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Sample records for vexans vexans meigen

  1. First record of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans vexans (Meigen) in Australia.

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    Johansen, Cheryl A; Lindsay, Michael D A; Harrington, Susan A; Whelan, Peter I; Russell, Richard C; Broom, Annette K

    2005-06-01

    Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans vexans has become widely distributed in the Australasian and Oceanic Islands zoogeographic regions, and in this paper, we describe the 1st confirmed report of Ae. vexans vexans in Australia. A total of 45 adult individuals were collected around the town of Kununurra in the northeast Kimberley region of Western Australia during the late wet seasons between 1996 and 2003. The majority (84%) was collected at trap sites in or near the Ord Stage I Irrigation Area. Aedes vexans vexans was a minor component of the mosquito population, comprising light aircraft arriving in Kununurra from nearby islands. The collection of adult Ae. vexans vexans every year since 2001 could indicate that this mosquito has become established in the Kununurra environs, possibly facilitated by the presence of year-round breeding sites created by the irrigation area. Encephalitogenic flaviviruses have been isolated from this species in North America, Europe, and Taiwan, and the vector competence of Ae. vexans vexans for arboviruses prevalent in northern Western Australia, particularly the flaviviruses Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin, should be investigated.

  2. Genetic and phenotypic variation in central and northern European populations of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera, Culicidae).

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    Francuski, Ljubinka; Milankov, Vesna; Ludoški, Jasmina; Krtinić, Bosiljka; Lundström, Jan O; Kemenesi, Gábor; Ferenc, Jakab

    2016-06-01

    The floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans can be a massive nuisance in the flood plain areas of mainland Europe, and is the vector of Tahyna virus and a potential vector of Dirofilaria immitis. This epidemiologically important species forms three subspecies worldwide, of which Aedes vexans arabiensis has a wide distribution in Europe and Africa. We quantified the genetic and phenotypic variation in Ae. vexans arabiensis in populations from Sweden (northern Europe), Hungary, and Serbia (central Europe). A landscape genetics approach (FST , STRUCTURE, BAPS, GENELAND) revealed significant differentiation between northern and southern populations. Similar to genetic data, wing geometric morphometrics revealed two different clusters, one made by Swedish populations, while another included Hungarian and Serbian populations. Moreover, integrated genetic and morphometric data from the spatial analysis suggested groupings of populations into three clusters, one of which was from Swedish and Hungarian populations. Data on spatial analysis regarding an intermediate status of the Hungarian population was supported by observed Isolation-by-Distance patterns. Furthermore, a low proportion of interpopulation vs intrapopulation variance revealed by AMOVA and low-to-moderate FST values on a broader geographical scale indicate a continuous between-population exchange of individuals, including considerable gene flow on the regional scale, are likely to be responsible for the maintenance of the observed population similarity in Aе. vexans. We discussed data considering population structure in the light of vector control strategies of the mosquito from public health importance. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, E.; Rudolf, Ivo; Kočišová, A.; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3465-3470 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dirofilaria * mosquitoes * Aedes vexans Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  4. Zoonotic Dirofilaria repens (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Aedes vexans mosquitoes, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Bocková, E.; Jedličková, Petra; Venclíková, Kristýna; Blažejová, Hana; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 12 (2014), s. 4663-4667 ISSN 0932-0113 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Mosquito vectors * Dirofilaria repens * Dogs * Zoonotic dirofilariosis * Setaria spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  5. Characterization of a novel circo-like virus in Aedes vexans mosquitoes from Germany: evidence for a new genus within the family Circoviridae.

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    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Börstler, Jessica; Jöst, Hanna; Badusche, Marlis; Desmecht, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cadar, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Over recent decades, metagenomic studies have expanded the number of newly described, often unclassified, viruses within the family Circoviridae. Using broad-spectrum circovirus and cyclovirus PCRs, we characterized a novel circo-like virus in Aedes vexans mosquitoes from Germany whose main putative ORFs shared very low amino acid identity with those of previously characterized circoviruses and cycloviruses. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analysis revealed that this new virus species defined, together with previously described mosquito- and bat faeces-derived circo-like viruses, a different genus, tentatively called Krikovirus, within the family Circoviridae. We further demonstrated that viruses of the putative genus Krikovirus all shared a genomic organization that was unique among the family Circoviridae. Further investigations are needed to determine the host range, tissue tropism and transmission route(s). This report increases the current knowledge of the genetic diversity and evolution of the members of the family Circoviridae. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Mapping of zones potentially occupied by Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes, the main vectors of Rift Valley fever in Senegal

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    Yves M. Tourre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition for Rift Valley fever (RVF emergence is the presence of Aedes (Aedimorphus vexans and Culex (Culex poicilipes mosquitoes carrying the arbovirus and responsible for the infection. This paper presents a detailed mapping in the Sahelian region of Senegal of zones potentially occupied by these mosquitoes (ZPOMs whose population density is directly linked to ecozones in the vicinity of small ponds. The vectors habitats and breeding sites have been characterized through an integrated approach combining remote sensing technology, geographical information systems, geographical positioning systems and field observations for proper geo-referencing. From five SPOT-5 images (~10 m spatial resolution with appropriate channels, a meridional composite transect of 290 x 60 km was first constructed at the height of the summer monsoon. Subsequent ZPOMs covered major ecozones from north to south with different hydrological environments and different patterns pond distributions. It was found that an overall area of 12,817 ha ± 10% (about 0.8% of the transect is occupied by ponds with an average ZPOM 17 times larger than this (212,813 ha ± 10% or about 14% of the transect. By comparing the very humid year of 2003 with 2006 which had just below normal rainfall, the ZPOMs inter-annual variability was analyzed in a sandy-clayey ecozone with an important hydrofossil riverbed within the Ferlo region of Senegal. Very probably contributing to an increased abundance of vectors by the end of August 2003, it was shown that the aggregate pond area was already about 22 times larger than in August 2006, corresponding to an approximately five times larger total ZPOM. The results show the importance of pin-pointing small ponds (sizes down to 0.1 ha and their geographical distribution in order to assess animal exposure to the RVF vectors.

  7. Battling the un-dead: the status of the Diptera genus-group names originally proposed in Johann Wilhelm Meigen's 1800 pamphlet.

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    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas

    2017-06-08

    The work of Meigen 1800 was suppressed by the ICZN Commission in 1963 for the purposes of zoological nomenclature. The work as such is still to be treated as having been published and it remains available as a source of published descriptions and illustrations. Therefore, while the names in Meigen (1800) are deemed unavailable, a subsequent usage of any of the names may be considered a novel proposal. We review the first post-Meigen 1800 occurrence of each name, its first date of availability and authorship, and determine status and synonymy.        Designations of type species are given for the following genus-group names: Coryneta Hendel, 1908 [Hybotidae]; Cyanea Hendel, 1908 [Hippoboscidae].        Acting as First Reviser, we select the following as the correct original spelling from multiple original spellings: Calirrhoe Hendel, 1908.        New synonymies are proposed for the following: Ablabesmyia Johannsen, 1905 under Pelopia Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Amasia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Penthetria Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Bibionidae]; Amphinome Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Limonia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Antiopa Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Apivora Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Volucella Geoffroy, 1762, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Atalanta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Clinocera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Empididae]; Calirrhoe Meigen & Hendel in Hendel, 1908 under Prosena Le Peletier & Audinet-Serville, 1828, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chrysozona Hendel, 1903 under Haematopota Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tabanidae]; Cinxia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Sericomyia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Cleona Meigen in Hendel 1908 under Callomyia Meigen, 1804, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Clythia Hendel, 1903 under Platypeza Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Coryneta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Tachydromia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Hybotidae]; Crocuta Bezzi, 1907 under Siphona Meigen, 1803, n. syn

  8. Spectral Signatures of Immature Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Warren, Jodie-A; Ratnasekera, T D Pulindu; Campbell, David A; Anderson, Gail S

    2017-03-23

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an innovative technology with applications in many sciences and is a non-destructive method that may offer more precise aging within development stages. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements from the anterior, midsection, and posterior of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) larvae and pupae were conducted daily from samples of the developing insects beginning at second instar. Only midsection measurements were conducted on second instar larvae due to their size, to ensure that the measurement was not of reflective surroundings. Once measured, all insects were washed with deionized water, blotted with filter paper, and re-measured. Daily age prediction during the post-feeding stage was not impacted by the unwashed insect measurements and was best predicted based on posterior measurements. The second and third instar larvae, which move about their food source, had different contributing coefficients to the functional regression model for the hyperspectral measurements of the washed compared with unwashed specimens. Although washing did not affect the daily prediction within these stages, it is still encouraged in order to decrease the effect of food source on spectral reflectance. Days within the intra-puparial period were best predicted based on anterior measurements and were not well distinguished from one another in the first few days based on midsection and posterior measurements.

  9. Aspects of gametogenesis and radiation pathology in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen) : 1. Gametogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, J.A.B.M.

    1976-01-01

    In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads.

    Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and

  10. Are Aedes albopictus or other mosquito species from northern Italy competent to sustain new arboviral outbreaks?

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    Talbalaghi, A; Moutailler, S; Vazeille, M; Failloux, A-B

    2010-03-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), native to Southeast Asia, has extended its geographical distribution to invade new temperate and tropical regions. This species was introduced in 1990 to Italy and has since become the main pest in urban settings. It was incriminated as a principal vector in the first European outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the province of Ravenna (Italy) in 2007. This outbreak was associated with CHIKV E1-226V, efficiently transmitted by Ae. albopictus. The occurrence of this outbreak in a temperate country led us to estimate the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV), and to determine the susceptibility to CHIKV of other mosquito species collected in northern Italy. Experimental infections showed that Ae. albopictus exhibited high disseminated infection rates for CHIKV (75.0% in Alessandria; 90.3% in San Lazzaro) and low disseminated infection rates for DENV-2 (14.3% in San Lazzaro; 38.5% in Alessandria). Moreover, Ae. albopictus was able to attain a high level of viral replication, with CHIKV detectable in the salivary glands at day 2 after infection. In addition, the other three mosquito species, Anopheles maculipennis Meigen, Aedes vexans vexans (Meigen) and Culex pipiens L., showed variable susceptibilities to infection with CHIKV, of 0%, 7.7% and 0-33%, respectively. This information on vector competence is crucial in assessing the risk for an outbreak of CHIKV or DENV in Italy.

  11. Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a green bottle fly.

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    Kalezić, Tanja; Stojković, Milenko; Vuković, Ivana; Spasić, Radoslava; Andjelkovic, Marko; Stanojlović, Svetlana; Božić, Marija; Džamić, Aleksandar

    2014-07-14

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the result of infestation of the conjunctiva by the larval form or maggots of flies from the order Diptera. If not recognized and managed appropriately, it can be complicated by the potentially fatal condition ophthalmomyiasis interna. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is mainly caused by the sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis). We present the first case, to our knowledge, of ophthalmomyiasis externa in an elderly woman from Belgrade caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen--a green bottle fly.

  12. Primera cita de Ctenophora (Cnemoncosis) ornata Meigen 1818 (Diptera: Tipulidae) para Galicia (España)

    OpenAIRE

    Camaño Portela, J.L.; Pino Pérez, R.; Pino Pérez, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ctenophora (Cnemoncosis) ornata Meigen, 1818 es un tipúlido que está distribuido por el paleártico occidental, desde Irlanda hasta Ucrania y Turquía (Oosterbroek et al., 2006: 146; Palaczyk, 2004), presente en la mayoría de los países europeos, incluyendo España (Eiroa & Báez, 2002: 79), pero que hasta el momento no se había colectado en Galicia (Eiroa, 1988).

  13. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) infection in Aedes, Culex, and Culiseta mosquitoes from north San Joaquin Valley, CA.

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    Huang, Shaoming; Smith, David J; Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G; Larsen, Sasha E; Lucchesi, Eddie F

    2013-11-01

    Canine heartworm is one of the most serious infections primarily affecting domestic dogs but will also infect cats and wild canids. To evaluate the potential of mosquitoes as vectors of dog heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) in San Joaquin County, CA, we collected mosquitoes in 2011 and analyzed for infection with heartworm by using polymerase chain reaction. Of 3,000 mosquito pools (total number of specimens = 36,554), D. immitis DNA was detected in 97 pools of seven species, and the overall minimum infection rate (MIR) for all mosquito species was 2.69: Culex pipiens L. (n = 40; MIR = 3.66), Culex tarsalis Coquillett (n = 25; MIR = 1.89), Culiseta incidens (Thomson) (n = 11; MIR = 2.81), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (n = 7; MIR = 2.18), Aedes melanimon Dyar (n = 5; MIR = 4.64), Culex erythrothorax Dyar (n = 5; MIR = 3.96), and Culiseta inornata (Williston) (n = 4; MIR = 2.65). Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis had the highest number of D. immitis infections and collectively accounted for 67% of all positive pools. Ae. melanimon, Ae. vexans, and Cx. erythrothorax were found to be infected with D. immitis only in rural and agriculture areas, whereas infections in other species were identified in rural and agriculture areas, and urban and residential settings. The majority of positive pools were identified from June through November and peaked during August through October. This is the first report of D. immitis infection in Ae. melanimon, Cx. erythrothorax, Cx. tarsalis, Cs. incidens, and Cs. inornata. The frequent detection of D. immitis in field-collected Cx. pipiens and Cx. tarsalis in concert with their seasonal abundance and widespread distribution suggest a central role for these species in dog heartworm transmission. Other species, including Ae. vexans, Ae. melanimon, Cs. incidens, Cs. inornata, and Cx. erythrothorax, may play a secondary role in transmission.

  14. Translocations and sex ratio distortion in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), and their relevance to genetic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, L.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on sex determination of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), are reported in the first two chapters. The main purpose was to establish if the sex ratio distortion observed in certain crosses, was based on a mechanism which could be used for genetic purposes. Two

  15. Responses of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to cadaveric volatile organic compounds.

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    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, Francois J; Haubruge, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Flies of the Calliphoridae Family are the most forensically important insects because of their abundance on the decedent during the first minutes following death. Necrophagous insects are attracted at a distance by a decomposing body, through the use of volatile chemical cues. We tested the possible attractive role of some volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) released by decaying cadavers, on male and female of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Two complementary approaches were used. Electroantennography (EAG) allowed identifying the semiochemicals that are detected by the olfactory system of L. sericata. Dose-response tests with EAG showed that dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and butan-1-ol elicited the highest responses. Behavioral assays showed that, among the VOCs tested, DMDS and butan-1-ol are attractive for L. sericata, while the other VOCs are repulsive or do not cause any behavior. Our results may have potential implications in a better understanding of attractiveness of blowflies toward a corpse. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Species of the genus Chrysotus Meigen, 1824 (Diptera: Dolichopodidae from Japan, with descriptions of two new species

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    Oleg P. Negrobov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Chrysotus Meigen, 1824 are described: Ch. masunagai Negrobov, Kumazawa, Tago sp. nov and Ch. saigusai Negrobov, Kumazawa & Tago sp. nov. Chrysotus parilis Parent, 1926 is recorded from Japan for the first time. An identification key to all known species of the genus Chrysotus of Japan is presented together with a tree diagram showing relationships among them.

  17. A new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen (Diptera: Tipuloidea: Tipulidae) from China, with a key to the world species.

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    Men, Qiu-Lei; Huang, Min-Yi

    2014-07-29

    One new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen, 1803, C. fumosa Men, sp. nov. (southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to known species along with a checklist of known species of the genus Ctenophora are provided. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the animal specimen room, School of Life Science, Anqing Normal University, Anqing, Anhui Province, China. 

  18. A review of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Russia.

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    Sorokina, Vera S; Pont, Adrian C

    2015-08-14

    A key is provided to the 26 species of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 known from Russia and four additional species that may be found in Russia (D. brumalis (Rondani, 1866), D. cantabrigensis (Huckett, 1965), D. gymnophthalma (Hennig, 1963), D. similis (Malloch, 1918)). The key includes the 10 new species here described from the mountains of South Siberia (D. acrostichalis sp. nov., D. aristata sp. nov., D. cilitarsis sp. nov., D. glabra sp. nov., D. grandis sp. nov., D. grisea sp. nov., D. longiseta sp. nov., D. phaonina sp. nov., D. puchokana sp. nov., D. triseta sp. nov.,) and other two new species from the Russian Arctic (D. cristata sp. nov., D. taymirensis sp. nov.). Five species (D. fasciculata (Stein, 1916), D. firthiana (Huckett, 1965), D. groenlandica (Lundbeck, 1901), D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919), D. neoborealis (Snyder, 1949)) are newly recorded from Russia. Three new synonymies are proposed: D. pribilofensis (Malloch, 1921) (syn: D. inaequalis (Malloch, 1922)), D. setibasis (Huckett, 1965) (syn: D. gymnophthalma sibirica (Lavčiev, 1971, unavailable junior secondary homonym) and D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919) (syn: D. amurensis (Lavčiev, 1971)). The male terminalia and the female ovipositors of the new species are illustrated. New faunistic data are given for some previously described species of Russian Drymeia.

  19. EFFECTS OF THALLIUM ON THE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF LUCILIA SERICATA MEIGEN 1826 AND PMI ESTIMATION

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    Arif Gökhan BAŞARAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Determination of larval growth rate of and forensic analysis of the age of Calliphoridae larvae on a corpse are useful evidence in legal investigations for the estimation of exact death time and time duration after death; post mortem interval. However many factors, such as temperature, tissue type and contamination of drugs and toxins, effect larval development of blow fly larvae and consequently theestimation of post mortem interval. The present study examined the larval growth rate of a forensically important blow fly species, Lucilia sericata Meigen 1826 in different concentrations (0,12; 0,25; 0,50; 1 and 2 μg/g of toxic heavy metal Thallium under controlled laboratory conditions. Body length and weight, death ratio of larvae and pupa between experimental and control groups were compared. Results demonstrated that the development rate of larvae between uncontaminated and contaminated diets varies significantly. In short, they molted later, reached maximum length more slowly and sometimesproduced significantly smaller pupae in contaminated food source. These results emphasized that the importance of determining the contamination rate of toxins in tissue for the forensic entomologist,while using development rates from standard curves based on larvae fed non-contaminated mediums.

  20. Antennal sensilla of the green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Zhang, D; Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Zhang, M; Li, K

    2013-11-01

    Lucilia sericata (Meigen) is a cosmopolitan synanthropic fly of forensic and medical importance, which can work as a mechanic vector of pathogens or cause myiasis of both human and sheep. As essential olfactory organs, antennae of adult L. sericata were examined with stereoscopic microscope, scanning electron microscope, and laser scanning confocal microscope. On antennal scape and pedicel, both microtirchiae and several bristles are detected, while another two structures, setiferous plaques and pedicellar buttons, are also found on the antennal pedicel. Seven subtypes of antennal sensilla are observed on antennal funiculus including one subtype of trichoid sensilla, two subtypes of basiconic sensilla, two subtypes of coeloconic sensilla, and two subtypes of sensory pits. Size and density of the former four types of sensilla on antennal funiculus are measured. Three distinctive sensillar characters of L. sericata are detected, which may contribute to greater olfactory sensitivity of this species and their wide distribution throughout the world. Unlike the common poreless pedicellar button with mechanoreceptor function, every pedicellar button in L. sericata is perforated by three pores, which might indicate potential chemoreceptor function of this structure. Besides, another unique feature is greater number of setiferous plaques in genus Lucilia than calliphorids of other genera. Expect for the common sensory pits with basiconic or basiconic-like sensilla in them, sensory pits filled with rarely described coeloconic-like sensilla are founded in L. sericata as well. After comparison with previous equivalent findings, the functions of these specific structures are discussed according to the life history of this calliphorid.

  1. Adult sex ratio effects on male survivorship of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae Efeito da razão sexual de adultos na curva de sobrevivência de machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae

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    Marcelo Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral biology has a central role in evolutionary biology mainly because the antagonistic relations that occur in the sexual reproduction. One involves the effect of reproduction on the future life expectation. In this scenario, changes in male operational sex ratio could lead to an increase in mortality due to costs associated with excessive courtship and mating displays. Thus, this work experimentally altered the male sex ratio of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, to determine its impact on mortality. The results indicated that mortality increases as the sex ratio changes, including modifications in the survivorship curve type and in the curve concavity, measured by entropy.A biologia comportamental tem um papel central na biologia evolutiva principalmente pelas relações antagônicas que ocorrem na reprodução sexuada. Uma destas relações envolve o efeito da reprodução sobre a expectativa de vida futura. Neste cenário, alterações na razão sexual operacional de machos podem levar a um aumento na mortalidade por causa dos custos associados com o excesso de displays de corte e cópulas. Neste sentido este trabalho alterou experimentalmente a razão sexual em machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, para determinar os efeitos em termos de mortalidade. Os resultados indicam que a mortalidade aumenta a medida que a razão sexual se enviesa incluindo alterações no tipo de curva de sobrevivência e da concavidade da curva, medida pela entropia.

  2. Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 (Diptera, Culicidae, a new country record for England, contrasted with Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838

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    Ralph E. Harbach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 in the New Forest of southern England, bringing to 36 the number of mosquito species recorded in Britain. Because it seems that this species has been misidentified previously in Britain as the morphologically similar Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838, the two species are contrasted and distinguished based on distinctive differences exhibited in the adult and larval stages. The pupa of Ae. nigrinus is unknown, but the pupa of Ae. sticticus is distinguished from the pupae of other species of Aedes by modification of the most recent key to British mosquitoes. The history of the mosquito fauna recorded in the UK is summarized and bionomical information is provided for the two species.

  3. The Phytotoxicity of Designated Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    each of the three quarters and 17 TABLE 5 MICROORGANISM SPECIES USED IN TESTS Class Order Species Nature Fungi Odmycetes Peronosporales Phytophthora...parasitica parasitic O8mycetes Peronosporales Pythium vexans parasitic Ascomycetes Pezziales Peziza ostrichoderma saprophytic Basidiomycetes Agracales

  4. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  5. Primo report sull’attività entomologica in Italia nell'ambito del piano nazionale per la sorveglianza della West Nile disease

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    Maria Goffredo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Il virus West Nile (WNV, neuropatogeno per uccelli, cavalli e uomo, è mantenuto in natura da un ciclo primario di trasmissione tra uccelli e zanzare, in particolare quelle del genere Culex; il cavallo e l’uomo sono considerati ospiti a fondo cieco. Un focolaio circoscritto di encefalomielite equina da WNV verificatosi in Italia nel 1998 ed un’epidemia scoppiata in Francia nei pressi del confine italiano, hanno indotto il Governo Italiano ad attuare un piano di sorveglianza allo scopo di valutare il rischio di reintroduzione del virus. Il piano ha previsto la sorveglianza entomologica in 15 aree di studio considerate “a rischio” di introduzione del WNV in Italia. L’indagine entomologica, nel periodo compreso tra il 2003 e il 2007, ha visto come risultato la cattura di 28.798 zanzare, 14.765 adulte e 14.033 larve, appartenenti a 22 specie. In conformità con i dati riportati in letteratura, otto tra le specie identificate sono state trovate naturalmente infette con WNV o infettate con successo in laboratorio in alcuni paesi dell’Europa e degli Stati Uniti d’America: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1897 (=Stegomiya albopicta, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830, Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen, 1818, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889, Culex modestus (Ficalbi, 1889, Culex pipiens (Linnaeus, 1758, Culex theileri (Theobald, 1903 e Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771 (=Aedes caspius.

  6. First report on entomological field activities for the surveillance of West Nile disease in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goffredo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is neuropathogenic for birds, horses and humans and is maintained in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly the Culex genus; horses and humans are considered to be incidental hosts. A surveillance plan was implemented in Italy in 1998, following a limited outbreak of WNV equine encephalomyelitis and a WNV outbreak in France very close to the Italian border. This plan to assess the risks of the virus being introduced again included entomological surveillance performed in 15 study areas considered ‘at risk’ of WNV introduction in the country. Entomological surveys conducted in Italy from 2003 to 2007 resulted in the capture of a total of 28 798 mosquitoes, of which there were 14 765 adults and 14 033 larvae belonging to 22 species. According to the literature, eight of the species identified have been found to be naturally infected with WNV or were successfully infected in the laboratory in some parts of Europe and in the United States, namely: Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1897 (= Stegomiya albopicta, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830, Anopheles maculipennis Meigen, 1818, Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi, 1889, Culex modestus Ficalbi, 1889, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, 1758, Culex theileri Theobald, 1903 and Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771 (= Aedes caspius.

  7. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in mosquitoes from northeast Arkansas, the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Tanja; Bianco, T; Rhodes, L; Barnett, S

    2013-07-01

    A mosquito survey was conducted to identify which species of mosquitoes carry Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy) (Nematoda: Filarioidea), dog heartworm, in northeast Arkansas. Using polymerase chain reaction, mosquitoes were analyzed for D. immitis, Dirofilaria repens Railliet & Henry, and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides Cobbold. Mosquitoes were collected from April to October 2009 using black light ultraviolet traps baited with dry ice. Sixteen mosquito species were identified. D. immitis was identified in nine mosquito species, which included Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say, Culex erraticus (Dyer & Knab), Culiseta inornata (Williston), Psorophora columbiae (Dyer & Knab), Psorophora ferox (Humboldt), and Psorophora howardii Coquillett. No D. repens or A. dracunculoides DNA was amplified. Of the 1,212 mosquito pools tested, 7.3% were positive for D. immitis. Frequency of D. immitis infections from six collection sites ranged from 2.1 to 19.4%. Ae. vexans and An. quadrimaculatus were the two most abundant species, composing 58.7 and 23.7% of the total mosquitoes collected, with 9.6 and 6.9% of pools positive for D. immitis, respectively. To investigate localized vector infection rates of D. immitis, mosquitoes were collected from inside the kennel of a heartworm-positive dog. Of the 114 mosquitoes collected, 84 (73.7%) were positive for D. immitis. The frequency of D. immitis-infected mosquitoes collected near a heartworm-positive dog was considerably higher than in the original six collection sites, suggesting a single heartworm-positive dog potentially increases infection pressure on susceptible animals sharing mosquito exposure.

  8. mtDNA-based identification of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debry, Ronald W; Timm, Alicia E; Dahlem, Gregory A; Stamper, Trevor

    2010-10-10

    Existing data suggest that the forensically important dipteran species Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) may be particularly difficult to discriminate using DNA sequence data. L. cuprina is paraphyletic with respect to L. sericata in mtDNA phylogenies, with some L. cuprina having mtDNA haplotypes that are very similar to those of L. sericata. We examine this problem by providing the first DNA data for L. cuprina from North America, including portions of both the mitochondrial COI gene and the nuclear 28S rRNA gene. With the new data, L. cuprina remains monophyletic for 28S but paraphyletic with respect to L. sericata for COI. However, we find that all flies that are identified as L. cuprina by morphology and have L. sericata-like mtDNA form a distinctly monophyletic mtDNA clade. This clade may possibly have originated by hybridization between L. cuprina and L. sericata, but its wide geographic distribution strongly suggests a singular origin as opposed to repeated incidents of hybridization. The phylogenetic results strongly support the hypothesis that L. cuprina and L. sericata can be discriminated using mtDNA sequence data. We find that a fragment of COI spanning approximately 1200 base pairs is sufficient to discriminate between the two species with greater than 95% bootstrap support. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of ketamine on the development of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and preliminary pathological observation of larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Huang, Ming; Huang, Ruiting; Wu, Xinwu; You, Zhijie; Lin, Jieqiong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Sheng

    2013-03-10

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on the growth patterns of necrophagous arthropods is the main mission of forensic entomology in practice. The larval development rates can be affected by various drugs or toxins, causing deviation in PMI estimate. Ketamine is a widely used anesthetic and recreational drug in Asia, which is rarely focused on in the previous entomotoxicological studies. The present work investigated the effect of ketamine on the development of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by the measurement of body length and weight and the analysis of relationship between the ketamine effect and drug dosage or time interval, meanwhile the difference between ketamine effect on larval body length and weight was also analyzed. Additionally, the preliminary pathological observation of larvae was also employed for evaluating the drug effect in morphology. Significant differences were observed between control and treatment colonies of L. sericata at each life stage, and the effect of ketamine displayed a dosage-and-time-dependent manner, but no differences were noticed between the effects of ketamine on larval body length and weight, which provided a useful indication for larvae sample collection in practice. The pathological observation revealed that ketamine could promote the growth of trophocytes in fat body of L. sericata. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in the morphology and presumptive chemistry of impact and pooled bloodstain patterns by Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Amanda; Barksdale, Larry; Higley, Leon G; Carter, David O

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis can be critical to accurate crime scene reconstruction. However, bloodstain patterns can be altered in the presence of insects and can confound crime scene reconstruction. To address this problem, we conducted a series of controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) on impact bloodstains and pooled bloodstains in association with three combinations of common surfaces (linoleum/painted drywall, wood floor/wallpaper, and carpet/wood paneling). L. sericata fed from the pooled bloodstains and added insect stains through regurgitation and defecation of consumed blood. L. sericata formed defecatory trails of insect stains that indicated directionality. Defecatory stains fluoresced when viewed at 465 nm with an orange filter. These observations differed from Calliphora vicina insect stains because feeding on blood spatter was not observed and trails of insect stains were formed by L. sericata. The fluorescence of defecatory stains can be used as a method to detect insect stains and discriminate them from real bloodstains. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. A key to larvae of Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae, well known as adult males and pupae from Alps (Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rossaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae well known as adult males and pupal exuviae from European Alps, is presented; the characters useful in species identification are pictured. The key considers both qualitative and quantitative characters. Thirteen morpho-species are distinguished, probably more species have a very similar larva and can be separated only in the adult or pupal stage. The most discriminant quantitative characters are the length and thickness of anal setae, among qualitative characters the most discriminant ones are the head capsule colour and the split of setae anteriores of labrum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth are good taxonomic characters, but can be rarely used because teeth are often worn out in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the sampled site and season, and must be used with caution. The following species groups can be easily separated in the larval stage: i dampfi, including D. dampfi and D. permacra; ii latitarsis including D. modesta and D. latitarsis; iii zernyi including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage, but some of them, D. cinerella and D. insignipes for example, have a very similar larva, so are better separated on the basis of their distribution and collection of adults and pupae are strongly recommended to support identifications. A new character bound to head capsule colour is proposed to separate D. insignipes, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. zernyi.

