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Sample records for vexans meigen diptera

  1. First record of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans vexans (Meigen) in Australia.

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    Johansen, Cheryl A; Lindsay, Michael D A; Harrington, Susan A; Whelan, Peter I; Russell, Richard C; Broom, Annette K

    2005-06-01

    Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans vexans has become widely distributed in the Australasian and Oceanic Islands zoogeographic regions, and in this paper, we describe the 1st confirmed report of Ae. vexans vexans in Australia. A total of 45 adult individuals were collected around the town of Kununurra in the northeast Kimberley region of Western Australia during the late wet seasons between 1996 and 2003. The majority (84%) was collected at trap sites in or near the Ord Stage I Irrigation Area. Aedes vexans vexans was a minor component of the mosquito population, comprising light aircraft arriving in Kununurra from nearby islands. The collection of adult Ae. vexans vexans every year since 2001 could indicate that this mosquito has become established in the Kununurra environs, possibly facilitated by the presence of year-round breeding sites created by the irrigation area. Encephalitogenic flaviviruses have been isolated from this species in North America, Europe, and Taiwan, and the vector competence of Ae. vexans vexans for arboviruses prevalent in northern Western Australia, particularly the flaviviruses Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin, should be investigated.

  2. Genetic and phenotypic variation in central and northern European populations of Aedes (Aedimorphus) vexans (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera, Culicidae).

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    Francuski, Ljubinka; Milankov, Vesna; Ludoški, Jasmina; Krtinić, Bosiljka; Lundström, Jan O; Kemenesi, Gábor; Ferenc, Jakab

    2016-06-01

    The floodwater mosquito Aedes vexans can be a massive nuisance in the flood plain areas of mainland Europe, and is the vector of Tahyna virus and a potential vector of Dirofilaria immitis. This epidemiologically important species forms three subspecies worldwide, of which Aedes vexans arabiensis has a wide distribution in Europe and Africa. We quantified the genetic and phenotypic variation in Ae. vexans arabiensis in populations from Sweden (northern Europe), Hungary, and Serbia (central Europe). A landscape genetics approach (FST , STRUCTURE, BAPS, GENELAND) revealed significant differentiation between northern and southern populations. Similar to genetic data, wing geometric morphometrics revealed two different clusters, one made by Swedish populations, while another included Hungarian and Serbian populations. Moreover, integrated genetic and morphometric data from the spatial analysis suggested groupings of populations into three clusters, one of which was from Swedish and Hungarian populations. Data on spatial analysis regarding an intermediate status of the Hungarian population was supported by observed Isolation-by-Distance patterns. Furthermore, a low proportion of interpopulation vs intrapopulation variance revealed by AMOVA and low-to-moderate FST values on a broader geographical scale indicate a continuous between-population exchange of individuals, including considerable gene flow on the regional scale, are likely to be responsible for the maintenance of the observed population similarity in Aе. vexans. We discussed data considering population structure in the light of vector control strategies of the mosquito from public health importance. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Human external ophthalmomyiasis caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a green bottle fly.

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    Kalezić, Tanja; Stojković, Milenko; Vuković, Ivana; Spasić, Radoslava; Andjelkovic, Marko; Stanojlović, Svetlana; Božić, Marija; Džamić, Aleksandar

    2014-07-14

    Ophthalmomyiasis externa is the result of infestation of the conjunctiva by the larval form or maggots of flies from the order Diptera. If not recognized and managed appropriately, it can be complicated by the potentially fatal condition ophthalmomyiasis interna. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is mainly caused by the sheep bot fly (Oestrus ovis). We present the first case, to our knowledge, of ophthalmomyiasis externa in an elderly woman from Belgrade caused by Lucilia sericata Meigen--a green bottle fly.

  4. Spectral Signatures of Immature Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Warren, Jodie-A; Ratnasekera, T D Pulindu; Campbell, David A; Anderson, Gail S

    2017-03-23

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is an innovative technology with applications in many sciences and is a non-destructive method that may offer more precise aging within development stages. Hyperspectral reflectance measurements from the anterior, midsection, and posterior of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) larvae and pupae were conducted daily from samples of the developing insects beginning at second instar. Only midsection measurements were conducted on second instar larvae due to their size, to ensure that the measurement was not of reflective surroundings. Once measured, all insects were washed with deionized water, blotted with filter paper, and re-measured. Daily age prediction during the post-feeding stage was not impacted by the unwashed insect measurements and was best predicted based on posterior measurements. The second and third instar larvae, which move about their food source, had different contributing coefficients to the functional regression model for the hyperspectral measurements of the washed compared with unwashed specimens. Although washing did not affect the daily prediction within these stages, it is still encouraged in order to decrease the effect of food source on spectral reflectance. Days within the intra-puparial period were best predicted based on anterior measurements and were not well distinguished from one another in the first few days based on midsection and posterior measurements.

  5. Responses of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to cadaveric volatile organic compounds.

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    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, Francois J; Haubruge, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Flies of the Calliphoridae Family are the most forensically important insects because of their abundance on the decedent during the first minutes following death. Necrophagous insects are attracted at a distance by a decomposing body, through the use of volatile chemical cues. We tested the possible attractive role of some volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) released by decaying cadavers, on male and female of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Two complementary approaches were used. Electroantennography (EAG) allowed identifying the semiochemicals that are detected by the olfactory system of L. sericata. Dose-response tests with EAG showed that dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and butan-1-ol elicited the highest responses. Behavioral assays showed that, among the VOCs tested, DMDS and butan-1-ol are attractive for L. sericata, while the other VOCs are repulsive or do not cause any behavior. Our results may have potential implications in a better understanding of attractiveness of blowflies toward a corpse. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Primera cita de Ctenophora (Cnemoncosis) ornata Meigen 1818 (Diptera: Tipulidae) para Galicia (España)

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    Camaño Portela, J.L.; Pino Pérez, R.; Pino Pérez, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ctenophora (Cnemoncosis) ornata Meigen, 1818 es un tipúlido que está distribuido por el paleártico occidental, desde Irlanda hasta Ucrania y Turquía (Oosterbroek et al., 2006: 146; Palaczyk, 2004), presente en la mayoría de los países europeos, incluyendo España (Eiroa & Báez, 2002: 79), pero que hasta el momento no se había colectado en Galicia (Eiroa, 1988).

  7. Effect of ketamine on the development of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and preliminary pathological observation of larvae.

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    Zou, Yi; Huang, Ming; Huang, Ruiting; Wu, Xinwu; You, Zhijie; Lin, Jieqiong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Sheng

    2013-03-10

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on the growth patterns of necrophagous arthropods is the main mission of forensic entomology in practice. The larval development rates can be affected by various drugs or toxins, causing deviation in PMI estimate. Ketamine is a widely used anesthetic and recreational drug in Asia, which is rarely focused on in the previous entomotoxicological studies. The present work investigated the effect of ketamine on the development of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by the measurement of body length and weight and the analysis of relationship between the ketamine effect and drug dosage or time interval, meanwhile the difference between ketamine effect on larval body length and weight was also analyzed. Additionally, the preliminary pathological observation of larvae was also employed for evaluating the drug effect in morphology. Significant differences were observed between control and treatment colonies of L. sericata at each life stage, and the effect of ketamine displayed a dosage-and-time-dependent manner, but no differences were noticed between the effects of ketamine on larval body length and weight, which provided a useful indication for larvae sample collection in practice. The pathological observation revealed that ketamine could promote the growth of trophocytes in fat body of L. sericata. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A key to larvae of Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae, well known as adult males and pupae from Alps (Europe

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    B. Rossaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae well known as adult males and pupal exuviae from European Alps, is presented; the characters useful in species identification are pictured. The key considers both qualitative and quantitative characters. Thirteen morpho-species are distinguished, probably more species have a very similar larva and can be separated only in the adult or pupal stage. The most discriminant quantitative characters are the length and thickness of anal setae, among qualitative characters the most discriminant ones are the head capsule colour and the split of setae anteriores of labrum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth are good taxonomic characters, but can be rarely used because teeth are often worn out in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the sampled site and season, and must be used with caution. The following species groups can be easily separated in the larval stage: i dampfi, including D. dampfi and D. permacra; ii latitarsis including D. modesta and D. latitarsis; iii zernyi including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage, but some of them, D. cinerella and D. insignipes for example, have a very similar larva, so are better separated on the basis of their distribution and collection of adults and pupae are strongly recommended to support identifications. A new character bound to head capsule colour is proposed to separate D. insignipes, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. zernyi.

  9. A review of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Russia.

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    Sorokina, Vera S; Pont, Adrian C

    2015-08-14

    A key is provided to the 26 species of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 known from Russia and four additional species that may be found in Russia (D. brumalis (Rondani, 1866), D. cantabrigensis (Huckett, 1965), D. gymnophthalma (Hennig, 1963), D. similis (Malloch, 1918)). The key includes the 10 new species here described from the mountains of South Siberia (D. acrostichalis sp. nov., D. aristata sp. nov., D. cilitarsis sp. nov., D. glabra sp. nov., D. grandis sp. nov., D. grisea sp. nov., D. longiseta sp. nov., D. phaonina sp. nov., D. puchokana sp. nov., D. triseta sp. nov.,) and other two new species from the Russian Arctic (D. cristata sp. nov., D. taymirensis sp. nov.). Five species (D. fasciculata (Stein, 1916), D. firthiana (Huckett, 1965), D. groenlandica (Lundbeck, 1901), D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919), D. neoborealis (Snyder, 1949)) are newly recorded from Russia. Three new synonymies are proposed: D. pribilofensis (Malloch, 1921) (syn: D. inaequalis (Malloch, 1922)), D. setibasis (Huckett, 1965) (syn: D. gymnophthalma sibirica (Lavčiev, 1971, unavailable junior secondary homonym) and D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919) (syn: D. amurensis (Lavčiev, 1971)). The male terminalia and the female ovipositors of the new species are illustrated. New faunistic data are given for some previously described species of Russian Drymeia.

  10. Antennal sensilla of the green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Zhang, D; Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Zhang, M; Li, K

    2013-11-01

    Lucilia sericata (Meigen) is a cosmopolitan synanthropic fly of forensic and medical importance, which can work as a mechanic vector of pathogens or cause myiasis of both human and sheep. As essential olfactory organs, antennae of adult L. sericata were examined with stereoscopic microscope, scanning electron microscope, and laser scanning confocal microscope. On antennal scape and pedicel, both microtirchiae and several bristles are detected, while another two structures, setiferous plaques and pedicellar buttons, are also found on the antennal pedicel. Seven subtypes of antennal sensilla are observed on antennal funiculus including one subtype of trichoid sensilla, two subtypes of basiconic sensilla, two subtypes of coeloconic sensilla, and two subtypes of sensory pits. Size and density of the former four types of sensilla on antennal funiculus are measured. Three distinctive sensillar characters of L. sericata are detected, which may contribute to greater olfactory sensitivity of this species and their wide distribution throughout the world. Unlike the common poreless pedicellar button with mechanoreceptor function, every pedicellar button in L. sericata is perforated by three pores, which might indicate potential chemoreceptor function of this structure. Besides, another unique feature is greater number of setiferous plaques in genus Lucilia than calliphorids of other genera. Expect for the common sensory pits with basiconic or basiconic-like sensilla in them, sensory pits filled with rarely described coeloconic-like sensilla are founded in L. sericata as well. After comparison with previous equivalent findings, the functions of these specific structures are discussed according to the life history of this calliphorid.

  11. Battling the un-dead: the status of the Diptera genus-group names originally proposed in Johann Wilhelm Meigen's 1800 pamphlet.

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    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pape, Thomas

    2017-06-08

    The work of Meigen 1800 was suppressed by the ICZN Commission in 1963 for the purposes of zoological nomenclature. The work as such is still to be treated as having been published and it remains available as a source of published descriptions and illustrations. Therefore, while the names in Meigen (1800) are deemed unavailable, a subsequent usage of any of the names may be considered a novel proposal. We review the first post-Meigen 1800 occurrence of each name, its first date of availability and authorship, and determine status and synonymy.        Designations of type species are given for the following genus-group names: Coryneta Hendel, 1908 [Hybotidae]; Cyanea Hendel, 1908 [Hippoboscidae].        Acting as First Reviser, we select the following as the correct original spelling from multiple original spellings: Calirrhoe Hendel, 1908.        New synonymies are proposed for the following: Ablabesmyia Johannsen, 1905 under Pelopia Latreille, 1802, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Amasia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Penthetria Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Bibionidae]; Amphinome Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Limonia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Limoniidae]; Antiopa Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Apivora Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Volucella Geoffroy, 1762, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Atalanta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Clinocera Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Empididae]; Calirrhoe Meigen & Hendel in Hendel, 1908 under Prosena Le Peletier & Audinet-Serville, 1828, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chrysozona Hendel, 1903 under Haematopota Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Tabanidae]; Cinxia Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Sericomyia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Syrphidae]; Cleona Meigen in Hendel 1908 under Callomyia Meigen, 1804, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Clythia Hendel, 1903 under Platypeza Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Platypezidae]; Coryneta Meigen in Hendel, 1908 under Tachydromia Meigen, 1803, n. syn. [Hybotidae]; Crocuta Bezzi, 1907 under Siphona Meigen, 1803, n. syn

  12. Discontinuous foraging behavior of necrophagous Lucilia sericata (Meigen 1826) (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae.

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    Charabidze, Damien; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2013-03-01

    Larvae of the necrophagous Blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) live on vertebrate cadavers. Although continuously feeding was previously assumed for this species, we hypothesized that larvae do not feed constantly. According to this hypothesis, their crop should not always be full, which should be reflected in crop surfaces. We dissected and measured the crops of larvae of the same age and bred in the same conditions. Crop surfaces of 117 larvae just removed from the food ranged from 0 to 16.6 mm(2) (mean=5.325±2.84 mm(2)). The distribution of these crop surfaces indicates a continuous variation of satiation/feeding activity in the population. Starving experiments showed a quite long digestive process. After 90 min of starving, the decrease in crop surfaces became obvious, but 150 min were necessary to observe more than a half of the population with an empty crop (less than 2 mm(2)). No more differences were observed after 150, 180 and 240 min of starving. We finally used starved larvae to observe the kinetic of food absorption and the duration of the food-intake phase. Our results indicates that larvae can ingest faster than they digest. After 5 min spent in the food, 70% of the larvae had a crop surface larger or equal to 8 mm(2). We observed for the first time an over-feeding of the larvae, with high crop surfaces overrepresented compared to larvae never starved (control). Together, these results indicate that larvae do not feed continuously, and regulate their foraging behavior. We propose that the foraging behavior of the larvae creates a permanent movement inside the larval masses. This turnover/scramble competition may be linked to the larval-mass effect, i.e. the local temperature increase observed in large necrophagous larvae aggregates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Species of the genus Chrysotus Meigen, 1824 (Diptera: Dolichopodidae from Japan, with descriptions of two new species

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    Oleg P. Negrobov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Chrysotus Meigen, 1824 are described: Ch. masunagai Negrobov, Kumazawa, Tago sp. nov and Ch. saigusai Negrobov, Kumazawa & Tago sp. nov. Chrysotus parilis Parent, 1926 is recorded from Japan for the first time. An identification key to all known species of the genus Chrysotus of Japan is presented together with a tree diagram showing relationships among them.

  14. A new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen (Diptera: Tipuloidea: Tipulidae) from China, with a key to the world species.

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    Men, Qiu-Lei; Huang, Min-Yi

    2014-07-29

    One new species of the genus Ctenophora Meigen, 1803, C. fumosa Men, sp. nov. (southern China: Anhui) is described and illustrated. A key to known species along with a checklist of known species of the genus Ctenophora are provided. The type specimens of the new species are deposited in the animal specimen room, School of Life Science, Anqing Normal University, Anqing, Anhui Province, China. 

  15. Adult sex ratio effects on male survivorship of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae Efeito da razão sexual de adultos na curva de sobrevivência de machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera, Drosophilidae

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    Marcelo Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral biology has a central role in evolutionary biology mainly because the antagonistic relations that occur in the sexual reproduction. One involves the effect of reproduction on the future life expectation. In this scenario, changes in male operational sex ratio could lead to an increase in mortality due to costs associated with excessive courtship and mating displays. Thus, this work experimentally altered the male sex ratio of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, to determine its impact on mortality. The results indicated that mortality increases as the sex ratio changes, including modifications in the survivorship curve type and in the curve concavity, measured by entropy.A biologia comportamental tem um papel central na biologia evolutiva principalmente pelas relações antagônicas que ocorrem na reprodução sexuada. Uma destas relações envolve o efeito da reprodução sobre a expectativa de vida futura. Neste cenário, alterações na razão sexual operacional de machos podem levar a um aumento na mortalidade por causa dos custos associados com o excesso de displays de corte e cópulas. Neste sentido este trabalho alterou experimentalmente a razão sexual em machos de Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830, para determinar os efeitos em termos de mortalidade. Os resultados indicam que a mortalidade aumenta a medida que a razão sexual se enviesa incluindo alterações no tipo de curva de sobrevivência e da concavidade da curva, medida pela entropia.

  16. Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 (Diptera, Culicidae, a new country record for England, contrasted with Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838

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    Ralph E. Harbach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the discovery of Aedes nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918 in the New Forest of southern England, bringing to 36 the number of mosquito species recorded in Britain. Because it seems that this species has been misidentified previously in Britain as the morphologically similar Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838, the two species are contrasted and distinguished based on distinctive differences exhibited in the adult and larval stages. The pupa of Ae. nigrinus is unknown, but the pupa of Ae. sticticus is distinguished from the pupae of other species of Aedes by modification of the most recent key to British mosquitoes. The history of the mosquito fauna recorded in the UK is summarized and bionomical information is provided for the two species.

  17. mtDNA-based identification of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the continental United States.

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    Debry, Ronald W; Timm, Alicia E; Dahlem, Gregory A; Stamper, Trevor

    2010-10-10

    Existing data suggest that the forensically important dipteran species Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) may be particularly difficult to discriminate using DNA sequence data. L. cuprina is paraphyletic with respect to L. sericata in mtDNA phylogenies, with some L. cuprina having mtDNA haplotypes that are very similar to those of L. sericata. We examine this problem by providing the first DNA data for L. cuprina from North America, including portions of both the mitochondrial COI gene and the nuclear 28S rRNA gene. With the new data, L. cuprina remains monophyletic for 28S but paraphyletic with respect to L. sericata for COI. However, we find that all flies that are identified as L. cuprina by morphology and have L. sericata-like mtDNA form a distinctly monophyletic mtDNA clade. This clade may possibly have originated by hybridization between L. cuprina and L. sericata, but its wide geographic distribution strongly suggests a singular origin as opposed to repeated incidents of hybridization. The phylogenetic results strongly support the hypothesis that L. cuprina and L. sericata can be discriminated using mtDNA sequence data. We find that a fragment of COI spanning approximately 1200 base pairs is sufficient to discriminate between the two species with greater than 95% bootstrap support. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in the morphology and presumptive chemistry of impact and pooled bloodstain patterns by Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Fujikawa, Amanda; Barksdale, Larry; Higley, Leon G; Carter, David O

    2011-09-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis can be critical to accurate crime scene reconstruction. However, bloodstain patterns can be altered in the presence of insects and can confound crime scene reconstruction. To address this problem, we conducted a series of controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) on impact bloodstains and pooled bloodstains in association with three combinations of common surfaces (linoleum/painted drywall, wood floor/wallpaper, and carpet/wood paneling). L. sericata fed from the pooled bloodstains and added insect stains through regurgitation and defecation of consumed blood. L. sericata formed defecatory trails of insect stains that indicated directionality. Defecatory stains fluoresced when viewed at 465 nm with an orange filter. These observations differed from Calliphora vicina insect stains because feeding on blood spatter was not observed and trails of insect stains were formed by L. sericata. The fluorescence of defecatory stains can be used as a method to detect insect stains and discriminate them from real bloodstains. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Morphology of the adult male and pupal exuviae of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Diptera, Chironomidae) using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

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    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva; Czaplicka, Anna

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a study of the morphology of the pupa and male imago of Glyptotendipes (G.) glaucus (Meigen 1818) was carried out, with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM provided additional valuable information on the morphology of the species. Adult male head, antenna, wing, leg, abdomen, hypopygium, pupal cephalothorax and abdomen were examined. It is emphasized that SEM was not often used in Chironomidae studies. The present results confirm SEM as a suitable approach in carrying out morphological and taxonomical descriptions of Chironomidae species.

  20. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  1. The ability of the blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) to colonise buried remains.

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    Gunn, Alan; Bird, Jerry

    2011-04-15

    The blowflies Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) exhibited a limited ability to colonise pig liver baits buried in loose soil. Calliphora vomitoria colonised baits buried at 5 cm but no deeper whilst C. vicina and L. sericata colonised remains at 10 cm but not at 20 cm. The baits were colonised by larvae hatching from eggs laid on the surface of the soil. Both C. vomitoria and L. sericata were able to develop from eggs through to adulthood on baits that were infested before being buried and the larvae developed at similar rates and pupariated at similar depths to larvae developing on baits on the soil surface. The muscid flies Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and Muscina prolapsa (Harris) colonised remains buried in loose soil at a depth of 40 cm and even when presented with baits on the soil surface their larvae tended to remain in the soil beneath the baits. In compacted soil, M. stabulans colonised baits buried at 10 cm but M. prolapsa only colonised those buried at 5 cm. In both muscid species, the adult flies were instantly attracted to feed on fresh blood and laid eggs in the soil above buried baits within 30min of them being introduced into the cages. The adult muscid flies did not attempt to burrow into the soil and their larvae colonised the baits from eggs laid on the soil surface. This information could be useful in determining whether a body was stored above ground before being buried and/or the time since burial occurred. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bocková, E.; Rudolf, Ivo; Kočišová, A.; Betášová, Lenka; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2013), s. 3465-3470 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Dirofilaria * mosquitoes * Aedes vexans Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013

  3. Nieuwe en zeldzame zweefvliegen voor de Nederlandse fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van B.

    1993-01-01

    New and rare hoverflies for the Dutch fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae). Paragus albifrons (Fallén), P. bicolor (Fabricius), Sphegina verecunda Collin, Neoascia annexa (O.F. Müller), Callicera aenea (Fabricius), Cheilosia caerulescens (Meigen), C. chloris (Meigen), C. flavipes (Panzer), Chamaesyrphus

  4. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M.; M Khoobdel; J Rafinejd

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Methods: Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver–baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop...

  5. Mass rearing of Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozfar, F; Moosa-Kazemi, H; Baniardalani, M; Abolhassani, M; Khoobdel, M; Rafinejd, J

    2011-01-01

    To carry out an experimental study with the main objective of mass rearing of sheep flies (Lucilia sericata). Hand collection and beef- or cattle liver-baited net traps were used for field fly sampling from April, 2010 to November, 2010. The samples collected from different places were placed in properly labeled tubes and sent to the Entomology Laboratory. Since maggot identification is important in inducing mortality, they were kept under insectary condition to develop to adult stage and identified using systematic keys. A total of 218 flies were collected in three rounds of sampling from the field of Tehran and Karaj Counties. In the first generation, 433 flies including 135 (31.17%) male, and 298 (68.82%) female were yielded. The female/male of parent ratio was calculated as 1.72 in Tehran and in Karaj areas, whereas it was 2.20% and 1.81%, respectively in F1 and F2 generations, respectively. During this study, the mass rearing of sheep blow fly has been established at the School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and can be used for producing flies for maggot therapy.

  6. Zoonotic Dirofilaria repens (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Aedes vexans mosquitoes, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Bocková, E.; Jedličková, Petra; Venclíková, Kristýna; Blažejová, Hana; Šikutová, Silvie; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 12 (2014), s. 4663-4667 ISSN 0932-0113 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aedes vexans * Mosquito vectors * Dirofilaria repens * Dogs * Zoonotic dirofilariosis * Setaria spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014

  7. De larven van het geslacht Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclatuur en tabel tot de soorten (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pillot, H.K.M.; Wiersma, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    The larvae of the genus Einfeldia Kieffer, 1924: nomenclature and key to the species (Diptera: Chironomidae). A review is given of the identities of groups and taxa of Einfeldia in the larval stage as given in the literature. Three species remain on the Dutch list: E. carbonaria (Meigen), E.

  8. The species of the genus Diamesa (Diptera, Chironomidae) known to occur in Italian Alps and Apennines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Urbanelli, Sandra; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-11-15

    Some rare species from Italian Alps, belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae) are here redescribed as adult males, because only old, incomplete descriptions are available for these taxa. Terminology of male genitalia is reviewed, diagnostic features are illustrated in detail, and notes on biology and geographical distribution of the examined species are provided. An identification key to the known adult males is presented.

  9. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-08-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy.

  10. History of tachinid classification (Diptera, Tachinidae

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    James O Hara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The history of the classification of the Tachinidae (Diptera is traced from Meigen to the present. The contributions of Robineau-Desvoidy, Townsend, Villeneuve, Mesnil, Herting, Wood and many others are discussed within a chronological, taxonomic, and geographic context. The gradual development of the Tachinidae into its modern concept as a family of the Oestroidea and the emergence of the classificatory scheme of tribes and subfamilies in use today are reviewed. Certain taxa that have in the past been difficult to place, or continue to be of uncertain affinity, are considered and some are given in a table to show their varied historical treatments. The more significant systematic works published on the Tachinidae in recent decades are enumerated chronologically.

  11. Genotoxic effect of copper on salivary gland polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius Meigen 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michailova, P. [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tzar Osvoboditel boul., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: michailova@zoology.bas.bg; Petrova, N. [Institute of Zoology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 199034, Universit. nab. 1, Russia (Russian Federation); Ilkova, J. [Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1 Tzar Osvoboditel boul., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria); Bovero, S. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Turin, via Albertina 13, Turin (Italy); Brunetti, S. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Turin, via Albertina 13, Turin (Italy); White, K. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Sella, G. [Department of Animal Biology, University of Turin, via Albertina 13, Turin (Italy)

    2006-11-15

    The genotoxic action of copper (Cu) on the polytene chromosomes of Chironomus riparius was investigated by analysing structural and functional chromosome aberrations of fourth instars larvae hatched from eggs subject to acute (48 h) exposure with three environmentally relevant concentrations of aqueous Cu (0.005, 0.01, 0.05 mg/l). A dose dependent relationship was observed between Cu concentration and frequency of chromosomal aberrations. A significantly higher frequency of functional alterations, specifically decondensed centromeres and telomeres, and reduction in activity of Balbiani rings, was observed in treated material compared to control. A comparison of breakpoints resulting from treatment with chromium and lead from earlier studies with those Cu-induced identified a series of chromosomal weak points particularly vulnerable to trace metals. We also show that the appearance of structural and functional chromosome aberrations are more sensitive indicators of acute Cu toxicity in chironomid larvae than changes in external morphology. - Acute exposure of Chironomus eggs to copper resulted in changes in chromosome structure and function.

