refs.

  11. 14 CFR 125.359 - Flight release under VFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release under VFR. 125.359 Section...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.359 Flight release under VFR. No person may release an airplane for VFR operation unless the ceiling and...

  12. Final Environmental Assessment (EA) for Modification of Airspace Units R-3008A/B/C from Visual Flight Rules (VFR) to VFR-Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    RULES ( IFR ) AT MOODY AIR FORCE BASE, GEORGIA September 2015 Finding of No Significant Impact Modification of Airspace Units R-3008A/B/C from...Vlsual Flight Rules (VFR) to VFR-lnstrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) Moody Air Force Base, Georgia Pursuant to provisions of the National Environmental...rules (VFR) to VFR-lnstrument flight rules (VFR- IFR ). This action would minimize the number of training hours lost by allowing full utilization of Grand

  13. Characterization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa metalloendopeptidase, Mep72, a member of the Vfr regulon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyimez, Aysegul; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; San Francisco, Michael; Hamood, Abdul N

    2013-11-27

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vfr (the virulence factor regulator) enhances P. aeruginosa virulence by positively regulating the expression of numerous virulence genes. A previous microarray analysis identified numerous genes positively regulated by Vfr in strain PAK, including the yet uncharacterized PA2782 and PA2783. In this study, we report the detailed characterization of PA2783 in the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. RT-PCR analysis confirmed that PA2782-PA2783 constitute an operon. A mutation in vfr significantly reduced the expression of both genes. The predicted protein encoded by PA2783 contains a typical leader peptide at its amino terminus end as well as metalloendopeptidase and carbohydrate binding motifs at its amino terminus and carboxy terminus regions, respectively. An in-frame PA2783::phoA fusion encoded a hybrid protein that was exported to the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa. In PAO1, the proteolytic activity of the PA2783-encoded protein was masked by other P. aeruginosa extracellular proteases but an E. coli strain carrying a PA2783 recombinant plasmid produced considerable proteolytic activity. The outer membrane fraction of an E. coli strain in which PA2783 was overexpressed contained specific endopeptidase activity. In the presence of cAMP, purified recombinant Vfr (rVfr) bound to a 98-bp fragment within the PA2782-PA2783 upstream region that carries a putative Vfr consensus sequence. Through a series of electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we localized rVfr binding to a 33-bp fragment that contains part of the Vfr consensus sequence and a 5-bp imperfect (3/5) inverted repeat at its 3' and 5' ends (TGGCG-N22-CGCTG). Deletion of either repeat eliminated Vfr binding. PA2782 and PA2783 constitute an operon whose transcription is positively regulated by Vfr. The expression of PA2783 throughout the growth cycle of P. aeruginosa follows a unique pattern. PA2783 codes for a secreted metalloendopeptidase, which we named Mep72. Mep72

  14. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  15. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  16. Perspective Tools of the Strategic Management of VFR Tourism Development at the Regional Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, Aleksandr P.; Efimova, Ekaterina V.; Kobets, Margarita V.; Kilinkarova, Sofiya G.

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at identifying the perspective tools of strategic management in general and strategic planning of VFR tourism (for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives) at the regional level in particular. It is based on dialectical and logical methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, the concrete historical and…

  17. Cruise tourism shore excursions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    João Lopes, Maria; Dredge, Dianne

    2018-01-01

    Very complex yet highly integrated business logics characterise cruise tourism with shore excursions frequently identified as a key source of value. This paper presents a case study of cruise tourism and shore excursion planning in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aim of this paper is to investigate...... the characteristics of cruise tourism, itinerary and shore excursion planning with a view to understanding the value generated from cruise tourism shore excursions. We argue that economic value is a blunt measure, and there are other types of value, positive and negative, that are also generated. This research...... reveals that a range of local conditions and structural characteristics create barriers and opportunities for generating different types of value. Using a case study of shore excursions in Copenhagen, the Baltic’s most important port, this paper explains the dynamics between cruise tourism and shore...

  18. Juvenile Rockfish Recruitment Cruise

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1983, the groundfish analysis project began a series of yearly cruises designed to assess the annual abundance of juvenile rockfish along the central California...

  19. Epidemiologic and biogeographic analysis of 542 VFR traveling children in Catalonia (Spain). A rising new population with specific needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Lluís; Roure, Sílvia; Sabrià, Miquel; de Balanzó, Xavier; Moreno, Nemesio; Martinez-Cuevas, Octavio; Peguero, Carme

    2011-01-01

    Imported diseases recorded in the European Union (EU) increasingly involve traveling immigrants returning from visits to their relatives and friends (VFR). Children of these immigrant families can represent a population of extreme vulnerability. A randomized cross-sectional study of 698 traveling children under the age of 15 was performed. VFR traveling children and non-VFR (or tourist) children groups were compared. A total of 698 individuals were analyzed: 354 males (50.7%) and 344 females (49.3%), with a median age (interquartile range) of 4 (2-9) years. Of these, 578 (82.8%) had been born in the EU with 542 (77.7%) being considered as VFR, whereas 156 (22.3%) were considered tourists. VFR children were younger (4.7 vs 8.2 yr; p travel time interval was shorter (21.8 vs 32.2 d; p traveling children showed a greater risk of exposure to infectious diseases compared with tourists. Immigrant families may represent a target group to prioritize international preventive activities. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  20. The Cyclic AMP-Vfr Signaling Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Inhibited by Cyclic Di-GMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almblad, Henrik; Harrison, Joe J; Rybtke, Morten

    2015-01-01

    as a direct result of elevated c-di-GMP content. Overproduction of c-di-GMP causes a decrease in the transcription of virulence factor genes that are regulated by the global virulence regulator Vfr. The low level of Vfr-dependent transcription is caused by a low level of its coactivator, cyclic AMP (cAMP...... infection give rise to rugose small colony variants (RSCVs), which are hyper-biofilm-forming mutants that commonly possess mutations that increase production of the biofilm-promoting secondary messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP). We show that RSCVs display a decreased production of acute virulence factors......), which is decreased in response to a high level of c-di-GMP. Mutations that cause reversion of the RSCV phenotype concomitantly reactivate Vfr-cAMP signaling. Attempts to uncover the mechanism underlying the observed c-di-GMP-mediated lowering of cAMP content provided evidence that it is not caused...

  1. An assessment of cruise NOx emissions of short-haul commercial flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Enis T.; Usanmaz, Oznur

    2017-12-01

    Cruise NOx emissions of aircraft are an important input parameter for studies investigating climate change due to their ability to alter the concentrations of certain trace gases, such as ozone, methane, and hydroxyl in the atmosphere, and to induce positive radiative forcing. Therefore, it is of importance to minimize estimation errors on NOx emitted from aircraft engines at high altitude. In this study, the cruise NOx emissions of a frequently-used narrow-bodied aircraft type operating domestic flights in Turkey, are quantified based on numerous actual flight, actual emissions and actual meteorological data. The overall average cruise NOx emissions index is found to be ∼10 g/kg fuel. In addition, newly-developed parameters of the aircraft cruise NOx footprint and NOx intensity are calculated to be 0.5 g/pa-NM and ∼60 g/NM, respectively. Regarding the effects of flight parameters on cruise NOx emissions, while there is a distinct increase in NOx parameters with an increase in aircraft mass, this may differ for altitude. The results reveal that the NOx emissions index tends to increase slightly by 1-2%, particularly above 28,000 ft, whereas NOx intensity decreases at a rate of 2.4-2.7% per 2000 ft of cruise altitude increase.

  2. Increase in imported malaria in the Netherlands in asylum seekers and VFR travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Suryapranata, Franciska S T; Croughs, Mieke; van Genderen, Perry J J; Keuter, Monique; Visser, Leo G; van Vugt, Michele; Sonder, Gerard J B

    2017-02-02

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in the Netherlands, a non-endemic country. Imported malaria infections occur regularly among travellers, migrants and visitors. Surveillance data were analysed from 2008 to 2015. Trends in amounts of notifications among risk groups were analysed using Poisson regression. For asylum seekers, yearly incidence was calculated per region of origin, using national asylum request statistics as denominator data. For tourists, denominator data were used from travel statistics to estimate incidence per travel region up to 2012. A modest increase in overall imported malaria notifications occurred in 2008-2015 (from 222 in 2008 to 344 in 2015). Notably, in 2014 and 2015 sharp increases were seen in malaria among travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR), and in asylum seekers. Of all Plasmodium falciparum infections, most (1254/1337; 93.8%) were imported from Africa; 1037/1337 (77.6%) were imported from Central and West Africa. Malaria in VFR was mostly caused by P. falciparum infection after visiting Ghana (22%) or Nigeria (19%). Malaria in asylum seekers was mostly caused by Plasmodium vivax infection from the Horn of Africa. The large number of notifications in asylum seekers resulted from both an increase in number of asylum seekers and a striking increase of malaria incidence in this group. Incidence of malaria in asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa ranged between 0.02 and 0.3% in 2008-2013, but rose to 1.6% in 2014 and 1.3% in 2015. In 2008-2012, incidence in tourists visiting Central and West Africa dropped markedly. Imported malaria is on the rise again in the Netherlands, most notably since 2013. This is mostly due to immigration of asylum seekers from the Horn of Africa. The predominance of P. vivax infection among asylum seekers warrants vigilance in health workers when a migrant presents with fever, as relapses of this type of malaria can occur long after arrival in the Netherlands.

  3. Luxury cruise? The safety potential of advanced cruise control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The principles of advanced cruise control (ACC) are outlined and the requirements for an ACC system are described. An intelligent cruise control system fitted in a Nissan Primera was tested on the road over a 2-week period by 10 drivers, eight of which were experts in road safety. Most test-drives

  4. Connected Cruise Control : Final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Arem, B.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the final results of the Connected Cruise Control project. The
    Connected Cruise Control project was conducted from December 2009-April 2013 as a High Tech Automotive System Innovation project (HTASD09002), subsidized by
    Agentschap NL. The project was conducted by a

  5. Oceanographic Mower Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, J.; Ercilla, G.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Casas, D.

    2015-04-01

    The MOWER Cruise has executed a geophysics and geologic expedition in the Gulf of Cádiz (sector adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar) and west off Portugal, in the framework of the coordinate research project MOWER "Erosive features and associated sandy deposits generated by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) around Iberia: paleoceanographic, sedimentary & economic implications" (CTM 2012-39599-C03). The main aim of this project is to identify and study the erosional features (terraces and channels) and associated sedimentary deposits (sandy contourites) generated by the Mediterranean Water Masses around the middle continental slope of Iberia (The Mediterranean Outflow Water - MOW - in the Atlantic margins), their Pliocene and Quaternary evolution and their paleoceanographic, sedimentary and economic implications. This objective directly involves the study of alongslope (contourite) processes associated with the MOW and across-slope (turbiditic flows, debris flows, etc.) processes in the sedimentary stacking pattern and evolution of the Iberian margins. The MOWER project and cruise are related to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow). It is also linked and coordinated with CONDRIBER Project "Contourite drifts and associated mass-transport deposits along the SW Iberia margin - implications to slope stability and tsunami hazard assessment" (2013-2015) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/GEO-GEO/4430/2012).

  6. Approximate solutions of range for constant altitude - constant high subsonic speed flight of transport aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavcar, A.; Cavcar, M. [Anadolu Univ., School of Civil Aviation, Eskisehir, (Turkey)

    2004-09-01

    Approximate cruise range solutions are introduced for the constant altitude constant high subsonic speed flight of turbojet/fan transport aircraft with cambered wing design. The variation of the specific fuel consumption with Mach number is also considered in derivation of the approximate solutions. The method aims at estimation of the cruise range of aircraft during conceptual or preliminary design phase. An application of the solutions is also presented. (author)

  7. Respiratory physiology at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, C; Naylor, J

    2011-03-01

    The changes in respiratory physiology that occur with increasing altitude are driven by the fall in the partial pressure of oxygen that occurs with decreasing barometric pressure. At altitude, respiratory system changes occur which impact on each step of the oxygen cascade that occurs within the body. These changes are pivotal to the process of acclimatisation to altitude. The study of human respiratory physiology at altitude has the potential to produce research that will be translational to disease states characterised by hypoxaemia.

  8. STARDUST NAVCAM EARLY CRUISE IMAGES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This volume contains the results of the early cruise images of the Stardust Navigation Camera. These images are of no clear scientific or engineering use. They were...

  9. GALILEO MAGNETOMETER CRUISE EDR DATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains data acquired by the Galileo Magnetometer during the Interplanetary Cruise to Jupiter. The data are at varying resolution depending on the...

  10. Post-Cruise Questionnaire - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Post-Cruise Questionnaire is a mandatory post trip legal document that observers fill out after every trip they have completed.

  11. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kara Tardivel, Susan A. Lippold, Krista Kornylo Duong INTRODUCTION Cruise ship travel presents a unique combination of ... may include countries where vectorborne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and Zika are ...

  12. HIGH-ALTITUDE ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwitya Elvira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHigh-altitude illness (HAI merupakan sekumpulan gejala paru dan otak yang terjadi pada orang yang baru pertama kali mendaki ke ketinggian. HAI terdiri dari acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE dan high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. Tujuan tinjauan pustaka ini adalah agar dokter dan wisatawan memahami risiko, tanda, gejala, dan pengobatan high-altitude illness. Perhatian banyak diberikan terhadap penyakit ini seiring dengan meningkatnya popularitas olahraga ekstrim (mendaki gunung tinggi, ski dan snowboarding dan adanya kemudahan serta ketersediaan perjalanan sehingga jutaan orang dapat terpapar bahaya HAI. Di Pherice, Nepal (ketinggian 4343 m, 43% pendaki mengalami gejala AMS. Pada studi yang dilakukan pada tempat wisata di resort ski Colorado, Honigman menggambarkan kejadian AMS 22% pada ketinggian 1850 m sampai 2750 m, sementara Dean menunjukkan 42% memiliki gejala pada ketinggian 3000 m. Aklimatisasi merupakan salah satu tindakan pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan sebelum pendakian, selain beberapa pengobatan seperti asetazolamid, dexamethasone, phosopodiestrase inhibitor, dan ginko biloba.Kata kunci: high-altitude illness, acute mountain sickness, edema cerebral, pulmonary edema AbstractHigh-altitude illness (HAI is symptoms of lung and brain that occurs in people who first climb to altitude. HAI includes acute mountain sickness (AMS, high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. The objective of this review was to understand the risks, signs, symptoms, and treatment of high-altitude illness. The attention was given to this disease due to the rising popularity of extreme sports (high mountain climbing, skiing and snowboarding and the ease and availability of the current travelling, almost each year, millions of people could be exposed to the danger of HAI. In Pherice, Nepal (altitude 4343 m, 43% of climbers have symptoms of AMS. Furthermore, in a study conducted at sites in

  13. A review of supersonic cruise flight path control experience with the YF-12 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.; Gilyard, G. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flight research with the YF-12 aircraft indicates that solutions to many handling qualities problems of supersonic cruise are at hand. Airframe/propulsion system interactions in the Dutch roll mode can be alleviated by the use of passive filters or additional feedback loops in the propulsion and flight control systems. Mach and altitude excursions due to atmospheric temperature fluctuations can be minimized by the use of a cruise autothrottle. Autopilot instabilities in the altitude hold mode have been traced to angle of attack-sensitive static ports on the compensated nose boom. For the YF-12, the feedback of high-passed pitch rate to the autopilot resolves this problem. Manual flight path control is significantly improved by the use of an inertial rate of climb display in the cockpit.

  14. High Altitude Pilgrimage Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Religious pilgrims have been going to high altitude pilgrimages long before trekkers and climbers sojourned in high altitude regions, but the medical literature about high altitude pilgrimage is sparse. Gosainkunda Lake (4300 m) near Kathmandu, Nepal, and Shri Amarnath Yatra (3800 m) in Sri Nagar, Kashmir, India, are the two sites in the Himalayas from where the majority of published reports of high altitude pilgrimage have originated. Almost all travels to high altitude pilgrimages are characterized by very rapid ascents by large congregations, leading to high rates of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In addition, epidemiological studies of pilgrims from Gosainkunda Lake show that some of the important risk factors for AMS in pilgrims are female sex and older age group. Studies based on the Shri Amarnath Yatra pilgrims show that coronary artery disease, complications of diabetes, and peptic ulcer disease are some of the common, important reasons for admission to hospital during the trip. In this review, the studies that have reported these and other relevant findings will be discussed and appropriate suggestions made to improve pilgrims' safety at high altitude. PMID:25330393

  15. High Altitude and Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalcin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, situations associated with high altitude such as mountaineering, aviation increasingly draw the attention of people. Gas pressure decreases and hypoxia is encountered when climbing higher. Physiological and pathological responses of human body to different heights are different. Therefore, physiological and pathological changes that may occur together with height and to know the clinical outcomes of these are important . Acute mountain sickness caused by high altitude and high altitude cerebral edema are preventable diseases with appropriate precautions. Atmospheric oxygen decreasing with height, initiates many adaptive mechanisms. These adaptation mechanisms and acclimatization vary widely among individuals because of reasons such as environmental factors, exercise and cold. High altitude causes different changes in the cardiovascular system with various mechanisms. Although normal individuals easily adapt to these changes, this situation can lead to undesirable results in people with heart disease. For this reason, it should be known the effective evaluation of the people with known heart disease before traveling to high altitude and the complications due to the changes with height and the recommendations can be made to these patients. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 211-222

  16. Research of Cruise Industry Development Bottlenecks In China

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Cruise industry is a comprehensive new industry, which has a strong impetus to the development of other industries. In recent years, as the explosive growth in cruise market, China has become a global rapidly-growing emerging cruise market. The cruise industry has begun transiting from infancy to the development phase, in all likelihood facing a number of bottlenecks problem. In this paper, the development trend of the cruise industry is first analyzed, then the bottlenecks of cruise industry...

  17. High altitude organic gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariève; Pyakurel, Dipesh; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H.Sung, J.M.Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora, a high altitude Himalayan fungus-caterpillar product found in alpine meadows in China, Bhutan, Nepal, and India, has been used in the Traditional Chinese Medicine system for over 2000 years...

  18. Cruise ship seakeeping and passenger comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, R.P.; Bos, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade the design and construction of a substantial volume of large cruise ships has stimulated the evolution of cruise ship design. The MARIN and TNO involvement in these developments, and in particular the increase in size, have lead to new insights in how the ship design governs

  19. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    reflected a cerebral form of high altitude illness. In 1964, Fitch described a similar form of mountain sickness with neurolkgical manifestations in the...71% in thaL of Hackett et al; this sex distribution undoubtedly reflects the larger numbers of males presently involved in trekking and 44...HACE with loss of consciousness, absence of pupillary reactions, flaccidity of all extremities and the presence of bilateral Babinski responses. The

  20. Control integration concept for hypersonic cruise-turn maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1992-01-01

    Piloting difficulties associated with conducting aircraft maneuvers in hypersonic flight are caused in part by the nonintuitive nature of the aircraft response and the stringent constraints anticipated on allowable angle of attack and dynamic pressure variations. An approach is documented that provides precise, coordinated maneuver control during excursions from a hypersonic cruise flight path and the necessary flight condition constraints. The approach is to achieve specified guidance commands by resolving altitude and cross range errors into a load factor and bank angle command by using a coordinate transformation that acts as an interface between outer and inner loop flight controls. This interface, referred to as a 'resolver', applies constraints on angle of attack and dynamic pressure perturbations while prioritizing altitude regulation over cross range. An unpiloted test simulation, in which the resolver was used to drive inner loop flight controls, produced time histories of responses to guidance commands and atmospheric disturbances at Mach numbers of 6, 10, 15, and 20. Angle of attack and throttle perturbation constraints, combined with high speed flight effects and the desire to maintain constant dynamic pressure, significantly impact the maneuver envelope for a hypersonic vehicle.

  1. Improved Tracking of Research Cruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Ed; Sathyendranath, Shubha; de Leeuw, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Every year, several hundred ocean research cruises are conducted by academic institutions and government agencies worldwide, with major expenditures of finances and human resources. Ships may be in the same ocean area at the same time without prior knowledge of one another's activities, missing opportunities for joint work. Some ships go to sea with empty berths, which might have been filled if scientists from other institutions or countries had known about the availability of space. Many scientists using in situ instruments have missed opportunities to deploy them in seldom visited parts of the ocean because the scientists did not realize a ship was going to that area, and opportunities for ``sea truthing'' of satellite observations in remote regions are missed.

  2. UAV BORNE LOW ALTITUDE PHOTOGRAMMETRY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,the aforementioned three major aspects related to the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry, i.e., flying platform, imaging sensor system and data processing software, are discussed. First of all, according to the technical requirements about the least cruising speed, the shortest taxiing distance, the level of the flight control and the performance of turbulence flying, the performance and suitability of the available UAV platforms (e.g., fixed wing UAVs, the unmanned helicopters and the unmanned airships are compared and analyzed. Secondly, considering the restrictions on the load weight of a platform and the resolution pertaining to a sensor, together with the exposure equation and the theory of optical information, the principles of designing self-calibration and self-stabilizing combined wide-angle digital cameras (e.g., double-combined camera and four-combined camera are placed more emphasis on. Finally, a software named MAP-AT, considering the specialty of UAV platforms and sensors, is developed and introduced. Apart from the common functions of aerial image processing, MAP-AT puts more effort on automatic extraction, automatic checking and artificial aided adding of the tie points for images with big tilt angles. Based on the recommended process for low altitude photogrammetry with UAVs in this paper, more than ten aerial photogrammetry missions have been accomplished, the accuracies of Aerial Triangulation, Digital orthophotos(DOMand Digital Line Graphs(DLG of which meet the standard requirement of 1:2000, 1:1000 and 1:500 mapping.

  3. GALILEO CRUISE POSITION DATA (RTN COORDINATES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the Galileo spacecraft trajectory during the interplanetary cruise. The data have been derived from SPICE kernels at a 1 minute sample rate....

  4. GALILEO MAGNETOMETER CRUISE DATA (RTN COORDINATES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains data acquired by the Galileo Magnetometer during the Interplanetary Cruise to Jupiter. The data are at varying resolution depending on the...

  5. BioSampling Data from LHP Cruises

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes separate bioSampling logs from each LHP Bottomfishing cruise both within and outside of the Main Hawaiian Islands, as well as a master file...

  6. NEAR GRS SPECTRA FOR CRUISE 4 PHASE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) observations made during the fourth cruise phase of the NEAR mission. The individual observations are combined...

  7. High Altitude Towed Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of using an unmanned towed glider for high altitude scientific research had been previously proposed. This paper examines the feasibility of this concept by determining what impact the various characteristics of the tow line, glider and tow aircraft have on tow line drag. A description of the analysis and computer code used to generate the results is given. The parameters examined were glider altitude, tow aircraft glider separation distance, velocity, tow line drag coefficient and tow line material properties. The results from the analysis show that the tow line drag increases significantly with tow aircraft/glider separation. The drag increased from 940 N (211 lb) with a tow aircraft/glider separation of 3 km to 11,970 N (2691 lb) with a tow aircraft/glider separation of 10 km. The results also show that by varying some of the initial assumptions significant reductions in tow line drag and weight can be obtained. The variables which had the greatest effect on reducing the tow line drag were the decrease in tow aircraft/glider separation distance, the increase in tow line strength and the decrease in glider Mach number.

  8. Cruise control for segmented flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Milad; Singh, Mayank; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Günther, Axel

    2012-11-21

    Capitalizing on the benefits of microscale segmented flows, e.g., enhanced mixing and reduced sample dispersion, so far requires specialist training and accommodating a few experimental inconveniences. For instance, microscale gas-liquid flows in many current setups take at least 10 min to stabilize and iterative manual adjustments are needed to achieve or maintain desired mixing or residence times. Here, we report a cruise control strategy that overcomes these limitations and allows microscale gas-liquid (bubble) and liquid-liquid (droplet) flow conditions to be rapidly "adjusted" and maintained. Using this strategy we consistently establish bubble and droplet flows with dispersed phase (plug) velocities of 5-300 mm s(-1), plug lengths of 0.6-5 mm and continuous phase (slug) lengths of 0.5-3 mm. The mixing times (1-5 s), mass transfer times (33-250 ms) and residence times (3-300 s) can therefore be directly imposed by dynamically controlling the supply of the dispersed and the continuous liquids either from external pumps or from local pressurized reservoirs. In the latter case, no chip-external pumps, liquid-perfused tubes or valves are necessary while unwanted dead volumes are significantly reduced.

  9. [Altitude and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2012-06-01

    A stay at high altitude exposes an individual to various environmental changes (cold, exercise, isolation) but the most stressful for the body is hypoxia. However, the cardiovascular system yields some efficient mechanisms of acclimatization to oxygen lack. Hypoxia activates the adrenergic system and induces a tachycardia that decreases during a prolonged stay at altitude. The desensitization of the adrenergic system leads to a decrease in maximal heart rate and a protection of the myocardium against an energy disequilibrium that could be potentially harmful for the heart. Hypoxia induces a peripheral vasodilation and a pulmonary vasoconstriction, leading to few changes in systemic blood pressure and an increase in pulmonary blood pressure (PHT) that can contribute to a high altitude pulmonary edema. Advice to a cardiac patient who plans to go to high altitude should take into account that all diseases aggravated by increased adrenergic activity or associated with a PHT or a hypoxemia (right-to-left shunt) will be aggravated at high altitude. As altitude increases, a patient with a coronary disease will present an ischemic threshold for a lower power output during an EKG exercise test. The only test allowing predicting the tolerance to high altitude is the hypoxia exercise test realized at 30% of maxVO(2)and at an equivalent altitude of 4,800m. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Prospect of Cruising in Boka Kotorska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđica Perović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research are to get answers, to the following: the achieved level of development of cruise tourism in the Bay of Kotor; characteristics of cruise tourism in Kotor, what are the possibilities of innovation in the cruise tourism in the port of Kotor, how to adjust the cruise tourism sustainable development of Kotor, as a tourist destination? Merely by being a part of the Mediterranean, which represents a developing market in cruising, Boka Kotorska has endless potential. Yet, its significance is still to be recognized only if careful strategy of further development is followed. Having in mind that Boka Kotorska is a valuable natural and cultural heritage site, it is necessary to make assessments in terms of sustainability of this kind of tourism as well as actions that should be taken. Its limited geographical area, more suitable for minor boats and not ships, is something that should be taken into account. Other things such as tourist offer enrichment in the Old Town, including not just the seaside but background of Boka Kotorska in the tourist offer, would certainly improve the quality of tourist product. This would undoubtedly generate more profit.

  11. RV Ronald H. Brown Cruise RB1201 (EM122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cruise RB1201 was led by Chief Scientist Molly Baringer (AOML, NOAA, Miami) as per previous cruises RB0602, RB0701 and RB0901. The three main objectives were:...

  12. Customer Relationship Management in Asia/Pacific Cruise Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao Meng

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study has demonstrated Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in the cruise industry is vital for its long-term success. The globalization of business has directly influenced the overall business strategy of cruise companies worldwide. Many cruise companies are consolidating into a few large corporations through merger and acquisition. These big cruise companies are extending their businesses to every corner of the world, with increasing bigger ships providing high volume pa...

  13. Cooperative Scheduling of Imaging Observation Tasks for High-Altitude Airships Based on Propagation Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative scheduling problem on high-altitude airships for imaging observation tasks is discussed. A constraint programming model is established by analyzing the main constraints, which takes the maximum task benefit and the minimum cruising distance as two optimization objectives. The cooperative scheduling problem of high-altitude airships is converted into a main problem and a subproblem by adopting hierarchy architecture. The solution to the main problem can construct the preliminary matching between tasks and observation resource in order to reduce the search space of the original problem. Furthermore, the solution to the sub-problem can detect the key nodes that each airship needs to fly through in sequence, so as to get the cruising path. Firstly, the task set is divided by using k-core neighborhood growth cluster algorithm (K-NGCA. Then, a novel swarm intelligence algorithm named propagation algorithm (PA is combined with the key node search algorithm (KNSA to optimize the cruising path of each airship and determine the execution time interval of each task. Meanwhile, this paper also provides the realization approach of the above algorithm and especially makes a detailed introduction on the encoding rules, search models, and propagation mechanism of the PA. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show the proposed models and algorithms are effective and feasible.

  14. Ervaringen met Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) in een korte praktijkproef.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    2003-01-01

    Experiences with Advanced Cruise Control in traffic; a limited experiment. Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) is an ordinary cruise control in which the desired speed is installed manually, but in which the headway time to the vehicle in front is also taken into account. If the headway time becomes less

  15. 78 FR 51728 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services... cooperative activity with the cruise ship industry. VSP helps the cruise ship industry prevent and control the...

  16. Optimum Climb to Cruise Noise Trajectories for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2003-01-01

    By entraining large quantities of ambient air into advanced ejector nozzles, the jet noise of the proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) is expected to be reduced to levels acceptable for airport-vicinity noise certification. Away from the airport, however, this entrained air is shut off and the engines are powered up from their cutback levels to provide better thrust for the climb to cruise altitude. Unsuppressed jet noise levels propagating to the ground far from the airport are expected to be high. Complicating this problem is the HSCT's relative noise level with respect to the subsonic commercial fleet of 2010, which is expected to be much quieter than it is today after the retirement of older, louder, domestic stage II aircraft by the year 2000. In this study, the classic energy state approximation theory is extended to calculate trajectories that minimize the climb to cruise noise of the HSCT. The optimizer dynamically chooses the optimal altitude velocity trajectory, the engine power setting, and whether the ejector should be stowed or deployed with respect to practical aircraft climb constraints and noise limits.

  17. Effect of cruise altitude and alternative aviation fuels on radiative forcing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The radiative forcing caused by the emissions of jet aircraft is calculated using data from an aircraft performance model. Data from the performance model is needed to calculate the emissions of the aircraft. The sensitivity function and lifetime of the emitted gasses and particles are used to

  18. Management and Marketing Elements in Maritime Cruises Industry. European Cruise Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romeo Boşneagu; Carmen Elena Coca; Florin Sorescu

    2015-01-01

    European cruises market has a major impact on all aspects of maritime industry: boarding ports, ports of call, shipbuilding, ship maintenance, supplies, sales and marketing, ship crews and administrative facilities...

  19. Acute high-altitude sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Luks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available At any point 1–5 days following ascent to altitudes ≥2500 m, individuals are at risk of developing one of three forms of acute altitude illness: acute mountain sickness, a syndrome of nonspecific symptoms including headache, lassitude, dizziness and nausea; high-altitude cerebral oedema, a potentially fatal illness characterised by ataxia, decreased consciousness and characteristic changes on magnetic resonance imaging; and high-altitude pulmonary oedema, a noncardiogenic form of pulmonary oedema resulting from excessive hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be fatal if not recognised and treated promptly. This review provides detailed information about each of these important clinical entities. After reviewing the clinical features, epidemiology and current understanding of the pathophysiology of each disorder, we describe the current pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of these diseases.

  20. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  1. NEAR MAG DATA FOR CRUISE4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the NEAR magnetometer (MAG) data for the CRUISE4 phase. The data set begins on 1998-12-24T00:00:00.000 and ends 2000-01-10T23:59:59.999 . The...

  2. Masterplan Wind - Seabirds Cruise Report January 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, R.H.; Witte, L.

    2011-01-01

    This cruise report presents the seabird and marine mammal data collected during the 10th ‘fish egg and fish larvae’ survey on the Dutch Continental Shelf, in a series of 12 monthly surveys from April 2010 till March 2011.

  3. Advanced Cruise Control en verkeersveiligheid : een literatuurstudie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoetink, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturers and dealers present Advanced Cruise Control (ACC) as a system to increase the comfort of car driving, but not as a system to increase road safety. This study presents the possible road safety effects of ACC, based on research results of recent literature. A structure was created for

  4. Developing eco-adaptive cruise control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The study demonstrates the feasibility of two eco-driving applications which reduces vehicle fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, the study develops an eco-drive system that combines eco-cruise control logic with state-of-the...

  5. Creating ubiquitous intelligent sensing environments (CRUISE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    , bringing important social benefits for each person and for the society as a whole. Taking into account the current fragmentation in the European research in this field, CRUISE Network of Excellence (NoE) intends to be a focal point in the coordination of research on communication and application aspects...

  6. Acquisition and cruise sensing for attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, G. D., Jr.; Schmidt, L. F.

    1977-01-01

    Modified wideangle analog cruise sun sensor coupled with changes in optic attitude correction capabilities, eliminate need of acquisition and sun gate sensors, making on-course navigation of spacecraft flying interplanetary missions less risky and costly. Operational characteristics potentially make system applicable to guidance and control of solar energy collection systems.

  7. Altitude training for the marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert; Levine, Benjamin D

    2007-01-01

    For nearly 40 years, scientists and elite endurance athletes have been investigating the use of altitude in an effort to enhance exercise performance. While the results of many early studies on the use of altitude training for sea level performance enhancement have produced equivocal results, newer studies using the 'live high, train low' altitude training model have demonstrated significant improvements in red cell mass, maximal oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake at ventilatory threshold, and 3000m and 5000m race time. For the marathoner looking to add altitude training to their peak performance plans, residence at an altitude of 2000-2500m, a minimum of 20 hours per day, for 4 weeks, appears to hold the greatest potential for performance enhancement. Based on published mathematical models of marathon performance, a marathoner with a typical or average running economy who performed 'live high, train low' altitude training could experience an improvement of nearly 8.5 minutes (or approximately 5%) over the 26.2-mile race distance.

  8. Certification and safety aspects relating to the transport of passengers on high altitude balloons in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmaker, Annelie

    2014-07-01

    High-altitude balloons typically fly between 25 and 50 km in altitude, which, while below the Karman line of 100 km, is yet far above the altitudes typically flown by aircraft. For example, the highest-flying commercial aircraft - the Concorde - had a maximum cruising altitude of only 18 km. zero2infinity, a Spanish company, is currently developing a pressurized pod named “bloon” which will be capable of lifting six people, including two pilot crew members and four paying passengers, to an altitude of 36 km through the use of high-altitude balloons. The boundary between Airspace and Outer Space has never been legally defined, mostly because of the lack of activities taking place between the altitude where airplanes fly and the lowest orbiting spacecraft. High-altitude balloons do fly at these in-between altitudes and the prospect of commercializing access to these parts of the stratosphere poses some questions in a new light. Given the relatively low altitude at which they fly, it may well be that these types of balloons would be considered to operate exclusively within air space. However, given the technology involved in crewed high altitude balloon flights, which is more similar to spacecraft engineering than to traditional hot-air or gas ballooning, it is necessary to evaluate the various legal regimes, codes, and regulations that would apply to such flights, especially regarding licenses and liabilities. For high altitude balloon flights commencing in Europe, the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) would very likely be the competent certification or licensing agency for these flights, although there would likely be input from various national aviation authorities as well. However, because the European Commission (EC) has not yet issued regulations regarding commercial spaceflight, particularly the use of high altitude balloons, new rules and regulations governing such flights may still need to be drafted and promulgated. With the development of

  9. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D. K.; Wheeler, L.; Mathias, D.

    2016-12-01

    The entry and break-up of small asteroids were simulated with a hydrocode to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. A strong asteroid, such as a monolithic boulder, structurally fail and deposit most of their energy around the altitude at which dynamic ram pressure exceeds the cohesive strength of the asteroid. A weaker asteroid, such as a loose rubble pile, will structurally fail at high altitude, but continue to fly through the atmosphere as a single unit until reaching lower altitudes where the increased aerodynamic pressure is sufficient to disrupt and disperse the rubble resulting in a flare. Airburst from weak asteroids consequently have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.This study focuses on small NEO asteroids which are likely to airburst rather than impact the ground where the damage created on the ground depends strongly on the altitude at which most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management. Airbursting asteroids are not a threat on a national level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured by flying glass.

  10. High-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X-Q. Xu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH is a specific disease affecting populations that live at high elevations. The prevalence of HAPH among those residing at high altitudes needs to be further defined. Whereas reduction in nitric oxide production may be one mechanism for the development of HAPH, the roles of endothelin-1 and prostaglandin I2 pathways in the pathogenesis of HAPH deserve further study. Although some studies have suggested that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of HAPH, data published to date are insufficient for the identification of a significant number of gene polymorphims in HAPH. The clinical presentation of HAPH is nonspecific. Exertional dyspnoea is the most common symptom and signs related to right heart failure are common in late stages of HAPH. Echocardiography is the most useful screening tool and right heart catheterisation is the gold standard for the diagnosis of HAPH. The ideal management for HAPH is migration to lower altitudes. Phosphodiesterase 5 is an attractive drug target for the treatment of HAPH. In addition, acetazolamide is a promising therapeutic agent for high-altitude pulmonary hypertension. To date, no evidence has confirmed whether endothelin-receptor antagonists have efficacy in the treatment of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Travelling safely to places at high altitude - Understanding and preventing altitude illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Ivan

    2017-06-01

    Greater numbers of people are travelling to places at high altitude each year. Altitude illness is common in places at high altitude and may be life-threatening. General practitioners (GPs) are best placed to provide evidence-based advice to keep travellers well informed of the possible risks they may encounter in places at high altitude. The aim of this article is to review knowledge on altitude illness in order to help GPs assist patients to travel safely to places at high altitude. Acclimatisation to high altitude is a complex process and when inadequate leads to the pathological changes of altitude illness, including high-altitude headache, cerebral oedema, pulmonary oedema and acute mountain sickness. Higher ascent, faster rate of ascent and a previous history of altitude illness increase the risk of altitude illness. Acetazolamide and other medications used to prevent altitude illness are discussed in detail, including the finding that inhaled budesonide may prevent altitude illness.

  12. Determinants of cruise passengers’ expenditures in the port of call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maršenka Marksel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cruise tourism generates different types of cruise consumption and related indirect, direct and induced expenditure effects, in homeports as well as in ports of call. Cruise passengers’ expenditures produce positive economic effects for destinations, from increasing the incomes and employment, to tax incomes, duties, etc. Therefore, it is no doubt that cruise stakeholders and local economies can benefit from increased cruise passenger consumption. To stimulate higher consumption and passengers’ satisfaction, it is necessary to design the supportive policy framework and build appropriate quality of products and services. Identifying influential variables of cruise passengers’ expenditures in this sense enables the design of appropriate policies and measures. In the current research, based on a survey of 357 cruise passengers, several variables included in a new theoretical model of the expenditures determinants, such as gender, nationality, frequency of cruising and frequency of visits, were found to be statistically significantly associated with cruise passengers’ expenditures. Several conclusions and suggestions to stimulate cruise passenger expenditures based on research findings are provided.

  13. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  14. Stakeholder Orientation in Cruise Lines’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Penco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with the extant management literature, mission statements are crucial for the sustainability and growth of any firms and have been considered to be a tool for the strategic management process. Despite the considerable attention awarded to this theme, the role of the mission statement in the strategic management of tourism firms has not been sufficiently highlighted. The present paper tries to bridge this literature gap and aims to (i analyze the content of mission statements; and (ii investigate the stakeholder orientation of cruise line mission statements. We apply a content analysis method to analyze the mission statements of 44 cruise lines, employing three different perspectives: (1 the inclusion of stakeholder groups; (2 mentions of specific “mission” components; (3 reference to four goals usually assigned to mission statements. The analysis was performed using the software package QDA-Miner. The results suggest that it is possible to identify four clusters of firms that present similar content in their mission statements, and that cruise companies tend to reserve a major attention to customers. This contribution presents some valuable research implications mainly useful for researchers and academics, but also maybe of benefit to professionals and investors.

  15. MAINTAINING VEHICLE SPEED USING A MECHANICAL CRUISE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter GIROVSKÝ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we would like to present cruise control realization. This cruise control is presented as mechanical device for vehicle speed maintenance and has been proposed as a low cost solution. Principle of function in mechanical cruise control is based on a position control of throttle. For the right action of mechanical cruise control it was need to solve some particular tasks related with speed sensing, construct of device for control of throttle position and design of control system of whole mechanical cruise control. Information about car velocity we have gained using Hall sensor attached on a magnetic ring of car tachometer. For control of the throttle was used a small servo drive and as the control unit was used Arduino. The designed solution of mechanical cruise control have been realized for car Škoda Felicia.

  16. Development of Aptitude at Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Alexandra M.; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Botti, Ana Baya; Bucks, Romola; Holloway, John W.; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Webster, Rebecca J.; Baldeweg, Torsten; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of people currently live at altitudes in excess of 2500 metres, where oxygen supply is limited, but very little is known about the development of brain and behavioural function under such hypoxic conditions. We describe the physiological, cognitive and behavioural profile of a large cohort of infants (6-12 months), children (6-10 years)…

  17. Customer orientation of cruise destinations in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada – exploring key issues for ports and the cruise lines

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, John S.; Losekoot, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the customer needs of cruise passengers in a context of industry ports in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was conducted for the Cruise Association of Newfoundland and Labrador (CANAL) providing primary data as part of their assessment for their Port Readiness Program. The results are generated from a survey of 34 key decision-makers working in 24 ports in the province. Another survey representing the views of 12 cruise lines operating in these...

  18. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety What is considered a high altitude? How is ...