  12. Morphology of the adult male and pupal exuviae of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Diptera, Chironomidae) using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva; Czaplicka, Anna

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a study of the morphology of the pupa and male imago of Glyptotendipes (G.) glaucus (Meigen 1818) was carried out, with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM provided additional valuable information on the morphology of the species. Adult male head, antenna, wing, leg, abdomen, hypopygium, pupal cephalothorax and abdomen were examined. It is emphasized that SEM was not often used in Chironomidae studies. The present results confirm SEM as a suitable approach in carrying out morphological and taxonomical descriptions of Chironomidae species.

  13. Chromosal rearrangements in the onion fly Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), induced and isolated for genetic insect control purposes : studies on cytogenetics and fertility, with emphasis on an X-linked translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemert, van C.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to isolate structural chromosome mutations causing "semi"-sterility which can be used for genetic control of the onion fly Hylemya antiqua (Meigen). For the induction, X-rays or fast neutrons were applied in different doses on males and females.

  14. Reassessment of the role and utility of wind in suppression of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) host finding: stimulus dilution supported over flight limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Miller, James R

    2003-09-01

    In a Central Michigan wetland setting, with abundant Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles walkeri (Theobald), and Coquillettidea perturbans (Walker), electric fan-generated wind strongly reduced mosquito catches in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps releasing carbon dioxide at 650 or 1,950 ml/min. This relationship was negatively logarithmic over the range of velocities tested (0 m/s to 3.7 m/s; 0-8.3 mph) and closely matched the theoretical dilution function predicted to occur with increasing wind flows over a constantly releasing point source of volatile chemical. Tripling the carbon dioxide release rate consistently doubled the number of mosquitoes caught across the range of wind velocities tested. Neither applied wind velocity nor carbon dioxide release rate was correlated with mosquito body mass across the range of wind velocities tested. Collectively, these data support the conceptual model that applied wind diminishes mosquito catches primarily by diluting attractants rather than by exceeding mosquito flight capability. Previously published estimates of maximum air speeds of which mosquitoes are capable may now need to be reassessed if they were based upon shut-down of catches in traps baited with chemical attractants. Addition of DEET vapor significantly reduced the number of mosquitoes caught relative to equivalently moving air without repellent. We recommend that fan-generated wind should be pursued as a practical means of protecting humans or pets from mosquitoes in the backyard setting.

  15. Spatial autocorrelation of West Nile virus vector mosquito abundance in a seasonally wet suburban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawinski, P. R.; Mackay, D. S.

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify and model spatial dependence in mosquito vector populations and develop predictions for unsampled locations using geostatistics. Mosquito control program trap sites are often located too far apart to detect spatial dependence but the results show that integration of spatial data over time for Cx. pipiens-restuans and according to meteorological conditions for Ae. vexans enables spatial analysis of sparse sample data. This study shows that mosquito abundance is spatially correlated and that spatial dependence differs between Cx. pipiens-restuans and Ae. vexans mosquitoes.

  16. The genus Conocybe subgen. Pholiotina. I. The European annulate species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kits van Waveren, E.

    1970-01-01

    Sixty-five collections, comprising all known European annulate species of Conocybe, subgenus Pholiotina, were examined, including the type specimens of C. vexans P. D. Orton and C. percincta P. D. Orton. In accordance with Orton, it is argued that Ricken, Kühner, and several other authors reversed

  17. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahari S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  18. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L.) et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.) sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahari S.; Mellouki F.; Oufara S.; Aouinty B.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen). Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these ...

  19. The ability of the blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) to colonise buried remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Alan; Bird, Jerry

    2011-04-15

    The blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) exhibited a limited ability to colonise pig liver baits buried in loose soil. Calliphora vomitoria colonised baits buried at 5 cm but no deeper whilst C. vicina and L. sericata colonised remains at 10 cm but not at 20 cm. The baits were colonised by larvae hatching from eggs laid on the surface of the soil. Both C. vomitoria and L. sericata were able to develop from eggs through to adulthood on baits that were infested before being buried and the larvae developed at similar rates and pupariated at similar depths to larvae developing on baits on the soil surface. The muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) colonised remains buried in loose soil at a depth of 40 cm and even when presented with baits on the soil surface their larvae tended to remain in the soil beneath the baits. In compacted soil, M. stabulans colonised baits buried at 10 cm but M. prolapsa only colonised those buried at 5 cm. In both muscid species, the adult flies were instantly attracted to feed on fresh blood and laid eggs in the soil above buried baits within 30min of them being introduced into the cages. The adult muscid flies did not attempt to burrow into the soil and their larvae colonised the baits from eggs laid on the soil surface. This information could be useful in determining whether a body was stored above ground before being buried and/or the time since burial occurred. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monthly prevalence and diversity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Keshavarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To get new data about the ecology of mosquitoes, which would be valuable to develop programs for future provision of mosquito controls in the study area. Methods: During April to September 2012, larvae of mosquitoes were collected from six counties in south of Fars Province using dipping method. Characteristics of larval breeding places were considered based on water conditions. Species diversity was examined in terms of alpha and beta measures, with the intent of comparing mosquito diversity according to the typology of regions. Results: During this investigation, totally, 5 057 larvae of mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 17 different mosquito species were recognized, namely, Anopheles dthali, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles superpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex mimeticus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex theileri (Cx. theileri, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex sinaiticus, Culex torrentium, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Aedes vexans (Ae. vexans. This is the first record of Ae. vexans, Culex perexiguus and Culex modestus in the Province. Cx. pipiens (27.3%, Cx. theileri (15.9% and Cx. quinquefasciatus (9.4% were the most abundant species found respectively. Cx. pipiens reached the highest density in August and July, while Cx. theileri, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. vexans were found in high numbers in June. Diversity analysis indicated the highest species diversity in the Mohr County (Margalef index of 1.41 and Shannon index of 1.7 and the lowest species diversity in the Lamerd County (Margalef index of 0.33 and Shannon index of 0.38. Conclusions: Regarding to this research, there are some potential vectors of medical and veterinary importance in Fars Province. Results of the present study may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  1. Louisiana State Penitentiary Levee, Mississippi River. Main Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement and Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    vexans, Psorophora columbiae, Psorophora ferox, Culex salinarias, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles crucians, and Anopheles guadromaculatus. The latter...computer program developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center in Davis, California . A tabulation of these computed flowlines is provided- in table C-i...developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center in Davis, California . A tabulation of these computed flowlines is provided- in table C-i. The results

  2. An Update on the Potential of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-22

    Say), and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Mosquito larvae and pupae (Ae. vexans, Oc. canadensis, and Oc. cantator) were collected in Westport...Scott. 2002. Vector competence of California mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 1385Ð1391. Hardy, J. L. 1988. Susceptibility and... California . Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 14: 170Ð177. Turell, M. J., T. P. Gargan, I. I., and C. L. Bailey. 1984. Replication anddissemination ofRift Valley

  3. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  4. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  5. Vertical distribution and species coexistence of tree hole mosquitoes in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E T; Meek, C L; Yates, M M

    1988-03-01

    Vertical distribution and species coexistence of mosquitoes inhabiting a deciduous forest in southern Louisiana were determined using 470 ml black jars for larval collections at ground level and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 m on selected trees. Specific preferences for discrete microhabitats by Aedes triseriatus, Ae. hendersoni, Ae. vexans and Ae. albopictus were not evident. Niche overlap indices, however, showed little overlap of these species and seemed to indicate that the mosquitoes partitioned the ovipositional/larval sites. Competition between the most abundant species, Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus, was not apparent. The tree hole mosquito community structure appeared to be mediated by the predator, Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  7. Correlations between root-associated microorganisms and peach replant disease symptoms in a California soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiue-in; Ruegger, Paul M; McKenry, Michael V; Becker, J Ole; Borneman, James

    2012-01-01

    Replant disease often occurs when certain crops are "replanted" in a soil that had previously supported the same or similar plant species. This disease typically leads to reductions in plant growth, crop yields, and production duration, and its etiology remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms associated with peach replant disease symptoms at a field location in California, USA. Soil samples were subjected to treatments to create various levels of replant disease symptoms. Clonal peach seedlings were grown in the treated soils in greenhouse trials. After 6 weeks, plant growth parameters were measured, and both culture and culture-independent analyses were performed to identify root-associated bacteria, fungi and stramenopiles. A total of 295,785 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified by an Illumina-based, high throughput sequence analysis of rRNA genes. Among the 60 most abundant OTUs, 27 showed significant (PChromatiales, Rhodocyclales, and Sphingomonadales. The most abundant fungi were Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma virens, Fusarium oxysporum, Ceratocystis fimbriata and Fusarium solani. The most abundant stramenopiles were Pythium vexans, Pythium violae and an unidentified Aplanochytrium species. Validation experiments using sequence-selective quantitative PCR analyses identified negative and positive associations between P. vexans and Trichoderma spp. and peach shoot weights, respectively. This study identified numerous microorganisms associated with peach replant symptoms, some of which have been previously identified while others represent new candidates. Subsequent Koch's postulates investigations will assess their possible roles in this replant disease.

  8. Effects of release rates on the range of attraction of carbon dioxide to some southwestern Ontario mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, S B; McElligott, P E

    1989-03-01

    The effects of release rates of 0, 250, 500, 1,000 and 4,000 ml/min on the range of attraction of carbon dioxide to some southwestern Ontario mosquito species was determined using ramp traps placed at 3, 7, 11, 15 and 19 m from a central pressurized cylinder. For female Aedes vexans, spring Aedes spp. and Anopheles walkeri, an increase in the release rate of CO2 from 1,000 to 4,000 ml/min resulted in extension of the range of attractiveness from between 3-7 m to between 7-11 m; rates of 500 and 250 ml/min did result in an increase in number of mosquitoes in the traps. Correspondingly, significantly more mosquitoes were caught in the traps at 3 m when the rate was increased to 1,000 ml/min from 500 ml/min. For Ae. vexans, 4,000 ml/min of CO2 attracted more mosquitoes to the 7 m traps than 1,000 ml/min. In this work carbon dioxide did not result in an increase in the number of Culiseta inornata, Cs. morsitans and Culex restuans and Cx. pipiens in the traps.

  9. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M.; M Khoobdel; J Rafinejd

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods: Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver–baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop...

  10. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M; Khoobdel, M; Rafinejd, J

    2011-01-01

    To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy.

  11. Temporary periodical pools of the lower reaches of the Dyje (Thaya River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Sukop

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative composition and biology of aquatic invertebrates of the periodical pools of the lower Podyjí region is presented in the study. In the floodplains of south Moravia are many of vernal periodical pools with typical fauna e. g. Lepidurus apus, Eubranchipus grubii, Cyzicus tetracerus, Stygobromius ambulans, Hemidiaptomus amblyodon, Mixodiaptomus kupelwieseri, Diaptomus castor. Periodical vernal poools emerge after snow thawing, rains or floods. The summer periodical pools are at lower reaches of the Dyje River very rare. In this sort of pools live e. g. Triops cancriformis, Branchipus schaefferi, Leptestheria dahalacensis, larvae of mosquito Aedes vexans, Anopheles maculipennis, Culiseta annulata. The presented data may be avalaible for comparative study in the future with respect to expected global climate changes.

  12. [Trials of the insecticides Icon and Ficam against mosquitoes in the southern USSR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artem'ev, M M; Sorokin, N N; Aliev, A I; Stepanova, A N; Dem'ianov, E V; Bakiev, R A; Chabanenko, A A; Labzin, V V

    1991-01-01

    Two residual insecticides (Icon 10% WP, ICI and Ficam W 80% WP, CAMCO) were in 1989 tested in field trials in Tajikistan, Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan against Anopheles superpictus, An. sacharovi, An. pulcherrimus, An. martinius, Culex pipiens, Aedes caspius, and Ae. vexans. In dosages recommended by the producing companies (0.025 g/m2 a. i. for Icon and 0.4 g/m2 for Ficam), the above preparations showed residual action during 2-3 months. Icon and Ficam did not cause irritability and repellency in mosquito, which did not migrate to unsprayed rooms of cattle sheds. In areas where the experimental trials were large-scale, a stable decrease in mosquito density was achieved. An insecticide action of ICON was also noted on house flies, cockroaches, bed bugs, fleas and spiders.

  13. The Role of Mosquitoes in the Diet of Adult Dragon and Damselflies (Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Beck, Matthias; Weitzel, Thomas; Becker, Norbert

    2015-06-01

    The flood plains of the Upper Rhine Valley provide excellent conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes as well as for the development of dragon and damselflies. It could be assumed that mosquitoes belong to the diet of the Odonata and that the latter could be harmed by the reduction of the mosquito population with the purpose of diminishing the massive nuisance for the people living there. A total of 41 adult dragonflies and damselflies were examined by immunoblot for remnants of mosquitoes in their guts. A rabbit antiserum against Aedes vexans proteins was used for the immunoblot. Only 3 Aeshna cyanea and 1 Platycnemis pennipes could be shown to have fed on mosquitoes. In specimens of the genus Sympetrum no mosquitoes were detected. It seems very doubtful that mosquitoes are an essential part of the Odonata diet.

  14. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham ThiLe Ha; Tran Thi Thuy; Nguyen Quoc Hien [Nuclear Research Inst., No.1 Nguyen Tu Luc, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by {gamma}-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 {mu}g/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  15. Using a dynamic hydrology model to predict mosquito abundances in flood and swamp water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey; Stieglitz, Marc; Stark, Colin; Le Blancq, Sylvie; Cane, Mark

    2002-01-01

    We modeled surface wetness at high resolution, using a dynamic hydrology model, to predict flood and swamp water mosquito abundances. Historical meteorologic data, as well as topographic, soil, and vegetation data, were used to model surface wetness and identify potential fresh and swamp water breeding habitats in two northern New Jersey watersheds. Surface wetness was positively associated with the subsequent abundance of the dominant floodwater mosquito species, Aedes vexans, and the swamp water species, Anopheles walkeri. The subsequent abundance of Culex pipiens, a species that breeds in polluted, eutrophic waters, was negatively correlated with local modeled surface wetness. These associations permit real-time monitoring and forecasting of these floodwater and nonfloodwater species at high spatial and temporal resolution. These predictions will enable public health agencies to institute control measures before the mosquitoes emerge as adults, when their role as transmitters of disease comes into play.

  16. Host feeding patterns of Connecticut mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, L A

    1977-05-01

    Blood-engorged Coquillettidia perturbans, Psorophora ferox, Culex, Culiseta, and Aedes mosquitoes were collected principally by sweep net from salt marsh and woodland habitats in Connecticut. Of the 570 mosquitoes tested, precipitin tests identified the origins of 517 blood meals and revealed distinct host feeding patterns. Aedes mosquitoes fed chiefly on mammals; A. abserratus, A. cantator, and A. vexans showed selectivity for cattle and (or) horses. A. cantator also obtained blood from avian hosts and, in some instances, showed mixed passerine-mammal blood meals. These findings increase the vector potential of this salt marsh mosquito for eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Feedings on deer by A. abserratus suggest potential involvement of this mosquito in the transmission of certain subtypes of California encephalitis. Culex-pipiens, C. restuans, Culiseta melanura, and Cs. morsitans dyari acquired blood almost exclusively from passeriform birds.

  17. Statistical modeling of the abundance of vectors of West African Rift Valley fever in Barkedji, Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheikh Talla

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that represents a threat to human and animal health. The exophilic and exophagic behavior of the two main vector in West Africa (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes, adverse events post-vaccination, and lack of treatment, render ineffective the disease control. Therefore it is essential to develop an information system that facilitates decision-making and the implementation of adaptation strategies. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are linked with abnormally high rainfall, and can be predicted up to 5 months in advance by modeling approaches using climatic and environmental parameters. However, the application of these models in West Africa remains unsatisfactory due to a lack of data for animal and human cases and differences in the dynamics of the disease emergence and the vector species involved in transmission. Models have been proposed for West Africa but they were restricted to rainfall impact analysis without a spatial dimension. In this study, we developed a mixed Bayesian statistical model to evaluate the effects of climatic and ecological determinants on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the two main vectors. Adult mosquito abundance data were generated from July to December every fortnight in 2005-2006 at 79 sites, including temporary ponds, bare soils, shrubby savannah, wooded savannah, steppes, and villages in the Barkédji area. The results demonstrate the importance of environmental factors and weather conditions for predicting mosquito abundance. The rainfall and minimum temperature were positively correlated with the abundance of Cx. poicilipes, whereas the maximum temperature had negative effects. The rainfall was negatively correlated with the abundance of Ae. vexans. After combining land cover classes, weather conditions, and vector abundance, our model was used to predict the areas and periods with the highest risks of vector pressure. This information could support decision

  18. Combining hydrology and mosquito population models to identify the drivers of Rift Valley fever emergence in semi-arid regions of West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Soti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne viral zoonosis of increasing global importance. RVF virus (RVFV is transmitted either through exposure to infected animals or through bites from different species of infected mosquitoes, mainly of Aedes and Culex genera. These mosquitoes are very sensitive to environmental conditions, which may determine their presence, biology, and abundance. In East Africa, RVF outbreaks are known to be closely associated with heavy rainfall events, unlike in the semi-arid regions of West Africa where the drivers of RVF emergence remain poorly understood. The assumed importance of temporary ponds and rainfall temporal distribution therefore needs to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hydrological model is combined with a mosquito population model to predict the abundance of the two main mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes involved in RVFV transmission in Senegal. The study area is an agropastoral zone located in the Ferlo Valley, characterized by a dense network of temporary water ponds which constitute mosquito breeding sites. The hydrological model uses daily rainfall as input to simulate variations of pond surface areas. The mosquito population model is mechanistic, considers both aquatic and adult stages and is driven by pond dynamics. Once validated using hydrological and entomological field data, the model was used to simulate the abundance dynamics of the two mosquito species over a 43-year period (1961-2003. We analysed the predicted dynamics of mosquito populations with regards to the years of main outbreaks. The results showed that the main RVF outbreaks occurred during years with simultaneous high abundances of both species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides for the first time a mechanistic insight on RVFV transmission in West Africa. It highlights the complementary roles of Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes in virus transmission, and recommends

  19. Correlations between root-associated microorganisms and peach replant disease symptoms in a California soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiue-in Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Replant disease often occurs when certain crops are "replanted" in a soil that had previously supported the same or similar plant species. This disease typically leads to reductions in plant growth, crop yields, and production duration, and its etiology remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms associated with peach replant disease symptoms at a field location in California, USA. Soil samples were subjected to treatments to create various levels of replant disease symptoms. Clonal peach seedlings were grown in the treated soils in greenhouse trials. After 6 weeks, plant growth parameters were measured, and both culture and culture-independent analyses were performed to identify root-associated bacteria, fungi and stramenopiles. RESULTS: A total of 295,785 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU were identified by an Illumina-based, high throughput sequence analysis of rRNA genes. Among the 60 most abundant OTUs, 27 showed significant (P<0.05 negative correlation with peach shoot weights while 10 were positively correlated. Most of these OTUs belonged to the bacterial phylum Proteobacteria (96%, including the classes Gammaproteobacteria (44.4%, Betaproteobacteria (33.3% and Alphaproteobacteria (22.2%, and the orders Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Chromatiales, Rhodocyclales, and Sphingomonadales. The most abundant fungi were Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma virens, Fusarium oxysporum, Ceratocystis fimbriata and Fusarium solani. The most abundant stramenopiles were Pythium vexans, Pythium violae and an unidentified Aplanochytrium species. Validation experiments using sequence-selective quantitative PCR analyses identified negative and positive associations between P. vexans and Trichoderma spp. and peach shoot weights, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified numerous microorganisms associated with peach replant symptoms, some of which have been previously identified while others

  20. Genotoxic effect of copper on salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Meigen 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailova, P. [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tzar Osvoboditel boul., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: michailova@zoology.bas.bg; Petrova, N. [Institute of Zoology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 199034, Universit. nab. 1, Russia (Russian Federation); Ilkova, J. [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tzar Osvoboditel boul., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria); Bovero, S. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Turin, via Albertina 13, Turin (Italy); Brunetti, S. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Turin, via Albertina 13, Turin (Italy); White, K. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Sella, G. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Turin, via Albertina 13, Turin (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    The genotoxic action of copper (Cu) on the polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius was investigated by analysing structural and functional chromosome aberrations of fourth instars larvae hatched from eggs subject to acute (48 h) exposure with three environmentally relevant concentrations of aqueous Cu (0.005, 0.01, 0.05 mg/l). A dose dependent relationship was observed between Cu concentration and frequency of chromosomal aberrations. A significantly higher frequency of functional alterations, specifically decondensed centromeres and telomeres, and reduction in activity of Balbiani rings, was observed in treated material compared to control. A comparison of breakpoints resulting from treatment with chromium and lead from earlier studies with those Cu-induced identified a series of chromosomal weak points particularly vulnerable to trace metals. We also show that the appearance of structural and functional chromosome aberrations are more sensitive indicators of acute Cu toxicity in chironomid larvae than changes in external morphology. - Acute exposure of Chironomus eggs to copper resulted in changes in chromosome structure and function.

  1. Hypoxia and anoxia effects on alcohol dehydrogenase activity and hemoglobin content in Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Grazioli; Bruno Rossaro; Paolo Parenti; Roberto Giacchini; Valeria Lencioni

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic effects of low oxygen content on alcohol-dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were investigated in IV-instar larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) from an Italian stream. Two series of short-term (48 h) experiments were carried out: exposure to (1) progressive hypoxia (95 to 5% of oxygen saturation) and (2) anoxia (at <5% of oxygen saturation). In (1), Hb amount increased with increasing oxygen depletion up to a critical value of oxyg...

  2. Hypoxia and anoxia effects on alcohol dehydrogenase activity and hemoglobin content in Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Grazioli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic effects of low oxygen content on alcohol-dehydrogenase (ADH activity and hemoglobin (Hb concentration were investigated in IV-instar larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae from an Italian stream. Two series of short-term (48 h experiments were carried out: exposure to (1 progressive hypoxia (95 to 5% of oxygen saturation and (2 anoxia (at <5% of oxygen saturation. In (1, Hb amount increased with increasing oxygen depletion up to a critical value of oxygenation (about 70% of oxygen saturation. Below this percentage, the Hb amount declined to values comparable with those present in the control. The respiration rate (R remained almost constant at oxygen saturation >50% and decreased significantly only after 48 h of treatment (= <5% of oxygen saturation reaching values <100 mmolO2 gAFDW-1 h-1. ADH activity showed two phases of growth, within the first 14 h and over 18 h of exposure. Overall, we inferred that i Hb might function as short-term oxygen storage, enabling animals to delay the on-set of anaerobiosis; and ii alcoholic fermentation co-occurs for a short time with aerobic respiration, becoming the prevalent metabolic pathway below 5% of oxygen saturation (<1 mg L-1. These considerations were supported also by results from anoxia exposure (2. In such condition, larvae were visibly stressed, becoming immobile after few minutes of incubation, and ADH reached higher values than in the hypoxia treatment (2.03±0.15 UADH mg prot-1. Overall, this study showed a shift from aerobic to anaerobic activity in C. riparius larvae exposed to poorly oxygenated water with an associated alteration of ADH activity and the Hb amount. Such metabolites might be valid candidate biomarkers for the environmental monitoring of running waters.

  3. Optimal preparation of emulsion cassia oil and its ovicidal action against Lucilia sericata (Meigen) damaged kipper

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, H-Y; Shen, L-R; Gu, S; Chen, X-Y; Yang, X-G

    2007-01-01

    ...) damaged kipper were conducted. Through conducting L sub(9) (3 super(4)) orthogonal tests involving 4 factors and 3 levels, and comparison of emuisifying stabilization, the optimum emulsion formula was determined: 7% (V/V) cassia oil, 0.6% (W/V...

  4. [Antimicrobial factors of hemolymph and excretion of larvae Lucilia sericata (meigen) (diptera, calliphoridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikova, A A

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with molecular nature and peculiarities of functioning of two main protective systems of larvae Lucilia sericata--the antimicrobial compounds of hemolymph and of the excretion released by feeding larvae into environmental. There are identified a number of inducible antibacterial peptides including defensins (3844, 4062, and 4117 Da), P-peptide (3043 Da), and four new polypeptides (3235, 3702, 3746, and 3768 Da) In hemolymph of the larvae submitted to bacterial infestation, by the chromatomasspectrometry methods. The excretion of larvae Lucilia sericata contains peptides analogous or identical to hemolymph antibacterial peptides (diptericins: 8882 Da and 9025 Da), high molecular compounds of peptide nature (6466 Da, 6633 Da, 5772 Da, 8631 Da, etc.) differing from the known hemolymph components and low molecular compounds (130-700 Da). Spectrum of excretion bactericidal activity includes various groups of bacterial including the most actual pathogen from medical point of view--the meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, unlike the hemolymph that does not have antistaphylococcal activity. The excretion components suppressing growth and development of this staphylococcus are represented by substances of the low molecular nature (from 160 to 1020 Da). The performed studies characterize the strategies used by "surgical maggots" for protection from pathogens and for suppression of microbial competitors and allow better understanding of molecular mechanisms of larval therapy of purulent infectious diseases. These studies in perspective can serve the basis for creation of the principally new drugs for struggle with usual and antibiotics-resistant bacterial infections.

  5. Discontinuous foraging behavior of necrophagous Lucilia sericata (Meigen 1826) (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2013-03-01

    Larvae of the necrophagous Blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) live on vertebrate cadavers. Although continuously feeding was previously assumed for this species, we hypothesized that larvae do not feed constantly. According to this hypothesis, their crop should not always be full, which should be reflected in crop surfaces. We dissected and measured the crops of larvae of the same age and bred in the same conditions. Crop surfaces of 117 larvae just removed from the food ranged from 0 to 16.6 mm(2) (mean=5.325±2.84 mm(2)). The distribution of these crop surfaces indicates a continuous variation of satiation/feeding activity in the population. Starving experiments showed a quite long digestive process. After 90 min of starving, the decrease in crop surfaces became obvious, but 150 min were necessary to observe more than a half of the population with an empty crop (less than 2 mm(2)). No more differences were observed after 150, 180 and 240 min of starving. We finally used starved larvae to observe the kinetic of food absorption and the duration of the food-intake phase. Our results indicates that larvae can ingest faster than they digest. After 5 min spent in the food, 70% of the larvae had a crop surface larger or equal to 8 mm(2). We observed for the first time an over-feeding of the larvae, with high crop surfaces overrepresented compared to larvae never starved (control). Together, these results indicate that larvae do not feed continuously, and regulate their foraging behavior. We propose that the foraging behavior of the larvae creates a permanent movement inside the larval masses. This turnover/scramble competition may be linked to the larval-mass effect, i.e. the local temperature increase observed in large necrophagous larvae aggregates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY FOR EXCRETION AND SECRETION OF THE GREENBOTTLE FLY LARVAE LUCILIA SERICATA (MEIGEN) (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Amer, Mounir S; Hammad, Kotb M; Zidan, Mahmoud M

    2016-04-01

    Sterile larval excretion/secretion (ES) exhibited antibacterial activity against some species of bacteria. They were shown to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and Fungi Geotricum candidum and Aspergillus fumigatus thus exhibited limited inhibitory effect towards Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Proteous vulgaris and Fungi Syncephalastrum racemosum, Candida albicans, that effect was slowed down when challenged with secretion on a solid media but no zone of complete inhibition was detectqd. Growth inhibiting activity was determined in liquid growth media using the Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains as indicator organisms.

  7. Nasal myiasis due to Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) from Iran: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babamahmoudi, F; Rafinejhad, J; Enayati, A

    2012-03-01

    Although not very common, human myiasis occurs more in developing tropical countries. A variety of dipterans cause nasal myiasis including the family Caliphoridae. In this report a case of nasal myiasis due to Lucilia sericata is reported for the first time, in a 74-year old patient from Mazandaran Heart Centre, North of Iran. The patient was originally admitted to the Mazandaran Heart Centre due to cardiac arrest and cerebral ischemia with diminishing consciousness. Because of the emergence of large number of maggots from his left nostril and the suspicion of infectious diseases, he was referred to the ICU of the Razi Infectious Diseases Hospital the next day. The larvae were identified as L. sericata. The conditions of the patient were medicated and the myiasis was treated by washing with 2% solution of xylocaine and oral administration of 2 mg tablets of ivermectin.

  8. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XV. Genus Aedes Meigen, Subgenus Ayurakitia Thurman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    small hair- like spicules; proctiger long, paraproct pigmented and bluntly pointed at apex, cereal setae absent; phallosome with aedeagus divided into...Thailand. The range of the subgenus may well extend into the mountain ranges of eastern Burma and northern Malaysia since similar habitats and climates...large flattened, curved bristle at apex, proctiger with cereal setae, and gonostylus long, narrow with an apical gonostylar claw; pupae with abdominal

  9. Intraspecific variation in wing shape of Poecilobothrus regalis (Meigen, 1824 (Diptera, Dolichopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Chursina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of 186 specimens of Poecilobothrus regalis was conducted in order to examine intraspecific variability of wing shape. The wing shape variation was analyzed using geometric morphometrics analyses. Significant differences in the structure of wing were found both between sexes and between populations. Differences between sexes were observed in the structure of the medium portion of wing. The first extracted canonical variate of geographic variation showed a moderately linear association with latitude and average temperature of February and March. The second canonical variate was correlated with longitude and values of average wind flow velocity. Allometric relationships were weak both between populations and sexes.