  12. [Antimicrobial factors of hemolymph and excretion of larvae Lucilia sericata (meigen) (diptera, calliphoridae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikova, A A

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with molecular nature and peculiarities of functioning of two main protective systems of larvae Lucilia sericata--the antimicrobial compounds of hemolymph and of the excretion released by feeding larvae into environmental. There are identified a number of inducible antibacterial peptides including defensins (3844, 4062, and 4117 Da), P-peptide (3043 Da), and four new polypeptides (3235, 3702, 3746, and 3768 Da) In hemolymph of the larvae submitted to bacterial infestation, by the chromatomasspectrometry methods. The excretion of larvae Lucilia sericata contains peptides analogous or identical to hemolymph antibacterial peptides (diptericins: 8882 Da and 9025 Da), high molecular compounds of peptide nature (6466 Da, 6633 Da, 5772 Da, 8631 Da, etc.) differing from the known hemolymph components and low molecular compounds (130-700 Da). Spectrum of excretion bactericidal activity includes various groups of bacterial including the most actual pathogen from medical point of view--the meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, unlike the hemolymph that does not have antistaphylococcal activity. The excretion components suppressing growth and development of this staphylococcus are represented by substances of the low molecular nature (from 160 to 1020 Da). The performed studies characterize the strategies used by "surgical maggots" for protection from pathogens and for suppression of microbial competitors and allow better understanding of molecular mechanisms of larval therapy of purulent infectious diseases. These studies in perspective can serve the basis for creation of the principally new drugs for struggle with usual and antibiotics-resistant bacterial infections.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY FOR EXCRETION AND SECRETION OF THE GREENBOTTLE FLY LARVAE LUCILIA SERICATA (MEIGEN) (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mostafa I; Amer, Mounir S; Hammad, Kotb M; Zidan, Mahmoud M

    2016-04-01

    Sterile larval excretion/secretion (ES) exhibited antibacterial activity against some species of bacteria. They were shown to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and Fungi Geotricum candidum and Aspergillus fumigatus thus exhibited limited inhibitory effect towards Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Proteous vulgaris and Fungi Syncephalastrum racemosum, Candida albicans, that effect was slowed down when challenged with secretion on a solid media but no zone of complete inhibition was detectqd. Growth inhibiting activity was determined in liquid growth media using the Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains as indicator organisms.

  14. Intraspecific variation in wing shape of Poecilobothrus regalis (Meigen, 1824 (Diptera, Dolichopodidae

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    Mariya A. Chursina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of 186 specimens of Poecilobothrus regalis was conducted in order to examine intraspecific variability of wing shape. The wing shape variation was analyzed using geometric morphometrics analyses. Significant differences in the structure of wing were found both between sexes and between populations. Differences between sexes were observed in the structure of the medium portion of wing. The first extracted canonical variate of geographic variation showed a moderately linear association with latitude and average temperature of February and March. The second canonical variate was correlated with longitude and values of average wind flow velocity. Allometric relationships were weak both between populations and sexes.

  15. Aspects of gametogenesis and radiation pathology in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen) : 1. Gametogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, J.A.B.M.

    1976-01-01

    In the scope of a genetic control research project gametogenesis of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), is studied as a base for investigations on radiation histopathology of the gonads.

    Various cytological, histological, electronmicroscopical and

  16. A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea

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    Gustavo Borges Ferro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key and diagnosis of the Brazilian genera of Micropezidae (Diptera, Nerioidea. This paper provides the first pictorial key and diagnosis for the Brazilian genera of the Micropezidae, based on external morphological characters illustrated with photographs. The key includes 13 genera: Cardiacephala Macquart, Cliobata Enderlein, Grallipeza Rondani, Metasphen Frey, Micropeza Meigen, Parasphen Enderlein, Planipeza Marshall, Plocoscelus Enderlein, Poecilotylus Hennig, Ptilosphen Enderlein, Rainieria Rondani, Scipopus Enderlein and Taeniaptera Macquart. For each genus, the species known to occur in Brazil are listed and their distribution records, including new ones, are provided.

  17. Facultative myiasis of domestic cats by Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Bonacci, Teresa; Del Zingaro, Carlo Nicola Francesco; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Massimo; Leis, Marilena

    2017-10-01

    We describe five cases of myiasis of domestic cats, Felis silvestris catus L. (Carnivora: Felidae), reported in 2016 in northern Italy and caused by three Diptera species: Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Sarcophagidae), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae). Three were cases of traumatic myiasis, one by S. argyrostoma and two by L. sericata, one was a case of auricular myiasis by C. vicina and one was a case of ophthalmomyiasis caused by an association of L. sericata and C. vicina. The myiasis by S. argyrostoma is the first reported case of this species in a cat, whereas the two myiases by C. vicina are the first reported cases in cats in Italy.

  18. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and their relevance as disease vectors in the city of Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Silbermayr, Katja; Obwaller, Adelheid; Berer, Dominik; Brugger, Katharina; Walter, Melanie; Pinior, Beate; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Rubel, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors for a wide range of pathogenic organisms. As large parts of the human population in developed countries live in cities, the occurrence of vector-borne diseases in urban areas is of particular interest for epidemiologists and public health authorities. In this study, we investigated the mosquito occurrence in the city of Vienna, Austria, in order to estimate the risk of transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes were captured using different sampling techniques at 17 sites in the city of Vienna. Species belonging to the Culex pipiens complex (78.8 %) were most abundant, followed by Coquillettidia richiardii (10.2 %), Anopheles plumbeus (5.4 %), Aedes vexans (3.8 %), and Ochlerotatus sticticus (0.7 %). Individuals of the Cx. pipiens complex were found at 80.2 % of the trap sites, while 58.8 % of the trap sites were positive for Cq. richiardii and Ae. vexans. Oc. sticticus was captured at 35.3 % of the sites, and An. plumbeus only at 23.5 % of the trap sites. Cx. pipiens complex is known to be a potent vector and pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Tahyna virus (TAHV), Sindbis virus (SINV), Plasmodium sp., and Dirofilaria repens can be transmitted by this species. Cq. richiardii is a known vector species for Batai virus (BATV), SINV, TAHV, and WNV, while Ae. vexans can transmit TAHV, USUV, WNV, and Dirofilaria repens. An. plumbeus and Oc. sticticus seem to play only a minor role in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Vienna. WNV, which is already wide-spread in Europe, is likely to be the highest threat in Vienna as it can be transmitted by several of the most common species, has already been shown to pose a higher risk in cities, and has the possibility to cause severe illness.

  19. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  20. Chironomidae (Diptera and Gammaridae (Amphipoda Fauna in Dupnisa Cave (Sarpdere Village, Demirköy, Kırklareli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Özkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dupnisa Mağarası’nın (Sarpdere Köyü, Demirköy, Kırklareli Chironomidae (Diptera ve Gammaridae (Amphipoda Faunası. Dupnisa Mağarasına 20.08.2001 ve 06.07.2004 tarihlerinde 2 arazi çalışması gerçekleştirildi. 4 örnekleme lokalitesinden Chironomidae (Diptera ve Gammaridae (Amphipoda familyalarına ait örnekler toplandı. Daha sonra laboratuvarda mikroskop altında teşhisleri gerçekleştirildi. 1 nolu lokalitede Chironomidae familyasına ait larva bulunmadı. 2 nolu lokalitede Paratrissocladius excerptus (Walker, 1806; Epoicocladius ephemerae (Kieffer, 1924; Polypedilum (Tripodura scalaenum (Schrank, 1803, 3 nolu lokalitede Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen, 1804; Telmatopelopia nemorum Goetghebuer, 1921; Paratrichocladius rufiventris (Meigen, 1830; Rheotanytarsus sp.; Micropsectra praecox Wiedemann, 1918 ve 4 nolu lokalitede Heleniella orniaticollis Edwards, 1929; Chaetocladius piger Goetghebuer, 1913; Psectrocladius barbimans Edwards, 1929; Polypedilum (Tripodura scalaenum (Schrank, 1803; Micropsectra praecox Wiedemann, 1918 türleri bulundu. Gammaridae familyasından ise 4 örnekleme lokalitesinin herbirinde yalnız Gammarus arduus G.S. Karaman, 1973 türü saptandı

  1. Translocations and sex ratio distortion in the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), and their relevance to genetic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosselman, L.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments on sex determination of the onion fly, Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), are reported in the first two chapters. The main purpose was to establish if the sex ratio distortion observed in certain crosses, was based on a mechanism which could be used for genetic purposes. Two

  2. Lucilia silvarum Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a new species of interest for forensic entomology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Szpila, Krzysztof; Huijbregts, Johannes; Lindström, Anders; Zehner, Richard; Amendt, Jens

    2012-10-10

    In Europe, the blowfly genus Lucilia is represented in Forensic Entomology mainly by the species L. ampullacea, L. caesar, L. illustris and L. sericata. In the US, Lucilia silvarum is rarely recorded as a carrion breeding species but usually as a more or less exclusive parasite of frogs and toads. We present three forensic cases from different European countries reporting, for the first time, L. silvarum on human bodies that were found close to lakes, wetlands, or riversides. To use this species for post-mortem interval estimations, thermal development data is needed. The first step is accurate identification by morphological and molecular means. Therefore, we analysed a 611 bp part of the mitochondrial COI region for 23 specimens of L. silvarum from 9 different geographical regions, all of which give the same haplotype. Differences within the haplotype varied by up to 0.2%. Comparison between the haplotype found and those published on GenBank showed up to 1.2% variance. Moreover, we present an updated key for the morphological identification of the third larval instars of European Lucilia spp. of forensic importance, adding not only L. silvarum, but also L. cuprina which was recorded in Europe for the first time about 20 years ago. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Mycetophilaruficollis Meigen (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) group in Europe: elucidating species delimitation with COI and ITS2 sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgenstein, Siiri; Kurina, Olavi; Põldmaa, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    European species of the Mycetophilaruficollis group are compared on the basis of morphology and sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit one (COI) and the ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The study represents the first evaluation of morphology-based species delimitation of closely related fungus gnat species by applying molecular information. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of the male terminalia are presented along with a key for the identification of all nine European species of the group. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data generally supported the morphological species discrimination. The barcoding region of COI superseded ITS2 rDNA in resolving species. In the COI barcoding region interspecific differences ranged from 2.9 to 10.6% and the intraspecific distance from 0.08 to 0.8%. Only COI data distinguished between the similar and closely related Mycetophilaichneumonea and Mycetophilauninotata of which the latter was observed to include cryptic species. The host range of some species is suggested to be narrower than previously considered and to depend on the forest type. Presented evidence indicates the importance of analysing sequence data of morphologically very similar mycetophages reared from identified host fungi for elucidating species delimitation as well as their geographic and host ranges. New country records, viz. Estonia for Mycetophilaevanida, Georgia for Mycetophilaichneumonea, Mycetophilaidonea and Mycetophilaruficollis, and Norway for Mycetophilastrobli, widen the known distribution ranges of these species.

  4. Caracterización citogenética de lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: calliphoridae, Cepa Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yisethe Acuña Morera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lucilia sericata is an important species for medical and forensic purposes, it is used in maggot therapy in the treatment of chronic wounds and in medical-legal studies for establishing the post-mortem interval and the transfer of corpses. Currently there are no records of the cytogenetic characteristics of this fly in Neotropical region. The main objective of this study wasto identify morphometric characteristics and primary structures fromkaryotype of L. sericata strain Bogota, Colombia. Methods and materials: Embryonated eggs were taken, which were previously surface sterilized, macerated and then seeded in L-15 medium culture, supplemented with 20% fbs and incubated at 28 ºC, without C02 atmosphere. The preparation of chromosomeswas obtained from semiconfluent monolayers, pretreated with various solutions: antimitotic (Colchicine, hypotonic (KCl 0.075 M and fixative (Carnoy, methanol and acetic acid, 3:1. C-banding technique was carried out to identify chromosomal regions of constitutive heterochromatin. Results: Morphometric parameters were obtained from each pair of chromosomes. The diploid karyotype number obtained from cell cultures was 2n = 12; they were classified morphologically,according to patterns established previously, as follows: pairs I,ç II, IV and V were metacentric and pair III was submetacentric. On the other hand, the sexual pair was heteromorphic, being X chromosome metacentric and Y chromosome submetacentric. C banding was positive for all chromosome pairs. Conclusions: The cytogenetic characteristics of L. sericata, strain Bogotá, were established according to number, shape, centromer position and heterochromatic regions.

  5. Lucilia sericata (Meigen and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae Development Rate and its Implications for Forensic Entomology

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    Kapil Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomology is basically a science that is based on the scientific study of the invasion and succession pattern of arthropods with their developmental stages of different species found on the decomposed cadavers during legal investigations. The developmental rate of Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya megacephala was studied in beef liver for the correlation of time duration in each phase with the temperature and climate. The obtained data belong to L. sericata at temperatures between 22°C and 26°C (mean - 24°C and relative humidity 50% ±10% and C. megacephala at temperatures between 23°C and 27°C (mean - 25°C and relative humidity 55% ±10%. From the analysis of results, it was observed that in the climatic conditions of the study area, time since death assessment involving L. sericata was found to be with a potential of maximum 10-11 days and C. megacephala with 8-9 days. The data emerged as results from the present work would be beneficial for investigations involving decomposed dead body remains for the assessment of time since death.

  6. The Use of the Developmental Rate of the Aquatic Midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the Assessment of the Postsubmersion Interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Medina, Alejandro; Soriano Hernando, Óscar; Jiménez Ríos, Gilberto

    2015-05-01

    Nonbiting midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) are the most abundant members of the fauna associated with submerged carcasses, but their use in the medicolegal context is very restricted because of their complex ontogeny. In this case, the corpse of a woman was recovered in late spring from a river in Granada (Iberian Peninsula). It showed obvious signs of long permanence in the aquatic environment and, along with pulmonary and microscopical analyses, led to the conclusion that the cause of death was drowning. Several larvae-like specimens were sampled from the scalp and later identified by morphological external features as IV instar larvae of Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804 (Diptera, Chironomidae). Sequencing of cytochrome oxidase subunit I was performed to confirm the identification. The knowledge of the biology of C. riparius at low temperatures was critical to assess a postsubmersion interval of 16-17 days. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Characterization of a novel circo-like virus in Aedes vexans mosquitoes from Germany: evidence for a new genus within the family Circoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Börstler, Jessica; Jöst, Hanna; Badusche, Marlis; Desmecht, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cadar, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Over recent decades, metagenomic studies have expanded the number of newly described, often unclassified, viruses within the family Circoviridae. Using broad-spectrum circovirus and cyclovirus PCRs, we characterized a novel circo-like virus in Aedes vexans mosquitoes from Germany whose main putative ORFs shared very low amino acid identity with those of previously characterized circoviruses and cycloviruses. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analysis revealed that this new virus species defined, together with previously described mosquito- and bat faeces-derived circo-like viruses, a different genus, tentatively called Krikovirus, within the family Circoviridae. We further demonstrated that viruses of the putative genus Krikovirus all shared a genomic organization that was unique among the family Circoviridae. Further investigations are needed to determine the host range, tissue tropism and transmission route(s). This report increases the current knowledge of the genetic diversity and evolution of the members of the family Circoviridae. © 2015 The Authors.

  8. Phenotypic plasticity for Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae larval olfactory behaviour in response to whole fruit olfactory stimuli Plasticidad fenotípica para el comportamiento olfativo larval de Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae como respuesta a estímulos olfativos de frutos enteros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás J. Lavagnino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae is the quintessential insect model organism. However, with a few exceptions, ecological features of this species have been poorly investigated. In the present work we describe a behavioural assay to quantify olfactory behaviour of D. melanogaster larvae in response to complex olfactory stimuli that are present in the natural environments, i. e.: rotten fruits that act as hosts in nature. Results obtained using this assay reveal that there is intra-population genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity for the character in a natural population from west-central Argentina.Drosophila melanogaster Meigen 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae es el organismo modelo por excelencia en insectos. Sin embargo, salvo algunas excepciones, los aspectos ecológicos de esta especie han sido poco estudiados. En el presente trabajo, se describe un ensayo comportamental para cuantificar la conducta olfativa de larvas de D. melanogaster en respuesta a estímulos olfativos complejos que se encuentran en los ambientes naturales, i. e.: frutos en descomposición que son hospedadores en la naturaleza. Los resultados obtenidos, utilizando este ensayo, revelaron que existe variabilidad genética intra-poblacional y plasticidad fenotípica para el carácter en una población natural del centro oeste de Argentina.

  9. Hypoxia and anoxia effects on alcohol dehydrogenase activity and hemoglobin content in Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Grazioli; Bruno Rossaro; Paolo Parenti; Roberto Giacchini; Valeria Lencioni

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic effects of low oxygen content on alcohol-dehydrogenase (ADH) activity and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were investigated in IV-instar larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) from an Italian stream. Two series of short-term (48 h) experiments were carried out: exposure to (1) progressive hypoxia (95 to 5% of oxygen saturation) and (2) anoxia (at <5% of oxygen saturation). In (1), Hb amount increased with increasing oxygen depletion up to a critical value of oxyg...

  10. EFFECTS OF THALLIUM ON THE LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF LUCILIA SERICATA MEIGEN 1826 AND PMI ESTIMATION

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    Arif Gökhan BAŞARAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Determination of larval growth rate of and forensic analysis of the age of Calliphoridae larvae on a corpse are useful evidence in legal investigations for the estimation of exact death time and time duration after death; post mortem interval. However many factors, such as temperature, tissue type and contamination of drugs and toxins, effect larval development of blow fly larvae and consequently theestimation of post mortem interval. The present study examined the larval growth rate of a forensically important blow fly species, Lucilia sericata Meigen 1826 in different concentrations (0,12; 0,25; 0,50; 1 and 2 μg/g of toxic heavy metal Thallium under controlled laboratory conditions. Body length and weight, death ratio of larvae and pupa between experimental and control groups were compared. Results demonstrated that the development rate of larvae between uncontaminated and contaminated diets varies significantly. In short, they molted later, reached maximum length more slowly and sometimesproduced significantly smaller pupae in contaminated food source. These results emphasized that the importance of determining the contamination rate of toxins in tissue for the forensic entomologist,while using development rates from standard curves based on larvae fed non-contaminated mediums.

  11. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Arun; Rinehart, Joseph P; Leopold, Roger A

    2014-03-01

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 degrees C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve. Removal of the embryonic surface water was done using 2-propanol before the alkane treatment to permeabilize the embryo. Exposure to 2-propanol for > 10 s caused necrotic tissue damage in the embryos. Among the alkanes used, hexane was found to be a superior permeabilizing solvent compared with heptane or octane, with embryo hatching rates on par with the controls. Treatment with the vitrification solution for < 12 min was insufficient to vitrify the embryos. Treatment time in the solution beyond 15 min reduced embryo viability. However, the percentage of embryos vitrifying upon exposure to liquid nitrogen vapor remained constant after 12 min of treatment. Long-term storage was initiated in 2004, and the mean hatch percentage recorded then for the short-term cryopreserved embryos was 9.51%. When the long-term stored samples were retrieved in 2012, 8.47% of the embryos hatched, 66.36% larvae pupariated, and 36.96% of the pupae eclosed. Recent optimization of the technique has resulted in a hatch rate of 34.08 +/- 15.5%, of which 67.5% of the larvae pupariated and 72% of the pupae eclosed to normal flies.

  13. Clarification of Einfeldia Kieffer, 1922 (Diptera: Chironomidae) with E. australiensis (Freeman, 1961), comb. n. based on immature stages.

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    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Mulder, Monica; Spies, Martin

    2016-08-31

    The immature stages are described for the first time for Chironomus (Xenochironomus) australiensis Freeman (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the adult male is redescribed including from type specimens. The species does not belong to Chironomus Meigen or Xenochironomus Kieffer, but is best placed in a modestly expanded Einfeldia Kieffer. Application of this genus name is clarified, including by a lectotype fixation for its type species, E. pectoralis Kieffer, 1924. Einfeldia australiensis (Freeman) comb. n. provides the first record of the genus from Australia; otherwise the genus is reported confidently only from North America, Central America and western Europe to Japan. The immature stages of E. australiensis occur in relatively shallow mesotrophic to eutrophic dune lakes and maars with circum-neutral pH and high conductivity, from southeastern Queensland to southern Australia. The cytology is described briefly from larval salivary glands. Alternative genus placements for the species are discussed, and problems with Einfeldia and connected systematics in the tribe Chironomini are addressed.

  14. Phenotypic plasticity for Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae larval olfactory behaviour in response to whole fruit olfactory stimuli

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    Nicolás J. LAVAGNINO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster Meigen 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae es el organismo modelo por excelencia en insectos. Sin embargo, salvo algunas excepciones, los aspectos ecológicos de esta especie han sido poco estudiados. En el presente trabajo, se describe un ensayo comportamental para cuantificar la conducta olfativa de larvas de D. melanogaster en respuesta a estímulos olfativos complejos que se encuentran en los ambientes naturales, i. e.: frutos en descomposición que son hospedadores en la naturaleza. Los resultados obtenidos, utilizando este ensayo, revelaron que existe variabilidad genética intra-poblacional y plasticidad fenotípica para el carácter en una población natural del centro oeste de Argentina.

  15. Additions to the Diptera Acalyptrata fauna (Anthomyzidae, Stenomicridae, Carnidae, Milichiidae, Heleomyzidae of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

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    Roháček Jindřich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of five species of Diptera Acalyptrata representing novelties for the faunas of Bohemia or Moravia (Czech Republic and Slovakia are given with discussion on their significance to the biodiversity knowledge of local faunas and a summary of their biology, distribution and identification with new information obtained from the material examined. Stiphrosoma humerale Roháček & Barber, 2005 (Anthomyzidae and Stenomicra cogani Irwin, 1982 (Stenomicridae are new additions to the dipterous fauna of Slovakia. Records of Meoneura alpina Hennig, 1948 (Carnidae and Milichia speciosa Meigen, 1830 (Milichiidae are the first from Bohemia and represent new northernmost distribution limits of these species; those of Heleomyza (Anypotacta setulosa (Czerny, 1924 are the first from Moravia. Macrophotographs of all these species are presented to document the specimens recorded and/or to facilitate identification of these uncommon species. In addition, new records of S. humerale from Russia: E Siberia and of M. speciosa from Greece: Peloponnesse are given.

  16. Reassessment of the role and utility of wind in suppression of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) host finding: stimulus dilution supported over flight limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Miller, James R

    2003-09-01

    In a Central Michigan wetland setting, with abundant Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles walkeri (Theobald), and Coquillettidea perturbans (Walker), electric fan-generated wind strongly reduced mosquito catches in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps releasing carbon dioxide at 650 or 1,950 ml/min. This relationship was negatively logarithmic over the range of velocities tested (0 m/s to 3.7 m/s; 0-8.3 mph) and closely matched the theoretical dilution function predicted to occur with increasing wind flows over a constantly releasing point source of volatile chemical. Tripling the carbon dioxide release rate consistently doubled the number of mosquitoes caught across the range of wind velocities tested. Neither applied wind velocity nor carbon dioxide release rate was correlated with mosquito body mass across the range of wind velocities tested. Collectively, these data support the conceptual model that applied wind diminishes mosquito catches primarily by diluting attractants rather than by exceeding mosquito flight capability. Previously published estimates of maximum air speeds of which mosquitoes are capable may now need to be reassessed if they were based upon shut-down of catches in traps baited with chemical attractants. Addition of DEET vapor significantly reduced the number of mosquitoes caught relative to equivalently moving air without repellent. We recommend that fan-generated wind should be pursued as a practical means of protecting humans or pets from mosquitoes in the backyard setting.

  17. Mapping of zones potentially occupied by Aedes vexans and Culex poicilipes mosquitoes, the main vectors of Rift Valley fever in Senegal

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    Yves M. Tourre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A necessary condition for Rift Valley fever (RVF emergence is the presence of Aedes (Aedimorphus vexans and Culex (Culex poicilipes mosquitoes carrying the arbovirus and responsible for the infection. This paper presents a detailed mapping in the Sahelian region of Senegal of zones potentially occupied by these mosquitoes (ZPOMs whose population density is directly linked to ecozones in the vicinity of small ponds. The vectors habitats and breeding sites have been characterized through an integrated approach combining remote sensing technology, geographical information systems, geographical positioning systems and field observations for proper geo-referencing. From five SPOT-5 images (~10 m spatial resolution with appropriate channels, a meridional composite transect of 290 x 60 km was first constructed at the height of the summer monsoon. Subsequent ZPOMs covered major ecozones from north to south with different hydrological environments and different patterns pond distributions. It was found that an overall area of 12,817 ha ± 10% (about 0.8% of the transect is occupied by ponds with an average ZPOM 17 times larger than this (212,813 ha ± 10% or about 14% of the transect. By comparing the very humid year of 2003 with 2006 which had just below normal rainfall, the ZPOMs inter-annual variability was analyzed in a sandy-clayey ecozone with an important hydrofossil riverbed within the Ferlo region of Senegal. Very probably contributing to an increased abundance of vectors by the end of August 2003, it was shown that the aggregate pond area was already about 22 times larger than in August 2006, corresponding to an approximately five times larger total ZPOM. The results show the importance of pin-pointing small ponds (sizes down to 0.1 ha and their geographical distribution in order to assess animal exposure to the RVF vectors.

  18. Calliphoridae (Diptera from Southeastern Argentinean Patagonia: Species Composition and Abundance Calliphoridae (Diptera del Sudeste de la Patagonia Argentina: Composición Específica y Abundancia

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    Juan A. Schnack

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Species composition and spatial and temporal numerical trends of blow flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae species from three southeastern Patagonia localities: Río Grande (53° 48' S, 67° 36' W (province of Tierra del Fuego, Río Gallegos (51° 34' S, 69° 14' W and Puerto Santa Cruz (50° 04' S, 68° 27' W (province de Santa Cruz were studied during November, December (1997, and January and February (1998. Results showed remarkable differences of overall fly abundance and species relative importance at every sampling site; nevertheless, they shared a poor species representation (S £ 6. The cosmopolitan Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, the nearly worldwide Lucilia sericata (Meigen, and the native Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy prevailed over the remaining species. Records of Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, a species indigenous to the Northern Hemisphere are noteworthy.Se estudian la composición y las variaciones numéricas espacio-temporales de especies de Calliphoridae (Diptera de tres localidades del sudeste patagónico: Río Grande (53° 48' S, 67° 36' W (provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Río Gallegos (51° 34' S, 69° 14' W y Puerto Santa Cruz (50° 04' S, 68° 27' W (provincia de Santa Cruz, a partir de muestreos realizados en noviembre, diciembre (1997, enero y febrero (1998. Comparando los sitios de muestreo, los resultados obtenidos muestran diferencias marcadas en la abundancia total de la taxocenosis como de cada una de sus especies, destacándose la escasa riqueza específica de cada uno de ellos (S £ 6. Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (cosmopolita, Lucilia sericata (Meigen (de amplia distribución mundial y Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy (nativa, son las mejor representadas numéricamente. Se subraya el hallazgo, en el área de estudio, de Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, especie indígena del hemisferio norte.