  19. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Project Work in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA?s Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2011) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  20. Biofuel blending reduces particle emissions from aircraft engines at cruise conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H; Thornhill, Kenneth L; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Sauer, Daniel; D'Ascoli, Eugenio; Kim, Jin; Lichtenstern, Michael; Scheibe, Monika; Beaton, Brian; Beyersdorf, Andreas J; Barrick, John; Bulzan, Dan; Corr, Chelsea A; Crosbie, Ewan; Jurkat, Tina; Martin, Robert; Riddick, Dean; Shook, Michael; Slover, Gregory; Voigt, Christiane; White, Robert; Winstead, Edward; Yasky, Richard; Ziemba, Luke D; Brown, Anthony; Schlager, Hans; Anderson, Bruce E

    2017-03-15

    Aviation-related aerosol emissions contribute to the formation of contrail cirrus clouds that can alter upper tropospheric radiation and water budgets, and therefore climate. The magnitude of air-traffic-related aerosol-cloud interactions and the ways in which these interactions might change in the future remain uncertain. Modelling studies of the present and future effects of aviation on climate require detailed information about the number of aerosol particles emitted per kilogram of fuel burned and the microphysical properties of those aerosols that are relevant for cloud formation. However, previous observational data at cruise altitudes are sparse for engines burning conventional fuels, and no data have previously been reported for biofuel use in-flight. Here we report observations from research aircraft that sampled the exhaust of engines onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft as they burned conventional Jet A fuel and a 50:50 (by volume) blend of Jet A fuel and a biofuel derived from Camelina oil. We show that, compared to using conventional fuels, biofuel blending reduces particle number and mass emissions immediately behind the aircraft by 50 to 70 per cent. Our observations quantify the impact of biofuel blending on aerosol emissions at cruise conditions and provide key microphysical parameters, which will be useful to assess the potential of biofuel use in aviation as a viable strategy to mitigate climate change.

  1. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  2. Biofuel blending reduces particle emissions from aircraft engines at cruise conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard H.; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Sauer, Daniel; D'Ascoli, Eugenio; Kim, Jin; Lichtenstern, Michael; Scheibe, Monika; Beaton, Brian; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Barrick, John; Bulzan, Dan; Corr, Chelsea A.; Crosbie, Ewan; Jurkat, Tina; Martin, Robert; Riddick, Dean; Shook, Michael; Slover, Gregory; Voigt, Christiane; White, Robert; Winstead, Edward; Yasky, Richard; Ziemba, Luke D.; Brown, Anthony; Schlager, Hans; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2017-03-01

    Aviation-related aerosol emissions contribute to the formation of contrail cirrus clouds that can alter upper tropospheric radiation and water budgets, and therefore climate. The magnitude of air-traffic-related aerosol-cloud interactions and the ways in which these interactions might change in the future remain uncertain. Modelling studies of the present and future effects of aviation on climate require detailed information about the number of aerosol particles emitted per kilogram of fuel burned and the microphysical properties of those aerosols that are relevant for cloud formation. However, previous observational data at cruise altitudes are sparse for engines burning conventional fuels, and no data have previously been reported for biofuel use in-flight. Here we report observations from research aircraft that sampled the exhaust of engines onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft as they burned conventional Jet A fuel and a 50:50 (by volume) blend of Jet A fuel and a biofuel derived from Camelina oil. We show that, compared to using conventional fuels, biofuel blending reduces particle number and mass emissions immediately behind the aircraft by 50 to 70 per cent. Our observations quantify the impact of biofuel blending on aerosol emissions at cruise conditions and provide key microphysical parameters, which will be useful to assess the potential of biofuel use in aviation as a viable strategy to mitigate climate change.

  3. Improvement of Adaptive Cruise Control Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagami Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Adaptive Cruise Control system (ACC, a system which reduces the driving burden on the driver. The ACC system primarily supports four driving modes on the road and controls the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle in order to maintain a set speed or to avoid a crash. This paper proposes more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by radar while cornering, with consideration for the vehicle sideslip angle, and also of controlling the distance between vehicles. By making full use of the proposed identification logic for preceding vehicles and path estimation logic, an improvement in driving stability was achieved.

  4. Dissemination Protocols to Support Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) Merging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a form of cruise control in which vehicles cooperatively control their speed using wireless communication. Previously we have implemented CACC using beaconing: the regular broadcasting of status information using 802.11p. Currently we are concerned with

  5. Automated Merging in a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Brogle, Marc; Masip Bruin, Xavier; Braun, Torsten; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) is a form of cruise control in which a vehicle maintains a constant headway to its preceding vehicle using radar and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. Within the Connect & Drive1 project we have implemented and tested a prototype of such a system,

  6. Automated Merging in a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) is a form of cruise control in which a vehicle maintains a constant headway to its preceding vehicle using radar and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. Within the Connect & Drive1 project we have implemented and tested a prototype of such a system,

  7. Career Cruising Impact on the Self Efficacy of Deciding Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smother, Anthony William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of "Career Cruising"© on self-efficacy of deciding majors in a university setting. The use of the self-assessment instrument, "Career Cruising"©, was used with measuring the career-decision making self-efficacy in a pre and post-test with deciding majors. The independent…

  8. 77 FR 12843 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services... cruise ships. VSP operates under the authority of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 264, ``Control...

  9. 77 FR 50511 - Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fees for Sanitation Inspections of Cruise Ships AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services... prevent and control the introduction, transmission, and spread of gastrointestinal illnesses on cruise...

  10. Effects on inlet technology on cruise speed selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, L. H.; Santman, D. M.; Horie, G.; Miller, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    The impact of cruise speed on technology level for certain aircraft components is examined. External-compression inlets were compared with mixed compression, self starting inlets at cruise Mach numbers of 2.0 and 2.3. Inlet engine combinations that provided the greatest aircraft range were identified. Results show that increased transonic to cruise corrected air flow ratio gives decreased range for missions dominated by supersonic cruise. It is also found important that inlets be designed to minimize spillage drag at subsonic cruise, because of the need for efficient performance for overland operations. The external compression inlet emerged as the probable first choice at Mach 2.0, while the self starting inlet was the probable first choice at Mach 2.3. Airframe propulsion system interference effects were significant, and further study is needed to assess the existing design methods and to develop improvements.

  11. Measuring high-altitude adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lorna G

    2017-11-01

    High altitudes (>8,000 ft or 2,500 m) provide an experiment of nature for measuring adaptation and the physiological processes involved. Studies conducted over the past ~25 years in Andeans, Tibetans, and, less often, Ethiopians show varied but distinct O2 transport traits from those of acclimatized newcomers, providing indirect evidence for genetic adaptation to high altitude. Short-term (acclimatization, developmental) and long-term (genetic) responses to high altitude exhibit a temporal gradient such that, although all influence O2 content, the latter also improve O2 delivery and metabolism. Much has been learned concerning the underlying physiological processes, but additional studies are needed on the regulation of blood flow and O2 utilization. Direct evidence of genetic adaptation comes from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genome scans and whole genome sequencing studies that have identified gene regions acted upon by natural selection. Efforts have begun to understand the connections between the two with Andean studies on the genetic factors raising uterine blood flow, fetal growth, and susceptibility to Chronic Mountain Sickness and Tibetan studies on genes serving to lower hemoglobin and pulmonary arterial pressure. Critical for future studies will be the selection of phenotypes with demonstrable effects on reproductive success, the calculation of actual fitness costs, and greater inclusion of women among the subjects being studied. The well-characterized nature of the O2 transport system, the presence of multiple long-resident populations, and relevance for understanding hypoxic disorders in all persons underscore the importance of understanding how evolutionary adaptation to high altitude has occurred.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Variation in O2 transport characteristics among Andean, Tibetan, and, when available, Ethiopian high-altitude residents supports the existence of genetic adaptations that improve the distribution of blood flow to vital organs

  12. Imaging Tasks Scheduling for High-Altitude Airship in Emergency Condition Based on Energy-Aware Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhimeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship’s cruising speed based on the distribution of task’s deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible.

  13. Formation of Strategy of Efficient Development of Cruise Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohunova Natalia A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents conceptualisation of basic provisions on formation of strategy of efficient development of cruise tourism in Ukraine. Based on the study of problems of the cruise sector development, the article identifies the main goal and structures relevant tasks, justifies main reference points and strategic priorities of development of the cruise industry, specifies principles, mechanisms and expected results of realisation of the designated strategic course. The article states that efficient development of cruise tourism requires creation of an effective system of regulatory and legal, organisational, scientific and methodical, financial and information support. The article offers methodical recommendations on preparation of statistical reports and submission of statistical information about the state and development of the cruise market to the bodies of state statistics, which would allow identification of its quantitative and qualitative parameters, carry out monitoring of the process of creation of the cruise tourist product, analyse practical consequences of measures on stimulation and regulation of the cruise sphere and assess results of realisation of priority directions of strategic development.

  14. Aerodynamic performances of cruise missile flying above local terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Saad, M. R.; Che Idris, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Sujipto, S.

    2016-10-01

    Cruise missile can be classified as a smart bomb and also Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) due to its ability to move and manoeuvre by itself without a pilot. Cruise missile flies in constant velocity in cruising stage. Malaysia is one of the consumers of cruise missiles that are imported from other nations, which can have distinct geographic factors including their local terrains compared to Malaysia. Some of the aerodynamic performances of missile such as drag and lift coefficients can be affected by the local geographic conditions in Malaysia, which is different from the origin nation. Therefore, a detailed study must be done to get aerodynamic performance of cruise missiles that operate in Malaysia. The effect of aerodynamic angles such as angle of attack and side slip can be used to investigate the aerodynamic performances of cruise missile. Hence, subsonic wind tunnel testings were conducted to obtain the aerodynamic performances of the missile at various angle of attack and sideslip angles. Smoke visualization was also performed to visualize the behaviour of flow separation. The optimum angle of attack found was at α=21° and side slip, β=10° for optimum pitching and yawing motion of cruise missile.

  15. Simulation analysis of adaptive cruise prediction control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Cui, Sheng Min

    2017-09-01

    Predictive control is suitable for multi-variable and multi-constraint system control.In order to discuss the effect of predictive control on the vehicle longitudinal motion, this paper establishes the expected spacing model by combining variable pitch spacing and the of safety distance strategy. The model predictive control theory and the optimization method based on secondary planning are designed to obtain and track the best expected acceleration trajectory quickly. Simulation models are established including predictive and adaptive fuzzy control. Simulation results show that predictive control can realize the basic function of the system while ensuring the safety. The application of predictive and fuzzy adaptive algorithm in cruise condition indicates that the predictive control effect is better.

  16. Rocket Engine Altitude Simulation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jody L.; Lansaw, John

    2010-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center is embarking on a very ambitious era in its rocket engine propulsion test history. The first new large rocket engine test stand to be built at Stennis Space Center in over 40 years is under construction. The new A3 Test Stand is designed to test very large (294,000 Ibf thrust) cryogenic propellant rocket engines at a simulated altitude of 100,000 feet. A3 Test Stand will have an engine testing chamber where the engine will be fired after the air in the chamber has been evacuated to a pressure at the simulated altitude of less than 0.16 PSIA. This will result in a very unique environment with extremely low pressures inside a very large chamber and ambient pressures outside this chamber. The test chamber is evacuated of air using a 2-stage diffuser / ejector system powered by 5000 lb/sec of steam produced by 27 chemical steam generators. This large amount of power and flow during an engine test will result in a significant acoustic and vibrational environment in and around A3 Test Stand.

  17. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza Shahid

    Full Text Available Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT, hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig. Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number. Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number ‘3’ and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number. Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects. Keywords: Mach number, Reynolds number, Blunt body, Altitude effect, Angle of attacks

  18. Research of barometric altitude measurement technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Ye; Chang Li Min; Li Jun

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure measurement is closed related to the aircraft flight and it is the key factor directly affecting the aviation flight safety. With the development of aircraft, the barometric altitude measurement technology is more and more prominent and important. According to the barometric altitude measurement principle and the general barometric altitude measurement methods, four kinds of measurement methods of bellows, vibration cylinder, silicon resonant and silicon p...

  19. Aspirated Compressors for High Altitude Engines Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences proposes to incorporate aspirated compressor technology into a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) concept engine. Aspiration has been proven...

  20. InRidge program: Preliminary results from the first cruise

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Iyer, S.D.; Rao, M.M.M.; Banerjee, R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Ghose, I.

    The first cruise under India's own Ridge research initiative, InRidge collected new data on bathymetry, free-air gravity and magnetic anomalies across the ridge axis between the Vema and Zhivago transform faults in the Central Indian Ridge...

  1. Acoustic Doppler current profile (ADCP) data from FRD cruises

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of raw data obtained from the ADCP for cruises conducted by the SWFSC Fisheries Resources Division from 1991 to present.

  2. Pining for home: Studying crew homesickness aboard a cruise liner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    crew are working and living in a situation that is very different to their home. ... and practices. Keywords: homesickness, cruise-liner, crewmembers, shipboard hotel services ... such as age, gender, social class, or culture have an impact of.

  3. NEW HORIZONS LORRI PLUTO CRUISE RAW V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Raw data taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager instrument during the pluto cruise mission phase. This is VERSION 1.0 of...

  4. NEW HORIZONS LORRI PLUTO CRUISE CALIBRATED V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager instrument during the pluto cruise mission phase. This is VERSION...

  5. Intelligent cruise control field operational test. Volume I, Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This document reports on a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). The main goal of the work is to characterize safety and comfort issues that are fundamental to human inte...

  6. A simulator evaluation of different forms of intelligent cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Janssen, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In een simulatorexperiment is onderzoek gedaan naar rijgedrag bij verschillende uitvoeringsvormen van Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC). ICC's die zelf ingrijpen geven lagere snelheden op secties met een speciale snelheidslimiet, maar hogere snelheden op de overige delen.

  7. Vehicle-to-infrastructure program cooperative adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report documents the work completed by the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Consortium during the project titled Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC). Participating companies in the V2I Cons...

  8. Intelligent cruise control field operational test : interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This interim document reports on a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). The overarching goal of the work is to characterize safety and comfort issues that are fundamenta...

  9. Evaluation of the intelligent cruise control system. Volume 2, Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) system evaluation was sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and based on an ICC Field Operational Test (FOT) conducted under a cooperative agreement between the NHTSA and the Univ...

  10. Cruise control: prevention and management of sexual violence at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mike

    2015-03-01

    The drug-related death of Dianne Brimble on the P&O cruise liner Pacific Sky in 2002 triggered a wide-ranging review of the safety on board cruise ships operating in the Australian market. This column assesses the frequency of recent sexual assaults on cruise ships and examines the findings and recommendations of the Brimble inquest, focusing on the Commonwealth government's response to those recommendations. The problem of jurisdiction on flag of convenience registered ships is discussed, with emphasis on a possible co-operative arrangement between Australian police and foreign flag states. It seems likely that the United States and Canadian models of cruise ship regulation to enhance passenger safety will in part be introduced in Australia.

  11. Applying the "Principles of War" to Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carney, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. military must assume its future adversaries will possess arsenals that include sophisticated cruise missiles capable of being launched from multiple platforms and engaging both land and sea targets...

  12. The Joint Cruise Missiles Project: An Acquisition History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    information presented in this report. Xi . ....... --------- GLOSSARY ABL Armored box launcher ACE Alternate cruise engine ACSM Advanced conventional... guidelines previously provided to the DMA by letter of June 30, 1977, for the generation of data bases required by land-attack cruise missiles that...of Air Force and Navy studies, including the Air Force Strike Options Comparison Study and the Advanced Conventional Standoff Missile ( ACSM ) Study

  13. User's Manual for Total-Tree Multiproduct Cruise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander Clark; Thomas M. Burgan; Richard C. Field; Peter E. Dress

    1985-01-01

    This interactive computer program uses standard tree-cruise data to estimate the weight and volume of the total tree, saw logs, plylogs, chipping logs, pulpwood, crown firewood, and logging residue in timber stands.Input is cumulative cruise data for tree counts by d.b.h. and height. Output is in tables: board-foot volume by d.b.h.; total-tree and tree-component...

  14. Variation in aerodynamic coefficients with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Faiza; Hussain, Mukkarum; Baig, Mirza Mehmood; Haq, Ihtram ul

    Precise aerodynamics performance prediction plays key role for a flying vehicle to get its mission completed within desired accuracy. Aerodynamic coefficients for same Mach number can be different at different altitude due to difference in Reynolds number. Prediction of these aerodynamics coefficients can be made through experiments, analytical solution or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Advancements in computational power have generated the concept of using CFD as a virtual Wind Tunnel (WT), hence aerodynamic performance prediction in present study is based upon CFD (numerical test rig). Simulations at different altitudes for a range of Mach numbers with zero angle of attack are performed to predict axial force coefficient behavior with altitude (Reynolds number). Similar simulations for a fixed Mach number '3' and a range of angle of attacks are also carried out to envisage the variation in normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude (Reynolds number). Results clearly depict that the axial force coefficient is a function of altitude (Reynolds number) and increase as altitude increases, especially for subsonic region. Variation in axial force coefficient with altitude (Reynolds number) slightly increases for larger values of angle of attacks. Normal force and pitching moment coefficients do not depend on altitude (Reynolds number) at smaller values of angle of attacks but show slight decrease as altitude increases. Present study suggests that variation of normal force and pitching moment coefficients with altitude can be neglected but the variation of axial force coefficient with altitude should be considered for vehicle fly in dense atmosphere. It is recommended to continue this study to more complex configurations for various Mach numbers with side slip and real gas effects.

  15. Intelligent cruise control met wegkantcommunicatie: effecten op het rijgedrag [Intelligent Cruise Control and roadside communication: effects on driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.H.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Janssen, W.H.; Coemet, M.

    1995-01-01

    In een simulatorexperiment is onderzoek gedaan naar rijgedrag bij verschillende uitvoeringsvormen van Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC). ICC's die zelf ingrijpen geven lagere snelheden op secties met een speciale snelheidslimiet, maar hogere snelheden op de overige delen.

  16. Science requirements and feasibility/design studies of a very-high-altitude aircraft for atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Philip B.; Lux, David P.; Reed, R. Dale; Loewenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The advantages and shortcomings of currently available aircraft for use in very high altitude missions to study such problems as polar ozone or stratosphere-troposphere exchange pose the question of whether to develop advanced aircraft for atmospheric research. To answer this question, NASA conducted a workshop to determine science needs and feasibility/design studies to assess whether and how those needs could be met. It was determined that there was a need for an aircraft that could cruise at an altitude of 30 km with a range of 6,000 miles with vertical profiling down to 10 km and back at remote points and carry a payload of 3,000 lbs.

  17. High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 01-2-620A High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse ( HEMP ...planning and execution of testing Army/DOD equipment to determine the effects of Horizontal Component High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse ( HEMP ...5 2.3 HEMP Pre/Post Test Illuminations ..................................................... 7 3. REQUIRED TEST

  18. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  19. Delayed appearance of high altitude retinal hemorrhages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barthelmes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal hemorrhages have been described as a component of high altitude retinopathy (HAR in association with altitude illness. In this prospective high altitude study, we aimed to gain new insights into the pathophysiology of HAR and explored whether HAR could be a valid early indicator of altitude illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 28 mountaineers were randomly assigned to two ascent profiles during a research expedition to Mt. Muztagh Ata (7546 m/24,751 ft. Digital fundus photographs were taken prior to expedition at 490 m (1,607 ft, during expedition at 4497 m (14,750 ft = base camp, 5533 m (18,148 ft, 6265 m (20,549 ft, 6865 m (22,517 ft and 4.5 months thereafter at 490 m. Number, size and time of occurrence of hemorrhages were recorded. Oxygen saturation (SpO₂ and hematocrit were also assessed. 79% of all climbers exhibited retinal hemorrhages during the expedition. Number and area of retinal bleeding increased moderately to medium altitudes (6265 m. Most retinal hemorrhages were detected after return to base camp from a high altitude. No post-expeditional ophthalmic sequelae were detected. Significant negative (SpO₂ Beta: -0.4, p<0.001 and positive (hematocrit Beta: 0.2, p = 0.002, time at altitude Beta: 0.33, p = 0.003 correlations with hemorrhages were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When closely examined, a very large amount of climbers exhibit retinal hemorrhages during exposure to high altitudes. The incidence of retinal hemorrhages may be greater than previously appreciated as a definite time lag was observed between highest altitude reached and development of retinal bleeding. Retinal hemorrhages should not be considered warning signs of impending severe altitude illness due to their delayed appearance.

  20. Driver behaviour with adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Young, Mark S

    2005-08-15

    This paper reports on the evaluation of adaptive cruise control (ACC) from a psychological perspective. It was anticipated that ACC would have an effect upon the psychology of driving, i.e. make the driver feel like they have less control, reduce the level of trust in the vehicle, make drivers less situationally aware, but workload might be reduced and driving might be less stressful. Drivers were asked to drive in a driving simulator under manual and ACC conditions. Analysis of variance techniques were used to determine the effects of workload (i.e. amount of traffic) and feedback (i.e. degree of information from the ACC system) on the psychological variables measured (i.e. locus of control, trust, workload, stress, mental models and situation awareness). The results showed that: locus of control and trust were unaffected by ACC, whereas situation awareness, workload and stress were reduced by ACC. Ways of improving situation awareness could include cues to help the driver predict vehicle trajectory and identify conflicts.

  1. Fuel Economy Impacts of Manual, Conventional Cruise Control, and Predictive Eco-Cruise Control Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjun Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field experiment that was designed to compare manual driving, conventional cruise control (CCC driving, and Eco-cruise control (ECC driving with regard to fuel economy. The field experiment was conducted on five test vehicles along a section of Interstate 81 that was comprised of ±4% uphill and downhill grade sections. Using an Onboard Diagnostic II reader, instantaneous fuel consumption rates and other driving parameters were collected with and without the CCC system enabled. The collected data were compared with regard to fuel economy, throttle control, and travel time. The results demonstrate that CCC enhances vehicle fuel economy by 3.3 percent on average relative to manual driving, however this difference was not found to be statistically significant at a 5 percent significance level. The results demonstrate that CCC driving is more efficient on downhill versus uphill sections. In addition, the study demonstrates that an ECC system can produce fuel savings ranging between 8 and 16 percent with increases in travel times ranging between 3 and 6 percent. These benefits appear to be largest for heavier vehicles (SUVs.

  2. Pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Schultheiss

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify the pupillary light reaction during high altitude exposure using the state of the art Compact Integrated Pupillograph (CIP and to investigate a potential correlation of altered pupil reaction with severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS. This work is related to the Tübingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODS: Parameters of pupil dynamics (initial diameter, amplitude, relative amplitude, latency, constriction velocity were quantified in 14 healthy volunteers at baseline (341 m and high altitude (4559 m over several days using the CIP. Scores of AMS, peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were assessed for respective correlations with pupil dynamics. For statistical analysis JMP was used and data are shown in terms of intra-individual normalized values (value during exposure/value at baseline and the 95% confidence interval for each time point. RESULTS: During high altitude exposure the initial diameter size was significantly reduced (p<0.05. In contrast, the amplitude, the relative amplitude and the contraction velocity of the light reaction were significantly increased (p<0.05 on all days measured at high altitude. The latency did not show any significant differences at high altitude compared to baseline recordings. Changes in pupil parameters did not correlate with scores of AMS. CONCLUSIONS: Key parameters of the pupillary light reaction are significantly altered at high altitude. We hypothesize that high altitude hypoxia itself as well as known side effects of high altitude exposure such as fatigue or exhaustion after ascent may account for an altered pupillogram. Interestingly, none of these changes are related to AMS.

  3. Impressions of Serbia: Tourists on cruises along Corridor 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragin Aleksandra S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with cruises along Corridor 7 and the tourist offer of Serbia. The purpose of the paper has been to establish how international tourists see our country during their travels across Serbia on cruises along Corridor 7. The research has been based on the interviews with international tourists who participated in land tours while cruising through Serbia. The interviews, together with the structured questionnaire, were conducted from March to November 2007 with the objectives to establish the following: the structure of the respondents according to the country of origin, gender and age structure, as well as the social and economic structure; what their motives are for cruising along Corridor 7; what is their perception of the value obtained through the tourist product and services during the Corridor 7 cruises and during their stay in Serbia (what they liked best in Serbia; if they were dissatisfied with anything in terms of the tourist offer of Serbia; to what extent their visit complemented or influenced their personal impressions of this country - what their impressions were before and after the visit. The importance of this paper, above all, is in broadening our knowledge about the adequacy of the tourist offer in Serbia in the tourism segment which is the subject of study of the paper.

  4. Cruise Speed Sensitivity Study for Transonic Truss Braced Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's investment and research in aviation has led to new technologies and concepts that make aircraft more efficient and environmentally friendly. One aircraft design operational concept is the reduction of cruise speed to reduce fuel burned during a mission. Although this is not a new idea, it was used by all of the contractors involved in a 2008 NASA sponsored study that solicited concept and technology ideas to reduce environmental impacts for future subsonic passenger transports. NASA is currently improving and building new analysis capabilities to analyze advanced concepts. To test some of these new capabilities, a transonic truss braced wing configuration was used as a test case. This paper examines the effects due to changes in the design cruise speed and other tradeoffs in the design space. The analysis was baselined to the Boeing SUGAR High truss braced wing concept. An optimization was run at five different design cruise Mach numbers. These designs are compared to provide an initial assessment space and the parameters that should be considered when selecting a design cruise speed. A discussion of the design drivers is also included. The results show that the wing weight in the current analysis has more influence on the takeoff gross weight than expected. This effect caused lower than expected wing sweep angle values for higher cruise speed designs.

  5. Medical and Performance Problems of Acute High Altitude-Exposure,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-11

    200 0 o. .. _k . - -- SEA LEVEL ACUTE HIGH CHRONIC HIGH SEA LEVEL ACUTE HIH CHRONIC HIGH ALTITUDE ALTITUDE ALTITUDE ALTITUDE Figre 7. Mecan concenttion...AD-AIll 062 ARMY RESEARCH INST OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE NATICK MA FIG 6/19 MEDICAL AND PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS OF ACUTE HIGH ALTITUDE-EXPOSUR--ETC(U...TYPE OF REPORT & PERID COVERED of Acute High Altitude-Exposure 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(°60hn T. Maher . CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(S

  6. High-Altitude Hydration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott E.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Bue, Grant C.; Schaefbauer, Mark E.; Urban, Kase

    2010-01-01

    Three methods are being developed for keeping water from freezing during high-altitude climbs so that mountaineers can remain hydrated. Three strategies have been developed. At the time of this reporting two needed to be tested in the field and one was conceptual. The first method is Passive Thermal Control Using Aerogels. This involves mounting the fluid reservoir of the climber s canteen to an inner layer of clothing for better heat retention. For the field test, bottles were mounted to the inner fleece layer of clothing, and then aerogel insulation was placed on the outside of the bottle, and circumferentially around the drink straw. When climbers need to drink, they can pull up the insulated straw from underneath the down suit, take a sip, and then put it back into the relative warmth of the suit. For the field test, a data logger assessed the temperatures of the water reservoir, as well as near the tip of the drink straw. The second method is Passive Thermal Control with Copper-Shielded Drink Straw and Aerogels, also mounted to inner layers of clothing for better heat retention. Braided wire emanates from the inside of the fleece jacket layer, and continues up and around the drink straw in order to use body heat to keep the system-critical drink straw warm enough to keep water in the liquid state. For the field test, a data logger will be used to compare this with the above concept. The third, and still conceptual, method is Active Thermal Control with Microcontroller. If the above methods do not work, microcontrollers and tape heaters have been identified that could keep the drink straw warm even under extremely cold conditions. Power requirements are not yet determined because the thermal environment inside the down suit relative to the external environment has not been established. A data logger will be used to track both the external and internal temperatures of the suit on a summit day.

  7. Methods of Raising Funds for Purchasing of New Cruise Ships by International Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizielewicz Joanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The world’s cruise corporations regularly purchase large, luxurious cruise ships. In accordance with the Cruise Line International Association, 33 new ocean cruise ships will be available on the market by 2020. These types of capital expenditures are associated with large financial outlays of up to $ 1 billion. The leading cruise corporations are not able to finance purchases of new units with their own resources and therefore look for different solutions. Available publications focus mainly on issues related to purchasing cargo ships, not cruise ships. The objective of the article is to identify sources of funding of new cruise ships. Our analysis identifies the average capital expenditure associated with purchasing new cruise ships and factors that influence it. The most popular methods for raising such capital are also provided. Our research methodology relies on data exploration method, a desk research method and comparative analysis.

  8. FRV Deleware II cruise, 30 June to 7 July 1978. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, W.; von Bock, K. (eds.)

    1982-05-01

    This was the last of three companion cruises designed to provide broad-scale coverage of seasonal shelf conditions occurring between the April and October investigations undertaken aboard ATLANTIS II cruises 99 and 104.

  9. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  10. Lateral control strategy for a hypersonic cruise missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Fan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypersonic cruise missile always adopts the configuration of waverider body with the restraint of scramjet. As a result, the lateral motion exhibits serious coupling, and the controller design of the lateral lateral system cannot be conducted separately for yaw channel and roll channel. A multiple input and multiple output optimal control method with integrators is presented to design the lateral combined control system for hypersonic cruise missile. A hypersonic cruise missile lateral model is linearized as a multiple input and multiple output plant, which is coupled by kinematics and fin deflection between yaw and roll. In lateral combined controller, the integrators are augmented, respectively, into the loop of roll angle and lateral overload to ensure that the commands are tracked with zero steady-state error. Through simulation, the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking the command of roll angle and lateral overload.

  11. Altitude Preexposure Recommendations for Inducing Acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    and Kaijser L. (1988). Effects of training at simulated altitude on performance and muscle metabolic capacity in competitive road cyclists . Eur. J...above 3000 m within the last 2 months will significantly decreasc AMS during a subsequent rapid ascent to 4500 m. Exercise training during the...decrease AMS during a subsequent rapid ascent to 4500 m. Exercise training during the altitude preexposures may augment improvement in physical

  12. NOC RRS Discovery Cruise D376. Glider operations report, June - July 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, C.

    2012-01-01

    This document summarises the four Slocum Electric glider deployments during the RRS Discovery Based D376 research cruise for the FASTNEt project. The deployments occurred at or close to the Celtic Sea shelf edge. The lack of small boat support for the cruise resulted in a series of procedures for glider ballasting testing, deployment and recovery being developed during the cruise. Towards the end of a cruise a glider that had been deployed with a turbulence sensor was recovered after a nine d...

  13. The Politics of Environmental Activism: a Case Study of the Cruise Industry and the Environmental Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Ross A. Klein

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study of environmental organizations' confrontation of the cruise industry over environmental practices, this article critically assesses several campaigns and actions by the environmental movement as represented by several key organizations that focus specifically on the cruise industry, and at the social and political processes used by the cruise industry to deal with these organizations. Five environmental groups are included in the case study; the cruise industry is repres...

  14. Early history of high-altitude physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2016-02-01

    High-altitude physiology can be said to have begun in 1644 when Torricelli described the first mercury barometer and wrote the immortal words "We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of the element air." Interestingly, the notion of atmospheric pressure had eluded his teacher, the great Galileo. Blaise Pascal was responsible for describing the fall in pressure with increasing altitude, and Otto von Guericke gave a dramatic demonstration of the enormous force that could be developed by atmospheric pressure. Robert Boyle learned of Guericke's experiment and, with Robert Hooke, constructed the first air pump that allowed small animals to be exposed to a low pressure. Hooke also constructed a small low-pressure chamber and exposed himself to a simulated altitude of about 2400 meters. With the advent of ballooning, humans were rapidly exposed to very low pressures, sometimes with tragic results. For example, the French balloon, Zénith, rose to over 8000 m, and two of the three aeronauts succumbed to the hypoxia. Paul Bert was the first person to clearly state that the deleterious effects of high altitude were caused by the low partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and later research was accelerated by high-altitude stations and expeditions to high altitude. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. AltitudeOmics: The Basic Biology of Human Acclimatization to High Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    11-2-0040 TITLE: AltitudeOmics: The Basic Biology of Human Acclimatization to High Altitude PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Roach...code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 AltitudeOmics: The Basic Biology of Human Acclimatization to High...shipped from Bolivia to Denver and are currently undergoing analysis . 5 CONCLUSION: Humans retain acclimatization after 7 and 21 days of de

  16. Performance and benefits of an advanced technology supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The results of four years research on technology are synthesized in an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft design. Comparisons are presented with the former United States SST and the British-French Concorde, including aerodynamic efficiency, propulsion efficiency, weight efficiency, and community noise. Selected trade study results are presented on the subjects of design cruise Mach number, engine cycle selection, and noise suppression. The critical issue of program timing is addressed and some observations made regarding the impact that timing has on engine selection and minimization of program risk.

  17. Automated Merging in a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) System

    OpenAIRE

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) is a form of cruise control in which a vehicle maintains a constant headway to its preceding vehicle using radar and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication. Within the Connect & Drive1 project we have implemented and tested a prototype of such a system, with IEEE 802.11p as the enabling communication technology. In this paper we present an extension of our CACC system that allows vehicles to merge inside a platoon of vehicles at a junction, i.e., at ...

  18. Legionella risk assessment in cruise ships and ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualina Laganà

    2017-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila sg 1 was isolated from the samples of shower and tap water in 7 (70% of the 10 ferries examined, and in 3 (33% of the 6 cruise ships examined, and L. pneumophila sg 2–14 in 8 (80% and 1 (16.7% of these ships, respectively. No Legionella contamination was found in whirlpool baths, air and ice samples. In conclusion, the data obtained confirm higher levels of Legionella contamination in local ferries and cruise ships, underlining the need to adopt corrective actions more specific for these smaller vessels.

  19. Ecological considerations in constructing marine infrastructure: The Falmouth cruise terminal development, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korbee, D.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cruise tourism is an important and expanding global industry. The growth of this sector,coupled with the continuous development of larger cruise ships, creates demands for new marine infrastructure. The development of these marine infrastructures takes place at the intersection of global cruise

  20. Design and analysis of full range adaptive cruise control with integrated collision a voidance strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullakkal Babu, F.A.; Wang, M.; van Arem, B.; Happee, R.; Rosetti, R.; Wolf, D.

    2016-01-01

    Current Full Range Adaptive Cruise Control (FRACC) systems switch between separate adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance systems. This can lead to jerky responses and discomfort during the transition between the two control modes. We propose a Full Range Adaptive Cruise Control (FRACC)

  1. Physiological aspects of altitude training and the use of altitude simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Altitude training in various forms is widely practiced by athletes and coaches in an attempt to improve sea level endurance. Training at high altitude may improve performance at sea level through altitude acclimatization, which improves oxygen transport and/or utilization, or through hypoxia, which intensifies the training stimulus. This basic physiological aspect allows three training modalities: live high and train high (classic high-altitude training, live low and train high (training through hypoxia, and live high and train low (the new trend. In an effort to reduce the financial and logistical challenges of traveling to high-altitude training sites, scientists and manufactures have developed artificial high-altitude environments, which simulate the hypoxic conditions of moderate altitude (2000-3000 meters. Endurance athletes from many sports have recently started using nitrogen environments, or hypoxic rooms and tents as part of their altitude training programmes. The results of controlled studies on these modalities of high-altitude training, their practical approach, and ethics are summarized.

  2. Nitric oxide in adaptation to altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Daniel; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes published information on levels of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the lungs and NO-derived liquid phase molecules in the acclimatization of visitors newly arrived at altitudes of 2500m or more and adaptation of populations whose ancestors arrived thousands of years ago. Studies of acutely exposed visitors to high altitude focus on the first 24–48 hours with just a few extending to days or weeks. Among healthy visitors, NO levels in the lung, plasma and/or red blood cells fell within three hours, but then returned toward baseline or slightly higher by 48 hours, and increased above baseline by 5 days. Among visitors ill with high-altitude pulmonary edema at the time of the study or in the past, NO levels were lower than their healthy counterparts. As for highland populations, Tibetans had NO levels in the lung, plasma and red blood cells that were at least double and in some cases orders of magnitude greater than other populations regardless of altitude. Red blood cell associated nitrogen oxides were more than two hundred times higher. Other highland populations had generally higher levels although not to the degree showed by Tibetans. Overall, responses of those acclimatized and those presumed to be adapted are in the same direction although the Tibetans have much larger responses. Missing are long-term data on lowlanders at altitude showing how similar they become to the Tibetan phenotype. Also missing are data on Tibetans at low altitude to see the extent to which their phenotype is a response to the immediate environment or expressed constitutively. The mechanisms causing the visitors’ and the Tibetans’ high levels of NO and NO-derived molecules at altitude remain unknown. Limited data suggest processes including hypoxic upregulation of NO synthase gene expression, hemoglobin-NO reactions and genetic variation. Gains in understanding will require integrating appropriate methods and measurement techniques with indicators of adaptive function

  3. Methodology of VFR night flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Stanko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Night is defined, for aviation purposes, as the period of darkness from the end of evening civil twilight to the beginning of morning civil twilight. Night flying is risky and more dangerous, comparing with flying during daylight, so it is essential to seek training with a flight instructor specifically for night flying. This article looks briefly at some underlying principles and practices, including: illusions, planning considerations, and handling emergencies.

  4. Hydrogen Fuel System Design Trades for High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely- Operated Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Jurns, John M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; VanOverbeke, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary design trades are presented for liquid hydrogen fuel systems for remotely-operated, high-altitude aircraft that accommodate three different propulsion options: internal combustion engines, and electric motors powered by either polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or solid oxide fuel cells. Mission goal is sustained cruise at 60,000 ft altitude, with duration-aloft a key parameter. The subject aircraft specifies an engine power of 143 to 148 hp, gross liftoff weight of 9270 to 9450 lb, payload of 440 lb, and a hydrogen fuel capacity of 2650 to 2755 lb stored in two spherical tanks (8.5 ft inside diameter), each with a dry mass goal of 316 lb. Hydrogen schematics for all three propulsion options are provided. Each employs vacuum-jacketed tanks with multilayer insulation, augmented with a helium pressurant system, and using electric motor driven hydrogen pumps. The most significant schematic differences involve the heat exchangers and hydrogen reclamation equipment. Heat balances indicate that mission durations of 10 to 16 days appear achievable. The dry mass for the hydrogen system is estimated to be 1900 lb, including 645 lb for each tank. This tank mass is roughly twice that of the advanced tanks assumed in the initial conceptual vehicle. Control strategies are not addressed, nor are procedures for filling and draining the tanks.

  5. The impact of high altitude aircraft on the ozone layer in the stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xue XI; Brasseur, Guy; Lin, Xing; Friedlingstein, P.; Granier, Claire; Rasch, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the potential effects on the ozone layer of gases released by the engines of proposed high altitude supersonic aircraft. The major problem arises from the emissions of nitrogen oxides which have the potential to destroy significant quantities of ozone in the stratosphere. The magnitude of the perturbation is highly dependent on the cruise altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the depletion of ozone is substantially reduced when heterogeneous conversion of nitrogen oxides into nitric acid on sulfate aerosol particles is taken into account in the calculation. The sensitivity of the aerosol load on stratospheric ozone is investigated. First, the model indicates that the aerosol load induced by the SO2 released by aircraft is increased by about 10-20% above the background aerosols at mid-high latitude of the Northern Hemisphere at 15 km for the NASA emission scenario A (the NASA emission scenarios are explained in Tables I to III). This increase in aerosol has small effects on stratospheric ozone. Second, when the aerosol load is increased following a volcanic eruption similar to the eruption of El Chichon (Mexico, April 1982), the ozone column in spring increases by as much as 9% in response to the injection of NOx from the aircraft with the NASA emission scenario A. Finally, the modeled suggests that significant ozone depletion could result from the formation of additional polar stratospheric clouds produced by the injection of H2O and HNO3 by the aircraft engines.

  6. Connected Cruise Control: Driver response to the advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Marieke Hendrikje; Risto, Malte; Wilschut, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Connected Cruise Control (CCC) is a system, that is currently under development within a HTAS project. CCC aims to improve throughput in dense motorway traffic by advising drivers how to drive. The advice will integrate a lane advice, a headway advice and speed advice. The CCC advice will be

  7. Cruising tourism Novi Sad and Belgrade residents' experience analyze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berić Dejan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper are previous nautical experiences of the local population of Novi Sad and Belgrade. The aim of this paper is to determine how local population (who has already cruised, but as well as those who have not is experiencing our country in terms of cruises. The research was based on conducting interviews with local people in Novi Sad and Belgrade. Interviews with a structured questionnaire, were performed from March to June 2010 with the task to determine past and potential cruise destinations, as well as attitudes about the potentials of Serbia in terms of nautical tourism. The importance of this paper is primarily based on the enrichment of knowledge on the segment of tourism that is the subject of this paper. Obtained results may help further studies of the causal link between cruises and experiences of local population in nautical tourism. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176020: Transformations of Geo Area of Serbia - past, current problems and suggestions of the solutions

  8. A Potent Vector: Assessing Chinese Cruise Missile Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    of Sydney. This article draws on the authors’ book A Low-Visibility Force Multiplier: Assessing China’s Cruise Missile Ambitions (NDU Press, 2014...infrastructure; didactic PLA discussions (Modern Navy and People’s Navy); generalist deliberations on the de- velopment trajectory and operational use of

  9. Physiological effects of Adaptive Cruise Control behaviour in real driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Snelting, A.F.; Jaswa, M.; Flascher, O.; Krol, L.R.; Zander, T.O.

    2017-01-01

    We examined physiological responses to behavior of an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) system during real driving. ACC is an example of automating a task that used to be performed by the user. In order to preserve the link between the user and an automated system such that they work together optimally,

  10. Contact infection of infectious disease onboard a cruise ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact infection of infectious disease on a cruise ship. Using gastroenteritis caused by the norovirus as an example, we analyzed the characteristics of infectious disease propagation based on simulation results under different conditions. We found hand washing are the most important factors affecting virus propagation and passenger infection. It also decides either the total number of virus microorganisms or the virus distribution in different functional areas. The transfer rate between different surfaces is a key factor influencing the concentricity of the virus. A high transfer rate leads to high concentricity. In addition, the risk of getting infected is effectively reduced when the disinfection frequency is above a certain threshold. The efficiency of disinfection of functional areas is determined by total virus number and total contact times of surfaces.