  10. Epidemiology of West Nile virus in Connecticut: a five-year analysis of mosquito data 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Theodore G; Anderson, John F; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Main, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred and ten isolations of West Nile virus (WNV) were obtained from 17 mosquito species in six genera in statewide surveillance conducted in Connecticut from June through October, 1999-2003. Culex pipiens (86), Culex salinarius (32), Culex restuans (26), Culiseta melanura (32), and Aedes vexans (12) were implicated as the most likely vectors of WNV in the region based on virus isolation data. Culex pipiens was abundant from July through September and is likely involved in early season enzootic transmission and late season epizootic amplification of the virus in wild bird populations. Epidemic transmission of WNV to humans in urban locales is probable. The abundance of Cx. restuans in June and July and isolations of WNV in early July suggest that this species may play an important role as an enzootic vector involved in early amplification of WNV virus among wild birds. Its involvement as a bridge vector to humans is unlikely. Culex salinarius was the most frequently captured Culex species and was abundant in August and September when virus activity was at its height. Frequent isolations of WNV from this species in September when the majority of human cases were reported in union with its abundance at this time of the year, demonstrated vector competence, and broad feeding habits, make Cx. salinarius a likely bridge vector to humans, horses and other mammals. Multiple isolations WNV from Cs. melanura collected in more rural locales in late August and September, provide supportive evidence to suggest that this predominant avian feeder may play a significant role in epizootic amplification of the virus among wild bird populations in these environs. Aedes vexans was the only species of Aedes or Ochlerotatus from which multiple isolations of WNV were made in more than one year and was among the most frequently trapped and abundant species throughout the season. Since Ae. vexans predominately feeds on mammals it is unlikely to play a significant role in epizootic

  11. Molecular xenomonitoring of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in mosquitoes from north-eastern Italy by real-time PCR coupled with melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Annoscia, Giada; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ravagnan, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-04-20

    Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are transmitted by bloodsucking culicid mosquitoes belonging to Culex, Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Mansonia genera. The detection of filarioids in mosquitoes for assessing distribution of vectors and/or of pathogens in a given area (also known as "xenomonitoring"), when based on individual dissection of wild-caught female mosquitoes is time consuming and hardly applicable in large epidemiological surveys. Our study aimed to evaluate the recently developed duplex real-time PCR for screening large number of culicids and to assess their positivity for D. immitis and D. repens in an area where both species are endemic. A duplex real-time PCR was used to detect and differentiate D. immitis and D. repens in mosquitoes collected in six provinces of the Veneto region using 43 carbon dioxide-baited traps under the frame of an entomological surveillance program to monitor the vectors of West Nile disease. From early May till October 2010, unfed female mosquitoes (n = 40,892) were captured in 20 selected sites. Mosquitoes identified as Culex pipiens, Ochlerotatus caspius, Aedes vexans and Culex modestus were grouped into 995 pools according to species, day and site of collection (from minimum of 1 to maximum of 57). Out of 955 pools, 23 (2.41 %) scored positive for Dirofilaria spp. of which, 21 (2.2 %) for D. immitis and two (0.21 %) for D. repens. An overall Estimated Rate of Infection (ERI) of 0.06 % was recorded, being higher in Och. caspius and Ae. vexans (i.e., 0.18 % and 0.14 %, respectively). At least one mosquito pool was positive for Dirofilaria spp. in each province with the highest ERI recorded in Vicenza and Padova provinces (i.e., 0.42% and 0.16 %, respectively). Mosquitoes collected in all provinces were positive for D. immitis whereas, only two (i.e., Padova and Rovigo) provinces scored positive for D. repens. All mosquito species, except for Cx. modestus, were positive for D. immitis, whereas D. repens was only

  12. Climate impacts on environmental risks evaluated from space: a contribution to social benefits within the GEOSS Health Area: The case of Rift Valley Fever in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourre, Y. M.

    2009-12-01

    Climate and environment vary on many spatio-temporal scales, including climate change, with impacts on ecosystems, vector-borne diseases and public health worldwide. This study is to enable societal benefits from a conceptual approach by mapping climatic and environmental conditions from space and understanding the mechanisms within the Health Social Benefit GEOSS area. The case study is for Rift Valley Fever (RVF) epidemics in Senegal is presented. Ponds contributing to mosquitoes’ thriving, were identified from remote sensing using high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite images. Additional data on ponds’ dynamics and rainfall events (obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) were combined with hydrological in-situ data. Localization of vulnerable hosts such as parked cattle (from QuickBird satellite) are also used. Dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes vexans density (one of the main RVF vectors) is based on the total rainfall amount and ponds’ dynamics. While Zones Potentially Occupied by Mosquitoes (ZPOM) are mapped, detailed risks areas, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability occur, are expressed in percentages of parks where cattle is potentially exposed to mosquitoes’ bites. This new conceptual approach, using remote-sensing techniques belonging to GEOSS, simply relies upon rainfall distribution also evaluated from space. It is meant to contribute to the implementation of integrated operational early warning system within the health application communities since climatic and environmental conditions (both natural and anthropogenic) are changing rapidly.

  13. Monitoring resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the field by performing bioassays with each Cry toxin separately

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    Guillaume Tetreau

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the French Rhône-Alpes region since decades. The artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent Bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to Bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual Bti Cry toxins. Based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each Bti Cry toxin separately to detect cryptic Bti-resistance evolving in field mosquito populations. Although no resistance to Bti was detected in none of the three mosquito species tested (Aedes rusticus, Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans, an increased tolerance to Cry4Aa (3.5-fold and Cry11Aa toxins (8-fold was found in one Ae. sticticus population compared to other populations of the same species, suggesting that resistance to Bti may be arising in this population. This study confirms previous works showing a lack of Bti resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with this bioinsecticide. It also provides a first panorama of their susceptibility status to individual Bti Cry toxins. In combination with bioassays with Bti, bioassays with separate Cry toxins allow a more sensitive monitoring of Bti-resistance in the field.

  14. Comparative analysis of gut microbiota of mosquito communities in central Illinois.

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    Ephantus J Muturi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition and structure of microbial communities that inhabit the mosquito midguts are poorly understood despite their well-documented potential to impede pathogen transmission.We used MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities of field-collected populations of 12 mosquito species. After quality filtering and rarefaction, the remaining sequences were assigned to 181 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Approximately 58% of these OTUs occurred in at least two mosquito species but only three OTUs: Gluconobacter (OTU 1, Propionibacterium (OTU 9, and Staphylococcus (OTU 31 occurred in all 12 mosquito species. Individuals of different mosquito species shared similar gut microbiota and it was common for individuals of the same species from the same study site and collection date to harbor different gut microbiota. On average, the microbiota of Aedes albopictus was the least diverse and significantly less even compared to Anopheles crucians, An. quadrimaculatus, Ae. triseriatus, Ae. vexans, Ae. japonicus, Culex restuans, and Culiseta inornata. The microbial community of Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus differed significantly from all other mosquitoes species and was primarily driven by the dominance of Wolbachia.These findings expand the range of mosquito species whose gut microbiota has been characterized and sets the foundation for further studies to determine the influence of these microbiota on vector susceptibility to pathogens.

  15. Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in Soil of a Swiss Wetland Reserve after 22 Years of Mosquito Control▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Valeria; Patocchi, Nicola; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Recurrent treatments with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis are required to control the floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans that breeds in large numbers in the wetlands of the Bolle di Magadino Reserve in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. Interventions have been carried out since 1988. In the present study, the spatial distribution of resting B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores in the soil was measured. The B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis concentration was determined in soil samples collected along six transects covering different elevations within the periodically flooded zones. A total of 258 samples were processed and analyzed by quantitative PCR that targeted an identical fragment of 159 bp for the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry4Aa and cry4Ba genes. B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores were found to persist in soils of the wetland reserve at concentrations of up to 6.8 log per gram of soil. Continuous accumulation due to regular treatments could be excluded, as the decrease in spores amounted to 95.8% (95% confidence interval, 93.9 to 97.7%). The distribution of spores was correlated to the number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments, the elevation of the sampling point, and the duration of the flooding periods. The number of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis treatments was the major factor influencing the distribution of spores in the different topographic zones (P thuringiensis subsp. israelensis spores are rather immobile after their introduction into the environment. PMID:21498758

  16. Comparison of Adult Mosquito Black-Light and Light-Emitting Diode Traps at Three Cowsheds Located in Malaria-Endemic Areas of the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung-Chul; Kim, Myung-Soon; Choi, Kwang-Shik; Hwang, Do-Un; Johnson, Jaree L; Klein, Terry A

    2017-01-01

    Adult mosquito surveillance and field trials evaluated selected commercially available ultraviolet black-light (BL) and light-emitting diode (LED) traps at three sites where vivax malaria is endemic from May to October 2015 in northwestern Republic of Korea. Collections totaled 283,929 adult mosquitoes (280,355 [98.74%] females and 3,574 [1.26%] males) comprising 17 species (including six members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) belonging to six genera. The four most predominant female species collected were Aedes vexans nipponii (Theobald) (83.84%), followed by Anopheles Hyrcanus Group (13.66%), Culex pipiens Group (1.67%), and Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (0.54%). Overall, LED traps (188,125) collected significantly more female mosquitoes compared with BL traps (92,230; P = 0.0001, P < 0.05). Results from these field evaluations significantly enhance vector and disease surveillance efforts, especially for the primary vectors of malaria (Anopheles Hyrcanus Group) and Japanese encephalitis (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. The importance of agricultural tire habitats for mosquitoes of public health importance in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Harrington, Laura C; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2005-06-01

    The presence of mosquito species breeding in agricultural "bunker tires" on dairy farms in New York state was evaluated. Twelve species of mosquitoes (Aedes vexans, Anopheles barberi, An. punctipenriis, An. perplexens, Culex pipiens pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, Cx. territans, Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis, Ochlerotatus atropalpus, Oc. japonicus japonicus, and Oc. triseriatus) were collected from 8 New York state dairy farms in 2001 and from 17 dairy farms in 2002. All but 2 of these species have been found naturally infected with arboviruses and could be important vectors affecting human and animal health. Because of the potential public and animal health importance of the invasive species Oc. j. japonicus, active surveillance to identify breeding sites and distribution of this mosquito is essential. In 2001, Oc. j. japonicus was recovered from 5 of 8 central New York dairy farms surveyed. In 2002, Oc. j. japonicus was recovered from 4 of the same dairy farms plus an additional dairy out of 5 surveyed. This species appears to be established on dairy farms in the south, central, and eastern regions of New York state, with greatest abundance in the southeastern region. A single Oc. j. japonicus larva was collected from the northern region on the final sampling date in September 2002. Our data demonstrate that agricultural tire habitats can be productive breeding sites for arbovirus vectors. As a consequence, these habitats should not be ignored in vector control and surveillance programs.

  18. Pyrosequencing as a tool for the detection of Phytophthora species: error rate and risk of false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettraino, A M; Bonants, P; Tomassini, A; Bruni, N; Vannini, A

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of pyrosequencing for the description of Phytophthora communities in terms of taxa identification and risk of assignment for false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). Pyrosequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicons was used to describe the structure of a DNA mixture comprising eight Phytophthora spp. and Pythium vexans. Pyrosequencing resulted in 16 965 reads, detecting all species in the template DNA mixture. Reducing the ITS1 sequence identity threshold resulted in a decrease in numbers of unmatched reads but a concomitant increase in the numbers of false MOTUs. The total error rate was 0·63% and comprised mainly mismatches (0·25%) Pyrosequencing of ITS1 region is an efficient and accurate technique for the detection and identification of Phytophthora spp. in environmental samples. However, the risk of allocating false MOTUs, even when demonstrated to be low, may require additional validation with alternative detection methods. Phytophthora spp. are considered among the most destructive groups of invasive plant pathogens, affecting thousands of cultivated and wild plants worldwide. Simultaneous early detection of Phytophthora complexes in environmental samples offers an unique opportunity for the interception of known and unknown species along pathways of introduction, along with the identification of these organisms in invaded environments. © 2012 The Authors Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  20. Comparative analysis of gut microbiota of mosquito communities in central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Ramirez, Jose L.; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background The composition and structure of microbial communities that inhabit the mosquito midguts are poorly understood despite their well-documented potential to impede pathogen transmission. Methodology/Principal findings We used MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities of field-collected populations of 12 mosquito species. After quality filtering and rarefaction, the remaining sequences were assigned to 181 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Approximately 58% of these OTUs occurred in at least two mosquito species but only three OTUs: Gluconobacter (OTU 1), Propionibacterium (OTU 9), and Staphylococcus (OTU 31) occurred in all 12 mosquito species. Individuals of different mosquito species shared similar gut microbiota and it was common for individuals of the same species from the same study site and collection date to harbor different gut microbiota. On average, the microbiota of Aedes albopictus was the least diverse and significantly less even compared to Anopheles crucians, An. quadrimaculatus, Ae. triseriatus, Ae. vexans, Ae. japonicus, Culex restuans, and Culiseta inornata. The microbial community of Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus differed significantly from all other mosquitoes species and was primarily driven by the dominance of Wolbachia. Conclusion and significance These findings expand the range of mosquito species whose gut microbiota has been characterized and sets the foundation for further studies to determine the influence of these microbiota on vector susceptibility to pathogens. PMID:28245239

  1. Longevity and efficacy of bifenthrin treatment on desert-pattern US military camouflage netting against mosquitoes in a hot-arid environment.

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    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Wynn, Willard W; Aldridge, Robert L; Walker, Todd W; Farooq, Muhammad; Dunford, James C; Smith, Vincent L; Robinson, Cathy A; Lothrop, Branka B; Snelling, Melissa; Gutierrez, Arturo; Wittie, Jeremy; White, Gregory

    2011-09-01

    The current Department of Defense pest management system does not provide adequate protection from arthropod disease vectors to personnel deployed in support of US military operations. We hypothesized that military camouflage netting, ubiquitous around living and working areas in current US military operations in Africa and the Middle East, treated with a residual pesticide such as bifenthrin may reduce the presence of biting insects and improve the military pest management system. In this study, we examined the longevity and efficacy of bifenthrin applied to camouflage netting material at the maximum label rate of 0.03 liter formulation (7.9% AI) per 92.9 m2 against field populations of mosquitoes in southern California in a hot-arid environment similar to regions of Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Horn of Africa. We showed that bifenthrin treatment of camouflage netting was effective at reducing mosquito populations, predominantly Psorophora columbiae and Aedes vexans, by an average of up to 46% for 56 days, and could cause as much as 40% mortality in Culex quinquefasciatus in laboratory bioassays for nearly 2 months postapplication. These population reductions could translate to commensurate reductions in risk of exposure to mosquito-borne pathogens, and could potentially be effective against sand flies and filth flies.

  2. VBORNET gap analysis: Mosquito vector distribution models utilised to identify areas of potential species distribution in areas lacking records.

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    Francis Schaffner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of a number of planned data papers presenting modelled vector distributions produced originally during the ECDC funded VBORNET project. This work continues under the VectorNet project now jointly funded by ECDC and EFSA. Further data papers will be published after sampling seasons when more field data will become available allowing further species to be modelled or validation and updates to existing models.  The data package described here includes those mosquito species first modelled in 2013 & 2014 as part of the VBORNET gap analysis work which aimed to identify areas of potential species distribution in areas lacking records. It comprises three species models together with suitability masks based on land class and environmental limits. The species included as part of this phase are the mosquitoes 'Aedes vexans', 'Anopheles plumbeus' and 'Culex modestus'. The known distributions of these species within the area covered by the project (Europe, the ­Mediterranean Basin, North Africa, and Eurasia are currently incomplete to a greater or lesser degree. The models are designed to fill the gaps with predicted distributions, to provide a assistance in ­targeting surveys to collect distribution data for those areas with no field validated information, and b a first indication of the species distributions within the project areas.

  3. Chitosan-induced immunity in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze against blister blight disease is mediated by nitric-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Panda, Koustubh; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2017-06-01

    Blister blight disease, caused by an obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen, Exobasidium vexans Massee is posing a serious threat for tea cultivation in Asia. As the use of chemical pesticides on tea leaves substantially increases the toxic risks of tea consumption, serious attempts are being made to control such pathogens by boosting the intrinsic natural defense responses against invading pathogens in tea plants. In this study, the nature and durability of resistance offered by chitosan and the possible mechanism of chitosan-induced defense induction in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze plants against blister blight disease were investigated. Foliar application of 0.01% chitosan solution at 15 days interval not only reduced the blister blight incidence for two seasons, but also maintained the induced expressions of different defense related enzymes and total phenol content compared to the control. Defense responses induced by chitosan were found to be down regulated under nitric oxide (NO) deficient conditions in vivo, indicating that the observed chitosan-induced resistance is probably activated via NO signaling. Such role of NO in host defense response was further established by application of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which produced similar defense responses accomplished through chitosan treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that increased production of NO in chitosan-treated tea plants may play a critical role in triggering the innate defense responses effective against plant pathogens, including that causing the blister blight disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of CO2 concentration on mosquito collection rate using odor-baited suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhatter, Lee; Gerry, Alec C

    2017-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) has been used for decades to enhance capture of host-seeking mosquitoes when released in association with traps commonly used by mosquito and vector control agencies. However, there is little published work evaluating the effect of altering CO2 release rates relative to the number of mosquitoes captured in these traps. This study investigated how varying CO2 concentration altered the mosquito collection rate at a freshwater wetlands in southern California. Host-seeking mosquitoes were captured in CDC-style traps baited with one of six CO2 release rates ranging from 0-1,495 ml/min from gas cylinders. Species captured were Aedes vexans, Anopheles franciscanus, An. hermsi, Culex erythrothorax, and Cx. tarsalis. A biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, was also captured. For all species, increasing CO2 release rates resulted in increasing numbers of individual females captured, with the relative magnitude of this increase associated to some extent with known feeding preferences of these species. We found that variation in CO2 release rate can significantly alter mosquito capture rates, potentially leading to imprecise estimates of vector activity if the relationship of CO2 release rate to mosquito capture rate is not considered. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. sensibilidade ao carbofuran e biomonitoramento de seus resíduos em repolho Drosophila melanogaster Meigen: 3. susceptibility to carbofuran and biomonitoring of its residues in cabbage

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    Garcia Rodrigues de Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of Drosophila melanogaster to carbofuran and the use of this organism in biomonitoring residues of the insecticide in cabbage was evaluated. Under the conditions of the bioassay, residues-film bioassay in Petri dish, carbofuran degraded depending on the temperature and time of exposure. Bioassays conducted with D. melanogaster showed that its toxicity increases with temperature (20 to 35 °C. LC50 values, calculated as a function of temperature, ranged from 3.6 to 10.5 mg/g body weight (bw for males and from 2.9 to 8.7 mg/g bw for females. The formulated product Furadan® G was applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea, var. capitata and the residues of carbofuran were determined by bioassay. The determination limit of the bioassay was 0.1 mg/kg and the method presented reproducibility with coefficient variation of 17 %. The validation of the bioassay by high performance liquid chromatography confirms the viability of the bioassay with D. melanogaster in monitoring the residues of carbofuran in cabbage.

  6. Lucilia silvarum Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a new species of interest for forensic entomology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Szpila, Krzysztof; Huijbregts, Johannes; Lindström, Anders; Zehner, Richard; Amendt, Jens

    2012-10-10

    In Europe, the blowfly genus Lucilia is represented in Forensic Entomology mainly by the species L. ampullacea, L. caesar, L. illustris and L. sericata. In the US, Lucilia silvarum is rarely recorded as a carrion breeding species but usually as a more or less exclusive parasite of frogs and toads. We present three forensic cases from different European countries reporting, for the first time, L. silvarum on human bodies that were found close to lakes, wetlands, or riversides. To use this species for post-mortem interval estimations, thermal development data is needed. The first step is accurate identification by morphological and molecular means. Therefore, we analysed a 611 bp part of the mitochondrial COI region for 23 specimens of L. silvarum from 9 different geographical regions, all of which give the same haplotype. Differences within the haplotype varied by up to 0.2%. Comparison between the haplotype found and those published on GenBank showed up to 1.2% variance. Moreover, we present an updated key for the morphological identification of the third larval instars of European Lucilia spp. of forensic importance, adding not only L. silvarum, but also L. cuprina which was recorded in Europe for the first time about 20 years ago. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Mycetophilaruficollis Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) group in Europe: elucidating species delimitation with COI and ITS2 sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgenstein, Siiri; Kurina, Olavi; Põldmaa, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    European species of the Mycetophilaruficollis group are compared on the basis of morphology and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and the ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The study represents the first evaluation of morphology-based species delimitation of closely related fungus gnat species by applying molecular information. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the male terminalia are presented along with a key for the identification of all nine European species of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data generally supported the morphological species discrimination. The barcoding region of COI superseded ITS2 rDNA in resolving species. In the COI barcoding region interspecific differences ranged from 2.9 to 10.6% and the intraspecific distance from 0.08 to 0.8%. Only COI data distinguished between the similar and closely related Mycetophilaichneumonea and Mycetophilauninotata of which the latter was observed to include cryptic species. The host range of some species is suggested to be narrower than previously considered and to depend on the forest type. Presented evidence indicates the importance of analysing sequence data of morphologically very similar mycetophages reared from identified host fungi for elucidating species delimitation as well as their geographic and host ranges. New country records, viz. Estonia for Mycetophilaevanida, Georgia for Mycetophilaichneumonea, Mycetophilaidonea and Mycetophilaruficollis, and Norway for Mycetophilastrobli, widen the known distribution ranges of these species.

  8. Caracterización citogenética de lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: calliphoridae, Cepa Bogotá, Colombia

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    Yisethe Acuña Morera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lucilia sericata is an important species for medical and forensic purposes, it is used in maggot therapy in the treatment of chronic wounds and in medical-legal studies for establishing the post-mortem interval and the transfer of corpses. Currently there are no records of the cytogenetic characteristics of this fly in Neotropical region. The main objective of this study wasto identify morphometric characteristics and primary structures fromkaryotype of L. sericata strain Bogota, Colombia. Methods and materials: Embryonated eggs were taken, which were previously surface sterilized, macerated and then seeded in L-15 medium culture, supplemented with 20% fbs and incubated at 28 ºC, without C02 atmosphere. The preparation of chromosomeswas obtained from semiconfluent monolayers, pretreated with various solutions: antimitotic (Colchicine, hypotonic (KCl 0.075 M and fixative (Carnoy, methanol and acetic acid, 3:1. C-banding technique was carried out to identify chromosomal regions of constitutive heterochromatin. Results: Morphometric parameters were obtained from each pair of chromosomes. The diploid karyotype number obtained from cell cultures was 2n = 12; they were classified morphologically,according to patterns established previously, as follows: pairs I,ç II, IV and V were metacentric and pair III was submetacentric. On the other hand, the sexual pair was heteromorphic, being X chromosome metacentric and Y chromosome submetacentric. C banding was positive for all chromosome pairs. Conclusions: The cytogenetic characteristics of L. sericata, strain Bogotá, were established according to number, shape, centromer position and heterochromatic regions.

  9. First report of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen in a healthy patient without predisposing risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won; Kim, Ga Eon; Park, Seong Hwan; Shin, Sang Eon; Park, Ji Hye; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-10-01

    A 72-year-old man with no medical history initially presented to the emergency room with severe tearing, redness, foreign body sensation, and pain in the left eye. He reported no previous history of any periocular trauma, malignancy, surgery, or systemic illness. On presentation, the patient only showed left periorbital edema and erythema in the left eyelid with no evidence of any skin malignancy. On slit lamp examination, multiple small whitish motile organisms were observed on the left conjunctival fornices. The organisms were removed, preserved, and identified as the third-stage larvae of Lucilia sericata (green bottle fly). The patient was treated with topical antibiotic and steroid eye drops and the inflammation resolved 1 week after treatment initiation. This is the first report of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by facultative parasite, L. sericata maggots in a healthy patient without any predisposing factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lucilia sericata (Meigen and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae Development Rate and its Implications for Forensic Entomology

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    Kapil Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomology is basically a science that is based on the scientific study of the invasion and succession pattern of arthropods with their developmental stages of different species found on the decomposed cadavers during legal investigations. The developmental rate of Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya megacephala was studied in beef liver for the correlation of time duration in each phase with the temperature and climate. The obtained data belong to L. sericata at temperatures between 22°C and 26°C (mean - 24°C and relative humidity 50% ±10% and C. megacephala at temperatures between 23°C and 27°C (mean - 25°C and relative humidity 55% ±10%. From the analysis of results, it was observed that in the climatic conditions of the study area, time since death assessment involving L. sericata was found to be with a potential of maximum 10-11 days and C. megacephala with 8-9 days. The data emerged as results from the present work would be beneficial for investigations involving decomposed dead body remains for the assessment of time since death.

  11. Identification of wild collected mosquito vectors of diseases using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ahmed, Azzam M; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine; Al Othman, Zeid A; Sallam, Mohamed F

    2013-11-01

    Thirty-three species of mosquitoes have been reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Several of these mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae Giles s.l., Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedimorphus vexans arabiensis (Patton) are known vectors of human and animal diseases. In this study, the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of eight mosquito species using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were analyzed. Wild collected fourth-instar larvae were reared, and single, newly emerged, unfed adult females were used for the analysis. A total of 146-160 peaks were detected from the cuticular extracts by gas chromatography. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD Post Hoc test was used to test for quantitative differences in relative hydrocarbon quantity. In addition, a linear regression model was applied using Enter method to determine the diagnostic peaks for the eight mosquito specimens. The ANOVA test indicated that relative peaks were significant (P alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, trimethylalkanes, alkenes, branched aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes and esters. These compounds have a carbon chain length ranging from 8 to 18 carbons. The most abundant compound in all adult mosquito specimens was n-hexylacrylate [retention time (RT) 6.73 min], which was not detected in Cx. pipiens. In Cx. pipiens, the most abundant peak was benzaldehyde (RT 2.98 min). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a suitable method to identify adult mosquitoes, especially from focal areas of public health concern such as Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. This method allows a wide range of adult collected material to be identified with high accuracy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN ESPAÑA Y ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LAS ARBOVIROSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR MOSQUITOS CULÍCIDOS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE

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    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente manuscrito se analiza la posible emergencia y/o reemergencia en España de algunas de las arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae de mayor incidencia a nivel mundial en los últimos años. Los datos faunísticos, bioecológicos y de distribución de los culícidos en nuestro país permiten discernir entre especies con capacidad de mantener la enzootia de algunas de estas arbovirosis de otras que pueden actuar como vectores puente de la virosis hasta el ser humano. Los resultados revelan la existencia de especies, algunas de ellas muy frecuentes en los humedales de nuestro país y fuertemente antropófilas como Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens u Ochlerotatus caspius, con una elevada capacidad para transmitir flavivirus como el virus West Nile o el virus Usutu. Además, la reciente introducción, establecimiento y expansión del mosquito tigre, Aedes albopictus, abre una preocupante vía para la aparición de posibles brotes, probablemente incluso de tipo epidémico, de arbovirosis habitualmente importadas a nuestro país por personas inmigrantes y turistas, como el Dengue o Chikungunya. Por último, también se discute el interés epidemiológico de especies propias de nuestro entorno como Aedes vittatus u Ochlerotatus geniculatus, debido a su capacidad vectorial constatada para la transmisión de algunas de estas virosis típicamente tropicales.

  13. Molecular detection of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Filarioidea and an unidentified filarial species in mosquitoes in Germany

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    Czajka Christina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the potential vector role of Culicidae mosquitoes in Germany is very scanty, and until recently it was generally assumed that they are not involved in the transmission of anthroponotic or zoonotic pathogens in this country. However, anticipated changes in the course of global warming and globalization may alter their status. Methods We conducted a molecular mass screening of mosquitoes for filarial parasites using mitochondrial 12S rRNA-based real-time PCR. Results No parasites causing disease in humans such as Dirofilaria spp. were detected in about 83,000 mosquitoes tested, which had been collected in 2009 and 2010 in 16 locations throughout Germany. However, minimum infection rates of up to 24 per 1000 mosquitoes were revealed, which could be attributed to mosquito infection with Setaria tundra and a yet unidentified second parasite. Setaria tundra was found to be widespread in southern Germany in various mosquito species, except Culex spp. In contrast, the unidentified filarial species was exclusively found in Culex spp. in northern Baden-Württemberg, and is likely to be a bird parasite. Conclusions Although dirofilariasis appears to be emerging and spreading in Europe, the absence of Dirofilaria spp. or other zoonotic filariae in our sample allows the conclusion that the risk of autochthonous infection in Germany is still very low. Potential vectors of S. tundra in Germany are Ochlerotatus sticticus, Oc. cantans, Aedes vexans and Anopheles claviger. Technically, the synergism between entomologists, virologists and parasitologists, combined with state-of-the-art methods allows a very efficient near-real-time monitoring of a wide spectrum of both human and veterinary pathogens, including new distribution records of parasite species and the incrimination of their potential vectors.

  14. Circulation of Dirofilaria repens, Setaria tundra, and Onchocercidae species in Hungary during the period 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemenesi, Gábor; Kurucz, Kornélia; Kepner, Anett; Dallos, Bianka; Oldal, Miklós; Herczeg, Róbert; Vajdovics, Péter; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2015-11-30

    Dirofilaria repens and recently Dirofilaria immitis are known to be endemic in Hungary. Since there is no related research on Dirofilaria carrier mosquito species from Hungary, we conducted a three-year mosquito surveillance study between 2011 and 2013. During the study period we examined 23,139 female mosquitoes with a generic filaria-specific TaqMan PCR assay, and characterized them by sequencing a 500 bp segment of 12S rRNA. An important result of our study was the detection of Setaria tundra and D. repens along with an unidentified Onchocercidae nematode. D. repens is known to be endemic in Hungary, however, the detection of S. tundra in all sampling sites throughout the study period indicates for the first time the endemicity of this parasite in Hungary. The Onchocercidae sp. nematode showed 95% nucleotide identity with previously detected unidentified nematodes from Germany, indicating a broader geographical distribution of this nematode in Europe. D. immitis specific DNA was not detected among the screened mosquitoes in this study. Here we report 11 mosquito species as potential vector organisms for local filarial infections, including Aedes vexans, Ochlerotatus annulipes, Ochlerotatus sticticus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Anopheles hyrcanus and Ochlerotatus rusticus. Dirofilaria development unit was calculated and the potential transmission period was estimated, which ranged between 65 and 113 days between sampling seasons. A relatively high infection rate (36.8%) was identified, which is a notable finding for veterinary and human health professionals. Moreover, the results of our study widen the group of possible mosquito vector species for D. repens and S. tundra in Central Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. PREFERENCE OF FEMALE MOSQUITOES FOR NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL RESTING SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    BURKETT-CADENA, NATHAN D.; EUBANKS, MICKY D.; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

    2008-01-01

    At a wetland study site in Tuskegee National Forest, AL, resting female mosquitoes were collected from natural and artificial resting sites to identify species-specific resting sites and to evaluate various artificial resting sites for their utility in collecting resting mosquitoes. Natural resting sites included small tree cavities, large tree cavities, and understory vegetation. Artificial resting sites included resting boxes, fiber pots, and plastic trash cans. We collected 12,888 female mosquitoes, representing 23 species in 8 genera, during the 6-month study. Each mosquito species demonstrated a preference for a particular type of resting site. Resting Aedes vexans females were collected almost exclusively from understory vegetation, while the great majority of Anopheles quadrimaculatus females were aspirated from large tree cavities. Culex erraticus and Cx. peccator females preferred trash cans over other available resting sites. Females of Cx. territans, although collected most commonly in large tree cavities, were also collected frequently from understory vegetation and trash cans. A multiple regression of resting-site parameters (excluding vegetation), including volume, surface area, and opening size, indicated that 50% and 20% of the variability associated with An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. territans collections, respectively, could be explained by opening size. Inner surface area and volume accounted for 33% and 12% of variation in Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator collections, respectively. Thus, female mosquitoes generally preferred larger resting sites over smaller resting sites. Similarly shaped artificial resting sites (fiber pots and trash cans) yielded comparable numbers of females per unit of volume (for those species that preferred artificial resting sites), indicating that shape of the resting site is an important factor in resting-site preference. In addition, trash cans proved to be a valuable novel tool for collecting resting female mosquitoes

  16. Epizootiologic studies on filarioids of the raccoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

    1965-01-01

    Filarioid worms (Dirofilaria immitis, D. tenuis, Dipetalonema procyonis, and D. llewellyni) were discovered in raccoons (Procyon lotar) in Maryland. Raccoons were trapped in lowland, upland, and agricultural-residential areas, which were further classified as stream borders, poorly drained, and well drained. Data on incidence of D. llewellyni were analyzed on basis of host distribution within these areas to indicate type of habitat in which one might seek the vector. It was concluded that exposure takes place in the spring of the year. The arthropod found associated most often with the raccoon in spring was Ixodes texanus. Larvae of this tick which were fed on infected raccoons presented no evidence of development of the microfilariae. Feeding experiments were also conducted with mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti, A. canadensis, A. sollicitans, A. triseriatus, A. vexans, Culex pipiens, Anopheles punctipennis, and A. quadrimaculatus. Although microfilariae remained alive and active in the gut contents of all these mosquitoes for 2 days, only in Aedes aegypti did they enter the hemocele, but no developmental changes were noted and all microfilariae were dead by the eighth day. Although the intermediate host of D. llewellyni was not determined, evaluation of the accumulated data provides criteria for seeking the vector. It appeared unlikely that exposure of the raccoons took place in the den or that the filarioids were transmitted by an ectoparasite commonly found in raccoon dens. The data suggest that the vector is available only early in spring, although there are infected raccoons throughout the year. Prevalence in juveniles was 21 percent; in subadults, 64 percent; in adults, 87 percent.