  19. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  1. Hypoxia and anoxia effects on alcohol dehydrogenase activity and hemoglobin content in Chironomus riparius Meigen, 1804

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    Valentina Grazioli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic effects of low oxygen content on alcohol-dehydrogenase (ADH activity and hemoglobin (Hb concentration were investigated in IV-instar larvae of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae from an Italian stream. Two series of short-term (48 h experiments were carried out: exposure to (1 progressive hypoxia (95 to 5% of oxygen saturation and (2 anoxia (at <5% of oxygen saturation. In (1, Hb amount increased with increasing oxygen depletion up to a critical value of oxygenation (about 70% of oxygen saturation. Below this percentage, the Hb amount declined to values comparable with those present in the control. The respiration rate (R remained almost constant at oxygen saturation >50% and decreased significantly only after 48 h of treatment (= <5% of oxygen saturation reaching values <100 mmolO2 gAFDW-1 h-1. ADH activity showed two phases of growth, within the first 14 h and over 18 h of exposure. Overall, we inferred that i Hb might function as short-term oxygen storage, enabling animals to delay the on-set of anaerobiosis; and ii alcoholic fermentation co-occurs for a short time with aerobic respiration, becoming the prevalent metabolic pathway below 5% of oxygen saturation (<1 mg L-1. These considerations were supported also by results from anoxia exposure (2. In such condition, larvae were visibly stressed, becoming immobile after few minutes of incubation, and ADH reached higher values than in the hypoxia treatment (2.03±0.15 UADH mg prot-1. Overall, this study showed a shift from aerobic to anaerobic activity in C. riparius larvae exposed to poorly oxygenated water with an associated alteration of ADH activity and the Hb amount. Such metabolites might be valid candidate biomarkers for the environmental monitoring of running waters.

  2. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  3. Seasonal and Geographic Variation in Biodiversity of Forensically Important Blow Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, L M; Jennings, D E; Tomberlin, J K; Hamilton, G C

    2015-09-01

    Determining the time of colonization of human or other animal remains by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) can play an important role in criminal investigations. However, blow fly presence in a given area is strongly influenced by abiotic and biotic variables such as temperature and habitat. We wanted to assess the biodiversity of adult blow flies in New Jersey, USA, where very little is known about these taxa. Toward that end we collected adult blow flies biweekly from traps baited with bovine liver and placed across three regions in New Jersey over a 2-yr period (2011-2013). We collected and identified 9,257 adult calliphorids, comprising six genera and 12 species. Blow fly assemblages composed of these species varied by season, but community composition did not vary among regions within a given season. Three species, Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and Phormia regina (Meigen) comprised 88.5% of all adult blow flies collected (42.6, 25.9, 20.0%, respectively). Combining all regions, the dominant species for both spring and summer was L. coeruleiviridis comprising 35.1% of all adults caught in spring and 64.1% in summer. P. regina was the dominant species in fall, totaling 40.1% of all adults caught and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) was the dominant species for winter, totaling 44.8% of all adults caught. Our findings provide the first assessment of blow fly communities in New Jersey, and these results can be applied to surrounding states where data are severely lacking for forensic application. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Are Aedes albopictus or other mosquito species from northern Italy competent to sustain new arboviral outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbalaghi, A; Moutailler, S; Vazeille, M; Failloux, A-B

    2010-03-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), native to Southeast Asia, has extended its geographical distribution to invade new temperate and tropical regions. This species was introduced in 1990 to Italy and has since become the main pest in urban settings. It was incriminated as a principal vector in the first European outbreak of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the province of Ravenna (Italy) in 2007. This outbreak was associated with CHIKV E1-226V, efficiently transmitted by Ae. albopictus. The occurrence of this outbreak in a temperate country led us to estimate the potential of Ae. albopictus to transmit CHIKV and dengue virus (DENV), and to determine the susceptibility to CHIKV of other mosquito species collected in northern Italy. Experimental infections showed that Ae. albopictus exhibited high disseminated infection rates for CHIKV (75.0% in Alessandria; 90.3% in San Lazzaro) and low disseminated infection rates for DENV-2 (14.3% in San Lazzaro; 38.5% in Alessandria). Moreover, Ae. albopictus was able to attain a high level of viral replication, with CHIKV detectable in the salivary glands at day 2 after infection. In addition, the other three mosquito species, Anopheles maculipennis Meigen, Aedes vexans vexans (Meigen) and Culex pipiens L., showed variable susceptibilities to infection with CHIKV, of 0%, 7.7% and 0-33%, respectively. This information on vector competence is crucial in assessing the risk for an outbreak of CHIKV or DENV in Italy.

  5. Larva of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Chironomidae, Diptera)-morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), karyotype, and biology in laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva

    2016-09-21

    Larvae belonging to the family Chironomidae are difficult to identify. The aim of the present study was to describe the larval morphology of G. (G.) glaucus with the aid of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the karyotype and biology based on materials obtained from laboratory culture. Describing the morphology of larvae, special attention was paid to rarely or never described structures like the maxilla (lacinia and maxillary palp), the long plate situated below the ventromental plate, and plate X situated between lacinia and mentum. The use of SEM allowed also to obtain better images of labrum and ventromental plate. Morphological features of this species have been supplemented by karyotype and biology of larvae in laboratory conditions. Under controlled experimental conditions we found non-synchronous development of G. (G.) glaucus larvae hatched from one egg mass reflected in different lengths of larvae and emerged imagoes.

  6. Revisão das espécies neotropicais de Empididae (Diptera descritas por Mario Bezzi: VII. As espécies descritas em Hilara Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albertino Rafael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As cinco espécies descritas em Hilara por Mario Bezzi estão sendo redescritas e ilustradas. Atualmente três espécies permanecem em Hilara: H. irritans, H. perplexa e H. perturbans e duas espécies em Hilarigona: H. aberrans e H. abnormis. Todos os tipos primários foram examinados e estão sendo designados lectótipos para as três espécies de Hilara.

  7. Lucilia sericata strain from Colombia: Experimental colonization, life tables and evaluation of two artificial diets of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Bogotá, Colombia strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Luis C; Ortega, Luis G; Segura, Nidya A; Acero, Víctor M; Bello, Felio

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish, under experimental laboratory conditions, a colony of Lucilia sericata, Bogotá-Colombia strain, to build life tables and evaluate two artificial diets. This blowfly is frequently used in postmortem interval studies and in injury treatment. The parental adult insects collected in Bogotá were maintained in cages at 22°C±1 average temperature, 60%±5 relative humidity and 12 h photoperiodicity. The blowflies were fed on two artificial diets that were evaluated over seven continuous generations. Reproductive and population parameters were assessed. The life cycle of the species was expressed in the number of days of the different stages: egg = 0.8±0.1, larvae I = 1.1±0.02, larvae II = 1.94±0.16, larvae III = 3.5±0.54, pupae = 6.55±0.47, male adult = 28.7±0.83 and female adult = 33.5±1.0. Total survival from egg stage to adult stage was 91.2% for diet 1, while for diet 2 this parameter was 40.5%. The lifetime reproductive output was 184.51±11.2 eggs per female. The population parameters, as well as the reproductive output of the blowflies that were assessed, showed relatively high values, giving evidence of the continuous increase of the strain over the different generations and making possible its maintenance as a stable colony that has lasted for more than two years.

  8. A revision of the Crane-fly genus Nephrotoma Meigen, 1803, in North America (Diptera, Tipulidae). Part II: the non-dorsalis species-groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbroek, Pjotr

    1984-01-01

    Seventeen nearctic species of Nephrotoma are revised. They are assigned to seven species-groups. Together with the 20 species of the dorsalis-group (Tangelder, 1983), this covers all the nearctic Nephrotoma species. Presented here for every species are: literature, type-material, synonyms,

  9. Using various lines of evidence to identify Chironomus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) in eastern Canadian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Isabelle; Martin, Jon; Carew, Melissa; Hare, Landis

    2013-11-29

    Chironomus Meigen (Diptera, Chironomidae) larvae are usually the largest sediment-burrowing chironomids, and as such often constitute a major part of the freshwater infaunal biomass. However, use of this genus in ecological, environmental and paleoecological studies is hampered by the fact that Chironomus larvae are difficult to identify to species because the larvae of many species are morphologically similar. We used a combination of morphological, cytological and genetic techniques to distinguish Chironomus larvae collected from 31 water bodies located in eastern Canada, producing 17 distinguishable groupings. These groups of larvae were ultimately identified as belonging to 14 known species (C. anthracinus, C. bifurcatus, C. cucini, C. decorus-group sp. 2, C. dilutus, C. entis, C. frommeri, C. harpi, C. maturus, C. nr. atroviridis (sp. 2i), C. ochreatus, C. plumosus, C. staegeri and C. 'tigris') and three other species that remain unidentified (C. sp. NAI-III). No single approach served to delimit and identify larvae of all 17 Chironomus species that we collected. Although we expected that morphological criteria alone would be insufficient, our results suggest that DNA barcoding, using either the mitochondrial cox1 or the nuclear gb2β gene, was also inadequate for separating some Chironomus species. Thus we suggest that multiple approaches will often be needed to correctly identify Chironomus larvae to species.

  10. Differentiation of Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, N; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2005-11-01

    Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) and Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are sibling species of the Obsoletus group. This group comprises species of biting midges that are suspect vectors of bluetongue virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, BTV) and African horse sickness virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, AHSV). BTV and AHSV have been isolated several times from females of this group, although it has not been possible to determine the particular species harboring the virus, because of the inability to clearly identify the females of each species based on morphology. Both sexes of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus midges from Catalonia and the Balearics (Spain) were sequenced for the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), and these sequences were analyzed to determine intra- and interspecific genetic variability. Species-specific primers for C. obsoletus and C. scoticus were designed and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay based on the COI gene and using a hemi-nested PCR technique was developed for reliably distinguishing the females of both species. The species-specific PCR diagnostic was compared with morphological discrimination of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus females. The morphologic characters were not fully reliable.

  11. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss.

  12. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V; Slone, Daniel H; Capinera, John L

    2007-05-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September.

  13. Quantifying pteridines in the heads of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Application for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, J A; Reiskind, M H; Guisewite, L M; Denning, S S; Watson, D W

    2017-11-01

    In forensic cases involving entomological evidence, establishing the postcolonization interval (post-CI) is a critical component of the investigation. Traditional methods of estimating the post-CI rely on estimating the age of immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from remains. However, in cases of delayed discovery (e.g., when remains are located indoors), these insects may have completed their development and be present in the environment as adults. Adult fly collections are often ignored in cases of advanced decomposition because of a presumed little relevance to the investigation; herein we present information on how these insects can be of value. In this study we applied an age-grading technique to estimate the age of adults of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Phormia regina (Meigen), based on the temperature-dependent accumulation of pteridines in the compound eyes, when reared at temperatures ranging from 5 to 35°C. Age could be estimated for all species*sex*rearing temperature combinations (mean r2±SE: 0.90±0.01) for all but P. regina reared at 5.4°C. These models can be used to increase the precision of post-CI estimates for remains found indoors, and the high r2 values of 22 of the 24 regression equations indicates that this is a valid method for estimating the age of adult blow flies at temperatures ≥15°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of bait traps as a means to predict initial blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) communities associated with decomposing swine remains in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Lauren M; Gemmellaro, M Denise; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Hamilton, George C

    2017-09-01

    Information about blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species distributions can be valuable for criminal investigations, with regards to determining movement of remains from one location to another and time of colonization estimates, making these data extremely useful. Past work has been conducted on initial species community structure across New Jersey, USA using traps baited with beef liver; however, if these same species frequent vertebrate carrion remains unclear. In order to evaluate these data, piglet carcasses were placed out once every two weeks for a year in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. The same methods were implemented as those used for traps baited with beef liver, with length of collections being based on ADD values. Seven calliphorid species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Pollenia pediculata Macquart, Pollenia rudis (F.) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) were collected from the carcasses. During this experiment L. sericata, L. coeruleiviridis and P. regina were the dominant adult blow flies captured, totaling 38.2%, 29.2% and 29.2% respectively of all adults caught. All three species colonized the carcasses as well, although not all were dominant colonizers. C. vicina was recorded ovipositing in December, while the piglet was submerged in approximately 5cm of snow. All species that totaled at least 1% of the total collection (adults captured and larvae reared) were the same across baited traps and carcasses. This study supports the use of beef liver baits for surveying forensically important blow flies and the application of such information to forensic investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  16. Chromosal rearrangements in the onion fly Hylemya antiqua (Meigen), induced and isolated for genetic insect control purposes : studies on cytogenetics and fertility, with emphasis on an X-linked translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemert, van C.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to isolate structural chromosome mutations causing "semi"-sterility which can be used for genetic control of the onion fly Hylemya antiqua (Meigen). For the induction, X-rays or fast neutrons were applied in different doses on males and females.

  17. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D H; Gruner, S V

    2007-05-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormnia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  18. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baneshwar; Crippen, Tawni L; Zheng, Longyu; Fields, Andrew T; Yu, Ziniu; Ma, Qun; Wood, Thomas K; Dowd, Scot E; Flores, Micah; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Tarone, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot debridement therapy (MDT). Although the genus is of considerable economic importance, our knowledge about microbes associated with these flies and how these bacteria are horizontally and trans-generationally transmitted is limited. In this study, we characterized bacteria associated with different life stages of Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) and in the salivary gland of L. sericata by using 16S rDNA 454 pyrosequencing. Bacteria associated with the salivary gland of L. sericata were also characterized using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results from this study suggest that the majority of bacteria associated with these flies belong to phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, and most bacteria are maintained intragenerationally, with a considerable degree of turnover from generation to generation. In both species, second-generation eggs exhibited the highest bacterial phylum diversity (20 % genetic distance) than other life stages. The Lucilia sister species shared the majority of their classified genera. Of the shared bacterial genera, Providencia, Ignatzschineria, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Vagococcus, Morganella, and Myroides were present at relatively high abundances. Lactobacillus, Proteus, Diaphorobacter, and Morganella were the dominant bacterial genera associated with a survey of the salivary gland of L. sericata. TEM analysis showed a sparse distribution of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the salivary gland of L. sericata. There was more evidence for horizontal transmission of bacteria than there was for trans-generational inheritance. Several pathogenic genera were either amplified or reduced by the larval feeding on decomposing liver as a resource. Overall, this study provides

  19. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  20. Morfometria geométrica alar como ferramenta para a identificação de Lucilia sericata e Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lucilia sericata (Meigen e Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Calliphoridae estão entre as espécies de dípteros de interesse forense. A correta identificação do espécime, ou fragmento deste, coletado em um local de crime é etapa fundamental para o emprego da entomologia forense em investigações criminais. Nesse estudo, avaliou-se a possibilidade de discriminação entre duas espécies de califorídeos pela morfologia alar, por meio de análises de morfometria geométrica. Foram analisadas as asas esquerdas de 253 espécimes, sendo 119 indivíduos de C. vicina e 134 de L. sericata, por meio de análises de variáveis canônicas e análises discriminantes. Das 253 comparações par a par, 2 erros de identificação (0,7% foram registrados para análise discriminante, enquanto 3 erros de classificação (2,3% foram registrados para o teste de validação cruzada. Esse resultado sugere um alto índice de confiabilidade da técnica. Mais estudos são necessários para a validação dessa técnica para seu uso na prática forense.

  1. A de novo transcriptome assembly of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with predicted alternative splices, single nucleotide polymorphisms and transcript expression estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, S-H; Dunham, J P; Carey, B; Chang, P L; Li, F; Edman, R M; Fjeldsted, C; Scott, M J; Nuzhdin, S V; Tarone, Aaron M

    2012-04-01

    The blow fly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Meigen) is a nonmodel organism with no reference genome that is associated with numerous areas of research spanning the ecological, evolutionary, medical, veterinary and forensic sciences. To facilitate scientific discovery in this species, the transcriptome was assembled from more than six billion bases of Illumina and twenty-one million bases of 454 sequence derived from embryonic, larval, pupal, adult and larval salivary gland libraries. The assembly was carried out in a manner that enabled identification of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and alternative splices, and that provided expression estimates for various life history stages and for salivary tissue. The assembled transcriptome was also used to identify transcribed transposable elements in L. sericata. The results of this study will enable blow fly biologists, dipterists and comparative genomicists to more rapidly develop and test molecular and genetic hypotheses, especially those regarding blow fly development and salivary gland biology. © 2012 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. Capability of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capability of Glossina tachinoides Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae) males to made and inseminate female flies in different mating ratios to sustain a laboratory tsetsefly colony for sterile insect technique control programme in Ghana.

  3. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  4. Invasive Tipula (Diptera: Tipulidae) in turfgrass of the northeast United States: geographic distribution and local incidence three years after detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Daniel C; Olmstead, Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Two species of invasive crane flies are damaging pests of turfgrass in the Great Lakes region after their inadvertent introduction and establishment. In New York, where Tipula paludosa Meigen and Tipula oleracea L. (Diptera: Tipulidae) were first detected in 2004, baseline data on the extent of establishment is needed to monitor range expansion, make predictions about pest status, and guide management efforts. The incidence of both species was therefore addressed at two spatial scales to ascertain how widespread they were across the state and across sites of recent local establishment. Based on divergent natural history, T. oleracea was predicted to be more widespread both geographically and locally than T. paludosa. To delimit the current area of occurrence, surveys were conducted from 2004 to 2006. T. paludosa was detected in four counties and T. oleracea in 12 counties. In western New York, T. oleracea was established in more than a six-fold greater area than T. paludosa. T. oleracea was additionally detected on Long Island, shown to be a geographically disjunct area of establishment. To measure local incidence, putting greens and tee boxes were scouted on golf courses. Contrary to predictions, 56-97 and 22-56% of those surfaces were already infested by T. paludosa and T. oleracea, respectively, within one or two seasons after initial detection. Because damage thresholds are relatively high, scouting for the insect, rather than its injury, will promote earlier detection. Given the impact of invasive Tipula across diverse turf habitats, continued range expansion will have serious repercussions for regional turfgrass management.

  5. SITUACIÓN ACTUAL EN ESPAÑA Y ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LAS ARBOVIROSIS TRANSMITIDAS POR MOSQUITOS CULÍCIDOS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Bueno Marí

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente manuscrito se analiza la posible emergencia y/o reemergencia en España de algunas de las arbovirosis transmitidas por mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae de mayor incidencia a nivel mundial en los últimos años. Los datos faunísticos, bioecológicos y de distribución de los culícidos en nuestro país permiten discernir entre especies con capacidad de mantener la enzootia de algunas de estas arbovirosis de otras que pueden actuar como vectores puente de la virosis hasta el ser humano. Los resultados revelan la existencia de especies, algunas de ellas muy frecuentes en los humedales de nuestro país y fuertemente antropófilas como Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens u Ochlerotatus caspius, con una elevada capacidad para transmitir flavivirus como el virus West Nile o el virus Usutu. Además, la reciente introducción, establecimiento y expansión del mosquito tigre, Aedes albopictus, abre una preocupante vía para la aparición de posibles brotes, probablemente incluso de tipo epidémico, de arbovirosis habitualmente importadas a nuestro país por personas inmigrantes y turistas, como el Dengue o Chikungunya. Por último, también se discute el interés epidemiológico de especies propias de nuestro entorno como Aedes vittatus u Ochlerotatus geniculatus, debido a su capacidad vectorial constatada para la transmisión de algunas de estas virosis típicamente tropicales.

  6. Fannia flavicincta Stein (Diptera, Fanniidae: a new vector of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Barreto Espindola

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae is first recorded as a vector of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. The material was collected in Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in September, 2002.Fannia flavicincta Stein, 1904 (Diptera, Fannidae é registrada pela primeira vez como vetor de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781. O material foi coletado em Paracambi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil em setembro de 2002.

  7. Identification of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) invadens Drew (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a new species of fruit fly in 2005. It belongs to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, but is difficult to diagnose based on solely morphological identification. It occurs in India, Bhutan and some countries of Africa. In this study, 14 adult samples of fruit flies were ...

  8. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    3-33. Forattini, O.P. 1957. Culicoides da Regido Neotropical (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae). Arq. Fac. Hig. Saude Pub. Univ. Scio Paulo 11: 161-526. Fox...Cullcoides: 239. boormani; 240. gem. flus; 241. gentills ; 242. gymnopterus; 243. hoffmanloldes; 244. kinari; 245. klsangkini; 246. mellipes; 247. nitens

  9. Een nieuwe daas voor Nederland: Hybomitra arpadi (Diptera: Tabanidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, T.

    2002-01-01

    A new horsefly for the Netherlands: Hybomitra arpadi (Diptera: Tabanidae) The horsefly Hybomitra arpadi (Diptera: Tabanidae) is recorded for the first time from the Netherlands. New features for the recognition of the males and some notes on the biology are given.

  10. First Record of Larval Secretions of Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Inhibiting the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, F S; Aquino, M F K; Nassu, M P; Pereira, D I B; Leite, D S; Thyssen, P J

    2017-02-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) consists on the intentional and controlled application of sterilized larvae of the order Diptera on necrotic skin lesions with the purpose of cleaning necrotic tissue and removing pathogenic bacteria. During MDT, a marked antimicrobial activity has been reported in literature specially associated with antibacterial substances from Lucilia sericata (Meigen); however, regarding Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), little is known. This study aimed to evaluate in vitro inhibition of bacterial growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in contact with excretions and secretions (ES) from C. macellaria larvae. Larval ES were extracted in sterile distilled water and divided in three groups: ES, containing 400 μL of autoclaved ES; ES+BAC, containing 400 μL of autoclaved ES+0.5-μL bacterial inoculum; and CONT-BAC, containing 400 μL of sterile distilled water +0.5 μL of bacterial inoculum. Aliquots of each experimental group were plated by spreading onto Petri dishes. Seedings were made at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 12 h after the extraction of ES. In ES+BAC groups, inhibition of S. aureus was verified between times 1 and 2 h and P. aeruginosa was inhibited between 0 and 4 h. There was no growth observed in any ES group. In the CONT-BAC groups, the number of colonies from time 4 h became countless for S. aureus and decreased for P. aeruginosa. As reported in the literature, we note here that ES have excellent bactericidal activity for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and this study shows for the first time the action of the bactericidal activity of exosecretions of C. macellaria against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.

  11. Effect of Continuous and Cyclic Exposure to a Cold Environment on the Development of Larvae of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Different Sized Larval Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola A; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Dadour, Ian R

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of forensic practice in many countries prevents the pathologist performing an immediate autopsy. During the period prior to autopsy, the corpse and the insects possibly associated with it are stored in a mortuary with temperatures ∼4°C. When a corpse is found in a late stage of decay, fly immatures may be present as small or large larval masses. The purpose of refrigeration at 4°C is to slow down the decomposition of the corpse as well as the temporary disruption of the activity and development of the bacteria and the necrophagous insects associated with the corpse. The aim of this research is to investigate the growth and development of different larval masses of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) when stored in a cold environment (4°C). The research was divided into experimental sessions comprising different storage conditions (continuous or cyclic exposure to a cold environment) for immature stages (second and third instar) and included four different sizes of larval mass (∼100, 500, 1,000, and 5,000 larvae) feeding on 4 kg of beef liver and replicated three times. Results show that if the larval mass has a size of ∼5,000 larvae, and the larvae have already reached third instar, then when they are exposed to a cold environment, their development continues. The storage condition at 4°C does not disrupt the development of such larvae. The number of larvae and their instar that make up the larval mass are essential data for the subsequent estimation of a correct minimum postmortem interval. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Biting Midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Is Capable of Developing Late Stage Infections of Leishmania enriettii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Seblova

    Full Text Available Despite their importance in animal and human health, the epidemiology of species of the Leishmania enriettii complex remains poorly understood, including the identity of their biological vectors. Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Lasiohelea have been implicated in the transmission of a member of the L. enriettii complex in Australia, but the far larger and more widespread genus Culicoides has not been investigated for the potential to include vectors to date.Females from colonies of the midges Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen and C. sonorensis Wirth & Jones and the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz & Nevia (Diptera: Psychodidae were experimentally infected with two different species of Leishmania, originating from Australia (Leishmania sp. AM-2004 and Brazil (Leishmania enriettii. In addition, the infectivity of L. enriettii infections generated in guinea pigs and golden hamsters for Lu. longipalpis and C. sonorensis was tested by xenodiagnosis. Development of L. enriettii in Lu. longipalpis was relatively poor compared to other Leishmania species in this permissive vector. Culicoides nubeculosus was not susceptible to infection by parasites from the L. enriettii complex. In contrast, C. sonorensis developed late stage infections with colonization of the thoracic midgut and the stomodeal valve. In hamsters, experimental infection with L. enriettii led only to mild symptoms, while in guinea pigs L. enriettii grew aggressively, producing large, ulcerated, tumour-like lesions. A high proportion of C. sonorensis (up to 80% feeding on the ears and nose of these guinea pigs became infected.We demonstrate that L. enriettii can develop late stage infections in the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis. This midge was found to be susceptible to L. enriettii to a similar degree as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum in South America. Our results support the hypothesis that some biting midges could be natural vectors of the L

  13. Upswing of collections of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae held at the National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ježek Jan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available History of zoogeographical views and actual distribution of 23 determined species of Tabanidae from three subfamilies, five tribes and 8 genera (Philoliche Wiedemann, 1828 - 4 species; Chrysops Meigen, 1803 - 3; Thaumastocera Grünberg, 1906 - 1; Ancala Enderlein, 1922 - 1; Atylotus Osten-Sacken, 1876 - 1; Tabanus Linnaeus, 1758 - 8; Haematopota Meigen, 1803 - 4; Hippocentrum Austen, 1908 - 1 mainly from Kenya are summarized, using the names of recent African countries. Tabanus sericiventris Loew, 1858 is new for Kenya. Lower taxonomical units as Tabanus insignis f. neavei Austen, 1912 and T. marmorosus ssp. congicola Bequaert, 1930 are discussed. A complete new references to all identified taxa are given.

  14. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahari S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  15. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L.) et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast.) sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahari S.; Mellouki F.; Oufara S.; Aouinty B.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné), Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken) and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen). Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these ...

  16. Effects of ozone on three species of diptera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.; Chiu, Y.J.; Cromroy, H.L.

    1972-10-01

    Egg, larval, pupal, and/or adult stages of Musca domestica L., Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), and Drosophila melanogaster Meigen were exposed to a high concentration of ozone for prolonged periods. Results indicated a slight inhibitory effect on egg hatch with virtually no effect on larvae or pupae. Synchronous egg hatch, larval molting, pupation, and adult emergence were observed in ozonated and unexposed groups, indicating no effect on metamorphosis. Ozone exposure in the adult stage seemed to stimulate oviposition and resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of eggs laid and a significant increase in adult populations compared with controls.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of Miltogramminae (Diptera Sarcophagidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta

    2017-01-01

    Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine...... life habit remains unsettled. Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic tree consisting of 58 representatives of Miltogramminae, reconstructed using sequence data from three mitochondrial (COI, cytB, ND4) and one nuclear (Ef-1α) genes. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that...

  18. The species of Ctenophorinae (Diptera: Tipulidae in the fauna of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Bechev

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available List of the species of Ctenophorinae subfamily, known from Bulgaria is given, including Ctenophora elegans Meigen, 1818, species reported for Bulgaria, but not presented in Fauna Europaea and Catalogue of the Craneflies of the World for the country. Ctenophora flaveolata (Fabricius, 1794 is reported for the first time to the fauna of Bulgaria.