  11. Field Report from the Nalunaq Cruise March/April 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.

    The purpose of the cruise was to collect environmental baseline samples in the Saqqaa Fjord outside of the Kirkespir Valley in South Greenland, where a gold mine is planed. Such a study should be performed in three different years during the same annual period in order to assess satisfying...

  12. Pining for home: Studying crew homesickness aboard a cruise liner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crew homesickness should be seen as important by both shipboard and liner company management because it can ultimately impact on customer service experiences, and can be ameliorated by sensitive management policies and practices. Keywords: homesickness, cruise-liner, crewmembers, shipboard hotel services ...

  13. Vision-based adaptive cruise control using pattern matching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kanjee, R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is a relatively new system designed to assist automobile drivers in maintaining a safe following distance. This paper proposes and validates a vision-based ACC system which uses a single camera to obtain the clearance...

  14. Role of the altitude level on cerebral autoregulation in residents at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Gerard F. A.; Krins, Anne; Basnyat, Buddha; Odoom, Joseph A.; Ince, Can

    2007-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is impaired in Himalayan high-altitude residents who live above 4,200 m. This study was undertaken to determine the altitude at which this impairment of autoregulation occurs. A second aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that administration of oxygen can reverse this

  15. Imagery intelligence from low altitudes: chosen aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczykowski, P.; Kedzierski, M.

    2017-04-01

    Remote acquisition of information about phenomena and objects from an imagery is the main objective of remote sensing. The ability to realize aims of image intelligence depends on the quality of acquired remote sensing data. The imagery intelligence can be carried out from different altitudes- from satellite level to terrestrial platforms. In this article, authors are focused on chosen aspects of imagery intelligence from low altitudes. Unfortunately the term low altitudes is not precise defined, therefore, for the purpose of this article is assumed that low altitudes, are altitudes in which operate the mini unmanned aerial vehicles (mini UAVs).The quality of imagery acquired determines the level of analysis that can be performed. The imagery quality depends on many factors, such as platforms on which the sensor is mounted, imaging sensors, height from which the data are acquired and object that is investigated. The article will also present the methods for assessing the quality of imagery in terms of detection, identification, description and technical analysis of investigated objects, as well as in terms of the accuracy of their location in the images (targeting).

  16. Altitude Registration of Limb-Scattered Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Leslie; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jaross, Glen; Loughman, Robert; Kramarova, Natalya; Chen, Zhong; Taha, Ghassan; Chen, Grace; Xu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    One of the largest constraints to the retrieval of accurate ozone profiles from UV backscatter limb sounding sensors is altitude registration. Two methods, the Rayleigh scattering attitude sensing (RSAS) and absolute radiance residual method (ARRM), are able to determine altitude registration to the accuracy necessary for long-term ozone monitoring. The methods compare model calculations of radiances to measured radiances and are independent of onboard tracking devices. RSAS determines absolute altitude errors, but, because the method is susceptible to aerosol interference, it is limited to latitudes and time periods with minimal aerosol contamination. ARRM, a new technique introduced in this paper, can be applied across all seasons and altitudes. However, it is only appropriate for relative altitude error estimates. The application of RSAS to Limb Profiler (LP) measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite indicates tangent height (TH) errors greater than 1 km with an absolute accuracy of +/-200 m. Results using ARRM indicate a approx. 300 to 400m intra-orbital TH change varying seasonally +/-100 m, likely due to either errors in the spacecraft pointing or in the geopotential height (GPH) data that we use in our analysis. ARRM shows a change of approx. 200m over 5 years with a relative accuracy (a long-term accuracy) of 100m outside the polar regions.

  17. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Lira, Fabio Santos; Rodrigues, Bruno; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2) induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain. PMID:23690660

  18. Can High Altitude Influence Cytokines and Sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir de Aquino Lemos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of persons who relocate to regions of high altitude for work, pleasure, sport, or residence increases every year. It is known that the reduced supply of oxygen (O2 induced by acute or chronic increases in altitude stimulates the body to adapt to new metabolic challenges imposed by hypoxia. Sleep can suffer partial fragmentation because of the exposure to high altitudes, and these changes have been described as one of the responsible factors for the many consequences at high altitudes. We conducted a review of the literature during the period from 1987 to 2012. This work explored the relationships among inflammation, hypoxia and sleep in the period of adaptation and examined a novel mechanism that might explain the harmful effects of altitude on sleep, involving increased Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α production from several tissues and cells, such as leukocytes and cells from skeletal muscle and brain.

  19. Sprite initiation altitude measured by triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Haaland, R.; McHarg, M. G.; Hensley, B. A.; Kanmae, T.

    2010-03-01

    High time resolution (10,000 frames per second) images of sprites combined with multistation concurrent video recordings have provided data for triangulation of the altitude of the initial sprite onset. The high-speed images were obtained from the Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, during summer campaigns in 2007 and 2008 with video observations from sites at Portales, New Mexico, and Las Vegas, New Mexico. Sprites start with one or more downward-propagating streamer heads. The triangulated onset altitudes of this initial downward streamer vary between 66 and 89 km. In some sprites the downward streamers are followed a little later by upward-propagating streamers. The upward streamers start from a lower altitude and existing luminous sprite structures and their triangulated altitudes vary from 64 to 78 km. The downward streamers create C sprite characteristics, while the upward streamers form the broad diffuse tops of carrot sprites. In the sprites analyzed the higher onset altitudes for the downward-propagating initial streamers were associated with C sprites and the lower with carrot sprites, but our larger data set indicates that this is not generally the case. It appears that the dominant sprite types vary from year to year, indicating that some longer-lasting environmental parameter, such as mesospheric conductivity and composition or thunderstorm cloud dynamics, may play an important role in determining the types of sprites observed.

  20. Altitude registration of limb-scattered radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Leslie; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Jaross, Glen; Loughman, Robert; Kramarova, Natalya; Chen, Zhong; Taha, Ghassan; Chen, Grace; Xu, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    One of the largest constraints to the retrieval of accurate ozone profiles from UV backscatter limb sounding sensors is altitude registration. Two methods, the Rayleigh scattering attitude sensing (RSAS) and absolute radiance residual method (ARRM), are able to determine altitude registration to the accuracy necessary for long-term ozone monitoring. The methods compare model calculations of radiances to measured radiances and are independent of onboard tracking devices. RSAS determines absolute altitude errors, but, because the method is susceptible to aerosol interference, it is limited to latitudes and time periods with minimal aerosol contamination. ARRM, a new technique introduced in this paper, can be applied across all seasons and altitudes. However, it is only appropriate for relative altitude error estimates. The application of RSAS to Limb Profiler (LP) measurements from the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) on board the Suomi NPP (SNPP) satellite indicates tangent height (TH) errors greater than 1 km with an absolute accuracy of ±200 m. Results using ARRM indicate a ˜ 300 to 400 m intra-orbital TH change varying seasonally ±100 m, likely due to either errors in the spacecraft pointing or in the geopotential height (GPH) data that we use in our analysis. ARRM shows a change of ˜ 200 m over ˜ 5 years with a relative accuracy (a long-term accuracy) of ±100 m outside the polar regions.

  1. Role of GacA, LasI, RhlI, Ppk, PsrA, Vfr and ClpXP in the regulation of the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS/RpoS in Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Iris; Sevo, Milica; Kojic, Milan; Venturi, Vittorio

    2003-10-01

    RpoS is the stationary phase sigma factor responsible for increased transcription of a set of genes when bacterial cells enter stationary phase and under stress conditions. In Escherichia coli, RpoS expression is modulated at the level of transcription, translation, and post-translational stability whereas in Pseudomonas, previous studies have implicated four genetic loci ( psrA, gacA, lasI and rhlI) involved in rpoS transcription. In this report, the transcription, translation and proteins profiles of rpoS/RpoS were analyzed in response to growth phase of knockout genomic mutants in the P. aeruginosa transcriptional regulatory loci psrA, gacA, vfr, and in the las and rhl quorum-sensing systems. Gene expression and protein profiles were also analyzed in the ppk genomic mutant. This gene is responsible for the biosynthesis of polyphosphate, an alarmone involved in the regulation of RpoS accumulation in E. coli. Finally, the role of the ClpXP protease in RpoS regulation was also studied; in E. coli, this protease has been shown to rapidly degrade RpoS during exponential growth. These studies confirm the significant role of PsrA in rpoS transcription during the late-exponential and stationary growth phases, the probable role of Vfr in transcriptional repression during exponential phase, and the function of the ClpXP protease in RpoS degradation during exponential phase. GacA/GacS, the quorum-sensing systems, and the polyphosphate alarmone molecule were not significant in rpoS/RpoS regulation. These results demonstrate important similarities and differences with the regulation of this sigma factor in E. coli and in Pseudomonas.

  2. Multiplicity of cruising: interactions with the unknown and realisation of cruising for sex in A. K. Campbell‘s “The Pride”

    OpenAIRE

    Narauskaitė, Gintarė

    2017-01-01

    „Cruisin“ can be defined as an activity where subjects look for sex in public spaces and is usually called cruising for sex. Authors like Humphrey and Delph emphasize that non-verbal communication, such as eye contact, body language, way of walking, etc., is used to make first contacts that eventually lead to sex. Despite the sexuality of cruising, authors like T. Dean or Turner note that besides public sex, cruising also defines a way of life or indicates a pastime. When discussing cruising,...

  3. On-board measurement of particle numbers and their size distribution from a light-duty diesel vehicle: Influences of VSP and altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Xin; Hao, Lijun; Tan, Jianwei; Peng, Zihang; Zhang, Chuanzhen; Gong, Huiming; Huang, Ying

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the particle size-resolved distribution from a China-3 certificated light-duty diesel vehicle was measured by using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). In order to examine the influences of vehicle specific power (VSP) and high-altitude operation, measurements were conducted at 8 constant speeds, which ranged from 10 to 80km/hr at 10km/hr intervals, and two different high altitudes, namely 2200 and 3200m. The results demonstrated that the numbers of particles in all size ranges decreased significantly as VSP increased when the test vehicle was running at lower speeds (particle number was statistically insensitive to increase VSP. Under high-speed cruising conditions, the numbers of ultrafine particles and PM2.5 were insensitive to changes in VSP, but the numbers of nanoparticles and PM10 surged considerably. An increase in the operational altitude of the test vehicle resulted in increased particle number emissions at low and high driving speeds; however, particle numbers obtained at moderate speeds decreased as altitude rose. When the test vehicle was running at moderate speeds, particle numbers measured at the two altitudes were very close, except for comparatively higher number concentrations of nanoparticles measured at 2200m. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Pulmonary Embolism Masquerading as High Altitude Pulmonary Edema at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prativa; Lohani, Benu; Murphy, Holly

    2016-12-01

    Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:353-358, 2016.-Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE. Upon further evaluation, five had deep vein thrombosis (DVT). One woman had a contraceptive ring and seven patients had no known thrombotic risks. PE can coexist with or mimic HAPE and should be considered in patients presenting with shortness of breath from high altitude regardless of thrombotic risk.

  5. Legionella risk assessment in cruise ships and ferries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganà, Pasqualina; Gambuzza, Maria Elsa; Delia, Santi

    2017-06-12

    Introduction. The increasing development of marine traffic has led to a rise in the incidence of legionellosis among travellers. It occurs in similar environments, especially closed and crowded, and aboard ships Legionella survives and multiplies easily in water pipes, spreading into the environment through air conditioning systems and water distribution points. Although in recent years in the construction of cruise ships preventive measures aimed at curbing the proliferation of Legionella (design, materials, focus on the operation and maintenance of the water system), have been taken account, little or no attention has been paid to small ships which, in many cases, are old and not well maintained. Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency and severity of Legionella contamination in ferries and cruise ships in order to adopt more specific control measures. Materials and method. A prevalence study was carried out on 10 ferries and 6 cruise ships docking or in transit across the port of Messina (Sicily, Italy). Water and air samples collected from many critical points were tested for qualitative and quantitative identification of Legionella. Results and conclusions. Legionella pneumophila sg 1 was isolated from the samples of shower and tap water in 7 (70%) of the 10 ferries examined, and in 3 (33%) of the 6 cruise ships examined, and L. pneumophila sg 2-14 in 8 (80%) and 1 (16.7%) of these ships, respectively. No Legionella contamination was found in whirlpool baths, air and ice samples. In conclusion, the data obtained confirm higher levels of Legionella contamination in local ferries and cruise ships, underlining the need to adopt corrective actions more specific for these smaller vessels.

  6. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalczyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH, “live high, train low” (LH-TL or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT. Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented.

  7. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  8. High-Altitude Cirrus Clouds and Climate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 3. High-Altitude Cirrus Clouds and Climate. S Veerabuthiran. General Article Volume 9 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 23-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/03/0023-0032. Keywords.

  9. SRB Altitude Switch Assembly Wire Harness Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Jim

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of two wire harness failures that had occurred in Solid Rocket Booster Altitude Switch Assemblies S/N 200001 and S/N 20002. A list of modifications to EDU #4 and modification of qualification units 2000001 and 2000002 are also presented.

  10. Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists during Altitude Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Czuba, Miłosz; Zydek, Grzegorz; Zając, Adam; Langfort, Józef

    2016-01-01

    The concept of altitude or hypoxic training is a common practice in cycling. However, several strategies for training regimens have been proposed, like “live high, train high” (LH-TH), “live high, train low” (LH-TL) or “intermittent hypoxic training” (IHT). Each of them combines the effect of acclimatization and different training protocols that require specific nutrition. An appropriate nutrition strategy and adequate hydration can help athletes achieve their fitness and performance goals in this unfriendly environment. In this review, the physiological stress of altitude exposure and training will be discussed, with specific nutrition recommendations for athletes training under such conditions. However, there is little research about the nutrition demands of athletes who train at moderate altitude. Our review considers energetic demands and body mass or body composition changes due to altitude training, including respiratory and urinary water loss under these conditions. Carbohydrate intake recommendations and hydration status are discussed in detail, while iron storage and metabolism is also considered. Last, but not least the risk of increased oxidative stress under hypoxic conditions and antioxidant supplementation suggestions are presented. PMID:27322318

  11. Menstrual history in altitude chamber trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, J U; Workman, W T

    1992-07-01

    Previous studies have determined a higher rate of altitude-induced decompression sickness (DCS) in women than in men. Women are reportedly at higher risk for developing DCS during menses. A study of menstrual history in women completing altitude chamber training without developing DCS has never been accomplished. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze menstrual history in these women. Thirteen U.S. Air Force Aerospace Physiology Units participated in a USAF-approved survey for 1 year. After completing altitude chamber flights, data on age, day of menstrual cycle (DMC), birth control pill use (BCP), and mean durations of menstrual cycle and menses were collected. There were 508 responses analyzed. There was no differences between mean duration of menstrual cycle and menses in the Yes (Y) and No (N) BCP groups. Y and N BCP groups were equally distributed across the menstrual cycle. Women completing altitude chamber training without developing DCS appear to be evenly distributed across their menstrual cycle, with use of BCPs not affecting their susceptibility to DCS.

  12. Performance of Portable Ventilators at Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    of equipment at altitude. Changes in barometric pressure can affect the performance of mechanical ventilators calibrated for operation at sea level...performance of mechanical ventilators calibrated for operation at sea level. Deploying ventilators that can maintain a consistent tidal volume (VT) delivery...temperature, density, and humidity. These changes can affect the performance of mechanical ventilators calibrated for operation at sea level. The

  13. Sickle Cell Trait, Exercise, and Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    Sickle cell trait is generally benign and does not shorten life, but it may confer some small risk with extremes of exercise or altitude. Research concerning these risks is presented, and it is concluded sickle cell trait is no barrier to outstanding athletic performance. (Author/MT)

  14. [Otorhinolaryngological aspects of high altitude medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, K; Olzowy, B

    2008-04-01

    The World Health Organisation estimates that about 40 million tourists every year climb to high (2,500-5,300 m) and extremely high altitudes (5,300-8,850 m). Thus altitude sickness and other health risks are increasing accordingly and so this fact requires clarification and advice for tourists in order to reduce the risks. That applies to the otolaryngologist, too. The non-traumatic health risks all result from the atmospheric conditions at high altitudes, in particular due to the lower atmospheric pressure. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), the temperature and the partial pressure of water vapour decrease continuously with increasing altitude and at the summit of the highest mountain on earth, Mt. Everest, the pO2 is reduced by two-thirds, from 212 to about 70 hPa. The temperature drops on average 6.5 degrees C per 1,000 m and at -20 degrees C 1 m3 of air contains at most just about 1 g of water vapour. The shortage of oxygen above 2500 m cannot be compensated for at once. Respiratory alcalosis, followed by hyperventilation, improves the alveolar loading of red blood cells (RBC) with oxygen, however, it also reduces the ventilatory drive from the central CO2-chemosensors as well from the peripheral O2-chemosensors located in the carotid bodies. Not until the alcalosis has been balanced by a renal secretion of bicarbonate, does the pO2-driven ventilatory stimulus normalize and the relative increase of RBC as a result of altitude diuresis improve and complete the acclimatisation. Up to an altitude of 4,000 m this adaptation takes several days to one week and up to 5,000 m up to 2 weeks. If acclimatisation has not taken place or has been insufficient, acute mountain sickness may develop. It is a harmless disorder, although it noticeably affects people physically and mentally and in some rare cases it might even develop into a life-threatening high-altitude edema in the brain or in the lung. Hematocrit values of up to 58 or even 60% at great altitudes are quite

  15. Italian high altitude laboratories: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, A; Ponchia, A; Pecchio, O; Losano, G; Cerretelli, P

    2000-01-01

    Italy is a mountainous country with a total of 88 huts and bivouacs at altitudes higher than 3,000 m. Starting in the 19th century a great deal of research in high altitude pathophysiology has been carried out in Italy and many Italian physicians have been involved in mountain medicine. Most of the Italian research has been carried out at two locations: the scientific laboratories "Angelo Mosso" on Monte Rosa (Capanna Regina Margherita and Laboratorio Angelo Mosso), and the "Pyramid" in Nepal. The Capanna Regina Margherita, located on the top of Punta Gnifetti (Monte Rosa, 4,559 m), was inaugurated in 1893. With the support of Queen Margherita of Savoy, an Observatory for scientific studies was built beside this hut in 1894. In 1980 the hut was completely rebuilt by the Italian Alpine Club. The Istituto Angelo Mosso at Col d'Olen, at the base of Monte Rosa (at 2,900 m) was inaugurated in 1907. The high altitude laboratory named the "Pyramid" was built in 1990. Made of glass and aluminium, this pyramid-shaped structure is situated in Nepal at 5,050 m. The scientific laboratories "Angelo Mosso" on Monte Rosa (mainly the Capanna Regina Margherita) and the Pyramid form a nucleus for high altitude research: the former is especially devoted to research regarding acute mountain sickness and the response to subacute hypoxia, whereas the latter is a unique facility for research responses to chronic hypoxia, the effect of exposure to very high altitude, and the study of the resident population living in the Himalayas for at least 25,000 years.

  16. High altitude pulmonary edema among "Amarnath Yatris"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz A Koul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual pilgrimage (Yatra to the cave shrine of Shri Amarnath Ji′ is a holy ritual among the Hindu devotees of Lord Shiva. Located in the Himalayan Mountain Range (altitude 13,000 ft in south Kashmir, the shrine is visited by thousands of devotees and altitude sickness is reportedly common. Materials and Methods: More than 600,000 pilgrims visited the cave shrine in 2011 and 2012 with 239 recorded deaths. Thirty one patients with suspected altitude sickness were referred from medical centers en-route the cave to Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, a tertiary-care center in capital Srinagar (5,000 ft. The clinical features and the response to treatment were recorded. Results: Thirty-one patients (all lowlanders, 19 male; age 18-60 years, median 41 had presented with acute onset breathlessness of 1-4 days (median 1.9 d starting within 12-24 h of a rapid ascent; accompanied by cough (68%, headache (8%, dizziness and nausea (65%. Sixteen patients had associated encephalopathy. Clinical features on admission included tachypnea ( n = 31, tachycardia ( n = 23, bilateral chest rales ( n = 29, cyanosis ( n = 22 and grade 2-4 encephalopathy. Hypoxemia was demonstrable in 24 cases and bilateral infiltrates on radiologic imaging in 29. Ten patients had evidence of high-altitude cerebral edema. All patients were managed with oxygen, steroids, nifedipine, sildenafil and other supportive measures including invasive ventilation ( n = 3. Three patients died due to multiorgan dysfunction. Conclusions: Altitude sickness is common among Amaranath Yatris from the plains and appropriate educational strategies should be invoked for prevention and prompt treatment.

  17. Impact of changing fuel characteristics on supersonic cruise airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaller, O. J.; Schmidt, J. E.; Momenthy, A. M.; Johnson, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of an advanced supersonic cruise research airplane is related to future oil supplies and prices. Technical data on the impact of changing fuel characteristics on the SCR airplane were developed. Projections of crude oil characteristics typical of the 1985 to 2000 time period were made with the help of consultants to the oil industry. Refineries for the future were modeled to establish jet fuel of engine and aircraft systems for future airplanes, with emphasis on supersonic cruise airplanes. Study results do not show a need for broadening the fuel specification. Hypothetical study fuels with broader specifications were defined, however, as was the impact of their properties on the SCR airplane and systems.

  18. Debriefing of the medical team after emergencies on cruise ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Eilif

    2017-01-01

    Done to improve safety and patient outcome but not to lay blame, debriefings on cruise ships should preferably be conducted as standard practice in the medical facility immediately after all critical events aboard. The key questions to be asked are: What went well, what could have gone better and what must participants do to improve care? Post-debriefing the ship's doctor might have to deal with team members' mental stress resulting both from the event and from debriefing it. Required by most cruise companies, standardised advanced life support courses teach effective high-performance team dynamics. They provide the multinational medical staff with a clearer understanding of the rescue sequence, which again will reduce the risk of mistakes and simplify post-event debriefings. Their systematic approach to the chain of survival is also helpful for post-event debriefings if something went wrong.

  19. Minimum energy, liquid hydrogen supersonic cruise vehicle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The potential was examined of hydrogen-fueled supersonic vehicles designed for cruise at Mach 2.7 and at Mach 2.2. The aerodynamic, weight, and propulsion characteristics of a previously established design of a LH2 fueled, Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle (SCV) were critically reviewed and updated. The design of a Mach 2.2 SCV was established on a corresponding basis. These baseline designs were then studied to determine the potential of minimizing energy expenditure in performing their design mission, and to explore the effect of fuel price and noise restriction on their design and operating performance. The baseline designs of LH2 fueled aircraft were than compared with equivalent designs of jet A (conventional hydrocarbon) fueled SCV's. Use of liquid hydrogen for fuel for the subject aircraft provides significant advantages in performance, cost, noise, pollution, sonic boom, and energy utilization.

  20. Laser diodes for sensing applications: adaptive cruise control and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerlein, Joerg; Morgott, Stefan; Ferstl, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Adaptive Cruise Controls (ACC) and pre-crash sensors require an intelligent eye which can recognize traffic situations and deliver a 3-dimensional view. Both microwave RADAR and "Light RADAR" (LIDAR) systems are well suited as sensors. In order to utilize the advantages of LIDARs -- such as lower cost, simpler assembly and high reliability -- the key component, the laser diode, is of primary importance. Here, we present laser diodes which meet the requirements of the automotive industry.

  1. Cooperative airframe/propulsion control for supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, W. G.; Berry, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    Interactions between propulsion systems and flight controls have emerged as a major control problem on supersonic cruise aircraft. This paper describes the nature and causes of these interactions and the approaches to predicting and solving the problem. Integration of propulsion and flight control systems appears to be the most promising solution if the interaction effects can be adequately predicted early in the vehicle design. Significant performance, stability, and control improvements may be realized from a cooperative control system.

  2. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP High-Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset was collectd by the High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer...

  3. Timing the arrival at 2340m altitude for aerobic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuler, B; Thomsen, JJ; Gassmann, M

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and performance increase upon altitude acclimatization at moderate altitude. Eight elite cyclists were studied at sea level, and after 1 (Day 1), 7 (Day 7), 14 (Day 14) and 21 (Day 21) days of exposure to 2340 m. Capillary blood...... that endurance athletes competing at altitudes around 2340 m should expose themselves to this altitude at least 14 days before competition....

  4. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Data Model and associated Semantic Web ontology (PROV-O) have created much interest in the Earth and Space Science Informatics community (Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, PROV-O has recently been posited as an upper ontology for the alignment of various data models (Cox, 2015). Similarly, PROV-O has been used as the building blocks of a data release lifecycle ontology (Leadbetter & Buck, 2015). In this presentation we show that the alignment between different local data descriptions of an oceanographic research cruise can be achieved through alignment with PROV-O and that descriptions of the funding bodies, organisations and researchers involved in a cruise and its associated data release lifecycle can be modelled within a PROV-O based environment. We show that, at a first-order, this approach is scalable by presenting results from three endpoints (the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA; the British Oceanographic Data Centre at the National Oceanography Centre, UK; and the Marine Institute, Ireland). Current advances in ontology engineering, provide pathways to resolving reasoning issues from varying perspectives on implementing PROV-O. This includes the use of the Information Object design pattern where such edge cases as research cruise scheduling efforts are considered. PROV-O describes only things which have happened, but the Information Object design pattern allows for the description of planned research cruises through its statement that the local data description is not the the entity itself (in this case the planned research cruise) and therefore the local data description itself can be described using the PROV-O model. In particular, we present the use of the data lifecycle ontology to show the connection between research cruise activities and their associated datasets, and the publication of those data sets online with Digital Object Identifiers and

  5. 14 CFR 135.93 - Autopilot: Minimum altitudes for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Autopilot: Minimum altitudes for use. 135... Operations § 135.93 Autopilot: Minimum altitudes for use. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, no person may use an autopilot at an altitude above the terrain which is less...

  6. The effect of altitude hypoxia on glucose homeostasis in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J J; Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1997-01-01

    1. Exposure to altitude hypoxia elicits changes in glucose homeostasis with increases in glucose and insulin concentrations within the first few days at altitude. Both increased and unchanged hepatic glucose production (HGP) have previously been reported in response to acute altitude hypoxia...

  7. Lesbians and Gay Men's Vacation Motivations, Perceptions, and Constraints: A Study of Cruise Vacation Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Clare; Lester, Jo-Anne; Jarvis, Nigel

    2016-08-01

    This study explores the push-pull vacation motivations of gay male and lesbian consumers and examines how these underpin their perceptions and purchase constraints of a mainstream and LGBT(1) cruise. Findings highlight a complex vacation market. Although lesbians and gay men share many of the same travel motivations as their heterosexual counterparts, the study reveals sexuality is a significant variable in their perception of cruise vacations, which further influences purchase constraints and destination choice. Gay men have more favorable perceptions than lesbians of both mainstream and LGBT cruises. The article recommends further inquiry into the multifaceted nature of motivations, perception, and constraints within the LGBT market in relation to cruise vacations.

  8. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasim Rushiti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21. All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situation is of subjects was examined, then, all students, at the same time, gave blood for analysis. In this experiment, three main hematologic parameters were taken in consideration: such as hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells. The same analyses were carried out after the 10-day stay at a high altitude. The results of the experiment have shown significant changes after the ten-day stay at high altitude, despite the previous results that show changes only after the twenty-day stay in such elevations.

  9. Trajectory Control For High Altitude Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, K.; Nock, K.; Heun, M.; Wyszkowski, C.

    We will discuss the continuing development of the StratoSailTM Balloon Trajectory Control System presented at the 33rd COSPAR in 2000. A vertical wing suspended on a 15-km tether from a high altitude balloon uses the difference in wind velocity between the altitude of the balloon and the altitude of the wing to create an aerodynamic sideforce. This sideforce, transmitted to the balloon gondola via the tether, causes the balloon to move laterally. Although the balloon's resultant drift velocity is quite small (a few meters per second), the effect becomes significant over long periods of time (hours to days). Recently, a full-scale wing, rudder and boom assembly has been fabricated, a winch system testbed has been completed, and a lightweight tether with reduced susceptibility to ultraviolet damage has been developed. The development effort for this invention, with pending international patents, has been funded by the NASA/SBIR program in support of the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program.

  10. RELATIVE ORIENTATION IN LOW ALTITUDE PHOTOGRAMMETRY SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Relative orientation is always considered as a key technique, not only in traditional photogrammetry, but also in low altitude photogrammetry. Low altitude images are mainly obtained by general digital cameras on UAV, they have characteristics of small format, large tilt angle and high-overlap in sequence. These distinctions from traditional images urgently call for a new reliable way to recover the relative pose between two adjacent images. For example, better initial values of relative orientation elements are required in the iteration process due to the large roll angle and yaw angle. Also, a more stable and efficient adjustment method should be proposed for the high-overlap images. In this paper, the Direct (D relative orientation method is firstly used to get coarse values of the relative orientation parameters, then the Conventional (C relative orientation process is implemented, using the coarse values as initial values in the first iterative calculation. And RANSAC (R algorithm is finally applied in locating and extracting gross errors in relative orientation. The three steps above form our execution—DCR—to solve relative orientation problem in low altitude photogrammetry. Practical images have been used later to test the DCR method on accuracy and precision of the relative orientation parameters. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach is feasible and can achieve more reliable relative orientation results than the conventional approach.

  11. Milk at altitude: Human milk macronutrient composition in a high-altitude adapted population of Tibetans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Elizabeth A; Diki Bista, Kesang; Childs, Geoff

    2016-02-01

    The physiological challenges of high altitude have led to population-specific patterns of adaptation. These include alterations to child growth and reproduction, including lactation. However, while breastfeeding has been investigated, nothing is known about milk composition in high altitude adapted populations. Here, we investigate milk macronutrient composition, volume, and energy in a sample of 82 Tibetans living at high and low altitude in rural villages (Nubri Valley, Nepal) and at low altitude in Kathmandu, Nepal. Milk samples were collected in the morning using hand expression, frozen, and assayed for fat, protein, and total sugars. Reproductive histories and health recalls were also collected. Milk fat averaged 5.2 ±2.0 g/100 mL, milk sugar 7.37 ± 0.49 g/100 mL, and milk protein 1.26 ± 0.35 g/100 mL for a mean energy density of 81.4 ± 17.4 kcal/100 mL. There were no associations between altitude of residence and milk composition; however, overall milk fat was high compared to reference populations. Within the three groups, milk fat was positively associated with infant age (B = 0.103; p milk sugar was significantly and inversely associated with maternal parity and triceps skinfold thickness. Milk fat, and consequently milk energy, may be increased in high-altitude adapted Tibetans when compared to populations living at low altitude. The association between milk fat and maternal adiposity suggests that milk composition may be sensitive to maternal adiposity in this sample, likely reflecting increased metabolic costs of producing a high-fat milk. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Growth among Tibetans at high and low altitudes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Vikal; Gupta, Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    In India, Tibetans have been living at different altitudes for more than 40 years. This study describes physical growth in terms of height, weight, sitting height, skinfold thickness at triceps and upper arm circumference of Tibetans born and raised at three Tibetan refugee settlements (3,521; 970; and 800 m) from the view point of the hypothesis that growth is retarded at high altitude. Samples consist of individuals between the ages of 2 and 40 years. Tibetans at high altitude in India show a growth pattern similar to that previously observed among Tibetans in Tibet. Tibetans at high altitude are taller and heavier compared to Andean highlanders. The general trends show that Tibetan children and adults of both sexes at low altitude in India are advanced in terms of height, weight, skinfold thickness at triceps and upper arm circumference compared to Tibetans at high altitude. Trunk length (sitting height) is similar at the two altitudes but relative sitting height is greater at high altitude. Greater relative sitting height and lesser leg length at high altitude than at low altitudes is discussed in terms of effect of altitude, temperature, and nutritional status. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Energy and exergy analysis of a cruise ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Francesco; Ahlgren, Fredrik; Nguyen, Tuong-Van

    2015-01-01

    destruction is generated in the Diesel engines and in the oil - fired boilers) and in the sea water cooler (5.4%) ; the main exergy losses happen instead in the exhaust gas, mostly from the main engines (6 7% of total losses) and particularly from those not equipped with heat recovery devices . The improved...... to its final use on board. To illustrate this, we perform ed an analysis of the energy and exergy flow rates of a cruise ship sailing in the Baltic Sea based on a combination of available measurements from ship operations and of mechanistic knowledge of the system . The energy analys is allows...

  14. Geografía, homosexualidad masculina y cruising en Tenerife

    OpenAIRE

    Dóniz-Páez, Francisco Javier; Departamento de Geografíae Historia, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, España

    2015-01-01

    A pesar de las interesantes aportaciones que la geografía ha prestado a las minorías sexuales todavía existe cierta marginalidad científica. En España las investigaciones sobre los gays son poco frecuentes, se enmarcan principalmente dentro de los estudios de género y se centran sobre todo en el concepto de visibilidad gay, en la producción de espacios y en el ocio turístico. El cruising se utiliza para designar los encuentros sexuales anónimos entre hombres ¿gays? en espacios públicos abiert...

  15. Hypersonic cruise aircraft propulsion integration study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. E.; Brewer, G. D.

    1979-01-01

    A hypersonic cruise transport conceptual design is described. The integration of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic propulsion systems with the aerodynamic design of the airframe is emphasized. An evaluation of various configurations of aircraft and propulsion integration concepts, and selection and refinement of a final design are given. This configuration was used as a baseline to compare two propulsion concepts - one using a fixed geometry dual combustion mode scramjet and the other a variable geometry ramjet engine. Both concepts used turbojet engines for takeoff, landing and acceleration to supersonic speed.

  16. Modelling and Forecasting Cruise Tourism Demand to İzmir by Different Artificial Neural Network Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Cuhadar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cruise ports emerged as an important sector for the economy of Turkey bordered on three sides by water. Forecasting cruise tourism demand ensures better planning, efficient preparation at the destination and it is the basis for elaboration of future plans. In the recent years, new techniques such as; artificial neural networks were employed for developing of the predictive models to estimate tourism demand. In this study, it is aimed to determine the forecasting method that provides the best performance when compared the forecast accuracy of Multi-layer Perceptron (MLP, Radial Basis Function (RBF and Generalized Regression neural network (GRNN to estimate the monthly inbound cruise tourism demand to İzmir via the method giving best results. We used the total number of foreign cruise tourist arrivals as a measure of inbound cruise tourism demand and monthly cruise tourist arrivals to İzmir Cruise Port in the period of January 2005 ‐December 2013 were utilized to appropriate model. Experimental results showed that radial basis function (RBF neural network outperforms multi-layer perceptron (MLP and the generalised regression neural networks (GRNN in terms of forecasting accuracy. By the means of the obtained RBF neural network model, it has been forecasted the monthly inbound cruise tourism demand to İzmir for the year 2014.

  17. All at sea: Insights into crew work experiences on a cruise liner | Bolt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research explores employee experiences of working on board a cruise ship. Cruise liners have been described as floating hotels; but increasingly they are more like floating resorts, embracing passenger and crew populations as big as small towns. In addition to the usual service sector experiences and emotional ...

  18. Deep Impact 9P/TEMPEL Cruise - Raw its Nav Images V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcich, B.; Shaw, A. S.; Desnoyer, M.; McLaughlin, S. A.; Mastrodemos, N.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2010-01-01

    This data set contains raw calibration and test images acquired by the Deep Impact Impactor Targeting Sensor Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission. These observations were used for optical and autonomous navigation (NAV) of the impactor spacecraft. These data were collected from 7 April to 30 April 2005. The comet was not imaged during cruise.

  19. A Dynamic Geocast Solution to Support Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) Merging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) is a type of cruise control in which the speed of a vehicle is controlled based on wireless communication between vehicles. In this paper we tackle the communication needed in case of fully automatic CACC merging at a junction. The first contribution of our

  20. Regulations and policies that limit the growth of the U.S. Great Lakes cruising market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The worldwide cruise industry has seen remarkable growth since the 1990s. The cruise market on the Great Lakes has lagged the worldwide growth and compared to historical records, has fallen far short of its full potential. This paper reviews the hist...

  1. Cruise control in personenauto's : een literatuur-oriëntatie op verkeersveiligheidsaspecten.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1996-01-01

    In this literature survey little evidence is found of studies primarily investigating the road safety effects of cruise control. Those effects which were examined (mainly through practical tests with and without cruise control) showed that in addition to positive effects governing individual fuel

  2. Cruise report for FS METEOR Cruise 60 Leg 3 from Las Palmas, Canary Islands to Ponta Delgada, Azores, during February 28 - March 14, 1982 (NODC Accession 0078562)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The focus of this cruise leg was physical oceanography of the area between the Canaries and the Azores within the program of the SFB 133 'Warm water sphere of the...

  3. Regression of altitude-produced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, D. A.; Mcintyre, T. W.; Van Liere, E. J.; Wilson , M. F.

    1973-01-01

    The rate of regression of cardiac hypertrophy with time has been determined in adult male albino rats. The hypertrophy was induced by intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude. The percentage hypertrophy was much greater (46%) in the right ventricle than in the left (16%). The regression could be adequately fitted to a single exponential function with a half-time of 6.73 plus or minus 0.71 days (90% CI). There was no significant difference in the rates of regression for the two ventricles.

  4. A vitivinicultura de altitude em Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Losso, Flavia Baratieri

    2016-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia, Florianópolis, 2016. O presente estudo analisou as relações entre a formação sócio-espacial, a produção e o consumo de vinhos finos de altitude em Santa Catarina como indutores do desenvolvimento do Enoturismo no Estado mediante o entendimento de que este tipo de turismo poderá intervir na economia do vinho, agregando valor e influenciando o consumo des...

  5. HIGH ALTITUDES EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGIC BLOOD PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Hasim Rushiti; Florian Miftari; Besim Halilaj

    2015-01-01

    The approach and the objective of this experiment are consistent with the determination of changes of blood parameters after the stay of the students at an altitude of 1800-2300 meters, for a ten-day long ski course. In this paper are included a total of 64 students of the Faculty of Sport Sciences in Prishtina, of the age group of 19-25 (the average age is 21). All students previously have undergone a medical check for TA, arterial pulse and respiratory rate. In particular, the health situat...

  6. Safety problems in vehicles with adaptive cruise control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Arun K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world automotive industries are still putting efforts towards more autonomous vehicles (AVs. The main concern of introducing the autonomous technology is safety of driver. According to a survey 90% of accidents happen due to mistake of driver. The adaptive cruise control system (ACC is a system which combines cruise control with a collision avoidance system. The ACC system is based on laser and radar technologies. This system is capable of controlling the velocity of vehicle automatically to match the velocity of car, bus or truck in front of vehicle. If the lead vehicle gets slow down or accelerate, than ACC system automatically matches that velocity. The proposed paper is focusing on more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by using a radar and lidar sensors by considering the vehicle side slip and by controlling the distance between two vehicles. By using this approach i.e. logic for calculation of former vehicle distance and controlling the throttle valve of ACC equipped vehicle, an improvement in driving stability was achieved. The own contribution results with fuel efficient driving and with more safer and reliable driving system, but still some improvements are going on to make it more safe and reliable.

  7. Simulated altitude exposure assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calin, Mihaela Antonina; Macovei, Adrian; Miclos, Sorin; Parasca, Sorin Viorel; Savastru, Roxana; Hristea, Razvan

    2017-05-01

    Testing the human body's reaction to hypoxia (including the one generated by high altitude) is important in aeronautic medicine. This paper presents a method of monitoring blood oxygenation during experimental hypoxia using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and a spectral unmixing model based on a modified Beer-Lambert law. A total of 20 healthy volunteers (males) aged 25 to 60 years were included in this study. A line-scan HSI system was used to acquire images of the faces of the subjects. The method generated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin distribution maps from the foreheads of the subjects at 5 and 10 min of hypoxia and after recovery in a high oxygen breathing mixture. The method also generated oxygen saturation maps that were validated using pulse oximetry. An interesting pattern of desaturation on the forehead was discovered during the study, showing one of the advantages of using HSI for skin oxygenation monitoring in hypoxic conditions. This could bring new insight into the physiological response to high altitude and may become a step forward in air crew testing.

  8. Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Jefe de la Unidad de Reproducción, Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura y Jefe del Laboratorio de Endocrinología y Reproducción, Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Doctor en Medicina y Doctor en Ciencias. Especialista en Endocrinología.

    2011-01-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulti...

  9. Global Assessment of High-Altitude Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, Cristina L.; Ken Caldeira

    2009-01-01

    The available wind power resource worldwide at altitudes between 500 and 12,000 m above ground is assessed for the first time. Twenty-eight years of wind data from the reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the Department of Energy are analyzed and interpolated to study geographical distributions and persistency of winds at all altitudes. Furthermore, intermittency issues and global climate effects of large-scale extraction of energy from high-altitude winds are i...