  17. Isolations of Jamestown Canyon virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) from field-collected mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Connecticut, USA: a ten-year analysis, 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Theodore G; Anderson, John F; Armstrong, Philip M; Main, Andrew J

    2008-04-01

    Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis belonging to the California serogroup. It has a wide geographic distribution, occurring throughout much of temperate North America. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus are the principal amplification hosts, and boreal Aedes and Ochlerotatus mosquitoes are the primary vectors. A 10-year study was undertaken to identify potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the geographic distribution of JCV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. Jamestown Canyon virus was isolated from 22 mosquito species. Five of them, Ochlerotatus canadensis, Oc. cantator, Anopheles punctipennis, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Oc. abserratus were incriminated as the most likely vectors, based on yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Jamestown Canyon virus was isolated from Oc. canadensis more consistently and from a greater range of collection sites than any other species. Frequent virus isolations were also made from Aedes cinereus, Aedes vexans, and Oc. sticticus, and new North American isolation records were established for Anopheles walkeri, Culex restuans, Culiseta morsitans, Oc. sticticus, Oc. taeniorhynchus, and Psorophora ferox. Other species from which JCV was isolated included C. melanura, Oc. aurifer, Oc. communis, Oc. excrucians, Oc. provocans, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. stimulans, Oc. triseriatus, and Oc. trivittatus. Jamestown Canyon virus was widely distributed throughout Connecticut and found to consistently circulate in a diverse array of mosquito vectors. Infected mosquitoes were collected from June through September, and peak infection rates paralleled mosquito abundance from mid-June through mid-July. Infection rates in mosquitoes were consistent from year to year, and overall virus

  18. Arbovirus surveillance in South Carolina, 1996-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, A; Dowda, H E; Tolson, M W; Karabatsos, N; Vaughan, D R; Turner, P E; Ortiz, D I; Wills, W

    2001-03-01

    Arboviruses isolated and identified from mosquitoes in South Carolina (USA) are described, including new state records for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLE), Flanders virus, Tensaw virus (TEN), and a variant of Jamestown Canyon virus (JC). Mosquitoes were collected at 52 locations in 30 of 46 South Carolina counties beginning in June 1996, and ending in October 1998, and tested for arboviruses. Of 1,329 mosquito pools tested by virus isolation (85,806 mosquitoes representing 34 mosquito species or complexes), 15 pools were positive. Virus isolations included EEE from 1 pool each of Anopheles crucians complex and Culex erraticus; a variant of JC from 1 pool of An. crucians complex; a California serogroup virus from 1 pool of Aedes atlanticus/tormentor; TEN from 5 pools of An. crucians complex and 1 pool each of Culex salinarius and Psorophora ciliata; Flanders virus from 1 pool of Culiseta melanura; and Potosi virus from 1 pool each of Aedes vexans, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Psorophora columbiae. Of 300 mosquito pools tested by antigen-capture assay for EEE and SLE (14,303 mosquitoes representing 16 mosquito species or complexes), 21 were positive for EEE and I was positive for SLE. Positive EEE mosquito pools by antigen-capture assay included An. crucians complex (14 pools), Anopheles punctipennis (1 pool), Anopheles quadrimaculatus (1 pool), Cq. perturbans (4 pools), and Cs. melanura (1 pool). One pool of Cx. salinarius was positive for SLE by antigen-capture assay. Arbovirus-positive mosquito pools were identified from 12 South Carolina counties, all located in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and from 4 of 8 Carolina bays surveyed.

  19. Molecular detection of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Setaria tundra in mosquitoes from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronefeld, Mandy; Kampen, Helge; Sassnau, Reinhold; Werner, Doreen

    2014-01-16

    As a result of globalization and climate change, Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens, the causative agents of dirofilariosis in Europe, continue to spread from endemic areas in the Mediterranean to northern and northeastern regions of Europe where autochthonous cases of dirofilarial infections have increasingly been observed in dogs and humans. Whilst D. repens was recently reported from mosquitoes in putatively non-endemic areas, D. immitis has never been demonstrated in mosquitoes from Europe outside the Mediterranean. From 2011 to 2013, mosquitoes collected within the framework of a German national mosquito monitoring programme were screened for filarial nematodes using a newly designed filarioid-specific real-time PCR assay. Positive samples were further processed by conventional PCR amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, amplicons were sequenced and sequences blasted against GenBank. Approximately 17,000 female mosquitoes were subjected to filarial screening. Out of 955 pools examined, nine tested positive for filariae. Two of the COI sequences indicated D. immitis, one D. repens and four Setaria tundra. Two sequences could not be assigned to a known species due to a lack of similar GenBank entries. Whilst D. immitis and the unknown parasites were detected in Culex pipiens/torrentium, D. repens was found in a single Anopheles daciae and all S. tundra were demonstrated in Aedes vexans. All positive mosquitoes were collected between mid-June and early September. The finding of dirofilariae in German mosquitoes implies the possibility of a local natural transmission cycle. While the routes of introduction to Germany and the origin of the filariae cannot be determined retrospectively, potential culicid vectors and reservoir hosts must prospectively be identified and awareness among physicians, veterinarians and public health personnel be created. The health impact of S. tundra on the indigenous cervid fauna needs further

  20. Description of the first cryptic avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium homocircumflexum n. sp., with experimental data on its virulence and development in avian hosts and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Žiegytė, Rita; Ilgūnas, Mikas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Bernotienė, Rasa; Bolshakov, Casimir; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    pipiens and molestus) and Aedes vexans. Vectors of this Plasmodium sp. remain unknown. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Larva of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Chironomidae, Diptera)-morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), karyotype, and biology in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva

    2016-09-21

    Larvae belonging to the family Chironomidae are difficult to identify. The aim of the present study was to describe the larval morphology of G. (G.) glaucus with the aid of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the karyotype and biology based on materials obtained from laboratory culture. Describing the morphology of larvae, special attention was paid to rarely or never described structures like the maxilla (lacinia and maxillary palp), the long plate situated below the ventromental plate, and plate X situated between lacinia and mentum. The use of SEM allowed also to obtain better images of labrum and ventromental plate. Morphological features of this species have been supplemented by karyotype and biology of larvae in laboratory conditions. Under controlled experimental conditions we found non-synchronous development of G. (G.) glaucus larvae hatched from one egg mass reflected in different lengths of larvae and emerged imagoes.

  2. Revisão das espécies neotropicais de Empididae (Diptera descritas por Mario Bezzi: VII. As espécies descritas em Hilara Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albertino Rafael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As cinco espécies descritas em Hilara por Mario Bezzi estão sendo redescritas e ilustradas. Atualmente três espécies permanecem em Hilara: H. irritans, H. perplexa e H. perturbans e duas espécies em Hilarigona: H. aberrans e H. abnormis. Todos os tipos primários foram examinados e estão sendo designados lectótipos para as três espécies de Hilara.

  3. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XVI. Genus Aedes Meigen, Subgenus Aedimorphus Theobald in Southeast Asia (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 9, Number 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Warmbaths District (Muspratt 1955: 172). Reined.: Aedes (4edimmphus) in Southeast Asia 75 SOUTHERN COOK ISLANDS . Rarotonga ( ?) (Belkin 1962: 429). SOUTH...These species are completely described and compared with closely related forms occurring in the Pacific Islands and Oriental Zoogeographical Regions...species and 1 subspecies from Southeast Asia and compares them to closely related species in the Oriental and Pacific Islands Zoogeographical Regions

  4. Lucilia sericata strain from Colombia: Experimental colonization, life tables and evaluation of two artificial diets of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Bogotá, Colombia strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Luis C; Ortega, Luis G; Segura, Nidya A; Acero, Víctor M; Bello, Felio

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish, under experimental laboratory conditions, a colony of Lucilia sericata, Bogotá-Colombia strain, to build life tables and evaluate two artificial diets. This blowfly is frequently used in postmortem interval studies and in injury treatment. The parental adult insects collected in Bogotá were maintained in cages at 22°C±1 average temperature, 60%±5 relative humidity and 12 h photoperiodicity. The blowflies were fed on two artificial diets that were evaluated over seven continuous generations. Reproductive and population parameters were assessed. The life cycle of the species was expressed in the number of days of the different stages: egg = 0.8±0.1, larvae I = 1.1±0.02, larvae II = 1.94±0.16, larvae III = 3.5±0.54, pupae = 6.55±0.47, male adult = 28.7±0.83 and female adult = 33.5±1.0. Total survival from egg stage to adult stage was 91.2% for diet 1, while for diet 2 this parameter was 40.5%. The lifetime reproductive output was 184.51±11.2 eggs per female. The population parameters, as well as the reproductive output of the blowflies that were assessed, showed relatively high values, giving evidence of the continuous increase of the strain over the different generations and making possible its maintenance as a stable colony that has lasted for more than two years.

  5. A revision of the Crane-fly genus Nephrotoma Meigen, 1803, in North America (Diptera, Tipulidae). Part II: the non-dorsalis species-groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, Pjotr

    1984-01-01

    Seventeen nearctic species of Nephrotoma are revised. They are assigned to seven species-groups. Together with the 20 species of the dorsalis-group (Tangelder, 1983), this covers all the nearctic Nephrotoma species. Presented here for every species are: literature, type-material, synonyms,

  6. Pigsties near dwellings as a potential risk factor for the prevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus in adult in Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaojie; Fu, Shihong; Dai, Peifang; Wang, Huanyu; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiaolong; Lei, Wenwen; Gao, Xiaoyan; He, Ying; Lv, Zhi; Cheng, Jingxia; Wang, Guiqin; Liang, Guodong

    2017-06-08

    The increasing trend of adult cases of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in China, particularly in northern China, has become an important public health issue. We conducted an epidemiological investigation in the south of Shanxi Province to examine the relationships between mosquitoes, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and adult JE cases. Mosquito specimens were collected from the courtyards of farmers' households and pig farms in Shanxi Province. Mosquitoes were pooled, homogenized, and centrifuged. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect mosquito-borne arbovirus genes in homogenates. Specimens positive for these genes were inoculated into the baby hamster kidney cell line (BHK-21) to isolate virus. Minimum infection rate was calculated and phylogenetic analyses were performed. A total of 7 943 mosquitoes belonging to six species in four genera were collected; Culex tritaeniorhynchus accounted for 73.08% (5 805/7 943), C. pipiens pallens for 24.75% (1 966/7 943), and the remaining 3% (104/ 7943) consisted of Anopheles sinensis, Aedes vexans, Ae. dorsalis, and Armigeres subalbatus. Sixteen pools were positive for JEV based on RT-PCR using JEV pre-membrane gene nested primers. Phylogenetic analyses showed that all JEVs belonged to genotype I; two pools were positive using Getah Virus (GETV) gene primers. In addition, one JEV strain (SXYC1523) was isolated from C. pipiens pallens specimens. These results indicate that the minimum infection rate of JEV in mosquito specimens collected from the courtyards of farmers' households with pigsties was 7.39/1 000; the rate for pig farms was 2.68/1 000; and the rate for farmers' courtyards without pigsties was zero. The high-prevalence regions of adult JE investigated in this study are still the natural epidemic focus of JEV. Having pigsties near dwellings is a potential risk factor contributing to the prevalence of adult JE. To prevent the occurrence of local adult JE cases, a recommendation was

  7. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of Cache Valley Virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) Infection in Anopheline and Culicine Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Northeastern United States, 1997–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip M.; Anderson, John F.; Main, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of North and Central America. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. CVV has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. A 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the spatial geographic distribution of CVV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. CVV was isolated from 16 mosquito species in seven genera, almost all of which were multivoltine and mammalophilic. Anopheles (An.) punctipennis was incriminated as the most consistent and likely vector in this region on the basis of yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Other species exhibiting frequent temporal and moderate spatial geographic patterns of virus isolation within the state included Ochlerotatus (Oc.) trivittatus, Oc. canadensis, Aedes (Ae.) vexans, and Ae. cinereus. New isolation records for CVV were established for An. walkeri, Culiseta melanura, and Oc. cantator. Other species from which CVV was isolated included An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex salinarius, Oc. japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox. Mosquitoes infected with CVV were equally distributed throughout urban, suburban, and rural locales, and infection rates were not directly associated with the localized abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly due to their saturation throughout the region. Virus activity in mosquitoes was episodic with no consistent pattern from year-to-year, and fluctuations in yearly seasonal infection rates did not appear to be directly impacted by

  8. Spatial-temporal analysis of Cache Valley virus (Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus) infection in anopheline and culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the northeastern United States, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Anderson, John F; Main, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) that is enzootic throughout much of North and Central America. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been incriminated as important reservoir and amplification hosts. CVV has been found in a diverse array of mosquito species, but the principal vectors are unknown. A 16-year study was undertaken to identify the primary mosquito vectors in Connecticut, quantify seasonal prevalence rates of infection, and define the spatial geographic distribution of CVV in the state as a function of land use and white-tailed deer populations, which have increased substantially over this period. CVV was isolated from 16 mosquito species in seven genera, almost all of which were multivoltine and mammalophilic. Anopheles (An.) punctipennis was incriminated as the most consistent and likely vector in this region on the basis of yearly isolation frequencies and the spatial geographic distribution of infected mosquitoes. Other species exhibiting frequent temporal and moderate spatial geographic patterns of virus isolation within the state included Ochlerotatus (Oc.) trivittatus, Oc. canadensis, Aedes (Ae.) vexans, and Ae. cinereus. New isolation records for CVV were established for An. walkeri, Culiseta melanura, and Oc. cantator. Other species from which CVV was isolated included An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex salinarius, Oc. japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Oc. triseriatus, and Psorophora ferox. Mosquitoes infected with CVV were equally distributed throughout urban, suburban, and rural locales, and infection rates were not directly associated with the localized abundance of white-tailed deer, possibly due to their saturation throughout the region. Virus activity in mosquitoes was episodic with no consistent pattern from year-to-year, and fluctuations in yearly seasonal infection rates did not appear to be directly impacted by overall

  9. Nieuwe en zeldzame zweefvliegen voor de Nederlandse fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van B.

    1993-01-01

    New and rare hoverflies for the Dutch fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae). Paragus albifrons (Fallén), P. bicolor (Fabricius), Sphegina verecunda Collin, Neoascia annexa (O.F. Müller), Callicera aenea (Fabricius), Cheilosia caerulescens (Meigen), C. chloris (Meigen), C. flavipes (Panzer), Chamaesyrphus

  10. First occurrences of the Phorid, Megaselia abdita, in forensic cases in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, R H L; Manlove, J D

    2005-12-01

    The first two cases of the occurrence of Megaselia abdita Schmitz (Diptera: Phoridae) in human corpses in Britain are reported and a further case of M. rufipes (Meigen). In all three cases the corpses experienced low temperatures.

  11. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part II. Luciliinae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpila, K.; Hall, M. J. R.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    First instars of Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, Lucilia caesar Linnaeus, Lucilia cuprina Weidemann, Lucilia richardsi Collin, Lucilia sericata Meigen and Lucilia silvarum Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are thoroughly documented with scanning electron microscopy images, light microscopy photographs...... larva of L. richardsi is described for the first time and an identification key to the first instars of European species of Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy of forensic importance is presented....

  12. Upswing of collections of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae held at the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ježek Jan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available History of zoogeographical views and actual distribution of 23 determined species of Tabanidae from three subfamilies, five tribes and 8 genera (Philoliche Wiedemann, 1828 - 4 species; Chrysops Meigen, 1803 - 3; Thaumastocera Grünberg, 1906 - 1; Ancala Enderlein, 1922 - 1; Atylotus Osten-Sacken, 1876 - 1; Tabanus Linnaeus, 1758 - 8; Haematopota Meigen, 1803 - 4; Hippocentrum Austen, 1908 - 1 mainly from Kenya are summarized, using the names of recent African countries. Tabanus sericiventris Loew, 1858 is new for Kenya. Lower taxonomical units as Tabanus insignis f. neavei Austen, 1912 and T. marmorosus ssp. congicola Bequaert, 1930 are discussed. A complete new references to all identified taxa are given.

  13. Phenotypic differentiation and phylogenetic signal of wing shape in western European biting midges, Culicoides spp., of the subgenus Avaritia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Talavera, S.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    of cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequencing and geometric morphometric analyses to investigate wing shape as a means to infer species identification within this subgenus. In addition the congruence of morphological data with different phylogenetic hypotheses is tested. Five different species...... of the subgenus Avaritia were considered in the study (C. obsoletus (Meigen); C. scoticus Kettle and Lawson; C. chiopterus (Meigen); C. dewulfi Goetghebuer and C. imicola (Kieffer)). The study demonstrated that over 90% of individuals could be separated correctly into species by their wing shape and that patterns...

  14. Partial sequencing of the cytochrome oxydase b subunit gene I: a tool for the identification of European species of blow flies for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S; Vian, J M; Carlotti, M P

    2000-07-01

    The identification of insects found on a dead body can lead to the estimation of the time of death (postmortem interval). We report an updated version of an established method based on sequence analysis of PCR products from a region of the cytochrome b oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene of different members of the family Calliphoridae, by sequencing six European species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia caesar (Linné), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvody), Calliphora vomitoria (Linné), Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvody) and one Guianese species: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius). This technique provided clear results when applied to the larvae and we also report the identification of empty puparia.

  15. Sobre um novo gênero neotrópico da subfamília Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae On a new neotropical genus of the subfamily Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião José de Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new neotropical genus and a new species of a non-biting midge for the subfamily Tanypodinae from Brazil are described. The new genus is near Tanypus Meigen, 1803 and Procladius Skuse, 1889, but differs of both by wings and male terminalia.

  16. De larven van het geslacht Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclatuur en tabel tot de soorten (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.; Wiersma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The larvae of the genus Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclature and key to the species (Diptera: Chironomidae). A review is given of the identities of groups and taxa of Einfeldia in the larval stage as given in the literature. Three species remain on the Dutch list: E. carbonaria (Meigen), E.

  17. Status of research on Drosophila ananassae at global level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drosophila, a dipteran insect, has been found to be the best biological model for different kinds of studies. D. melanogaster was first described by Meigen in 1830, is most extensively studied species of the genus Drosophila and a number of investigations employing this species have been documented in areas such as ...

  18. Sources of Infestation, Biology, Damage by and control of Megaselia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to identify sources of infestation by the Megaselia rufipes Meigen (Diptera: Phoridae) on some germinated oil palm seeds in the Seed Production facilities of the CSIR-Oil Palm Research Institute. The study also covered the identification of the pest, some aspects of the biology, cost of damage and ...

  19. SOURCES OF INFESTATION, BIOLOGY, DAMAGE BY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. A study was carried out to identify sources of infestation by the Megaselia rufipes Meigen. (Diptera: Phoridae) on some germinated oil palm seeds in the Seed Production facilities of the. CSIR-Oil Palm Research Institute. The study also covered the identification of the pest, some aspects of the biology, cost of ...

  20. Habitat selection by chironomid larvae: fast growth requires fast food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.M.; Wagner, C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2006-01-01

    1. Sediments have been considered as a habitat, a cover from predators and a source of food, but also as a source of potential toxic compounds. Therefore, the choice of a suitable substrate is essential for the development of chironomids. 2. For the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen 1804) the growth

  1. Habitat selection by chironomid larvae: fast growth requires fast food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E.M.; Wagner, C.; Koelmans, A.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2006-01-01

    1. Sediments have been considered as a habitat, a cover from predators and a source of food, but also as a source of potential toxic compounds. Therefore, the choice of a suitable substrate is essential for the development of chironomids. 2. For the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen 1804) the growth

  2. The species of Ctenophorinae (Diptera: Tipulidae in the fauna of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Bechev

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available List of the species of Ctenophorinae subfamily, known from Bulgaria is given, including Ctenophora elegans Meigen, 1818, species reported for Bulgaria, but not presented in Fauna Europaea and Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World for the country. Ctenophora flaveolata (Fabricius, 1794 is reported for the first time to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  3. The first instar larva of two species of Miltogramminae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from the Middle East - examples of peculiar morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Pape, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The first instar larva is described for two species of Miltogramminae flesh flies representing the genera Miltogramma Meigen and Phrosinella Robineau-Desvoidy. Using a combination of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the habitus is documented along with all important exoskeletal ...

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yawson, GK. Vol 33, No 1 (2013) - Articles Sources of Infestation, Biology, Damage by and control of Megaselia Rufipes Meigen (Diptera: Phoridae) on oil Palm Seeds Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  5. [The synanthropy of the calliphorids (Insecta, Diptera) of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M J; Barbola, I de F

    1998-05-01

    The calliphorids synantropics were studied in three different environments--urban, rural and forest area--in metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil during october and december of 1996 to estimate the abundance, preferences of the adults to baits (fresh fish, bird liver and human faeces) and the synanthropic index for the most abundant species. A total of 3399 calliphorids of 13 different species were sampled: Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819), Phaenicia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1818), Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, 1826), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850), Paralucilia xanthogeneiates (Dear, 1850), Paralucilia fulvinota (Bigot, 1877), Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann, 1930) and Calliphora erytrocephala Meigen, 1826.

  6. Descripción de las larvas II, III y el pupario de Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Diptera: Calliphoridae Description of the larvae II, III, and the puparium of Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verónica Trigo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas II, III y el pupario de Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. El material se capturó en Tandil (Buenos Aires, Argentina, durante un experimento de sucesión de fauna sarcosaprófaga. Se aportan nuevos caracteres diagnósticos de C. fulvicrura , Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 y Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969 que se pueden hallar sobre un cadáver.The larvae II, III, and the puparium of Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are described. The material was collected in Tandil ( Buenos Aires , Argentina , during an experiment on sarcosaprophagous faunal succession. New diagnostic characters of C. fulvicrura, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775, and Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969 are given that may be found on a corpse.

  7. Survival after submergence in the pupae of five species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Greenberg, B

    1994-09-01

    Survival of pupae of known ages after 1 to 5 d of submersion under water was assessed by determining the emergence of Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen). Survival after 1 d of submergence was < 14% in the white puparial stage, 0-100% in pharate adults nearing eclosion, and approximately 100% in pupae between these two stages. This pattern inversely tracks O2 consumption during metamorphosis. Twenty-five percent of the pupae of three species (P. terraenovae, P. regina, and P. sericata) produced normal adults after 4 d of submersion, but none after 5 d. Among survivors, the pupation period was extended by the duration of submersion. Pupae of C. vicina were least able to withstand drowning. These data are potentially useful in estimating duration of submergence of a corpse in forensic investigations where the corpse becomes submerged after the larvae have developed and pupariated.

  8. The species of the genus Diamesa (Diptera, Chironomidae) known to occur in Italian Alps and Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Urbanelli, Sandra; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-11-15

    Some rare species from Italian Alps, belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae) are here redescribed as adult males, because only old, incomplete descriptions are available for these taxa. Terminology of male genitalia is reviewed, diagnostic features are illustrated in detail, and notes on biology and geographical distribution of the examined species are provided. An identification key to the known adult males is presented.

  9. Quality control of a medicinal larval (Lucilia sericata) debridement device based on released gelatinase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Pickles, S.F.; Pritchard, David I.

    2017-01-01

    Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae are manufactured worldwide for the treatment of chronic wounds. Published research has confirmed that the primary clinical effect of the product, debridement (the degradation of non-viable wound tissue), is accomplished by a range of enzymes released by the larvae during feeding. The quality assessment of larval activity is currently achieved during production using meat-based assays, which monitor insect growth and/or the reduction in s...

  10. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Melia azedarach L. Fruit and Leaf for Use as Botanical Insecticide Caracterización Física y Química del Fruto y Hoja de Melia azedarach para Uso en Manejo Integrado de Plagas

    OpenAIRE

    Italo Chiffelle G; Amanda Huerta F; Diego Lizana R

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken of the physical and chemical characteristics and insecticide properties of melia (Melia azedarach L.) (Meliaceae) fruit and leaves; melia has been introduced in Chile for ornamental purposes. The physical and chemical properties were evaluated in two stages of fruit and leaf maturity, i.e., green /mature, and mature/juvenile, respectively. Laboratory bioassays were carried out on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as an insect model. The diameter of...

  11. First data on Dolichopodidae (Diptera) of the West Kotlin Nature Reserve (Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Grichanov, I.Ya.; Ovsyannikova, E. I.

    2017-01-01

    First data on Dolichopodidae from the West Kotlin Nature Reserve resulted from the short-term visit (June, 2017) are presented. All 25 collected species are firstly recorded for the Kotlin Island. Lamprochromus semiflavus (Strobl, 1880) and Syntormon filiger Verrall, 1912 are new species for the Leningrad Region and Saint Petersburg. The old records of Lamprochromus bifasciatus (Macquart, 1827) and Syntormon pumilus (Meigen, 1824) from the Region are doubted.

  12. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae) New records and distribution of mosquitoes from Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Gustavo C; Lestani, Eduardo A.; J. Martín D'Oria

    2006-01-01

    Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald). Actualmente, en ...

  13. Two new replacement names for the planthopper genera in Dictyopharidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichun Xing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New replacement names are proposed for two genera of the family Dictyopharidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha. The following changes are proposed: Neonotostrophia nom. n. for Notostrophia Emeljanov (not Waterhouse; Emeljanovina nom. n. for Glochina Emeljanov (not Meigen; Neonotostrophia nigrosuturalis (Melichar, 1912 comb. n. from Notostrophia nigrosuturalis (Melichar, 1912 = Dictyophara nigrosuturalis Melichar, 1912 and Emeljanovina dixoni (Distant, 1906 comb. n. from Glochina dixoni (Distant, 1906 = Dictyophara dixoni Distant, 1906.

  14. [Description and key to the main species of Calliphoridae (Diptera) larvae of forensic importance from Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Eliana; Wolff, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of 13 blowfly species from Colombia are described and an illustrated key for all them is presented. All larval instars of Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani), Lucilia eximia (Weidemann) are described, but the second and third instars of Compsomyiops verena (Walter), and only the third instar of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), Lucilia peruviana Robineau-Desvoidy, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou).

  15. The Mondrian matrix: Culicoides biting midge abundance and seasonal incidence during the 2006-2008 epidemic of bluetongue in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiswinkel, R; Scolamacchia, F; Dik, M; Mudde, J; Dijkstra, E; Van Der Ven, I J K; Elbers, A R W

    2014-03-01

    During the northern Europe epidemic of bluetongue (BT), Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were used to capture Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges weekly between November 2006 and December 2008 on 21 livestock farms in the Netherlands. Proven and potential vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) comprised almost 80% of the midges collected: the Obsoletus complex, constituting C. obsoletus (Meigen) and C. scoticus Downes & Kettle (44.2%), C. dewulfi Goetghebuer (16.4%), C. chiopterus (Meigen) (16.3%) and C. pulicaris (Linnaeus) (0.1%). Half of the 24 commonest species of Culicoides captured completed only one (univoltine) or two (bivoltine) generations annually, whereas multivoltine species (including all BTV vectors) cycled through five to six generations (exceeding the one to four generations calculated in earlier decades). Whether this increment signals a change in the phenology of northern Europe Culicoides or simply is an adaptive response that manifests during warmer episodes, thus heightening periodically the incursive potential of midge-borne arboviruses, remains to be clarified. Culicoides duddingstoni Kettle & Lawson, C. grisescens Edwards, C. maritimus Kieffer, C. pallidicornis Kieffer and C. riethi Kieffer are new records for the biting midge fauna of the Netherlands. It is suggested that C. punctatus (Meigen) be added to the European list of vector Culicoides. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Seasonal colonization and decomposition of rat carrion in water and on land in an open field in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, J K; Adler, P H

    1998-09-01

    Decomposition and insect colonization of rat, Rattus rattus L., carrion on land and in water were compared during summer and winter in a plowed field in northwestern South Carolina. During winter, carcasses on land reached the dried-remains stage of decomposition, whereas carcasses in water reached the early-floating stage. During summer, carcasses in both habitats entered the final-remains stage of decomposition in 1-2 wk. Fewer than 30 species of carrion insects were recorded from the carcasses over the duration of the study, probably reflecting the small size of the carcasses and the depauperate fauna of the habitat. Three species of blow flies--Cynomyopsis cadaverina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, and Lucilia illustris (Meigen)--colonized carrion on land during winter, but no insects colonized carrion in water during winter. Two species of blow flies, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen), and 1 species of flesh fly, Sarcophaga bullata Parker, colonized the carrion on land and in water during summer; the blow fly, Phormia regina (Meigen), colonized only the carrion on land. This study demonstrated seasonal variation in decomposition and colonization patterns of carrion in contrasting habitats, with important implications for forensic entomology.