  19. Monthly prevalence and diversity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    Davood Keshavarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To get new data about the ecology of mosquitoes, which would be valuable to develop programs for future provision of mosquito controls in the study area. Methods: During April to September 2012, larvae of mosquitoes were collected from six counties in south of Fars Province using dipping method. Characteristics of larval breeding places were considered based on water conditions. Species diversity was examined in terms of alpha and beta measures, with the intent of comparing mosquito diversity according to the typology of regions. Results: During this investigation, totally, 5 057 larvae of mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 17 different mosquito species were recognized, namely, Anopheles dthali, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles superpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex mimeticus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex theileri (Cx. theileri, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex sinaiticus, Culex torrentium, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Aedes vexans (Ae. vexans. This is the first record of Ae. vexans, Culex perexiguus and Culex modestus in the Province. Cx. pipiens (27.3%, Cx. theileri (15.9% and Cx. quinquefasciatus (9.4% were the most abundant species found respectively. Cx. pipiens reached the highest density in August and July, while Cx. theileri, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. vexans were found in high numbers in June. Diversity analysis indicated the highest species diversity in the Mohr County (Margalef index of 1.41 and Shannon index of 1.7 and the lowest species diversity in the Lamerd County (Margalef index of 0.33 and Shannon index of 0.38. Conclusions: Regarding to this research, there are some potential vectors of medical and veterinary importance in Fars Province. Results of the present study may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  20. An Update on the Potential of North American Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to Transmit West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-22

    Say), and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt). Mosquito larvae and pupae (Ae. vexans, Oc. canadensis, and Oc. cantator) were collected in Westport...Scott. 2002. Vector competence of California mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 1385Ð1391. Hardy, J. L. 1988. Susceptibility and... California . Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 14: 170Ð177. Turell, M. J., T. P. Gargan, I. I., and C. L. Bailey. 1984. Replication anddissemination ofRift Valley

  1. Factors affecting decomposition and Diptera colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobasso, C P; Di Vella, G; Introna, F

    2001-08-15

    Understanding the process of corpse decomposition is basic to establishing the postmortem interval (PMI) in any death investigation even using insect evidence. The sequence of postmortem changes in soft tissues usually gives an idea of how long an individual has been dead. However, modification of the decomposition process can considerably alter the estimate of the time of death. A body after death is sometimes subject to depredation by various types of animals among which insects can have a predominant role in the breakdown of the corpse thus, accelerating the decomposition rate. The interference of the insect community in the decomposition process has been investigated by several experimental studies using animal models and very few contributions directly on cadavers. Several of the most frequent factors affecting PMI estimates such as temperature, burial depth and access of the body to insects are fully reviewed. On account of their activity and world wide distribution, Diptera are the insects of greatest forensic interest. The knowledge of factors inhibiting or favouring colonization and Diptera development is a necessary pre-requisite for estimating the PMI using entomological data.

  2. Host feeding patterns of Connecticut mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnarelli, L A

    1977-05-01

    Blood-engorged Coquillettidia perturbans, Psorophora ferox, Culex, Culiseta, and Aedes mosquitoes were collected principally by sweep net from salt marsh and woodland habitats in Connecticut. Of the 570 mosquitoes tested, precipitin tests identified the origins of 517 blood meals and revealed distinct host feeding patterns. Aedes mosquitoes fed chiefly on mammals; A. abserratus, A. cantator, and A. vexans showed selectivity for cattle and (or) horses. A. cantator also obtained blood from avian hosts and, in some instances, showed mixed passerine-mammal blood meals. These findings increase the vector potential of this salt marsh mosquito for eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Feedings on deer by A. abserratus suggest potential involvement of this mosquito in the transmission of certain subtypes of California encephalitis. Culex-pipiens, C. restuans, Culiseta melanura, and Cs. morsitans dyari acquired blood almost exclusively from passeriform birds.

  3. La distribución de las Calliphoridae en la Argentina (Diptera The distribution of the Calliphoridae in Argentina (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Mariluis

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer la distribución y la riqueza específica de las Calliphoridae en la Argentina. Se señalan las siguientes especies: Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, Chlorobrachycoma versicolor (Bigot, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, Hemilucilia souzalopesi Mello, Neta chilensis (Walker, Paralucilia fulvinota (Bigot, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, Phaenicia cluvia (Walker, Phaenicia cuprina (Wiedemann, Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann, Phaenicia peruviana (Robineau-Desvoidy, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann y Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou. Se aportan setenta y tres nuevas localidades para la Argentina.This paper deals with the distribution and specific richness of Calliphoridae in Argentina. The species treated are: Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, Chlorobrachycoma versicolor (Bigot, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, Hemilucilia souzalopesi Mello, Neta chilensis (Walker, Paralucilia fulvinota (Bigot, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, Phaenicia cluvia (Walker, Phaenicia cuprina (Wiedemann, Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann, Phaenicia peruviana (Robineau-Desvoidy, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann and

  4. Toxicity and Synergistic Activities of Chalcones Against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Aaron D; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Islam, Rafique; Ali, Abbas; Khan, Ikhlas A; Kaplancikli, Zafer A; Altintop, Mehlika D; Ozdemir, Ahmet; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2017-03-01

    Mosquito-borne illnesses are of great concern throughout the world, and chemical insecticides are commonly employed to decrease mosquito populations. However, the developmental insecticide pipeline for vector control has primarily been filled by repurposed agricultural products, and is hampered by their widespread use and insecticide resistance. The present study was performed in the search for new chemical insecticides or insecticide synergists. Screening of 31 chalcone analogs was performed using Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) first-instar larval toxicity assay, and oral feeding to Drosophila melanogaster's proper authority should be (Meigen). Synergism studies were performed by topically applying chalcones to adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes to examine its impact on activity of carbaryl, which was compared to piperonyl butoxide alone. Fourteen chalcone analogs had LC50 values in the range of 0.4-38 ppm against first-instar Ae. aegypti larvae, and three chalcones displayed toxicity against D. melanogaster via feeding (LC50 values ranged from 146-214 μg/ml). Two chalcones synergized carbaryl toxicity against adult Ae. aegypti with efficacy similar to piperonyl butoxide. As a result, it is concluded that chalcones may serve as novel insecticides and synergists after further structural optimization. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae) New records and distribution of mosquitoes from Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Gustavo C; Lestani, Eduardo A.; J. Martín D'Oria

    2006-01-01

    Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald). Actualmente, en ...

  6. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  7. First occurrences of the Phorid, Megaselia abdita, in forensic cases in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, R H L; Manlove, J D

    2005-12-01

    The first two cases of the occurrence of Megaselia abdita Schmitz (Diptera: Phoridae) in human corpses in Britain are reported and a further case of M. rufipes (Meigen). In all three cases the corpses experienced low temperatures.

  8. Korean Species of the Subgenus Ophina (Diptera: Tachinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Su Lim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We recognized Linnaemya microchaetopsis Shima, L. picta (Meigen and L. zachvatkini Zimin in Korean Linnaemya subgenus Ophina Robineau-Desvoidy and the latter two are reported for the first time in Korea. The subgenus Ophina shares the following morphological characteristics (sensu Shima: 1 the male tergite 6 is fused mid-dorsally with sternite 7+8; 2 the female tergite 6 and tergite 7 are almost always divided longitudinally into two hemitergites; 3 the female tergite 6 is always longer than the tergite 7; 4 circus parallelsided in caudal view; 5 epiphallus present; and 6 pteropleural seta long, reaching posterior margin of lower calypter. We provide a key to the included Korean species, as well as descriptions and illustrations with their diagnostic characters indicated.

  9. Notes and illustrations on Amicitia Emden species (Diptera, Muscidae, Coenosiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couri Márcia S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amicitia Emden, 1940 is an Afrotropical genus of Coenosiinae (Diptera, Muscidae, with four known species described by Emden (1940: A. insignis, A. lucens, A. modesta and A. seclusa. All examined holotypes are deposited at "The Natural History Museum" (London, UK. Notes on the species and illustrations, especially of the terminalia are presented.

  10. Invloed van inundatie van graslanden op terrestrische dansmuggen (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moller Pilot, H.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of flooding on terrestrial chironomids in grassland (Diptera: Chironomidae) Although flooding is an important factor for the invertebrate fauna of grassland, not much is published on this topic. As in other groups the different species of terrestrial Chironomidae display different

  11. Mouthpart deformities in Chironomidae (Diptera) as indicators of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the absence of appropriate and sensitive tools for monitoring heavy metal pollution in northern Lake Victoria (Uganda), this study investigated mouthpart deformities in chironomid larvae (Diptera) in relation to concentrations of lead, copper, cadmium and zinc in lake sediments, and to dissolved oxygen, pH and ...

  12. Checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera of Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Ilmonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of the family Simuliidae (Diptera is provided for Finland and recognizes 56 species. One new record has been added (Simulium latipes and one name sunken in synonymy (Simulium carpathicum. Furthermore, Simulium tsheburovae is treated as a doubtful record.

  13. Molecular identification of tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christopher

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) anti-vector measures are reliant upon accurate identification of species and their subpopulations. Two species were studied, Glossina palpalis palpalis and Glossina morsitans submorsitans using two mitochondrial DNA: cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and cytochrome ...

  14. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  15. Ceratitis cosyra, een Afrikaanse boorvlieg gevonden in Drenthe (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.; Aartsen, van B.

    2002-01-01

    Ceratitis cosyra, an African fruitfly found in the Dutch province of Drenthe (Diptera: Tephritidae) A single specimen of Ceratitis (Ceratalaspis) cosyra (Walker, 1849) was collected near Papenvoort (utm ld4768) with a malaisetrap in the period 4-6 september 1993 (leg. L. Witmond). Up till now it was

  16. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  17. Defence behaviour of reindeer in response to flying parasitic Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Karter

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar defence behaviours were exhibited by a reindeer when experimentally exposed to three different species of tethered, flying parasitic Diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer, Hypoderma tarandi (L and Tabanid. Defencive behavioural responses appeared to be related to attack angle, and were not elicited by auditory stimuli. These observations raise questions about the validity of parasite species-specific defence responses in reindeer.Forsvars-adferd hos rein angrepet av flyvende, parasittiske diptera.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Likeartet forsvars-adferd ble utvist av en rein som ble eksperimentelt utsatt for tre forskjellige arter av bundne, flyvende parasittiske diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer, Hypoderma tarandi (L og Tabanid. Den forsvarsmessige adferd syntes å ha sammenheng med parasittenes angreps-vinkel og ble ikke utløst av lydstimuli. Disse observasjoner reiser spørsmål om gyldigheten av parasittære artsspesifikke forsvarsreaksjoner hos rein.Poron puolustuskàyttàytyminen lentàvià kaksisiipisià (Diptera hyônteisià vastaan.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Poro kàyttàytyi samalla tavalla kun se joutui tekemisiin kolmen kiinniolevan lentàvân kaksisiipisen hyônteisen: saulakan {Cephenemyia trompe Modeer, kurumupaarman {Hypoderma tarandi L ja parman kanssa. Puolustuskàyttàytyminen riippui hyônteisen làhestymiskulvàt kysymyksià lajispesifisen puolustuskàyttàytymisen esiintymisestà proolla hyônteisià vastaan.

  18. Estimation of larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to develop sequential sampling plans to estimate larval density of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) at three precision levels in cucumber greenhouse. The within- greenhouse spatial patterns of larvae were aggregated. The slopes and intercepts of both Iwao's patchiness ...

  19. Survival and development of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera:Tephritidae) is the most important and widespread pest in the olive growing countries in the Mediterranean basin. The development and survival of olive fruit fly, B. oleae from egg to adult stage was studied in the laboratory at 16, 22, 27 and 35°C. The objective of the study was to get ...

  20. Initial survey of predacious diptera on hemlocks in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisashi Ohishi; Shigehiko Shiyake; Yorio Miyatake; Ashley Lamb; Michael E. Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    Some species of Coleoptera and Diptera are specialist predators of adelgids. Previously, we reported our survey of predacious Coleoptera on hemlocks in Japan (Shiyake et al. 2008). Two of these beetles, Sasajiscymnus tsugae and Laricobius sp. nov., have been exported to the U.S. for biological control. Here, we provide the first...

  1. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  2. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabkaew L Sukontason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  3. Surface ultrastructure of third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Lertthamnongtham, Sirisuda; Boonchu, Noppawan

    2002-07-01

    We describe some ultrastructure of the third-instar Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) using scanning electron microscopy, with the cephalic segment, anterior spiracle and posterior spiracle being emphasized. This study provides the taxonomic information of this larval species, which may be useful to differentiate from other closely-related species.

  4. Zoogeography and biodiversity of syrphidae (Diptera) in East Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoogeography and biodiversity of syrphidae (Diptera) in East Africa. Marc De Meyer, Edward Vanden Berghe, Andy E Whittington. Abstract. This paper reports on the occurrence of Syrphidae in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda), based on 5,600 specimen records incorporated in the biodiversity database of the ...

  5. [The synanthropy of the calliphorids (Insecta, Diptera) of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M J; Barbola, I de F

    1998-05-01

    The calliphorids synantropics were studied in three different environments--urban, rural and forest area--in metropolitan region of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil during october and december of 1996 to estimate the abundance, preferences of the adults to baits (fresh fish, bird liver and human faeces) and the synanthropic index for the most abundant species. A total of 3399 calliphorids of 13 different species were sampled: Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819), Phaenicia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1818), Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, 1826), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850), Paralucilia xanthogeneiates (Dear, 1850), Paralucilia fulvinota (Bigot, 1877), Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann, 1930) and Calliphora erytrocephala Meigen, 1826.

  6. Survival after submergence in the pupae of five species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D; Greenberg, B

    1994-09-01

    Survival of pupae of known ages after 1 to 5 d of submersion under water was assessed by determining the emergence of Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Phaenicia sericata (Meigen). Survival after 1 d of submergence was < 14% in the white puparial stage, 0-100% in pharate adults nearing eclosion, and approximately 100% in pupae between these two stages. This pattern inversely tracks O2 consumption during metamorphosis. Twenty-five percent of the pupae of three species (P. terraenovae, P. regina, and P. sericata) produced normal adults after 4 d of submersion, but none after 5 d. Among survivors, the pupation period was extended by the duration of submersion. Pupae of C. vicina were least able to withstand drowning. These data are potentially useful in estimating duration of submergence of a corpse in forensic investigations where the corpse becomes submerged after the larvae have developed and pupariated.

  7. First data on Dolichopodidae (Diptera) of the West Kotlin Nature Reserve (Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Grichanov, I.Ya.; Ovsyannikova, E. I.

    2017-01-01

    First data on Dolichopodidae from the West Kotlin Nature Reserve resulted from the short-term visit (June, 2017) are presented. All 25 collected species are firstly recorded for the Kotlin Island. Lamprochromus semiflavus (Strobl, 1880) and Syntormon filiger Verrall, 1912 are new species for the Leningrad Region and Saint Petersburg. The old records of Lamprochromus bifasciatus (Macquart, 1827) and Syntormon pumilus (Meigen, 1824) from the Region are doubted.

  8. [Description and key to the main species of Calliphoridae (Diptera) larvae of forensic importance from Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Eliana; Wolff, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Larvae of 13 blowfly species from Colombia are described and an illustrated key for all them is presented. All larval instars of Calliphora nigribasis Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani), Lucilia eximia (Weidemann) are described, but the second and third instars of Compsomyiops verena (Walter), and only the third instar of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), Lucilia peruviana Robineau-Desvoidy, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou).

  9. Sobre um novo gênero neotrópico da subfamília Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae On a new neotropical genus of the subfamily Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião José de Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new neotropical genus and a new species of a non-biting midge for the subfamily Tanypodinae from Brazil are described. The new genus is near Tanypus Meigen, 1803 and Procladius Skuse, 1889, but differs of both by wings and male terminalia.

  10. Nomenclatural studies toward a world list of Diptera genus-group names. Part V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evenhuis, Neal L.; Pape, Thomas; Pont, Adrian C.

    The Diptera genus-group names of Pierre-Justin-Marie Macquart are reviewed and annotated. A total of 399 available genus-group names in 69 families of Diptera are listed alphabetically, for each name giving author, year and page of original publication, originally included species, type species...

  11. Diptera Community In The Littoral Zone Of A North East Arid Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maiduguri, Nigeria, were studied between January and June 2002. Dipteran samples were collected every 2 weeks from five different stations. Five groups of diptera organisms simulidae, chironomidae, centrapogo nidae, culicidae and chaoboridae were found in analyzable numbers. The diptera assemblage was ...

  12. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  13. The first instar larva of two species of Miltogramminae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from the Middle East - examples of peculiar morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Pape, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The first instar larva is described for two species of Miltogramminae flesh flies representing the genera Miltogramma Meigen and Phrosinella Robineau-Desvoidy. Using a combination of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the habitus is documented along with all important exoskeletal ...

  14. Defence behaviour of reindeer in response to flying parasitic Diptera

    OpenAIRE

    Karter, Andrew J.; Ivar Folstad

    1989-01-01

    Similar defence behaviours were exhibited by a reindeer when experimentally exposed to three different species of tethered, flying parasitic Diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer), Hypoderma tarandi (L) and Tabanid. Defencive behavioural responses appeared to be related to attack angle, and were not elicited by auditory stimuli. These observations raise questions about the validity of parasite species-specific defence responses in reindeer.Forsvars-adferd hos rein angrepet av flyvende, parasitt...

  15. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae from the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees van Achterberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini.

  16. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae New records and distribution of mosquitoes from Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Rossi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald. Actualmente, en la Argentina se hallan presentes 226 especies distribuidas en 23 géneros.Twenty one new records and 12 new distributional records of species of the genus Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach & Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald are reported. Comments and changes in the status of species of Howardina Theobald, Ochelrotatus and Lutzia Theobald are included. Currently, in Argentina are present 226 species distributed in 23 genera.

  17. New Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859 Crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) of North and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2015-02-27

    Two new species of Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken, 1859, crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae) from the Korean peninsula are described, illustrated and compared with already known and related species. An identification key and check-list of all Korean Dicranoptycha is presented.

  18. A New Species for a Bromeliad Phytotelm-Dwelling Tanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter S. Cranston

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The first species of Tanytarsus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanytarsini) from a phytotelm (plant-held water) is described as a larva, pupa, and adults from specimens reared from leaf axils of Guzmania...

  19. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  20. Two new species of fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) from Kunashir Island, Kuril Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitzev, Alexander

    2017-04-05

    Two new species of Mycetophilidae (Diptera), Clastobasis subalternans sp. n. and Phthinia kurilensis sp. n. are described from Kunashir I. (South Kuril Is.). Their relationships with other species of Clastobasis Skuse and Phthinia Winnertz are briefly discussed.

  1. Temperature-Dependent Development Modeling of the Phorid Fly Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barzegar, S; Zamani, A A; Abbasi, S; Vafaei Shooshtari, R; Shirvani Farsani, N

    2016-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae) on A15 variety of button mushroom in the stages of casing and spawn-running was investigated at eight constant temperatures...

  2. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael D

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae. Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments. Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum.

  3. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E.

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  4. Laboratory Studies of Larval Cannibalism in ’Toxorhynchites amboinensis’ (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    AD-A233 327 LABORATORY STUDIES OF LARVAL CANNIBALISM IN TOXORHYNCHITES ANfSOIENSIS (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) Barry Annis, Umi T. Bismo Sarojo, Masir...and Development Command for Work Unit 3M161102BS10.AD410. --------------------------------------------------- Distribution of this document is...unlimited. J.C. COOLBAUGH CAPT MSC USN Commanding Officer fH., D TR-1090 Laboratory Studies of Larval Cannibalism in Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Diptera

  5. Species of Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Oliveira Roque

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Oukuriella Epler, 1986 (Diptera, Chironomidae inside freshwater sponges are reported for the first time in Brazil.Espécies de Oukuriella Epler (Diptera, Chironomidae no interior de esponjas de água doce no Brasil. Larvas de Oukuriella Epler, 1986 no interior de esponjas de água doce são registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  6. Descripción de las larvas II, III y el pupario de Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Diptera: Calliphoridae Description of the larvae II, III, and the puparium of Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verónica Trigo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas II, III y el pupario de Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. El material se capturó en Tandil (Buenos Aires, Argentina, durante un experimento de sucesión de fauna sarcosaprófaga. Se aportan nuevos caracteres diagnósticos de C. fulvicrura , Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 y Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969 que se pueden hallar sobre un cadáver.The larvae II, III, and the puparium of Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 are described. The material was collected in Tandil ( Buenos Aires , Argentina , during an experiment on sarcosaprophagous faunal succession. New diagnostic characters of C. fulvicrura, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775, and Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969 are given that may be found on a corpse.

  7. Taxonomic notes on Chironomidae (Diptera from Okinawa Island, Japan, with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species: Ionthosmittia cuneipenne sp. nov., Orthocladius (Euorthocladius okinawanus sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella semiovata sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyus, Japan. In addition to these species, twelve species are newly recorded from this island. Diagnostic characters of Tokyobrillia tamamegaseta (Kobayashi et Sasa are emended. Pentapedilum yakuabeum Sasa et Suzuki syn. nov. and Polypedilum yakucedeum Sasa et Suizuki syn. nov. are junior synonyms of Ainuyusurika tuberculatum (Tokunaga. Einfeldia kanazawai (Yamamoto is transferred to the genus Chironomus Meigen and its systematic position is discussed.

  8. Review of the Psychodinae from Mallorca, Spain, with description of Pericoma unipennata, sp. n. (Diptera, Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Stokkan, Morten; Wagner, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    We review the Psychodinae of Mallorca, recognising fifteen species based on recent collections and available literature. Previously unpublished data is presented for eleven species, of which Neoarisemus ibericus Wagner, 1978, Mormia tenebricosa (Vaillant, 1954), Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893), Lepiseodina rothschildi (Eaton, 1913), Paramormia ustulata (Walker, 1856), Philosepedon pyrenaicus Vaillant, 1974 and Psychoda (Psycha) grisescens Tonnoir, 1922 are first records for Mallorca. An old record of Pericoma trifasciata (Meigen, 1804) is considered doubtful. Pericoma unipennata sp. n is described and illustrated based on a male collected at Deía. Distributional data are reviewed for all newly recorded species. Based on the Psychodinae fauna, the zoogeographical affinities of Mallorca are briefly discussed.

  9. New records of Trichoceridae (Diptera) from the island of Mallorca ​.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrašiūnas, Andrius; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen

    2016-01-01

    The Trichoceridae are a small family distributed mainly in the Holarctic Region, most of which are associated with cold seasons and even snow. From the Iberian peninsula, 5 species have been recorded; however only a single previous occurence record exists from the Balearic islands. In this paper we present new records of two species from Mallorca, of which Trichocera (Saltrichocera) saltator (Harris, 1776) has not previously been recorded from the Balearic islands. Trichocera (Saltrichocera) annulata Meigen, 1818 is recorded for the first time from Mallorca. We furthermore discuss the species' distributions within the Mediterranean region and report new morphological data for the Mallorca island form of T. saltator.

  10. Nuevos registros y distribución de mosquitos de la Argentina (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. ROSSI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 21 nuevos registros de especies y se amplía la distribución de otras 12 especies de los géneros Anopheles Meigen, Coquillettidia Dyar, Culex L., Haemagogus Williston, Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga, Onirion Harbach y Peyton, Orthopodomyia Theobald, Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy, Sabethes Robineau-Desvoidy, Stegomyia Theobald, Toxorhynchites Theobald. Se incluyen comentarios y cambios de estatus para especies de Howardina Theobald, Ochlerotatus y Lutzia (Theobald. Actualmente, en la Argentina se hallan presentes 226 especies distribuidas en 23 géneros.

  11. The black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Low, VAN Lun; Pham, Xuan DA; Adler, Peter H

    2017-05-05

    The biodiversity of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), which are biting insects of medical and veterinary importance, is strikingly high in Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand. In 2013, we began to explore the fauna of black flies in Vietnam, which has so far been poorly studied. In this monograph, the wealth of the biodiversity of black flies in Vietnam is also confirmed on the basis of the results of our recent investigations, though limited to five provinces in the country.      Morphotaxonomic studies of black flies obtained from Sapa, Lao Cai Province, northern Vietnam, in 2014 and Nghe An Province, northern Vietnam, in 2015, and reexaminations of black flies collected from Tam Dao, Vinh Phuc Province, northern Vietnam, in 2013, Thua Thien Hue Province, central Vietnam, in 2014, and Lam Dong Province, southern Vietnam, in 2014, were conducted. A total of 22 species are described as new, including one in the newly recorded subgenus Montisimulium Rubtsov, and three species are recognized as new records from Vietnam. This investigation brings the number of species of black flies known in Vietnam to 70, all of which are assigned to the genus Simulium Latreille, and are placed in four subgenera (25 in Gomphostilbia Enderlein, one in Montisimulium, seven in Nevermannia Enderlein, and 37 in Simulium Latreille s. str.). The numbers of species-groups recognized include seven in Gomphostilbia, three in Nevermannia and nine in Simulium, indicating a high diversity of putative phylogenetic lineages. New species include S. (G.) sanchayense sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (G.) brinchangense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Hashim), S. (S.) lowi sp. nov. (= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) brevipar Takaoka & Davies), S. (S.) fuscicoxae sp. nov. [= the species formerly regarded as S. (S.) rufibasis Brunetti (in part)], S. (S.) suoivangense sp. nov. [= morphoform 'b' of the S. (S.) tani Takaoka & Davies (complex

  12. Fermentation for Disinfesting Fruit Waste From Drosophila Species (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R; Dobrovin-Pennington, A; Shaw, B; Buss, D S; Cross, J V; Fountain, M T

    2017-08-01

    Economic losses in a range of fruit crops due to the Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) have become severe. Removal and treatment of fruit waste, which may harbor D. suzukii, is a key step in preventing reinfestation of fruit production. Natural fermentation for disinfesting fruit wastes from D. suzukii was examined at ambient air temperatures of 12-20 °C. Soft and stone fruit wastes infested with eggs, larvae, and pupae of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) or D. suzukii were placed in sealed vessels containing fruit wastes, and samples were retrieved at intervals and tested for the emergence of adults. Mean temperatures of the fruit waste in the sealed vessels during fermentation were 15-23 °C. Fermentation for 3 d was effective in disinfesting waste from different life stages of D. suzukii. Treatment for 4 d also ensured that the waste was free of viable life stages of D. melanogaster, which could be used as an indicator species for disinfestation of waste from D. suzukii owing to its greater tolerance of fermentation. The O2 concentration of the headspace air in the vessels became undetectable after 13-16 h, with a corresponding increase in CO2 concentration, which exceeded 80% vol/vol. The resulting hypoxia and hypercapnia may explain the efficacy of the fermentation treatment in disinfesting the waste. Fermented fruit remained attractive to D. suzukii and retained its capacity to rear a life cycle. Covering or mixing fermented fruit with a sufficient depth (0.1 m) or volume (×9) of soil or coir prevented the reinfestation of treated waste. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Genotoxic effect of Phenanthrene on Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera: Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele dos Santos Morais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthrene, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, remains adsorbed to sedimentary particles in aquatic environments. It affects mainly benthic organisms, and is considered potentially genotoxic. In ecotoxicology, species of Chironomus Meigen, 1803 are widely known as bioindicators of the effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. This study investigates the effects of phenanthrene on the size of the head capsule of Chironomus sancticaroli Strixino & Strixino, 1981 larvae after chronic (eight days exposure, and DNA damage after acute (96 hours and chronic exposure (eight days, under laboratory conditions. DNA damage, evaluated using the alkaline comet assay, detected effects for both exposure periods, indicating that phenanthrene is toxic for C. sancticaroli. For the acute exposure, we analyzed five concentrations of phenanthrene, between 0.16 mg.l-1 and 1.60 mg.l-1, detecting significant differences (Kruskall-Wallis test with p < 0.05 in the degree of DNA damage in all groups. These effects were not dose-dependent. For the chronic exposure, two concentrations (0.16 mg.l-1, 0.83 mg.l-1 were analyzed, and DNA damage was observed in both. Again, the effects were not dose-dependent. This indicates that phenanthrene is genotoxic to larvae of C. sancticaroli even at low concentrations. The size of the head capsule was evaluated after chronic exposure to concentrations of 0.16 mg.l-1 and 0.83 mg.l-1. Significant differences (ANOVA test with p < 0.05 were detected in the two concentrations, and a reduction in the size of the larval head capsule was observed. This suggests that phenanthrene causes delay in larval development. These results indicate that phenanthrene affects the development of and causes DNA damage in C. sancticaroli larvae. Therefore, we suggest that C. sancticaroli can be used as a biological indicator for environmental contamination with phenanthrene.