  10. Perceived Velocity and Altitude Judgments During Rotary Wing Aircraft Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    receiYing reports £ram the U. s. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory m automatic :mailing lists . should · c.cmfim. correct a.dcl.re.s.s ’ Whell ...and as altitude and airspeed increase the tendency is to overestimate altitude. These and other results are discussed as well as their possible...increase the tendency is to overestimate altitude. These and other results are discussed as well as their possible implications for conduct of safe

  11. The influence of cruise control and adaptive cruise control on driving behaviour--a driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvollrath; Schleicher, Susanne; Gelau, Christhard

    2011-05-01

    Although Cruise Control (CC) is available for most cars, no studies have been found which examine how this automation system influences driving behaviour. However, a relatively large number of studies have examined Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) which compared to CC includes also a distance control. Besides positive effects with regard to a better compliance to speed limits, there are also indications of smaller distances to lead vehicles and slower responses in situations that require immediate braking. Similar effects can be expected for CC as this system takes over longitudinal control as well. To test this hypothesis, a simulator study was conducted at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). Twenty-two participants drove different routes (highway and motorway) under three different conditions (assisted by ACC, CC and manual driving without any system). Different driving scenarios were examined including a secondary task condition. On the one hand, both systems lead to lower maximum velocities and less speed limit violations. There was no indication that drivers shift more of their attention towards secondary tasks when driving with CC or ACC. However, there were delayed driver reactions in critical situations, e.g., in a narrow curve or a fog bank. These results give rise to some caution regarding the safety effects of these systems, especially if in the future their range of functionality (e.g., ACC Stop-and-Go) is further increased. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Qiang; Zhang, Guojie; Ma, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) provide meat and other necessities for Tibetans living at high altitude on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and in adjacent regions. Comparison between yak and the closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus) is informative in studying animal adaptation to high altitude...... of protein domains involved in sensing the extracellular environment and hypoxic stress. Positively selected and rapidly evolving genes in the yak lineage are also found to be significantly enriched in functional categories and pathways related to hypoxia and nutrition metabolism. These findings may have...... important implications for understanding adaptation to high altitude in other animal species and for hypoxia-related diseases in humans....

  13. GRIP HIGH-ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Altitude monolithic microwave integrated Circuit (MMIC) Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) is a microwave atmospheric sounder developed by JPL under the NASA...

  14. The pulmonary circulation of some domestic animals at high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, I.; Heath, D.; Williams, D.; Deen, M.; Ferrari, R.; Bergel, D.; Harris, P.

    1988-03-01

    Pulmonary haemodynamics and the histology of the pulmonary vasculature have been studied at high altitude in the yak, in interbreeds between yaks and cattle, and in domestic goats and sheep indigenous to high altitudes together with crosses between them and low-altitude strains. Cattle at high altitude had a higher pulmonary arterial pressure than cattle at low altitude. The yak and two interbreeds with cattle (dzos and stols) had a low pulmonary arterial pressure compared with cattle, while the medial thickness of the small pulmonary arteries was less than would be expected in cattle, suggesting that the yak has a low capacity for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and that this characteristic is transmitted genetically. Goats and sheep showed haemodynamic evidence of a limited response of the pulmonary circulation to high altitude, but no evidence that the high altitude breeds had lost this response. There were no measurable differences in the thickness of the media of the small pulmonary arteries between high- and low-altitude breeds of goats and sheep. All these species showed prominent intimal protrusions of muscle into the pulmonary veins but no specific effect of high altitude in this respect.

  15. Cruise tourism and community economic development in Central America and the Caribbean: The case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an economic approach to understanding the cruise tourism industry as a driver of economic development in Costa Rica. The objective is to describe the role and activities of the cruise ship industry and identify sources of economic benefit and cost such that more informed local policy decisions about the cruise ship tourism might be made. For example, our analysis indicates: the cruise tourism industry competes with the cargo shipping industry for port space at a significant cost to Costa Rican ports; the amount of money injected into the local economy per cruise tourist is substantially lower than for other types of tourism; Cruise ships purchase relatively few supplies in Costa Rica; Cruise ships generate a great deal of human waste, water and air pollution, which can create a serious health hazard, cleanup costs, and which are not commensurate with other types of tourism development available to Costa Rica; Decision makers may want to consider that investment in cruise tourism friendly ports may be less efficient from a national perspective than investment in infrastructure (e.g., airports to increase more profitable types of tourism; And leaders may want to consider the encouragement of smaller “pocket” cruises over the current cruise version of mass tourism. This approach should be applicable to communities wherever cruise tourism currently exists or is under consideration to be included in the portfolio of community economic activities

  16. Acoustic Doppler current profiling from the JGOFS Arabian Sea cruises aboard the RV T.G. Thompson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S.; Flagg, C.N.; Shi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Oceanographic and Atmospheric Sciences Div.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data is part of the core data for the US JGOFS Arabian Sea project, along with hydrographic and nutrient data. Seventeen cruises are scheduled to take place between September 1994 and January 1996 on the R/V T.G. Thompson. Seven of the cruises follow a standard cruise track, taking hydrographic, chemical and biological measurements. The rest of the cruises, which take place generally within the standard cruise region defined by a set track, are for the deployment and recovery of moored equipment and towing of a SeaSoar. Detailed description of ADCP hardware, the AutoADCP data acquisition system, and the collection of navigation and compass data on the Thompson is documented in Section 2. Followed by data collection for each cruise together with a cruise track, Section 3 presents the processing and analysis of velocity and acoustic backscatter intensity data. Section 5 shows results of profile quality diagnosis.

  17. Consistency of cruise data of the CARINA database in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hoppema

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Initially a North Atlantic project, the CARINA carbon synthesis was extended to include the Southern Ocean. Carbon and relevant hydrographic and geochemical ancillary data from cruises all across the Arctic Mediterranean Seas, Atlantic and Southern Ocean were released to the public and merged into a new database as part of the CARINA synthesis effort. Of a total of 188 cruises, 37 cruises are part of the Southern Ocean, including 11 from the Atlantic sector. The variables from all Southern Ocean cruises, including dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2, total alkalinity, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate, were examined for cruise-to-cruise consistency in one collective effort. Seawater pH and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs are also part of the database, but the pH quality control (QC is described in another Earth System Science Data publication, while the complexity of the Southern Ocean physics and biogeochemistry prevented a proper QC analysis of the CFCs. The area-specific procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between stations and inversion analysis of all crossover data (i.e. secondary QC, are briefly described here for the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Data from an existing, quality controlled database (GLODAP were used as a reference for our computations – however, the reference data were included into the analysis without applying the recommended GLODAP adjustments so the corrections could be independently verified. The outcome of this effort is an internally consistent, high-quality carbon data set for all cruises, including the reference cruises. The suggested corrections by the inversion analysis were allowed to vary within a fixed envelope, thus accounting for natural variability. The percentage of cruises adjusted ranged from 31% (for nitrate to 54% (for phosphate depending on the variable.

  18. Efficacy of Cruise Control in controlling postocclusion surge with Legacy and Millennium venturi phacoemulsification machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Matthew; Isom, Ryan; Georgescu, Dan; Olson, Randall J

    2007-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Cruise Control surge-limiting device (Staar Surgical) with phacoemulsification machines known to have high levels of surge. John A. Moran Eye Center Clinical Laboratories. In an in vitro study, postocclusion anterior chamber depth changes were measured in fresh phakic human eye-bank eyes using the Alcon Legacy and Bausch & Lomb Millennium venturi machines in conjunction with the Staar Cruise Control device. Both machines were tested with 19-gauge non-Aspiration Bypass System tips at high-surge settings (500 mm Hg vacuum pressure, 75 cm bottle height, 40 mL/min flow rate for the Legacy) and low-surge settings (400 mm Hg vacuum pressure, 125 cm bottle height, 40 mL/min flow rate for the Legacy). Adjusted parameters of flow, vacuum, and irrigation were used based on previous studies to create identical conditions for each device tested. The effect of the Cruise Control device on aspiration rates was also tested with both machines at the low-surge settings. At the high setting with the addition of Cruise Control, surge decreased significantly with the Legacy but was too large to measure with the Millennium venturi. At the low setting with the addition of Cruise Control, surge decreased significantly with both machines. Surge with the Millennium decreased from more than 1.0 mm to a mean of 0.21 mm +/- 0.02 (SD) (PCruise Control and the greatest percentage decrease in the surge and aspiration rates as a result of the addition of Cruise Control. In the Legacy machine, the Cruise Control device had a statistically and clinically significant effect. Cruise Control had a large effect on fluidics as well as surge amplitude with the Millennium machine. The greater the flow or greater the initial surge, the greater the impact of the Cruise Control device.

  19. Effects of ascent to high altitude on human antimycobacterial immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Eisen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis infection, disease and mortality are all less common at high than low altitude and ascent to high altitude was historically recommended for treatment. The immunological and mycobacterial mechanisms underlying the association between altitude and tuberculosis are unclear. We studied the effects of altitude on mycobacteria and antimycobacterial immunity.Antimycobacterial immunity was assayed in 15 healthy adults residing at low altitude before and after they ascended to 3400 meters; and in 47 long-term high-altitude residents. Antimycobacterial immunity was assessed as the extent to which participants' whole blood supported or restricted growth of genetically modified luminescent Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG mycobacteria during 96 hours incubation. We developed a simplified whole blood assay that could be used by a technician in a low-technology setting. We used this to compare mycobacterial growth in participants' whole blood versus positive-control culture broth and versus negative-control plasma.Measurements of mycobacterial luminescence predicted the number of mycobacterial colonies cultured six weeks later. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood at similar rates to positive-control culture broth whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.002 of mycobacterial growth to be 4-times less than in culture broth. At low altitude, mycobacteria grew in blood 25-times more than negative-control plasma whereas ascent to high altitude was associated with restriction (p ≤ 0.01 of mycobacterial growth to be only 6-times more than in plasma. There was no evidence of differences in antimycobacterial immunity at high altitude between people who had recently ascended to high altitude versus long-term high-altitude residents.An assay of luminescent mycobacterial growth in whole blood was adapted and found to be feasible in low-resource settings. This demonstrated that ascent to or residence at high altitude was

  20. Art concept of Magellan spacecraft in cruise configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Magellan spacecraft cruise configuration is illustrated in this artist concept. With solar panels deployed and having jettisoned the inertial upper stage (IUS), Magellan approaches the sun which it will orbit approximately 1.6 times before encountering Venus. Magellan, named after the 16th century Portuguese explorer, will orbit Venus about once every three hours, acquiring radar data for 37 minutes of each orbit when it is closest to the surface. Using an advanced instrument called a synthetic aperture radar (SAR), it will map more than 90 per cent of the surface with resolution ten times better than the best from prior spacecraft. Magellan is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); Martin Marietta Aerospace is developing the spacecraft and Hughes Aircraft Company, the advanced imaging radar. Magellan will be deployed from payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during the STS-30 mission.

  1. Airframe-integrated propulsion system for hypersonic cruise vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. A.; Huber, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a new hydrogen-burning airframe-integrated scramjet concept which offers good potential for efficient hypersonic cruise vehicles. The characteristics of the engine which assure good performance are extensive engine-airframe integration, fixed geometry, low cooling, and control of heat release in the supersonic combustor by mixed modes of fuel injection from the combustor entrance. The present paper describes the concept and presents results from inlet tests, direct-connect combustor tests, and tests of two subscale boiler-plate research engines currently underway under conditions which simulate flight at Mach 4 and 7. It is concluded that this engine concept has the potential for high thrust and efficiency, low drag and weight, low cooling requirement, and application to a wide range of vehicle sizes.

  2. Driver usage and understanding of adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Annika F L

    2012-05-01

    Automation, in terms of systems such as adaptive/active cruise control (ACC) or collision warning systems, is increasingly becoming a part of everyday driving. These systems are not perfect though, and the driver has to be prepared to reclaim control in situations very similar to those the system easily handles by itself. This paper uses a questionnaire answered by 130 ACC users to discuss future research needs in the area of driver assistance systems. Results show that the longer drivers use their systems, the more aware of its limitations they become. Moreover, the drivers report that ACC forces them to take control intermittently. According to theory, this might actually be better than a more perfect system, as it provides preparation for unexpected situations requiring the driver to reclaim control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Robust adaptive cruise control of high speed trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faieghi, Mohammadreza; Jalali, Aliakbar; Mashhadi, Seyed Kamal-e-ddin Mousavi

    2014-03-01

    The cruise control problem of high speed trains in the presence of unknown parameters and external disturbances is considered. In particular a Lyapunov-based robust adaptive controller is presented to achieve asymptotic tracking and disturbance rejection. The system under consideration is nonlinear, MIMO and non-minimum phase. To deal with the limitations arising from the unstable zero-dynamics we do an output redefinition such that the zero-dynamics with respect to new outputs becomes stable. Rigorous stability analyses are presented which establish the boundedness of all the internal states and simultaneously asymptotic stability of the tracking error dynamics. The results are presented for two common configurations of high speed trains, i.e. the DD and PPD designs, based on the multi-body model and are verified by several numerical simulations. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tilt-rotor flutter control in cruise flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Ken-Ichi

    1986-01-01

    Tilt-rotor flutter control under cruising operation is analyzed. The rotor model consists of a straight fixed wing, a pylon attached to the wingtip, and a three-blade rotor. The wing is cantilevered to the fuselage and is allowed to bend forward and upward. It also has a torsional degree of freedom about the elastic axis. Each rotor blade has two bending degrees of freedom. Feedback of wingtip velocity and acceleration to cyclic pitch is investigated for flutter control, using strip theory and linearized equations of motion. To determine the feedback gain, an eigenvalue analysis is performed. A second, independent, timewise calculation is conducted to evaluate the control law while employing more sophisticated aerodynamics. The effectiveness of flutter control by cyclic pitch change was confirmed.

  5. Discrete Sliding Mode Control for Hypersonic Cruise Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hua Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrete variable structure control (DVSC with sliding vector is presented to track the velocity and acceleration command for a hypersonic cruise missile. In the design an integrator is augmented to ensure the tracking with zero steady-state errors. Furthermore the sliding surface of acceleration is designed using the error of acceleration and acceleration rate to avoid the singularity of control matrix. A proper power rate reaching law is utilized in this proposal; therefore the state trajectory from any initial point can be driven into the sliding surface. Besides, in order to validate the robustness of controller, the unmolded dynamic and parameter disturbance of the missile are considered. Through simulation the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking velocity and acceleration command.

  6. Emergency braking is affected by the use of cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammes, Yves; Behr, Michel; Llari, Maxime; Bonicel, Sarah; Weber, Jean Paul; Berdah, Stephane

    2017-08-18

    We compared the differences in the braking response to vehicle collision between an active human emergency braking (control condition) and cruise control (CC) or adaptive cruise control (ACC). In 11 male subjects, age 22 to 67 years, we measured the active emergency braking response during manual driving using the accelerator pedal (control condition) or in condition mimicking CC or ACC. In both conditions, we measured the brake reaction time (BRT), delay to produce the peak braking force (PBD), total emergency braking response (BRT + PBD), and peak braking force (PBF). Electromyograms of leg and thigh muscles were recorded during braking. The tonic vibratory response (TVR), Hoffman reflex (HR), and M-waves were recorded in leg muscles to explore the change in sensorimotor control. No difference in PBF, TVR amplitude, HR latency, and H max /M max ratio were found between the control and CC/ACC conditions. On the other hand, BRT and PBD were significantly lengthened in the CC/ACC condition (240 ± 13 ms and 704 ± 70 ms, respectively) compared to control (183 ± 7 ms and 568 ± 36 ms, respectively). BRT increased with the age of participants and the driving experience shortened PBD and increased PBF. In male subjects, driving in a CC/ACC condition significantly delays the active emergency braking response to vehicle collision. This could result from higher amplitude of leg motion in the CC/ACC condition and/or by the age-related changes in motor control. Car and truck drivers must take account of the significant increase in the braking distance in a CC/ACC condition.

  7. Quadrant to Measure the Sun's Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, A Morgan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The changing altitude of the Sun (either over the course of a day or longer periods) is a phenomenon that students do not normally appreciate. However, the altitude of the Sun affects many topics in disciplines as diverse as astronomy, meteorology, navigation, or horology, such as the basis for seasons, determination of latitude and longitude, or…

  8. Acute high-altitude illness | Hofmeyr | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At altitude, the decreasing ambient pressure proportionally decreases available oxygen (hypobaric hypoxia). ... but mild AMS is rapid descent to lower altitudes, which can be facilitated by administration of oxygen and drugs, including acetazolamide, dexamethasone and nifedipine, or use of a portable hyperbaric chamber.

  9. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  10. Short communication: Effect of altitude on erosive characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-resolution rainfall data from two stations in the northern KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg provide insight into the effect of altitude on individual rainfall event characteristics. The effect of altitude on the duration and erosivity (rainfall intensity and kinetic energy) of concurrent rainfall on the escarpment and in the foothills is ...

  11. Cold induced peripheral vasodilation at high altitudes- a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Ruiten, H.J.A. van

    2000-01-01

    A significant reduction in cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) is observed at high altitudes. No agreement is found in the literature about acclimatization effects on CIVD. Two studies were performed to investigate the effect of altitude acclimatization on CIVD. In the first study 13 male subjects

  12. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  13. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  14. Hypovolemia explains the reduced stroke volume at altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Hug, Mike; Keiser, Stefanie; Müller, Andrea; van Lieshout, Johannes; Rasmussen, Peter; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    During acute altitude exposure tachycardia increases cardiac output (Q) thus preserving systemic O2 delivery. Within days of acclimatization, however, Q normalizes following an unexplained reduction in stroke volume (SV). To investigate whether the altitude-mediated reduction in plasma volume (PV)

  15. 14 CFR 91.515 - Flight altitude rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight altitude rules. 91.515 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Large and Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.515 Flight altitude rules. (a...

  16. 14 CFR 93.307 - Minimum flight altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum flight altitudes. 93.307 Section 93...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the Vicinity of Grand Canyon National Park, AZ § 93.307 Minimum flight altitudes. Except in an emergency, or if...

  17. After-effects of a high altitude expedition on blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, D; Maassen, N; Jochum, F; Steinacker, J; Halder, A; Thomas, A; Schmidt, W; Noé, G; Kubanek, B

    1997-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate blood alterations caused by altitude acclimatization which last more than few days after return and might play a role for exercise performance at sea level. Measurements were performed in 12 mountaineers before, during and either 7/8 or 11/12 days after a Himalaya expedition (26-29 days at 4900 to 7600 m altitude). [Erythropoietin] rose only temporarily at altitude (max. +11 +/- 1 [SE] mu/ml serum). After return hemoglobin mass (initially 881 +/- 44 g, CO-Hb method) was increased by 14% (p training, partly in the Alps, and the stay in the Himalaya influenced O2-affinity for a prolonged time. The adaptations might reduce the loss of physical performance capacity at altitude and be part of altitude training effects.

  18. Low-Altitude Operation of Unmanned Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sebastian

    Currently deployed unmanned rotorcraft rely on preplanned missions or teleoperation and do not actively incorporate information about obstacles, landing sites, wind, position uncertainty, and other aerial vehicles during online motion planning. Prior work has successfully addressed some tasks such as obstacle avoidance at slow speeds, or landing at known to be good locations. However, to enable autonomous missions in cluttered environments, the vehicle has to react quickly to previously unknown obstacles, respond to changing environmental conditions, and find unknown landing sites. We consider the problem of enabling autonomous operation at low-altitude with contributions to four problems. First we address the problem of fast obstacle avoidance for a small aerial vehicle and present results from over a 1000 rims at speeds up to 10 m/s. Fast response is achieved through a reactive algorithm whose response is learned based on observing a pilot. Second, we show an algorithm to update the obstacle cost expansion for path planning quickly and demonstrate it on a micro aerial vehicle, and an autonomous helicopter avoiding obstacles. Next, we examine the mission of finding a place to land near a ground goal. Good landing sites need to be detected and found and the final touch down goal is unknown. To detect the landing sites we convey a model based algorithm for landing sites that incorporates many helicopter relevant constraints such as landing sites, approach, abort, and ground paths in 3D range data. The landing site evaluation algorithm uses a patch-based coarse evaluation for slope and roughness, and a fine evaluation that fits a 3D model of the helicopter and landing gear to calculate a goodness measure. The data are evaluated in real-time to enable the helicopter to decide on a place to land. We show results from urban, vegetated, and desert environments, and demonstrate the first autonomous helicopter that selects its own landing sites. We present a generalized

  19. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Garvican-Lewis

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour.Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin.Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005 during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001 while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p < 0.001 during racing at moderate-high altitude compared with the race simulation near sea-level.A reduction in oxygen availability as altitude increases leads to attenuation of cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.

  20. Preterm birth risk at high altitude in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lisa D; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma L; Gasco, Manuel; Sammel, Mary D; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Ludmir, Jack

    2015-02-01

    High altitude has been implicated in a variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia and stillbirth. Smaller studies show conflicting data on the association between high altitude and preterm birth (PTB). The objective of this study was to assess the association between altitude and PTB. A retrospective cohort study was performed using data from the Perinatal Information System, which includes deliveries from 43 hospitals in Peru from 2000 through 2010. Altitude was classified into the following categories: low (0-1999 m), moderate (2000-2900 m), and high (3000-4340 m). The primary outcome was PTB (delivery <37 weeks). Secondary outcomes were cesarean delivery and small for gestational age (SGA). Deliveries less than 23 weeks are not included in the database. χ(2) analyses were performed to compare categorical variables, and a logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios and control for confounders. Clustering by hospital was accounted for using generalized estimating equations. A total of 550,166 women were included (68% low, 15% moderate, 17% high altitude). The overall PTB rate was 5.9%, with no difference in the PTB rate among the 3 altitudes (5.6%, 6.2%, 6.8%, P = .13). There was a significant difference in cesarean rates (28.0%, 26.6%, 20.6%, P < .001) with a 34% decreased risk at high vs low altitude adjusted for confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.85). There was a difference in SGA (3.3%, 3.6%, 5.0%, P = .02) with a 51% increased risk at high vs low altitude adjusted for confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.93). High altitude is not associated with PTB. At high altitude, the cesarean rate was reduced and the SGA rate was increased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic adaptation to high altitude in the Ethiopian highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Soi, Sameer; Thompson, Simon; Ranciaro, Alessia; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Beggs, William; Lambert, Charla; Jarvis, Joseph P; Abate, Dawit; Belay, Gurja; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2012-01-20

    Genomic analysis of high-altitude populations residing in the Andes and Tibet has revealed several candidate loci for involvement in high-altitude adaptation, a subset of which have also been shown to be associated with hemoglobin levels, including EPAS1, EGLN1, and PPARA, which play a role in the HIF-1 pathway. Here, we have extended this work to high- and low-altitude populations living in Ethiopia, for which we have measured hemoglobin levels. We genotyped the Illumina 1M SNP array and employed several genome-wide scans for selection and targeted association with hemoglobin levels to identify genes that play a role in adaptation to high altitude. We have identified a set of candidate genes for positive selection in our high-altitude population sample, demonstrated significantly different hemoglobin levels between high- and low-altitude Ethiopians and have identified a subset of candidate genes for selection, several of which also show suggestive associations with hemoglobin levels. We highlight several candidate genes for involvement in high-altitude adaptation in Ethiopia, including CBARA1, VAV3, ARNT2 and THRB. Although most of these genes have not been identified in previous studies of high-altitude Tibetan or Andean population samples, two of these genes (THRB and ARNT2) play a role in the HIF-1 pathway, a pathway implicated in previous work reported in Tibetan and Andean studies. These combined results suggest that adaptation to high altitude arose independently due to convergent evolution in high-altitude Amhara populations in Ethiopia.

  2. DEEP IMPACT 9P/TEMPEL CRUISE - RAW MRI NAV IMAGES V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains raw calibration and test images acquired by the Deep Impact Medium Resolution Instrument Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission....

  3. DEEP IMPACT 9P/TEMPEL CRUISE - RAW MRI CALIB DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains raw science calibration images acquired by the Deep Impact Medium Resolution Instrument Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission.

  4. DEEP IMPACT 9P/TEMPEL CRUISE - RAW MRI NAV IMAGES V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains raw calibration and test images acquired by the Deep Impact Medium Resolution Instrument Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission....

  5. Cruise NF-12-03-GRNMS (Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary) (EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three projects are planned for the duration of this cruise: acoustic fish tracking, marine debris surveys, and collection of A. zebra samples. Two additional...

  6. ROSETTA-ORBITER CHECK GIADA 2 CR2 CRUISE2 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This volume contains Experiment Data acquired by GIADA during 'Cruise 2' phase. More in detail it refers to the data provided during the following in-flight tests:...

  7. ROSETTA-ORBITER CHECK GIADA 2 CR4B CRUISE4B V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Checkout 9 (PC9) was the 7th Passive Payload checkout conducted during the Rosetta spacecraft's Cruise Phase. The main objective of passive payload checkouts...

  8. Larval Fish Identification from Cruises at Oahu, TC-88-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One cruise aboard the NOAA ship Townsend Cromwell was conducted during 14 April-3 May 1988. Collectors included George Boehlert, Bruce Mundy, Ronald Yoshimoto, Keith...

  9. Ichthyoplankton (biological) data collected aboard the NOAA ship Nancy Foster during cruise 0903

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station data and ichthyoplankton (biological) data from cruise 0903 from the US Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Anegada Passage, Leeward Islands...

  10. Cruise Tourism as a Factor of Development of the Investment Potential of the Ukrainian Danube

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergey Nezdoyminov

    2016-01-01

    The author of the article identified systemic problems in the functioning of water transport enterprises, affecting the development of investment attractiveness of cruise tourism in the Ukrainian Danube region...

  11. Flight Test Evaluation of Endurance-Maximizing Periodic Cruise Trajectories for UAV Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The benefits of periodic cruise operation of flight vehicles have been known for three decades. Although a number of papers and doctoral dissertations have studied...

  12. JUNO OUTER CRUISE RAW GRAVITY SCIENCE 1 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains archival raw, partially processed, and ancillary/supporting gravity science data acquired during the Juno outer cruise between the October...

  13. Oceanographic cruise Indian Ocean and Java Trench June 1969 (NODC Accession 7100908)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard H.M.A.S DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Java Trench and the Indian Ocean during...

  14. Oceanographic cruise: Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench, April - May 1969 (NODC Accession 7100914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains oceanographic data which was obtained aboard HMAS DIAMANTINA during an oceanographic cruise in the Coral Sea, Arafura Sea, and Java Trench...

  15. Evaluation of the intelligent cruise control system : volume 1 : study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) system evaluation was based on an ICC Field Operational Test (FOT) performed in Michigan. The FOT involved 108 volunteers recruited to drive ten ICC-equipped Chrysler Concordes. Testing was initiated in July 1996 ...

  16. Predictive Eco-Cruise Control (ECC) system : model development, modeling and potential benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The research develops a reference model of a predictive eco-cruise control (ECC) system that intelligently modulates vehicle speed within a pre-set speed range to minimize vehicle fuel consumption levels using roadway topographic information. The stu...

  17. PENGENDALIAN KELAJUAN KENDARAAN MENGGUNAKAN FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER (FLC PADA SISTEM CRUISE KONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Susanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengendalian kelajuan kendaraan menggunakan FLC pada cruise control telah dilakukan dengan menginjeksi sistem fuzzy pada sistem gerak kendaraan. Sistem fuzzy terdiri dari dua himpunan masukan berupa error kelajuan dan laju error kelajuan sistem. Penambahan Fuzzy Logic Controller pada sistem gerak kendaraan berpengaruh terhadap respon sistem untuk mencapai kecepatan yang diinginkan. Dengan penambahan FLC respon kecepatan dalam mencapai kecepatan yang diinginkan semakin cepat sehingga sesuai untuk diterapkan pada cruise control.Control vehicle speed using the cruise control FLC has been done by injecting a fuzzy system on the vehicle motion system. The system consists of two sets fuzzy input is the speed error and the error rate of the speed of the system. The addition of Fuzzy Logic Controller in the vehicle motion system affect the response of the system to achieve the desired speed. With the addition of FLC response speed in reaching the desired speed more quickly so appropriate to be applied to the cruise control.

  18. Intelligent cruise control field operational test. Vol II, Appendices A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    This document reports on a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). The main goal of the work is to characterize safety and comfort issues that are fundamental to human inte...

  19. Detection of new in-path targets by drivers using Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A; Dunoyer, Alain; Leatherland, Adam

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports on the design and evaluation of in-car displays used to support Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control. Stop & Go Adaptive Cruise Control is an extension of Adaptive Cruise Control, as it is able to bring the vehicle to a complete stop. Previous versions of Adaptive Cruise Control have only operated above 26 kph. The greatest concern for these technologies is the appropriateness of the driver's response in any given scenario. Three different driver interfaces were proposed to support the detection of modal, spatial and temporal changes of the system: an iconic display, a flashing iconic display, and a representation of the radar. The results show that drivers correctly identified more changes detected by the system with the radar display than with the other displays, but higher levels of workload accompanied this increased detection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. R2R Eventlogger: Community-wide Recording of Oceanographic Cruise Science Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.; Lerner, S.; Avery, J.; Thiel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methods used by researchers to track science events during a science research cruise - and to note when and where these occur - varies widely. Handwritten notebooks, printed forms, watch-keeper logbooks, data-logging software, and customized software have all been employed. The quality of scientific results is affected by the consistency and care with which such events are recorded and integration of multi-cruise results is hampered because recording methods vary widely from cruise to cruise. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has developed an Eventlogger system that will eventually be deployed on most vessels in the academic research fleet. It is based on the open software package called ELOG (http://midas.psi.ch/elog/) originally authored by Stefan Ritt and enhanced by our team. Lessons have been learned in its development and use on several research cruises. We have worked hard to find approaches that encourage cruise participants to use tools like the eventlogger. We examine these lessons and several eventlogger datasets from past cruises. We further describe how the R2R Science Eventlogger works in concert with the other R2R program elements to help coordinate research vessels into a coordinated mobile observing fleet. Making use of data collected on different research cruises is enabled by adopting common ways of describing science events, the science instruments employed, the data collected, etc. The use of controlled vocabularies and the practice of mapping these local vocabularies to accepted oceanographic community vocabularies helps to bind shipboard research events from different cruises into a more cohesive set of fleet-wide events that can be queried and examined in a cross-cruise manner. Examples of the use of the eventlogger during multi-cruise oceanographic research programs along with examples of resultant eventlogger data will be presented. Additionally we will highlight the importance of vocabulary use strategies to the success of the

  1. A Dynamic Geocast Solution to Support Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) Merging

    OpenAIRE

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) is a type of cruise control in which the speed of a vehicle is controlled based on wireless communication between vehicles. In this paper we tackle the communication needed in case of fully automatic CACC merging at a junction. The first contribution of our paper is to show that to target the vehicles involved we need a special kind of geocast that takes both the geographical location and the dynamics (speed, acceleration) of a vehicle into account. ...

  2. Air-breathing hypersonic cruise - Prospects for Mach 4-7 waverider aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1992-06-01

    In the Mach 4-7 range, waverider aircraft are considered as candidates for both short- and long-range cruise missions, as hypersonic missiles, and as high L/D highly maneuverable craft. The potential for near- and far-term application of airbreathing engines to the waverider vehicle missions and concepts is presented. Attention is focused on the cruise mission and attempts are made to compare and contrast it with the accelerator mission.

  3. Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats January 2017 Office of...Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats completed its information-gathering in February 2016...Defense Strategies fo r Advanced Ballistic and Crui se Missile Threats l am pleased to forward the final report of the DSB Task Force on Defense

  4. CRUISE SHIP TOURISM ON THE DANUBE RIVER. CASE STUDY: CAPITALIZATION OF DELTAIC TOURISM POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINCU Elena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, river cruise tourism has witnessed a strong development, being preferred by more tourists each year, to the detriment of other forms of tourism. The presence of a plethora of attractive resources, concentrated along the inland waterways represents a particular offer for tourism development, through proper planning. However, in Romania, river cruise tourism is still incipient, even though cruises on the Danube are available, on a regular basis, since the 1970s. This research focuses on cruise ship tourism on the Danube, in particularly on the deltaic sector; with the Romanian ship MS Delta Star as a case study. Following, a brief presentation of the evolution of this type of tourism on the Danube River and its peculiarities on the Romanian sector, especially in the Danube Delta, was made. The assessment framework of the tourism potential of the Danube Delta at the level of administrative-territorial units was developed by applying the methodology from the National Spatial Plan. After correlating the results of the assessment with the current capitalization of tourism potential of the delta by the cruise ship included in the study, it is highlighted the need for optimizing the structure of the offer for this tourism sector. Identifying the most valuable elements of the Danube Delta, in terms of touristical attractions and including them to future itineraries for tourists on cruise ships guarantees a better capitalization of the tourism potential attracting therefore, a greater number of tourists.

  5. [Aspects and necessity of moderate-altitude research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domej, Wolfgang; Schwaberger, Günther; Guger, Christoph; Herfert, Jürgen; Haditsch, Bernd; Földes-Papp, Zeno; Tilz, Gernot P

    2005-04-01

    Alpinism in all its variations is a leading factor in tourism. Within a few decades, alpine sports, even at high altitudes, have become available to a wide range of people. Now, more people than ever before are hiking, trekking, climbing and skiing at moderate and high altitudes. Annually, 40 million people spend time in the Alps and 100 million visit high altitudes worldwide. However, alpine excursions may entail health problems and many aspects of impaired adaptation to altitude remain unstudied. High-altitude research has mainly been associated with expeditions, with moderate altitudes receiving far less attention, though most tourism takes place at that level. The overwhelming numbers of alpine tourists mean that there is urgent need for high- and moderate-altitude medical research, which would also be within the realm of political responsibility in mountainous countries. Research in mountain medicine and dissemination of relevant findings can show how to improve and conserve performance in healthy individuals and could point the way toward new, safe approaches in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic diseases. It is imperative that mountain medicine continues to develop on a scientific basis.

  6. DLR HABLEG- High Altitude Balloon Launched Experimental Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlach, S.; Schwarzbauch, M.; Laiacker, M.

    2015-09-01

    The group Flying Robots at the DLR Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics in Oberpfaffenhofen conducts research on solar powered high altitude aircrafts. Due to the high altitude and the almost infinite mission duration, these platforms are also denoted as High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites (HAPS). This paper highlights some aspects of the design, building, integration and testing of a flying experimental platform for high altitudes. This unmanned aircraft, with a wingspan of 3 m and a mass of less than 10 kg, is meant to be launched as a glider from a high altitude balloon in 20 km altitude and shall investigate technologies for future large HAPS platforms. The aerodynamic requirements for high altitude flight included the development of a launch method allowing for a safe transition to horizontal flight from free-fall with low control authority. Due to the harsh environmental conditions in the stratosphere, the integration of electronic components in the airframe is a major effort. For regulatory reasons a reliable and situation dependent flight termination system had to be implemented. In May 2015 a flight campaign was conducted. The mission was a full success demonstrating that stratospheric research flights are feasible with rather small aircrafts.

  7. Lipid Subhyaloid Maculopathy and Exposure to High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocinio, Roberta Rosas; Gomes, Elga Dias

    High altitude retinopathy (HAR) includes a number of diseases related to high altitude such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). High altitude retinopathy is mainly characterized by retinal hemorrhages, usually sparing the macular region, a condition specifically known as high altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARH). The pathogenesis of HARH is unclear. Many studies show that lack of oxygen causes an inadequate autoregulation of retinal circulation, causing vascular incompetence. Other retinal changes described in HAR have been reported, such as optical disk edema, optic disc hyperemia, cotton wool exudates, venous occlusions, and macular edema. In this paper we present a case of an aviator who developed a unilateral maculopathy through subhyaloid lipid accumulation on a climb to the top of Mt. Everest. The clinical findings are suggestive of an apparent case of temporary altitude-induced visual disruption maybe by the same presumable pathogenesis of HARH. Right eye visual loss was perceived at 5150 m when he was trying to take a photograph 40 d into the expedition. The maculopathy developed by this patient adds to the discussion on the pathogenesis of HARH, especially the aspect of this maculopathy and its complete resolution. It seems that autoregulation failure could lead to exudation and lipid deposits in the foveal area. Although macular damage is not a common signal in HARH, checking visual acuity during high altitude expeditions remains an important procedure to avoid late diagnosis as unilateral blindness may not be detected early. Rosas Petrocinio R, Gomes ED. Lipid subhyaloid maculopathy and exposure to high altitude. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(10):898-900.

  8. Altitude Training in Elite Swimmers for Sea Level Performance (Altitude Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ferran A; Iglesias, Xavier; Feriche, Belén; Calderón-Soto, Carmen; Chaverri, Diego; Wachsmuth, Nadine B; Schmidt, Walter; Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-09-01

    This controlled, nonrandomized, parallel-groups trial investigated the effects on performance, V˙O2 and hemoglobin mass (tHbmass) of four preparatory in-season training interventions: living and training at moderate altitude for 3 and 4 wk (Hi-Hi3, Hi-Hi), living high and training high and low (Hi-HiLo, 4 wk), and living and training at sea level (SL) (Lo-Lo, 4 wk). From 61 elite swimmers, 54 met all inclusion criteria and completed time trials over 50- and 400-m crawl (TT50, TT400), and 100 (sprinters) or 200 m (nonsprinters) at best stroke (TT100/TT200). Maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and HR were measured with an incremental 4 × 200 m test. Training load was estimated using cumulative training impulse method and session RPE. Initial measures (PRE) were repeated immediately (POST) and once weekly on return to SL (PostW1 to PostW4). tHbmass was measured in duplicate at PRE and once weekly during the camp with CO rebreathing. Effects were analyzed using mixed linear modeling. TT100 or TT200 was worse or unchanged immediately at POST, but improved by approximately 3.5% regardless of living or training at SL or altitude after at least 1 wk of SL recovery. Hi-HiLo achieved greater improvement 2 (5.3%) and 4 wk (6.3%) after the camp. Hi-HiLo also improved more in TT400 and TT50 2 (4.2% and 5.2%, respectively) and 4 wk (4.7% and 5.5%) from return. This performance improvement was not linked linearly to changes in V˙O2max or tHbmass. A well-implemented 3- or 4-wk training camp may impair performance immediately but clearly improves performance even in elite swimmers after a period of SL recovery. Hi-HiLo for 4 wk improves performance in swimming above and beyond altitude and SL controls through complex mechanisms involving altitude living and SL training effects.

  9. Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D

    2010-03-01

    Winter sports events routinely take place at low to moderate altitudes, and nearly all Winter Olympic Games have had at least one venue at an altitude >1000 m. The acute and chronic effects of altitude can have a substantial effect on performance outcomes. Acutely, the decline in oxygen delivery to working muscle decreases maximal oxygen uptake, negatively affecting performance in endurance events, such as cross-country skiing and biathlon. The reduction in air resistance at altitude can dramatically affect sports involving high velocities and technical skill components, such as ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating and ice hockey. Dissociation between velocity and sensations usually associated with work intensity (ventilation, metabolic signals in skeletal muscle and heart rate) may impair pacing strategy and make it difficult to determine optimal race pace. For competitions taking place at altitude, a number of strategies may be useful, depending on the altitude of residence of the athlete and ultimate competition altitude, as follows. First, allow extra time and practice (how much is yet undetermined) for athletes to adjust to the changes in projectile motion; hockey, shooting, figure skating and ski jumping may be particularly affected. These considerations apply equally in the reverse direction; that is, for athletes practising at altitude but competing at sea level. Second, allow time for acclimatization for endurance sports: 3-5 days if possible, especially for low altitude (500-2000 m); 1-2 weeks for moderate altitude (2000-3000 m); and at least 2 weeks if possible for high altitude (>3000 m). Third, increase exercise-recovery ratios as much as possible, with 1:3 ratio probably optimal, and consider more frequent substitutions for sports where this is allowed, such as ice hockey. Fourth, consider the use of supplemental O(2) on the sideline (ice hockey) or in between heats (skating and Alpine skiing) to facilitate recovery. For competitions at sea

  10. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.

    2008-01-01

    . The alteration at the muscle level at altitude is minor and so is the effect on the metabolism, although it is debated whether a possible reduction in blood lactate accumulation occurs during exercise at altitude. Transient acute mountain sickness (headache, anorexia, and nausea) is present in 10-30% of subjects...... ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...

  11. Changes in plasma electrolytes during acclimatization at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D A; Aslam, M; Khan, Z U

    1996-06-01

    The effects on plasma electrolytes and related hormones were determined in non-acclimatized low lander males, exposed for 96 hours to an altitude of 4424 meters. Twenty healthy soldiers aged 18-34 years travelled by road from an altitude of 2303 meters to 4424 meters over a period of 10 hours. Plasma sodium levels (142.09 +/- 1.14 mmol/1) and aldosterone (16.61 +/- 5.70 ng/ml) decreased to 139.69 mmol/1 and 11.6 +/- 4.60 ug/ml respectively after 96 hours of acute exposure to high altitude (p electrolytes.

  12. Global Assessment of High-Altitude Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina L. Archer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The available wind power resource worldwide at altitudes between 500 and 12,000 m above ground is assessed for the first time. Twenty-eight years of wind data from the reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the Department of Energy are analyzed and interpolated to study geographical distributions and persistency of winds at all altitudes. Furthermore, intermittency issues and global climate effects of large-scale extraction of energy from high-altitude winds are investigated.

  13. Genetic adaptation to high altitude in the Ethiopian highlands

    OpenAIRE

    Scheinfeldt, Laura B.; Soi, Sameer; Thompson, Simon; Ranciaro, Alessia; Woldemeskel, Dawit; Beggs, William; Lambert, Charla; Jarvis, Joseph P.; Abate, Dawit; Belay, Gurja; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic analysis of high-altitude populations residing in the Andes and Tibet has revealed several candidate loci for involvement in high-altitude adaptation, a subset of which have also been shown to be associated with hemoglobin levels, including EPAS1, EGLN1, and PPARA, which play a role in the HIF-1 pathway. Here, we have extended this work to high- and low-altitude populations living in Ethiopia, for which we have measured hemoglobin levels. We genotyped the Illumina 1M SNP ar...