  17. Biting midges of the subfamily Forcipomyiinae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Middle East, with keys and descriptions of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin-Kownacka, Alicja; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Szwedo, Jacek

    2016-10-05

    Middle East biting midges of the genera Atrichopogon Kieffer and Forcipomyia Meigen, subfamily Forcipomyiinae Lenz, covering 41 species are reviewed. Two new species are described and illustrated: Forcipomyia (F.) siverekensis Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. and Forcipomyia (Microhelea) borkenti Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. The list includes 16 species of Atrichopogon and 25 of Forcipomyia. Nine species previously described by Vimmer and Kieffer from the Middle East are treated as nomina dubia and not included in the list.        Keys to identification of Atrichopogon and Forcipomyia species of the Middle East are also provided.

  18. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  19. Effects of ozone on three species of diptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.; Chiu, Y.J.; Cromroy, H.L.

    1972-10-01

    Egg, larval, pupal, and/or adult stages of Musca domestica L., Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), and Drosophila melanogaster Meigen were exposed to a high concentration of ozone for prolonged periods. Results indicated a slight inhibitory effect on egg hatch with virtually no effect on larvae or pupae. Synchronous egg hatch, larval molting, pupation, and adult emergence were observed in ozonated and unexposed groups, indicating no effect on metamorphosis. Ozone exposure in the adult stage seemed to stimulate oviposition and resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of eggs laid and a significant increase in adult populations compared with controls.

  20. Taxonomic notes on Chironomidae (Diptera from Okinawa Island, Japan, with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species: Ionthosmittia cuneipenne sp. nov., Orthocladius (Euorthocladius okinawanus sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella semiovata sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyus, Japan. In addition to these species, twelve species are newly recorded from this island. Diagnostic characters of Tokyobrillia tamamegaseta (Kobayashi et Sasa are emended. Pentapedilum yakuabeum Sasa et Suzuki syn. nov. and Polypedilum yakucedeum Sasa et Suizuki syn. nov. are junior synonyms of Ainuyusurika tuberculatum (Tokunaga. Einfeldia kanazawai (Yamamoto is transferred to the genus Chironomus Meigen and its systematic position is discussed.

  1. Review of the Psychodinae from Mallorca, Spain, with description of Pericoma unipennata, sp. n. (Diptera, Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Stokkan, Morten; Wagner, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    We review the Psychodinae of Mallorca, recognising fifteen species based on recent collections and available literature. Previously unpublished data is presented for eleven species, of which Neoarisemus ibericus Wagner, 1978, Mormia tenebricosa (Vaillant, 1954), Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893), Lepiseodina rothschildi (Eaton, 1913), Paramormia ustulata (Walker, 1856), Philosepedon pyrenaicus Vaillant, 1974 and Psychoda (Psycha) grisescens Tonnoir, 1922 are first records for Mallorca. An old record of Pericoma trifasciata (Meigen, 1804) is considered doubtful. Pericoma unipennata sp. n is described and illustrated based on a male collected at Deía. Distributional data are reviewed for all newly recorded species. Based on the Psychodinae fauna, the zoogeographical affinities of Mallorca are briefly discussed.

  2. New records of Trichoceridae (Diptera) from the island of Mallorca ​.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrašiūnas, Andrius; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen

    2016-01-01

    The Trichoceridae are a small family distributed mainly in the Holarctic Region, most of which are associated with cold seasons and even snow. From the Iberian peninsula, 5 species have been recorded; however only a single previous occurence record exists from the Balearic islands. In this paper we present new records of two species from Mallorca, of which Trichocera (Saltrichocera) saltator (Harris, 1776) has not previously been recorded from the Balearic islands. Trichocera (Saltrichocera) annulata Meigen, 1818 is recorded for the first time from Mallorca. We furthermore discuss the species' distributions within the Mediterranean region and report new morphological data for the Mallorca island form of T. saltator.

  3. Descripción de las larvas II, III y el pupario de Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verónica. TRIGO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas II, III y el pupario de Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. El material se capturó en Tandil (Buenos Aires, Argentina, durante un experimento de sucesión de fauna sarcosaprófaga. Se aportan nuevos caracteres diagnósticos de C. fulvicrura, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 y Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969 que se pueden hallar sobre un cadáver.

  4. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. ROSSI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald. Actualmente, en la Argentina se hallan presentes 226 especies distribuidas en 23 géneros.

  5. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae New records and distribution of mosquitoes from Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Rossi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald. Actualmente, en la Argentina se hallan presentes 226 especies distribuidas en 23 géneros.Twenty one new records and 12 new distributional records of species of the genus Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach & Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald are reported. Comments and changes in the status of species of Howardina Theobald, Ochelrotatus and Lutzia Theobald are included. Currently, in Argentina are present 226 species distributed in 23 genera.

  6. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Redescripción del último estadio larval y de la pupa de Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Ronderos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The fourth instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth is redescribed and illustrated by using phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Immatures were collected by placing floating hydrophytes of the genera Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella and Spirodella (Lemnaceae in Berlesse funnels. The hydrophytes were collected in the Chascomús and Los Talas ponds, both in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The larva show features typical of carnivorous larvae, and it is compared with that of B. nobilis (Winnertz and with a similar species of the genus Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. The pupa is compared with its similar congener B. blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  7. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Cambay Amber Indicate that the Eocene Fauna of the Indian Subcontinent Was Not Isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Singh, Hukam; Gunkel, Simon; Rust, Jes

    2017-01-01

    India's unique and highly diverse biota combined with its unique geodynamical history has generated significant interest in the patterns and processes that have shaped the current distribution of India's flora and fauna and their biogeographical relationships. Fifty four million year old Cambay amber from northwestern India provides the opportunity to address questions relating to endemism and biogeographic history by studying fossil insects. Within the present study seven extant and three fossil genera of biting midges are recorded from Cambay amber and five new species are described: Eohelea indica Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Gedanohelea gerdesorum Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea cambayana Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea borkenti Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., and Meunierohelea orientalis Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp. Fossils of species in the genera Leptoconops Skuse, 1889, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818, Brachypogon Kieffer, 1899, Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911, Serromyia Meigen, 1818, and Mantohelea Szadziewski, 1988 are recorded without formal description. Furthermore, one fossil belonging to the genus Camptopterohelea Wirth & Hubert, 1960 is included in the present study. Our study reveals faunal links among Ceratopogonidae from Cambay amber and contemporaneous amber from Fushun, China, Eocene Baltic amber from Europe, as well as the modern Australasian and the Oriental regions. These findings imply that faunal exchange between Europe, Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber in the early Eocene.

  8. Chironomidae (Diptera and Gammaridae (Amphipoda Fauna in Dupnisa Cave (Sarpdere Village, Demirköy, Kırklareli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Özkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dupnisa Mağarası’nın (Sarpdere Köyü, Demirköy, Kırklareli Chironomidae (Diptera ve Gammaridae (Amphipoda Faunası. Dupnisa Mağarasına 20.08.2001 ve 06.07.2004 tarihlerinde 2 arazi çalışması gerçekleştirildi. 4 örnekleme lokalitesinden Chironomidae (Diptera ve Gammaridae (Amphipoda familyalarına ait örnekler toplandı. Daha sonra laboratuvarda mikroskop altında teşhisleri gerçekleştirildi. 1 nolu lokalitede Chironomidae familyasına ait larva bulunmadı. 2 nolu lokalitede Paratrissocladius excerptus (Walker, 1806; Epoicocladius ephemerae (Kieffer, 1924; Polypedilum (Tripodura scalaenum (Schrank, 1803, 3 nolu lokalitede Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen, 1804; Telmatopelopia nemorum Goetghebuer, 1921; Paratrichocladius rufiventris (Meigen, 1830; Rheotanytarsus sp.; Micropsectra praecox Wiedemann, 1918 ve 4 nolu lokalitede Heleniella orniaticollis Edwards, 1929; Chaetocladius piger Goetghebuer, 1913; Psectrocladius barbimans Edwards, 1929; Polypedilum (Tripodura scalaenum (Schrank, 1803; Micropsectra praecox Wiedemann, 1918 türleri bulundu. Gammaridae familyasından ise 4 örnekleme lokalitesinin herbirinde yalnız Gammarus arduus G.S. Karaman, 1973 türü saptandı

  9. [Comparison of mtDNA extraction from different parts of sarcosaphagous insects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Dong; Cai, Ji-Feng; Su, Ri-Na; Chang, Yun-Feng; Lan, Ling-Mei; Li, Xiang; Wen, Ji-Fang

    2010-10-01

    To explore mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extraction effects of different parts from sarcosaphagous insects using improved cetyltriethylammnonium bromide (CTAB) method. Thirteen Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and 13 Nicrophorus fossor (Erichson) were collected from the corpses of rabbits placed on the outdoor lawn in Huhehot district. Four parts (head, chest muscle, legs and wings) of insect were collected, and the mtDNA of all samples were extracted using CTAB method. The purity and concentration were tested using protein and nucleic acid spectrophotometry. The integrity of the extracted mtDNA and PCR products were checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR products were sequenced and the obtained sequences were imputed into GenBank for comparison. mtDNA were successfully extracted from 10 head samples, 6 legs samples, 4 wing samples and 13 chest muscle samples of the Lucilia sericata (Meigen). Also, mtDNA were successfully extracted from 5 head samples, 8 legs samples, 3 wing samples and 13 chest muscle samples of the Nicrophorus fossor (Erichson). mtDNA can be obtained from chest muscle and other parts of sarcosaphagous insects using the improved CTAB method.

  10. Larval Distribution and Behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Relative to Other Species on Florida Black Bear (Carnivora: Ursidae) Decomposing Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, S L; Hogsette, J A; Butler, J F

    2014-02-01

    Larval interactions of dipteran species, blow flies in particular, were observed and documented daily over time and location on five black bear carcasses in Gainesville, FL, USA, from June 2002 - September 2004. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) or Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae were collected first, after which Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) oviposited on the carcasses in multiple locations (i.e., neck, anus, and exposed flesh) not inhabited already by the other blow fly larvae. Within the first week of decomposition, C. rufifacies larvae grew to ≥12 mm, filling the carcasses with thousands of larvae and replacing the other calliphorid larvae either through successful food source competition or by predation. As a result, C. macellaria and C. megacephala were not collected past their third instar feeding stage. The blow fly species, C. megacephala, C. macellaria, Lucilia caeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and C. rufifacies, completed two developmental cycles in the 88.5-kg carcass. This phenomenon might serve to complicate or prevent the calculation of an accurate postmortem interval.

  11. Phenotypic plasticity for Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae larval olfactory behaviour in response to whole fruit olfactory stimuli Plasticidad fenotípica para el comportamiento olfativo larval de Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae como respuesta a estímulos olfativos de frutos enteros

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    Nicolás J. Lavagnino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae is the quintessential insect model organism. However, with a few exceptions, ecological features of this species have been poorly investigated. In the present work we describe a behavioural assay to quantify olfactory behaviour of D. melanogaster larvae in response to complex olfactory stimuli that are present in the natural environments, i. e.: rotten fruits that act as hosts in nature. Results obtained using this assay reveal that there is intra-population genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity for the character in a natural population from west-central Argentina.Drosophila melanogaster Meigen 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae es el organismo modelo por excelencia en insectos. Sin embargo, salvo algunas excepciones, los aspectos ecológicos de esta especie han sido poco estudiados. En el presente trabajo, se describe un ensayo comportamental para cuantificar la conducta olfativa de larvas de D. melanogaster en respuesta a estímulos olfativos complejos que se encuentran en los ambientes naturales, i. e.: frutos en descomposición que son hospedadores en la naturaleza. Los resultados obtenidos, utilizando este ensayo, revelaron que existe variabilidad genética intra-poblacional y plasticidad fenotípica para el carácter en una población natural del centro oeste de Argentina.

  12. Dispersal and distribution of Calliphoridae (Diptera) immatures from animal carcasses in southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmer, J W; Meek, C L

    1996-07-01

    Spatial distributions of calliphorid pupae (based on adult emergence) from swine carcasses located in woods and pasture were determined during 4 seasons in southern Louisiana. Adult emergence was substantially greater in pastures than woods for all seasons except winter. Secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), was the predominant calliphorid species collected ( > 95%) during summer and fall; whereas, black blow fly, Phormia regina (Meigen), was the primary species (86%) during spring. The highest densities of calliphorid pupae per square meter were located within 0.9 m of the animal carcasses in the woods and the pasture (summer); however, the number of calliphorid pupae per square meter during the summer was substantially greater in the pastures than in the woods (2,370/m2 compared with 77/m2). Postfeeding calliphorid larvae preferred to disperse toward the southeastern quadrant during summer and spring and toward the southeastern to southwestern quadrants in fall. The winter evaluation period was the most prolonged (85 d), had the least number of emergent adults (only 6-11% of the populations that emerged in the other seasons), and consisted of predominantly, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen).

  13. La distribución de las Calliphoridae en la Argentina (Diptera The distribution of the Calliphoridae in Argentina (Diptera

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    Juan C. Mariluis

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer la distribución y la riqueza específica de las Calliphoridae en la Argentina. Se señalan las siguientes especies: Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, Chlorobrachycoma versicolor (Bigot, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, Hemilucilia souzalopesi Mello, Neta chilensis (Walker, Paralucilia fulvinota (Bigot, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, Phaenicia cluvia (Walker, Phaenicia cuprina (Wiedemann, Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann, Phaenicia peruviana (Robineau-Desvoidy, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann y Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou. Se aportan setenta y tres nuevas localidades para la Argentina.This paper deals with the distribution and specific richness of Calliphoridae in Argentina. The species treated are: Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, Chlorobrachycoma versicolor (Bigot, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, Hemilucilia souzalopesi Mello, Neta chilensis (Walker, Paralucilia fulvinota (Bigot, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, Phaenicia cluvia (Walker, Phaenicia cuprina (Wiedemann, Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann, Phaenicia peruviana (Robineau-Desvoidy, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann and

  14. Identification of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), with a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figarola, J L; Skoda, S R; Berkebile, D R; Foster, J E

    2001-12-28

    Myiasis caused by screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is devastating to warm-blooded animals and economically important to livestock producers. It is difficult to distinguish these pests, immature screwworms, from immatures of other non-pest fly species that often occur in animal wounds; it would be helpful to have tools available that do not rely on morphological characteristics. We developed two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), highly specific for the screwworm, and used them in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-ELISA), that differentiated screwworm eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults from those of the closely related secondary screwworm, C. macellaria (Fabricius) as well as Phormia regina (Meigen), Phaenicia sericata (Meigen), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In a blind study, the microplate MAb-ELISA, which took about 4h to complete, displayed high specificity (99%), sensitivity (92%) and overall accuracy (97%) in distinguishing all life stages of the screwworm. Electrophoresis results suggested that the two monoclonal antibodies recognized identical conformational epitopes present in all screwworm life stages. The screwworm eradication program, successful in eradicating this pest from the US, Mexico, most of Central America and Libya (after an accidental introduction), could benefit in future eradication, surveillance, and exclusion efforts by developing a reliable field identification kit based on MAb-ELISA that accurately and quickly distinguished cases of screwworm myiasis.

  15. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner

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    Farrah Zaidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921 including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037. A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21% while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34% targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882 including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244 and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244. Others (n=155 including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia illustris (Meigen, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker, Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication “Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan” (Zaidi et al., 2016 [1].

  16. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-02-10

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters. 

  17. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary relationships among mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from the northeastern United States based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, John J; Andreadis, Theodore G; Vossbrinck, Charles R

    2006-05-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Culicidae native to the northeastern United States were investigated by analyzing small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequences obtained from 39 species representing nine genera. Molecular phylogenies were consistent with traditional classifications based on morphological characters except for the placements of Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy and Uranotaenia Lynch Arribalzaga. In our analyses, 1) Anopheles Meigen was strongly supported as the sister taxon to the remaining Culicidae; 2) Toxorhynchites Theobald was represented as a distinct monophyletic sister group to the Culicinae; 3) Psorophora formed a basal clade to Culiseta Felt, Coquillettidia Dyar, and Culex L. but also was shown as a sister taxon to Aedes Meigen and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga; 4) Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) seems to be a sister group to Culiseta; 5) placement of Uranotaenia was inconclusive and seemed to be either a sister group to the Aedes and Ochlerotatus or a basal taxon to all other culicines; and 6) Aedes and Ochlerotatus formed two separate and distinct clades, providing phylogenetic data consistent with the recent elevation of Ochlerotatus to the generic level as proposed by Reinert (2000). The utility of 18S rDNA for evaluating phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships among mosquito taxa was demonstrated at the genus and species levels. To our knowledge, this study represents the first molecular-based phylogenetic study of mosquito species occurring within this geographic region of North America and contains the largest number of species that have been examined among the genera Aedes and Ochlerotatus.

  18. Effect of freezing on the initial colonization of the carcass with necrophagous organisms

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    Šuláková Hana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tato studie byla zaměřena na zjištění, zda zamražení kadaveru před samotnou volnou expozicí ovlivňuje druhové složení dvoukřídlých a rychlost kolonizace při volné expozici. Při dvou experimentech byly použity kadávery kura domácího (Gallus gallus f. domestica L. o hmotnosti cca 1,5 kg, které byly všechny usmrceny stejným způsobem, avšak polovina byla před volnou expozicí zmražena. Kadávery byly exponovány v městě Smečno, Středočeský kraj, v červnu a červenci 2013. Výsledky experimentu prokázaly, že předem zmražený i čerstvý kadáver kolonizují stejní zástupci bzučivek (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Během pokusů byly zjištěny druhy Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Lucilia illustris (Meigen, 1826, Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, 1922, Phormia regina (Meigen, 1826 a Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau- Desvoidy, 1830. Procentuální zastoupení jednotlivých druhů bylo při obou variantách shodné. Zmražený a čerstvý kadáver se lišily v celkovém počtu jedinců (larev, kteří se na zvířatech vyvíjeli, a ve způsobu, jakým se kadávery rozkládaly. Součástí diskuze je zhodnocení využití dosavadních výsledků v kriminalistické praxi.

  19. Development of the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), at five constant temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S. V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.; Turco, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. We calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. For each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. The mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory data. Development times of C. megacephala were compared with that of two other closely related species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Phormia regina (Meigen). Ambient and larval mass temperatures were collected from field studies conducted from 2001–2004. Field study data indicated that adult fly activity was reduced at lower ambient temperatures, but once a larval mass was established, heat generation occurred. These development times and durations can be used for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI).

  20. Biting Midges of the Genus Culicoides in South Carolina Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, Mark P.; Swanson, Dustin A.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected during the summer of 2007 at the Greenville and Riverbanks Zoos in South Carolina with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps equipped with ultraviolet or incandescent lights and baited with carbon dioxide. Sixteen species of Culicoides were collected, four of which represented more than 80%. They were Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), and Culicoides sanguisuga (Coquillett). C. guttipennis was found on a dead colobus monkey and a dead golden-headed lion tamarin; Culicoides husseyi Wirth & Blanton was collected from an unidentified, abandoned bird's nest. Ultraviolet light-equipped traps captured significantly more Culicoides specimens than traps with incandescent light. Half of the collected species previously have been associated with vertebrate pathogens, indicating a potential risk to captive animals. PMID:20569132

  1. The Use of the Developmental Rate of the Aquatic Midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the Assessment of the Postsubmersion Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Medina, Alejandro; Soriano Hernando, Óscar; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2015-05-01

    Nonbiting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) are the most abundant members of the fauna associated with submerged carcasses, but their use in the medicolegal context is very restricted because of their complex ontogeny. In this case, the corpse of a woman was recovered in late spring from a river in Granada (Iberian Peninsula). It showed obvious signs of long permanence in the aquatic environment and, along with pulmonary and microscopical analyses, led to the conclusion that the cause of death was drowning. Several larvae-like specimens were sampled from the scalp and later identified by morphological external features as IV instar larvae of Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was performed to confirm the identification. The knowledge of the biology of C. riparius at low temperatures was critical to assess a postsubmersion interval of 16-17 days. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Clarification of Einfeldia Kieffer, 1922 (Diptera: Chironomidae) with E. australiensis (Freeman, 1961), comb. n. based on immature stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Mulder, Monica; Spies, Martin

    2016-08-31

    The immature stages are described for the first time for Chironomus (Xenochironomus) australiensis Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the adult male is redescribed including from type specimens. The species does not belong to Chironomus Meigen or Xenochironomus Kieffer, but is best placed in a modestly expanded Einfeldia Kieffer. Application of this genus name is clarified, including by a lectotype fixation for its type species, E. pectoralis Kieffer, 1924. Einfeldia australiensis (Freeman) comb. n. provides the first record of the genus from Australia; otherwise the genus is reported confidently only from North America, Central America and western Europe to Japan. The immature stages of E. australiensis occur in relatively shallow mesotrophic to eutrophic dune lakes and maars with circum-neutral pH and high conductivity, from southeastern Queensland to southern Australia. The cytology is described briefly from larval salivary glands. Alternative genus placements for the species are discussed, and problems with Einfeldia and connected systematics in the tribe Chironomini are addressed.

  3. Indoors forensic entomology: colonization of human remains in closed environments by specific species of sarcosaprophagous flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Saukko, Pekka; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E

    2010-06-15

    Fly species that are commonly recovered on human corpses concealed in houses or other dwellings are often dependent on human created environments and might have special features in their biology that allow them to colonize indoor cadavers. In this study we describe nine typical cases involving forensically relevant flies on human remains found indoors in southern Finland. Eggs, larvae and puparia were reared to adult stage and determined to species. Of the five species found the most common were Lucilia sericata Meigen, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Protophormia terraenovae Robineau-Desvoidy. The flesh fly Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt is reported for the first time to colonize human cadavers inside houses and a COI gene sequence based DNA barcode is provided for it to help facilitate identification in the future. Fly biology, colonization speed and the significance of indoors forensic entomological evidence are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward development of neem-based repellents against the Scottish Highland biting midge Culicoides impunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, A; Evans, K A; Strang, R H C; Cole, M

    2004-12-01

    Oil of neem, from the tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), was evaluated for repellent and antifeedant activity against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), by three complementary methods with serial dilutions. Electroantennograms revealed the sensitivity of Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) females to neem > or = 0.10%. Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer females were repelled by > or = 1% in a Y-tube olfactometer, Using a membrane feeder for wild-caught parous females of C. impunctatus, the proportion blood-feeding was significantly reduced by topical applications of neem oil > or = 0.10% concentrations, with blood-feeding completely prevented by > or =1%. On the basis of these response data, we developed 2% neem-based formulations for personal protection against biting midges.

  5. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Maria M. RONDEROS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  6. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae

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    James O Hara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically.

  7. Korean Species of the Subgenus Ophina (Diptera: Tachinidae

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    Jong-Su Lim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We recognized Linnaemya microchaetopsis Shima, L. picta (Meigen and L. zachvatkini Zimin in Korean Linnaemya subgenus Ophina Robineau-Desvoidy and the latter two are reported for the first time in Korea. The subgenus Ophina shares the following morphological characteristics (sensu Shima: 1 the male tergite 6 is fused mid-dorsally with sternite 7+8; 2 the female tergite 6 and tergite 7 are almost always divided longitudinally into two hemitergites; 3 the female tergite 6 is always longer than the tergite 7; 4 circus parallelsided in caudal view; 5 epiphallus present; and 6 pteropleural seta long, reaching posterior margin of lower calypter. We provide a key to the included Korean species, as well as descriptions and illustrations with their diagnostic characters indicated.

  8. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-08-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.

  9. Insect Visitors and Potential Pollinators of Orchis militaris (Orchidaceae) in Southern Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneresse, Thomas; Tyteca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    As part of a research project on the food deception strategy in Orchis militaris (L.), the objective of this study was to identify insect visitors and potential pollinators of this orchid species in Belgium. In 2013, insects were collected over 2 d per site in five localities distributed in Southern Belgium (Wallonia). A total of 104 insects belonging to 49 species were caught. Dipterans were the most abundant visitors (50% of total specimens), followed by Hymenopterans (32%). Rhingia campestris Meigen, Bombylius venosus Mikan, Apis mellifera (L.), and Bombus lapidarius (L.) were the most abundant species. Only five specimens bore one to more than 10 pollinia: four honeybees (A. mellifera) and one bumblebee worker (B. lapidarius). These two species should be considered as potential pollinators in the study area, but probably not confirmed ones. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. A specialized araneophagic predator's short-term nutrient utilization depends on the macronutrient content of prey rather than on prey taxonomic affiliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Søren; Li, Daiqin; Mayntz, David

    2010-01-01

    or nutrient utilization efficiency when feeding on spider prey compared with insect prey. Three groups of Portia quei Zabka are fed either their preferred spider prey or one of two types of flies (Drosophila melanogaster Meigen) that differ in nitrogen and lipid content. Portia quei shows a higher feeding......A specialist predator that has a specialized diet, prey-specific prey-capture behaviour and a preference for a particular type of prey may or may not be specialized metabolically. Previous studies have shown that jumping spiders of the genus Portia prey on other spiders using prey-specific prey......-capture behaviour, prefer spiders as prey to insects and gain long-term benefits in terms of higher survival and growth rates on spider diets than on insect diets. However, it is unclear whether there are substances uniquely present in spiders on which Portia depends, or, alternatively, spiders and insects all...

  11. Phenotypic plasticity for Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae larval olfactory behaviour in response to whole fruit olfactory stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás J. LAVAGNINO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae es el organismo modelo por excelencia en insectos. Sin embargo, salvo algunas excepciones, los aspectos ecológicos de esta especie han sido poco estudiados. En el presente trabajo, se describe un ensayo comportamental para cuantificar la conducta olfativa de larvas de D. melanogaster en respuesta a estímulos olfativos complejos que se encuentran en los ambientes naturales, i. e.: frutos en descomposición que son hospedadores en la naturaleza. Los resultados obtenidos, utilizando este ensayo, revelaron que existe variabilidad genética intra-poblacional y plasticidad fenotípica para el carácter en una población natural del centro oeste de Argentina.

  12. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

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    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  13. Facultative myiasis of domestic cats by Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Bonacci, Teresa; Del Zingaro, Carlo Nicola Francesco; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Massimo; Leis, Marilena

    2017-10-01

    We describe five cases of myiasis of domestic cats, Felis silvestris catus L. (Carnivora: Felidae), reported in 2016 in northern Italy and caused by three Diptera species: Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae). Three were cases of traumatic myiasis, one by S. argyrostoma and two by L. sericata, one was a case of auricular myiasis by C. vicina and one was a case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by an association of L. sericata and C. vicina. The myiasis by S. argyrostoma is the first reported case of this species in a cat, whereas the two myiases by C. vicina are the first reported cases in cats in Italy.

  14. The blowflies of the Madeira Archipelago: species diversity, distribution and identification (Diptera, Calliphoridae s. l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Prado e Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the taxonomic diversity and distribution of blowflies from the Madeira Archipelago is updated. New and interesting findings are reported for poorly studied islands and islets of this archipelago, together with a brief analysis of the diversity of Macaronesian Calliphoridae s. l. Seven blowfly species were collected during this study, including the first records of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Pollenia rudis (Fabricius, 1794 and Stomorhina lunata (Fabricius, 1805 from Porto Santo, and of C. vicina, L. sericata and S. lunata from Desertas Islands. The presence of Calliphora loewi Enderlein, 1903 in Madeira Laurisilva forest is discussed and its first instar larva is redescribed, revealing important differences in relation to its original description. An identification key to the adult Madeiran blowflies is provided for the first time.

  15. Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae

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    Žikić V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Sićevo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  16. Additions to the Diptera Acalyptrata fauna (Anthomyzidae, Stenomicridae, Carnidae, Milichiidae, Heleomyzidae of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roháček Jindřich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of five species of Diptera Acalyptrata representing novelties for the faunas of Bohemia or Moravia (Czech Republic and Slovakia are given with discussion on their significance to the biodiversity knowledge of local faunas and a summary of their biology, distribution and identification with new information obtained from the material examined. Stiphrosoma humerale Roháček & Barber, 2005 (Anthomyzidae and Stenomicra cogani Irwin, 1982 (Stenomicridae are new additions to the dipterous fauna of Slovakia. Records of Meoneura alpina Hennig, 1948 (Carnidae and Milichia speciosa Meigen, 1830 (Milichiidae are the first from Bohemia and represent new northernmost distribution limits of these species; those of Heleomyza (Anypotacta setulosa (Czerny, 1924 are the first from Moravia. Macrophotographs of all these species are presented to document the specimens recorded and/or to facilitate identification of these uncommon species. In addition, new records of S. humerale from Russia: E Siberia and of M. speciosa from Greece: Peloponnesse are given.