  14. Dispersal and distribution of Calliphoridae (Diptera) immatures from animal carcasses in southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmer, J W; Meek, C L

    1996-07-01

    Spatial distributions of calliphorid pupae (based on adult emergence) from swine carcasses located in woods and pasture were determined during 4 seasons in southern Louisiana. Adult emergence was substantially greater in pastures than woods for all seasons except winter. Secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), was the predominant calliphorid species collected ( > 95%) during summer and fall; whereas, black blow fly, Phormia regina (Meigen), was the primary species (86%) during spring. The highest densities of calliphorid pupae per square meter were located within 0.9 m of the animal carcasses in the woods and the pasture (summer); however, the number of calliphorid pupae per square meter during the summer was substantially greater in the pastures than in the woods (2,370/m2 compared with 77/m2). Postfeeding calliphorid larvae preferred to disperse toward the southeastern quadrant during summer and spring and toward the southeastern to southwestern quadrants in fall. The winter evaluation period was the most prolonged (85 d), had the least number of emergent adults (only 6-11% of the populations that emerged in the other seasons), and consisted of predominantly, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen).

  15. Notes on the first instar larvae of Ctenophora and Nephrotoma (Diptera, Tipulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podeniene, Virginija; Naseviciene, Nijole; Podenas, Sigitas

    2014-02-10

    1830 egg-larvae of 7 species belonging to long palped crane flies (Tipulidae): Ctenophora guttata Meigen, Nephrotoma pratensis Linnaeus, N. dorsalis Fabricius, N. scurra Meigen, N. flavescens Linnaeus, N. submaculosa Edwards and N. crocata Linnaeus were obtained from 22 females captured in Lithuania in 2011-2012. It took from five days to more than three weeks for eggs to hatch. Crane flies have four instars of larvae. Second, third and the last instar larvae are very similar, when the first instar or egg-larvae differs radically. Descriptions and illustrations of external morphology, chaetotaxy of abdominal segments, characters of head capsules and last abdominal segments are given for the previously unknown first instar larvae of Ct. guttata, N. crocata, N. dorsalis, N. flavescens, N. pratensis, N. scurra and poorly known N. submaculosa. It was found out that difference of head capsule and last abdominal segment among the first instar larvae of above mentioned species of genus Nephrotoma are more obvious than in last instar. During this study it was found, that such characters as shape of apical teeth of mandible, shape of basal segment of antenna and number of sensillae, shape of hypostomium and arrangement of sensory structures on labrum, differ among egg-larvae of Nephrotoma. It was found, that pads on frontal part of prothorax and shape of lateral plates of egg-larvae labrum of Nephrotoma differ significantly from that of Ctenophora and could be used as genus separating characters. 

  16. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part II. Luciliinae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpila, K.; Hall, M. J. R.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    First instars of Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, Lucilia caesar Linnaeus, Lucilia cuprina Weidemann, Lucilia richardsi Collin, Lucilia sericata Meigen and Lucilia silvarum Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are thoroughly documented with scanning electron microscopy images, light microscopy photographs...... larva of L. richardsi is described for the first time and an identification key to the first instars of European species of Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy of forensic importance is presented....

  18. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains.

  19. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae.

  20. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  1. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado Marcelo A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively; Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p < 0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p < 0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively.

  2. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Marcelo A; Centeno, Néstor

    2003-03-01

    To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively); Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p<0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively) and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p<0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively).

  3. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval.

  4. Third Supplement to ’A Catalog of the Mosquitoes of the World’ (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    holotype 6: USNM). (Note 6). hancoi Geoffroy 1987:103 (65*). Type loc.: Banco forest, near Abijan. Ivory Coast (holotype 6: USNM). masoalensis...Diptera: Cul- Culev (Melanoconion) guedesi uma nova icidae) do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil . Mem. especie do Brasil (Diptera. Culicidae). Rev. ,0I Inst...Oswaldo Cruz Rio 78:501-505. Brasil . Biol. 51:193-196. Lourenco de Oliviera and L.M. Deane. 1984. McCabe. T.L. and L.M. Johnson. 1980. Cat- What is

  5. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.

  6. Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.

  7. Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associada a Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae no Brasil Dasineura gigantea sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro C. Angelo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Dasineura Rondani, 1840 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae which causes galls on Psidium cattleianum Sabine, 1821 is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female. The gall is characterized and some biological notes are given.

  8. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  9. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  10. Oviposition behavior of the biological control agent Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in environments with multiple pest aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural enemies are constantly faced with oviposition decisions that have potential fitness consequences. We investigated the oviposition behavior of the aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) when faced with multiple prey choices, i.e. plants infested with Myzus persic...

  11. First records of the 'bathroom mothmidge' Clogmia albipunctata, a conspicuous element of the Belgian fauna that went unnoticed (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, L.; Zimmer, J.-Y.; Verheggen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The 'bathroom fly' Clogmia albipunctata (Williston, 1893) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is a cosmopolitan species that is commonly found in bathrooms, kitchens, sewage treatment plants and compost heaps. Of circumtropical origin, the species probably spread to synanthropic habitats in northern and central

  12. Evaluation of mass trapping and bait stations to control Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies in mango orchards of Chiapas, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvador Flores; Enoc Gómez; Sergio Campos; Fredy Gálvez; Jorge Toledo; Pablo Liedo; Rui Pereira; Pablo Montoya

    2017-01-01

    ...) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango orchards in Chiapas, Mexico. Among the bait stations evaluated, we found that a wide-mouth 2 L plastic bottle baited with Cera Trap...

  13. Development of the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), at five constant temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S. V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.; Turco, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. We calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. For each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. The mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory data. Development times of C. megacephala were compared with that of two other closely related species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Phormia regina (Meigen). Ambient and larval mass temperatures were collected from field studies conducted from 2001–2004. Field study data indicated that adult fly activity was reduced at lower ambient temperatures, but once a larval mass was established, heat generation occurred. These development times and durations can be used for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI).

  14. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. RONDEROS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  15. The blowflies of the Madeira Archipelago: species diversity, distribution and identification (Diptera, Calliphoridae s. l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Prado e Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the taxonomic diversity and distribution of blowflies from the Madeira Archipelago is updated. New and interesting findings are reported for poorly studied islands and islets of this archipelago, together with a brief analysis of the diversity of Macaronesian Calliphoridae s. l. Seven blowfly species were collected during this study, including the first records of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Pollenia rudis (Fabricius, 1794 and Stomorhina lunata (Fabricius, 1805 from Porto Santo, and of C. vicina, L. sericata and S. lunata from Desertas Islands. The presence of Calliphora loewi Enderlein, 1903 in Madeira Laurisilva forest is discussed and its first instar larva is redescribed, revealing important differences in relation to its original description. An identification key to the adult Madeiran blowflies is provided for the first time.

  16. Experimental Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by a Strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    2). However, the strains of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) col- greater susceptibility of the Brazilian strains than lected in North and South...AD-A259 565 Experimental Transmission of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus by a Strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) S1 ls from... susceptibility of’ selected strains of’ Ecuador and Peru in northern South America Ac. albopictus for VEE and CHIK viruses to de- and as far north as southern

  17. Descripción de las larvas II, III y el pupario de Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verónica. TRIGO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas II, III y el pupario de Compsomyiops fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. El material se capturó en Tandil (Buenos Aires, Argentina, durante un experimento de sucesión de fauna sarcosaprófaga. Se aportan nuevos caracteres diagnósticos de C. fulvicrura, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Phaenicia sericata (Meigen, 1826, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 y Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello, 1969 que se pueden hallar sobre un cadáver.

  18. Diversity of the chironomidae (diptera) of river Niger related to water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity of the chironomidae (diptera) of river Niger related to water pollution at Niamey (Niger). Bassirou Alhou, Jean-Claude Micha, Boudewijn Goddeeris. Abstract. This paper presents the first results on the water quality of the River Niger at Niamey based on the Chironomidae. Artificial substrata of stones covered with ...

  19. Multiple, independent colonizations of the Hawaiian Archipelago by the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goodman, K.R.; Evenhuis, N.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV 17 (2016), č. článku e2704. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : colonization history * Diptera * divergence dating * Dolichopodidae * evolutionary radiation * long distance dispersal * Hawaiian islands Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  20. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  1. Behavioral responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to visual stimuli under laboratory, semifield, and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive pest in the United States that attacks soft-skinned ripening fruit such as raspberries, blackberries, and blueberries. Little is known regarding specific cues D. suzukii utilizes to locate and select host fruit, and inconsistenc...

  2. A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...

  3. Amazonimyia gigantea gen. n., sp. n., a new Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Wiedenbrug, Sofia

    2015-04-15

    A new genus, Amazonimyia, is established for a species of the tribe Pentaneurini (Diptera, Chironomidae, Tanypodinae) from the Amazon Rainforest in northern Brazil. Generic diagnoses for adult male and pupa are provided together with descriptions of a new species, Amazonimyia gigantea.

  4. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers Readily Distinguish Cryptic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    DNA isolation. Individual larvae or adults were ground with a strong diagnostic bands and simple patterns. Primers pro- plastic pestle in...V. (1988) Com- peninsular Malaysia and Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq parison of DNA probe and cytogenic methods for identifying field Syst 20

  5. Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae of Coscarón & Papavero (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Loureiro Henriques

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.

  6. Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.

  7. The oldest accurate record of Scenopinidae in the Lowermost Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Brachycera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre

    2016-03-22

    Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini.

  8. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  9. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  10. Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    Ecological and Control Techniques for Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) Associated with Rodent Reservoirs of Leishmaniasis Thomas M. Mascari1... Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of...zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis . Methods and Findings: We demonstrated in laboratory studies that analysis of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

  11. De invasieve Oost-Amerikaanse kersenboorvlieg Rhagoletis cingulata in Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.; Dijkstra, E.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The invasive American Eastern Cherry Fruitfly Rhagoletis cingulata in the Netherlands (Diptera: Tephritidae) In 2003 the European Invertebrate Survey - Netherlands, on request of the Plant Protection Service of the Netherlands, conducted a survey of the distribution and phenology of the American

  12. Verspreiding en fenologie van de boorvlieg Rhagoletis cingulata in Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Verspreiding en fenologievan de boorvlieg Rhagoletis cingulata in Nederland (Diptera: Tephritidae) In opdracht van de Plantenziektenkundige Dienst heeft EIS-Nederland van 10 juli t/m 2 oktober 2003 een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de verspreiding en de fenologie van de boorvlieg Rhagoletis cingulata in

  13. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    F.T. de SB. 1969b. Estudo da longevidade do Anopheies (Kerteszia) cruzii e do Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator em condiNes naturais. Rev. Bras...and A.M. Zavortink, TJ. 1973. Mosquito studies (Diptera, Borba. 1977. Sobre a longevidade de Anophe- Culicidae). XXIX. A review of the subgenus les

  14. Annotated world bibliography of host plants of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with ...

  15. The Anopheles (Anopheles) Crucians Subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Forattini, 0. P. 1962. Entomologica medica. Vol. 1: Parte geral, Diptera, Anophelini. Departamento de Parasitologia , Sao Paulo, Brazil. 662 p. Freeborn, S...Ross, E. S. and H. R. Roberts. 194%. Mosquito atlas : Part I. The nearctic Anophe Zes , important malaria vectors of the Americas and Aedes aegypti

  16. On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region

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    Silvio Shigueo Nihei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available On the first tachinid fly (Diptera, Tachinidae carrying Asclepiadoideae pollinaria in the Neotropical Region. This paper reports the first Neotropical Tachinidae species possibly associated to pollination of Asclepiadoideae: a female of Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini carrying pollinaria of Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae attached to its proboscis. The fly specimen was collected in Paraguay, Departamento Canindeyú. The pollinarium is illustrated and described herein. This represents the first anthophilous record to G. parviflorus and to the genus.Sobre o primeiro taquinídeo (Diptera, Tachinidae carregando polinários de Asclepiadoideae na Região Neotropical. Esta contribuição relata a primeira espécie neotropical de Tachinidae possivelmente associada à polinização de Asclepiadoideae: uma fêmea de Euacaulona sumichrasti Townsend, 1908 (Diptera, Tachinidae, Phasiinae, Trichopodini transportando dois polinários de Gonolobus parviflorus Decne., 1844 (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asclepiadeae: Gonolobinae presos à sua probóscide. O espécime foi coletado no Paraguai, Departamento Canindeyú. O polinário é ilustrado e caracterizado. Este é o primeiro registro de antofilia para G. parviflorus e para o gênero.

  17. Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records

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    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira (Diptera, Asilidae, Asilinae, with new distribution records. The female of Ctenodontina nairae Vieira, 2012 is described for the first time. Description and illustrations of the habitus, wing and terminalia of the female are provided. The distribution is extended to Bolivia and Peru.

  18. Miíase humana por Dermatobia hominis (Linneaus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae e Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel (Diptera, Calliphoridae em Sucessão Parasitária

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    José Antonio Batista-da-Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso raro de sucessão parasitária de duas espécies de larvas de moscas produtora de miíase primária, Dermatobia hominis e Cochliomyia hominivorax, em um jovem de 12 anos atendido em um hospital público no município de São Gonçalo (RJ.Human Myiases for Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae and Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel (Diptera, Calliphoridae in Parasitic SuccessionAbstract. The objective this work was to tell a rare case of parasitic succession of two species of larvae of flies producing of primary myiases, Dermatobia hominis and Cochliomyia hominivorax, in a 12 year-old youth assisted in an public hospital in São Gonçalo (RJ.

  19. Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae en Venezuela

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    Juan-Carlos Navarro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae. Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera

  20. Chironomid (Diptera, Chironomidae species assemblages in northeastern Algerian hydrosystems

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    N. Chaib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the distribution of chironomids (Diptera, Chironomidae, and determine their substrate preferences, from two hydrosystems located in northeastern Algeria: the Kebir-East and the Seybouse wadis. Sixty-five species were recorded in 49 sampling sites distributed along the main courses of the two hydrographic nets and their tributaries. The majority of taxa comprised cosmopolitan species widely distributed along these two hydrosystems. Cricotopus (Cricotopus bicinctus showed the highest abundance and frequency of occurrence (29.52% and was widespread in almost all the sampling sites. Species richness ranged from 4 to 23, Shannon diversity between 0.15 and 0.90, Evenness from 0.23 to 1. A cluster analysis was carried out to represent the different groups of sites sharing similar species composition. Agglomerative cluster analysis grouped the sampling sites into four clusters according to the community data. An Indval analysis was then carried out to detect indicator species for each group of the sampling sites. Cricotopus (Isocladius sylvestris was indicator of the first group of the sampling sites. Orthocladius pedestris, Rheocricotopus chalybeatus and C. bicinctus were indicators of the second group, and Polypedilum cultellatum of the third group. The fourth group was not characterized by any species. Indval analysis allowed also to determine species preferences for substrate size: Corynoneura scutellata and Dicrotendipes nervosus emphasized a preference to fine gravel, and Glyptotendipes pallens to fine sand.

  1. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae Tetraspanins

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    Edwin K. Murungi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps, all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector.

  3. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  4. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Claudia Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation.

  5. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge.

  6. Redescription of the last instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Redescripción del último estadio larval y de la pupa de Bezzia roldani (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

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    Maria M. Ronderos

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The fourth instar larva and pupa of Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth is redescribed and illustrated by using phase-contrast microscope and scanning electron microscope. Immatures were collected by placing floating hydrophytes of the genera Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella and Spirodella (Lemnaceae in Berlesse funnels. The hydrophytes were collected in the Chascomús and Los Talas ponds, both in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The larva show features typical of carnivorous larvae, and it is compared with that of B. nobilis (Winnertz and with a similar species of the genus Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. The pupa is compared with its similar congener B. blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.Se redescribe e ilustra el último estadio larval y la pupa de Bezzia roldani Spinelli & Wirth, utilizando microscopio de contraste de fase y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Los estados inmaduros se capturaron con la ayuda de embudos Berlesse a partir de hidrófitas flotantes, de los géneros Lemna, Wolfia, Wolfiella y Spirodella (Lemnaceae de las lagunas Chascomús y Los Talas, ambas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. La larva presenta las características típicas de larvas carnívoras, se compara con la de Bezzia nobilis (Winnertz y con una especie similar del género Palpomyia Meigen, P. guarani Lane. La pupa se compara con la de Bezzia blantoni Spinelli & Wirth.

  7. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Cambay Amber Indicate that the Eocene Fauna of the Indian Subcontinent Was Not Isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Singh, Hukam; Gunkel, Simon; Rust, Jes

    2017-01-01

    India's unique and highly diverse biota combined with its unique geodynamical history has generated significant interest in the patterns and processes that have shaped the current distribution of India's flora and fauna and their biogeographical relationships. Fifty four million year old Cambay amber from northwestern India provides the opportunity to address questions relating to endemism and biogeographic history by studying fossil insects. Within the present study seven extant and three fossil genera of biting midges are recorded from Cambay amber and five new species are described: Eohelea indica Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Gedanohelea gerdesorum Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea cambayana Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., Meunierohelea borkenti Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp., and Meunierohelea orientalis Stebner & Szadziewski n. sp. Fossils of species in the genera Leptoconops Skuse, 1889, Forcipomyia Meigen, 1818, Brachypogon Kieffer, 1899, Stilobezzia Kieffer, 1911, Serromyia Meigen, 1818, and Mantohelea Szadziewski, 1988 are recorded without formal description. Furthermore, one fossil belonging to the genus Camptopterohelea Wirth & Hubert, 1960 is included in the present study. Our study reveals faunal links among Ceratopogonidae from Cambay amber and contemporaneous amber from Fushun, China, Eocene Baltic amber from Europe, as well as the modern Australasian and the Oriental regions. These findings imply that faunal exchange between Europe, Asia and India took place before the formation of Cambay amber in the early Eocene.

  8. Photophase Duration Affects Immature Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Leslie A; VanLaerhoven, Sherah L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-10-23

    This study tested the effect of photophase duration on black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.; Diptera: Stratiomyidae), development. Successful larval eclosion, development time and adult emergence were measured for individuals exposed to 0 h, 8 h, and 12 h of light, at approximately 27°C and 70% relative humidity. Accumulated degree hours (ADH) were calculated to correct for differences in temperature across treatments. Larvae successfully eclosed in all treatments, with larvae in 12 h light requiring 5.77% and 4.5% fewer ADH to eclose than larvae in 0 h and 8 h, respectively. Overall, larvae in 0 h required 39.34% and 37.78% more ADH to complete their development from egg to adult than larvae in 8 h and 12 h, respectively. The effect of photophase duration on juvenile development was largest in the post-feeding stage, and smallest in the pupal stage. Specifically, post-feeding larvae in 0 h required 80.02% and 90.08% more ADH to pupate than larvae in 8 h and 12 h, respectively, but pupae in 8 h required 9.63% and 7.52% fewer ADH to eclose than pupae in 0 h and 12 h, respectively. Lastly, larval mortality was significantly higher in 0 h, with 72% survivorship, and 96% and 97% in 8 h and 12 h, respectively. However, 17.8% of mortality in the absence of light is hypothesized to be a result of predation by Arachnidae and Blattidae. These data could prove valuable for optimizing industrial processes for mass-production of this species for use as alternative protein in feed for livestock, poultry, and aquaculture. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The evolution of head structures in lower Diptera

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    Katharina Schneeberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The head of adult dipterans is mainly characterized by modifications and more or less far-reaching reductions of the mouthparts (e.g., mandibles and maxillae, linked with the specialization on liquid food and the reduced necessity to process substrates mechanically. In contrast, the compound eyes and the antennae, sense organs used for orientation and for finding a suitable mating partner and oviposition site, are well developed. Some evolutionary novelties are specific adaptations to feeding on liquefied substrates, such as labellae with furrows or pseudotracheae on their surface, and the strongly developed pre– and postcerebral pumping apparatuses. In some dipteran groups specialized on blood, the mandibles are still present as piercing stylets. They are completely reduced in the vast majority of families. Within the group far-reaching modifications of the antennae take place, with a strongly reduced number of segments and a specific configuration in Brachycera. The feeding habits and mouthparts of dipteran larvae are much more diverse than in the adults. The larval head is prognathous and fully exposed in the dipteran groundplan and most groups of lower Diptera. In Tipuloidea and Brachycera it is partly or largely retracted, and the sclerotized elements of the external head capsule are partly or fully reduced. The larval head of Cyclorrhapha is largely reduced. A complex and unique feature of this group is the cephaloskeleton. The movability of the larvae is limited due to the lack of thoracic legs. This can be partly compensated by the mouthparts, which are involved in locomotion in different groups. The mouth hooks associated with the cyclorrhaphan cephaloskeleton provide anchorage in the substrate.

  10. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  11. A Case of Secondary Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Fariba Berenji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the invasion of vertebrates' tissue by the larvae of a fly of the order Diptera. The objective of this paper is to present a rare case of secondary myiasis of ocular infestation by Chrysomya bezziana. A 55-year-old female from Sar village of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, referred to Khatam Al-Anbia Hospital of Mashhad with extensive destruction of left orbital cavity. Existence of larvae was the major complaint in recent months. Some live larvae were removed from her destructed left eye. Primary diagnosis was myiasis of left upper lid (LUL and suspected recurrent Basal cell carcinoma (BCC. The laboratory diagnosis was done in parasitology lab of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad and collected larvae were identified and confirmed to be larvae of the C. bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae. It is a case report of secondary ophtalmiomyiasis due to C. bezziana of a patient lives in Mazandaran Province.

  12. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

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    Jeffrey Freeman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there.

  13. Confirming Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera: Oestridae) human ophthalmomyiasis by larval DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Hong; Xu, Jin; Li, Yong-He; Dan, Wenli; Pan, Yongzhi

    2016-11-01

    Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most serious pest insects in south China and surrounding Southeast Asian countries. The family Tephritidae includes over 4257 species distributed worldwide, so the complete mitochondrial genome would be helpful for bio-identification, biogeography and phylogeny. The B. correcta genome consists of 15 936 bp. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.2% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species and other insects. The phylogenetic tree indicated the presence of three distinct families (Tephritidae, Muscidae, Drosophilidae) in Order Diptera.

  15. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  17. Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE , REPELLENTS Surface Polar Lipids Differ in Male and Female Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae...detections. Progenesis CoMet (Nonlinear Dynamics Limited, Newcastle, UK ; http://www.nonlinear.com) software was used to process the Thermo raw data Þles... antimicrobial compound in the houseßy,Musca domestica. Insect Biochem.Mol. Biol. 34: 43Ð49. Ready, P. D. 2013. Biology of phlebotomine sand ßies as vectors of

  18. Insecticide Susceptibility Screening Against Culex and Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes From the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Balanay, Jo Anne G; White, Avian V; Hope, Joe; Vandock, Kurt; Byrd, Brian D; Reiskind, Michael H

    2017-11-23

    Mosquitoes exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides may be selected for resistance to insecticide active ingredients (AIs). Mosquitoes are exposed to AIs through agricultural, public/private mosquito control programs, homeowners, and other sources. Hence, mosquito control programs should routinely measure the resistance/susceptibility status of mosquito populations of public health concern. The objectives here were to determine resistance status for six AIs used in adult mosquito control in the United States to assess how resistance/susceptibility differs between AI, mosquito species (states where > 1 species collected), and between years (some populations sampled for 2 yr). Field-collected eggs from 21 mosquito populations of six different species or hybrid species (Aedes albopictus Skuse [Diptera: Culicidae], Aedes aegypti L. [Diptera: Culicidae], Culex nigripalpus Theobald, Culex pipiens L. [Diptera: Culicidae], Culex quinquefasciatus Say [Diptera: Culicidae], Cx. pipiens/quinquefasciatus) were obtained. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassays were used to assess the resistance/susceptibility status for six AIs (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox, malathion, permethrin, and phenothrin). World Health Organization guidelines were used to classify mosquitoes as susceptible (98-100% mortality at diagnostic time [DT]), possibly resistant (80-97% mortality at DT), or resistant (susceptibility/resistance between species and AIs. In states where both Aedes and Culex were collected, the odds of exhibiting resistance in Culex were 68-69 times higher than Aedes (Texas odds ratio: 69.30; 95% confidence interval: 5.86, 819.44; P = 0.001; North Carolina odds ratio: 67.99; 95% confidence interval: 15.21, 303.94; P < 0.0001). Some level of resistance was detected against all tested AIs in several mosquito populations and some varied between 2015 and 2016. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of

  19. Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae) from madicolous habitat in Southeast Brazil: new species and new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivinho-Strixino, Susana; Shimabukuro, Erika Mayumi

    2017-05-23

    Tanytarsini (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae) collected from madicolous habitats in Brazil are analyzed, and three new species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp are described and illustrated: T. angelae sp. n. and T. alaidae sp. n. as adult male and T. alienus sp. n. as male and female. New records of another Brazilian Tanytarsus species are also presented, and immature stages of Paratanytarsus silentii Trivinho-Strixino are described.

  20. [Genetic Differentiation of Populations of Baikal Endemic Sergentia baicalensis Tshern. (Diptera, Chironomidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, L S; Bukin, Yu S; Peretolchina, T E; Shcherbakov, D Yu

    2015-07-01

    The population structure of endemic species Sergentia baicalensis (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Lake Baikal was studied using the first subunit of the cytochrome C oxidase mitochondrial gene (Col). Two populations inhabiting different basins of this lake, the southern-central and northern, were detected. It was confirmed that the divergence time of this species was dated to Late Miocene (9.53 ± 3.9 Mya), during the period when geographically separated basins existed in the Baikal rift zone.

  1. Culicidae (Diptera, Culicomorpha from the western Brazilian Amazon: Juami-Japurá Ecological Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With 312 trap-hours of sampling effort, 1554 specimens of Culicidae (Diptera were collected, using CDC and Malaise traps, in nine different locations along the Juami River, within the Juami-Japurá Ecological Station, Amazonas State, Brazil. A list of mosquito species with 54 taxa is presented, which includes three new distributional records for the state of Amazonas. The species found belong to the genera Anopheles, Aedeomyia, Aedes, Psorophora, Culex, Coquillettidia, Sabethes, Wyeomyia and Uranotaenia.

  2. New species of Lopesia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Urso-Guimarães

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of gall midge, Lopesia eichhorniae sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Diptera, associated with rhizomes of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth (Pontederiaceae is described. This is the first record of Lopesia galls in this species of macrophyte, quite common in natural and artificial lakes in Southeast Brazil. Illustrations of the adults (male and female, pupa, larva, and gall of the new species are presented.

  3. A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Özdikmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae. A junior homonym was detected among neotropical sciarid flies genera and the following replacement name is proposed: Novaniarella nom. nov. for Aniarella Enderlein, 1911 (nec Bolivar, 1906. Accordingly, new combinations are herein proposed for the species currently included in this genus: Novaniarella azteca (Lane, 1959 comb. nov., Novaniarella brevis (Rubsaamen, 1894 comb. nov. and Novaniarella pelluscens (Enderlein, 1911 comb. nov.