  14. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  15. Conjunctival oxygen tension at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T H; Friedl, K E; Mohr, L C; Bernhard, W N

    1987-01-01

    Transconjunctival oxygen tension (PcjO2) was studied using a hypobaric chamber and during mountaineering excursions. Measurements obtained during acute chamber exposures (15-20 min) at sea level, 1829 m (6,000 ft), 3048 m (10,000 ft), 4267 m (14,000 ft) and return to sea level were (means +/- SEM): 60.1 +/- 2.7, 49.1 +/- 1.8, 38.3 +/- 2.4, 27.4 +/- 1.5, and 61.1 +/- 2.8 mm Hg, respectively (n = 13). The ratio of PcjO2 to arterial blood oxygen tension (PaO2) did not change in a consistent manner between sea level and 4267 m; PcjO2 was 74 +/- 6.9% of PaO2. The 16 subjects participating in the mountaineering phase of the study revealed similar means at sea level and 1829 m (57.4 +/- 2.4 and 46.3 +/- 1.9 mm Hg respectively), but a smaller decrement was observed at 3048 m (43.0 +/- 1.6 mm Hg). The difference between mountain and chamber values may be accounted for by a partial acclimatization to altitude brought about by longer exposure on the mountain excursions. A comparison between PcjO2 and transcutaneous oxygen tension during the chamber study suggests that a greater precision and sensitivity is obtained with measurement of oxygen tension at the conjunctival site. PcjO2 measurement is a non-invasive reflection of PaO2 which is suitable for continuous monitoring during hypoxia studies.

  16. A STUDY ON INVESTIGATING THE CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS REGARDING THE ADVERTISEMENTS OF CRUISE SHIPPING COMPANIES IN SOCIAL MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Özgezmez, Özlem; Denktaş Şakar, Gül

    2017-01-01

    Cruise tourism has becomean important input in terms of tourism revenues of the countries. Increasingimportance of cruise tourism has been possible not only with the impact ofmacro environmental factors, but also with the impact of micro environmentalfactors. Advertisements play a crucial role for cruise shipping companies topromote themselves to their existing and/or potential customers.  The purpose of this study is to investigatethe perceptions of the potential consumers regarding the adve...

  17. Effect of adaptive cruise control systems on traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2004-06-01

    The flow of traffic composed of vehicles that are equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) is studied using simulations. The ACC vehicles are modeled by a linear dynamical equation that has string stability. In platoons of all ACC vehicles, perturbations due to changes in the lead vehicle’s velocity do not cause jams. Simulations of merging flows near an onramp show that if the total incoming rate does not exceed the capacity of the single outgoing lane, free flow is maintained. With larger incoming flows, a state closely related to the synchronized flow phase found in manually driven vehicular traffic has been observed. This state, however, should not be considered congested because the flow is maximal for the density. Traffic composed of random sequences of ACC vehicles and manual vehicles has also been studied. At high speeds ( ˜30 m/s ) jamming occurs for concentrations of ACC vehicles of 10% or less. At 20% no jams are formed. The formation of jams is sensitive to the sequence of vehicles (ACC or manual). At lower speeds ( ˜15 m/s ) , no critical concentration for complete jam suppression is found. Rather, the average velocity in the pseudojam region increases with increasing ACC concentration. Mixing 50% ACC vehicles randomly with manually driven vehicles on the primary lane in onramp simulations shows only modestly reduced travel times and larger flow rates.

  18. Rapid Deployment of a RESTful Service for Oceanographic Research Cruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linyun; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. R2R publishes information online as Linked Open Data, making it widely available using Semantic Web standards. Each vessel, sensor, cruise, dataset, person, organization, funding award, log, report, etc, has a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Complex queries that federate results from other data providers are supported, using the SPARQL query language. To facilitate interoperability, R2R uses controlled vocabularies developed collaboratively by the science community (eg. SeaDataNet device categories) and published online by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). In response to user feedback, we are developing a standard programming interface (API) and Web portal for R2R's Linked Open Data. The API provides a set of simple REST-type URLs that are translated on-the-fly into SPARQL queries, and supports common output formats (eg. JSON). We will demonstrate an implementation based on the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA) open-source Java package. Our experience shows that constructing a simple portal with limited schema elements in this way can significantly reduce development time and maintenance complexity.

  19. Use patterns among early adopters of adaptive cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Huimin; Boyle, Linda Ng; Moeckli, Jane; Dow, Benjamin R; Brown, Timothy L

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate use patterns among early adopters of adaptive cruise control (ACC). Extended use ofACC may influence a driver's behavior in the long-term, which can have unintended safety consequences. The authors examined the use of a motion-based simulator by 24 participants (15 males and 9 females). Cluster analysis was performed on drivers' use of ACC and was based on their gap settings, speed settings, number of warnings issued, and ACC disengaged. The data were then examined on the basis of driving performance measures and drivers' subjective responses to trust in ACC, understanding of system operations, and driving styles. Driving performance measures included minimum time headway, adjusted minimum time to collision, and drivers' reaction time to critical events. Three groups of drivers were observed on the basis of risky behavior, moderately risky behavior, and conservative behavior. Drivers in the conservative group stayed farther behind the lead vehicle than did drivers in the other two groups. Risky drivers responded later to critical events and had more ACC warnings issued. Safety consequences with ACC may be more prevalent in some driver groups than others. The findings suggest that these safety implications are related to trust in automation, driving styles, understanding of system operations, and personalities. Potential applications of this research include enhanced design for next-generation ACC systems and countermeasures to improve safe driving with ACC.

  20. Negative leader step mechanisms observed in altitude triggered lightning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biagi, C. J; Uman, M. A; Hill, J. D; Jordan, D. M

    2014-01-01

    We present 63 high‐speed video frames (108 kilo‐frames per second (kfps), 9.26 µs per frame) showing the development of the downward negative stepped leader in the initial stage of an altitude...

  1. Physiology and pathophysiology at high altitude: considerations for the anesthesiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissner, Kay B; Mahmood, Feroze U

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people live in, work in, and travel to areas of high altitude (HA). Skiers, trekkers, and mountaineers reach altitudes of 2500 m to more than 8000 m for recreation, and sudden ascents to high altitude without the benefits of acclimatization are increasingly common. HA significantly affects the human body, especially the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, because of oxygen deprivation due to decreased ambient barometric pressure. Rapid ascents may lead to high-altitude diseases that sometimes have fatal consequences. Other factors, such as severe cold, dehydration, high winds, and intense solar radiation, increase the morbidity of patients at HA. Anesthesiologists working in or visiting areas of higher elevations should become familiar with the human physiology, altered pharmacology, and disease pattern of HA.

  2. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-04-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  3. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers.

  4. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Transonic Performance Flight Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Altitude compensating nozzles continue to be of interest for use on future launch vehicle boosters and upper stages because of their higher mission average Isp and...

  5. Preparing for Hiking and Rock-Climbing At Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to altitude with or without exercise usually results in body dehydration. Psychological and physiological preparation for exercise at altitude involves consideration of maintaining body warmth in a cool to cold environment with progressively lower oxygen content (partial pressure) as altitude increases. However, this discussion will focus on altitudes below 14,000 it where supplemental breathing oxygen is not required for sojourns of healthy people. Background information and helpful advice for those who exercise in the cold can be found in selected articles in the 2001 Winter Issue of this Newsletter: M.B. Ducharme, Get ready for outdoor winter play: prepare yourself for the cold; C. O'Brien, Think layers when dressing for exercise in the cold; B.G. Rice and R. Ellis, Let it snow, let it snow, let it snow - but be aware of winter hazards; and L.B. Mayers, Exercise - induced asthma.

  6. Ben Macdhui High Altitude Trace Gas and Aerosol Transport Experiment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Piketh, SJ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ben Macdhui High Altitude Aerosol and Trace Gas Transport Experiment (BHATTEX) was started to characterize the nature and magnitude of atmospheric, aerosol and trace gas transport paths recirculation over and exiting from southern Africa...

  7. NHAP = National High-Altitude Aerial Photography: 1980 - 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National High Altitude Photography (NHAP) program, which was operated from 1980-1989, was coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey as an interagency project to...

  8. High-altitude wind resources in the Middle East

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chak Man Andrew Yip; Udaya Bhaskar Gunturu; Georgiy L Stenchikov

    2017-01-01

    In the Middle East, near-surface wind resources are intermittent. However, high-altitude wind resources are abundant, persistent, and readily available and may provide alternative energy resources in this fossil-fuel-dependent region...

  9. WETLAND VEGETATION INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT WITH LOW ALTITUDE MULTISPECTRAL UAV IMAGERY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. A. Boon; S. Tesfamichael

    2017-01-01

    .... Applications of these sensors for mapping of wetland ecosystems are rare. Here, we evaluate the performance of low altitude multispectral UAV imagery to determine the state of wetland vegetation in a localised spatial area...

  10. NAMMA HIGH ALTITUDE MMIC SOUNDING RADIOMETER (HAMSR) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) dataset consists of data collected by HAMSR, which is a 25-channel microwave atmospheric sounder operating...

  11. Splenic infarction associated with sickle cell trait at low altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegars, Mary Beth; Brett, Allan S

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell trait is widely known to be associated with splenic infarction at high altitudes. Although textbooks and reviews imply that this complication does not occur at low altitudes, we encountered such a case and identified several previous cases in the literature. An 18-year-old woman with sickle cell trait who resided near sea level presented with left upper quadrant abdominal pain and was found to have multiple splenic infarcts. She was otherwise well, with no comorbidities that would predispose to hypoxemia or vascular injury. A review of the literature revealed 12 previously published cases of low-altitude splenic infarction in patients with sickle trait; 7 of those patients had comorbidities that likely predisposed to splenic infarction. None. Spontaneous splenic infarction can occur in patients with sickle trait who live at low altitudes. It is unclear whether this complication is rare, or whether it is relatively common but under-recognized.

  12. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KUALITAS PELAYANAN PADA SCOOT FAST CRUISES DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Ardane

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mode of water transport is very important in the tourism industry as a support in providing the best service for tourists. Transportation is the cause and the effect of the growth of tourist in Bali. Scoot Fast Cruises is transport services to Lembongan, Lombok and Senggigi. Based on Trip Advisor rating in the quality of service that is provided by Scoot Fast Cruises still very poor (158. This study aims to determine the factors that affect the service quality at Scoot Fast Cruises in Bali. Sampling technique used in this study using purposive sampling of respondents are crossing service users Scoot Fast Cruises in Bali with a total sample of 100 respondents. The data collection techniques using a questionnaire that was tested using the test validity and reliability. Analysis of the data used in this study is factor analysis using SPSS 17.0. The results of the factor analysis there are three factors that affect the service quality at Scoot Fast Cruises in Bali that is a factor completeness of facilities and services to get service with a value of eigen value 7.390, factor accuracy of services to the value of eigen value of 1.397 and the convenience factor rating with eigen values ??value amounting to 1.307. Factors completeness and ease of getting care facilities is a contributing factor dominant in influencing quality of tourist services at Scoot Fast Cruises in Bali. For further research that will lift the title of the research about the factors that affect the quality of service on a fast boat to take a shuttle to the hotel indicators and increasing the number of respondents and indicators. As for the company Scoot Cruises to take into account the convenience of tourists.

  13. Energy metabolism and the high-altitude environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    At high altitude the barometric pressure falls, challenging oxygen delivery to the tissues. Thus, whilst hypoxia is not the only physiological stress encountered at high altitude, low arterial P(O2) is a sustained feature, even after allowing adequate time for acclimatization. Cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism is altered in subjects at, or returning from, high altitude. In the heart, energetic reserve falls, as indicated by lower phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but in the hypoxic rat heart fatty acid oxidation and respiratory capacity are decreased, whilst pyruvate oxidation is also lower after sustained hypoxic exposure. In skeletal muscle, there is not a consensus. With prolonged exposure to extreme high altitude (>5500 m) a loss of muscle mitochondrial density is seen, but this was not observed in a simulated ascent of Everest in hypobaric chambers. At more moderate high altitude, decreased respiratory capacity may occur without changes in mitochondrial volume density, and fat oxidation may be downregulated, although this is not seen in all studies. The underlying mechanisms, including the possible role of hypoxia-signalling pathways, remain to be resolved, particularly in light of confounding factors in the high-altitude environment. In high-altitude-adapted Tibetan natives, however, there is evidence of natural selection centred around the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, and metabolic features in this population (e.g. low cardiac phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios, increased cardiac glucose uptake and lower muscle mitochondrial densities) share similarities with those in acclimatized lowlanders, supporting a possible role for the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in the metabolic response of cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism to high altitude. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  14. Evolutionary adaptation to high altitude: a view from in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Wilson, Megan J.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2010-01-01

    A primary focus within biological anthropology has been to elucidate the processes of evolutionary adaptation. A. Roberto Frisancho helped move anthropology towards more mechanistic explanations of human adaptation by drawing attention to the importance of the functional relevance of human variation. Using the natural laboratory of high altitude, he and others asked whether the unique physiology of indigenous high-altitude residents was the result of acclimatization, developmental plasticity and/or genetic adaptation in response to the high-altitude environment. We approach the question of human adaptation to high altitude from a somewhat unique vantage point; namely, by examining physiological characteristics – pregnancy and pregnancy outcome -- that are most closely associated with reproductive fitness. Here we review the potent example of high-altitude native population’s resistance to hypoxia-associated reductions in birth weight, which is often associated with higher infant morbidity and mortality at high altitude. With the exception of two recent publications, these comparative birth weight studies have utilized surnames, self-identification and/or linguistic characteristics to assess ancestry, and none have linked ‘advantageous’ phenotypes to specific genetic variations. Recent advancements in genetic and statistical tools have enabled us to assess individual ancestry with higher resolution, identify the genetic basis of complex phenotypes and to infer the effect of natural selection on specific gene regions. Using these technologies our studies are now directed to determine the genetic variations that underlie the mechanisms by which high-altitude ancestry protects fetal growth and, in turn, to further our understanding of evolutionary processes involved in human adaptation to high altitude. PMID:19367578

  15. High altitude leaders mapped by the Colombia lightning mapping array

    OpenAIRE

    Montañá Puig, Juan; López Trujillo, Jesús Alberto; Van der Velde, Oscar Arnoud; Romero Durán, David; Fabró Tàpia, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    On April 2015 a Lightning Mapping Array network (COL-LMA) was installed at the north of Colombia. This network provides 3D mapping of the development of lightning leaders. For the first time such network has been setup in the tropics. That allows us to investigate the high altitude development of lightning leaders. Here we present the results of the first measurements to confirm that negative leaders at altitudes of 15 km are common in the observed thunderstorms.

  16. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  17. Evolutionary adaptation to high altitude: a view from in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Wilson, Megan J; Moore, Lorna G

    2009-01-01

    A primary focus within biological anthropology has been to elucidate the processes of evolutionary adaptation. Frisancho helped to move anthropology towards more mechanistic explanations of human adaptation by drawing attention to the importance of the functional relevance of human variation. Using the natural laboratory of high altitude, he and others asked whether the unique physiology of indigenous high-altitude residents was the result of acclimatization, developmental plasticity, and/or genetic adaptation in response to the high-altitude environment. We approach the question of human adaptation to high altitude from a somewhat unique vantage point; namely, by examining physiological characteristics-pregnancy and pregnancy outcome-which are closely associated with reproductive fitness. Here we review the potent example of high-altitude native population's resistance to hypoxia-associated reductions in birth weight, which is often associated with higher infant morbidity and mortality at high altitude. With the exception of two recent publications, these comparative birth weight studies have utilized surnames, self-identification, and/or linguistic characteristics to assess ancestry, and none have linked 'advantageous' phenotypes to specific genetic variations. Recent advancements in genetic and statistical tools have enabled us to assess individual ancestry with higher resolution, identify the genetic basis of complex phenotypes and to infer the effect of natural selection on specific gene regions. Using these technologies our studies are now directed to determine the genetic variations that underlie the mechanisms by which high-altitude ancestry protects fetal growth and, in turn, to further our understanding of evolutionary processes involved in human adaptation to high altitude.

  18. Impact of Altitude on Power Output during Cycling Stage Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Bradley; Martin, David T; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; McDonald, Warren; Stephens, Brian; Ma, Fuhai; Thompson, Kevin G; Gore, Christopher J; Menaspà, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of moderate-high altitude on power output, cadence, speed and heart rate during a multi-day cycling tour. Power output, heart rate, speed and cadence were collected from elite male road cyclists during maximal efforts of 5, 15, 30, 60, 240 and 600 s. The efforts were completed in a laboratory power-profile assessment, and spontaneously during a cycling race simulation near sea-level and an international cycling race at moderate-high altitude. Matched data from the laboratory power-profile and the highest maximal mean power output (MMP) and corresponding speed and heart rate recorded during the cycling race simulation and cycling race at moderate-high altitude were compared using paired t-tests. Additionally, all MMP and corresponding speeds and heart rates were binned per 1000 m (3000 m) according to the average altitude of each ride. Mixed linear modelling was used to compare cycling performance data from each altitude bin. Power output was similar between the laboratory power-profile and the race simulation, however MMPs for 5-600 s and 15, 60, 240 and 600 s were lower (p ≤ 0.005) during the race at altitude compared with the laboratory power-profile and race simulation, respectively. Furthermore, peak power output and all MMPs were lower (≥ 11.7%, p ≤ 0.001) while racing >3000 m compared with rides completed near sea-level. However, speed associated with MMP 60 and 240 s was greater (p cycling power output during competition. Decrement in cycling power output at altitude does not seem to affect speed which tended to be greater at higher altitudes.

  19. Effects of altitude on the climbing performance of Monarch butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Kwon; Sridhar, Madhu; Landrum, David; Aono, Hikaru

    2016-11-01

    Millions of Monarchs annually travel up to 4,000km, the longest migration distance among insects. They fly and overwinter at high altitudes. However, the aerodynamic mechanism enabling the long-range flight of Monarch butterflies is unknown. To study the effects of altitude on the aerodynamic performance of Monarch butterflies, a unique combination of a motion tracking system and a variable pressure chamber that allows controlling the density is used. The condition inside the chamber is systematically varied to simulate high altitude conditions up to 3,000 m. An optical tracking technique is used to characterize the climbing trajectories of freely flying Monarch butterflies. Customized reflective markers are designed to minimize the effects of marker addition. Flapping amplitude and frequency as well as climbing trajectories are measured. Lift acting on the butterfly is also determined by considering the force balance. Results show that the average flight speed and the Reynolds number, in general, decreased with the altitude, whereas, interestingly, the lift coefficient increased with the altitude. More detailed measurements and analyses will be performed in the future to explain the lift enhancement by flying at higher altitudes. This work is partly supported by NSF Grant CBET-1335572 and in part by CK's startup fund provided by UAH.

  20. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron P; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S

    2016-06-29

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms.

  1. Ambulatory blood pressure in untreated and treated hypertensive patients at high altitude: the High Altitude Cardiovascular Research-Andes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilo, Grzegorz; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Faini, Andrea; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Revera, Miriam; Giuliano, Andrea; Caravita, Sergio; Gregorini, Francesca; Lombardi, Carolina; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Macarlupu, Jose Luis; Ossoli, Deborah; Landaveri, Leah; Lang, Morin; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Sosa, José Manuel; Mancia, Giuseppe; Parati, Gianfranco

    2015-06-01

    Blood pressure increases during acute exposure to high altitude in healthy humans. However, little is known on altitude effects in hypertensive subjects or on the treatment efficacy in this condition. Objectives of High Altitude Cardiovascular Research (HIGHCARE)-Andes Lowlanders Study were to investigate the effects of acute high-altitude exposure on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive subjects and to assess antihypertensive treatment efficacy in this setting. One hundred untreated subjects with mild hypertension (screening blood pressure, 144.1±9.8 mm Hg systolic, 92.0±7.5 mm Hg diastolic) were randomized to double-blind placebo or to telmisartan 80 mg+modified release nifedipine 30 mg combination. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed off-treatment, after 6 weeks of treatment at sea level, on treatment during acute exposure to high altitude (3260 m) and immediately after return to sea level. Eighty-nine patients completed the study (age, 56.4±17.6 years; 52 men/37 women; body mass index, 28.2±3.5 kg/m(2)). Twenty-four-hour systolic blood pressure increased at high altitude in both groups (placebo, 11.0±9 mm Hg; Pblood pressure both at sea level and at high altitude (147.9±11.1 versus 132.6±12.4 mm Hg for placebo versus treated; Pblood pressure, and for nighttime blood pressure. Treatment was well tolerated in all conditions. Our study demonstrates that (1) 24-hour blood pressure increases significantly during acute high-altitude exposure in hypertensive subjects and (2) treatment with angiotensin receptor blocker-calcium channel blocker combination is effective and safe in this condition. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01830530. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) testing and prevention in the cruise industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Eilif

    2011-01-01

    There are no internationally recognized guidelines regarding HIV for employees on cruise ships. The aim of the study was to survey and compare current practices for crews in the cruise industry regarding HIV testing and prevention. Medical representatives from cruise companies were invited to complete a questionnaire on their company's practices regarding HIV-related issues. Fifteen of 18 invited representatives completed the questionnaire on behalf of 24 companies with a total of 155 ships. All 8 companies with a medical department had a written HIV policy, versus 4 of 16 companies that handled medical crew issues through independent medical consultant services. Thirteen companies required pre-sea HIV testing, 12 had a written HIV policy regarding HIV testing and prevention, and 18 had free condoms for the crew. A positive HIV test would result in revocation of the employment offer from 5 companies and in another 6 companies establish HIV as a pre-existing condition. Eight companies required HIV+ seafarers to demonstrate stability at regular intervals as a condition for sailing. Cruise companies have different practices regarding HIV in crew. Large cruise lines with medical departments are more likely to have a written HIV policy than companies using independent medical consultants. About half the companies required pre-sea HIV testing; some to avoid hiring HIV+ seafarers, others to establish HIV as a pre-existing condition or to ensure proper follow-up of their HIV+ seafarers. This report may provide input for company discussions about present or future HIV policies.

  3. A Multi-Objective Optimization Model for Planning Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Cruise Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs was introduced to monitor a traffic situation and the respective cruise route optimization problem was given. Firstly, a multi-objective optimization model was proposed, which considered two scenarios: the first scenario was that there were enough UAVs to monitor all the targets, while the second scenario was that only some targets could be monitored due to a lack of UAVs. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm was subsequently proposed to plan the UAV cruise route. Next, a route planning experiment, using the Microdrones md4-1000 UAV, was conducted and a UAV route planning case was studied. The experiment showed that the UAV actual flight route was almost consistent with the planned route. The case study showed that, compared with the initial optimal solutions, the optimal total UAV cruise distance and the number of UAVs used in scenario 1 decreased by 41.65% and 40.00%, respectively. Meanwhile, the total UAV cruise distance and the number of targets monitored in scenario 2 reduced by 15.75% and increased by 27.27%, respectively. In addition, a comparison study with other algorithms was conducted, while the optimization results were also improved. This demonstrated that the proposed UAV cruise route planning model was effective.

  4. Research on the Intelligent Control and Simulation of Automobile Cruise System Based on Fuzzy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-wen Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the active safety driving vehicle and alleviate the intension of driving fatigue, an intelligent control strategy of automobile cruise is put forward based on the throttle or braking pedal combined control adopting the fuzzy control theory. A fuzzy logic controller is presented, which consists of the two input variables, the deviation of the theoretical safe distance and relative distance and the relative velocity between the preceding vehicle and the cruise vehicle, and the single output variable, that is, the throttle opening or the braking pedal travel. Taking the test data of 1.6 L vehicle with auto-transmission as an example, the function on the intelligent cruise control system is simulated adopting MATLAB/Simulink aiming at different working conditions on the city road. The simulation results show that the control strategy possesses integrated capability of automated Stop & Go control, actively following the preceding vehicle on the conditions of keeping the safety distance and the constant velocity cruise. The research results can offer the theory and technology reference for setting dSPACE type and developing the integrated control product of automobile cruise system.

  5. NO{sub x} emission indices of subsonic wide-bodied jet aircraft at cruise altitude: In situ measurements and predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, P.; Schlager, H.; Schumann, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Baughcum, S.L. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Deidewig, F. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebstechnik

    1996-10-01

    In situ measurements of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} volume mixing ratios have been carried out in the near field exhaust plumes of seven subsonic wide-bodied jet aircraft using the DLR research aircraft `Falcon`. For three additional aircraft only NO and CO{sub 2} was measured. Plume ages of 50 s to 150 s have been covered, with maximum observed exhaust gas enhancements of 319 ppbv and 51 ppmv for {Delta}[NO{sub x}] and {Delta}[CO{sub 2}], respectively, relative to ambient values. These measurements are used to derive NO{sub x} emission indices for seven of the individual aircraft/engine combinations. The NO{sub x} emission indices derived range from 12.3 g/kg to 30.4 g/kg. They are compared with predicted emission index values, calculated for the same aircraft engine and the actual conditions using two newly developed fuel flow correlation methods. The calculated emission indices were mostly within or close to the error limits of the measured values. On average, the predictions from both methods were 12% lower than the measured values, with an observed maximum deviation of 25%. The ratio {gamma}=[NO{sub 2}]/[NO{sub x}] found during the present measurements ranged from 0.06 to 0.11 for five daytime cases and was around 0.22 for two nighttime cases. By use of a simple box model of the plume chemistry and dilution these data were used to estimate the initial value {gamma}{sub 0} present at the engine exit plane. {gamma}{sub 0} values between 0 and 0.15 were found. These where applied to estimate the corresponding NO{sub 2} for the three cases where only NO was measured. (orig.)

  6. Kajian Teknologi High Altitude Platform (HAP [Study of High Altitude Platform (HAP Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amry Daulat Gultom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High Altitude Platform (HAP merupakan solusi alternatif untuk mengatasi keterbatasan infrastruktur terestrial maupun satelit. HAP merupakan pesawat ataupun balon udara yang ditempatkan pada ketinggian 20-50 km di atas permukaan bumi. Kelebihan yang utama dari HAP adalah kemudahan dalam penempatan, fleksibilitas, biaya operasionalnya rendah, delay  propagasi rendah, sudut elevasi lebar, cakupan yang luas. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui potensi HAP untuk komunikasi pita lebar dan perkembangannya di Indonesia. Analisis dilakukan secara deskriptif dengan mengolah data literatur yang didapat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di Indonesia terdapat potensi teknologi HAP untuk komunikasi pita lebar dengan lebar pita 2x300 MHz di band 27,9-28,2 GHz dan 31-31,3 GHz. Namun, belum ada peraturan yang mengatur alokasi frekuensi untuk HAP secara khusus di Indonesia.*****High Altitude Platform (HAP has been developed as an alternative solution in order to overcome limitation of terrestrial and satellite communication system. HAP is an aircraft or balloon situated on 20-50 km above the earth. Main advantages of HAP are flexibility in deployment, low propagation delay, wide elevation angle and broad coverage. The research is conducted to gather HAP potential for broadband communication and its development in Indonesia. Analysis is conducted by descriptive analysis from literature study gather. The research result shows that in Indonesia, there is potential of HAP technology for broadband communication with 2x300 MHz bandwidth within 27,9-28,2 GHz and 31-31,3 GHz. Yet, there are no specific regulations managing frequency allocation for HAP in Indonesia.

  7. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthys Heinrich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax, sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient. Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST, which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists including mechanical aids to

  8. Altitude is positively correlated to race time during the marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-04-01

    Completing a marathon (42.2 km) is one of the more challenging sports activities. Besides the distance, the ambient conditions of the race (altitude, temperature, etc) can increase the physiological demands of the event. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the altitude of the city in which the marathon is held and the marathon race time. For this purpose, we sought the race times of 16 popular marathons performed at different altitudes above sea level (range from ≈0 to 2800 meters above sea level). In these competitions, we analyzed the race times of the female and male runners who finished from 21(st) to 100(th) position. We excluded the top 20 male and female finishers from the analysis because elite athletes usually compete in marathons held at low altitudes above sea level. Ambient temperature, the positive cumulative elevation gain, and the number of participants were used as control variables. Finishing time in the marathon was positively correlated with the altitude of the competition for both male (r=0.78; p<0.05) and female participants (r=0.73; p<0.05). On average, each increase of 1000 meters above sea level augmented marathon race time by 10.8±0.6% in men and 12.3±0.7% in women. Compared to race times in the Rotterdam marathon (held at 0 meters above sea level), the time taken to complete the marathon was significantly higher in competitions held at an altitude of over 700 meters. In conclusion, the time taken to complete a marathon strongly depends on the altitude of the city in which the marathon is held. Selecting marathon competitions close to 0 m above sea level is a good strategy to maximize marathon performance.

  9. Library holdings for EX0902: Mapping Shakedown Cruise on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between April 25, 2009 and April 30, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  10. Library holdings for EX0901: Mapping Shakedown Cruise on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer between March 29, 2009 and April 3, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  11. Multi-pathogen waterborne disease outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdarevic, F; Jones, R C; Weaver, K N; Black, S R; Ritger, K A; Guichard, F; Dombroski, P; Emanuel, B P; Miller, L; Gerber, S I

    2012-04-01

    We report an outbreak associated with a dinner cruise on Lake Michigan. This took place on the same day as heavy rainfall, which resulted in 42·4 billion liters of rainwater and storm runoff containing highly diluted sewage being released into the lake. Of 72 cruise participants, 41 (57%) reported gastroenteritis. Stool specimens were positive for Shigella sonnei (n=3), Giardia (n=3), and Cryptosporidium (n=2). Ice consumption was associated with illness (risk ratio 2·2, P=0·011). S. sonnei was isolated from a swab obtained from the one of the boat's ice bins. Environmental inspection revealed conditions and equipment that could have contributed to lake water contaminating the hose used to load potable water onto the boat. Knowledge of water holding and distribution systems on boats, and of potential risks associated with flooding and the release of diluted sewage into large bodies of water, is crucial for public health guidance regarding recreational cruises.

  12. ORGANIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROCESSES - CRUISE PORT DUBROVNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Vrdoljak Raguz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available World cruise market is very dynamic and it is characterised by constant changes in offer and demand. Dubrovnik, as one of the leading port in the Mediterranean is faced with the problem of large concentrations of ships and passengers in a short period of time. Paper provides answers to the questions: how to manage cruise tourism in Dubrovnik? What are the guidelines for the further development of cruising in Dubrovnik? Modern ports management system must be organized and managed in a manner that will ensure the recognition requirements of stakeholders and their fulfilment. All this requires a more complex integrated management system, in which the requirements of quality management will be the basis, and requirements of environmental management needed an upgrade.

  13. 78 FR 10172 - Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC, and..., Jr., hereinafter ``Complainants,'' against Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd (Corp), Carnival plc, and... common carrier for hire of passengers from ports in the United States;'' Respondent Carnival plc ``is a...

  14. Wellness Centres on Costa Crociere Cruises: Body, Space, and Representation from an Anthropological and Linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Albano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many tourist services are connected to the care of the body. The tourist industry proposes different vacation opportunities where the body is the main focus of the experience. This kind of tourism implies specific services that show a particular universe of representation and particular languages. In this context, cruise tourism is an interesting case to analyze because a part of its services gives a central role to the body which, on-board, organizes and is organized within dedicated spaces and times. Cruise ships provide spaces for the wellness of the passengers such as swimming pools, gyms, spas or beauty centres. The analysis proposed in this work is based, on one hand, on a recent anthropological fieldwork on a Costa Crociere cruise in the Mediterranean Sea. On cruises people use a limited space, the ship, in different ways. This use also reflects a particular conception of the body, built through an interaction of different systems of representation. So, the ship can become a space for social aggregation or separation. On the other hand, this study considers different textual advertisements from the Costa Web site where the company presents specific services for the body to future passengers . This paper analyzes them using a joint approach: both semiotic and linguistic. Through texts and pictures Costa Crociere creates a “synthesis” of the wellness spaces which prefiguresthe behaviour of the passengers on the cruise. More particularly, in order to analyze advertisements, a cognitive linguistics approach is suitable to show the authors’ linguistic choices and the paratextual elements used to promote the cruise. .

  15. [Relationship between baroreflex function and training effects on altitude training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Mizuochi, Fumio; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Takahashi, Masanori; Iwasaki, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    Altitude training is frequently used for athletes requiring competitive endurance in an attempt to improve their sea-level performance. However, there has been no study in which the mechanisms by which spontaneous arterial-cardiac baroreflex function changes was examined in responders or nonresponders of altitude training. The purpose of this study was to clarify the different effects of altitude training on baroreflex function between responders and nonresponders. Twelve university student cross-country skiers (6 men, 6 women; age, 19±1 years) participated in the altitude training in a camp for 3 weeks, which was carried out in accordance with the method of Living High-Training Low. Baroreflex function was estimated by transfer function analysis before and after the training. The responders of the training were 3 men and 2 women, and the nonresponders were 3 men and 4 women. In the responders, the transfer function gain in the high-frequency range significantly increased after the training (28.9→46.5 ms/mmHg p=0.021). On the other hand, no significant change in this index was observed in the nonresponders (25.9→21.2 ms/mmHg p=0.405). As indicated by the results of transfer function gain in the high-frequency range, the baroreflex function in the responders increased significantly after the altitude training, whereas no significant change was observed in the nonresponders.

  16. Physiological Changes at Altitude in Nonasthmatic and Asthmatic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Louie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercised-induced asthma is not due to exercise itself per se, but rather is due to cooling and/or drying of the airway because of the increased ventilation that accompanies exercise. Travel to high altitudes is accompanied by increased ventilation of cool, often dry, air, irrespective of the level of exertion, and by itself, this could represent an 'exercise' challenge for asthmatic subjects. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was measured at sea level and at various altitudes during a two-week trek through the Himalayas in a group of nonasthmatic and asthmatic subjects. The results of this study showed that in mild asthmatics, there was a significant reduction in peak expiratory flow at very high altitudes. Contrary to the authors' hypothesis, there was not a significant additional decrease in peak expiratory flow after exercise in the asthmatic subjects at high altitude. However, there was a significant fall in arterial oxygen saturation postexercise in the asthmatic subjects, a change that was not seen in the nonasthmatic subjects. These data suggest that asthmatic subjects develop bronchoconstriction when they go to very high altitudes, possibly via the same mechanism that causes exercise-induced asthma.

  17. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    and during 4 days at an altitude of 4350 m. Median sea level serum-EPO concentration was 6 (range 6-13) U.l-1. Serum-EPO concentration increased after 18 and 42 h at altitude, [58 (range 39-240) and 54 (range 36-340) U.l-1, respectively], and then decreased after 64 and 88 h at altitude [34 (range 18...... in 2, 3 diphosphoglycerate. After 64 h at altitude, six of the nine subjects had down-regulated their serum-EPO concentrations so that median values were three times above those at sea level. These six subjects had significant diurnal variations of serum-EPO concentration at sea level; the nadir...... occurred between 0800-1600 hours [6 (range 4-13) U.l-1], and peak concentrations occurred at 0400 hours [9 (range 8-14) U.l-1, P = 0.02]. After 64 h at altitude, the subjects had significant diurnal variations of serum-EPO concentration; the nadir occurred at 1600 hours [20 (range 16-26) U.l-1], and peak...

  18. Gender not a factor for altitude decompression sickness risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, James T.; Kannan, Nandini; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Early, retrospective reports of the incidence of altitude decompression sickness (DCS) during altitude chamber training exposures indicated that women were more susceptible than men. We hypothesized that a controlled, prospective study would show no significant difference. METHODS: We conducted 25 altitude chamber decompression exposure profiles. A total of 291 human subjects, 197 men and 94 women, underwent 961 exposures to simulated altitude for up to 8 h, using zero to 4 h of preoxygenation. Throughout the exposures, subjects breathed 100% oxygen, rested or performed mild or strenuous exercise, and were monitored for precordial venous gas emboli (VGE) and DCS symptoms. RESULTS: No significant differences in DCS incidence were observed between men (49.5%) and women (45.3%). However, VGE occurred at significantly higher rates among men than women under the same exposure conditions, 69.3% and 55.0% respectively. Women using hormonal contraception showed significantly greater susceptibility to DCS than those not using hormonal contraception during the latter two weeks of the menstrual cycle. Significantly higher DCS incidence was observed in the heaviest men, in women with the highest body fat, and in subjects with the highest body mass indices and lowest levels of fitness. CONCLUSION: No differences in altitude DCS incidence were observed between the sexes under our test conditions, although men developed VGE more often than women. Age and height showed no significant influence on DCS incidence, but persons of either sex with higher body mass index and lower physical fitness developed DCS more frequently.

  19. Mobile platform of altitude measurement based on a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Paweł; Kowalczyk, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The article presents a low cost, fully - functional meter of altitude and pressure changes in a form of mobile application controlled by Android OS (operating system). The measurements are possible due to pressure sensor inserted in majority of latest modern mobile phones, which are known as smartphones. Using their computing capabilities and other equipment components like GPS receiver in connection with data from the sensor enabled authors to create a sophisticated handheld measuring platform with many unique features. One of them is a drawing altitude maps mode in which user can create maps of altitude changes just by moving around examined area. Another one is a convenient mode for altitude measurement. It is also extended with analysis tools which provide a possibility to compare measured values by displaying the data in a form of plots. The platform consists of external backup server, where the user can secure all gathered data. Moreover, the results of measurement's accuracy examination process which was executed after building the solution were shown. At the end, the realized meter of altitude was compared to other popular altimeters, which are available on the market currently.

  20. Andean and Tibetan patterns of adaptation to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Abigail W; Wilson, Megan J; Julian, Colleen G; Kiyamu, Melisa; Vargas, Enrique; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, Maria; Rodriquez, Carmelo; Browne, Vaughn A; Parra, Esteban; Brutsaert, Tom D; Moore, Lorna G; Shriver, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude hypoxia, or decreased oxygen levels caused by low barometric pressure, challenges the ability of humans to live and reproduce. Despite these challenges, human populations have lived on the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau for millennia and exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological adaptations to life at high altitude. We and others have identified natural selection candidate genes and gene regions for these adaptations using dense genome scan data. One gene previously known to be important in cellular oxygen sensing, egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), shows evidence of positive selection in both Tibetans and Andeans. Interestingly, the pattern of variation for this gene differs between the two populations. Continued research among Tibetan populations has identified statistical associations between hemoglobin concentration and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype at EGLN1 and a second gene, endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1). To measure for the effects of EGLN1 and EPAS1 altitude genotypes on hemoglobin concentration among Andean highlanders, we performed a multiple linear regression analysis of 10 candidate SNPs in or near these two genes. Our analysis did not identify significant associations between EPAS1 or EGLN1 SNP genotypes and hemoglobin concentration in Andeans. These results contribute to our understanding of the unique set of adaptations developed in different highland groups to the hypoxia of high altitude. Overall, the results provide key insights into the patterns of genetic adaptation to high altitude in Andean and Tibetan populations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Transcriptome and network changes in climbers at extreme altitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are largely unknown. To obtain a more complete picture of the transcriptional regulatory landscape and networks involved in extreme altitude response, we followed four climbers on an expedition up Mount Xixiabangma (8,012 m, and collected blood samples at four stages during the climb for mRNA and miRNA expression assays. By analyzing dynamic changes of gene networks in response to extreme altitudes, we uncovered a highly modular network with 7 modules of various functions that changed in response to extreme altitudes. The erythrocyte differentiation module is the most prominently up-regulated, reflecting increased erythrocyte differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells, probably at the expense of differentiation into other cell lineages. These changes are accompanied by coordinated down-regulation of general translation. Network topology and flow analyses also uncovered regulators known to modulate hypoxia responses and erythrocyte development, as well as unknown regulators, such as the OCT4 gene, an important regulator in stem cells and assumed to only function in stem cells. We predicted computationally and validated experimentally that increased OCT4 expression at extreme altitude can directly elevate the expression of hemoglobin genes. Our approach established a new framework for analyzing the transcriptional regulatory network from a very limited number of samples.

  2. Deep Impact 9P/TEMPEL Cruise - Raw its Nav Images V1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcich, B.; Shaw, A. S.; Desnoyer, M.; McLaughlin, S. A.; Mastrodemos, N.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2010-01-01

    This data set contains raw calibration and test images acquired by the Deep Impact Impactor Targeting Sensor Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission. These observations were used for optical and autonomous navigation (NAV) of the impactor spacecraft. These data were collected from 7 April to 30 April 2005. The comet was not imaged during cruise. In this version 1.1 of the data set, the values for the INTEGRATION_DURATION keyword in the PDS data labels were corrected. This revised data set supersedes version 1.0.

  3. Structural dynamic testing of composite propfan blades for a cruise missile wind tunnel model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Stephen D.; Sutliff, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The Naval Weapons Center at China Lake, California is currently evaluating a counter rotating propfan system as a means of propulsion for the next generation of cruise missiles. The details and results of a structural dynamic test program are presented for scale model graphite-epoxy composite propfan blades. These blades are intended for use on a cruise missile wind tunnel model. Both dynamic characteristics and strain operating limits of the blades are presented. Complications associated with high strain level fatigue testing methods are also discussed.