  17. Evaluation of bait traps as a means to predict initial blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) communities associated with decomposing swine remains in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Lauren M; Gemmellaro, M Denise; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Hamilton, George C

    2017-09-01

    Information about blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species distributions can be valuable for criminal investigations, with regards to determining movement of remains from one location to another and time of colonization estimates, making these data extremely useful. Past work has been conducted on initial species community structure across New Jersey, USA using traps baited with beef liver; however, if these same species frequent vertebrate carrion remains unclear. In order to evaluate these data, piglet carcasses were placed out once every two weeks for a year in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. The same methods were implemented as those used for traps baited with beef liver, with length of collections being based on ADD values. Seven calliphorid species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Pollenia pediculata Macquart, Pollenia rudis (F.) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) were collected from the carcasses. During this experiment L. sericata, L. coeruleiviridis and P. regina were the dominant adult blow flies captured, totaling 38.2%, 29.2% and 29.2% respectively of all adults caught. All three species colonized the carcasses as well, although not all were dominant colonizers. C. vicina was recorded ovipositing in December, while the piglet was submerged in approximately 5cm of snow. All species that totaled at least 1% of the total collection (adults captured and larvae reared) were the same across baited traps and carcasses. This study supports the use of beef liver baits for surveying forensically important blow flies and the application of such information to forensic investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Seasonal and Geographic Variation in Biodiversity of Forensically Important Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, L M; Jennings, D E; Tomberlin, J K; Hamilton, G C

    2015-09-01

    Determining the time of colonization of human or other animal remains by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) can play an important role in criminal investigations. However, blow fly presence in a given area is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic variables such as temperature and habitat. We wanted to assess the biodiversity of adult blow flies in New Jersey, USA, where very little is known about these taxa. Toward that end we collected adult blow flies biweekly from traps baited with bovine liver and placed across three regions in New Jersey over a 2-yr period (2011-2013). We collected and identified 9,257 adult calliphorids, comprising six genera and 12 species. Blow fly assemblages composed of these species varied by season, but community composition did not vary among regions within a given season. Three species, Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and Phormia regina (Meigen) comprised 88.5% of all adult blow flies collected (42.6, 25.9, 20.0%, respectively). Combining all regions, the dominant species for both spring and summer was L. coeruleiviridis comprising 35.1% of all adults caught in spring and 64.1% in summer. P. regina was the dominant species in fall, totaling 40.1% of all adults caught and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) was the dominant species for winter, totaling 44.8% of all adults caught. Our findings provide the first assessment of blow fly communities in New Jersey, and these results can be applied to surrounding states where data are severely lacking for forensic application. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  1. Calliphoridae (Diptera en parches de Selva Pedemontana con distinto grado de intervención antrópica en Tucumán (Argentina Calliphoridae (Diptera in pedemontane forest patches with different degrees of human intervention in Tucumán (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía M. Olea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el noroeste de la Argentina, se encuentra la ecoregión de las Yungas, donde existe escasa información ecológica sobre Calliphoridae. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo ampliar el conocimiento sobre la riqueza, la composición y la abundancia de Calliphoridae en tres parches selváticos, en áreas con distinto grado de urbanización. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente desde noviembre de 2009 hasta mayo de 2010 en tres localidades: San Miguel de Tucumán (sitio urbano, Nueva Esperanza (sitio rural y El Taficillo (selva. Se registraron 8 especies: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia sp., Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello y Calliphora nigribasis Macquart. Para las especies más abundantes, se calculó el Índice de Sinantropía (IS. La asociación entre la abundancia de las especies y los sitios fue examinada mediante un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP. Lucilia cluvia fue dominante en todos los sitios y muestras, con una leve predominancia hacia sectores menos afectados por la urbanización. Los resultados del presente estudio reflejan la composición de los ensambles de Calliphoridae representativos de la Selva Pedemontana de las Yungas de Tucumán, caracterizados por una fuerte dominancia de especies del genero Lucilia.The Yungas ecoregion is located in the northwest of Argentina, where the ecological information on Calliphoridae is scarce. The aim of this work was to provide the information on richness, composition and abundance of Calliphoridae along urban-rural gradients in the Yungas. Monthly samples were obtained between November 2009 and May 2010 from three localities: San Miguel de Tucumán (urban site, Nueva Esperanza (rural site and El Taficillo (forest. Eight blowfly species were collected: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia sp., Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya

  2. Calliphoridae (Diptera from Southeastern Argentinean Patagonia: Species Composition and Abundance Calliphoridae (Diptera del Sudeste de la Patagonia Argentina: Composición Específica y Abundancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Schnack

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and spatial and temporal numerical trends of blow flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae species from three southeastern Patagonia localities: Río Grande (53° 48' S, 67° 36' W (province of Tierra del Fuego, Río Gallegos (51° 34' S, 69° 14' W and Puerto Santa Cruz (50° 04' S, 68° 27' W (province de Santa Cruz were studied during November, December (1997, and January and February (1998. Results showed remarkable differences of overall fly abundance and species relative importance at every sampling site; nevertheless, they shared a poor species representation (S £ 6. The cosmopolitan Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, the nearly worldwide Lucilia sericata (Meigen, and the native Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy prevailed over the remaining species. Records of Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, a species indigenous to the Northern Hemisphere are noteworthy.Se estudian la composición y las variaciones numéricas espacio-temporales de especies de Calliphoridae (Diptera de tres localidades del sudeste patagónico: Río Grande (53° 48' S, 67° 36' W (provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Río Gallegos (51° 34' S, 69° 14' W y Puerto Santa Cruz (50° 04' S, 68° 27' W (provincia de Santa Cruz, a partir de muestreos realizados en noviembre, diciembre (1997, enero y febrero (1998. Comparando los sitios de muestreo, los resultados obtenidos muestran diferencias marcadas en la abundancia total de la taxocenosis como de cada una de sus especies, destacándose la escasa riqueza específica de cada uno de ellos (S £ 6. Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (cosmopolita, Lucilia sericata (Meigen (de amplia distribución mundial y Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy (nativa, son las mejor representadas numéricamente. Se subraya el hallazgo, en el área de estudio, de Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, especie indígena del hemisferio norte.

  3. Acalyptrate flies (Diptera on glacial sand deposits in the Hlučínsko region (NE Czech Republic: most interesting records

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    Roháček Jindřich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of six species of the families Ulidiidae, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Milichiidae, Chloropidae and Curtonotidae from glacial sand deposits in the Hlučínsko region (NW Czech Republic are presented and their association with sandy habitats are discussed. Two thermophilous and/or xerophilous species, Anthomyza elbergi Andersson, 1976 (Anthomyzidae and Desmometopa discipalpis Papp, 1993 (Milichiidae represent new additions to the fauna of the Czech Republic. Two psammophilous or psammobiont species, Eutropha variegata Loew, 1866 (Chloropidae and Curtonotum anus (Meigen, 1830 (Curtonotidae are recorded for the first time from Moravia and the Czech Silesia respectively, the latter from a locality lying on northern border of its distributional range. Also Asteia elegantula Zetterstedt, 1847 (Asteiidae is first recorded from the Czech Silesia and Desmometopa discipalpis is recorded from its northernmost known locality. Information on microhabitats of these species and also the psammobiont Tetanops myopina Fallén, 1820 (Ulidiidae in sandpits are provided and most of them were photographed alive. The origins of populations of these species on glacial sands in the Hlučínsko region are discussed and it is concluded that while Asteia elegantula and Eutropha variegata are widespread in the W Palaearctic, Curtonotum anus and Desmometopa discipalpis are distinctly of southern origin and, most interestingly, Tetanops myopina and Anthomyza elbergi seem to originate from northern Europe and may have reached this area already during the Saalian glaciation (cca 160 000 ya.

  4. The Effect of Combinations of Food Insects for Continuous Rearing of the Wing Polymorphic Water Strider Limnogonus Fossarum fossarum (Hemiptera: Gerridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Y; Hagizuka, C; Ohshima, I

    2016-01-01

    The water strider Limnogonus fossarum fossarum (F.) (Hemiptera: Gerridae) shows a macropterous, micropterous, and apterous polymorphism. Although a long photoperiod condition induces winged morphs, preliminary studies have revealed that crossing between winged morphs increased the proportion of macropterous individuals, suggesting that the genetic factors also affect wing-morph determination in this species. Assessing the genetic backgrounds of wing polymorphism requires constant and repeatable methods for rearing. This study attempts to establish a continuous rearing method for L. f. fossarum under constant diet conditions. Initially, we maintain the water striders with two Drosophila species as a food, but viability until adulthood is less than 20%. We then add the storage pest Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), which are readily reared in the laboratory, to the diets. As a result, nymphs fed on P. interpunctella (even only until the second instar) show significantly higher viability and shorter developmental period than nymphs fed on Drosophila alone. Moreover, feeding on D. melanogaster (Meigen) reared on cholesterol-enriched medium instead of a normal medium significantly increases viability in the next generation. This means that only the two food-insect species are enough for establishing a substantial number of individuals in segregating generations (F2 and backcross), limiting DNA and RNA contaminations from food insects with genome information. Thus, the present rearing method opens the way to elucidating the genetic backgrounds of the wing polymorphism in L. f. fossarum. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  5. Chromosomal organization of the ribosomal RNA genes in the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae

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    Larisa Gunderina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal localization of ribosomal RNA coding genes has been studied by using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization in 21 species from the genus Chironomus Meigen, 1803. Analysis of the data has shown intra- and interspecific variation in number and location of 5.8S rDNA hybridization sites in 17 species from the subgenus Chironomus and 4 species from the subgenus Camptochironomus Kieffer, 1914. In the majority of studied species the location of rDNA sites coincided with the sites where active NORs (nucleolus organizer regions were found. The number of hybridization sites in karyotypes of studied chironomids varied from 1 to 6. More than half of the species possessed only one NOR (12 out of 21. Two rDNA hybridization sites were found in karyotypes of five species, three – in two species, and five and six sites – in one species each. NORs were found in all chromosomal arms of species from the subgenus Chironomus with one of them always located on arm G. On the other hand, no hybridization sites were found on arm G in four studied species from the subgenus Camptochironomus. Two species from the subgenus Chironomus – Ch. balatonicus Devai, Wuelker & Scholl, 1983 and Ch. “annularius” sensu Strenzke, 1959 – showed intraspecific variability in the number of hybridization signals. Possible mechanisms of origin of variability in number and location of rRNA genes in the karyotypes of species from the genus Chironomus are discussed.

  6. Rapid Recovery of Chironomidae (Diptera) in Little Mill Creek (Kansas, U.S.A.) After the Decommissioning of a Waste Water Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, R. W.; Ferrington, L. C.

    2005-05-01

    In June 1995 the Lenexa Waste Water Treatment Plant was decommissioned, providing an opportunity to study recovery of Chironomidae community structure in Little Mill Creek. Using pupal exuviae, weekly changes in the species richness and composition of Chironomidae emerging upstream and downstream of the effluent outfall was evaluated from two weeks before decommissioning to eight weeks post-decommissioning. Chironomidae emergence was clearly different between upstream and downstream sites both before and shortly after effluent input ceased. Before decommissioning, sites immediately downstream of the effluent had low species richness and were dominated by Chironomus riparius (Meigen) and other tolerant taxa, with some recovery at sites farther downstream. Two weeks after decommissioning, only sites immediately downstream of the former effluent were clearly impacted, but effects were reduced compared to pre-recovery collections. At five weeks post-decommissioning, species richness was only slightly lower at the sites immediately downstream of the former effluent and the composition of common species (i.e., >5% of relative abundance) was similar between upstream and downstream sites. Rapid recovery of chironomid emergence below the sewage effluent likely resulted from both colonization of drifting larvae from upstream sources and adult dispersal and oviposition, indicating rapid responses in emergence as water quality conditions improved.

  7. Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) in eastern Canadian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Isabelle; Martin, Jon; Carew, Melissa; Hare, Landis

    2013-11-29

    Chironomus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae are usually the largest sediment-burrowing chironomids, and as such often constitute a major part of the freshwater infaunal biomass. However, use of this genus in ecological, environmental and paleoecological studies is hampered by the fact that Chironomus larvae are difficult to identify to species because the larvae of many species are morphologically similar. We used a combination of morphological, cytological and genetic techniques to distinguish Chironomus larvae collected from 31 water bodies located in eastern Canada, producing 17 distinguishable groupings. These groups of larvae were ultimately identified as belonging to 14 known species (C. anthracinus, C. bifurcatus, C. cucini, C. decorus-group sp. 2, C. dilutus, C. entis, C. frommeri, C. harpi, C. maturus, C. nr. atroviridis (sp. 2i), C. ochreatus, C. plumosus, C. staegeri and C. 'tigris') and three other species that remain unidentified (C. sp. NAI-III). No single approach served to delimit and identify larvae of all 17 Chironomus species that we collected. Although we expected that morphological criteria alone would be insufficient, our results suggest that DNA barcoding, using either the mitochondrial cox1 or the nuclear gb2β gene, was also inadequate for separating some Chironomus species. Thus we suggest that multiple approaches will often be needed to correctly identify Chironomus larvae to species.

  8. Differentiation of Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, N; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2005-11-01

    Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) and Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are sibling species of the Obsoletus group. This group comprises species of biting midges that are suspect vectors of bluetongue virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, BTV) and African horse sickness virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, AHSV). BTV and AHSV have been isolated several times from females of this group, although it has not been possible to determine the particular species harboring the virus, because of the inability to clearly identify the females of each species based on morphology. Both sexes of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus midges from Catalonia and the Balearics (Spain) were sequenced for the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and these sequences were analyzed to determine intra- and interspecific genetic variability. Species-specific primers for C. obsoletus and C. scoticus were designed and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay based on the COI gene and using a hemi-nested PCR technique was developed for reliably distinguishing the females of both species. The species-specific PCR diagnostic was compared with morphological discrimination of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus females. The morphologic characters were not fully reliable.

  9. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids.

  10. Quality control of a medicinal larval (Lucilia sericata) debridement device based on released gelatinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, S F; Pritchard, D I

    2017-06-01

    Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae are manufactured worldwide for the treatment of chronic wounds. Published research has confirmed that the primary clinical effect of the product, debridement (the degradation of non-viable wound tissue), is accomplished by a range of enzymes released by larvae during feeding. The quality assessment of larval activity is currently achieved during production using meat-based assays, which monitor insect growth and/or the reduction in substrate mass. To support this, the present authors developed a complementary radial diffusion enzymatic assay to produce a visual and measureable indication of the activity of larval alimentary products (LAP) collected under standardized conditions, against a gelatin substrate. Using basic laboratory equipment and reagents, the assay is rapid and suited to high throughput. Assay reproducibility is high (standard deviation: 0.06-0.27; coefficient of variation: 0.75-4.31%) and the LAP collection procedure does not adversely affect larval survival (mortality: quality control assay. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Ostrinia nubilalis parasitism and the field abundance of non-target insects in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguet, Denis; Chaufaux, Josette; Micoud, Annie; Delos, Marc; Naibo, Bernard; Bombarde, Fany; Marque, Gilles; Eychenne, Nathalie; Pagliari, Carine

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated in field trials the effects on non-target species, of transgenic corn producing the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1998, we collected Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) larvae from transgenic Bt corn (Novartis Hybrid 176) and non-Bt corn at four geographical sites. We found a significant variation in parasitism by the tachinids Lydella thompsoni (Herting) and Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) among sites, and more parasitism in non-Bt than in Bt fields. The Bt effect did not vary significantly among fields. In 1999, we performed a field experiment at two sites, comparing the temporal abundance of non-target arthropods in Bt corn (Monsanto Hybrid MON810) and non-Bt corn. The non-target insects studied included the aphids Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.), the bug Orius insidiosus (Say), the syrphid Syrphus corollae (Meigen), the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (L.), the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), thrips and hymenopteran parasitoids. For all species but one, the number of individuals varied greatly over the season but did not differ between the types of corn. The only exception was thrips which, at one site, was significantly more abundant in Bt corn than in non-Bt corn. However this difference did not remain significant when we took the multiple tests into account. Implications for pest resistance management, population dynamics and risk assessment are discussed.

  12. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.

  13. Chromosomal location of heterochromatin and 45S rDNA sites in four South American triatomines (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bardella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triatominae are distributed in Brazilian regions and are the vector of Chagas disease. This group is also characterized by lower karyotype variability, occurrence of holokinetic chromosomes and inverted meiosis of the sex chromosomes. In this study, we determined the karyotype of four species of the genus Triatoma Laporte, 1832 using chromosome measurement, chromosome banding and FISH with a 45S rDNA probe. All samples showed 2n = 20A+XY with chromosomes sorted by size in decreasing order. Heterochromatin of Triatoma infestans melanosoma Lent, Jurberg, Galvão, Carcavallo, 1994 is distributed among eight autosomes and the sex chromosomes. In Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911, T. matogrossensis Leite, Barbosa, 1953 and T. rubrovaria Blanchard, 1834, heterochromatin was restricted to the Y chromosome, which was characterized as DAPI+ (weak signal. FISH using a 45S rDNA probe of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 showed differences in the number and location of hybridization sites. T. brasiliensis and T. rubrovaria showed the signal on one autosome pair. T. matogrossensis showed signals on both sex chromosomes, and T. infestans melanosoma only on the X chromosome. Conventional banding analysis suggests a closer relationship between T. brasiliensis, T. matogrossensis and T. rubrovaria, except with regard to 45S rDNA location in T. matogrossensis, and a more differentiated karyotype in T. infestans melanosoma.

  14. Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies.

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    Bekka S Brodie

    Full Text Available The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1 young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red except for ultraviolet (UV; (2 the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3 moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

  15. A key to larvae of species belonging to the genus Diamesa from Alps and Apennines (Italy

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    Bruno Rossaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Alps and Apennines (Italy is presented using characters observable in the fourth-instar larva. The larvae are separated on the basis of qualitative and quantitative characters. At present fifteen species from the Italian Alps are described in all three life stages, but only twelve species groups can be separated as larvae. The separation is based on the length and thickness of anal setae, antennal ratio, head capsule color and few other characters of the labrum and mentum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth is still a valid taxonomic character, but unfortunately these characters can be rarely used because teeth are often excessively worn in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the duration of larval development and must be used with caution. The species groups which can be separated in the larval stage are: the dampfi group, which includes D. dampfi and D. permacra, the latitarsis group including D. modesta and D. latitarsis, the zernyi group including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. The species within each of these groups at present cannot be separated. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage.

  16. Longevity, Fertility and Fecundity of Adult Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Held at Varying Densities: Implications for Use in Bioconversion of Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Nina Jennifer; Pieterse, Elsje; Weldon, Christopher William

    2017-10-11

    Large numbers of flies are needed to produce the quantity of larvae required for insect bioconversion of waste. However, this 'mass-rearing' may negatively affect adult survival and reproductive output. This study assessed the suitability for mass-rearing of four blow fly species, Chrysomya chloropyga, Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen). Flies were kept at densities of 20, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 flies per 30 × 30 × 30 cm cage with an even sex ratio. Time to 50% mortality (LT50) was recorded, and the effects of density, species, and sex on LT50, fecundity, and fertility were determined. Females survived longer than males across all species. There was evidence for a trade-off between survival and high fecundity in L. sericata and C. chloropyga at density 250. C. megacephala had low fecundity across all densities. At high densities, C. putoria had the lowest mortality and highest fecundity, making it the most suitable for mass-rearing. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Dégallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus.

  18. DNA barcodes confirm the presence of a single member of the Anopheles maculipennis group in Morocco and Algeria: An. sicaulti is conspecific with An. labranchiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboudi, Majda; Faraj, Chafika; Sadak, Abderrahim; Harrat, Zoubir; Boubidi, Said Chawki; Harbach, Ralph E; El Aouad, Rajae; Linton, Yvonne-Marie

    2011-04-01

    Anopheles labranchiae Falleroni is the only member of the Maculipennis Group known to occur in northern Africa; however, confusion exists as to the taxonomic status of its junior synonym, An. sicaulti Roubaud (type locality: near Rabat, Morocco). Based on morphological and behavioural distinctions, it has been suggested that Moroccan populations have been isolated from other North African populations by the Atlas Mountains, and that Moroccan populations may represent An. sicaulti, originally described as a variety of An. maculipennis Meigen. DNA barcodes (658bp of the mitochondrial COI gene) obtained from 89 An. maculipennis s.l. collected in Morocco (n=79) and Algeria (n=10) in 2007 and 2008 were used to determine if Moroccan populations are genetically isolated from those east of the Atlas Mountains (Algeria), and whether there is molecular evidence to support the presence of more than one member of the Maculipennis Group in the region. No evidence for speciation was found between Moroccan and Algerian populations, or within populations in northern Morocco. Moreover shared COI haplotypes between Algeria and Morocco indicate ongoing gene flow between populations in these countries, suggesting that the Atlas Mountains are not a boundary to gene flow in An. labranchiae. The synonymy of An. sicaulti with An. labranchiae is confirmed. That An. labranchiae comprises the same species in these North African countries is important for malaria control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  20. Toxicity and Synergistic Activities of Chalcones Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Aaron D; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Islam, Rafique; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaplancikli, Zafer A; Altintop, Mehlika D; Ozdemir, Ahmet; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2017-03-01

    Mosquito-borne illnesses are of great concern throughout the world, and chemical insecticides are commonly employed to decrease mosquito populations. However, the developmental insecticide pipeline for vector control has primarily been filled by repurposed agricultural products, and is hampered by their widespread use and insecticide resistance. The present study was performed in the search for new chemical insecticides or insecticide synergists. Screening of 31 chalcone analogs was performed using Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) first-instar larval toxicity assay, and oral feeding to Drosophila melanogaster's proper authority should be (Meigen). Synergism studies were performed by topically applying chalcones to adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes to examine its impact on activity of carbaryl, which was compared to piperonyl butoxide alone. Fourteen chalcone analogs had LC50 values in the range of 0.4-38 ppm against first-instar Ae. aegypti larvae, and three chalcones displayed toxicity against D. melanogaster via feeding (LC50 values ranged from 146-214 μg/ml). Two chalcones synergized carbaryl toxicity against adult Ae. aegypti with efficacy similar to piperonyl butoxide. As a result, it is concluded that chalcones may serve as novel insecticides and synergists after further structural optimization. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Essential oils enhance the toxicity of permethrin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A D; Norris, E J; Kimber, M J; Bartholomay, L C; Coats, J R

    2017-03-01

    Insecticide resistance and growing public concern over the safety and environmental impacts of some conventional insecticides have resulted in the need to discover alternative control tools. Naturally occurring botanically-based compounds are of increased interest to aid in the management of mosquitoes. Susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles gambiae (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) were treated with permethrin, a common type-I synthetic pyrethroid, using a discriminate dose that resulted in less than 50% mortality. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and 35 essential oils were co-delivered with permethrin at two doses (2 and 10 µg) to determine if they could enhance the 1-h knockdown and the 24-h mortality of permethrin. Several of the tested essential oils enhanced the efficacy of permethrin equally and more effectively than piperonyl butoxide PBO, which is the commercial standard to synergize chemical insecticide like pyrethroids. PBO had a strikingly negative effect on the 1-h knockdown of permethrin against Ae. aegypti, which was not observed in An. gambiae. Botanical essential oils have the capability of increasing the efficacy of permethrin allowing for a natural alternative to classic chemical synergists, like PBO. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. A comparison of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and beetle (Coleoptera) activity on refrigerated only versus frozen-thawed pig carcasses in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugajski, Kristi N; Seddon, Cara C; Williams, Ralph E

    2011-11-01

    To have large numbers of replicates in forensic entomology research, it is often necessary to freeze carcasses and thaw them before use in experiments. Research on the effects of freezing on decomposition is minimal in the literature and the effect that it has on insect (e.g., blow fly, beetle) activity is virtually unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the differences in insect activity occurring on refrigerated only versus frozen-thawed pig carcasses, and to characterize the associated dipteran fauna. Seven pigs, frozen for 2 mo and then thawed before the experiment, were compared with seven pigs killed and stored in a walk in refrigerator approximately 12 h before the start of the experiment. No significant differences in time to the appearance of adult flies, eggs, larvae, or the initiation and conclusion of larval migration were observed between refrigerated only and frozen-thawed pig carcasses. Beetles from the family Staphylinidae also did not show a significant difference in arrival times. Phormia regina (Meigen), Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Pollenia rudis (F.), and Hydrotaea leucostoma (F.) comprised the dipteran taxa present on the carcasses. Results suggest that freezing pigs before exposure in the field does not significantly alter blow fly life events or the appearance of staphylinid beetles.

  3. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V; Slone, Daniel H; Capinera, John L

    2007-05-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September.

  4. Preliminary study of the succession pattern of necrobiont insects, colonising species and larvae on pig carcasses in Temuco (Chile) for forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortloff, Alexander; Peña, Patricio; Riquelme, Mario

    2012-10-10

    Knowledge regarding the succession patterns of insects that visit carcasses as well as the other arthropod that colonise them and analysis of the parameters that are associated with larvae allow calculation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMI). This information is obtained from experiments carried out under specific geoclimatic conditions, which determine their application in forensic environments under similar conditions. The field study presented here is the first in Chile to analyse the decomposition process of pig carcasses and the associated succession of insects, colonising species and parameters related to larval masses. All of the larvae obtained from daily samples were measured (in mm), and their mean, range, standard deviation and stage of development (instars) were determined. The carcasses reached the dry remains stage in only 11 days. Seven species of Diptera visited the carcass during the process, but only two species colonised it by means of egg deposition followed by development of larvae: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), which exhibited a duration of the development cycle from egg to adult of 21 days. The collected Coleoptera correspond to five predator species (Staphilinidae and Histeridae). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that only some of the insect species present in this region can provide information that can be used in forensic entomology and that analysis of larval masses of colonising species can be a valuable tool for determining the PMI(min) in this region of Chile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Decomposition of Concealed and Exposed Porcine Remains in the North Carolina Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, J A; Cohen, A C; Kreitlow, K L; Roe, R M; Watson, D W

    2016-01-01

    We examined the decomposition and subsequent insect colonization of small pig carrion (Sus scrofa (L.)) placed in concealed and open environments during spring, summer, and fall in Raleigh, North Carolina, as a model for juvenile human remains. Remains were concealed in simulated attics in three manners, ranging from minimal to well-concealed. Concealment had a significant effect on the insect community colonizing the remains across all three seasons; the beetles Necrobia rufipes (DeGeer) (Cleridae) and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were the only species indicative of remains located indoors, whereas numerous fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and Piophilidae) and beetle (Coleoptera: Silphidae, Staphylinidae, and Histeridae) species and an ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Prenolepis sp.) were indicative of remains located outdoors. Season also significantly affected the insect species, particularly the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonizing remains: Lucilia illustris (Meigen) was indicative of the spring, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) were indicative of the summer, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora vomitoria (L.) were indicative of the fall. In addition, across all seasons, colonization was delayed by 35–768 h, depending on the degree of concealment. These differences among the insect communities across seasons and concealment treatments, and the effects of concealment on colonization indicate that such information is important and should to be considered when analyzing entomological evidence for criminal investigations.

  6. Insects associated with exposed decomposing bodies in the Colombian Andean Coffee Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Grisales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, mainly classic forensic medicine methods were used to clarify crimes until 2004. However, other disciplines, including forensic entomology, started to be considered only after the New Accusatory System introduction in Bogotá and the Coffee Region in 2005. In order to provide tools for obtaining evidentiary material elements in judicial trials, it is presented here the succession of insects throughout the decomposition process of an exposed carcass of Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 (Suidae and the Occurrence Matrix of colonizing species. This process was evaluated under ambient conditions in the Andean rural area of the city of Pereira, in the Mundo Nuevo district, located in a pre-montane Wet Forest area, from October to November 2006. A sampling period of 27 days and 3198 individuals were collected. We found these colonizing species in the following stages of decomposition: Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 fresh; Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840, and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius 1775 bloated; Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, 1849, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 active; Fannia sp. advanced and Stearibia nigriceps (Meigen, 1826 remains. This study provides support tools to define the Post Mortem Interval that may be used by experts from government institutions and laboratories officially accredited.

  7. Quantifying pteridines in the heads of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Application for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, J A; Reiskind, M H; Guisewite, L M; Denning, S S; Watson, D W

    2017-11-01

    In forensic cases involving entomological evidence, establishing the postcolonization interval (post-CI) is a critical component of the investigation. Traditional methods of estimating the post-CI rely on estimating the age of immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from remains. However, in cases of delayed discovery (e.g., when remains are located indoors), these insects may have completed their development and be present in the environment as adults. Adult fly collections are often ignored in cases of advanced decomposition because of a presumed little relevance to the investigation; herein we present information on how these insects can be of value. In this study we applied an age-grading technique to estimate the age of adults of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Phormia regina (Meigen), based on the temperature-dependent accumulation of pteridines in the compound eyes, when reared at temperatures ranging from 5 to 35°C. Age could be estimated for all species*sex*rearing temperature combinations (mean r2±SE: 0.90±0.01) for all but P. regina reared at 5.4°C. These models can be used to increase the precision of post-CI estimates for remains found indoors, and the high r2 values of 22 of the 24 regression equations indicates that this is a valid method for estimating the age of adult blow flies at temperatures ≥15°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Species composition and seasonal succession of saprophagous calliphorids in a rural area of Córdoba: Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battan Horenstein, Moira; Linhares, Aricio X; Rosso, Beatriz; García, María D

    2007-01-01

    During 2004, four experiments were carried out, one each season, in order to determine the species composition and seasonal dynamics of Calliphoridae in a rural area of Córdoba (Argentina). Two pigs (Sus scrofa L.), weighing approximately 8 Kg each, were used in each experiment. They were killed with a blow to the head and immediately placed in a variant of the Schoenly et al. (1991) trap. One pig was exposed in the shade and the other one under direct sunlight. The insect fauna was collected daily during the four first weeks and every two or three days thereafter. A total of 16.609 adults of Calliphoridae were collected, and later on identified as one of the following seven species: Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Phaenicia sericata (Meigen), Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. C. albiceps was the dominant species in summer, autumn and spring, being replaced in winter by C. vicina, S. chlorogaster and P. sericata. The analysis of the seasonal distribution of the species revealed that the greater incidences are in the months of summer, autumn and spring.

  9. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Morfometria geométrica alar como ferramenta para a identificação de Lucilia sericata e Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lucilia sericata (Meigen e Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Calliphoridae estão entre as espécies de dípteros de interesse forense. A correta identificação do espécime, ou fragmento deste, coletado em um local de crime é etapa fundamental para o emprego da entomologia forense em investigações criminais. Nesse estudo, avaliou-se a possibilidade de discriminação entre duas espécies de califorídeos pela morfologia alar, por meio de análises de morfometria geométrica. Foram analisadas as asas esquerdas de 253 espécimes, sendo 119 indivíduos de C. vicina e 134 de L. sericata, por meio de análises de variáveis canônicas e análises discriminantes. Das 253 comparações par a par, 2 erros de identificação (0,7% foram registrados para análise discriminante, enquanto 3 erros de classificação (2,3% foram registrados para o teste de validação cruzada. Esse resultado sugere um alto índice de confiabilidade da técnica. Mais estudos são necessários para a validação dessa técnica para seu uso na prática forense.

  11. The analysis of pupal development period in Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) forensically important insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabey, Tuçe; Sert, Osman

    2014-01-30

    Forensic entomology is a study that insect evidence is used for the determination of postmortem interval (PMImin). While determining PMImin, the pupal period is given as the duration between the beginning of the pupal period and the stage of adult emergence. The pupal period constitutes approximately 50 % of the immature development, and with detailed examination it would be possible to present a much more accurate PMImin. In this study, the pupal period of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826), which is one of the species used in PMImin estimation in forensic entomology, was investigated. Studies about the pupal period of development are considerably limited in the forensic entomology world. Stages and duration of the pupal period of Lucilia sericata were studied at temperatures of 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C. For all temperatures, pupae specimens were dissected and photographed hourly. According to findings based on all three temperatures, it was determined that as the temperature increases, the duration of development shortens. Also, in addition to 11 pre-determined development stages, nine new development stages were identified.