  4. Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Barros de Alencar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil. There are 11 species of Richardia known to Brazil. Of these, only four are known to occur in the Brazilian Amazon Region, where the diversity of Richardia is underestimated. Herein we describe and illustrate Richardia intemperata sp. nov. and Richardia parispina sp. nov. from Amazonas, Brazil. An illustrated key to males from this region is also provided.

  5. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  6. Anopheles (Anopheles) forattinii: a New Species in Series Arribalzagia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Anophelini, with notes on the malaria vectors (Diptera, Culicidae). Am. J. Hyg. Monogr. Ser. 18: l-20. 1948. Notas sobre a distribuicgo e a biologia dos...36: 282-300. Tadei, W. P., B. M. Mascarenhas, and M. G. Podesti. 1983. Biologia de anofelinos amazonicos. VIII. Conhecimentos sbbre a distribui@o...passa. 1988. Biologia de anofelinos amazonicos. XII. Ocorr&ncia de especies de Anopheles, din&mica da trans- missgo e controle da malaria na zona

  7. The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Ronderos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously unknown pupa and adult male of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae. The pupa of Neobezzia fittkaui Wirth & Ratanaworabhan, 1972, collected from a mat of floating fern (Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Salviniaceae in Ilha da Marchantaria near Manaus, Brazil and the reared adult male are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time. This is the first detailed pupal description for the genus Neobezzia Wirth & Ratanaworabhan.

  8. Potential Use of Pyriproxyfen for Control of Aedes aegypti Diptera: Culicidae) in Iquitos, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-20

    ecdysteroid peak in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera ). Arthropod Struct. Dev. 29: 111Ð119. Received 16 January 2005; accepted 20 January 2005. 630 JOURNAL OF MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Vol. 42, no. 4 ...horizontal transfer Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a perido- mestic mosquito species that exhibits a diurnal, bi- modal feeding pattern in...were col- lected in cups and returned to the large polystyrene/ gauze cages to emerge, mate, blood- feed , and con- tinue the rearing cycle. The colony was

  9. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen

    OpenAIRE

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from ...

  10. Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae del Pleistoceno de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo C. RAMÍREZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bradysia aliciae sp. nov. (Diptera: Sciaridae es descripta a partir de un ala con un excepcional estado de preservación proveniente del afloramiento de Camet Norte en Buenos Aires, Argentina, con una antigüedad de 24.500 años A.P. El ejemplar es el primer díptero adulto identificable que proviene de dichos depósitos.

  11. Sazonalidade de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) no Pantanal Sul-mato-grossense, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Werner Koller; Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de Barros; Elaine Cristina Corrêa

    2011-01-01

    Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throu...

  12. The Previously Undetected Presence of Culex restuans (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central America, with Notes on Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    California -Central America populations and those of the rest of the United States and Canada. The presence of hindtarsal banding in the first group and...to acknowledge Taina Litwak for preparation of the figures. REFERENCES CITED Bohart, R.M. and R.K. Washino. 1978. Mosquitoes of California . Third... Psorophora cingulata and Uranotaenia apicalis in Guatemala. Mosq. Syst. 15: 28-32. Darsie, R.F., Jr. 1984. The presence of Psorophora cilipes (Diptera

  13. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of north western Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Prabhakar; Pankaj Sood; P. K. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B...

  14. Phlebotomus Sandflies of the Paloich Area in the Sudan (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-10-01

    minimum and this can best be achieved by using taxa in their broadest senses until taxonomic studies are complete enough to assure widespread...drey- fussi: Ristorcelli, 1941, Arch. Inst. Pasteur Maroc , 2: 521. Parrot, 1946, Arch. Inst. Pasteur Alg. 24: 72. Kirk & Lewis, 1946a, Ann. Trop...Diptera-Psychodidae) du Nord-Tchad. Mission epidemiologique au Nord- Tchad, pp. 30-52. Arts et Metiers Graphiques, Paris. Adler, S. & O. Theodor. 1957

  15. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  17. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

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    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  18. A check list of necrophagous flies (Diptera: Calyptratae from urban area in Medellín, Colombia Lista de moscas necrófagas (Diptera: Calyptratae del área urbana del municipio de Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Salazar-Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of necrophagous flies (Diptera, Calyptratae occurring in the urban area of Medellín-Colombia is presented. 27 species belonging to 4 families are reported. Data were obtained from field work and recent bibliography references.Se presenta una lista actualizada de moscas necrófagas (Diptera, Calyptratae presentes en el área urbana del municipio de Medellín. Se registran 27 especies incluidas en cuatro familias. Los datos se obtuvieron a partir de recolectas en campo y referencias bibliográficas.

  19. Sources of Infestation, Biology, Damage by and control of Megaselia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to identify sources of infestation by the Megaselia rufipes Meigen (Diptera: Phoridae) on some germinated oil palm seeds in the Seed Production facilities of the CSIR-Oil Palm Research Institute. The study also covered the identification of the pest, some aspects of the biology, cost of damage and ...

  20. SOURCES OF INFESTATION, BIOLOGY, DAMAGE BY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. A study was carried out to identify sources of infestation by the Megaselia rufipes Meigen. (Diptera: Phoridae) on some germinated oil palm seeds in the Seed Production facilities of the. CSIR-Oil Palm Research Institute. The study also covered the identification of the pest, some aspects of the biology, cost of ...

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yawson, GK. Vol 33, No 1 (2013) - Articles Sources of Infestation, Biology, Damage by and control of Megaselia Rufipes Meigen (Diptera: Phoridae) on oil Palm Seeds Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  2. Chromosomal organization of the ribosomal RNA genes in the genus Chironomus (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Gunderina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal localization of ribosomal RNA coding genes has been studied by using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization in 21 species from the genus Chironomus Meigen, 1803. Analysis of the data has shown intra- and interspecific variation in number and location of 5.8S rDNA hybridization sites in 17 species from the subgenus Chironomus and 4 species from the subgenus Camptochironomus Kieffer, 1914. In the majority of studied species the location of rDNA sites coincided with the sites where active NORs (nucleolus organizer regions were found. The number of hybridization sites in karyotypes of studied chironomids varied from 1 to 6. More than half of the species possessed only one NOR (12 out of 21. Two rDNA hybridization sites were found in karyotypes of five species, three – in two species, and five and six sites – in one species each. NORs were found in all chromosomal arms of species from the subgenus Chironomus with one of them always located on arm G. On the other hand, no hybridization sites were found on arm G in four studied species from the subgenus Camptochironomus. Two species from the subgenus Chironomus – Ch. balatonicus Devai, Wuelker & Scholl, 1983 and Ch. “annularius” sensu Strenzke, 1959 – showed intraspecific variability in the number of hybridization signals. Possible mechanisms of origin of variability in number and location of rRNA genes in the karyotypes of species from the genus Chironomus are discussed.

  3. The analysis of pupal development period in Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) forensically important insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabey, Tuçe; Sert, Osman

    2014-01-30

    Forensic entomology is a study that insect evidence is used for the determination of postmortem interval (PMImin). While determining PMImin, the pupal period is given as the duration between the beginning of the pupal period and the stage of adult emergence. The pupal period constitutes approximately 50 % of the immature development, and with detailed examination it would be possible to present a much more accurate PMImin. In this study, the pupal period of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826), which is one of the species used in PMImin estimation in forensic entomology, was investigated. Studies about the pupal period of development are considerably limited in the forensic entomology world. Stages and duration of the pupal period of Lucilia sericata were studied at temperatures of 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C. For all temperatures, pupae specimens were dissected and photographed hourly. According to findings based on all three temperatures, it was determined that as the temperature increases, the duration of development shortens. Also, in addition to 11 pre-determined development stages, nine new development stages were identified.

  4. Pos-harvest control of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in guava fruits (Psidium guajava L.).; Controle pos-colheita de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) em frutos de goiaba (Psidium guajava L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Hayda Oliveira Souza

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the treatment with steam heating, hot water and gamma radiation of Co-60 on eggs and fruit flies larvae (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and analyze the effect of these treatments in the fruit quality (chemical composition)

  5. Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em áreas florestal, rural e urbana em Monte Alegre, MG Parasitoids of Diptera collected in forest, rural, and urban areas in Monte Alegre, MG

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; L.F. Barbaresco; M.E. Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the species of parasitoids of Diptera present in forest, rural, and urban areas in the municipality of Monte Alegre, MG, from March to November 2006. The percentages of parasitism in forest, rural, and urban areas were 14.3%, 11.0%, and 18.8%, respectively. The most frequent species (34.7%) was Triplasta atrocoxalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae).

  6. Host plants of Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)(Diptera:Tephritidae),Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a widespread, economically important tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Bactrocera cucurbitae infests fruits and vegetables of a number of different plant species, with many host plants in the plant family Cucurbitaceae, but with...

  7. Host plants of Solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae); and provisional list of suitable host plants of Bactrocera(Bactrocera)latifrons(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. Bactrocera latifrons i...

  8. Host plants of Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tephritidae);and provisional list of suitable host plants of Carambola fruit fly,(Bactrocera(Bactrocera) carambolae Drew & Hancock(Diptera:Tep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the carambola fruit fly, is native to Southeast Asia, but has extended its geographic range to several countries in South America. As with other tephritid fruit fly species, establishment of B.carambolae in areas where it...

  9. Biting midges of the subfamily Forcipomyiinae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Middle East, with keys and descriptions of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin-Kownacka, Alicja; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Szwedo, Jacek

    2016-10-05

    Middle East biting midges of the genera Atrichopogon Kieffer and Forcipomyia Meigen, subfamily Forcipomyiinae Lenz, covering 41 species are reviewed. Two new species are described and illustrated: Forcipomyia (F.) siverekensis Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. and Forcipomyia (Microhelea) borkenti Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. The list includes 16 species of Atrichopogon and 25 of Forcipomyia. Nine species previously described by Vimmer and Kieffer from the Middle East are treated as nomina dubia and not included in the list.        Keys to identification of Atrichopogon and Forcipomyia species of the Middle East are also provided.

  10. Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human emanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hoppe, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Bakker, E.J.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human skin emanations collected on glass beads were studied using a dual-port olfactometer and electroantannography. Glass beads to which skin emanations from human hands had been

  11. Biological control of Tipula paludosa (Diptera : Nematocera) using entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp.) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp israelensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Østergaard, J.; Belau, C.; Strauch, O.; Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.; Ehlers, R.U.

    2006-01-01

    Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) is the major insect pest in grassland in Northwest Europe and has been accidentally introduced to North America. Oviposition occurs during late August and first instars hatch from September until mid-October. Laboratory and field trials were conducted to assess

  12. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

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    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  13. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  14. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  15. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  16. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  17. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  18. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in Western Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae), has been reported to be a host of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), an important quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in the western U.S.A. However, all reports of peach as a hos...

  19. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  20. Morphology and Evolution of the Larval Maxilla and Its Importance in the Classification of the Sabethini (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    where they lie ventral to the mandi- notypical subgenus of the genus Psorophora bles. For simplicity, the surface of each max- Robineau-Desvoidy. The...containing species with South Pacific (Diptera, Culicidae). Vols. I differently modified maxillae and maxillary and 2. University of California Press

  1. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  2. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  3. Nota sobre culicídeos (Diptera: Culicidae da bacia do rio Purus, Acre, Amazônia (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delsio Natal

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas coletas de mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae na área do projeto de Colonização Pedro Peixoto, no Estado do Acre, Brasil. Obteve-se um total de 4.588 exemplares pertencentes a 53 espécies ou grupos. Salienta-se a ocorrência de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus oswaldoi.

  4. A comparative analysis of resistance testing methods in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from St. Johns County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) was tested for resistance to permethrin, bifenthrin, and malathion using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassays and topical toxicology assays on adults and larval bioassays. Eggs were collected from 3 locations across St. Johns C...

  5. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.

  6. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

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    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  7. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

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    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  8. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs.

  9. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic Amber (Eocene): The Genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species—E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew—are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus’ ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  10. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene): the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Iwona

    2014-06-10

    A revision of the genus Helius Lepeletier & Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Redescriptions of 5 species, Helius formosus Krzemiński, 1993, Helius linus Podenas, 2002, Helius minutus (Loew, 1850), Helius mutus Podenas, 2002, Helius pulcher (Loew, 1850) of this genus from Baltic amber are given and documented by photographs and drawings. Four new species of the genus Helius from Baltic amber are described: Helius gedanicus sp. nov., Helius hoffeinsorum sp. nov., Helius similis sp. nov., Helius fossilis sp. nov. A key to species of Helius from Baltic amber is provided. Patterns morphological evolution and the aspects evolutionary history of Helius are discussed.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of the egg and the first instar larva of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera, cuterebridae

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    Antonio Cesar Rios Leite

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The egg and the first instar larva of Dermatobia hominis were described based on observation with a scanning electron microscope.O ovo e a larva de primeiro estágio de Dermatobia hominis são descritos baseados em observações com um microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Comparações morfológicas são feitas com outras espécies de Diptera, particularmente com Cuterebridae.

  12. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of Smir marshes (northwest of Morocco): inventory and biotypology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Joubari, M; Louah, A; Himmi, O

    2014-02-01

    The Smir marshes are a favorable environment for the growth of many mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae). The inventory of Culicidae species reveals 14 species, is 33% of the species of Morocco, distributed in four genera: Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus and Anopheles (with 5, 2, 5 and 2 species respectively) which Anopheles labranchiae, vector of the agent of the malaria in Morocco until 2004. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal mesological affinities and we tried to explain the biotypology of mosquito populations of the site. These analyzes revealed several groups of stations and species according to various parameters, especially salinity.

  13. Pollinator diversity (Hymenoptera and Diptera in semi-natural habitats in Serbia during summer

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    Mudri-Stojnić Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess species diversity and population abundance of the two main orders of pollinating insects, Hymenoptera and Diptera. The survey was conducted in 16 grassland fragments within agro-ecosystems in Vojvodina, as well as in surrounding fields with mass-flowering crops. Pollinators were identified and the Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was used to measure their diversity. Five families, 7 subfamilies, 26 genera and 63 species of insects were recorded. All four big pollinator groups investigated were recorded; hoverflies were the most abundant with 32% of the total number of individuals, followed by wild bees - 29%, honeybees - 23% and bumblebees with 16%.

  14. Molecular Phylogeny of Neotropical Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis Species Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Museum, Department of7.ool0l(y, Cromwell Rd.• London 5W75Bo. United KinJ(dom. 1 Nlicleo de Pesquisas Taxon&nica e Sistemdtica em Entomologia M~ica...Lynch.Arribalzaga 1878 (Diptera: Culicidae) includin~ from the type 10<.".11. ity, Barndero, Argentina . Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 85: 275-290...Culicidae) from Parolguay, Argentina , and Brazil. J. Mcd. Elltomol. 32: 697-704. Receiced 15 l:ebnlartj 200.’; lUX~."tet/ 28 July 2005.

  15. New host association: Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae parasitized by Melaloncha (Diptera, Phoridae

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    M. Ayelen Lutz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New host association: Polybia scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Vespidae parasitized by Melaloncha (Diptera, Phoridae. The genus Melaloncha Brues is a large assemblage of New World, parasitoid phorid flies. They are parasitoids of Apoidea bees. However, here we present the first record of a wasp parasitized by Melaloncha sp. The new host is Polybia scutellaris (White, a neotropical eusocial wasp. The parasitized wasp was found in an urban park near the city of La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. It appears that the genus Melaloncha parasitizes a wider range of social Hymenoptera than currently known.

  16. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland.

  17. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  18. A case of oral myiasis caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mun; Ryu, Seung-Min; Kwon, Sang-Chang; Ha, Jun-Ouk; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Soon-Myung; Lee, Soon-Il; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Cha, Hee-Jae; Ock, Meesun

    2013-02-01

    We report here a case of oral myiasis in the Republic of Korea. The patient was a 37-year-old man with a 30-year history of Becker's muscular dystrophy. He was intubated due to dyspnea 8 days prior to admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). A few hours after the ICU admission, 43 fly larvae were found during suction of the oral cavity. All maggots were identified as the third instars of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by morphology. We discussed on the characteristics of myiasis acquired in Korea, including the infection risk and predisposing factors.

  19. Primer reporte de miasis hospitalaria por Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Quesada-Lobo; Adriana Troyo; Ólger Calderón-Arguedas

    2012-01-01

    Introducción. Las miasis hospitalarias son entidades con una importancia manifiesta en salud pública. La documentación de este tipo de casos es escasa en la literatura biomédica regional y mundial. Objetivo. Informar un caso de miasis hospitalaria en Costa Rica, donde el agente etiológico implicado fue Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Este caso de miasis hospitalaria figura como el primer informe para Latinoamérica asociado con este agente etiológico. Presentación del caso. U...

  20. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ferguson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic A. kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001, but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113.

  1. A sex pheromone receptor in the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

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    Martin N. Andersson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1 are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogues, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogues together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the

  2. Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) em Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae) no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Gredilha,Rodrigo; Balthazar,Daniel de A.; Spadetti,Alex L.; Fedullo,Luiz Paulo L.; Mello,Rubens P.

    2008-01-01

    Registro de Pseudolynchia canariensis em dois gaviões caranguejeiros de vida livre atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Fundação RioZoo. Os dezenoves exemplares coletados foram identificados no Laboratório de Diptera da Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. O encontro de P. canariensis fora do hospedeiro natural (Columba livia), representa uma contribuição aos estudos da família Hippoboscidae, visto que não há registros sobre aves nativas do continente americano parasitadas por P. canariensis....

  3. Taxonomia e morfologia de espécies neotropicais de Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae Taxonomic study of neotropical species of Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Bianca Marques

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae pode ser reconhecido por padrões cromáticos característicos no mesonoto e abdômen e pelas cerdas catepisternais 0:2. Das 14 espécies citadas na literatura para a Região Neotropical, sete são redescritas, com descrições das terminálias masculina e feminina - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein e G. tropicalis Malloch, aqui revalidada. Ilustrações coloridas do mesonoto e do abdômen são apresentadas para facilitar o reconhecimento das espécies. O neótipo de G. maculata é designado. A fêmea de G. podexaurea é registrada pela primeira vez. O registro geográfico das seguintes espécies é ampliado: G. meridionalis para o Equador e Peru; G. mexicana e G. podexaurea para o Brasil; G. tropicalis para Colômbia e Brasil.Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae is recognized by characteristic color patterns on mesonotum and abdomen and by the disposition of the katepisternal setae 0:2. From the 14 species recorded in the Neotropical Region, seven are redescribed with the descriptions of male and female terminalia - G. analis (Macquart, G. maculata (Scopoli, G. meridionalis Townsend, G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, G. occidentalis Arntfield, G. podexaurea(Enderlein and G. tropicalis Malloch, herein revalidated. Colored illustrations of mesonotum and abdomen are presented in order to aid the recognition of the species. The neotype of G. maculata is designated. The female of G. podexaurea is recorded for the first time. The geographic record of the following species is enlarged: G. meridionalis for Ecuador and Peru; G. mexicana and G. podexaurea for Brazil and G. tropicalis for Colombia and Brazil.

  4. Abundance and seasonality of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Southern Pantanal, Brazil Sazonalidade de Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Pantanal Sul-mato-grossense, Brasil

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    Wilson Werner Koller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throughout the study period and collections were carried out on a weekly basis. A total of 159,397 Calliphoridae were caught and C. macellaria (57.33% was the most abundant species. C. macellaria occurred all over the year showing a bimodal behavior with peaks in May-July (late autumn/early winter and October-December (spring.Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, conhecida como mosca-varejeira, ocorre no continente americano e apresenta importância médico-veterinária e forense. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a flutuação sazonal dessa espécie na região do Pantanal. De dezembro/2004 a novembro/2007 foram realizadas coletas de dípteros na fazenda Nhumirim, sub-região da Nhecolândia, Pantanal sul-mato-grossense. Foram utilizadas quatro armadilhas orientadas pelo vento, iscadas com fígado bovino deteriorado. As armadilhas permaneceram ativas durante todo o período de estudo, e coletas foram realizadas semanalmente. Foram capturados 159.397 califorídeos, sendo C. macellaria (57,33% a espécie mais abundante. C. macellaria foi observada em todos os meses do ano, apresentando comportamento bimodal com picos populacionais em maio/julho (final de outono/início de inverno e outubro/dezembro (primavera.

  5. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  6. The Neotropical genera Macrostomus Wiedemann and Porphyrochroa Melander (Diptera, Empididae, Empidinae

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    José A. Rafael

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrostomus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1805, the type-species of Macrostomus Wiedemann, 1817 and Porphyrochroa palliata (Coquillett, 1902, the type-species of Porphyrochroa Melander, 1927 are redescribed and figured from the types. Both Neotropical genera are considered sistergroups and their synapomorphies are presented. The species belonging to both genera, and those Neotropical species remaining in the heterogeneous group Rhamphomyia Meigen, 1822 are listed. A key to genera is provided, 25 species are transferred to Porphyrochroa: P. abdominalis (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. argyrina (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. barueri (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. carrerai (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. catarinae (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. cyanogaster (Wheeler & Melander, 1901 comb. nov., P. digitata (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. distinctipennis (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. divisa (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. dolichocera (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. fasciventris (Curran, 1931, P. furcifer (Wheeler & Melander, 1901 comb. nov., P. galactodes (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. juri (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. micrargyra (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. monstrosa (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. mundurucu (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. mura (Smith, 1962 comb. nov., P. orthoneura (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. palliata (Coquillett, 1902, P. penicillata (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. perpulchra (Bezzi, 1909 comb. nov., P. pulchriventris (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. rotundipennis (Bezzi, 1905 comb. nov., P. seticauda (Smith, 1963 comb. nov., P. variseta (Smith, 1962 comb. nov. and P. wiedemanni (Smith, 1962 comb. nov. A lectotype is designated for P. palliata (Coquillett, 1902.Macrostomus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1805, espécie-tipo de Macrostomus Wiedemann, 1817 e Porphyrochroa palliata (Coquillett, 1902, espécie-tipo de Porphyrochroa Melander, 1927 são redescritas e ilustradas a partir dos tipos. Os dois gêneros são neotropicais, considerados grupo-irmãos e suas sinapomorfias são apresentadas. S

  7. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

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    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  8. Evolutionary consequences of historical metal contamination for natural populations of Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, João; Campos, Diana; Cocchiararo, Berardino; Nowak, Carsten; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos; L T Pestana, João

    2017-05-01

    Populations inhabiting metal-impacted freshwater systems located nearby industrial and urban areas may be under intense selection. The present study aims to address two fundamental microevolutionary aspects of metal contamination in the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen): Are populations inhabiting historically metal contaminated sites genetically adapted to metals? And, are populations from these sites genetically eroded? To answer these questions, C. riparius populations were sampled from three sites with well-known histories of metal contamination and three nearby-located references. Genetic adaptation to metals was investigated through acute and chronic exposures to cadmium (Cd), after rearing all populations for at least six generations under laboratory clean conditions. Genetic diversity was estimated based on the allelic variation of seven microsatellite markers. Results showed higher acute tolerance to Cd in populations originating from metal contaminated sites compared to their respective references and significant differences in two out of three pairwise comparisons. However, there was a mismatch between acute and chronic tolerance to Cd with results of the partial life-cycle tests suggesting fitness costs under control clean conditions in two metal-adapted populations. Despite no evidences of genetic erosion in populations sampled from metal contaminated sites, our results suggest genetically inherited tolerance to Cd in populations inhabiting historically contaminated sites. These findings lend support to the use of C. riparius as a model organism in evolutionary toxicology and highlight the importance of coupling measures of neutral genetic diversity with assessments of chemical tolerance of populations for a better understanding of contaminant-induced adaptation and evolutionary processes.

  9. The importance of scanning electron microscopy (sem in taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae (Diptera

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    Andrzej Kownacki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the value of scanning electron microscopy (SEM in the taxonomy and morphology of Chironomidae. This method has been relatively rarely used in Chironomidae studies. Our studies suggest that the SEM method provides a lot of new information. For example, the plastron plate of the thoracic horn of Macropelopia nebulosa (Meigen under light microscopy is visible as points, while under SEM we have found that it consists of a reticular structure with holes. By using SEM a more precise picture of the body structure of Chironomidae can be revealed. It allows researchers to explain inconsistencies in the existing descriptions of species. Another advantage of the SEM method is obtaining spatial images of the body and organs of Chironomidae. However, the SEM method also has some limitations. The main problem is dirt or debris (e.g. algae, mud, secretions, mucus, bacteria, etc., which often settles on the external surface of structures, especially those which are uneven or covered with hair. The dirt should be removed after collection of chironomid material because if left in place it can become chemically fixed to various surfaces. It unnecessarily remains at the surface and final microscopic images may contain artifacts that obscure chironomid structures being investigated. In this way many details of the surface are thus unreadable. The results reported here indicate that SEM examination helps us to identify new morphological features and details that will facilitate the identification of species of Chironomidae and may help to clarify the function of various parts of the body. Fast development of electron microscope technique allows us to learn more about structure of different organisms.

  10. Evaluation of Sterilized Artificial Diets for Mass Rearing the Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Zheng, Le; Crippen, Tawni L; Dabney, Alan; Gordy, Alex; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-09-01

    The impact of six sterilized diets (blood-yeast agar diet, decomposed beef liver diet, powdered beef liver diet, powdered fish diet, milk-based diet, and a chemically defined diet) on Lucilia sericata (Meigen) larvae reared at three densities (10 larvae, 20 larvae, and 40 larvae on 20 g diet) was determined in comparison to fresh beef liver as a control. Specifically, the effects of these diets on the following traits of L. sericata were measured: 1) pupal weight, 2) pupation percentage, 3) eclosion percentage, as well as 4) adult longevity. The experiment included two trials with five technical replicates in each. Lucilia sericata did not successfully develop on the powdered fish, milk-based, or chemically defined diets. Overall, the liver-based diets (decomposed and powdered) resulted in the most similar fly development to the fresh beef liver. Larvae reared on blood-yeast agar diet resulted in a significantly (increased 20.56% ± 8.09%) greater pupation rate than those reared on the decomposed and powdered beef liver diets. Pupae from larvae fed the fresh beef liver were significantly larger (6.27 ± 1.01 mg, 4.05 ± 0.94 mg larger, respectively) than those reared on the blood-yeast agar diet, decomposed beef liver, and powdered beef liver diets. Overall, results revealed larvae reared on sterilized liver-based diets resulted in traits similar to those raised on fresh beef liver. Owing to low costs the sterile liver-based diets could be produced and used with limited infrastructure and economic incomes. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) across different climatic zones of Iran.