  4. Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation of the Philippine Sea Experiment (OBSAPS) Cruise Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Aaron SIO OBSIP Engineer Richard Campbell OASIS Inc. Visiting Scientist and Watchstander Brianne Moskovitz SIO Graduate Student Watchstander John...70 -60 D ep th (m ) Range from DVLA (km) CRAM: 77.5 Hz from DVLA (incoh over 15 elts ) to 250km, bearing 016, XBT, multibeam 0 1000 2000 3000 4000...Grad Student : Brianne Moskovitz, SIO Cruise Dates: (04/19/11 – 05/16/11) WHOI  -­‐2011-­‐04   OBSAPS  Cruise  Report   Page  172  of

  5. Multiobjective Design Optimization of Supersonic Jet Engine in Different Cruise Mach Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masamichi; Sato, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Hideyuki

    The aim of this paper is to apply a multi-objective optimization generic algorithm (MOGA) to the conceptual design of the hypersonic/supersonic vehicles with different cruise Mach number. The pre-cooled turbojet engine is employed as a propulsion system and some engine parameters such as the precooler size, compressor size, compression ratio and fuel type are varied in the analysis. The result shows that the optimum cruise Mach number is about 4 if hydrogen fuel is used. Methane fuel instead of hydrogen reduces the vehicle gross weight by 33% in case of the Mach 2 vehicle.

  6. 3-D Navier-Stokes Analysis of Blade Root Aerodynamics for a Tiltrotor Aircraft In Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romander, Ethan

    2006-01-01

    The blade root area of a tiltrotor aircraft's rotor is constrained by a great many factors, not the least of which is aerodynamic performance in cruise. For this study, Navier-Stokes CFD techniques are used to study the aerodynamic performance in cruise of a rotor design as a function of airfoil thickness along the blade and spinner shape. Reducing airfoil thickness along the entire blade will be shown to have the greatest effect followed by smaller but still significant improvements achieved by reducing the thickness of root airfoils only. Furthermore, altering the shape of the spinner will be illustrated as a tool to tune the aerodynamic performance very near the blade root.

  7. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship: lessons for international surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, C M; McCann, B; Syed, Q; Christie, P; Joseph, C; Colligan, J; McGaffin, A

    2003-06-01

    A sporadic case of Legionnaires' disease was linked to travel on a cruise ship. Investigation identified two further cases of Legionnaires' Disease and one case of non-pneumonic Legionella infection. An Incident Team confirmed the source to be the ship's water system and control measures were instituted that included pasteurisation, super chlorination and chlorine dioxide dosing. The Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC), through the European Surveillance Scheme for Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease, identified three previous cases associated with the same ship's water system including one fatality. Lessons for the international surveillance and control of Legionnaires' disease on cruise ships are discussed.

  8. Development and flight test results of an autothrottle control system at Mach 3 cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilyard, G. B.; Burken, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Flight test results obtained with the original Mach hold autopilot designed the YF-12C airplane which uses elevator control and a newly developed Mach hold system having an autothrottle integrated with an altitude hold autopilot system are presented. The autothrottle tests demonstrate good speed control at high Mach numbers and high altitudes while simultaneously maintaining control over altitude and good ride qualities. The autothrottle system was designed to control either Mach number or knots equivalent airspeed (KEAS). Excellent control of Mach number or KEAS was obtained with the autothrottle system when combined with altitude hold. Ride qualities were significantly better than with the conventional Mach hold system.

  9. Volume 35, AMT-1 Cruise Report and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Robins, David B.; Bale, Anthony J.; Moore, Gerald F.; Rees, Nigel W.; Gallienne, Christopher P.; Westbrooke, Anthony G.; Maranon, Emilio; Spooner, William H.; hide

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the Royal Research Ship (RRS) 'James Clark Ross' during the irst Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT-1), 21 September to 24 October 1995. The ship sailed from Grimsby (England) for Montevideo (Uruguay) and then continued on to Stanley (Falkland Islands). The primary objective of the AMT program is to investigate basic biological processes in the open Atlantic Ocean over very broad spatial scales. For AMT-1, the meridional range covered was approximately 50 deg N to 50 deg S or nearly 8,000 nmi. The measurements to be taken during the AMT cruises are fundamental for the calibration, validation, and continuing understanding of remotely sensed observations of biological oceanography. They are also important for understanding plankton community structure over latitudinal scales and the role of the world ocean in global carbon cycles. During AMT-1 a variety of instruments were used to map the physical, chemical, and biological structure of the upper 200 m of the water column. Ocean color measurements were made using state-of-the-art sensors, whose calibration was traceable to the highest international standards. New advances in fluorometry were used to measure photosynthetic activity, which was then used to further interpret primary productivity. A unique set of samples and data were collected for the planktonic assemblages that vary throughout the range of the transect. These data will yield new interpretations on community composition and their role in carbon cycling. While the various provinces of the Atlantic Ocean were being crossed, the partial pressure of CO2 was related to biological productivity. This comparison revealed the areas of drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and how these areas relate to the surrounding biological productivity. These data, plus the measurements of light attenuation and phytoplankton optical properties, will be used as a primary input for basin-scale biological productivity models to help

  10. High-Altitude, Long-Endurance Airships for Coastal Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Collozza, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    A high altitude solar powered airship provides the ability to carry large payloads to high altitudes and remain on station for extended periods of time. This study examines applications and background of this type of concept vehicle, reviews the history of high altitude flight and provides a point design analysis. The capabilities and limitations of the airship are demonstrated and possible solutions are proposed. Factors such as time of year, latitude, wind speeds, and payload are considered in establishing the capabilities of the airship. East and west coast operation is evaluated. The key aspect to success of this type of airship is the design and operation of the propulsion and power system. A preliminary propulsion/power system design was produced based on a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system and solar photovoltaic array for energy production. Results on power system requirements for year long operation is presented.

  11. Incidence and Symptoms of High Altitude Illness in South Pole Workers: Antarctic Study of Altitude Physiology (ASAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Each year, the US Antarctic Program rapidly transports scientists and support personnel from sea level (SL to the South Pole (SP, 2835 m providing a unique natural laboratory to quantify the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS, patterns of altitude related symptoms and the field effectiveness of acetazolamide in a highly controlled setting. We hypothesized that the combination of rapid ascent (3 hr, accentuated hypobarism (relative to altitude, cold, and immediate exertion would increase altitude illness risk. Methods Medically screened adults (N = 246, age = 37 ± 11 yr, 30% female, BMI = 26 ± 4 kg/m 2 were recruited. All underwent SL and SP physiological evaluation, completed Lake Louise symptom questionnaires (LLSQ, to define AMS, and answered additional symptom related questions (eg, exertional dyspnea, mental status, cough, edema and general health, during the 1st week at altitude. Acetazolamide, while not mandatory, was used by 40% of participants. Results At SP, the barometric pressure resulted in physiological altitudes that approached 3400 m, while T ° C averaged -42, humidity 0.03%. Arterial oxygen saturation averaged 89% ± 3%. Overall, 52% developed LLSQ defined AMS. The most common symptoms reported were exertional dyspnea-(87%, sleeping difficulty-(74%, headache-(66%, fatigue-(65%, and dizziness/lightheadedness-(46%. Symptom severity peaked on days 1-2, yet in >20% exertional dyspnea, fatigue and sleep problems persisted through day 7. AMS incidence was similar between those using acetazolamide and those abstaining (51 vs. 52%, P = 0.87. Those who used acetazolamide tended to be older, have less altitude experience, worse symptoms on previous exposures, and less SP experience. Conclusion The incidence of AMS at SP tended to be higher than previously reports in other geographic locations at similar altitudes. Thus, the SP constitutes a more intense altitude exposure than might be expected considering physical

  12. Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah NM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neeraj M Shah,1 Sidra Hussain,2 Mark Cooke,3 John P O’Hara,3 Adrian Mellor3,4 1Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King’s College London, UK; 2School of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Research Institute for Sport, Physical Activity and Leisure, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK; 4Academic Department of Military Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Birmingham, UK Abstract: Travel to high altitude is increasingly popular. With this comes an increased incidence of high-altitude illness and therefore an increased need to improve our strategies to prevent and accurately diagnose these. In this review, we provide a summary of recent advances of relevance to practitioners who may be advising travelers to altitude. Although the Lake Louise Score is now widely used as a diagnostic tool for acute mountain sickness (AMS, increasing evidence questions the validity of doing so, and of considering AMS as a single condition. Biomarkers, such as brain natriuretic peptide, are likely correlating with pulmonary artery systolic pressure, thus potential markers of the development of altitude illness. Established drug treatments include acetazolamide, nifedipine, and dexamethasone. Drugs with a potential to reduce the risk of developing AMS include nitrate supplements, propagators of nitric oxide, and supplemental iron. The role of exercise in the development of altitude illness remains hotly debated, and it appears that the intensity of exercise is more important than the exercise itself. Finally, despite copious studies demonstrating the value of preacclimatization in reducing the risk of altitude illness and improving performance, an optimal protocol to preacclimatize an individual remains elusive. Keywords: hypoxia, acute mountain sickness, acclimatization, biomarkers, preacclimatization

  13. Convergent Evolution of Rumen Microbiomes in High-Altitude Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Xu, Dongming; Wang, Li; Hao, Junjun; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Weiwei; Qiu, Qiang; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhou, Jianwei; Long, Ruijun; Zhao, Fangqing; Shi, Peng

    2016-07-25

    Studies of genetic adaptation, a central focus of evolutionary biology, most often focus on the host's genome and only rarely on its co-evolved microbiome. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) offers one of the most extreme environments for the survival of human and other mammalian species. Yaks (Bos grunniens) and Tibetan sheep (T-sheep) (Ovis aries) have adaptations for living in this harsh high-altitude environment, where nomadic Tibetan people keep them primarily for food and livelihood [1]. Adaptive evolution affects energy-metabolism-related genes in a way that helps these ruminants live at high altitude [2, 3]. Herein, we report convergent evolution of rumen microbiomes for energy harvesting persistence in two typical high-altitude ruminants, yaks and T-sheep. Both ruminants yield significantly lower levels of methane and higher yields of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) than their low-altitude relatives, cattle (Bos taurus) and ordinary sheep (Ovis aries). Ultra-deep metagenomic sequencing reveals significant enrichment in VFA-yielding pathways of rumen microbial genes in high-altitude ruminants, whereas methanogenesis pathways show enrichment in the cattle metagenome. Analyses of RNA transcriptomes reveal significant upregulation in 36 genes associated with VFA transport and absorption in the ruminal epithelium of high-altitude ruminants. Our study provides novel insights into the contributions of microbiomes to adaptive evolution in mammals and sheds light on the biological control of greenhouse gas emissions from livestock enteric fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rare Particle Searches with the high altitude SLIM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, S; Fabbri, F; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, R; Giorgini, M; Kumar, A; Manzoor, S; McDonald, J; Margiotta, A; Medinaceli, E; Nogales, J; Patrizii, L; Popa, V; Quereshi, I; Saavedra, O; Sher, G; Shahzad, M; Spurio, M; Ticona, R; Togo, V; Velarde, A; Zanini, A

    2005-01-01

    The search for rare particles in the cosmic radiation remains one of the main aims of non-accelerator particle astrophysics. Experiments at high altitude allow lower mass thresholds with respect to detectors at sea level or underground. The SLIM experiment is a large array of nuclear track detectors located at the Chacaltaya High Altitude Laboratory (5290 m a.s.l.). The preliminary results from the analysis of a part of the first 236 sq.m exposed for more than 3.6 y are here reported. The detector is sensitive to Intermediate Mass Magnetic Monopoles and to SQM nuggets and Q-balls, which are possible Dark Matter candidates.

  15. Iron Supplementation and Altitude: Decision Making Using a Regression Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Andrew D. Govus, Peter Peeling, Chris R. Abbiss, Christopher J. Gore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Altitude exposure increases the body’s need for iron (Gassmann and Muckenthaler, 2015, primarily to support accelerated erythropoiesis, yet clear supplementation guidelines do not exist. Athletes are typically recommended to ingest a daily oral iron supplement to facilitate altitude adaptations, and to help maintain iron balance. However, there is some debate as to whether athletes with otherwise healthy iron stores should be supplemented, due in part to concerns of iron overload. Excess iron in vital organs is associated with an increased risk of a number of conditions including cancer, liver disease and heart failure. Therefore clear guidelines are warranted and athletes should be discouraged from ‘self-prescribing” supplementation without medical advice. In the absence of prospective-controlled studies, decision tree analysis can be used to describe a data set, with the resultant regression tree serving as guide for clinical decision making. Here, we present a regression tree in the context of iron supplementation during altitude exposure, to examine the association between pre-altitude ferritin (Ferritin-Pre and the haemoglobin mass (Hbmass response, based on daily iron supplement dose. De-identified ferritin and Hbmass data from 178 athletes engaged in altitude training were extracted from the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS database. Altitude exposure was predominantly achieved via normobaric Live high: Train low (n = 147 at a simulated altitude of 3000 m for 2 to 4 weeks. The remaining athletes engaged in natural altitude training at venues ranging from 1350 to 2800 m for 3-4 weeks. Thus, the “hypoxic dose” ranged from ~890 km.h to ~1400 km.h. Ethical approval was granted by the AIS Human Ethics Committee, and athletes provided written informed consent. An in depth description and traditional analysis of the complete data set is presented elsewhere (Govus et al., 2015. Iron supplementation was prescribed by a sports physician

  16. Heat Flow Data Cruise MD72 RV Marion Dufresne over the Mascarene Ridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data were gathered by the R/V Marion Dufresne in May and June of 1992 over the Mascarene Ridge in the Indian Ocean on cruise MD72/MASCAFLUX. Heat flow measurements...

  17. Early user participation in the identification of use case scenarios for 'Connected cruise control'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risto, Malte; Martens, Marieke Hendrikje

    2011-01-01

    Connected Cruise Control (CCC) aims to improve throughput in dense commuter traffic on motorways by advising drivers on speed, headway and lane-use via a nomadic human-machine interface. The advice is generated from a prediction of future traffic flow, based on actual traffic-loop data and is

  18. Recent cruise onboard R/V Sonne to the Carlsberg Ridge and the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    KameshRaju, K.A.

    R) and the andaman backarc spreading center (absc; fig . 1) . The cruise was conducted onboard the German research vessel R/V Sonne (fig . 2) chartered by the national Institute of oceanography (nIo) . We also collaborated with the Hawaii Mapping Research Group...

  19. All at sea: Insights into crew work experiences on a cruise liner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ., Marnburg, E., & Ogaard, T. (2012). Working onboard - Job perception, organizational commitment and job satisfaction in the cruise sector. Tourism Management, 33(3), 592–597. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.06.014. Lincoln, Y. S. ...

  20. Carbon emissions from international cruise ship passengers' travel to and from New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howitt, Oliver J.A.; Revol, Vincent G.N.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J. [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2010-05-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international transport contribute to anthropogenic global warming, yet these emissions are not liable under the Kyoto Protocol. International attention is being given to quantifying such emissions. This paper presents the results of research into international cruise ship journeys to and from New Zealand. CO{sub 2} emissions from such journeys were calculated using an activity based, or 'bottom-up', model. Emissions factors for individual journeys by cruise ships to or from New Zealand in 2007 ranged between 250 and 2200 g of CO{sub 2} per passenger-kilometre (g CO{sub 2} per p-km), with a weighted mean of 390 g CO{sub 2} per p-km. The weighted mean energy use per passenger night for the 'hotel' function of these cruise vessels was estimated as 1600 MJ per visitor night, 12 times larger than the value for a land-based hotel. Using a simple price elasticities calculation, international cruise journeys for transport purposes were found to have a greater relative decrease in demand than plane journeys when the impact of carbon pricing was analysed. The potential to decrease the CO{sub 2} emissions per p-km was examined, and if passenger accommodation was compacted and some luxury amenities dispensed with values similar to those of economy-class air travel were obtained. (author)

  1. Data report of the first cruise of the Marion Off-shore Ecological Study (MOES-1)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncombe-Rae, CM

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The first cruise of the Marion Off-shore Ecological Study (MOES-I), during April and May 1987, was a multi-disciplinary effort aimed at gaining a further understanding of the relationships between productivity and the environment in the vicinity...

  2. Experiencing Work: Supporting the Undergraduate Hospitality, Tourism and Cruise Management Student on an Overseas Work Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Philip; Busby, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a funded research project into the experiences of tourism, hospitality and cruise management students on internship outside the UK as part of their British university degree between 2007 and 2009. The research reflected on the perceptions of students, course managers, placement officers and members of university placement…

  3. 1st Science-Industry platform on expedition cruise tourism in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.A.J.; Olsen, J.; Hovelsrud, G.; Lang, I.; Jorgensen, F.

    2014-01-01

    The interest in Svalbard as a cruise tourism destination has increased gradually over the past decades, leading to a range of opportunities and challenges for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, communities, and regulatory systems on Svalbard and elsewhere in the Arctic (e.g. Greenland, Iceland,

  4. The Effect of "Career Cruising" on the Self-Efficacy of Students Deciding on Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Karen; Smothers, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of a self-assessment instrument on the self-efficacy of those deciding on majors in a university setting. Using a pre- and post-test methodology, we employed "Career Cruising" to measure career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants completed the "Career Decision Self-Efficacy-Short Form" (CDSE-SF)…

  5. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  6. Antarctic cruise tourism: the paradoxes of ambassadorship, "last chance tourism" and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgelaar, E.; Thaper, C.; Peeters, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines a paradoxical issue in tourism's adaptation to climate change and emissions reduction demands. Operators increasingly take tourists to destinations threatened by climate change, with Antarctica and other polar regions as favourites and cruise ship and aircraft as main transport

  7. Herring (sild), killer whales (spekkhogger) and sonar : The 3S-2006 cruise report with preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvadsheim, P.; Benders, F.P.A.; Miller, P.; Doksµter, L.; Knudsen, F.; Tyack, P.; Kleivane, L.; God°, O.R.; Norlund, N.; Lam, F-P.A.; Samarra, F.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarises the outcome of an international research cruise in Norwegian waters (Vestfjorden) in November 2006. The objectives of the trial were to study impacts of military low frequency - (LFAS 1-2 kHz) and mid frequency - (MFAS 6-7 kHz) active sonars on killer whales and herring. In

  8. E-Services and Positioning of Passenger Ports in the Context of Cruise Tourism Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriela Vitić-Ćetković

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper positions the passenger sea ports in the context of cruise tourism on the basis of e-services they offer. The e-services of eleven passenger ports are categorized and then quantitatively evaluated by binary and ranking approaches. In general, the port e-services might be categorized according to their functionality as navigational, ship and passenger-related ones, logistics, business, marketing, entertainment, security, safety, environmental, etc. These services can be bidirectional informational and/or transactional. In this paper, only those port e-services related directly to the passengers’ needs, within the frame of cruise tourism, are taken into consideration and categorized as core, or as value-added ones, and as informational and/or transactional ones. Then, each of them is assigned an appropriate binary value (0/1, depending on whether the considered passenger port offers the related e-service or not. These values are employed in the evaluation of the analyzed passenger port e-services offered, and as a base for their positioning. The appropriate weights coefficients, obtained by ranking (Saaty method, were used in the process of the considered port final positioning on the cruise tourism e-market. Some additional analyses and recommendations in the direction of further positioning and promotion of the port of Kotor (Montenegro, as rising cruise tourism port (destination, are given as well.

  9. Short-circuiting cruise tourism practices along the Russian Barents Sea coast? The case of Arkhangelsk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.A.J.; Pashkevich, A.

    2015-01-01

    The growth and popularity of polar cruise tourism in the Arctic region have raised expectations about the opportunities in this part of the world. However, the existing academic literature has never ventured further than to recall these expectations and opportunities, which means that there is

  10. Adaptive Cruise Control for a SMART Car : A Comparison Benchmark for MPC-PWA Control Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, D.; De Schutter, B.

    2008-01-01

    The design of an adaptive cruise controller for a SMART car, a type of small car, is proposed as a benchmark setup for several model predictive control methods for nonlinear and piecewise affine systems. Each of these methods has been already applied to specific case studies, different from method

  11. A model predictive control approach to design a parameterized adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, G.J.L.; Ploeg, J.; Molengraft, M.J.G. van de; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of different desirable characteristics and situation-dependent behavior cause the design of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems to be time consuming and tedious. This chapter presents a systematic approach for the design and tuning of an ACC, based on model predictive control

  12. Integration of auto-steering with adaptive cruise control for improved cornering behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idriz, Adem; Abdul Rachman, Arya Senna; Baldi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Several works have proposed longitudinal control strategies enabling a vehicle to operate adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance functions. However, no integration with lateral control has been proposed in the current state of the art,
    which motivates the developments of this work. This

  13. Towards on-the-road implementation of cooperative adaptive cruise control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, G.J.L.; Vugts, R.; Ploeg, J.; Molengraft, R. van de; Steinbuch, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a setup for cooperative adaptive cruise control for which feasibility of the actual implementation is one of the main objectives. The approach considers communication with the directly preceding vehicle only, can deal with heterogeneous traffic, accounts for communication delay,

  14. A collision model for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touran, A; Brackstone, M A; McDonald, M

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes a general framework for safety evaluation of autonomous intelligent cruise control in rear-end collisions. Using data and specifications from prototype devices, two collision models are developed. One model considers a train of four cars, one of which is equipped with autonomous intelligent cruise control. This model considers the car in front and two cars following the equipped car. In the second model, none of the cars is equipped with the device. Each model can predict the possibility of rear-end collision between cars under various conditions by calculating the remaining distance between cars after the front car brakes. Comparing the two collision models allows one to evaluate the effectiveness of autonomous intelligent cruise control in preventing collisions. The models are then subjected to Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the probability of collision. Based on crash probabilities, an expected value is calculated for the number of cars involved in any collision. It is found that given the model assumptions, while equipping a car with autonomous intelligent cruise control can significantly reduce the probability of the collision with the car ahead, it may adversely affect the situation for the following cars.

  15. Limnology and cyanobacterial diversity of high altitude lakes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-08

    Jul 8, 2014 ... inventory of Indian Space Research Organisation (2011), a total of 272 high altitude lakes covering an area of 617 ha are present in Himachal Pradesh ...... diatoms flora of four lakes and ponds from the Windmill Islands,. East Antarctica. Antarct. Sci. 13 410–419. Sabbe K, Hodgson DA, Verleyen E, Taton A, ...

  16. Transcriptome and network changes in climbers at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Liang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Extreme altitude can induce a range of cellular and systemic responses. Although it is known that hypoxia underlies the major changes and that the physiological responses include hemodynamic changes and erythropoiesis, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways mediating such changes are lar...

  17. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity.

  18. Reduced autonomic activity during stepwise exposure to high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevre, K; Bendz, B; Hanko, E; Nakstad, AR; Hauge, A; Kasin, JI; Lefrandt, JD; Smit, AJ; Eide, [No Value; Rostrup, M

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have shown increased sympathetic activity during acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. In a recent field study we found reduced plasma catecholamines during the first days after a stepwise ascent to high altitude. In the present study 14 subjects were exposed to a simulated ascent in

  19. Effect of altitude on fatty acid composition in Turkish hazelnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the change of fatty acid composition in Delisava, Yomra, Sivri and Karayaglı Turkish hazelnut varieties with altitude. Fatty acid composition were determined by gas chromatography (GC) equiped with flame ionisation detector (FID) after obtained fatty acid methyl esters from crude ...

  20. Operation Everest II: Preservation of Cardiac Function at Extreme Altitude,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    minute ventilation from a dry gas meter ( Parkinson Coiran, model CD- 4), mixed expired oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations pi ! ~ ~ - 5 (Perkin Elmer...and J.E. Cohn. Regulation of ventilation during exercise at 10,200 feet in athletes born at low altitude. J. Appl. Physiol. 22: 546-554, 1967. 20

  1. Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Air Force Low Altitude Flying Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    evaluating impacts of proposed new or modified airspace allocations for low altitude operations in Vol MI E/AP Guide. 1.62 M d 1.6.21 Devopment of data As...Force airspace management hierarchy. If they are accepted within the Air Force chain of command, proposals for the establishment of MTRs, MOAs, and RAs

  2. Recognising and mitigating the risk of altitude-related illness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consistently observed, but pathological consequences are very rare.[7] At this level, the alveolar partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2) is ~10 kPa, compared with the sea level value of 13 kPa. It is worth noting that large areas of SA, including the extensive metropolitan areas in Gauteng, therefore qualify as high- altitude areas.

  3. Abnormal blood flow in the sublingual microcirculation at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Daniel S.; Ince, Can; Goedhart, Peter; Levett, Denny Z. H.; Grocott, Mike P. W.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first direct observations of deranged microcirculatory blood flow at high altitude, using sidestream dark-field imaging. Images of the sublingual microcirculation were obtained from a group of 12 volunteers during a climbing expedition to Cho Oyu (8,201 m) in the Himalayas.

  4. Wood anatomical variation in relation to latitude anf altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.; Baas, P.

    1974-01-01

    The wood anatomical variation within 17 eurytherm hardwood genera in relation to altitude and latitude has been studied using wood samples from 52 species. With increasing latitude a miniaturization of secondary xylem elements (shorter vessel members, narrower vessels, shorter and sometimes narrower

  5. Acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia in high altitude of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Mesenteric ischemia which can be acute or chronic depending on the rapidity of compromised blood flow produces bowel ischemia, infarction, bacterial transmigration, endotoxemia, multisystem organ failure and death. High altitude can precipitate thrombosis because of hypobaric hypoxia and ...

  6. PHYSICAL ADAPTATION OF CHILDREN TO LIFE AT HIGH-ALTITUDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEER, K; HEYMANS, HSA; ZIJLSTRA, WG

    Children permanently exposed to hypoxia at altitudes of > 3000 m above sea level show a phenotypical form of adaptation. Under these environmental conditions, oxygen uptake in the lungs is enhanced by increases in ventilation, lung compliance, and pulmonary diffusion. Lung and thorax volumes in

  7. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  8. Altitude-Dependent Prevalence of Canine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Corduneanu, Alexandra; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Lefkaditis, Menelaos; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) is an important tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution. The importance of this disease resides in the ability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect humans and several animal species. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence rate of CGA in different altitudinal areas of Romania. A total of 357 canine blood samples were collected during 2010-2013 from eight counties. To assess the influence of the altitude on A. phagocytophilum prevalence, the samples were collected from four different altitude areas (coastal 0-5 meters; lowland 6-100 meters; hilly areas 200-300 meters; low mountain areas >500 meters). These samples were evaluated for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by amplifying part of the Ankyrin repeat protein (AnkA) gene. A higher prevalence was obtained for coastal compared with remaining areas, suggesting an influence of altitude on the CGA. Moreover, the results suggest an influence of climate and rainfall. In the present research work, we highlight the risk of granulocytic anaplasmosis in Central and Southern Romania, with a greater risk associated to Southern lowland region, especially in coastal areas. The importance of these results resides in the zoonotic potential of the canine A. phagocytophilum strains. In conclusion, the altitude and precipitation level may be risk factors for A. phagocytophilum infection in dogs and other hosts, including humans.

  9. 77 FR 71735 - Minimum Altitudes for Use of Autopilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... systems. I. Overview of Proposed Rule The FAA proposes to amend and harmonize minimum altitudes for use of... additional paragraph in Sec. 135.93 exempting rotorcraft. The proposed rule would harmonize these three parts... category airplanes. The proposed rule would enable the operational use of advanced autopilot and navigation...

  10. Regulation of blood volume in lowlanders exposed to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Robach, Paul; Lundby, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Humans ascending to high altitude (HA) experience a reduction in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation and, as a result, arterial O2 content ([Formula: see text]). As HA exposure extends, this reduction in [Formula: see text] is counteracted by an increase in arterial hemoglobin concentration. Initia...

  11. Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Pauli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems By Münir Öztürk, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, I. Faridah-Hanum and Efe. Recep, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015. xvii + 696 pp. US$ 239.00. ISBN 978-3-319-12858-0.

  12. Performance of the Volumetric Diffusive Respirator at Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-18

    density, and humidity. These changes can affect the performance of mechanical ventilators calibrated for operation at sea level. Effects of increasing...although the mechanism is unclear. Allan has also demonstrated increased VT and minute ventilation with use of the VDR at high set airway pressures (10...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Aeromedical transport of ventilated patients requires continued performance of equipment at altitude. Changes

  13. Crop-Livestock Farming Systems Varying with Different Altitudes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-29

    Dec 29, 2012 ... Centre staff, to cover all main characteristics of the district. Five households were interviewed in each peasant association. The average altitude of the sites visited in AT was about 1600 masl. The area consists of 99% flatland (Sisay, 2000), average temperature is 21°C, mean annual rainfall 750 mm (Adami ...

  14. Mood changes at very high altitudes in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sabih; Hussain, Sadiq

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To screen out psychiatric ‘cases’ and find the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in military volunteers performing duties at very high altitudes in the Karakoram ranges of Pakistan. Methods: This was a descriptive study lasting from Jan 2015 to June 2015, on volunteers serving at very high altitude, using General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Urdu versions. Analysis involved descriptive, inferential techniques and Bonferroni test. Demographic variables were compared to the scores. Results: A high percentage of the military volunteers screened positive for psychiatric ‘caseness’ and symptoms of anxiety and depression; mostly in the mild to moderate range, while very few of them reported severe symptoms. Demographic variables such as marital status, number of children, positive family psychiatric history, past medical history, duration at high altitude and educational levels were found to be significant risk factors for developing symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Individuals performing duties at very high altitude, experience symptoms of anxiety and depression, their demographics are important in understanding their emotional problems. PMID:28367206

  15. 14 CFR 91.119 - Minimum safe altitudes: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fails, an emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface. (b) Over... persons, an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet of... conducted without hazard to persons or property on the surface. In addition, each person operating a...

  16. Flight Control of the High Altitude Wind Power System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podgaets, A.R.; Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed loop Laddermill flight control problem is considered in this paper. Laddermill is a high altitude kites system for energy production. The kites have been simulated as rigid bodies and the cable as a thin elastic line. Euler angles and cable speed are controls. Flight control is written as a

  17. Acetazolamide improves cerebral oxygenation during exercise at high altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuyk, J.; Bos, J. van den; Terhell, K.; Bos, R. de; Vletter, A.; Valk, P.; Beuzekom, M. van; Kleef, J. van; Dahan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness is thought to be triggered by cerebral hypoxemia and be prevented by acetazolamide (Actz). The effect of Actz on cerebral oxygenation at altitude remains unknown. In 16 members of the 2005 Dutch Cho Oyu (8201 m, Tibet) expedition, the influence of Actz and exercise (750 mg PO

  18. The genetic architecture of adaptations to high altitude in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Beall, Cynthia M; Witonsky, David B; Gebremedhin, Amha; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Although hypoxia is a major stress on physiological processes, several human populations have survived for millennia at high altitudes, suggesting that they have adapted to hypoxic conditions. This hypothesis was recently corroborated by studies of Tibetan highlanders, which showed that polymorphisms in candidate genes show signatures of natural selection as well as well-replicated association signals for variation in hemoglobin levels. We extended genomic analysis to two Ethiopian ethnic groups: Amhara and Oromo. For each ethnic group, we sampled low and high altitude residents, thus allowing genetic and phenotypic comparisons across altitudes and across ethnic groups. Genome-wide SNP genotype data were collected in these samples by using Illumina arrays. We find that variants associated with hemoglobin variation among Tibetans or other variants at the same loci do not influence the trait in Ethiopians. However, in the Amhara, SNP rs10803083 is associated with hemoglobin levels at genome-wide levels of significance. No significant genotype association was observed for oxygen saturation levels in either ethnic group. Approaches based on allele frequency divergence did not detect outliers in candidate hypoxia genes, but the most differentiated variants between high- and lowlanders have a clear role in pathogen defense. Interestingly, a significant excess of allele frequency divergence was consistently detected for genes involved in cell cycle control and DNA damage and repair, thus pointing to new pathways for high altitude adaptations. Finally, a comparison of CpG methylation levels between high- and lowlanders found several significant signals at individual genes in the Oromo.

  19. 14 CFR 121.657 - Flight altitude rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight altitude rules. 121.657 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.657 Flight... other flight conditions, the Administrator prescribes other minimums for any route or part of a route...

  20. CARINA data synthesis project: pH data scale unification and cruise adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Velo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruise data sets in the Artic Mediterranean Seas (AMS, Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged to a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic Ocean.

    These data have gone through rigorous quality control (QC procedures to assure the highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the measured parameters in the CARINA database were objectively examined in order to quantify systematic differences in the reported values. Systematic biases found in the data have been corrected in the data products, three merged data files with measured, calculated and interpolated data for each of the three CARINA regions; AMS, Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean. Out of a total of 188 cruise entries in the CARINA database, 59 reported pH measured values. All reported pH data have been unified to the Sea-Water Scale (SWS at 25 °C.

    Here we present details of the secondary QC of pH in the CARINA database and the scale unification to SWS at 25 °C. The pH scale has been converted for 36 cruises. Procedures of quality control, including crossover analysis between cruises and inversion analysis are described. Adjustments were applied to the pH values for 21 of the cruises in the CARINA dataset. With these adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with the GLODAP data, an oceanographic data set based on the World Hydrographic Program in the 1990s. Based on our analysis we estimate the internal consistency of the CARINA pH data to be 0.005 pH units. The CARINA data are now suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates, for ocean acidification assessment and for model validation.

  1. Electrocardiographic observations in high altitude residents of Nepal and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Jeanne; Valeix, P.; Drouet, L.; Escourrou, P.; Durand, J.

    1981-09-01

    Parameters computed from electrocardiographic recordings (mean frontal QRS axis, â QRS, positive (R-S) difference in lead V1, incidence of atypical conduction pattern in V1) were compared: (1) in two populations residing at the same altitude (3 800 m) but in different geographical sites: Aymaras in Bolivia and Tibetans in Nepal, (2) in three groups of Bolivians dwellers, ethnically similar and fully acclimatized, at three altitudes (4 780 m, 3 800 m, 400 m). This work involved 661 subjects. Results: (a) The mean â QRS value in highlanders is shifted to the right when compared to that of lowlanders: the right axis deviation increases with altitude, (b) The mean â QRS value is identical in Bolivian and Tibetan groups living at the same altitude, (c) The axis deviates to the left with aging in all the environmental conditions. This migration is accompanied by a lower incidence of positive (R-S) difference in adults compared to younger subjects, (d) The mean â QRS value of the females is always situated to the left of that males for all age groups. This difference receives a possible confirmation by the lower incidence of atypical complexes in V1 in females, (e) The present values of â QRS as well as others found in the litterature and those of mean pulmonary arterial pressure reported by different authors have been plotted, both as a function of elevation: The two relationships can be described by two linear functions with a point of intersection. Such points suggest an altitude threshold above which a further decrease in barometric pressure results in marked cardiovascular responses. They are both located in the vicinity of 2 500 m.

  2. Why Are High Altitude Natives So Strong at High Altitude? Nature vs. Nurture: Genetic Factors vs. Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Tom

    Among high-altitude natives there is evidence of a general hypoxia tolerance leading to enhanced performance and/or increased capacity in several important domains. These domains likely include an enhanced physical work capacity, an enhanced reproductive capacity, and an ability to resist several common pathologies of chronic high-altitude exposure. The "strength" of the high-altitude native in this regard may have both a developmental and a genetic basis, although there is better evidence for the former (developmental effects) than for the latter. For example, early-life hypoxia exposure clearly results in lung growth and remodeling leading to an increased O2 diffusing capacity in adulthood. Genetic research has yet to reveal a population genetic basis for enhanced capacity in high-altitude natives, but several traits are clearly under genetic control in Andean and Tibetan populations e.g., resting and exercise arterial O2 saturation (SaO2). This chapter reviews the effects of nature and nurture on traits that are relevant to the process of gas exchange, including pulmonary volumes and diffusion capacity, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), the SaO2, and the alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aDO2) during exercise.

  3. Women at Altitude: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Alpha-Adrenergic Blockade on High Altitude Acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    and venous tone. Alpha 1-adrenergic blockade with prazosin attenuated the rise in SNS activity at 4,300 m and prevented the increase in PNS activity in...Physiol 1991;70(3):1129-36. 4. Zamudio S., S.K. Palmer, T.E. Dahms, et al. Blood volume expansion, preeclampsia , and infant birth weight at high altitude

  4. Diagnostic criteria of high-altitude de-adaptation for high-altitude migrants returning to the plains: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-quan ZHOU

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the diagnostic method of high-altitude de-adaptation and constitute the diagnostic criteria of high-altitude de-adaptation for people returning to the plains from high-altitude. Methods  Epidemiological survey and clinical multicenter randomized controlled studies were used to determine/perform blood picture, routine urine analysis, routine stool examination, myocardial enzymes, liver and kidney functions, nerve function, sex hormone, microalbuminuria, ECG, echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, and so on, in 3011 subjects after they returned to the plains from high-altitude. The diagnostic criteria of high-altitude de-adaptation were formulated by a comparative analysis of the obtained data with those of healthy subjects living in the same area, altitude, and age. The regularity and characteristics of high-altitude de-adaptation syndrome were found and diagnostic criteria for high-altitude de-adaptation was established based on the results. Results  The investigative results showed that the incidence of high-altitude de-adaptation syndrome was found in 84.36% of population returning to the plains from high-altitude. About 60% of them were considered to have mild reactions, 30% medium, and only 10% were severe. The lower the altitude they returned to, the longer the duration of stay in highland, and the heavier the labor they engaged in high altitude, the higher the incidence rate of high-altitude de-adaptation syndrome was. Patients with high-altitude de-adaptation syndrome exhibited hematological abnormality and abnormal ventricular function, especially the right ventricular diastolic function after returning for 1 year to 5 years. Long-term hypoxia exposure often caused obvious change in cardiac morphology with left and right ventricular hypertrophy, particularly the right ventricle. In addition, low blood pressure and low pulse pressure were found at times. Microalbuminuria was found in some high-altitude de

  5. Control of respiration in flight muscle from the high-altitude bar-headed goose and low-altitude birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Richards, Jeffrey G; Milsom, William K

    2009-10-01

    Bar-headed geese fly at altitudes of up to 9,000 m on their biannual migration over the Himalayas. To determine whether the flight muscle of this species has evolved to facilitate exercise at high altitude, we compared the respiratory properties of permeabilized muscle fibers from bar-headed geese and several low-altitude waterfowl species. Respiratory capacities were assessed for maximal ADP stimulation (with single or multiple inputs to the electron transport system) and cytochrome oxidase excess capacity (with an exogenous electron donor) and were generally 20-40% higher in bar-headed geese when creatine was present. When respiration rates were extrapolated to the entire pectoral muscle mass, bar-headed geese had a higher mass-specific aerobic capacity. This may represent a surplus capacity that counteracts the depressive effects of hypoxia on mitochondrial respiration. However, there were no differences in activity for mitochondrial or glycolytic enzymes measured in homogenized muscle. The [ADP] leading to half-maximal stimulation (K(m)) was approximately twofold higher in bar-headed geese (10 vs. 4-6 microM), and, while creatine reduced K(m) by 30% in this species, it had no effect on K(m) in low-altitude birds. Mitochondrial creatine kinase may therefore contribute to the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in flight muscle of bar-headed geese, which could promote efficient coupling of ATP supply and demand. However, this was not based on differences in creatine kinase activity in isolated mitochondria or homogenized muscle. The unique differences in bar-headed geese existed without prior exercise or hypoxia exposure and were not a result of phylogenetic history, and may, therefore, be important evolutionary specializations for high-altitude flight.

  6. Sub-Scale Re-entry Capsule Drop via High Altitude Balloons Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-altitude balloon flights are an inexpensive method used to lift payloads to high altitudes. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations permit payloads...

  7. GRIP HIGH ALTITUDE IMAGING WIND AND RAIN AIRBORNE PROFILER (HIWRAP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP High Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP) dataset was collected by the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP),...

  8. Surface altitude of hydrogeologic layers of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — PP1773_unit_alt_grid is a polygon shapefile of surface altitudes for 16 hydrogeologic units as described in report Professional Paper 1773. Surface altitudes were...

  9. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Investigating the Charleston Bump 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  10. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2011 Gulf of Alaska fall juvenile fish Cruise DY11-06/7DY11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The cruise began when the ship departed Dutch Harbor on October 1, 2011 at 1500 ADT. Sampling commenced at collection site 1E, which corresponds to Station 1....

  11. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Life on the Edge 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  12. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Life on the Edge 2004 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  13. Dive Activities from Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) for Operation Deep Scope 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Information about dive activities were recorded into the Cruise Information Management System (CIMS) by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration's data manager during...

  14. Archive of Datasonics SIS-1000 Boomer Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise DIAN 97011 Long Island, NY Inner Shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This CD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS DIAN 97011 cruise. The coverage is the nearshore of Long Island, NY in...

  15. Larval Fish and Midwater Trawl Fish Identification from Cruises to Palmyra, TC-90-07 and TC-92-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two cruises aboard the NOAA ship Townsend Cromwell were conducted during the following periods: 22 August-17 September 1990 and 18 February-9 March, 1992. Collectors...

  16. Archive of Water Gun Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise SEAX 96004, New York Bight, 1 May - 9 June, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This DVD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS SEAX 96004 cruise. The coverage is the nearshore of the New York and...

  17. Archive of Boomer Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise SEAX 96004, New York Bight, 1 May - 9 June, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This DVD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS SEAX 96004 cruise.The coverage is the nearshore of the New York and...

  18. Archive of Boomer Subbottom Data Collected During USGS Cruise DIAN 96040, Fire Island, New York, 4-24 September 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This CD-ROM contains digital high resolution seismic reflection data collected during the USGS DIAN 97011 cruise. The coverage is the nearshore of Long Island, NY in...

  19. Intelligent cruise control field operational test. Vol III, Performance of a string or cluster of ACC-equipped cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report is one element of a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). It addresses the operation of a serial string or dense cluster of passenger cars equipped with a new...