  12. A new method for the production of sterile colonies of Lucilia sericata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasz, N E; Harvey, M L

    2017-09-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) refers to the use of blowfly larvae to clean or debride an infected wound. Most commonly, larvae of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are used, and are sterilized prior to use to ensure no further bacterial infections are introduced during treatment. Current methods sterilize eggs from laboratory-reared blowfly colonies, after which sterile early second instar maggots can be provided to hospitals for use in treatment. Maggots not required for treatment are used for colony regeneration, in which sterility is not maintained. The ability to maintain sterility beyond this would allow further research into fly-bacteria interactions and the effects of different bacteria on the blowfly lifecycle. This study aimed to produce a colony of sterile adults, using current egg sterilization practice, but maintaining sterility through to pupation and emergence. The production of a sterile colony allows further research into the impact of bacteria on fly development and survival. Eggs were placed on a sterile food source within autoclaved plant tissue culture containers to allow growth under sterile conditions. Nutrient agar plating of sterilized and non-sterilized eggs, larvae and adults (post-emergence), as well as the pupation medium and feed source in nutrient broth confirmed the aerobic sterility of all samples involved. The lifecycle of L. sericata was successfully completed through pupation to emergence with no effects on lifespan or oviposition by the newly emerged, sterile adult colony. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Calliphoridae (Diptera en parches de Selva Pedemontana con distinto grado de intervención antrópica en Tucumán (Argentina

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    Sofía M. OLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el noroeste de la Argentina, se encuentra la ecoregión de las Yungas, donde existe escasa información ecológica sobre Calliphoridae. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo ampliar el conocimiento sobre la riqueza, la composición y la abundancia de Calliphoridae en tres parches selváticos, en áreas con distinto grado de urbanización. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente desde noviembre de 2009 hasta mayo de 2010 en tres localidades: San Miguel de Tucumán (sitio urbano, Nueva Esperanza (sitio rural y El Taficillo (selva. Se registraron 8 especies: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia sp., Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello y Calliphora nigribasis Macquart. Para las especies más abundantes, se calculó el Índice de Sinantropía (IS. La asociación entre la abundancia de las especies y los sitios fue examinada mediante un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP. Lucilia cluvia fue dominante en todos los sitios y muestras, con una leve predominancia hacia sectores menos afectados por la urbanización. Los resultados del presente estudio reflejan la composición de los ensambles de Calliphoridae representativos de la Selva Pedemontana de las Yungas de Tucumán, caracterizados por una fuerte dominancia de especies del genero Lucilia.

  14. A Comparison of Common Diets for the Continuous Culture of Adult Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for Forensic and Medical Entomological Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Allissa M; Hansen, Karolyn M

    2014-11-01

    Blow fly members of the family Calliphoridae, specifically Lucilia sericata (Meigen), have application in the fields of behavioral ecology, forensics, and medicine as agents for assessing ecological succession or decomposition and postmortem interval estimation, and for maggot debridement therapy, respectively. The lack of standardization of laboratory adult insect feeding, breeding, and rearing protocols among researchers in behavioral, medical, and forensic fields has become problematic. With the goal of understanding physical and physiological effects of diet as a baseline for future behavioral experiments, this article focuses on determining basic culture requirements for the adult blow fly L. sericata by comparing nine diets and the effects of each on survivorship and fecundity under controlled laboratory conditions. Percent survival, fecundity, and the effect of culture density were analyzed over the course of 120 d. Results indicate that a simple broad spectrum diet of honey water and bovine liver is the optimum diet for extending the life span of the flies and increasing the number of eggs laid per female per oviposition event, with 5-20 female flies being the optimum number per culture vessel. This culture protocol is simple to follow, can be easily incorporated into current behavioral, forensic, and medical entomology research programs, and the dietary components are readily available across diverse geographic areas. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  15. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Arun; Rinehart, Joseph P; Leopold, Roger A

    2014-03-01

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 degrees C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve. Removal of the embryonic surface water was done using 2-propanol before the alkane treatment to permeabilize the embryo. Exposure to 2-propanol for > 10 s caused necrotic tissue damage in the embryos. Among the alkanes used, hexane was found to be a superior permeabilizing solvent compared with heptane or octane, with embryo hatching rates on par with the controls. Treatment with the vitrification solution for < 12 min was insufficient to vitrify the embryos. Treatment time in the solution beyond 15 min reduced embryo viability. However, the percentage of embryos vitrifying upon exposure to liquid nitrogen vapor remained constant after 12 min of treatment. Long-term storage was initiated in 2004, and the mean hatch percentage recorded then for the short-term cryopreserved embryos was 9.51%. When the long-term stored samples were retrieved in 2012, 8.47% of the embryos hatched, 66.36% larvae pupariated, and 36.96% of the pupae eclosed. Recent optimization of the technique has resulted in a hatch rate of 34.08 +/- 15.5%, of which 67.5% of the larvae pupariated and 72% of the pupae eclosed to normal flies.

  16. Blow fly Lucilia sericata nuclease digests DNA associated with wound slough/eschar and with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A; Horobin, A; Blount, D G; Hill, P J; English, J; Rich, A; Williams, P M; Pritchard, D I

    2012-12-01

    In chronic wounds, it may be clinically important to remove extracellular bacterial and patient DNA as its presence may impede wound healing and promote bacterial survival in biofilm, in which extracellular DNA forms part of the biofilm architecture. As medicinal maggots, larvae of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) have been shown to efficiently debride wounds it became of interest to investigate their excretions/secretions (ES) for the presence of a deoxyribonuclease (DNAse) activity. Excretions/secretions products were shown to contain a DNAse, with magnesium, sodium and calcium metal ion dependency, and a native molecular mass following affinity purification of approximately 45 kDa. The affinity purified DNAse degraded genomic bacterial DNA per se, DNA from the slough/eschar of a venous leg ulcer, and extracellular bacterial DNA in biofilms pre-formed from a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The latter finding highlights an important attribute of the DNAse, given the frequency of P. aeruginosa infection in non-healing wounds and the fact that P. aeruginosa virulence factors can be toxic to maggots. Maggot DNAse is thus a competent enzyme derived from a rational source, with the potential to assist in clinical wound debridement by removing extracellular DNA from tissue and biofilm, and promoting tissue viability, while liberating proteinaceous slough/eschar for debridement by the suite of proteinases secreted by L. sericata. © 2012 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  17. DIVERSITY OF NECROPHAGOUS BLOWFLY (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY IMPORTANCE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS IN CÓRDOBA (ARGENTINA

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    Moira Battán-Horenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex nature of urban environments can have different effects on species diversity and composition. The aim of this work was to characterize the assemblage of Calliphoridae regarding its richness, abundance, and synanthropy in Córdoba City, Argentina. Three sampling sites differing in their distance to the border of the city and degree of urbanization were selected. In each site, collections were carried out with 12 traps baited with cow liver (200 g per trap that were operated for five consecutive days during three different times of the year, in April, June and August 2013. A total of 341 adult calliphorids from nine species, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, L. eximia (Wiedemann, L. cuprina (Wiedemann, L. cluvia (Walker, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, C. megacephala (Fabricius and C. chloropyga (Wiedemann were collected. Lucilia sericata was the most abundant species followed by C. vicina. Species diversity, composition and abundance changed between sites, richness being lowest at the most urbanized site. All species are cosmopolitan except Sarconesia chlorogaster, whose distribution is restricted to South America. These results are consistent with a homogenization of the fauna in urban environments.

  18. A de novo transcriptome assembly of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with predicted alternative splices, single nucleotide polymorphisms and transcript expression estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, S-H; Dunham, J P; Carey, B; Chang, P L; Li, F; Edman, R M; Fjeldsted, C; Scott, M J; Nuzhdin, S V; Tarone, Aaron M

    2012-04-01

    The blow fly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Meigen) is a nonmodel organism with no reference genome that is associated with numerous areas of research spanning the ecological, evolutionary, medical, veterinary and forensic sciences. To facilitate scientific discovery in this species, the transcriptome was assembled from more than six billion bases of Illumina and twenty-one million bases of 454 sequence derived from embryonic, larval, pupal, adult and larval salivary gland libraries. The assembly was carried out in a manner that enabled identification of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alternative splices, and that provided expression estimates for various life history stages and for salivary tissue. The assembled transcriptome was also used to identify transcribed transposable elements in L. sericata. The results of this study will enable blow fly biologists, dipterists and comparative genomicists to more rapidly develop and test molecular and genetic hypotheses, especially those regarding blow fly development and salivary gland biology. © 2012 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S.; Smith, Maia A.; Lawrence, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0–35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1) young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red) except for ultraviolet (UV); (2) the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3) moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study. PMID:26717311

  20. The impacts of larval density and protease inhibition on feeding in medicinal larvae of the greenbottle fly Lucilia sericata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M R; Nigam, Y; Jung, W; Knight, J; Pritchard, D I

    2016-03-01

    Larval therapy, the therapeutic use of blowfly larvae to treat chronic wounds, is primarily used in debridement. There are, however, gaps in current knowledge of the optimal clinical application of the therapy and mechanisms of action in the debridement process. Using an artificial assay, two studies were undertaken to investigate these aspects of larval debridement by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae); the first studied the effects of the density of larvae on tissue digestion and larval mass, and the second considered the effects on the same parameters of incorporating protease inhibitors into the feeding substrate. The total mass of tissue digested increased with larval density until saturation was observed at 5.0-7.5 larvae/cm(2) . This range was considered optimal as lower doses resulted in the removal of less tissue and higher doses offered no additional tissue removal and appeared to exacerbate competition for feeding. In the second study, increased protease inhibitor concentration led to significant decreases in tissue digestion and larval mass, suggesting that serine proteases, particularly trypsin, may play major roles in larval digestion. Such information is important in elucidating the main constituents that make up larval digestive products and may be significant in the development of new therapies. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  1. Annual and spatial activity of dung flies and carrion in a Mediterranean holm-oak pasture ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S; Marcos-García, M A

    2000-03-01

    The annual activity and spatial distribution of Muscidae and Calliphoridae were investigated in a holm-oak ('dehesa') ecosystem in western Spain over two years in pasture and woodland habitats, using wind-orientated traps baited with a mixture of fresh cattle faeces, liver and sodium sulphide solution. Lucilia sericata (Meigen) was always the dominant species and, with Chrysomya albiceps (Weidemann), Hydrotaea ignava (Harris), Muscina levida (Harris) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris), was more abundant during the second than the first year. By contrast, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Calliphora vomitoria (L.), Hydrotaea armipes (Fallén), Hydrotaea penicillata (Rondani) and Hydrotaea dentipes (Fabricius) were more numerous during the first than the second year of the study. In summer, the Diptera sampled were significantly more abundant in a wooded than a pasture area. However, in autumn, while H. penicillata remained significantly more abundant in woodland, L. sericata became more abundant in the pasture, whereas C. vicina was captured in open and wooded areas in similar proportions. During winter and spring the populations sampled were relatively small. The changing patterns of abundance are discussed in relation to differences in climate within and between years.

  2. Effects of Floral Scent, Color and Pollen on Foraging Decisions and Oocyte Development of Common Green Bottle Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Smith, Maia A; Lawrence, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and other filth flies frequently visit pollen-rich composite flowers such as the Oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. In laboratory experiments with L. sericata, we investigated the effect of generic floral scent and color cues, and of Oxeye daisy-specific cues, on foraging decisions by recently eclosed flies. We also tested the effect of a floral pollen diet with 0-35% moisture content on the ability of females to mature their oocytes. Our data indicate that (1) young flies in the presence of generic floral scent respond more strongly to a uniformly yellow cue than to any other uniform color cue (green, white, black, blue, red) except for ultraviolet (UV); (2) the floral scent of Oxeye daisies enhances the attractiveness of a yellow cue; and (3) moisture-rich pollen provides nutrients that facilitate ovary maturation of flies. With evidence that L. sericata exploits floral cues during foraging, and that pollen can be an alternate protein source to animal feces and carrion, Pollen apparently plays a major role in the foraging ecology of L. sericata and possibly other filth flies. These flies, in turn, may play a significant role as pollinators, as supported by a recently published study.

  3. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Sinai Peninsula Egypt with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Revay, Edita E; Hogsette, Jerome A; Zeegers, Theo; Kline, Daniel; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Schlein, Yosef

    2012-05-01

    During a 20-year survey we routinely collected Tabanidae in the Sinai resulting in a checklist of 22 species. We recorded 2 species for the Levant (Tabanus mordax Austen, 1911 and Tabanus gratus Loew, 1858), 4 species for Egypt (Nemorius irritans (Ricardo, 1901), Chrysops flavipes Meigen, 1804, Haematopota coronata Austen, 1908 and Haematopota pallens Loew, 1871), 5 species for the Sinai (Atylotus farinosus (Szilády, 1915), Tabanus arenivagusAusten, 1920, Tabanus autumnalis Linnaeus, 1761, Haematopota minusculaAusten, 1920 and Dasyrhamphis nigritus Fabricius, 1794) for the first time and confirmed one doubtful record for the Sinai (Tabanus albifacies Loew, 1856). Furthermore we collected 10 more species that were previously known or could be presumed from the Sinai. The status of 4 species (Atylotus pallescens (Walker, 1871), Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858, Tabanus politus (Walker, 1871) and Tabanus terminalis Walker, 1871) doubtfully recorded from the Sinai is discussed. For most of the 22 species, apart from zoogeographical notes, host and ecological observations are also given. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. First field records of Pachycrepoideus vindemiae as a parasitoid of Drosophila suzukii in European and Oregon small fruit production areas

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    M.V. Rossi Stacconi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae is a destructive crop pest native to Southeast Asia that recently invaded countries in Europe and North America, severely impacting commercial fruit production in its new host range. Here we report the results of a survey aimed at determining the presence of indigenous D. suzukii parasitoid populations carried out from May to October 2012 in two areas negatively affected by this fruit pest: Trento Province, Northern Italy, and Oregon in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. We conducted field and laboratory studies in order to determine the status of biological control agents utilizing D. suzukii as a host. Our study sites included a range of commercial soft fruits and natural non-commercial habitats. In each site, sentinel traps were baited with either D. suzukii or Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae larvae in different food substrates. The generalist parasitoid, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, was collected from both D. suzukii and D. melanogaster pupae in traps deployed in a selection of these sites. This report of P. vindemiae in 2012 represents the first identification of D. suzukii parasitoids in Europe. A successive parasitism efficacy test was set up under controlled laboratory conditions confirming the ability of P. vindemiae to attack D. suzukii pupae. In addition, an historical digression with analysis of the original documents in the Italian archives has been provided in order to unravel the correct species name. We finally discuss the possible practical implications of this finding for the biological control of D. suzukii.

  5. Marmara Adası Larval Chironomidae (Diptera Faunasının Tespiti ve Yayılışları.

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    Nurcan Özkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marmara Adası’na 24-26.08.2010 tarihlerinde gerçekleştirilen arazi çalışması sırasında durgun su habitatlarından ve akarsulardan 24 lokaliteden çamur örnekleri toplanmıştır. Laboratuarda, organizmalar temizlendikten sonra mikroskop altında chironomid larvalarının tür teşhisleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Adada, 3 altfamilyaya ait 24 tür bulunmuştur. Bunlar içinde 17 tür Chironominae, 1 tür Orthocladiinae ve 6 tür Tanypodinae altfamilyalarına aittir. Türlerin tamamı Marmara Adası için, Einfeldia carbonaria (Meigen, 1804 türü ise Marmara Bölgesi için yeni kayıttır

  6. The Neotropical genera Macrostomus Wiedemann and Porphyrochroa Melander (Diptera, Empididae, Empidinae

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    José A. Rafael

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrostomus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1805, the type-species of Macrostomus Wiedemann, 1817 and Porphyrochroa palliata (Coquillett, 1902, the type-species of Porphyrochroa Melander, 1927 are redescribed and figured from the types. Both Neotropical genera are considered sistergroups and their synapomorphies are presented. The species belonging to both genera, and those Neotropical species remaining in the heterogeneous group Rhamphomyia Meigen, 1822 are listed. A key to genera is provided, 25 species are transferred to Porphyrochroa: P. abdominalis (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. argyrina (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. barueri (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. carrerai (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. catarinae (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. cyanogaster (Wheeler & Melander, 1901 comb. nov., P. digitata (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. distinctipennis (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. divisa (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. dolichocera (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. fasciventris (Curran, 1931, P. furcifer (Wheeler & Melander, 1901 comb. nov., P. galactodes (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. juri (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. micrargyra (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. monstrosa (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. mundurucu (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. mura (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. orthoneura (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. palliata (Coquillett, 1902, P. penicillata (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. perpulchra (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. pulchriventris (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. rotundipennis (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. seticauda (Smith, 1963 comb. nov., P. variseta (Smith, 1962 comb. nov. and P. wiedemanni (Smith, 1962 comb. nov. A lectotype is designated for P. palliata (Coquillett, 1902.Macrostomus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1805, espécie-tipo de Macrostomus Wiedemann, 1817 e Porphyrochroa palliata (Coquillett, 1902, espécie-tipo de Porphyrochroa Melander, 1927 são redescritas e ilustradas a partir dos tipos. Os dois gêneros são neotropicais, considerados grupo-irmãos e suas sinapomorfias são apresentadas. S

  7. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

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    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  8. Dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae em condições de laboratório Post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae in laboratory

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    Sabrina M Pires

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os dípteros califorídeos são os primeiros indivíduos a compor a sucessão faunística de cadáveres em decomposição, auxiliando assim na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte. Estudos de dispersão pós-alimentar de suas larvas possuem relevância para investigações médico-criminais. Diante disto, uma arena circular, simulando o ambiente natural, foi montada em laboratório a fim de verificar-se a dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826, tentando assim estabelecer relações entre as variáveis peso, distância e profundidade de enterramento na arena. Os resultados demonstraram que 45% das pupas foram recuperadas a uma profundidade compreendida entre 6 cm e 8 cm e a uma distância entre 33 cm e 45 cm do centro da arena. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto à propagação e profundidade de enterramento de machos, fêmeas e indivíduos inviáveis. Com relação ao peso, verificou-se que a média das fêmeas (x = 32,35 mg foi superior a dos machos (x = 30,28 mg. A análise de correlação e de regressão entre peso e distância percorrida e entre peso e profundidade foram positivas, ou seja, pupas oriundas de larvas mais pesadas propagaram e se aprofundaram mais. O experimento permitiu ainda concluir que uma arena circular possibilita o deslocamento das larvas em todas as direções.Calliphorid flies are the first organisms of the faunal succession associated with decomposing bodies, and can help in the estimation of post-mortem interval. Therefore, studies on post-feeding larval dispersion are relevant to medico-criminal investigations. A circular arena simulating the natural environment was built in the laboratory in order to examine the radial post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826 and the relationship between weight, distance, and depth of burial. Our findings indicated that most pupae were recovered at a depth between 6 cm and 8 cm and at a distance of 33 cm and 45 cm

  9. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Melia azedarach L. Fruit and Leaf for Use as Botanical Insecticide Caracterización Física y Química del Fruto y Hoja de Melia azedarach para Uso en Manejo Integrado de Plagas

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    Italo Chiffelle G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken of the physical and chemical characteristics and insecticide properties of melia (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae fruit and leaves; melia has been introduced in Chile for ornamental purposes. The physical and chemical properties were evaluated in two stages of fruit and leaf maturity, i.e., green /mature, and mature/juvenile, respectively. Laboratory bioassays were carried out on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae as an insect model. The diameter of M. azedarach fruit was in the lower limit in relation to other studies. The flour obtained from green fruit had an average dry weight inferior to that of mature fruit. The average dry leaf weights were similar in both juvenile and mature states. The green fruits had 50% initial humidity, similar to juvenile (60% and mature (57% leaves, but greater than the mature fruits (44%. The chemical analysis of the fruit maturity stages determined a slight increase in crude fiber content as maturity increased. There was a decrease in the lipid content of leaves close to 60% at maturity. Furthermore, an analysis of polyphenols was made using HPLC-DAD (High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector, and 14 compounds were identified as causes of the insecticidal effect of the M. azedarach fruit, of which three would correspond to flavonoids: one catechin and two kaempherols. Finally, the aqueous fruit and leaf extracts of M. azedarach were effective insecticides on D. melanogaster, reaching 90% mortality (125 000 mg kg-1 with juvenile leaves and 73.3% (10 700 mg kg-1 with green fruit.Se estudiaron las características físicas, químicas y las propiedades insecticidas del fruto y hojas de melia (Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae, árbol introducido con fines ornamentales en Chile. Se evaluaron las propiedades físicas y químicas de dos estados de madurez del fruto, verde y maduro, y de las hojas, juveniles y maduras. Las propiedades insecticidas se evaluaron

  10. Fermentation for Disinfesting Fruit Waste From Drosophila Species (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Shaw, B; Buss, D S; Cross, J V; Fountain, M T

    2017-08-01

    Economic losses in a range of fruit crops due to the Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) have become severe. Removal and treatment of fruit waste, which may harbor D. suzukii, is a key step in preventing reinfestation of fruit production. Natural fermentation for disinfesting fruit wastes from D. suzukii was examined at ambient air temperatures of 12-20 °C. Soft and stone fruit wastes infested with eggs, larvae, and pupae of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) or D. suzukii were placed in sealed vessels containing fruit wastes, and samples were retrieved at intervals and tested for the emergence of adults. Mean temperatures of the fruit waste in the sealed vessels during fermentation were 15-23 °C. Fermentation for 3 d was effective in disinfesting waste from different life stages of D. suzukii. Treatment for 4 d also ensured that the waste was free of viable life stages of D. melanogaster, which could be used as an indicator species for disinfestation of waste from D. suzukii owing to its greater tolerance of fermentation. The O2 concentration of the headspace air in the vessels became undetectable after 13-16 h, with a corresponding increase in CO2 concentration, which exceeded 80% vol/vol. The resulting hypoxia and hypercapnia may explain the efficacy of the fermentation treatment in disinfesting the waste. Fermented fruit remained attractive to D. suzukii and retained its capacity to rear a life cycle. Covering or mixing fermented fruit with a sufficient depth (0.1 m) or volume (×9) of soil or coir prevented the reinfestation of treated waste. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

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    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Genomic and karyotypic variation in Drosophila parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae

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    Vladimir Gokhman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 has served as a model insect for over a century. Sequencing of the 11 additional Drosophila Fallen, 1823 species marks substantial progress in comparative genomics of this genus. By comparison, practically nothing is known about the genome size or genome sequences of parasitic wasps of Drosophila. Here, we present the first comparative analysis of genome size and karyotype structures of Drosophila parasitoids of the Leptopilina Förster, 1869 and Ganaspis Förster, 1869 species. The gametic genome size of Ganaspis xanthopoda (Ashmead, 1896 is larger than those of the three Leptopilina species studied. The genome sizes of all parasitic wasps studied here are also larger than those known for all Drosophila species. Surprisingly, genome sizes of these Drosophila parasitoids exceed the average value known for all previously studied Hymenoptera. The haploid chromosome number of both Leptopilina heterotoma (Thomson, 1862 and L. victoriae Nordlander, 1980 is ten. A chromosomal fusion appears to have produced a distinct karyotype for L. boulardi (Barbotin, Carton et Keiner-Pillault, 1979 (n = 9, whose genome size is smaller than that of wasps of the L. heterotoma clade. Like L. boulardi, the haploid chromosome number for G. xanthopoda is also nine. Our studies reveal a positive, but non linear, correlation between the genome size and total chromosome length in Drosophila parasitoids. These Drosophila parasitoids differ widely in their host range, and utilize different infection strategies to overcome host defense. Their comparative genomics, in relation to their exceptionally well-characterized hosts, will prove to be valuable for understanding the molecular basis of the host-parasite arms race and how such mechanisms shape the genetic structures of insect communities.

  13. Evolutionary consequences of historical metal contamination for natural populations of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, João; Campos, Diana; Cocchiararo, Berardino; Nowak, Carsten; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos; L T Pestana, João

    2017-05-01

    Populations inhabiting metal-impacted freshwater systems located nearby industrial and urban areas may be under intense selection. The present study aims to address two fundamental microevolutionary aspects of metal contamination in the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen): Are populations inhabiting historically metal contaminated sites genetically adapted to metals? And, are populations from these sites genetically eroded? To answer these questions, C. riparius populations were sampled from three sites with well-known histories of metal contamination and three nearby-located references. Genetic adaptation to metals was investigated through acute and chronic exposures to cadmium (Cd), after rearing all populations for at least six generations under laboratory clean conditions. Genetic diversity was estimated based on the allelic variation of seven microsatellite markers. Results showed higher acute tolerance to Cd in populations originating from metal contaminated sites compared to their respective references and significant differences in two out of three pairwise comparisons. However, there was a mismatch between acute and chronic tolerance to Cd with results of the partial life-cycle tests suggesting fitness costs under control clean conditions in two metal-adapted populations. Despite no evidences of genetic erosion in populations sampled from metal contaminated sites, our results suggest genetically inherited tolerance to Cd in populations inhabiting historically contaminated sites. These findings lend support to the use of C. riparius as a model organism in evolutionary toxicology and highlight the importance of coupling measures of neutral genetic diversity with assessments of chemical tolerance of populations for a better understanding of contaminant-induced adaptation and evolutionary processes.

  14. The importance of scanning electron microscopy (sem in taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae (Diptera

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    Andrzej Kownacki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the value of scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae. This method has been relatively rarely used in Chironomidae studies. Our studies suggest that the SEM method provides a lot of new information. For example, the plastron plate of the thoracic horn of Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen under light microscopy is visible as points, while under SEM we have found that it consists of a reticular structure with holes. By using SEM a more precise picture of the body structure of Chironomidae can be revealed. It allows researchers to explain inconsistencies in the existing descriptions of species. Another advantage of the SEM method is obtaining spatial images of the body and organs of Chironomidae. However, the SEM method also has some limitations. The main problem is dirt or debris (e.g. algae, mud, secretions, mucus, bacteria, etc., which often settles on the external surface of structures, especially those which are uneven or covered with hair. The dirt should be removed after collection of chironomid material because if left in place it can become chemically fixed to various surfaces. It unnecessarily remains at the surface and final microscopic images may contain artifacts that obscure chironomid structures being investigated. In this way many details of the surface are thus unreadable. The results reported here indicate that SEM examination helps us to identify new morphological features and details that will facilitate the identification of species of Chironomidae and may help to clarify the function of various parts of the body. Fast development of electron microscope technique allows us to learn more about structure of different organisms.

  15. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

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    Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Potential impact of insect herbivores on orchid conservation

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    Marilyn H. S. Light

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available When an orchid is deliberately or inadvertently relocated, it is likely to encounter a range of biological challenges to long term survival including a complex and dynamic insect community which could alter conservation expectations yet there have been few studies of the phytophagous insects associated with wild orchids. We have investigated the assemblage of such insects associated with terrestrial orchids being monitored in our long term studies in Gatineau Park, Québec, Canada. Aphids, leafminers, moths, thrips, weevils, and whiteflies were found to be injurious to orchids although in different combinations and with varying impact according to the orchid host, habitat and year. Loss of seeds and even complete desiccation of plants was observed. Where the leafminer, Parallelomma vittatum Meigen (Diptera: Scathophagidae infested Cypripedium reginae Walter randomly, this was not the case with Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens (Willd. Knight where specific plants were repeatedly infested. Some infestations such as with the leafminers seemed to be in equilibrium with parasitoids thus minimizing potential impact. A likely climate-related asynchrony of parasitoid and leafminer led to an outbreak in 2009 which heavily impacted the introduced Epipactis helleborine (L. Crantz while a phenological shift in a thrips primary host, Trillium grandiflorum (Michaux Salisb. (Melanthiaceae, in 2010, contributed to severe herbivory in habitats where both E. helleborine and trillium occurred. If climate change can lead to changes in insect abundance and impact on orchids, it would be useful to investigate the potential impact of phytophagous insects before assisted migration is considered as a conservation measure.

  17. Insulin signaling regulates neurite growth during metamorphic neuronal remodeling

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    Tingting Gu

    2013-12-01

    Although the growth capacity of mature neurons is often limited, some neurons can shift through largely unknown mechanisms from stable maintenance growth to dynamic, organizational growth (e.g. to repair injury, or during development transitions. During insect metamorphosis, many terminally differentiated larval neurons undergo extensive remodeling, involving elimination of larval neurites and outgrowth and elaboration of adult-specific projections. Here, we show in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, that a metamorphosis-specific increase in insulin signaling promotes neuronal growth and axon branching after prolonged stability during the larval stages. FOXO, a negative effector in the insulin signaling pathway, blocked metamorphic growth of peptidergic neurons that secrete the neuropeptides CCAP and bursicon. RNA interference and CCAP/bursicon cell-targeted expression of dominant-negative constructs for other components of the insulin signaling pathway (InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, S6K also partially suppressed the growth of the CCAP/bursicon neuron somata and neurite arbor. In contrast, expression of wild-type or constitutively active forms of InR, Pi3K92E, Akt1, Rheb, and TOR, as well as RNA interference for negative regulators of insulin signaling (PTEN, FOXO, stimulated overgrowth. Interestingly, InR displayed little effect on larval CCAP/bursicon neuron growth, in contrast to its strong effects during metamorphosis. Manipulations of insulin signaling in many other peptidergic neurons revealed generalized growth stimulation during metamorphosis, but not during larval development. These findings reveal a fundamental shift in growth control mechanisms when mature, differentiated neurons enter a new phase of organizational growth. Moreover, they highlight strong evolutionarily conservation of insulin signaling in neuronal growth regulation.