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    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Charrahy, Zabihollah

    2011-06-01

    Malaria is a main vector-borne public health problem in Iran. The last studies on Iranian mosquitoes show 31 Anopheles species including different sibling species and genotypes, eight of them are reported to play role in malaria transmission. The objective of this study is to provide a reference for malaria vectors of Iran and to map their spatial and temporal distribution in different climatic zones. Shape files of administrative boundaries and climates of Iran were provided by National Cartographic Center. Data on distribution and seasonal activity of malaria vectors were obtained from different sources and a databank in district level was created in Excel 2003, inserted to the shape files and analyzed by ArcGIS 9.2 to provide the maps. Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles dthali Patton, Anopheles fluviatilis James s.l., Anopheles maculipennis Meigen s.l., Anopheles sacharovi Favre, Anopheles stephensi Liston, and Anopheles superpictus Grassi have been introduced as primary and secondary malaria vectors and Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald as a suspected vector in Iran. Temporal distribution of anopheline mosquitoes is restricted to April-December in northern Iran, however mosquitoes can be found during the year in southern region. Spatial distribution of malaria vectors is different based on species, thus six of them (except for Anopheles maculipennis s.l. and Anopheles sacharovi) are reported from endemic malarious area in southern and southeastern areas of Iran. The climate of this part is usually warm and humid, which makes it favorable for mosquito rearing and malaria transmission. Correlation between climate conditions and vector distribution can help to predict the potential range of activity for each species and preparedness for malaria epidemics. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microarray analysis of female- and larval-specific gene expression in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

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    Guerrero, Felix D; Dowd, Scot E; Sun, Yan; Saldivar, Leonel; Wiley, Graham B; Macmil, Simone L; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce A; Foil, Lane D

    2009-03-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle, and control of this pest is a continuing problem because the fly is becoming resistant to pesticides. Dominant conditional lethal gene systems are being studied as population control technologies against agricultural pests. One of the components of these systems is a female-specific gene promoter that drives expression of a lethality-inducing gene. To identify candidate genes to supply this promoter, microarrays were designed from a horn fly expressed sequence tag (EST) database and probed to identify female-specific and larval-specific gene expression. Analysis of dye swap experiments found 432 and 417 transcripts whose expression levels were higher or lower in adult female flies, respectively, compared with adult male flies. Additionally, 419 and 871 transcripts were identified whose expression levels were higher or lower in first-instar larvae compared with adult flies, respectively. Three transcripts were expressed more highly in adult females flies compared with adult males and also higher in the first-instar larval lifestage compared with adult flies. One of these transcripts, a putative nanos ortholog, has a high female-to-male expression ratio, a moderate expression level in first-instar larvae, and has been well characterized in Drosophila. melanogaster (Meigen). In conclusion, we used microarray technology, verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and massively parallel pyrosequencing, to study life stage- and sex-specific gene expression in the horn fly and identified three gene candidates for detailed evaluation as a gene promoter source for the development of a female-specific conditional lethality system.

  13. Larval Distribution and Behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Relative to Other Species on Florida Black Bear (Carnivora: Ursidae) Decomposing Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, S L; Hogsette, J A; Butler, J F

    2014-02-01

    Larval interactions of dipteran species, blow flies in particular, were observed and documented daily over time and location on five black bear carcasses in Gainesville, FL, USA, from June 2002 - September 2004. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) or Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae were collected first, after which Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) oviposited on the carcasses in multiple locations (i.e., neck, anus, and exposed flesh) not inhabited already by the other blow fly larvae. Within the first week of decomposition, C. rufifacies larvae grew to ≥12 mm, filling the carcasses with thousands of larvae and replacing the other calliphorid larvae either through successful food source competition or by predation. As a result, C. macellaria and C. megacephala were not collected past their third instar feeding stage. The blow fly species, C. megacephala, C. macellaria, Lucilia caeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and C. rufifacies, completed two developmental cycles in the 88.5-kg carcass. This phenomenon might serve to complicate or prevent the calculation of an accurate postmortem interval.

  14. Identification of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), with a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figarola, J L; Skoda, S R; Berkebile, D R; Foster, J E

    2001-12-28

    Myiasis caused by screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is devastating to warm-blooded animals and economically important to livestock producers. It is difficult to distinguish these pests, immature screwworms, from immatures of other non-pest fly species that often occur in animal wounds; it would be helpful to have tools available that do not rely on morphological characteristics. We developed two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), highly specific for the screwworm, and used them in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-ELISA), that differentiated screwworm eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults from those of the closely related secondary screwworm, C. macellaria (Fabricius) as well as Phormia regina (Meigen), Phaenicia sericata (Meigen), Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In a blind study, the microplate MAb-ELISA, which took about 4h to complete, displayed high specificity (99%), sensitivity (92%) and overall accuracy (97%) in distinguishing all life stages of the screwworm. Electrophoresis results suggested that the two monoclonal antibodies recognized identical conformational epitopes present in all screwworm life stages. The screwworm eradication program, successful in eradicating this pest from the US, Mexico, most of Central America and Libya (after an accidental introduction), could benefit in future eradication, surveillance, and exclusion efforts by developing a reliable field identification kit based on MAb-ELISA that accurately and quickly distinguished cases of screwworm myiasis.

  15. Molecular phylogeny and evolutionary relationships among mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from the northeastern United States based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequences.

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    Shepard, John J; Andreadis, Theodore G; Vossbrinck, Charles R

    2006-05-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Culicidae native to the northeastern United States were investigated by analyzing small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) sequences obtained from 39 species representing nine genera. Molecular phylogenies were consistent with traditional classifications based on morphological characters except for the placements of Psorophora Robineau-Desvoidy and Uranotaenia Lynch Arribalzaga. In our analyses, 1) Anopheles Meigen was strongly supported as the sister taxon to the remaining Culicidae; 2) Toxorhynchites Theobald was represented as a distinct monophyletic sister group to the Culicinae; 3) Psorophora formed a basal clade to Culiseta Felt, Coquillettidia Dyar, and Culex L. but also was shown as a sister taxon to Aedes Meigen and Ochlerotatus Lynch Arribalzaga; 4) Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) seems to be a sister group to Culiseta; 5) placement of Uranotaenia was inconclusive and seemed to be either a sister group to the Aedes and Ochlerotatus or a basal taxon to all other culicines; and 6) Aedes and Ochlerotatus formed two separate and distinct clades, providing phylogenetic data consistent with the recent elevation of Ochlerotatus to the generic level as proposed by Reinert (2000). The utility of 18S rDNA for evaluating phylogenetic and evolutionary relationships among mosquito taxa was demonstrated at the genus and species levels. To our knowledge, this study represents the first molecular-based phylogenetic study of mosquito species occurring within this geographic region of North America and contains the largest number of species that have been examined among the genera Aedes and Ochlerotatus.

  16. Morphology of the Antenna of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): An Ultrastructural Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, M; Leis, M; Chicca, M; Falabella, P; Salvia, R; Scala, A; Whitmore, D

    2017-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), is a relevant species in waste and pest management, but is also of forensic and medical importance. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the antennae of both sexes of H. illucens is presented here for the first time. The antenna is composed of three regions: the scape, the pedicel, and the flagellum. The first two regions are single segments, whereas the third region, the longest one, is composed of eight flagellomeres. The scape and pedicel have microtrichia, chaetic sensilla, and rounded perforations. The flagellum is covered by different microtrichia, the morphology of which is described in detail. Two types of sensory pit are found on flagellomeres 1 to 6. An oval depression with trichoid sensilla extends from flagellomeres 4 to 6. On both sides of flagellomere 8 is a lanceolate depression covered by hair-like microtrichia. Morphometric and morphological analyses revealed some sex-related differences. The results of the SEM investigations are compared with those obtained on other species of the family Stratiomyidae and other brachyceran Diptera. The possible role of sensilla in sensory perception is also discussed in comparison with nondipteran species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. First records of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae) from forensic cases in Italy.

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    Lo Pinto, Sara; Giordani, Giorgia; Tuccia, Fabiola; Ventura, Francesco; Vanin, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of the fauna associated with carrions and cadavers for a specific region plays a fundamental role in the estimation of the time since death in forensic cases. In the last years global warming and globalization have affected the insect species distribution. This phenomenon is affecting also the species of forensic interest associated with the cadaver decomposition. The species distribution shift, in the forensic context, has been mainly observed in Diptera of different family: Calliphoridae, Stratiomyidae and Phoridae. In the last decade the presence of the carrion feeding species, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Diptera: Muscidae), was reported from forensic cases in Spain and in the last year from Italy where the species was collected from 5 bodies in different decomposition stages in the Genoa district. All the records concern indoor cases with the presence of other species belonging to the first colonization waves (e.g. Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae). Different hypothesis about the presence of the species in Italy can be suggested, but the molecular analysis and the importation records support the introduction trough commercial exchanges with Asian countries instead of a variation in the species distribution area from the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae

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    Karlla Patrícia Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend (Diptera, Sarcophagidae. The male of Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 is described and illustrated for the first time based on material housed in the entomological collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. This monotypic subgenus has been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, first in the state of Amazonas and now in the state of Pará. The general structure of the male terminalia is similar that of other Lepidodexia, especially of the subgenus Lepidodexia, by the short distiphallus, juxta with apical projection, and vesica with a membranous spinous lobe.Descrição do macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis (Townsend, 1927 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae. O macho de Lepidodexia (Xylocamptopsis teffeensis é descrito e ilustrado pela primeira vez, com base em material depositado na coleção entomológica do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ. Esse subgênero monotípico tem sido registrado na Floresta Amazônica brasileira, primeiramente no estado do Amazonas e agora no Pará. A estrutura geral da terminália masculina é similar a de outras espécies de Lepidodexia, especialmente do subgênero Lepidodexia, pelo distifalo curto, juxta com projeção apical e vesica com lobo membranoso e espinhoso.

  19. The Effect of Clothing on the Rate of Decomposition and Diptera Colonization on Sus scrofa Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Allison; Cross, Peter; Moffatt, Colin; Simmons, Tal

    2015-07-01

    Twenty Sus scrofa carcasses were used to study the effect the presence of clothing had on decomposition rate and colonization locations of Diptera species; 10 unclothed control carcasses were compared to 10 clothed experimental carcasses over 58 days. Data collection occurred at regular accumulated degree day intervals; the level of decomposition as Total Body Score (TBSsurf ), pattern of decomposition, and Diptera present was documented. Results indicated a statistically significant difference in the rate of decomposition, (t427  = 2.59, p = 0.010), with unclothed carcasses decomposing faster than clothed carcasses. However, the overall decomposition rates from each carcass group are too similar to separate when applying a 95% CI, which means that, although statistically significant, from a practical forensic point of view they are not sufficiently dissimilar as to warrant the application of different formulae to estimate the postmortem interval. Further results demonstrated clothing provided blow flies with additional colonization locations. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Checklist dos Conopidae (Insecta, Diptera do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Leonardo Silvestre Gomes Rocha

    Full Text Available RESUMO Conopidae é uma família pouco estudada e de sistemática controversa entre os Diptera. Os adultos são nectarívoros e as larvas têm hábito parasitóide em Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Blattaria e Diptera. São conhecidas 800 espécies e 56 gêneros com distribuição mundial. Uma lista de 15 espécies em quatro gêneros registradas para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, elaborada com base na bibliografia disponível e no material identificado de diversas coleções brasileiras, é fornecida. As coletas estão concentradas no município de Maracaju em bioma de Cerrado, com apenas uma exceção. Faz-se necessário incrementar as coletas em outras regiões e outros ambientes do estado, para que lacunas de amostragem sejam preenchidas.

  1. Amplified fragment length polymorphism used for inter- and intraspecific differentiation of screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamalakala, L; Skoda, S R; Foster, J E

    2009-04-01

    Morphologically, early immature stages of the economically important pest called screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and non-pest secondary screwworms, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), are nearly indistinguishable. Correct identification is crucial to the ongoing eradication and exclusion program protecting the United States, Mexico and Central America from reinvasion of screwworms persistent in South America and the Caribbean. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) polymerase chain reaction was used to differentiate populations of C. hominivorax and to discriminate them from C. macellaria. Ten primer pairs screened for interspecific discrimination of C. hominivorax from C. macellaria showed 52 discrete bands, allowing the two species to be readily distinguished; divergent branches on resulting dendrograms showed 100% bootstrap support. C. macellaria populations grouped at the 92% level; C. hominivorax populations grouped at the 68% level. Of the 52 bands, seven were monomorphic for both species, 22 were specific to C. macellaria, ten were present only in C. hominivorax and the remaining 13 bands differentiated C. hominivorax populations. Separate studies using ten strains of C. hominivorax showed a higher level of genetic similarity within than between populations. Analyses using 72 bands (19 monomorphic bands, 53 bands grouped all ten strains at the 58% similarity level) resolved seven mutant strains from Mexico (85% similarity level); all ten strains were resolved at the 72% similarity level. Diagnostic bands were identified for species and strain identification. We conclude that AFLP can be a valuable tool for studies of interspecific and intraspecific genetic variation in screwworm populations.

  2. Phytosanitary Treatments Against Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae): Current Situation and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Hallman, Guy J; Grout, Timothy G; Clarke, Anthony R; Follett, Peter A; Cugala, Domingos R; Minh Tu, Duong; Murdita, Wayan; Hernandez, Emilio; Pereira, Rui; Myers, Scott W

    2017-02-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is arguably the most important tephritid attacking fruits after Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In 2003 it was found in Africa and quickly spread to most of the sub-Saharan part of the continent, destroying fruits and creating regulatory barriers to their export. The insect is causing new nutritional and economic losses across Africa, as well as the losses it has caused for decades in infested areas of Asia, New Guinea, and Hawaii. This new panorama represents a challenge for fruit exportation from Africa. Phytosanitary treatments are required to export quarantined commodities out of infested areas to areas where the pest does not exist and could become established. This paper describes current phytosanitary treatments against B. dorsalis and their use throughout the world, the development of new treatments based on existing research, and recommendations for further research to provide phytosanitary solutions to the problem. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

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    Raja M. Zuha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  4. Anomalías morfológicas en diferentes estructuras de cinco especies de Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae Morphological abnormalities in different structures of five species of Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Daniela Vergara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran diversos casos de anomalías morfológicas de cinco diferentes especies de Lutzomyia França (Diptera Psychodidae. Estas teratologías se observan en varias estructuras importantes para la identificación taxonómica de dichas especies. Los diferentes individuos pertenecientes a las especies L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai y L. panamensis fueron capturados en diversos departamentos en Colombia.Diverse morphological anomalies in five different species of Lutzomyia França (Diptera: Pychodidae are described and illustrated. These theratologies are observed in various structures important for the taxonomic identification of the species. The different individuals that belong to the species L. columbiana, L. hartmanni, L. reburra, L. ayrozai and L. panamensis were captured in diverse departments in Colombia.

  5. Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em áreas florestal, rural e urbana em Monte Alegre, MG Parasitoids of Diptera collected in forest, rural, and urban areas in Monte Alegre, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Marchiori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the species of parasitoids of Diptera present in forest, rural, and urban areas in the municipality of Monte Alegre, MG, from March to November 2006. The percentages of parasitism in forest, rural, and urban areas were 14.3%, 11.0%, and 18.8%, respectively. The most frequent species (34.7% was Triplasta atrocoxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae.

  6. Review of Thompsoniella Guimarães with description of a new species from Colombia (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellinae

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    Marta Wolff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Thompsoniella Guimarães with description of a new species from Colombia (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellinae. The Mesembrinellinae (Diptera, Calliphoridae are exclusively Neotropical with nine genera comprising 36 recognized species, including the genus Thompsoniella Guimarães with a single species, T. anomala Guimarães. We describe a new species, Thompsoniella andina sp. nov., from the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Colombia (Cordillera Central of the Andes, between 2600 - 2700 m and redescribe T. anomala. A key to the nine genera of Mesembrinellinae and a key to the males of the two species of Thompsoniella are provided. Color photographs to illustrate the two species of Thompsoniella and drawings of the male genitalia of both species are also provided. Here we record Thompsoniella for the first time in Colombia.

  7. Lack of cross-resistance to Mtx1 from Bacillus sphaericus in B. sphaericus-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Suzhen; Cai, Quanxin; Cai, Yajun; Yuan, Zhiming

    2007-02-01

    The toxicities of Mtx1 toxin against dipteran and lepidopteran species have been evaluated in this study. It was shown that Mtx1 has little or no toxicity to the tested lepidopteran species, but has moderate-level toxicity to Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) and high-level toxicity to both susceptible and binary toxin-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The LC(50) values of Mtx1 against a susceptible C. quinquefasciatus colony SLCq and two resistant colonies RLCq1/C3-41 and RLCq2/IAB59 selected in the laboratory with Bacillus sphaericus (Mayer & Neide) strains C3-41 and IAB59 respectively were 0.508, 0.854 and 0.675 mg L(-1) respectively. The data indicate that Mtx1 has a different mode of action from the binary toxin, and that it could be an alternative toxin to delay or overcome resistance development to binary toxin in C. quinquefasciatus.

  8. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-02-26

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided.

  9. Dasiops luzestelae: a new species of the genus dasiops rondani (diptera: lonchaeidae) associated with passion fruit crops in colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Angela; Korytkowski, Cheslavo; Ebratt, Everth; Brochero, Helena L.

    2013-01-01

    Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. (Diptera: Lonchaeidae) is a species that previously was not described formally and is regarded as an undetermined pest affecting buds of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener. This study evaluated material collected in 10 departments of Colombia where passion fruit crops constitute an important economic income. Data of geographical distribution and passion fruit crops associated with Dasiops luzestelae n. sp. are presented.

  10. Estudo de Novos Atraentes de Oviposição de Fêmeas do Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulino, Sivaldo Soares

    2008-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viral tropical diseases represent a great threat to the global public health. Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are usually endemic, and millions of people throughout the world are infected by mosquitoes of the Family Culicidae. The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the main vector of the dengue viruses and the urban yellow fever. The great proliferation of the different mosquitoes species is not only due to the high num...

  11. Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera,Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil

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    Viviane Rodrigues de Sousa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer (Diptera, Agromyzidae: descriptions, redescriptions and first record in Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae in Brazil. All phases of the leafminer Calycomyza hyptidis Spencer are for the first time described, including the larva, puparium and adult female. Illustrations are presented for male and female terminalia, mine, larva and pupa. The species is first recorded in leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae in Brazil.

  12. Description of a new species and new country distribution records of Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2015-09-04

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) kohkongiae Leblanc (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), from the Koh Kong Province of Cambodia, is described as new. This species belongs to the Oriental fruit fly (B. dorsalis) complex. Genetic sequences (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF1α and Period) are deposited in GenBank. A haplotype network, based on the COI sequences for 21 specimens, shows high genetic diversity. New country records from Cambodia are included for 22 species.

  13. Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) as a natural enemy to Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, C H; Pereira, L A; Filho, O M

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports the first occurence of the parasite Aphaereta sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) which was collected from Peckia chrysostoma pupae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) by means of traps containing some fish baits in a wood area close to the Agronomy college (Faculdade of Agronomia) in Itumbiara, Goiás, in the period from March to September, 2001. A total of 362 gregarious specimens of parasitoids from 26 pupae of P. chrysostoma. Aphaereta sp. was collected, with several individuals emerging from the same pupae.

  14. Identification of Species Related to Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    plified polymorphic DNA in the population genet- ics and systematics of grasshoppers . Genome 35: 569-574. Galvgo ALA, Damesceno RG 1942. Sobre urn...iynchus) albitarsis by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA -Polymerase Chain Reaction (Diptera: Culicidae) Richard C Wilkerson/+, Thomas V Caffigan, Jo...Instituto de Biologia do ExCrcito, Rua Francisco Manuel 102, 2091 l-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Species-specific Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

  15. Of pigs and men-comparing the development of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on human and porcine tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, V; Schomerus, C; Verhoff, M A; Amendt, J

    2017-05-01

    Over the last decades, studies on juvenile development of forensically important Diptera were performed by using non-human tissues (e.g., beef liver) as a nutrition medium. Such developmental data are used as a reference in determining the age of juvenile necrophagous insects sampled from a human body and thereby to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). Despite the acceptance of these studies in the forensic community, some might ask whether such data appropriately reflect the growth of blow flies on human tissue. We, therefore, studied larval growth rates and development times of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on human muscle tissue as well as on pork loin, pork liver, and minced pork at 25 °C. Larval growth rates were significantly (p human muscle tissue. Nonetheless, the time at which the examined developmental landmarks "post-feeding larvae," "pupae," and "adult fly" were reached was similar for all tissues, with significant delays in first fly eclosion only for specimens reared on pork loin (p = 0.027) and pork liver (p = 0.036). Our results highlight the fact that not all porcine tissues are similarly suitable for producing sound growth data for necrophagous Diptera. At present, we recommend the use of minced pork as a non-human nutrition medium, since our results show no developmental differences on this diet compared to human tissue.

  16. "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results "Jejenes" (Diptera: Simuliidae del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Patagonia, Argentina: Resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Simuliidae is a family of Diptera with approximately 2072 described species worldwide. The females of the majority of the species feed from vertebrates' blood, which makes them a significant plague that affects both men as well as cattle, birds, and other vertebrates. The objective of this paper is to create an inventory of Simuliidae and to reveal certain aspects of the biology and distribution of this family of aquatic insects in the Nahuel Huapi National Park. Moreover, information on the zoogeography of Simuliidae in Patagonia is provided. Five genera, 3 subgenera and 32 species Simuliidae are recorded from Patagonia: Cnesia (three spp., Cnesiamima (one sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (one sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (one sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (one sp. and S. ( Pternaspatha (11 spp., At present, we have collected all five genera, one subgenus of Simulium (Pternaspatha, and 19 species of Simuliidae in the park, which amounts to 57% of the Simuliidae fauna in this area. Puerto Blest, a characteristic area of the High-Andean phytogeographical province (humid forest, showed the highest diversity of Simuliidae.Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera (Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium

  17. Integrating DNA barcodes and morphology for species delimitation in the Corynoneura group (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F L; Wiedenbrug, S

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we use DNA barcodes for species delimitation to solve taxonomic conflicts in 86 specimens of 14 species belonging to the Corynoneura group (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae), from the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. Molecular analysis of cytochrome c-oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences supported 14 cohesive species groups, of which two similar groups were subsequently associated with morphological variation at the pupal stage. Eleven species previously described based on morphological criteria were linked to DNA markers. Furthermore, there is the possibility that there may be cryptic species within the Corynoneura group, since one group of species presented internal grouping, although no morphological divergence was observed. Our results support DNA-barcoding as an excellent tool for species delimitation in groups where taxonomy by means of morphology is difficult or even impossible.

  18. Two new species of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Zhejiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Lin, Xiaolong; Liu, Yuedan; Wang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Stenochironomus Kieffer (Diptera: Chironomidae: Chironominae), Stenochironomus brevissimus sp. n. and Stenochironomus linanensis sp. n., are described from China and the male imagines are illustrated. Stenochironomus brevissimus sp. n. can be separated from the so far known species by having very short and small, spatulate superior volsella with two long setae, whereas Stenochironomus linanensis sp. n. is easily separated from the other species of Stenochironomus by the following characters: wings transparent, body yellow, superior volsella finger-like, with nine long setae, elongated inferior volsella with four long setae and one well developed terminal spine; tergite IX with 10−15 long setae medially. A key to the males of Stenochironomus occurring in China is given. PMID:25685018

  19. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment.

  20. Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy from Costa Rica: descriptions and first records (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS. Couri

    Full Text Available Graphomya Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae occurs in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It is known in the Neotropical Region from fifteen species. The genus is here recorded for the first time from Costa Rica, on the basis of three species: G. auriceps Malloch, 1934; G. mexicana Giglio-Tos, 1893 and G. tropicalis Malloch, 1934. A key for the recognition of these three species is given. G. auriceps is redescribed, including the morphology of male and female terminalia and the male of G. tropicalis is described for the first time. For G. mexicana, a well-known species in the literature, only a brief diagnosis and the material examined are listed.

  1. Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bächtold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predatory behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus (Diptera, Syrphidae on aphids tended by ants. In this study, we examined the interactions between myrmecophilous aphids, their ant-guards and a predatory syrphid species, Pseudodorus clavatus (F.. Larvae of this predator were found in the colonies of three aphid species: Aphis gossypii, A. spiraecola and Toxoptera sp., which were tended by eight ant species, especially Camponotus. Hoverfly larvae managed to infiltrate the aphid colonies and consume nymphs. Predator larvae exhibited inconspicuous movements and were not detected by ants which were commonly observed touching and antennating the larvae they come into contact. These results suggest that behavioral and chemical cues are involved in the infiltration and on the successful predation of syrphids upon aphids.

  2. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  3. Foraging, Mating, and Thermoregulatory Behavior of Cyrtopogon willistoni Curran (Diptera: Asilidae

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    Kevin M. O'Neill

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The robber fly Cyrtopogon willistoni Curran was studied in SW Montana, where it was an opportunistic predator of relatively small insects from 25 families in 7 orders. The most common prey were Diptera (44% and Homoptera (21%, with Cicadellidae, Bibionidae, and Formicidae comprising 44% of the prey. The elaborate courtship behavior of males included audible airborne visual displays that made use of silvery-white combs of hairs on the males' foretarsi. While perching, the flies exhibited both lateral and dorsal basking postures, and were apparently capable of strong flight only when direct sunlight was available. I compare the foraging and courtship behaviors of C. willistoni to those of other Cyrtopogon, and their thermal responses to those of other robber flies in the same habitat.

  4. Development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae in different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WERMELINGER E. D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate, in laboratory, the development of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae larvae, vectors of leishmaniasis in Brazil, in the following diets: industrialized food for rabbits, dogs, hamsters and aquarium fishes, besides liver powder, cooked lettuce, wheat germ, beer yeast, oat, wheat bran and a diet denominated aged food. Except wheat bran for L. intermedia, all diets provided adequate development for both species, which showed that any of them can be used in laboratory insectaries for these insects. L. intermedia showed better development with most nutritious diets and both species presented better development with aged food. Fungi as an additional nutrient source for L. intermedia and L. longipalpis is suggested.

  5. Evolution of Lower Brachyceran Flies (Diptera and Their Adaptive Radiation with Angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Diptera (true flies is one of the most species-abundant orders of Insecta, and it is also among the most important flower-visiting insects. Dipteran fossils are abundant in the Mesozoic, especially in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Here, we review the fossil record and early evolution of some Mesozoic lower brachyceran flies together with new records in Burmese amber, including Tabanidae, Nemestrinidae, Bombyliidae, Eremochaetidae, and Zhangsolvidae. The fossil records reveal that some flower-visiting groups had diversified during the mid-Cretaceous, consistent with the rise of angiosperms to widespread floristic dominance. These brachyceran groups played an important role in the origin of co-evolutionary relationships with basal angiosperms. Moreover, the rise of angiosperms not only improved the diversity of flower-visiting flies, but also advanced the turnover and evolution of other specialized flies.

  6. Seasonality of Lutzomyia fairtigi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, a species endemic to Eastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Molina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The bionomics of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae was studied monthly for two consecutive years in alluvial gallery forests in the department of Casanare, Northeastern Colombia. A total of 2,365 specimens and 10 species were captured using CDC light traps and Shannon traps, and from diurnal resting places, and human landing collections. Lutzomyia fairtigi Martins (55%, Lutzomyia micropyga (Mangabeira (20.9%, and Lutzomyia antunesi (Coutinho (13.5% were the predominant species in the region. Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia panamensis, potential vectors of Leishmania in Colombia and neighboring countries, were also collected, but in low numbers. Lu. fairtigi is an endemic species to Colombia, and minimal data are available on its biology and distribution. The present study provides additional information about Lu. fairtigi, such as the diurnal activity displayed by females on cloudy days, the greater density during the rainy season (April to October, marked anthropophilia, and the presence of flagellates in the midgut of one female.

  7. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae with a key to New World genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Schlinger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n. is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: S. micella Schlinger sp. n. is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n., is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (P. brunea Schlinger sp. n. and P. corbiculata Schlinger sp. n. are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included.

  8. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-14

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition. 