  20. Sequencing of 50 human exomes reveals adaptation to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Xin; Liang, Yu; Huerta-Sanchez, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were identified. The strongest signal of natural selection came from endothelial Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain protein 1 (EPAS1), a transcription factor involved in response to hypoxia. One single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at EPAS1 shows a 78% frequency......Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which...... difference between Tibetan and Han samples, representing the fastest allele frequency change observed at any human gene to date. This SNP's association with erythrocyte abundance supports the role of EPAS1 in adaptation to hypoxia. Thus, a population genomic survey has revealed a functionally important locus...

  1. Tear Break-up Time in High Altitude Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, K N

    2009-01-01

    In high altitude areas, patients report with irritation, redness and foreign body sensation in their eyes suggesting tear film abnormality due to low humidity and windy environmental conditions. Tear Break- up Time (TBUT) was studied in 100 subjects consisting of local population and those originally from plains residing in high altitude areas in Ladakh. There were 24% individuals with TBUT of 10 seconds. In symptomatic patients with TBUT of <5 seconds, eight cases had irritation of eyes, six foreign body sensation and two cases had pain, watering, irritation and redness of eyes. Pterygium was seen in 12 individuals and inter palpebral congestion in 4 cases. A total of 24% cases showed abnormal (<5 seconds) TBUT. Abnormality of tear film in the presence of low humidity and windy condition with high ultraviolet radiation may lead to ocular discomfort and pterygium in these areas.

  2. Low bounds for pulsar γ-ray radiation altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Du, Y. J.; Wang, H. G.; Qiao, G. J.; Xu, R. X.; Han, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    The observational determination of radiation locations can constrain pulsar radiation models. The γ-B process in a strong magnetic field is one of the fundamental physical processes contributing to pulsar radiation mechanisms. Photons generated near a pulsar surface with sufficient energy will be absorbed in the magnetosphere. Considering aberrational, rotational and general relativistic effects, we calculate the γ-B optical depth for γ-ray photons, and we use the derived optical depth to determine the lower bounds of the radiation altitude for photons with given energies. As a case study, we obtain the low bounds of radiation altitude for the Crab pulsar for photons with energies of 5GeV-1TeV.

  3. A new concept for exhaust diffusers of altitude test cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, P. G.; Sarohia, V.

    1984-01-01

    A new exhaust diffuser concept for jet engine altitude test cells which greatly reduces operating power and cost requirements for exhausters is discussed. The concept utilizes the capture duct as an efficient diffuser only, while evacuating the secondary air via a separate path using an auxiliary suction system. Implementation of the concept would reduce the peak exhauster power requirement during a TF-30 altitude test by 48 percent and the overall exhaust power cost of the test program by 41 percent. The design accommodates various engine sizes and can achieve optimum pressure recovery performance during both A/B and IRP modes of engine operation. The pressure recovery performance of the proposed exhaust diffusers does not deteriorate with increasing cooling air fraction. The disadvantages of the proposed scheme are: increased mechanical complexity of the extended variable geometry diffuser duct and the need for an auxiliary suction system for evacuating cell-cooling air.

  4. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils; Ritter, P.

    2002-01-01

    Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly...... in the auroral electrojets. First, we examine the results during a recent geomagnetic storm. The currents derived from two satellites at different altitudes are in very good agreement, which verifies good stability of the method. Further, a very high degree of correlation (correlation coefficients of 0.......8-0.9) is observed between the amplitudes of the derived currents and the commonly used auroral electro-jet indices based on magnetic measurements at ground. This points to the potential of defining an auroral activity index based on the satellite observations, which could be useful for space weather monitoring...

  5. High Altitude Balloon Real-time Landing Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert

    2010-10-01

    With the success of Weber State University's high altitude balloon program, HARBOR, missions become more complex and payloads of higher value, the importance of being able to recover the payload quickly after landing has increased. By expanding the functionality of Weber State's Multi-Sensor Array, combined with an amateur radio terminal node controller, we will be able to accurately predict the landing zone while in flight. Analysis of previous flights indicates that velocity vector projections on a plane tangential to the earth's surface remain fairly constant at any given altitude during the ascent and descent. By differentiating position data from GPS and other instruments during the ascent, the descent profile can be integrated to produce an accurate landing position. This prediction is then able to be sent down wirelessly over existing ham radio infrastructure to plot the predicted landing zone in navigation and mapping software in real time.

  6. High altitude aerodynamic platform concept evaluation and prototype engine testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A design concept has been developed for maintaining a 150-pound payload at 60,000 feet altitude for about 50 hours. A 600-pound liftoff weight aerodynamic vehicle is used which operates at sufficient speeds to withstand prevailing winds. It is powered by a turbocharged four-stoke cycle gasoline fueled engine. Endurance time of 100 hours or more appears to be feasible with hydrogen fuel and a lighter payload. A prototype engine has been tested to 40,000 feet simulated altitude. Mismatch of the engine and the turbocharger system flow and problems with fuel/air mixture ratio control characteristics prohibited operation beyond 40,000 feet. But there seems to be no reason why the concept cannot be developed to function as analytically predicted.

  7. Coca: High Altitude Remedy of the Ancient Incas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondich, Amy Sue; Joslin, Jeremy D

    2015-12-01

    The use of coca leaf for medicinal purposes is a centuries-old tradition of the native peoples of South America. Coca products are thought by many laypersons to provide risk-free benefits to users participating in strenuous activities at high altitude. Physiologic studies of coca have increased understanding of its possible mechanism of action as well as its potential impact on high altitude activities. This present work explores the role of coca throughout the history of the Andean peoples and explores whether this ancient remedy has a place in modern medicine. A focused summary of research articles with particular relevance to the field of wilderness medicine is also included to better provide the reader with lessons not only from history but also from another culture. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Breathlessness at High Altitude: First Episode of Bronchoconstriction in an Otherwise Healthy Sojourner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan; Koirala, Pranawa; Lohani, Sadichhya; Phuyal, Pratibha; Basnyat, Buddha

    2017-06-01

    Bhandari, Sanjeeb Sudarshan, Pranawa Koirala, Sadichhya Lohani, Pratibha Phuyal, and Buddha Basnyat. Breathlessness at high altitude: first episode of bronchoconstriction in an otherwise healthy sojourner. High Alt Med Biol.. 18:179-181, 2017-High-altitude illness is a collective term for less severe acute mountain sickness and more severe high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high-altitude cerebral edema, which we can experience while traveling to high altitude. These get better when we get down to the lower altitudes. People with many comorbidities also have been traveling to high altitudes from the dawn of civilization. Obstructive airway diseases can be confused with HAPE at high altitude. Asthma is one of those obstructive pulmonary diseases, but it is shown to get better with travel to the altitudes higher than the residing altitude. We present a case of 55-year-old nonsmoker, athletic, female, a lowland resident who developed difficulty breathing for the first time at high altitude. She did not get better with the descent to lower altitude and timely intake of acetazolamide. Her pulmonary function test showed obstructive airway pattern, which got better with salbutamol/ipratropium nebulization and oxygen.

  9. 14 CFR 125.329 - Minimum altitudes for use of autopilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum altitudes for use of autopilot. 125... § 125.329 Minimum altitudes for use of autopilot. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) of this section, no person may use an autopilot at an altitude above the terrain which is less...

  10. 14 CFR 121.579 - Minimum altitudes for use of autopilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum altitudes for use of autopilot. 121... altitudes for use of autopilot. (a) En route operations. Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, no person may use an autopilot en route, including climb and descent, at an altitude...

  11. Increased insulin requirements during exercise at very high altitude in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, P. De; Vries, S.T. de; Koning, E.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bilo, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Safe, very high altitude trekking in subjects with type 1 diabetes requires understanding of glucose regulation at high altitude. We investigated insulin requirements, energy expenditure, and glucose levels at very high altitude in relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms in

  12. Increased insulin requirements during exercise at very high altitude in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Tack, Cees J.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    OBJECTIVE-Safe, very high altitude trekking in subjects with type 1 diabetes requires understanding of glucose regulation at high altitude. We investigated insulin requirements, energy expenditure, and glucose levels at very high altitude in relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms in

  13. Acute circulatory effects of military low-altitude flight noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, R; Ising, H; Rebentisch, E

    1990-01-01

    Volunteers aged 70 to 89 years living in a senior citizen's home in Haifa were exposed to flight noise via earphones while watching video films. Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured simultaneously. A high-quality recording and reproduction technique was employed. They were exposed to the noise of two to three overflights with Lmax = 99-114 dB(A) and slow sound pressure level increase (aircraft take off) or with Lmax = 95-112 dB(A) and a fast sound pressure level increase (low-altitude flight at high subsonic speed) at intervals of 10 to 15 min. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure was raised at Lmax = 112 dB(A) and high speed level increase at the average of 23 and 13 mmHg, respectively with individual maximal values of about 40 mm Hg (systolic). In order to prevent risks to the subjects' health, the noise exposure was not raised to levels above 112 dB(A) and fast level increase, although Lmax = 125 dB(A) has been measured in 75 m-low-altitude flight areas. The blood pressure response to a repeated single exposure increased in proportion to the preceding noise exposure. At high intensities and fast level increase an up to fourfold reaction intensification was detected in the majority of subjects. This change in reactivity is regarded as the result of sensitization toward the special type of noise and the implications of these observations for the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-altitude flight noise are considered. On the basis of these results, proposals are made for limiting values for Lmax and for the speed of sound pressure level increase, the implementation of which would lead to a marked reduction in health risks from low-altitude flight noise.

  14. Are macroinvertebrates in high altitude streams affected by oxygen deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean; Rostgaard, S.; Vásconez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    conditions. However, this fails to take into account that oxygen solubility declines with decreasing atmospheric pressure, which may be of importance at high altitudes. 2. Based on samples of macroinvertebrate benthos and in situ measurements of respiratory oxygen demand of macroinvertebrates in small...... of species and aquatic communities. We argue that oxygen deficiency may be a potentially important factor, and that more focus on this topic is likely to produce significant new insights in aquatic community ecology....

  15. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Mann, I. R.; Mazzino, L.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon Team

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloon (UA-HAB) program is a one and half year program sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) that offers hands on experience for undergraduate and graduate students in the design, build, test and flight of an experimental payload on a high altitude balloon platform. Utilising low cost weather balloon platforms, and through utilisation of the CSA David Florida Laboratory for thermal-vacuum tests , in advance of the final flight of the payload on a NASA high altitude balloon platform. Collectively the program provided unique opportunities for students to experience mission phases which parallel those of a space satellite mission. The program has facilitated several weather balloon missions, which additionally provide educational opportunities for university students and staff, as well as outreach opportunities among junior and senior high school students. Weather balloon missions provide a cheap and quick alternative to suborbital missions; they can be used to test components for more expensive missions, as well as to host student based projects from different disciplines such as Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (EAS), Physics, and Engineering. In addition to extensive skills development, the program aims to promote recruitment of graduate and undergraduate students into careers in space science and engineering. Results from the UA-HAB program and the flight of the UA-HAB shielded Gieger counter payload for cosmic ray and space radiation studies will be presented. Lessons learned from developing and maintaining a weather balloon program will also be discussed. This project is undertaken in partnership with the High Altitude Student Platform, organized by Louisiana State University and the Louisiana Space Consortium (LaSpace), and sponsored by NASA, with the financial support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  16. Hypoxic Hypoxia at Moderate Altitudes: State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    respiratory surfaces. The table illustrates partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PACO2) and PAO2 at different altitudes when breathing air and when...SaO2 is approximately 87 to 90%. The significance of these values can be illustrated graphically by considering the oxyhemoglobin dissociation...decreases in some performance parameters. For example, Schlaepfer, Bartsch , and Fisch (1992) found an increase in visual perception with mild hypoxia

  17. Efficacy of Conventional and High-Frequency Ventilation at Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    evacuation; Mechanical ventilation ;--andL If.’jJI t’ 06 I 12 i ~High-Frequency ventilation ’& ~.~.- 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse If neesry and identify by...The inspired gas and the subsequent rate of appearance of these gases in arterial blood were monitored. With conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV...AND HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION AT ALTITUDE INTRODUCTION The logistics of aeromedical evacuation of patients requiring mechanical ventilation is

  18. Oxidative stress at high altitude: genotype–phenotype correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Pasha, Qadar; Pandey, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Priyanka Pandey,1,2 MA Qadar Pasha1,2 1CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India; 2Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India Abstract: It has been well-documented that the hypobaric hypoxic environment at high altitude (HA) causes stress to both the permanent residents of HA and the sojourners. This oxidative stress primarily disturbs the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways, thereby upsetting normal human physiology, especia...

  19. WETLAND VEGETATION INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT WITH LOW ALTITUDE MULTISPECTRAL UAV IMAGERY

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Boon; S. Tesfamichael

    2017-01-01

    The use of multispectral sensors on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) was until recently too heavy and bulky although this changed in recent times and they are now commercially available. The focus on the usage of these sensors is mostly directed towards the agricultural sector where the focus is on precision farming. Applications of these sensors for mapping of wetland ecosystems are rare. Here, we evaluate the performance of low altitude multispectral UAV imagery to determine the state of wet...

  20. The genetic architecture of adaptations to high altitude in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu; Beall, Cynthia M.; Witonsky, David B.; Amha Gebremedhin; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Anna Di Rienzo

    2012-01-01

    Although hypoxia is a major stress on physiological processes, several human populations have survived for millennia at high altitudes, suggesting that they have adapted to hypoxic conditions. This hypothesis was recently corroborated by studies of Tibetan highlanders, which showed that polymorphisms in candidate genes show signatures of natural selection as well as well-replicated association signals for variation in hemoglobin levels. We extended genomic analysis to two Ethiopian ethnic gro...

  1. The genetic architecture of adaptations to high altitude in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu

    Full Text Available Although hypoxia is a major stress on physiological processes, several human populations have survived for millennia at high altitudes, suggesting that they have adapted to hypoxic conditions. This hypothesis was recently corroborated by studies of Tibetan highlanders, which showed that polymorphisms in candidate genes show signatures of natural selection as well as well-replicated association signals for variation in hemoglobin levels. We extended genomic analysis to two Ethiopian ethnic groups: Amhara and Oromo. For each ethnic group, we sampled low and high altitude residents, thus allowing genetic and phenotypic comparisons across altitudes and across ethnic groups. Genome-wide SNP genotype data were collected in these samples by using Illumina arrays. We find that variants associated with hemoglobin variation among Tibetans or other variants at the same loci do not influence the trait in Ethiopians. However, in the Amhara, SNP rs10803083 is associated with hemoglobin levels at genome-wide levels of significance. No significant genotype association was observed for oxygen saturation levels in either ethnic group. Approaches based on allele frequency divergence did not detect outliers in candidate hypoxia genes, but the most differentiated variants between high- and lowlanders have a clear role in pathogen defense. Interestingly, a significant excess of allele frequency divergence was consistently detected for genes involved in cell cycle control and DNA damage and repair, thus pointing to new pathways for high altitude adaptations. Finally, a comparison of CpG methylation levels between high- and lowlanders found several significant signals at individual genes in the Oromo.

  2. The sleep of elite athletes at sea level and high altitude: a comparison of sea-level natives and high-altitude natives (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Soria, Rudy; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Sargent, Charli

    2013-12-01

    Altitude exposure causes acute sleep disruption in non-athletes, but little is known about its effects in elite athletes. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of altitude on two groups of elite athletes, that is, sea-level natives and high-altitude natives. Sea-level natives were members of the Australian under-17 soccer team (n=14). High-altitude natives were members of a Bolivian under-20 club team (n=12). Teams participated in an 18-day (19 nights) training camp in Bolivia, with 6 nights at near sea level in Santa Cruz (430 m) and 13 nights at high altitude in La Paz (3600 m). Sleep was assessed on every day/night using activity monitors. The Australians' sleep was shorter, and of poorer quality, on the first night at altitude compared with sea level. Sleep quality returned to normal by the end of the first week at altitude, but sleep quantity had still not stabilised at its normal level after 2 weeks. The quantity and quality of sleep obtained by the Bolivians was similar, or greater, on all nights at altitude compared with sea level. The Australians tended to obtain more sleep than the Bolivians at sea level and altitude, but the quality of the Bolivians' sleep tended to be better than that of the Australians at altitude. Exposure to high altitude causes acute and chronic disruption to the sleep of elite athletes who are sea-level natives, but it does not affect the sleep of elite athletes who are high-altitude natives.

  3. APPLICATION OF UAV SYSTEM FOR LOW ALTITUDE PHOTOGRAMMETRY IN SHANXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Junqing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent years, as the urgent demands of the state and society for high-resolution aerial images and large-scale DLG (Digital Line Graphic, UAV borne low-altitude Photogrammetry system are used more and more widely. Combining the application of UAV system in Shanxi for collecting the 1:1000 scale DLG, in this paper, the main steps and key technologies of UAV system for lower altitude aerial photogrammetry are introduced. In this passage, we took an area of Shanxi as the survey area, acquired 1024 aerial images of the survey area. After the calculation of aerial triangulation, we get the plane accuracy of the encrypted points is 0.21 m and the height accuracy of encrypted points is 0.35 m, could meet the accuracy of 1:1000 scale mapping. It can be seen that the UAV system for low altitude photogrammetry has its own advantages in acquiring high resolution aerial images and large scale DLG, and UAV system has a great development prospects.

  4. Effects of atmospheric conditions on the operating characteristics of supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, W. G.; Gilyard, G. B.; Talbot, J. E.; Brown, T. W.

    1976-01-01

    Since for maximum range a supersonic transport must cruise near its maximum Mach number, accurate flight control is needed, especially when severe atmospheric transients are encountered. This paper describes atmospheric transients that have been encountered by the XB-70, YF-12, and Concorde aircraft during supersonic flights and the ensuing responses of the aircraft propulsion and flight control systems. It was found that atmospheric conditions affected these supersonic cruise vehicles in much the same way, with minor differences according to the type of propulsion and flight control system. Onboard sensors are sufficiently accurate to provide data on the atmosphere, including turbulence over the route, that are accurate enough for entry in the climatic record and for use as inputs to the control systems. Nominal atmospheric transients can be satisfactorily controlled, but some problems remain for extreme cases.

  5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AMERICAN AND SPANISH CRUISE PASSENGERS’ BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Forgas-Coll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies of cross-national differences in consumer behavior in different consumption sectors have verified that cultural differences have a strong influence on consumers. Despite the importance of cross-national analysis, no studies in the literature examine the moderating effects of nationality on the construction of behavioral intentions and their antecedents among cruise line passengers. This study investigates the moderating effects of nationality on the relationships between perceived value, satisfaction, trust and behavioral intentions among Spanish and (U.S. American passengers of cruise lines that use Barcelona as home port and port-of-call. A theoretical model was tested with a total of 968 surveys. Structural equation models (SEMs were used, by means of a multigroup analysis. Results of this study indicated that Spaniards showed stronger relationships between trust and behavioral intentions, and between emotional value and satisfaction. Americans presented stronger relationships between service quality and satisfaction, and between service quality and behavioral intentions.

  6. Robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Kai; Yang, Li-Xing; Li, Ke-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the robust output feedback cruise control for high-speed train movement with uncertain parameters is investigated. The dynamic of a high-speed train is modeled by a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, which is subject to rolling mechanical resistance, aerodynamic drag and wind gust. Based on Lyapunov’s stability theory, the sufficient condition for the existence of the robust output feedback cruise control law is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), under which the high-speed train tracks the desired speed, the relative spring displacement between the two neighboring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and meanwhile a small prescribed H∞ disturbance attenuation level is guaranteed. One numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No.2014JBM150).

  7. Visual Assessment on Coastal Cruise Tourism: A Preliminary Planning Using Importance Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisutomo, S.

    2017-07-01

    Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) has been widely applied in many cases. In this research, IPA was applied to measure perceive on coastal tourism objects and its possibility to be developed as coastal cruise tourism in Makassar. Three objects, i.e. Akkarena recreational site, Losari public space at waterfront, and Paotere traditional Phinisi ships port, were selected and assessed visually from water area by a group of purposive resource persons. The importance and performance of 10 attributes of each site were scored using Likert scale from 1 to 5. Data were processed by SPSS-21 than resulted Cartesian graph which the scores were divided in four quadrants: Quadrant I concentric here, Quadrant II keep up the good work, Quadrant III low priority, and Quadrant IV possible overkill. The attributes in each quadrant could be considered as the platform for preliminary planning of coastal cruise tour in Makassar

  8. A review of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion: cruise and fast-start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Ming; Cao, Yong-Hui; Pan, Guang

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the understanding of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion. Two impressive models of underwater propulsion are considered: cruise and fast-start. First, we introduce the progression of bio-mimetic propulsion, especially underwater propulsion, where some primary conceptions are touched upon. Second, the understanding of flapping foils, considered as one of the most efficient cruise styles of aquatic animals, is introduced, where the effect of kinematics and the shape and flexibility of foils on generating thrust are elucidated respectively. Fast-start propulsion is always exhibited when predator behaviour occurs, and we provide an explicit introduction of corresponding zoological experiments and numerical simulations. We also provide some predictions about underwater bio-mimetic propulsion.

  9. Stability of adaptive cruise control systems taking account of vehicle response time and delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.C., E-mail: ldavis7@mailaps.org [10244 Normandy Dr., Plymouth, MI 48170 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    The region of string stability of a platoon of adaptive cruise control vehicles, taking into account the delay and response of the vehicle powertrain, is found. An upper bound on the explicit delay time as a function the first-order powertrain response time constant is determined. The system is characterized by a headway time constant, a sensitivity parameter, relative (to the vehicle immediately in front) velocity control, and delayed-velocity feedback or acceleration feedback. -- Highlights: ► I find the region of stability for a realistic adaptive cruise control system. ► Vehicle response time and explicit delay are included in the analysis. ► Delayed-feedback enlarges the parameter space that gives string stability.

  10. Optimal Lateral Guidance for Automatic Landing of a Lightweight High Altitude Long Endurance Unmanned Aerial System with Crosswind Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan Allen

    Unmanned aerial systems will be the dominant force in the aviation industry. Among these aircraft the use of high altitude long endurance unmanned aerial systems has increased dramatically. Based on the geometry of these types of aircraft the possible changing weather conditions during long flights poses many problems. These difficulties are compounded by the push towards fully autonomous systems. Large wingspan and, typically, small in-line landing gear make a landing in crosswind exceedingly difficult. This study uses a modified gain scheduling technique for optimizing the landing attitude for a generic vehicle based on geometry and crosswind speed. This is performed by directly utilizing the crosswind estimation to calculate a desired crab and roll angle that gives the lowest risk attitude for landing. An extended Kalman filter is developed that estimates the aircraft states as well as the 3D wind component acting on the aircraft. The aircraft used in this analysis is the DG808S, a large wingspan lightweight electric glider. The aircraft is modelled using Advanced Aircraft Analysis software and a six degree of freedom nonlinear simulation is implemented for testing. The controller used is a nonlinear model predictive controller. The simulations show that the extended Kalman filter is capable of estimating the crosswind and can therefore be used in the full aircraft simulation. Different crosswind settings are used which include both constant crosswind and gust conditions. Crosswind landing capabilities are increased by 35%. Deviation from the desired path in the cruise phase is reduced by up to 68% and time to path convergence is reduced by up to 53%.

  11. 3 tons pure electric vehicles power system design based on Cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure electric minivan is different from electric car. Combined with a given vehicle, vehicle simulation model established in Cruise software, complete simulation by setting tasks for the selected models designed drivetrain. Simulation results show that: The design of the transmission ratio can best meet the performance requirements of the matching target power analysis and simulation of electric minivan provides a new way, with practical guidance.

  12. Fuselage Excitation During Cruise Flight Conditions: From Flight Test to Numerical Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Klabes, Alexander; Callsen, Sören; Herr, Michaela; Appel, Christina

    2017-01-01

    In the context of aircraft cabin interior noise, the fuselage structural excitation by turbulent boundary- layer (TBL) flows is an important noise source for aircraft manufacturers to deal with. Aircraft at cruise conditions are flying at high Mach numbers, typically between Ma = 0.78...0.85, dependent on the type and mission of the aircraft. At these flight conditions, the TBL around the fuselage is turbulent and features regions with high turbulence intensity. The vortices withi...

  13. Deep Impact 9P/TEMPEL Cruise - Raw Hriv Nav Images V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcich, B.; Shaw, A. S.; Desnoyer, M.; McLaughlin, S. A.; Mastrodemos, N.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2010-01-01

    This data set contains raw calibration and test images acquired by the Deep Impact High Resolution Instrument Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission. These observations were used for optical and autonomous navigation (NAV) of the flyby spacecraft. These data were collected from 14 January to 25 April 2005. Test images of comet 9P/Tempel 1 were acquired on 25 April.

  14. Deep Impact 9P/TEMPEL Cruise - Raw MRI Nav Images V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcich, B.; Shaw, A. S.; Desnoyer, M.; McLaughlin, S. A.; Mastrodemos, N.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2010-01-01

    This data set contains raw calibration and test images acquired by the Deep Impact Medium Resolution Instrument Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission. These observations were used for optical and autonomous navigation (NAV) of the flyby spacecraft. These data were collected from 14 January to 25 April 2005. Test images of comet 9P/Tempel 1 were acquired on 25 April.

  15. FRONTS CRUISE: Leg I: 11 July 1985, Leg II: 12-23 July 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    de Pesca (INP), the Secretaria de Marina, and the Centro de Investi- gacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE). The purpose of...the Secretaria de Marina, and the Centro de Investi- gacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE). The purpose of the cruise was...Library London WC2A lAW England Geological Survey San Diego Society (A Natural History United Kingdom Branch of Pacific Marine Geology P. 0. Box 1390

  16. Supersonic Cruise Research 1979, part 2. [airframe structures and materials, systems integration, economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Advances in airframe structure and materials technology for supersonic cruise aircraft are reported with emphasis on titanium and composite structures. The operation of the Concorde is examined as a baseline for projections into the future. A market survey of U.S. passenger attitudes and preferences, the impact of advanced air transport technology and the integration of systems for the advanced SST and for a smaller research/business jet vehicle are also discussed.

  17. RANS/CAA based Prediction of Jet Mixing Noise in Cruise Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Christina; Rossignol, Karl-Stéphane; Klabes, Alexander; Neifeld, Andrej; Herr, Michaela; Ewert, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Besides turbulent boundary layer induced excitation noise, jet noise is the second most important aeroacoustic source for aircraft cabin noise. A goal within the DLR project ECCO (Enhanced Cabin Comfort Computations) was to improve current cabin noise pre- diction approaches. Within the framework of the project ECCO RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) and CAA (Computational Aero Acoustics) computations for jet noise at cruise conditions have been carried out. Especially at h...

  18. RRS Discovery Cruise 228, 21 May-28 Jun 1997. The Fluxes at AMAR Experiment: FLAME

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. German

    1997-01-01

    The principle objectives of the cruise were to study the physical, geochemical and biological dispersion of the neutrally-buoyant hydrothermal plume overlying the Rainbow hydrothermal field on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, near 36°15'N; to investigate the interacting processes active within the dispersing plume; to better constrain the source of active venting on the seabed; and to quantify the physical, geochemical and biological fluxes to the water column on the segment scale. A secondary object...

  19. RRS Discovery Cruise 298, 23 Aug-25 Sep 2005. Cape Farewell and Eirik Ridge (CFER-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, S.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes scientific activities during RRS Discovery cruise 298 in the vicinity of Cape Farewell, southern Greenland, during early autumn 2005. A Deep Western Boundary Current array of seven moorings was deployed, and two IFREMER moorings were recovered, serviced and redeployed; also, a WHOI mooring was recovered. Hydrographic work comprised an area survey of 63 CTD/LADCP stations; up to 24 water samples were captured on each station for the measurement of salinity, dissolved oxyg...

  20. Research on three - dimensional Cooperative Formation of Sea and Air for Cruise and Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of maritime traffic safety, a new model of jointing USV and UAV for Three-dimensional cruise and rescue is studied. Using the Information Fusion Technology, through the leader-follower formation mode, The collaborative fleet remote control. At the same time, it discusses how to carry out effective supervision on the responsible sea area under the complicated and changing sea conditions, especially the quick and efficient completion of the maritime search and rescue mission.

  1. Lightweight Liquid Helium Dewar for High-Altitude Balloon Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan; James, Bryan; Fixsen, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysical observations at millimeter wavelengths require large (2-to-5- meter diameter) telescopes carried to altitudes above 35 km by scientific research balloons. The scientific performance is greatly enhanced if the telescope is cooled to temperatures below 10 K with no emissive windows between the telescope and the sky. Standard liquid helium bucket dewars can contain a suitable telescope for telescope diameter less than two meters. However, the mass of a dewar large enough to hold a 3-to-5-meter diameter telescope would exceed the balloon lift capacity. The solution is to separate the functions of cryogen storage and in-flight thermal isolation, utilizing the unique physical conditions at balloon altitudes. Conventional dewars are launched cold: the vacuum walls necessary for thermal isolation must also withstand the pressure gradient at sea level and are correspondingly thick and heavy. The pressure at 40 km is less than 0.3% of sea level: a dewar designed for use only at 40 km can use ultra thin walls to achieve significant reductions in mass. This innovation concerns new construction and operational techniques to produce a lightweight liquid helium bucket dewar. The dewar is intended for use on high-altitude balloon payloads. The mass is low enough to allow a large (3-to-5-meter) diameter dewar to fly at altitudes above 35 km on conventional scientific research balloons without exceeding the lift capability of the balloon. The lightweight dewar has thin (250- micron) stainless steel walls. The walls are too thin to support the pressure gradient at sea level: the dewar launches warm with the vacuum space vented continuously during ascent to eliminate any pressure gradient across the walls. A commercial 500-liter storage dewar maintains a reservoir of liquid helium within a minimal (hence low mass) volume. Once a 40-km altitude is reached, the valve venting the vacuum space of the bucket dewar is closed to seal the vacuum space. A vacuum pump then

  2. Schistosomiasis transmission at high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philbert Clouds

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrary to previous reports which indicated no transmission of schistosomiasis at altitude >1,400 m above sea level in Uganda, in this study it has been established that schistosomiasis transmission can take place at an altitude range of 1487–1682 m above sea level in western Uganda. Methods An epidemiological survey of intestinal schistosomiasis was carried out in school children staying around 13 high altitude crater lakes in Western Uganda. Stool samples were collected and then processed with the Kato-Katz technique using 42 mg templates. Thereafter schistosome eggs were counted under a microscope and eggs per gram (epg of stool calculated. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain demographic data and information on risk factors. Results 36.7% of the pupils studied used crater lakes as the main source of domestic water and the crater lakes studied were at altitude ranging from 1487–1682 m above sea level. 84.6% of the crater lakes studied were infective with over 50% of the users infected. The overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 27.8% (103/370 with stool egg load ranging from 24–6048 per gram of stool. 84.3%( 312 had light infections (400 egg/gm of stool. Prevalence was highest in the age group 12–14 years (49.5% and geometric mean intensity was highest in the age group 9–11 years (238 epg. The prevalence and geometric mean intensity of infection among girls was lower (26%; 290 epg compared to that of boys (29.6%; 463 epg (t = 4.383, p Conclusion and recommendations The altitudinal threshold for S. mansoni transmission in Uganda has changed and use of crater water at an altitude higher than 1,400 m above sea level poses a risk of acquiring S. mansoni infection in western Uganda. However, further research is required to establish whether the observed altitudinal threshold change is as a result of climate change or other factors. It is also necessary to establish the impact this could

  3. Optimizing Cruising Routes for Taxi Drivers Using a Spatio-Temporal Trajectory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of the taxi route-planning literature has focused on driver strategies for finding passengers and determining the hot spot pick-up locations using historical global positioning system (GPS trajectories of taxis based on driver experience, distance from the passenger drop-off location to the next passenger pick-up location and the waiting times at recommended locations for the next passenger. The present work, however, considers the average taxi travel speed mined from historical taxi GPS trajectory data and the allocation of cruising routes to more than one taxi driver in a small-scale region to neighboring pick-up locations. A spatio-temporal trajectory model with load balancing allocations is presented to not only explore pick-up/drop-off information but also provide taxi drivers with cruising routes to the recommended pick-up locations. In simulation experiments, our study shows that taxi drivers using cruising routes recommended by our spatio-temporal trajectory model can significantly reduce the average waiting time and travel less distance to quickly find their next passengers, and the load balancing strategy significantly alleviates road loads. These objective measures can help us better understand spatio-temporal traffic patterns and guide taxi navigation.

  4. A Two Element Laminar Flow Airfoil Optimized for Cruise. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Gregory Glen

    1994-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results are presented for a new two-element, fixed-geometry natural laminar flow airfoil optimized for cruise Reynolds numbers on the order of three million. The airfoil design consists of a primary element and an independent secondary element with a primary to secondary chord ratio of three to one. The airfoil was designed to improve the cruise lift-to-drag ratio while maintaining an appropriate landing capability when compared to conventional airfoils. The airfoil was numerically developed utilizing the NASA Langley Multi-Component Airfoil Analysis computer code running on a personal computer. Numerical results show a nearly 11.75 percent decrease in overall wing drag with no increase in stall speed at sailplane cruise conditions when compared to a wing based on an efficient single element airfoil. Section surface pressure, wake survey, transition location, and flow visualization results were obtained in the Texas A&M University Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between the numerical and experimental data, the effects of the relative position and angle of the two elements, and Reynolds number variations from 8 x 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 6) for the optimum geometry case are presented.

  5. Aerodynamic performance of osculating-cones waveriders at high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Rick Evan

    The steady-state aerodynamic characteristics of three-dimensional waverider configurations immersed in hypersonic rarefied flows are investigated. Representative geometries are generated using an inverse design procedure, the method of osculating cones, which defines an exit plane shock shape and approximates the flow properties of the compression surface by assuming that each spanwise station along the shock profile lies within a region of locally conical flow. Vehicle surface and flow field properties are predicted using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, a probabilistic numerical scheme in which simulated molecules are followed through representative collisions with each other and solid surfaces, and subsequent deterministic displacement. The aerodynamic properties of high- and low-Reynolds number waverider geometries, optimized for maximum lift-to-drag ratio and subject to mission-oriented constraints, are contrasted with results from reference caret and delta wings with similar internal volumes to quantify the relevance and advantage of the waverider concept at high altitudes. The high-Reynolds number waverider, optimized for the continuum regime at Minfinity = 4 and Reinfinity = 250 million, was the focus of recent wind tunnel testing for near on-design and off-design conditions, including low subsonic speeds. The present work extends the previous analyses into the high-altitude regime. The low-Reynolds number waverider, optimized at Minfinity = 20 and Reinfinity = 2.5 million, is studied to determine if optimization potential exists for a high-Mach number waverider at high altitudes. A characteristic length of 5 m is assumed for both waverider configurations, representative of a hypersonic missile concept. The geometries are aerodynamically evaluated over a parametric space consisting of an altitude variation of 95 km to 150 km and an angle of attack range of --5° to 10°. The effect of off-design Mach number on the performance of the high

  6. [Effects of air temperature change on spring wheat growth at different altitudes in northwest arid area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Li, Feng-Min; Xiong, You-Cai; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Run-Yuan; Yang, Qi-Guo

    2009-04-01

    Based on the 1981-2006 observation data from agricultural meteorological stations at Minle (high altitude) and Zhangye (low altitude) in northwest arid area, the effects of air temperature change at the two altitudes on the growth and yield of spring wheat were studied. It was shown that during study period, the air temperature at the two altitudes had an increasing trend, and the increment was greater at high altitude than at low altitude. At high altitude, the growth duration of spring wheat shortened but the grain yield increased; while at low altitude, the growth duration shortened and the yield decreased. When the mean daily air temperature during spring wheat growth period increased by 1 degrees C, the growth duration shortened by 8.3 days at high altitude and by 3.8 days at low altitude. The growth duration and grain yield of spring wheat at high altitude had a slight increase when the maximum air temperature during growth period was below 30.4 degrees C, but decreased when the maximum air temperature was above 30.4 degrees C.

  7. High-Altitude Living Shapes the Skin Microbiome in Humans and Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zeng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the skin microbiome has been shown to play important roles in health and disease in several species, the effects of altitude on the skin microbiome and how high-altitude skin microbiomes may be associated with health and disease states remains largely unknown. Using 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing, we characterized the skin microbiomes of people from two racial groups (the Tibetans and the Hans and of three local pig breeds (Tibetan pig, Rongchang pig, and Qingyu pig at high and low altitudes. The skin microbial communities of low-altitude pigs and humans were distinct from those of high-altitude pigs and humans, with five bacterial taxa (Arthrobacter, Paenibacillus, Carnobacterium, and two unclassified genera in families Cellulomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae consistently enriched in both pigs and humans at high altitude. Alpha diversity was also significantly lower in skin samples collected from individuals living at high altitude compared to individuals at low altitude. Several of the taxa unique to high-altitude humans and pigs are known extremophiles adapted to harsh environments such as those found at high altitude. Altogether our data reveal that altitude has a significant effect on the skin microbiome of pigs and humans.

  8. Shared Semantics for Oceanographic Research: Development of Standard ``Cruise-Level'' Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Milan, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Miller, S. P.; Ferrini, V.; Mesick, S.; Mize, J.; Paver, C.; Sullivan, B.; Sweeney, A.

    2010-12-01

    There is a general need in the ocean science community for a widely accepted standards-based “cruise-level” metadata profile that describes the basic elements of a seagoing expedition (e.g. cruise identifier, vessel name, operating institution, dates/ports, navigation track, survey targets, science party, funding sources, scientific instruments, daughter platforms, and data sets). The need for such a profile is increasingly urgent as seagoing programs become more complex and interdisciplinary; funding agencies mandate public dissemination of the resulting data; and data centers link post-field/derived products to original field data sets. We are developing a standard implementation for cruise-level metadata that serves the needs of multiple U.S. programs, in an effort to promote interoperability and facilitate collaboration. Testbed development has focused on the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) programs - both tasked with routinely documenting and archiving large volumes of data from a wide array of U.S. research vessels - and draws from the cruise-level metadata profile published by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Data Management Best Practices Committee in 2008. Our XML implementation is based on the ISO 19115-2:2009 standard for geospatial metadata, with controlled vocabulary terms directly embedded as Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) references that can be validated in e.g. ISO Schematron. Our choice of the ISO standard reflects ANSI's adoption of the ISO 19115 North American Profile in 2009, and the adoption of ISO 19115 by related programs including the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and the SeaDataNet program in Europe. We envision a hierarchical framework where a single “cruise-level” record is linked to multiple “dataset-level” records that may be published independently. Our results published online will include a best practices guide for authoring records

  9. Assessment of hypoxia right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high different altitude areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-jin LAI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess hypoxic right heart remodeling after acclimatization at high altitude area. Methods One hundred volunteers who came to Tibet from the low-altitude areas by plane were randomly selected to serve as control group, and another 100 servicemen, who were dispatched from low altitude area to a station in Tibet area 3000m above sea level and got acclimatized to serve as altitude group. The altitude group was divided into altitude group 1 (3000-4000m above sea level, n=67 and altitude group 2 (4000-5500m above sea level, n=33 according to the altitude of the campsite, and also into migration-time group 1 (entered and stationed in Xizang for 1-2 years, n=72 and migration-time group 2 (entered and stationed in Xizang for over 2 years, n=28. The structure and function of the right heart were measured using a portable multi-functional composite echocardiography in a quiescent state, and hypoxic right heart remodeling after high-altitude acclimatization was comprehensively analyzed and assessed. Results Compared with control group, the main manifestations of the subjects in the altitude group were right ventricular and right atrial enlargement, right ventricular wall thickening, aggravation of tricuspid regurgitation, and broadening of pulmonary trunk and branch (P 4000m above sea level than in those who were in the area 2 years, particularly in those for > 5 years, than those who lived there for < 2 years (P < 0.01. Conclusions The altitude and living time in high-altitude are main factors for hypoxic right heart remodeling. Altitude acclimatization is only the adjustment of human body to hypoxic environment. A portable multi-functional composite echocardiography can early and timely assess hypoxic right heart remodeling and it is of important significance for ensuring the health of the serviceman in high-altitude area.