  18. Arthropod succession on exposed rabbit carrion in Alexandria, Egypt.

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    Tantawi, T I; eL-Kady, E M; Greenberg, B; el-Ghaffar, H A

    1996-07-01

    In 1988 and 1989, seasonal field studies on exposed rabbit carcasses were conducted in Alexandria, Egypt, to describe the decomposition process and arthropod succession patterns. Four decomposition stages were recognized: fresh, bloated, decay, and dry. Carcasses in summer and spring decayed at a much faster rate than those in fall and winter. The bloated stage in summer lasted longer than in spring because of the difference in breeding biology of the primary flies infesting carcasses in these seasons. Dipterous larvae of the family Calliphoridae, and to a lesser extent of the families Sarcophagidae and Muscidae, were responsible for the process of carrion degradation. Carrion-arthropod communities in cooler seasons were distinguished from those in warmer seasons by the presence of certain dipterous (muscids and fanniids) and coleopterous larvae, and by adults of small flies such as sphaerocerids and scatopsids. The presence of adult psychodids, sciarids, and phorids was unique to the winter carrion-arthropod community. Eleven species of carrion-breeding Diptera were found to coexist in the study site. The coexistence of the 2 calliphorids Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) in carrion in fall and spring is a new record for the Palaearctic Region. In spring, 3rd instars of C. albiceps were observed preying on the pupae of their own species. Although the carcasses were of equal size and simultaneously exposed, there was considerable variation in the rate of decay among fall carcasses only, which was attributed to unknown reasons at the beginning of the experiment and to heavy rains later on. This affected oviposition and the feeding period of maggots. Approximately 100 arthropod species were recovered on carcasses throughout the study. Diptera was the predominant group, whereas Coleoptera ranked 2nd. Carcasses in cooler seasons were richer in species than in warmer seasons.

  19. Insecticidal effects of deltamethrin in laboratory and field populations of Culicoides species: how effective are host-contact reduction methods in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, Rien; Cassidy, Clare; Laban, Swathi; Gopal, Prakash; Pickett, John A; Reddy, Yarabolu K; Prasad, Minakshi; Prasad, Gaya; Chirukandoth, Sreekumar; Senthilven, Kandasamy; Carpenter, Simon; Logan, James G

    2017-01-31

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes bluetongue (BT), a clinical disease observed primarily in sheep. BT has a detrimental effect on subsistence farmers in India, where hyperendemic outbreaks impact on smallholdings in the southern states of the country. In this study, we establish a reliable method for testing the toxic effects of deltamethrin on Culicoides and then compare deltamethrin with traditional control methods used by farmers in India. Effects of deltamethrin were initially tested using a colonised strain of Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and a modified World Health Organisation exposure assay. This method was then applied to field populations of Culicoides spp. in India. The field population of C. oxystoma in India had a greater LC50 (0.012 ± 0.009%) for deltamethrin than laboratory-reared C.nubeculosus (0.0013 ± 0.0002%). Exposure of C. nubeculosus to deltamethrin at higher ambient temperatures resulted in greater rates of knockdown but a lower mortality rate at 24 h post-exposure. Behavioural assays with C. nubeculosus in WHO tubes provided evidence for contact irritancy and spatial repellence caused by deltamethrin. The field experiments in India, however, provided no evidence for repellent or toxic effects of deltamethrin. Traditional methods such as the application of neem oil and burning of neem leaves also provided no protection. Our study demonstrates that field-collected Culicoides in India are less susceptible to deltamethrin exposure than laboratory-bred C. nubeculosus and traditional methods of insect control do not provide protection to sheep. These low levels of susceptibility to deltamethrin have not been recorded before in field populations of Culicoides and suggest resistance to synthetic pyrethrioids. Alternative insect control methods, in addition to vaccination, may be needed to protect Indian livestock from BTV transmission.

  20. Long-Term Resistance of Drosophila melanogaster to the Mushroom Toxin Alpha-Amanitin.

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    Chelsea L Mitchell

    Full Text Available Insect resistance to toxins exerts not only a great impact on our economy, but also on the ecology of many species. Resistance to one toxin is often associated with cross-resistance to other, sometimes unrelated, chemicals. In this study, we investigated mushroom toxin resistance in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen. This fruit fly species does not feed on mushrooms in nature and may thus have evolved cross-resistance to α-amanitin, the principal toxin of deadly poisonous mushrooms, due to previous pesticide exposure. The three Asian D. melanogaster stocks used in this study, Ama-KTT, Ama-MI, and Ama-KLM, acquired α-amanitin resistance at least five decades ago in their natural habitats in Taiwan, India, and Malaysia, respectively. Here we show that all three stocks have not lost the resistance phenotype despite the absence of selective pressure over the past half century. In response to α-amanitin in the larval food, several signs of developmental retardation become apparent in a concentration-dependent manner: higher pre-adult mortality, prolonged larva-to-adult developmental time, decreased adult body size, and reduced adult longevity. In contrast, female fecundity nearly doubles in response to higher α-amanitin concentrations. Our results suggest that α-amanitin resistance has no fitness cost, which could explain why the resistance has persisted in all three stocks over the past five decades. If pesticides caused α-amanitin resistance in D. melanogaster, their use may go far beyond their intended effects and have long-lasting effects on ecosystems.

  1. Genotoxic effect of Phenanthrene on Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera: Chironomidae

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    Gisele dos Santos Morais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthrene, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, remains adsorbed to sedimentary particles in aquatic environments. It affects mainly benthic organisms, and is considered potentially genotoxic. In ecotoxicology, species of Chironomus Meigen, 1803 are widely known as bioindicators of the effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. This study investigates the effects of phenanthrene on the size of the head capsule of Chironomus sancticaroli Strixino & Strixino, 1981 larvae after chronic (eight days exposure, and DNA damage after acute (96 hours and chronic exposure (eight days, under laboratory conditions. DNA damage, evaluated using the alkaline comet assay, detected effects for both exposure periods, indicating that phenanthrene is toxic for C. sancticaroli. For the acute exposure, we analyzed five concentrations of phenanthrene, between 0.16 mg.l-1 and 1.60 mg.l-1, detecting significant differences (Kruskall-Wallis test with p < 0.05 in the degree of DNA damage in all groups. These effects were not dose-dependent. For the chronic exposure, two concentrations (0.16 mg.l-1, 0.83 mg.l-1 were analyzed, and DNA damage was observed in both. Again, the effects were not dose-dependent. This indicates that phenanthrene is genotoxic to larvae of C. sancticaroli even at low concentrations. The size of the head capsule was evaluated after chronic exposure to concentrations of 0.16 mg.l-1 and 0.83 mg.l-1. Significant differences (ANOVA test with p < 0.05 were detected in the two concentrations, and a reduction in the size of the larval head capsule was observed. This suggests that phenanthrene causes delay in larval development. These results indicate that phenanthrene affects the development of and causes DNA damage in C. sancticaroli larvae. Therefore, we suggest that C. sancticaroli can be used as a biological indicator for environmental contamination with phenanthrene.

  2. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D H; Gruner, S V

    2007-05-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormnia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  3. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  4. First Record of Larval Secretions of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Inhibiting the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, F S; Aquino, M F K; Nassu, M P; Pereira, D I B; Leite, D S; Thyssen, P J

    2017-02-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) consists on the intentional and controlled application of sterilized larvae of the order Diptera on necrotic skin lesions with the purpose of cleaning necrotic tissue and removing pathogenic bacteria. During MDT, a marked antimicrobial activity has been reported in literature specially associated with antibacterial substances from Lucilia sericata (Meigen); however, regarding Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), little is known. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro inhibition of bacterial growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in contact with excretions and secretions (ES) from C. macellaria larvae. Larval ES were extracted in sterile distilled water and divided in three groups: ES, containing 400 μL of autoclaved ES; ES+BAC, containing 400 μL of autoclaved ES+0.5-μL bacterial inoculum; and CONT-BAC, containing 400 μL of sterile distilled water +0.5 μL of bacterial inoculum. Aliquots of each experimental group were plated by spreading onto Petri dishes. Seedings were made at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 12 h after the extraction of ES. In ES+BAC groups, inhibition of S. aureus was verified between times 1 and 2 h and P. aeruginosa was inhibited between 0 and 4 h. There was no growth observed in any ES group. In the CONT-BAC groups, the number of colonies from time 4 h became countless for S. aureus and decreased for P. aeruginosa. As reported in the literature, we note here that ES have excellent bactericidal activity for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and this study shows for the first time the action of the bactericidal activity of exosecretions of C. macellaria against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.

  5. Comparative study of mitotic chromosomes in two blowflies, Lucilia sericata and L. cluvia (Diptera, Calliphoridae), by C- and G-like banding patterns and rRNA loci, and implications for karyotype evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirino, Mónica G.; Rossi, Luis F.; Bressa, María J.; Luaces, Juan P.; Merani, María S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The karyotypes of Lucilia cluvia (Walker, 1849) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) from Argentina were characterized using conventional staining and the C- and G-like banding techniques. Besides, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and silver staining technique. The chromosome complement of these species comprises five pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (XX/XY, female/male). The autosomes of both species have the same size and morphology, as well as C- and G-like banding patterns. The X and Y chromosomes of Lucilia cluvia are subtelocentric and easily identified due to their very small size. In Lucilia sericata, the X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, showing a secondary constriction in its short arm, whereas the Y is submetacentric and smaller than the X. The C-banding patterns reflect differences in chromatin structure and composition between the subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes of Lucilia cluvia and the biarmed sex chromosomes of Lucilia sericata. These differences in the sex chromosomes may be due to distinct amounts of constitutive heterochromatin. In Lucilia cluvia, the NORs are placed at one end of the long-X and of the long-Y chromosome arms, whereas one of the NORs is disposed in the secondary constriction of the short-X chromosome arm and the other on the long-Y chromosome arm in Lucilia sericata. Although the G-like banding technique does not yield G-bands like those in mammalian chromosomes, it shows a high degree chromosomal homology in both species because each pair of autosomes was correctly paired. This chromosome similarity suggests the absence of autosomal rearrangements during karyotype evolution in the two species studied. PMID:25893078

  6. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baneshwar; Crippen, Tawni L; Zheng, Longyu; Fields, Andrew T; Yu, Ziniu; Ma, Qun; Wood, Thomas K; Dowd, Scot E; Flores, Micah; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Although the genus is of considerable economic importance, our knowledge about microbes associated with these flies and how these bacteria are horizontally and trans-generationally transmitted is limited. In this study, we characterized bacteria associated with different life stages of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) and in the salivary gland of L. sericata by using 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. Bacteria associated with the salivary gland of L. sericata were also characterized using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results from this study suggest that the majority of bacteria associated with these flies belong to phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, and most bacteria are maintained intragenerationally, with a considerable degree of turnover from generation to generation. In both species, second-generation eggs exhibited the highest bacterial phylum diversity (20 % genetic distance) than other life stages. The Lucilia sister species shared the majority of their classified genera. Of the shared bacterial genera, Providencia, Ignatzschineria, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Vagococcus, Morganella, and Myroides were present at relatively high abundances. Lactobacillus, Proteus, Diaphorobacter, and Morganella were the dominant bacterial genera associated with a survey of the salivary gland of L. sericata. TEM analysis showed a sparse distribution of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the salivary gland of L. sericata. There was more evidence for horizontal transmission of bacteria than there was for trans-generational inheritance. Several pathogenic genera were either amplified or reduced by the larval feeding on decomposing liver as a resource. Overall, this study provides

  7. Comparative study of mitotic chromosomes in two blowflies, Lucilia sericata and L. cluvia (Diptera, Calliphoridae, by C- and G-like banding patterns and rRNA loci, and implications for karyotype evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica G. Chirino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of Lucilia cluvia (Walker, 1849 and L. sericata (Meigen, 1826 from Argentina were characterized using conventional staining and the C- and G-like banding techniques. Besides, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and silver staining technique. The chromosome complement of these species comprises five pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (XX/XY, female/male. The autosomes of both species have the same size and morphology, as well as C- and G-like banding patterns. The X and Y chromosomes of L. cluvia are subtelocentric and easily identified due to their very small size. In L. sericata, the X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, showing a secondary constriction in its short arm, whereas the Y is submetacentric and smaller than the X. The C-banding patterns reflect differences in chromatin structure and composition between the subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes of L. cluvia and the biarmed sex chromosomes of L. sericata. These differences in the sex chromosomes may be due to distinct amounts of constitutive heterochromatin. In L. cluvia, the NORs are placed at one end of the long-X and of the long-Y chromosome arms, whereas one of the NORs is disposed in the secondary constriction of the short-X chromosome arm and the other on the long-Y chromosome arm in L. sericata. Although the G-like banding technique does not yield G-bands like those in mammalian chromosomes, it shows a high degree chromosomal homology in both species because each pair of autosomes was correctly paired. This chromosome similarity suggests the absence of autosomal rearrangements during karyotype evolution in the two species studied.

  8. Effect of Continuous and Cyclic Exposure to a Cold Environment on the Development of Larvae of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Different Sized Larval Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola A; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Dadour, Ian R

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of forensic practice in many countries prevents the pathologist performing an immediate autopsy. During the period prior to autopsy, the corpse and the insects possibly associated with it are stored in a mortuary with temperatures ∼4°C. When a corpse is found in a late stage of decay, fly immatures may be present as small or large larval masses. The purpose of refrigeration at 4°C is to slow down the decomposition of the corpse as well as the temporary disruption of the activity and development of the bacteria and the necrophagous insects associated with the corpse. The aim of this research is to investigate the growth and development of different larval masses of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) when stored in a cold environment (4°C). The research was divided into experimental sessions comprising different storage conditions (continuous or cyclic exposure to a cold environment) for immature stages (second and third instar) and included four different sizes of larval mass (∼100, 500, 1,000, and 5,000 larvae) feeding on 4 kg of beef liver and replicated three times. Results show that if the larval mass has a size of ∼5,000 larvae, and the larvae have already reached third instar, then when they are exposed to a cold environment, their development continues. The storage condition at 4°C does not disrupt the development of such larvae. The number of larvae and their instar that make up the larval mass are essential data for the subsequent estimation of a correct minimum postmortem interval. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Evaluation of Sterilized Artificial Diets for Mass Rearing the Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Le; Crippen, Tawni L; Dabney, Alan; Gordy, Alex; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-09-01

    The impact of six sterilized diets (blood-yeast agar diet, decomposed beef liver diet, powdered beef liver diet, powdered fish diet, milk-based diet, and a chemically defined diet) on Lucilia sericata (Meigen) larvae reared at three densities (10 larvae, 20 larvae, and 40 larvae on 20 g diet) was determined in comparison to fresh beef liver as a control. Specifically, the effects of these diets on the following traits of L. sericata were measured: 1) pupal weight, 2) pupation percentage, 3) eclosion percentage, as well as 4) adult longevity. The experiment included two trials with five technical replicates in each. Lucilia sericata did not successfully develop on the powdered fish, milk-based, or chemically defined diets. Overall, the liver-based diets (decomposed and powdered) resulted in the most similar fly development to the fresh beef liver. Larvae reared on blood-yeast agar diet resulted in a significantly (increased 20.56% ± 8.09%) greater pupation rate than those reared on the decomposed and powdered beef liver diets. Pupae from larvae fed the fresh beef liver were significantly larger (6.27 ± 1.01 mg, 4.05 ± 0.94 mg larger, respectively) than those reared on the blood-yeast agar diet, decomposed beef liver, and powdered beef liver diets. Overall, results revealed larvae reared on sterilized liver-based diets resulted in traits similar to those raised on fresh beef liver. Owing to low costs the sterile liver-based diets could be produced and used with limited infrastructure and economic incomes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) across different climatic zones of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Charrahy, Zabihollah

    2011-06-01

    Malaria is a main vector-borne public health problem in Iran. The last studies on Iranian mosquitoes show 31 Anopheles species including different sibling species and genotypes, eight of them are reported to play role in malaria transmission. The objective of this study is to provide a reference for malaria vectors of Iran and to map their spatial and temporal distribution in different climatic zones. Shape files of administrative boundaries and climates of Iran were provided by National Cartographic Center. Data on distribution and seasonal activity of malaria vectors were obtained from different sources and a databank in district level was created in Excel 2003, inserted to the shape files and analyzed by ArcGIS 9.2 to provide the maps. Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles dthali Patton, Anopheles fluviatilis James s.l., Anopheles maculipennis Meigen s.l., Anopheles sacharovi Favre, Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Anopheles superpictus Grassi have been introduced as primary and secondary malaria vectors and Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald as a suspected vector in Iran. Temporal distribution of anopheline mosquitoes is restricted to April-December in northern Iran, however mosquitoes can be found during the year in southern region. Spatial distribution of malaria vectors is different based on species, thus six of them (except for Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and Anopheles sacharovi) are reported from endemic malarious area in southern and southeastern areas of Iran. The climate of this part is usually warm and humid, which makes it favorable for mosquito rearing and malaria transmission. Correlation between climate conditions and vector distribution can help to predict the potential range of activity for each species and preparedness for malaria epidemics. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Methodology/Findings Exposure of midges to ‘dry’ conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21–3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (108–1011 conidia m−2) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to ‘dry’ conidia and ‘wet’ conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. ‘Dry’ conidia were more effective than ‘wet’ conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges

  12. Larvicidal activity and in vitro effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis L. water infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žabar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study green tea water infusion was tested on Drosophila melanogaster wild-type larvae in vivo, also an in vitro antihemolytic and hemolytic tests were performed. Three different concentrations were used 7.5 mg/ml, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, the lowest dose representing the recommended dose followed by five times and ten times higher doses. Effect of these three concentrations was monitored and tested in vivo on Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1830 wt (wild type larval development and surviving. All three concentrations showed toxic effect for larvae, with toxicity being increased in dose – depended manner. The time needed for larvae to fully develop was delayed. This decrease of developmental time was in dose – dependent manner, too. Amount of hemolysis caused by the lowest concentration was very small when compared with the percent of spontaneous hemolysis. Other two higher concentrations, 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml, showed higher hemolytic effect. During the four hour incubation period percent of hemolysis grew in time – dependent manner. The highest hemolytic effect was recorded for the concentration of 37.5 mg/ml. Antihemolytic test showed that the lowest concentration had the highest inhibitory effect to H2O2 induced hemolysis. The 37.5 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml concentrations had lower inhibitory effect when compared with the dose of 7.5 mg/ml. According to our study it can be concluded that the high concentrations of green tea water infusion exhibit larvicidal activity against D. melanogaster larvae, don't have protective effect to RBC membrane and cause greater hemolysis.

  13. Microarray analysis of female- and larval-specific gene expression in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Felix D; Dowd, Scot E; Sun, Yan; Saldivar, Leonel; Wiley, Graham B; Macmil, Simone L; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce A; Foil, Lane D

    2009-03-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle, and control of this pest is a continuing problem because the fly is becoming resistant to pesticides. Dominant conditional lethal gene systems are being studied as population control technologies against agricultural pests. One of the components of these systems is a female-specific gene promoter that drives expression of a lethality-inducing gene. To identify candidate genes to supply this promoter, microarrays were designed from a horn fly expressed sequence tag (EST) database and probed to identify female-specific and larval-specific gene expression. Analysis of dye swap experiments found 432 and 417 transcripts whose expression levels were higher or lower in adult female flies, respectively, compared with adult male flies. Additionally, 419 and 871 transcripts were identified whose expression levels were higher or lower in first-instar larvae compared with adult flies, respectively. Three transcripts were expressed more highly in adult females flies compared with adult males and also higher in the first-instar larval lifestage compared with adult flies. One of these transcripts, a putative nanos ortholog, has a high female-to-male expression ratio, a moderate expression level in first-instar larvae, and has been well characterized in Drosophila. melanogaster (Meigen). In conclusion, we used microarray technology, verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and massively parallel pyrosequencing, to study life stage- and sex-specific gene expression in the horn fly and identified three gene candidates for detailed evaluation as a gene promoter source for the development of a female-specific conditional lethality system.

  14. Behavioral responses of Drosophila to biogenic levels of carbon dioxide depend on life-stage, sex and olfactory context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Cécile; Forstreuter, Manfred; Hilker, Monika; de Bruyne, Marien

    2006-07-01

    Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) detects and uses many volatiles for its survival. Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is detected in adults by a special class of olfactory receptor neurons, expressing the gustatory receptor Gr21a. The behavioral responses to CO(2) were investigated in a four-field olfactometer bioassay that is new for Drosophila. We determined (1) whether the sensitivity of this response changes with odor context, and (2) if it depends on sex and life stage. When CO(2) was added to ambient air in one field and tested against ambient air in the three other fields, individually observed adults avoided CO(2) (0.1-1% above ambient), but did not respond to a low rise of 0.02%. We relate this behavior to measurements of CO(2) production in bananas and flies. When 0.02% CO(2) was combined with the odor of apple cider vinegar in one field of the olfactometer and tested against ambient air in the three other fields, the addition of CO(2) did not affect the attractiveness of apple cider vinegar alone. However, this combination of CO(2) and vinegar became repellent when it was tested against vinegar at ambient CO(2) concentrations in the three other fields. This ;odor background effect' was female-specific, revealing a sexually dimorphic behavior. The new assay allowed us to test larvae under similar conditions and compare their behavior to that of adults. Like adults, they avoided CO(2), but with lower sensitivity. Larvae lacking neurons expressing Gr21a lost their avoidance behavior to CO(2), but kept their positive response to vinegar odor. Hence, Gr21a-expressing neurons mediate similar behaviors in larvae and adults.

  15. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  16. Invasive Tipula (Diptera: Tipulidae) in turfgrass of the northeast United States: geographic distribution and local incidence three years after detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Daniel C; Olmstead, Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Two species of invasive crane flies are damaging pests of turfgrass in the Great Lakes region after their inadvertent introduction and establishment. In New York, where Tipula paludosa Meigen and Tipula oleracea L. (Diptera: Tipulidae) were first detected in 2004, baseline data on the extent of establishment is needed to monitor range expansion, make predictions about pest status, and guide management efforts. The incidence of both species was therefore addressed at two spatial scales to ascertain how widespread they were across the state and across sites of recent local establishment. Based on divergent natural history, T. oleracea was predicted to be more widespread both geographically and locally than T. paludosa. To delimit the current area of occurrence, surveys were conducted from 2004 to 2006. T. paludosa was detected in four counties and T. oleracea in 12 counties. In western New York, T. oleracea was established in more than a six-fold greater area than T. paludosa. T. oleracea was additionally detected on Long Island, shown to be a geographically disjunct area of establishment. To measure local incidence, putting greens and tee boxes were scouted on golf courses. Contrary to predictions, 56-97 and 22-56% of those surfaces were already infested by T. paludosa and T. oleracea, respectively, within one or two seasons after initial detection. Because damage thresholds are relatively high, scouting for the insect, rather than its injury, will promote earlier detection. Given the impact of invasive Tipula across diverse turf habitats, continued range expansion will have serious repercussions for regional turfgrass management.

  17. The Importance of Habitat in the Ecology of Decomposition on Rabbit Carcasses in Malaysia: Implications in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silahuddin, Siti Aisyah; Latif, Baha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Walter, David Evans; Heo, Chong Chin

    2015-01-01

    . villenuevi, C. pinguis, H. ligurriens, Hyd. spinigera, Hyd. chalcogaster, F. canicularis, and Boettcherisca highlandica Kurahashi & Tan represented by both adults and larvae, whereas C. nigripes, Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, M. domestica, Atherigona sp., Parasarcophaga albiceps Meigen, P. taenionota, Sepsidae, Phoridae, and Millichidae were represented by adults only. Faunal succession followed the sequence of dominant flies, i.e., Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Sepsidae, and lastly Stratiomyidae for jungle, or Sepsidae for rural and highland studies. Mites, from suborders Mesostigmata, Prostigmata, Astigmatina, and Oribatida, were also recovered throughout decomposition, which could be used for future implementation in forensic investigations. The data obtained from this study could provide more accurate indicators for local forensic scientists in solving criminal cases especially on the determination of time and primary location of death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Completion of the sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA subunit of Simulium sanctipauli, with descriptions of the 18S, 28S genes and the IGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hojas, R; Post, R J; Wilson, M D; Cheke, R A

    2002-12-01

    We describe the IGS-ETS, 18S and 28S ribosomal gene sequences of Simulium sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar, a member of the S. damnosum Theobald (Diptera: Simuliidae) complex of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae). These regions, together with the ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S rDNA presented elsewhere (accession number U36206), constitute the composite sequence of the entire rDNA unit, making S. sanctipauli the second dipteran species of medical importance for which the entire rDNA has been sequenced. Despite the lack of sequence identity, the IGS of S. sanctipauli showed some structural similarities to other Diptera, i.e. the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae), the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Drosophilidae) and the tsetse Glossina (Glossinidae). Two blocks of tandemly repeated subunits were present in the IGS of S. sanctipauli and, unlike other species of Diptera, they contained no duplications of promoter-like sequences. However, two promoter-like sequences were identified in the unique DNA stretches of the IGS by their sequence similarity to the promoter of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). The observed sequence variation can be explained, as in the case of Drosophila spp., by the occurrence of slippage-like and point mutation processes, with unequal crossing-over homogenizing (to a certain extent) the region throughout the gene family and blackfly population. The 18S and 28S rDNA genes show more intraspecific variability within the expansion segments than in the core regions. This is also the case in the interspecific comparison of these genes from S. sanctipauli with those of Simulium vittatum, Ae. albopictus and D. melanogaster. This pattern is typical of many eukaryotes and likely to be the result of a more relaxed functional selection in the expansion segments than on the core regions. The A + T content of the S. sanctipauli genes is high and similar to those of other Diptera. This could be the result of a change in the mutation pressure towards

  19. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  20. Modelling the distributions of Culicoides bluetongue virus vectors in Sicily in relation to satellite-derived climate variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purse, B V; Tatem, A J; Caracappa, S; Rogers, D J; Mellor, P S; Baylis, M; Torina, A

    2004-06-01

    Surveillance data from 268 sites in Sicily are used to develop climatic models for prediction of the distribution of the main European bluetongue virus (BTV) vector Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and of potential novel vectors, Culicoides pulicaris Linnaeus, Culicoides obsoletus group Meigen and Culicoides newsteadi Austen. The models containing the 'best' climatic predictors of distribution for each species, were selected from combinations of 40 temporally Fourier-processed remotely sensed variables and altitude at a 1 km spatial resolution using discriminant analysis. Kappa values of around 0.6 for all species models indicated substantial levels of agreement between model predictions and observed data. Whilst the distributions of C. obsoletus group and C. newsteadi were predicted by temperature variables, those of C. pulicaris and C. imicola were determined mainly by normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a variable correlated with soil moisture and vegetation biomass and productivity. These models were used to predict species presence in unsampled pixels across Italy and for C. imicola across Europe and North Africa. The predicted continuous presence of C. pulicaris along the appenine mountains, from north to south Italy, suggests BTV transmission may be possible in a large proportion of this region and that seasonal transhumance (seasonal movement of livestock between upland and lowland pastures) even in C. imicola-free areas should not generally be considered safe. The predicted distribution of C. imicola distribution shows substantial agreement with observed surveillance data from Greece and Iberia (including the Balearics) and parts of mainland Italy (Lazio, Tuscany and areas of the Ionian coast) but is generally much more restricted than the observed distribution (in Sardinia, Corsica and Morocco). The low number of presence sites for C. imicola in Sicily meant that only a restricted range of potential C. imicola habitats were

  1. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Seblova

    Full Text Available Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date.Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004 and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii. In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80% feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected.We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some biting midges could be natural vectors of the L

  2. A comparison of commercial light-emitting diode baited suction traps for surveillance of Culicoides in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew; Gubbins, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Denison, Eric; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Baylis, Matthew; Carpenter, Simon

    2015-04-22

    The response of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to artificial light sources has led to the use of light-suction traps in surveillance programmes. Recent integration of light emitting diodes (LED) in traps improves flexibility in trapping through reduced power requirements and also allows the wavelength of light used for trapping to be customized. This study investigates the responses of Culicoides to LED light-suction traps emitting different wavelengths of light to make recommendations for use in surveillance. The abundance and diversity of Culicoides collected using commercially available traps fitted with Light Emitting Diode (LED) platforms emitting ultraviolet (UV) (390 nm wavelength), blue (430 nm), green (570 nm), yellow (590 nm), red (660 nm) or white light (425 nm - 750 nm with peaks at 450 nm and 580 nm) were compared. A Centre for Disease Control (CDC) UV light-suction trap was also included within the experimental design which was fitted with a 4 watt UV tube (320-420 nm). Generalised linear models with negative binomial error structure and log-link function were used to compare trap abundance according to LED colour, meteorological conditions and seasonality. The experiment was conducted over 49 nights with 42,766 Culicoides caught in 329 collections. Culicoides obsoletus Meigen and Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle responded indiscriminately to all wavelengths of LED used with the exception of red which was significantly less attractive. In contrast, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides pulicaris Linnaeus were found in significantly greater numbers in the green LED trap than in the UV LED trap. The LED traps collected significantly fewer Culicoides than the standard CDC UV light-suction trap. Catches of Culicoides were reduced in LED traps when compared to the standard CDC UV trap, however, their reduced power requirement and small size fulfils a requirement for trapping in logistically challenging areas or where many

  3. Thermal adaptation of cellular membranes in natural populations ofDrosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brandon S; Hammad, Loubna A; Montooth, Kristi L

    2014-08-01

    Changes in temperature disrupt the fluidity of cellular membranes, which can negatively impact membrane integrity and cellular processes. Many ectotherms, including Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen), adjust the glycerophospholipid composition of their membranes to restore optimal fluidity when temperatures change, a type of trait plasticity termed homeoviscous adaptation.Existing data suggest that plasticity in the relative abundances of the glycerophospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) underlies cellular adaptation to temporal variability in the thermal environment. For example, laboratory populations of D. melanogaster evolved in the presence of temporally variable temperatures have greater developmental plasticity of the ratio of PE to PC (PE/PC) and greater fecundity than do populations evolved at constant temperatures.Here, we extend this work to natural populations of D. melanogaster by evaluating thermal plasticity of glycerophospholipid composition at different life stages, in genotypes isolated from Vermont, Indiana and North Carolina, USA. We also quantify the covariance between developmental and adult (reversible) plasticity, and between adult responses of the membrane to cool and warm thermal shifts.As predicted by physiological models of homeoviscous adaptation, flies from all populations decrease PE/PC and the degree of lipid unsaturation in response to warm temperatures. Furthermore, these populations have diverged in their degree of membrane plasticity. Flies from the most variable thermal environment (Vermont, USA) decrease PE/PC to a greater extent than do other populations when developed at a warm temperature, a pattern that matches our previous observation in laboratory-evolved populations. We also find that developmental plasticity and adult plasticity of PE/PC covary across genotypes, but that adult responses to cool and warm thermal shifts do not.When combined with our previous observations of laboratory