  10. Management and control of varicella on cruise ships: a collaborative approach to promoting public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Elaine H; Slaten, Douglas D; Guerreiro, Adriane; Robbins, Danisha; Ganzon, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    In most years varicella is the vaccine-preventable disease most frequently reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by cruise ships. Since 2005, CDC has received numerous isolated case reports of varicella among crew members and has investigated varicella outbreaks aboard vessels sailing into and from US seaports. CDC investigators reviewed electronic varicella case reports from 2005 to 2009 and outbreak reports from 2009 to characterize the response and control efforts implemented by cruise ships in accordance with CDC protocols. Outbreak reports from 2009 were manually reviewed for details of case identification, contact investigations, isolation and restriction of cases and contacts, respectively, and number of contacts administered varicella vaccine post-exposure by cruise lines. During 2005 to 2009, cruise ships reported 278 cases of varicella to CDC among predominantly male (80%) crew members, three-quarters of whom were residents of Caribbean countries, Indonesia, the Philippines, or India, and whose median age was 29 years. Cases were more commonly reported during spring and winter months. During 2009, cruise ships reported 94 varicella cases among crew members of which 66 (70%) were associated with 18 reported varicella outbreaks. Outbreak response included isolation of 66 (100%) of 66 cases, restriction of 66 (26%) of 255 crew-contacts, and administration of post-exposure vaccine to 522 close contacts and other susceptible crew members per standard CDC recommendations. Most cases reported to CDC during 2005 to 2009 were among non-US resident crew members. Overall, cruise lines sailing into North America have the onboard capability to manage varicella cases and outbreaks and appear responsive to CDC recommendations. Cruise lines should continue to implement CDC-recommended response protocols to curtail outbreaks rapidly and should consider whether pre-placement varicella immunity screening and vaccination of crew members is a cost

  11. Laboratory-based respiratory virus surveillance pilot project on select cruise ships in Alaska, 2013-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kimberly B; Roohi, Shahrokh; Uyeki, Timothy M; Montgomery, David; Parker, Jayme; Fowler, Nisha H; Xu, Xiyan; Ingram, Deandra J; Fearey, Donna; Williams, Steve M; Tarling, Grant; Brown, Clive M; Cohen, Nicole J

    2017-09-01

    Influenza outbreaks can occur among passengers and crews during the Alaska summertime cruise season. Ill travellers represent a potential source for introduction of novel or antigenically drifted influenza virus strains to the United States. From May to September 2013-2015, the Alaska Division of Public Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and two cruise lines implemented a laboratory-based public health surveillance project to detect influenza and other respiratory viruses among ill crew members and passengers on select cruise ships in Alaska. Cruise ship medical staff collected 2-3 nasopharyngeal swab specimens per week from passengers and crew members presenting to the ship infirmary with acute respiratory illness (ARI). Specimens were tested for respiratory viruses at the Alaska State Virology Laboratory (ASVL); a subset of specimens positive for influenza virus were sent to CDC for further antigenic characterization. Of 410 nasopharyngeal specimens, 83% tested positive for at least one respiratory virus; 71% tested positive for influenza A or B virus. Antigenic characterization of pilot project specimens identified strains matching predominant circulating seasonal influenza virus strains, which were included in the northern or southern hemisphere influenza vaccines during those years. Results were relatively consistent across age groups, recent travel history, and influenza vaccination status. Onset dates of illness relative to date of boarding differed between northbound (occurring later in the voyage) and southbound (occurring within the first days of the voyage) cruises. The high yield of positive results indicated that influenza was common among passengers and crews sampled with ARI. This finding reinforces the need to bolster influenza prevention and control activities on cruise ships. Laboratory-based influenza surveillance on cruise ships may augment inland influenza surveillance and inform control activities. However, these

  12. Genomic Divergence during Speciation Driven by Adaptation to Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mark A.; Hiscock, Simon J.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2013-01-01

    Even though Darwin’s “On the Origin of Species” implied selection being the main driver of species formation, the role of natural selection in speciation remains poorly understood. In particular, it remains unclear how selection at a few genes can lead to genomewide divergence and the formation of distinct species. We used a particularly attractive clear-cut case of recent plant ecological speciation to investigate the demography and genomic bases of species formation driven by adaptation to contrasting conditions. High-altitude Senecio aethnensis and low-altitude S. chrysanthemifolius live at the extremes of a mountain slope on Mt. Etna, Sicily, and form a hybrid zone at intermediate altitudes but remain morphologically distinct. Genetic differentiation of these species was analyzed at the DNA polymorphism and gene expression levels by high-throughput sequencing of transcriptomes from multiple individuals. Out of ∼18,000 genes analyzed, only a small number (90) displayed differential expression between the two species. These genes showed significantly elevated species differentiation (FST and Dxy), consistent with diversifying selection acting on these genes. Genomewide genetic differentiation of the species is surprisingly low (FST = 0.19), while ∼200 genes showed significantly higher (false discovery rate 0.6) interspecific differentiation and evidence for local adaptation. Diversifying selection at only a handful of loci may be enough for the formation and maintenance of taxonomically well-defined species, despite ongoing gene flow. This provides an explanation of why many closely related species (in plants, in particular) remain phenotypically and ecologically distinct despite ongoing hybridization, a question that has long puzzled naturalists and geneticists alike. PMID:24077768

  13. Capabilities of unmanned aircraft vehicles for low altitude weed detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflanz, Michael; Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable crop production and food security require a consumer and environmental safe plant protection. It is recently known, that precise weed monitoring approaches could help apply pesticides corresponding to field variability. In this regard the site-specific weed management may contribute to an application of herbicides with higher ecologically aware and economical savings. First attempts of precision agriculture date back to the 1980's. Since that time, remote sensing from satellites or manned aircrafts have been investigated and used in agricultural practice, but are currently inadequate for the separation of weeds in an early growth stage from cultivated plants. In contrast, low-cost image capturing at low altitude from unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) provides higher spatial resolution and almost real-time processing. Particularly, rotary-wing aircrafts are suitable for precise path or stationary flight. This minimises motion blur and provides better image overlapping for stitching and mapping procedures. Through improved image analyses and the recent increase in the availability of microcontrollers and powerful batteries for UAVs, it can be expected that the spatial mapping of weeds will be enhanced in the future. A six rotors microcopter was equipped with a modified RGB camera taking images from agricultural fields. The hexacopter operates within predefined pathways at adjusted altitudes (from 5 to 10 m) by using GPS navigation. Different scenarios of optical weed detection have been carried out regarding to variable altitude, image resolution, weed and crop growth stages. Our experiences showed high capabilities for site-specific weed control. Image analyses with regard to recognition of weed patches can be used to adapt herbicide application to varying weed occurrence across a field.

  14. High altitude pulmonary edema, down syndrome, and obstructive sleep apneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richalet, Jean-Paul; Chenivesse, Cécile; Larmignat, Philippe; Meille, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    A 24-year-old adult with a Down syndrome was admitted in December 2006 at the Moutiers hospital in the French Alps for an acute inaugural episode of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) that occurred in the early morning of day 3 after his arrival to La Plagne (2000 m). This patient presented an interventricular septal defect operated on at the age of 7, a hypothyroidism controlled by 50 microg levothyrox, a state of obesity (BMI 37.8 kg/m(2)), and obstructive sleep apneas with a mean of 42 obstructive apneas or hypopneas per hour, treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The patient refused to use his CPAP during his stay in La Plagne. At echocardiography, resting parameters were normal, with a left ventricular, ejection fraction of 60%, a normokinetic right ventricle, and an estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) of 30 mmHg. At exercise, sPAP rose to 45 mmHg and the right ventricle was still normokinetic and not dilated. An exercise hypoxic tolerance test performed at 60 W and at the equivalent altitude of 3300 m revealed a severe drop in arterial oxygen saturation down to 60%, with an abnormal low ventilatory response to hypoxia, suggesting a defect in peripheral chemosensitivity to hypoxia. In conclusion, patients with Down syndrome, including adults with no cardiac dysfunction and regular physical activity, are at risk of HAPE even at moderate altitude when they suffer from obstructive sleep apneas associated with obesity and low chemoresponsiveness. This observation might be of importance since an increasing number of young adults with Down syndrome participate in recreational or sport activities, including skiing and mountaineering.

  15. Mössbauer studies of hemoglobin in high altitude polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiufang, Zhang; Linming, Shen; Songsen, Chen; Yuanyuan, Liu; Naifei, Gao; Yuanming, Zheng; Zhaohui, Ao; Liangquan, Shong

    1990-07-01

    The Mössbauer spectra have been measured in erythrocytes from normal adults and the patients with high altitude polycythemia (HAPC). The results indicated that two subspectra “a” and “b”, corresponding to oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin respectively, were present in all blood samples, and a third subspectrum “c” was found to exist in almost all samples from the patients. The parameters of the third subspectra “cl” in most samples from the patients were similar to those of carbon monoxyhemoglobin. The components were considered to be the denatured hemoglobin in RBCs (red blood cells). Together with clinical analysis, a possible mechanism of HAPC has been discussed.

  16. Perseus High Altitude Remotely Piloted Aircraft on Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle waits on Rogers Dry Lake in the pre-dawn darkness before a test flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the

  17. Flow separation in rocket nozzles under high altitude condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, R.; Génin, C.

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of flow separation in rocket nozzles is crucial for rocket engine design and optimum performance. Typically, flow separation is studied under sea-level conditions. However, this disregards the change of the ambient density during ascent of a launcher. The ambient flow properties are an important factor concerning the design of altitude-adaptive rocket nozzles like the dual bell nozzle. For this reason an experimental study was carried out to study the influence of the ambient density on flow separation within conventional nozzles.

  18. Animal-habitat relationships in high altitude rangelands

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Navinder J.

    2008-01-01

    The papers of the thesis are not available in Munin: 1. Navinder J Singh, Nigel G Yoccoz, Nicolas Lecomte, Steeve D Côté and Joseph L Fox: «Scale and selection of habitat and resources: Tibetan argali in high altitude rangelands» (manuscript). Published version, Can. J. Zool. 88: 436-447 (2010), available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/Z10-015 2. Navinder J Singh, Christophe Bonenfant, Nigel G Yoccoz and Steeve D Côté: «Proximate and ultimate causes of sexual segregation in eurasian w...

  19. Solar Energy Generation Model for High Altitude Long Endurance Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Brizon, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    For designing and evaluating new concepts for HALE platforms, the energy provided by solar cells is a key factor. The purpose of this thesis is to model the electrical power which can be harnessed by such a platform along any flight trajectory for different aircraft designs. At first, a model of the solar irradiance received at high altitude will be performed using the solar irradiance models already existing for ground level applications as a basis. A calculation of the efficiency of the energy g...

  20. WCDMA Uplink Interference Assessment from Multiple High Altitude Platform Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the possibility of multiple high altitude platform (HAP coverage of a common cell area using a wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA system. In particular, we study the uplink system performance of the system. The results show that depending on the traffic demand and the type of service used, there is a possibility of deploying 3–6 HAPs covering the same cell area. The results also show the effect of cell radius on performance and the position of the multiple HAP base stations which give the worst performance.

  1. WCDMA Uplink Interference Assessment from Multiple High Altitude Platform Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of multiple high altitude platform (HAP coverage of a common cell area using a wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA system. In particular, we study the uplink system performance of the system. The results show that depending on the traffic demand and the type of service used, there is a possibility of deploying 3–6 HAPs covering the same cell area. The results also show the effect of cell radius on performance and the position of the multiple HAP base stations which give the worst performance.

  2. How Altitude and Latitude Control Dune Morphometry on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Hayes, A.; Ewing, R.; Janssen, M. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Encrenaz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dune fields are one of the dominant landforms and represent the largest known organic reservoir on Titan. SAR-derived topography show that Titan's dune terrains tend to occupy the lowest altitude areas in equatorial regions occurring at mean elevations between approx.-400 and 0 m. In elevated dune terrains, there is a definite trend towards a smaller dune to interdune ratio, interpreted as due to limited sediment availability. A similar linear correlation is observed with latitude, suggesting that the quantity of windblown sand in the dune fields tends to decrease as one moves farther north. These findings place important constraints on Titan's geology and climate.

  3. Perseus High Altitude Remotely Piloted Aircraft on Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle waits on Rogers Dry Lake in the pre-dawn darkness before a test flight at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the

  4. Increased Cardiometabolic Risk and Worsening Hypoxemia at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Schwartz, Alan R; Gilman, Robert H; Pham, Luu; Wise, Robert A; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Jun, Jonathan C; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Miranda, J Jaime; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-06-01

    Miele, Catherine H., Alan R. Schwartz, Robert H. Gilman, Luu Pham, Robert A. Wise, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Jonathan C. Jun, Vsevolod Y. Polotsky, J. Jaime Miranda, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and William Checkley. Increased cardiometabolic risk and worsening hypoxemia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:93-100, 2016.-Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, diabetes, and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While excessive erythrocytosis is associated with cardiovascular complications, it is unclear how worsening hypoxemia of any degree affects cardiometabolic risk factors in high-altitude populations. We studied the relationship between daytime resting oxyhemoglobin saturation and cardiometabolic risk factors in adult participants living in Puno, Peru (3825 m above sea level). We used multivariable logistic regression models to study the relationship between having a lower oxyhemoglobin saturation and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Nine hundred and fifty-four participants (mean age 55 years, 52% male) had information available on pulse oximetry and markers of cardiometabolic risk. Average oxyhemoglobin saturation was 90% (interquartile range 88%-92%) and 43 (4.5%) had excessive erythrocytosis. Older age, decreased height-adjusted lung function, and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with having an oxyhemoglobin saturation ≤85%. When adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, having excessive erythrocytosis, and site, we found that each 5% decrease in oxyhemoglobin saturation was associated with a higher adjusted odds of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.72, p 2 mass units (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.00-1.67, p < 0.05), hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.09-2.51, p < 0.04), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ≥3 mg/L (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.96, p < 0.01). In high-altitude populations in Puno, Peru, a higher BMI and lower pulmonary function were

  5. High Altitude Venus Operations Concept Trajectory Design, Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Van Norman, John W.; Arney, Dale C.; Dec, John A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.

    2015-01-01

    A trajectory design and analysis that describes aerocapture, entry, descent, and inflation of manned and unmanned High Altitude Venus Operation Concept (HAVOC) lighter-than-air missions is presented. Mission motivation, concept of operations, and notional entry vehicle designs are presented. The initial trajectory design space is analyzed and discussed before investigating specific trajectories that are deemed representative of a feasible Venus mission. Under the project assumptions, while the high-mass crewed mission will require further research into aerodynamic decelerator technology, it was determined that the unmanned robotic mission is feasible using current technology.

  6. High altitude smoke in the NASA GISS GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Robert; Luo, M.; Fromm, M.; Voulgarakis, A.; Mangeon, S.; Worden, J.

    2015-01-01

    High altitude smoke-plumes from large, explosive fires were discovered in the late 1990sThey can now be observed with unprecedented detail from space-borne instruments with high vertical resolution in the UTLS such as CALIOP, MLS and ACE. These events inject large quantities of pollutants into a relatively clean and dry environment They serve as unique natural experiments with which to understand, using chemical transport and composition-climate models, the chemical and radiative impacts of long-lived biomass burning emissions. We are currently studying the Black Saturday bushfires in Australia during February 2009

  7. Women at Altitude: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Alpha-Adrenergic Blockade on High Altitude Acclimatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, vA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction...Palmer SK, Dahms TE, et al. Blood volume expansion, preeclampsia , and infant birth weight at high altitude. J Appl Physiol 1993;74:1566- 73. Contract...is Ms. Virginia Miller at DSN 343-7327 or by email at virginia.miller@det.amedd.army.mil. FOR THE COMMANDER: PHYL IM. RINEHART Deputy Chief of, Staff for Information Management

  8. Reproduction in high altitude Aymara: physiological stress and fertility planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crognier, E; Villena, M; Vargas, E

    2002-10-01

    Reproductive characteristics at high altitude are described based on the reproductive histories of 720 Aymara women, collected in 1998 and 1999 in a group of twelve peasant communities at a mean altitude of 4000 m in the Bolivian Altiplano. The reproductive pattern is shaped by a late onset of childbearing, associated with a rather short reproductive span and large birth intervals. Environmental conditions could explain the particularly late age at menarche of rural girls compared with their urban counterparts, whereas the age at first birth is likely to be under cultural control. The short reproductive span appears to result from a large mean interval between last birth and menopause, which is essentially determined by cultural decisions. The birth intervals, which are longer than in many traditional societies, could be the result of a slower restoration of postpartum fecundability induced by the hard way of life inherent in the Altiplano (including poor sanitary and nutritional conditions and high workload), perhaps aggravated by hypoxia. However, a secular trend in fertility is perceptible, towards earlier menarche, earlier age at first birth, increasing reproductive span and a slight increase in live births and surviving offspring, which is probably the result of a slow improvement in living conditions. The existence of birth control on the one hand, and a total fertility rate averaging six live births among the couples who do not practise contraception on the other, are other arguments against the hypothesis of a low natural fecundity in these Aymara groups.

  9. ER-2 High Altitude Solar Cell Calibration Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew; Wolford, David; Snyder, David; Piszczor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of space photovoltaics using ground-based simulators requires primary standard cells which have been characterized in a space or near-space environment. Due to the high cost inherent in testing cells in space, most primary standards are tested on high altitude fixed wing aircraft or balloons. The ER-2 test platform is the latest system developed by the Glenn Research Center (GRC) for near-space photovoltaic characterization. This system offers several improvements over GRC's current Learjet platform including higher altitude, larger testing area, onboard spectrometers, and longer flight season. The ER-2 system was developed by GRC in cooperation with NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) as well as partners at the Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Research Laboratory. The system was designed and built between June and September of 2014, with the integration and first flights taking place at AFRC's Palmdale facility in October of 2014. Three flights were made testing cells from GRC as well as commercial industry partners. Cell performance data was successfully collected on all three flights as well as solar spectra. The data was processed using a Langley extrapolation method, and performance results showed a less than half a percent variation between flights, and less than a percent variation from GRC's current Learjet test platform.

  10. The High Altitude Student Platform Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. Gregory; Ellison, Steven B.; Gould, Randy; Granger, Douglas; Smith, Douglas; Stewart, Michael; Wefel, John P.

    The High Altitude Student Platform (HASP) is designed to carry multiple student payloads to an altitude of about 36 kilometers with flight durations of 15 to 20 hours using a small volume, zero pressure balloon. To date HASP has had two successful flights (2006, 2007) and is anticipating a third flight this September (2008). Including the upcoming flight, HASP has supported 29 student payloads from 15 institutions across the United States involving about 110 undergraduate and graduate students. By participating in a HASP flight, students gain practical, real-world experience in the design, fabrication, system testing, operation, data analysis and management of an aerospace payload. Such experiences are very difficult to achieve in a normal classroom setting and play an important role in training new aerospace scientists and engineers. During the flights, the HASP control systems have functioned exceptionally well and the modular electronics design has enabled us to maintain flexibility, improve reliability and decrease flight-line support expenses. These capabilities, plus new advances in miniaturized balloon vehicle control systems, may enable the overall weight of HASP to be significantly reduced potentially reducing launch costs and/or improving the student payload to system mass ratio. During the presentation we will discuss the HASP program, previous flights, science results / lessons learned from the student payloads and plans for improving the efficiency of future flights.

  11. Criteria for psychological adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnon, M; Noël-Jorand, M C; Therme, P

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to test an ascent program for ideal psychological adaptation to high altitudes. A psychological approach was used to test a model describing a gradual step-by-step ascent. Seven subjects spent nine days between 3,500 m and 4,400 m altitude, followed by eight days climbing 500 m each day from 3,500 m to 5,400 m. They performed a cognitive-motor task three times, once under normoxia, once under acute hypoxia, and once under chronic hypoxic conditions. Durations for these subjects were compared with those obtained by a control group tested under normoxia. Subjects' emotional state was assessed by analyzing their remarks during an interview conducted at 5,400 m and by calculating from the answers given to the three questions, a mood index for each subject. Analysis showed that the performances of both groups improved on the second and third administrations of the test. There was, however, no interaction between the group and the time of administration. Mood indexes indicated that the majority of the subjects had no trouble in adapting to the situation and few cognitive or emotional disturbances were observed. These findings may be attributed to the ascent being well designed and planned thereby preventing various possible forms of mountain sickness and other pathologies from developing in the subjects.

  12. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  13. Autonomous homing control of a powered parafoil with insufficient altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin; Sun, Qing-Lin; Tan, Pan-Long; Chen, Zeng-Qiang; He, Ying-Ping

    2016-11-01

    In order to realize safe and accurate homing of a powered parafoil under the condition of insufficient initial altitude, a multiphase homing path is designed according to the flight characteristics of the vehicle. With consideration that the traditional control methods cannot ensure the quality of path following because of the nonlinear, large inertial and longtime delay existed in the system and strong disturbances in a complex environment, a homing controller, composed of the vertical and horizontal trajectory tracking controllers, is designed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). Then autonomous homing simulation experiment of the powered parafoil with insufficient altitude is carried on in a windy environment. The simulation results show that the planned multiphase homing trajectory can fulfill the requirements of fixed-point homing and flare landing; the designed homing controller can overcome the influences of uncertain items of the internal and external disturbances, track the desired homing path more rapidly and steadily, and possesses better control performances than traditional PID controllers. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased choroidal thickness in patient with high-altitude retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Hirukawa-Nakayama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of high-altitude retinopathy with increased choroidal thickness detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. A 36-year-old Japanese man developed an acute vision decrease in his left eye after he had trekked at an altitude of 4600 m in Tibet for 1 week. His visual acuity was 20/20 OD and 20/200 OS with refractive errors of − 0.25 diopters (D OD and − 0.50 D OS 3 weeks after the onset of the visual decrease. Funduscopic examinations revealed multiple intraretinal hemorrhages bilaterally and a macular hemorrhage in the left eye. SD-OCT showed that the thickness of choroidal layer at the fovea was 530 μm OD and 490 μm OS which is thicker than that in normal subjects of approximately 300 μm. We suggest that the increase in the retinal blood flow under hypoxic conditions may be associated with an increase in the choroidal blood flow resulting in an increase in choroidal thickness.

  15. Change in turbopause altitude at 52 and 70° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The turbopause is the demarcation between atmospheric mixing by turbulence (below and molecular diffusion (above. When studying concentrations of trace species in the atmosphere, and particularly long-term change, it may be important to understand processes present, together with their temporal evolution that may be responsible for redistribution of atmospheric constituents. The general region of transition between turbulent and molecular mixing coincides with the base of the ionosphere, the lower region in which molecular oxygen is dissociated, and, at high latitude in summer, the coldest part of the whole atmosphere. This study updates previous reports of turbopause altitude, extending the time series by half a decade, and thus shedding new light on the nature of change over solar-cycle timescales. Assuming there is no trend in temperature, at 70° N there is evidence for a summer trend of  ∼  1.6 km decade−1, but for winter and at 52° N there is no significant evidence for change at all. If the temperature at 90 km is estimated using meteor trail data, it is possible to estimate a cooling rate, which, if applied to the turbopause altitude estimation, fails to alter the trend significantly irrespective of season. The observed increase in turbopause height supports a hypothesis of corresponding negative trends in atomic oxygen density, [O]. This supports independent studies of atomic oxygen density, [O], using mid-latitude time series dating from 1975, which show negative trends since 2002.

  16. Three plasma metabolite signatures for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Tan, Guangguo; Liu, Ping; Li, Huijie; Tang, Lulu; Huang, Lan; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal condition, occurring at altitudes greater than 3,000 m and affecting rapidly ascending, non-acclimatized healthy individuals. However, the lack of biomarkers for this disease still constitutes a bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to study plasma metabolite profiling from 57 HAPE and 57 control subjects. 14 differential plasma metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups from discovery set (35 HAPE subjects and 35 healthy controls) were identified. Furthermore, 3 of the 14 metabolites (C8-ceramide, sphingosine and glutamine) were selected as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for HAPE using metabolic pathway impact analysis. The feasibility of using the combination of these three biomarkers for HAPE was evaluated, where the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.981 and 0.942 in the discovery set and the validation set (22 HAPE subjects and 22 healthy controls), respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that this composite plasma metabolite signature may be used in HAPE diagnosis, especially after further investigation and verification with larger samples.

  17. Os empreendedores de vinhos de altitude do planalto catarinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Alves de Carvalho Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é analisar e classificar os empreendedores de vinhos de altitude do Planalto Catarinense, por meio da utilização da tipologia de Westhead e Wright (1998. Esses autores apontam três tipos - o noviço/iniciante, o serial e o de portfólio. Para tanto, analisa quais são as características empreendedoras utilizadas. Verifica ainda se o fato de possuírem experiência em outros setores colabora para a consolidação dessa nova atividade. Trata-se de uma abordagem qualitativa, sendo a pesquisa do tipo exploratória que se configura como um estudo de caso. Os dados foram coletados por meio de pesquisa a sites, revistas, documentos e pessoas envolvidas no processo de formação e gestão dos empreendimentos em vinhos de altitude e, sobretudo, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com os empreendedores. Os resultados obtidos demonstram a tipologia portfólio, evidenciam as habilidades como a característica preponderante desses empreendedores e confirmam outros trabalhos e cases pesquisados e apresentados na literatura. Ressalva-se a necessidade de novas pesquisas, em maior profundidade e número de entrevistados.

  18. Os empreendedores de vinhos de altitude do planalto catarinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Alves de Carvalho Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é analisar e classificar os empreendedores de vinhos de altitude do Planalto Catarinense, por meio da utilização da tipologia de Westhead; Wright (1998. Esses autores apontam três tipos - o noviço/iniciante, o serial e o de portfólio. Para tanto, analisa quais são as características empreendedoras utilizadas. Verifica ainda se o fato de possuírem experiência em outros setores colabora para a consolidação dessa nova atividade. Trata-se de uma abordagem qualitativa, sendo a pesquisa do tipo exploratória e configura-se como um estudo de caso. Os dados foram coletados por meio de pesquisa a sites, revistas, documentos e pessoas envolvidas no processo de formação e gestão dos empreendimentos em vinhos de altitude e, sobretudo, por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com os empreendedores. Os resultados obtidos demonstram a tipologia portfólio, evidencia as habilidades como a característica preponderante desses empreendedores e confirmam outros trabalhos e cases pesquisados e apresentados na literatura. Ressalva-se a necessidade de novas pesquisas, em profundidade e maior número de entrevistados. 

  19. Photosynthetic responses to altitude: an explanation based on optimality principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Prenticce, Iain Colin; Davis, Tyler; Keenan, Trevor; Wright, Ian; Peng, Changhui

    2017-04-01

    Increasing altitude is commonly accompanied by a declining ratio of leaf-internal to ambient CO2 partial pressures (ci:ca; hereafter, χ) and an increase in carboxylation capacity (Vcmax), while carbon assimilation (A) shows little to no change. Here we provide a consistent, quantitative explanation for these responses based on the 'least-cost hypothesis' for the regulation of χ and the 'co-ordination hypothesis' for the regulation of Vcmax. With leaf temperature held constant, our analysis predicts that the cost of maintaining water transport capacity increases with altitude (due to declining atmospheric pressure and increasing vapour pressure deficit, VPD) while the cost of maintaining carboxylation capacity decreases (due to the enhanced affinity of Rubisco for CO2 at low O2 partial pressures). Both effects favour investment in carboxylation capacity rather than water transport capacity. The response of A then reflects the competing effects of stronger CO2 limitation at low ci versus increased radiation penetration through a thinner atmosphere. These effects of atmospheric pressure are expected to be most strongly expressed in herbaceous plants that can maintain leaf temperatures in a narrow range. In leaves closely coupled to the atmosphere additional effects of declining temperature on photosynthesis are expected to modify but not obliterate those of pressure.

  20. Centurion solar-powered high-altitude aircraft in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Since 1980 AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) has been experimenting with solar-powered aircraft, often in conjunction with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Thus far, AeroVironment, now headquartered in Monrovia, California, has achieved several altitude records with its Solar Challenger, Pathfinder, and Pathfinder-Plus aircraft. It expects to exceed these records with the newer and larger solar-powered Centurion and its successors the Centelios and Helios vehicles, in the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The Centurion is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonstrating the technology of applying solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. It is considered to be a prototype technology demonstrator for a future fleet of solar-powered aircraft that could stay airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions or while serving as telecommunications relay platforms. Although it shares many of the design concepts of the Pathfinder, the Centurion has a wingspan of 206 feet, more than twice the 98-foot span of the original Pathfinder and 70-percent longer than the Pathfinder-Plus' 121-foot span. At the same time, Centurion maintains the 8-foot chord (front to rear distance) of the Pathfinder wing, giving the wing an aspect ratio (length-to-chord) of 26 to 1. Other visible changes from its predecessor include a modified wing airfoil designed for flight at extreme altitude and four underwing pods to support its landing gear and electronic systems (compared with two such pods on the Pathfinder). The flexible wing is primarily fabricated from carbon fiber, graphite epoxy composites, and kevlar. It is built in five sections, a 44-foot-long center section and middle and outer sections just over 40 feet long. All five sections have an identical thickness--12 percent of the chord

  1. Quantifying altitude of human habitation in studies of human health using geographical name server data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thielke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all studies examining the effects of altitude on human health have estimated the geographical altitude of defined regions, yet the primary interest lies in where people live, not the land around them. Populations are not homogenously distributed across altitudes. We propose a straightforward and computationally simple method for estimating the average altitude of habitation within the regional units for which health statistics are typically reported (such as counties. The United States Board on Geographical Names database contains records for over 2.7 million places, which can be processed to select places that are associated with human habitation. These points can easily be averaged by region yielding a representative altitude of human habitation within city, county, state regions, or by longitude and latitude zones. We provide an example of using this approach in a study of human health, and compare it with three other previously used methods of estimating altitude for counties.

  2. Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement: athletes at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehle, Michael S; Cheng, Ivy; Sporer, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Many sports incorporate training at altitude as a key component of their athlete training plan. Furthermore, many sports are required to compete at high altitude venues. Exercise at high altitude provides unique challenges to the athlete and to the sport medicine clinician working with these athletes. These challenges include altitude illness, alterations in training intensity and performance, nutritional and hydration difficulties, and challenges related to the austerity of the environment. Furthermore, many of the strategies that are typically utilized by visitors to altitude may have implications from an anti-doping point of view.This position statement was commissioned and approved by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine. The purpose of this statement was to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to assist clinicians with the preparation and management of athletes and individuals travelling to altitude for both competition and training.

  3. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased...... blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...... returning to sea level. Twenty-four hours before the ascent to altitude, one group received a 700-ml infusion of autologous erythrocytes (42% hematocrit), whereas the other group received only a saline infusion. Erythrocyte infusion increased erythrocyte volume by approximately 10%, whereas saline infusion...

  4. Medical continuing education: reform of teaching methods about high altitude disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Zhou, Qiquan; Huang, Jianjun; Luo, Rong; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of high altitude continuing medical education is to adapt knowledge and skills for practical application on the plateau. Most trainees have experience with academic education and grassroots work experience on the plateau, so they want knowledge about new advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of high altitude disease. As such, traditional classroom teaching methods are not useful to them. Training objects, content, and methods should attempt to conduct a variety of teaching practices. Through continuing medical education on high altitude disease, the authors seek to change the traditional teaching model away from a single classroom and traditional written examinations to expand trainees' abilities. These innovative methods of training can improve both the quality of teaching and students' abilities to prevent and treat acute mountain sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema, high altitude cerebral edema, and chronic mountain sickness to increase the quality of high altitude medical care.

  5. Why are the high altitude inhabitants like the Tibetans shorter and lighter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, N S

    2008-09-01

    High altitude inhabitants (HAI) are generally smaller than low altitude inhabitants (LAI). This anthropological observation has recently been confirmed in the Tibetan refugees who have settled in India since 1950s. Those settled at lower altitudes (970 m) are taller and muscular than compatriots settled at higher altitudes (3500 m). While lower socioeconomic status is implicated in growth retardation at higher altitudes, the smaller stature in adults in well-off communities says otherwise. Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) is the main challenge at high altitudes, which the long established HAI have overcome via biological adaptations, including larger chests, raised blood hemoglobin, and producing more nitric oxide (NO), which deliver similar levels of oxygen to tissues, as LAI. The Tibetans produce 10-fold more NO than LAI. NO is a potent inhibitor of steroidogenesis. Therefore I hypothesize that the short stature and lower musculature in HAI results from steroid deficiency precipitated by NO, which HAI produce to cope with HH.

  6. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Building a Reference Cruise Catalog for the Research Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arko, R. A.; Clark, P. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Smith, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. A core element of this infrastructure is a master catalog of research vessels, cruises, sensor systems, underway datasets, navigation products, field reports, event logs, file formats, people, organizations, and funding awards that is maintained uniformly across the research fleet. All NSF-supported vessel operators now submit their underway cruise data and documentation directly to R2R, per the revised Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Sample and Data Policy published in 2011. R2R ingests this content into the fleet catalog, assigning globally unique and persistent identifiers at the cruise, dataset, and file (granule) levels. The catalog is aligned with community-standard vocabularies, working collaboratively with the NOAA Data Centers, UNOLS Office, and pan-European SeaDataNet project; and includes links to related data at other inter/national repositories. In response to community demand, we are extending the catalog to include instrument-specific metadata such as installation details, patch tests, and calibration results. The entire R2R catalog is published on the Web as "Linked Data", making it easily accessible to encourage integration with other repositories. Selected content is also published in formal metadata records according to ISO and W3C standards, suitable for submission to long-term archives. We are deploying both faceted (classification/filter) and Web map-based browse and search interfaces.

  7. Effect of emerging technology on a convertible, business/interceptor, supersonic-cruise jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Lovell, W. A.; Robins, A. W.; Swanson, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    This study was initiated to assess the feasibility of an eight-passenger, supersonic-cruise long range business jet aircraft that could be converted into a military missile carrying interceptor. The baseline passenger version has a flight crew of two with cabin space for four rows of two passenger seats plus baggage and lavatory room in the aft cabin. The ramp weight is 61,600 pounds with an internal fuel capacity of 30,904 pounds. Utilizing an improved version of a current technology low-bypass ratio turbofan engine, range is 3,622 nautical miles at Mach 2.0 cruise and standard day operating conditions. Balanced field takeoff distance is 6,600 feet and landing distance is 5,170 feet at 44,737 pounds. The passenger section from aft of the flight crew station to the aft pressure bulkhead in the cabin was modified for the interceptor version. Bomb bay type doors were added and volume is sufficient for four advanced air-to-air missiles mounted on a rotary launcher. Missile volume was based on a Phoenix type missile with a weight of 910 pounds per missile for a total payload weight of 3,640 pounds. Structural and equipment weights were adjusted and result in a ramp weight of 63,246 pounds with a fuel load of 30,938 pounds. Based on a typical intercept mission flight profile, the resulting radius is 1,609 nautical miles at a cruise Mach number of 2.0.

  8. Optimal energy-utilization ratio for long-distance cruising of a model fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Yu, Yong-Liang; Tong, Bing-Gang

    2012-07-01

    The efficiency of total energy utilization and its optimization for long-distance migration of fish have attracted much attention in the past. This paper presents theoretical and computational research, clarifying the above well-known classic questions. Here, we specify the energy-utilization ratio (fη) as a scale of cruising efficiency, which consists of the swimming speed over the sum of the standard metabolic rate and the energy consumption rate of muscle activities per unit mass. Theoretical formulation of the function fη is made and it is shown that based on a basic dimensional analysis, the main dimensionless parameters for our simplified model are the Reynolds number (Re) and the dimensionless quantity of the standard metabolic rate per unit mass (Rpm). The swimming speed and the hydrodynamic power output in various conditions can be computed by solving the coupled Navier-Stokes equations and the fish locomotion dynamic equations. Again, the energy consumption rate of muscle activities can be estimated by the quotient of dividing the hydrodynamic power by the muscle efficiency studied by previous researchers. The present results show the following: (1) When the value of fη attains a maximum, the dimensionless parameter Rpm keeps almost constant for the same fish species in different sizes. (2) In the above cases, the tail beat period is an exponential function of the fish body length when cruising is optimal, e.g., the optimal tail beat period of Sockeye salmon is approximately proportional to the body length to the power of 0.78. Again, the larger fish's ability of long-distance cruising is more excellent than that of smaller fish. (3) The optimal swimming speed we obtained is consistent with previous researchers’ estimations.

  9. The real-time complex cruise scene motion detection system based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-guo; Wang, Ming-jia

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic target recognition is an important issue in the field of image processing research. It is widely used in photoelectric detection, target tracking, video surveillance areas. Complex cruise scene of target detection, compared to the static background, since the target and background objects together and both are in motion, greatly increases the complexity of moving target detection and recognition. Based on the practical engineering applications, combining an embedded systems and real-time image detection technology, this paper proposes a real-time movement detection method on an embedded system based on the FPGA + DSP system architecture on an embedded system. The DSP digital image processing system takes high speed digital signal processor DSP TMS320C6416T as the main computing components. And we take large capacity FPGA as coprocessor. It is designed and developed a high-performance image processing card. The FPGA is responsible for the data receiving and dispatching, DSP is responsible for data processing. The FPGA collects image data and controls SDRAM according to the digital image sequence. The SDRAM realizes multiport image buffer. DSP reads real-time image through SDRAM and performs scene motion detection algorithm. Then we implement the data reception and data processing parallelization. This system designs and realizes complex cruise scene motion detection for engineering application. The image edge information has the anti-light change and the strong anti-interference ability. First of all, the adjacent frame and current frame image are processed by convolution operation, extract the edge images. Then we compute correlation strength and the value of movement offset. We can complete scene motion parameters estimation by the result, in order to achieve real-time accurate motion detection. We use images in resolution of 768 * 576 and 25Hz frame rate to do the real-time cruise experiment. The results show that the proposed system achieves real

  10. Temperature, salinity, nutrients, freons, oxygen, currents (ADCP), underway and other measurements collected in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic as part of the Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon Cruise (GOMECC) 2007 (NCEI Accession 0066603)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GOMECC Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon Cruise(RB 07-05). North American Carbon Program (NACP) Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon (GOMECC) Cruise on board NOAA...

  11. Nutrients, chlorophyll, and other data from Northeast Water Column Monitoring cruises in the Mid-Atlantic Bight for the Northeast Monitoring Program (NEMP), 21 April 1980 to 24 April 1984 (NODC Accession 8800171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multiple cruise reports for the Northeast Monitoring Program (NEMP) describe the data collection activities, analyses and tabular data from multiple NEMP cruises in...

  12. CTD, Oxygen, Fluorescence, Turbidity, and others collected in the DeSoto Canyon and Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, on the Weatherbird II-1411 cruise 2014-05 to 2014-06 (NCEI Accession 0159187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This multidisciplinary cruise will occupy sites for collection of multicores, CTD/Rosette bottom imaging transects, and piston coring. The cruise will depart St....

  13. Physical, chemical and biological CTD and bottle data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 in eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean from March 19 to April 20, 2012 (NODC Accession 0109846)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report contains data from R/V Thomas G. Thompson cruise TN278 to the eastern tropical north pacific oxygen deficient zone. The objective of the cruise was to...

  14. Altitude-Related Change in Endotracheal Tube Cuff Pressures in Helicopter EMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Stacy N; McCall, Jonathan C; Tennyson, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    Over-inflation of endotracheal tube (ETT) cuffs has the potential to lead to scarring and stenosis of the trachea.1, 2,3, 4 The air inside an ETT cuff is subject to expansion as atmospheric pressure decreases, as happens with an increase in altitude. Emergency medical services helicopters are not pressurized, thereby providing a good environment for studying the effects of altitude changes ETT cuff pressures. This study aims to explore the relationship between altitude and ETT cuff pressures in a helicopter air-medical transport program. ETT cuffs were initially inflated in a nonstandardized manner and then adjusted to a pressure of 25 cmH 2 O. The pressure was again measured when the helicopter reached maximum altitude. A final pressure was recorded when the helicopter landed at the receiving facility. We enrolled 60 subjects in the study. The mean for initial tube cuff pressures was 70 cmH 2 O. Maximum altitude for the program ranged from 1,000-3,000 feet above sea level, with a change in altitude from 800-2,480 feet. Mean cuff pressure at altitude was 36.52 ± 8.56 cmH 2 O. Despite the significant change in cuff pressure at maximum altitude, there was no relationship found between the maximum altitude and the cuff pressures measured. Our study failed to demonstrate the expected linear relationship between ETT cuff pressures and the maximum altitude achieved during typical air-medical transportation in our system. At altitudes less than 3,000 feet above sea level, the effect of altitude change on ETT pressure is minimal and does not require a change in practice to saline-filled cuffs.

  15. Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Emma eDespland

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, be...

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Altitude Scaling for Turbofan Engine Ice Crystal Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of altitude scaling for turbofan engine ice crystal icing simulation was conducted during the 2015 LF11 engine icing test campaign in PSL.The results showed that a simplified approach for altitude scaling to simulate the key reference engine ice growth feature and associated icing effects to the engine is possible. But special considerations are needed to address the facility operation limitation for lower altitude engine icing simulation.

  17. Mécanismes de la toux liée à l'altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The original work presented in this thesis investigates some of the mechanisms that may be responsible for the aetiology of altitude-related cough. Particular attention is paid to its relationship to the long recognised, but poorly understood, changes in lung volumes that occur on ascent to altitude. The literature relevant to this thesis is reviewed in Chapter 1. Widespread reports have long existed of a debilitating cough affecting visitors to high altitude that can incapacitate the suff...

  18. A study of altitude and flight path angle dynamics for a singularly perturbed fuel optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D. B.; Gracey, C.

    1983-01-01

    This short paper will demonstrate that the separation of altitude and flight path angle dynamics using singular perturbation techniques for a transport fuel optimization problem results in an unacceptable oscillation in altitude. A technique for damping this oscillation by adding a penalty term to the cost function for the optimization problem will be discussed. This technique will be compared with a different approach that linearizes the altitude and flight path angle boundary layers.

  19. Computer-aided methods for analysis and synthesis of supersonic cruise aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    Computer-aided methods are reviewed which are being developed by Langley Research Center in-house work and by related grants and contracts. Synthesis methods to size structural members to meet strength and stiffness (flutter) requirements are emphasized and described. Because of the strong interaction among the aerodynamic loads, structural stiffness, and member sizes of supersonic cruise aircraft structures, these methods are combined into systems of computer programs to perform design studies. The approaches used in organizing these systems to provide efficiency, flexibility of use in an iterative process, and ease of system modification are discussed.

  20. Deep Impact 9P/TEMPEL Cruise - Raw MRI Nav Images V1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcich, B.; Shaw, A. S.; Desnoyer, M.; McLaughlin, S. A.; Mastrodemos, N.; Klaasen, K. P.

    2010-01-01

    This data set contains raw calibration and test images acquired by the Deep Impact Medium Resolution Instrument Visible CCD during the cruise phase of the mission. These observations were used for optical and autonomous navigation (NAV) of the flyby spacecraft. These data were collected from 14 January to 25 April 2005. Test images of comet 9P/Tempel 1 were acquired on 25 April. In this version 1.1 of the data set, the values for the INTEGRATION_DURATION keyword in the PDS data labels were corrected. This revised data set supersedes version 1.0.