  9. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An Additional Phytosanitary Cold Treatment Against Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Oroblanco' Citrus Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Yoav; Kaspi, Roy

    2017-04-01

    For 'Oroblanco' ('Sweetie'), the sweet seedless pummelo-grapefruit hybrid, when exported from Israel to Japan, the standard cold treatment against Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is conducted at ≤ 1.5 °C, for 16 d. In recent years, the transportation means of exported citrus was changed from reefer vessels to individual refrigerated containers, where the fruit bulk is relatively small and may be exposed to temperature fluctuations and to the risk of chilling injuries. To reduce this risk, Israel proposed to Japan to increase the treatment temperature and extend its duration to 2.2 °C and 18 d, respectively. This study shows that the proposed treatment effectively kills the third instar larva of C. capitata, in Oroblanco. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  12. The phylogenetic relationships among infraorders and superfamilies of Diptera based on morphological evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Members of the megadiverse insect order Diptera (flies) have successfully colonized all continents and nearly all habitats. There are more than 154 000 described fly species, representing 1012% of animal species. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of such a large component of global......, quantitative phylogenetic methods have been used on both morphological and molecular data. All previous quantitative morphological studies addressed narrower phylogenetic problems, often below the suborder or infraorder level. Here we present the first numerical analysis of phylogenetic relationships...... of the entire order using a comprehensive morphological character matrix. We scored 371 external and internal morphological characters from larvae, pupae and adults for 42 species, representing all infraorders selected from 42 families. Almost all characters were obtained from previous studies but required...

  13. Abundance and seasonality of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Wilson Werner; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de; Corrêa, Elaine Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), known as the secondary screwworm, occurs in the Americas and has medical-veterinary and forensic importance. This study aimed to describe the seasonal fluctuation of this species in the Pantanal region, Central-Western Brazil. From December 2004 to November 2007 fly catches using four windoriented traps baited with decaying bovine liver were carried out at the Nhumirim ranch, Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. Traps remained active throughout the study period and collections were carried out on a weekly basis. A total of 159,397 Calliphoridae were caught and C. macellaria (57.33%) was the most abundant species. C. macellaria occurred all over the year showing a bimodal behavior with peaks in May-July (late autumn/early winter) and October-December (spring).

  14. Nosocomial myiasis with Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in an ICU patient in Mashhad, Northeastern of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjari, Mohsen; Shafiei, Reza; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of larvae to human or animal live tissues by flies belonging to the order Diptera and families like Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Oesteridae, etc. Although rare, nosocomial myiasis must be noted carefully, especially in case of hospitalized patients. A 63-year old man admitted to an ICU ward in Mashhad is investigated and presented in this research. On the 35(th) day of hospitalization, about 100 larvae 6-7 mm in length, yellow to cream and fusiform were observed around the tracheotomy site. They were identified as second instar larvae of Lucilia genus of the family Calliphoridae based on morphological characters of the larvae. However, for exact identification of the species, the emerging adults must also be tested. According to the standard key of adult flies, they were identified as Lucilia sericata.

  15. Natural Field Infestation of and by Oriental Fruit Fly, (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Grant T McQuate

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae, is a crop cultivated pantropically. There are, however, many other Mangifera spp (“mango relatives” which have much more restricted distributions and are poorly known but have potential to produce mango-like fruits in areas where mangoes do not grow well or could be tapped in mango breeding programs. Because of the restricted distribution of many of the Mangifera spp, there has also been limited data collected on susceptibility of their fruits to infestation by tephritid fruit flies which is important to know for concerns both for quality of production and for quarantine security of fruit exports. Here, we report on natural field infestation by the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae, of two mango relatives native to Indonesia: Mangifera casturi and Mangifera lalijiwa . Rates of infestation of fruits of these two Mangifera spp by tephritid fruit flies have not previously been reported.

  16. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae of north western Himalaya

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    C. S. Prabhakar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

  17. Morfología de los estadios inmaduros de Lutzomyia walkeri (Newstead, 1914 (Diptera: psychodidae

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    Cristina Ferro

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los estadios inmaduros de Lu. walkeri (Newstead, 1914 (Diptera: Psychodidae. El huevo y la larva son similares a los de Lu. bahiensis, Lu. lenti y Lu. migonei. La pupa muestra una más grande similitud con la de Lu. lenti, particularmente en la desigual longitud de las cerdas del par 10. El aspecto general de la larva corresponde a una especie que, de acuerdo a Hanson (1968, sus larvas permanecen por debajo del substrato de su comida en los cultivos o colonias de laboratorio y probablemente también sucede lo mismo en su habitat natural. Infortunadamente, los estadios inmaduros no han sido encontrados en condiciones naturales. Las descripciones se basan en material de una colonia de Lu. walkeri que se mantiene en el Laboratorio de Entomología del Instituto Nacional de Salud de Bogotá, Colombia, S.A.

  18. Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae and Megamerinidae (Diptera in the Czech Republic and Slovakia: current state of knowledge

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    Roháček Jindřich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the occurrence of representatives of the families Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae and Megamerinidae (Diptera in the Czech Republic and Slovakia is presented based on literary data and recently obtained records. Strongylophthalmyia pictipes Frey, 1935 (Strongylophthalmyiidae is a new addition to the fauna of the Czech Republic. Its record from the Jizerské hory Mts is the second from Central Europe and represents a new southwestern most distribution limit of the species. Biology, distribution, faunistics in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and importance for nature conservation (with evaluation of degree of jeopardy are discussed for all species, including also Strongylophthalmyia ustulata (Zetterstedt, 1847, Tanypeza longimana Fallén, 1820 (Tanypezidae and Megamerina dolium (Fabricius, 1805 (Megamerinidae.

  19. Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2013-05-01

    Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Maewa National Park, Lampang Province, Thailand. This new species represents the fourth member of the subgenus Asiosimulium Takaoka & Chochoote, one of two small black fly subgenera endemic in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by a pear-shaped spermatheca in the female; a ventral plate in the male with a laterally compressed median keel directed ventrally and with a deep notch posteromedially, and aedeagal membrane with stout spines; and by 22 gill filaments in the pupa. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from three known species, Simulium (Asiosimulium) oblongum Takaoka & Choochote and Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, both from Thailand, and Simulium (Asiosimulium) suchitrae Takaoka from Nepal.

  20. Gastromermis cordobensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae parasitizing Simulium lahillei Patterson & Shannon (Diptera: Simuliidae in Argentina

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    Nora B. Camino

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastromermis cordobensis n. sp (Nematoda: Mermithidae a parasite of larvae of the blackfly Simulium lahillei Paterson & Shannon (Diptera: Simuliidae in Argentina, is described. Diagnostic characters of this species include a mouth ventrlly shifted; six cephalic papillae; eigh hypodermal chords; small and pear shaped amphids; a long and S-shaped vagina; a singl spicule, which is long, has non-uniform walls, and a tip with sculpture; three rows of genital papillae, the middle one with 18 pre-anal and 10 post-anal papillae, the lateral rows have 36 papillae each; oval eggs; and post-parasitic juveniles with long thin tails. Pre-parasitic and parasitic juveniles are included in the description.

  1. New species and new records of Mydidae from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions (Insecta, Diptera, Asiloidea

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    Torsten Dikow

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India, Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal, Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand; Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania, Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya; Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates astrictus sp. n. (Kenya, Syllegomydas (Notobates heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda, Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe. Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates dispar (Loew, 1852, which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species.

  2. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  3. TWO NEW RECORDS OF Isomyia paurogonita FANG AND FAN, 1986 AND Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE FROM NORTHERN THAILAND, WITH REVISED KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Isomyia

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    Nophawan Bunchu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.

  4. A compound produced by fruigivorous Tephritidae (Diptera) larvae promotes oviposition behavior by the biological control agent Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhl, Charles; Sivinski, John; Teal, Peter; Paranhos, Beatriz; Aluja, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Tephritid fruit fly parasitoids use fruit-derived chemical cues and the vibrations that result from larval movements to locate hosts sequestered inside fruit. However, compounds produced by the larvae themselves have not been previously described nor their significance to parasitoid foraging determined. We collected the volatiles from four species of tropical and subtropical Tephritidae: Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), representing two subfamilies (Dacinae and Trypetinae). Para-ethylacetophenone, an analog of a known tephritid parasitoid attractant, was a major constituent of all four, and was not associated with larvae of another acalypterate fly, Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, or with the calypterate Musca domestica L. It also was present in volatiles from whole, A. suspensa infested fruits of Eugenia uniflora (L.). Para-ethylacetophenone was not necessarily produced as a direct consequence of fruit consumption because it also was detected from larvae that developed in two artificial diets and in spent diets subsequent to larval development. Sensillae on both the antennae and ovipositor of the opiine braconid fruit fly parasitoid, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) responded to the para-ethylacetophenone in larval volatiles and as a synthetic. Although a potential cue to foraging parasitoids, para-ethylacetophenone showed no long range (>1m) attractiveness to the adult female parasitoid, but did stimulate ovipositor-insertion and oviposition into both a natural (fruit) and an artificial (parafilm) substrate. Thus it may prove useful in colonizing and mass-rearing opine fruit fly parasitoids.

  5. DIVERSITY OF NECROPHAGOUS BLOWFLY (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY IMPORTANCE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS IN CÓRDOBA (ARGENTINA

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    Moira Battán-Horenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex nature of urban environments can have different effects on species diversity and composition. The aim of this work was to characterize the assemblage of Calliphoridae regarding its richness, abundance, and synanthropy in Córdoba City, Argentina. Three sampling sites differing in their distance to the border of the city and degree of urbanization were selected. In each site, collections were carried out with 12 traps baited with cow liver (200 g per trap that were operated for five consecutive days during three different times of the year, in April, June and August 2013. A total of 341 adult calliphorids from nine species, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, L. eximia (Wiedemann, L. cuprina (Wiedemann, L. cluvia (Walker, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, C. megacephala (Fabricius and C. chloropyga (Wiedemann were collected. Lucilia sericata was the most abundant species followed by C. vicina. Species diversity, composition and abundance changed between sites, richness being lowest at the most urbanized site. All species are cosmopolitan except Sarconesia chlorogaster, whose distribution is restricted to South America. These results are consistent with a homogenization of the fauna in urban environments.

  6. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of the Sinai Peninsula Egypt with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Revay, Edita E; Hogsette, Jerome A; Zeegers, Theo; Kline, Daniel; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Schlein, Yosef

    2012-05-01

    During a 20-year survey we routinely collected Tabanidae in the Sinai resulting in a checklist of 22 species. We recorded 2 species for the Levant (Tabanus mordax Austen, 1911 and Tabanus gratus Loew, 1858), 4 species for Egypt (Nemorius irritans (Ricardo, 1901), Chrysops flavipes Meigen, 1804, Haematopota coronata Austen, 1908 and Haematopota pallens Loew, 1871), 5 species for the Sinai (Atylotus farinosus (Szilády, 1915), Tabanus arenivagusAusten, 1920, Tabanus autumnalis Linnaeus, 1761, Haematopota minusculaAusten, 1920 and Dasyrhamphis nigritus Fabricius, 1794) for the first time and confirmed one doubtful record for the Sinai (Tabanus albifacies Loew, 1856). Furthermore we collected 10 more species that were previously known or could be presumed from the Sinai. The status of 4 species (Atylotus pallescens (Walker, 1871), Tabanus unifasciatus Loew, 1858, Tabanus politus (Walker, 1871) and Tabanus terminalis Walker, 1871) doubtfully recorded from the Sinai is discussed. For most of the 22 species, apart from zoogeographical notes, host and ecological observations are also given. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause biting nuisance to livestock and humans and are vectors of a range of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Despite their economic significance, the delineation and identification of species where only morphology is co...

  8. Development of Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)in mango and other tropical and temperate fruit in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae) have narrow host ranges relative to those of tropical fruit flies, suggesting they will not attack or are incapable of developing in most novel fruit. Here we tested the hypothesis that apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Wals...

  9. Direct multiplex PCR (dmPCR) for the identification of six Phlebotomine sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae), including major Leishmania vectors of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae, subfamily Phlebotominae) are haematophagous insects that are known to transmit several anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases. Reliable identification of sand flies at species level is crucial for their surveillance, the detection and spread of their pathogens and the ...

  10. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrejo, Nancy; Diaz, Ana E; Woodley, Norman E

    2013-11-18

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam., in Colombia. Aspects of its biology are briefly discussed.

  11. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  12. Morphometric and Molecular Analyses of the Sand Fly Species Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar 1929) (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotiminae) Collected from Seven Different Geographical Areas in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-05

    believed to specifically target reptiles for blood meals (Young and Perkins, 1984; Schall, 2000; Klein et al., 1987) although suspicion has been...bahienis (Diptera, Psychodidae). Revista Brasileira de Biologia . 23: 49 – 53. 150 Testa, J. M., J. Montoya-Lerma, H. Cadena, M. Oviedo, and

  13. A new species of Pediobius (hymenoptera: eulophidae) parasitizing Chyliza apicalis (Diptera: Psilidae) in ash trees attacked by Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael W. Gates; Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer; Michael E. Schauff

    2005-01-01

    Pediobius chylizae, spec. nov. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), is described as new and illustrated. This parasitoid has been reared from the puparia of Chyliza apicalis Loew (Diptera: Psilidae) collected from under the bark of ash trees (Oleaceae: Fraxinus spp.) dying after attack by the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleptera: Buprestidae), an invasive...

  14. First new world record of a gall midge from palms: a new species of Contarinia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from Geonoma cuneata in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contarinia geonomae Gagné, new species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from galls found on the infructescences of Geonoma cuneata (Arecaceae) in Costa Rica. The galls are cylindrical in shape and develop concurrently with or instead of the spherical fruit. The larval chamber is located at the...

  15. Biology of Thrypticus truncatus and T. sagittatus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), petiole miners of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Argentina. With morphological descriptions of larvae and pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...

  16. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  17. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  18. Capture of melon flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a food-baited Multilure trap: influence of distance, diet, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many countries operate trapping programs to detect invasions of pestiferous fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Surveillance relies heavily on traps baited with male lures, which, while powerful, have limited effectiveness, because (i) they are sex-specific and (ii) males of some species do no...

  19. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  20. Multi-state survey of picture-winged flies (Diptera:Ulidiidae) attacking sweet corn in the southern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four picture-winged fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) species in two genera were identified as direct pests of sweet and field corn ears in Florida from surveys conducted during 2007 and 2008. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited mostly in the silk canal to damage silk, kernels and cob rendering infested sweet...

  1. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates in the Netherlands : comparing cattle, sheep and the black-light suction trap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2014-01-01

    Host preference is an important determinant of feeding behaviour in biting insects and a critical component in the transmission of vector-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to quantify Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) host preferences and biting rates using tethered livestock at pasture

  2. Interkingdom cues by bacteria associated with conspecific and heterospecific eggs of Cochliomyia macellaria and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) potentially govern succession on carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate animal behavior related to succession on ephemeral resources is critical for elucidating food web dynamics and nutrient recycling. Blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonization and utilization of vertebrate carrion serve as a model for such studies, as the...

  3. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  4. A review of recorded host plants of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera)dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)(Diptera: Tephritidae), commonly known as the Oriental fruit fly, is regulated through the Plant Protection Act of 2000 (7 U.S.C. 7701-7772) and relevant Parts and Subparts of the Code of Federal Regulations (7 CFR – Agriculture). Presented herein is a compre...

  5. Benthic communities in inland salinized waters with different salinities and nutrient concentrations and the ecology of Chironomus aprilinus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in the Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěna, Josef; Šímová, I.; Brom, J.; Novotná, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, January (2016), s. 122-129 E-ISSN 1802-8829 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diptera * Chironomidae * Chironomus aprilinus * coal mining * hydric restoration * saline inland waters * fertilization Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016

  6. X-ray diffraction pattern from the flight muscle of Toxorhynchites towadensis reveals the specific phylogenic position of mosquito among Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Diptera are a group of insects with only a single pair of wings (forewings), and are considered monophyletic (originating from a common ancestor). The flight muscle in Diptera has features not observed in other insects, such as the long Pro-Ala-rich peptide associated with tropomyosin, not with troponin-I as in other insects, and the formation of a superlattice by myosin filaments analogous to that in vertebrate skeletal muscle. Here we describe X-ray diffraction patterns from the flight muscle of a mosquito, Toxorhynchites towadensis (Culicidae), belonging to a primitive group of Diptera. The diffraction pattern indicates that myosin filaments in the flight muscle of this species do not form a superlattice. X-ray diffraction also shows meridional reflections that are not observed in other dipterans, but are present in the patterns from bumblebee (Hymenoptera) flight muscle. These observations suggest that the superlattice structure evolved after the common ancestor of Diptera had diverged from other insects. The flight muscle of mosquito may retain primitive structural features that are shared by Hymenoptera.

  7. Morphology of immature stages of Atherigona reversura (Diptera: Muscidae), with notes on the recent invasion of North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzywacz, Andrzej; Pape, Thomas; Hudson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The muscid shoot-fly Atherigona reversura Villeneuve (Diptera: Muscidae), recently introduced to North America, is reported for the first time from the Neotropical Region: Mexico, Chiapas, Chiapa de Corzo. Information about distribution throughout the continent is summarized. Morphology of the se...

  8. A catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2015-02-12

    Following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP) is provided, with information on 30 type specimens (including 14 primary types) of 17 Neotropical species.

  9. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae A cronologia e as mudanças morfológicas que ocorrem durante o desenvolvimento intra-pupal de Chrysomya albiceps são descritos com base em 254 espécimes criados em laboratório. As larvas foram obtidas a partir os ovos postos por uma única fêmea. As pré-pupas foram separadas de acordo com a redução do comprimento larval, o grau de pigmentação e esclerotização da cutícula, depois da formação das pupas, 10 indivíduos foram fixados em solução de Carnoy e conservados em etanol

  10. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, Palbopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, PAedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Primer reporte en Chile de Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) en evidencia entomológica forense First report in Chile of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in forensic entomological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    A Ortloff-Trautmann; A Jara-Peñailillo; S Albornoz-Muñoz; R Silva-Riveros; MP Riquelme-Gatica; P Peña-Rehbein

    2013-01-01

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) es una mosca hemisinantrópica ampliamente distribuida en América Latina. Es probable que esta especie de mosca sea la más importante para la entomología forense en casuística humana y veterinaria. Hasta la fecha, no hay evidencia de la presencia de esta especie en Chile. En esta investigación se analizó la evidencia entomológica recogida de 60 cadáveres humanos encontrados por Carabineros de Chile (Labocar) desde el año 2006 hasta el 201...

  12. The evolution of abdominal reduction and the recent origin of distinct Abdominal-B transcript classes in Diptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, John H; Carroll, Sean B

    2006-01-01

    In insects, the Hox gene Abdominal-B (Abd-B) governs the development of the posterior-most segments, the number and fate of which differ within and between orders. A striking feature of insect evolution is a trend toward the reduction of posterior abdominal segments which is most pronounced in higher Diptera. In Drosophila melanogaster, two distinct Abd-B transcript classes and protein isoforms are expressed in non-overlapping domains and have discrete functions in patterning the posterior abdomen. It has been proposed that evolutionary changes in Abd-B structure and expression are responsible for the reduction of the dipteran abdomen. We have investigated the relationship between the evolution of the Abd-B gene and abdominal reduction by analyzing the structure and expression of homologs from four additional dipterans representing distinct clades within the order. The lower dipteran mosquito Anopheles gambiae expresses a single Abd-B transcript class, as do two species phylogenetically intermediate to mosquitoes and drosophilids. These results delimit the evolution of distinct functional Abd-B isoforms to within the dipteran radiation after the origin of the reduced abdominal morphology. Furthermore, we found that the spatial distribution of Abd-B transcripts in non-drosophilid Diptera is identical to the combined domains of the two D. melanogaster Abd-B transcripts. Therefore, neither the structural evolution nor changes in the spatial regulation of Abd-B account for the derived abdomen of higher Diptera. The recent subfunctionalization of this Hox gene has occurred without any apparent morphological correlate. We conclude that regulatory modifications to developmental programs downstream of or parallel to Abd-B are responsible for the evolutionary reduction of the higher dipteran postabdomen.

  13. Survival and Development of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): A Biodegradation Agent of Organic Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariza Samayoa, Ana; Chen, Wei-Ting; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2016-12-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28ºC (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28ºC (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproduction rate (R 0 ), and mean generation time (T) were 0.0759 (d -1 ), 1.0759 (d -1 ), 68.225 offspring, and 55.635 d, respectively. The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars.  La mosca soldado negro, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), fue alimentada en una dieta artificial (salvado de trigo y alimento para pollos) en el laboratorio a 28ºC (estados inmaduros) y en un invernadero a 28ºC (adultos). Los datos fueron recopilados y analizados en base a la tabla de vida de ambos sexos, edad y etapa. La tasa intrínseca de crecimiento (r), tasa finita de crecimiento (λ), la tasa neta de reproducción (R 0 ) y el tiempo medio generacional (T) fueron 0.0759 (d), 1.0759 (d), 68.225 crías, y 55.635 (d), respectivamente. El valor reproductivo máximo de las hembras se produjo a los 54 días. Sólo 6 de las 21 hembras fueron capaces de poner huevos con éxito. El número de huevos por hembra varió de 236 a un máximo de 1088 huevos. Hemos demostrado que cuando han sido criados en una dieta artificial, las larvas de H. illucens durante el primer instar son más susceptibles a perecer que los instares posteriores. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgeni Jakovlev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, M. thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, M. monstera Maximova, 2002, M. uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002.

  15. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Salmela, Jukka; Polevoi, Alexei; Penttinen, Jouni; Vartija, Noora-Annukka

    2014-01-01

    New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomyashewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomyathula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemiatrifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosiagracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfeliakrivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophilabiformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilamonstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilauschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichontapalustris Maximova, 2002.

  16. Toxic effect of ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) leaves against different developmental stages of Muscina stabulans (Diptera-Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, M M; Nassar, M I; el-Sherief, H A

    1996-08-01

    Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) is evergreen shrubs widely used for ornamental purpose in mediterranean region. The present investigation, revealed for the first time the insecticidal effect of ethanolic extract from leaves of this plant against 2nd instar larvae of the medically important false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Diptera: Muscidae). LC50 of the extract was 113.66 ppm. This dose delayed larval and pupal duration suppressed oviposition and decreased adult longevity of the survivors. Morphogenic abnormalities were recorded and photographed in larval, pupal and adult stages, which were produced from treating 2nd instar larvae with different concentrations of the extract.

  17. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Pedroso, Murilo Fernandes; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Silva, Onilda Santos

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.

  18. Leptoconops bezzii (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) parasitizing tortoises Testudo graeca (Testudines: Testudinidae) in mountain ranges of Lebanon and western Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroký, P; Jandzík, D; Mikulícek, P; Moravec, J; Országh, I

    2007-07-01

    Biting midges of the genus Leptoconops, subgenus Leptoconops (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were repeatedly found parasitizing on spur-thighed tortoises Testudo graeca in western Syria and Lebanon. Collected females were assigned to the species L. bezzii according to their morphological characteristics. Tortoises parasitized by midges were observed throughout the daytime, under mild temperatures, and slight winds, in Mediterranean or stony steppe habitats. Intensity of the infestations ranged from a few specimens up to thousands of midges per tortoise. Midges infested predominantly the tortoises' carapax, finding their approach to the capillaries in the seams between the keratinized scutes. The vector potential of ceratopogonids is discussed.

  19. Does predator benefits prey? Commensalism between Corynoneura Winnertz (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Corydalus Latreille (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Callisto; Michael D.C. Goulart; Pablo Moreno; Martins, Rogério P.

    2006-01-01

    Commensalism between Corydalus Latreille, 1802 (Megaloptera, Corydalidae) and Corynoneura Winnertz, 1846 (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae) larvae was recorded in Indaiá stream, at 1,380 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, 19º-20ºS, 43º-44ºW) and in the headwaters of São Francisco river, at 1,300-1,700 m a.s.l. (Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, 20º00'-20º30'S, 46º15'-47º00'W), in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Seventy eight Corydalus larvae (range 22-88 mm) were sampled: 61 in ...

  20. Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Lopes Falaschi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the type-specimens of Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera, Bibionomorpha in the Natural History Museum, London. A commented list of the types of three families of Bibionomorpha - Bolitophilidae, Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae - housed at the Natural History Museum (London is provided. This includes four holotypes and one paratype of five species of Bolitophilidae; one paratype and three syntypes of two species of Diadocidiidae; and 17 holotypes, 91 paratypes, four lectotypes, and fourteen paralectotypes of 38 species of Ditomyiidae. Lectotypes are designated for the Neotropical species of the ditomyiids Australosymmerus (Melosymmerus bisetosus Edwards, 1940 and A. (M. pediferus Edwards, 1940.

  1. [CONTRIBUTION TO THE BLACK FLY FAUNA OF THE TRIBE SIMULIINI (DIPTERA: SIMULIIDAE) OF THE SAKHA REPUBLIC (YAKUTIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibulatov, S V

    2016-01-01

    The data on the black fly fauna of the tribe Simuliini (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) comprising available literature, collections of the Zoological Institute RAS, and new material collected in Yakutia were analyzed. Three new species were recorded in the fauna of the Sakha Republic: Archesimulium polare Rubzov, 1940, A. splendidum Rubzov, 1940, and A. tumulosum Rubzov, 1956. Distribution of eleven black fly species was clarified. Processing of the collected material confirmed the presence of 9 black fly species previously known from Yakutia. On the whole, the fauna of the region comprises 27 black fly species.

  2. [Contribution to the black fly fauna of the tribes Nevermanniini and Wilhelmiini (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the Sakha Republik (Yakutia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibulatov, S V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the data on fauna of Nevermanniini and Wilhelmiini tribes (Diptera: Simuliidae) were analyzed. All the accessible literature sources, institute collections and new materials recently collected in Yakutia were examined. Regional fauna was supplemented by two species: Schoenbaueria dendrofila (Patrusheva, 1962) and S. furculata Shewell, 1952, the latter being new for the Russian fauna also. The distribution of five more species from Simuliidae family was clarified. Processing of the collected material proved that 10 species previously registered in Yakutia can still be found in the region.

  3. Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Little is known about the morphology of the chitinized structures of the spermathecae of the Calliphoridae. In this work, the spermathecae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 and C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 are described and illustrated. The occurrence in one species of four spermathecae, an atypical form for blow flies, was recorded for the first time. The analysis of these structures will allow a better understanding of this group as well as provide taxonomic characters for future phylogenetic studies.

  4. Sergentomyia (Parrotomyia) jerighatiansis, a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from Kandhamal district, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P

    2013-12-01

    Sergentomyia (Parrotomyia) jerighatiansis a new species of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from the villages of Kandhamal district, Orissa, located on the east coast of India is described. Descriptive morphology, character measurements, and illustrations of males and females are provided and its taxonomic position within the genus is also defined. Voucher specimens of the new species have been deposited at the museum, Vector Control Research Centre (Indian Council of Medical Research), Puducherry, India and Zoological Survey of India, India. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The type specimens of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Bachmann, Axel Oscar; O'Hara, James E

    2013-01-01

    The type material of species of Tachinidae (Diptera) housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" were examined and are herein documented. The collection contains 202 type specimens consisting of 54 species described by E.E. Blanchard and 12 described by J. Brèthes. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information reveals the existence of 24 holotypes, 1 lectotype, 141 syntypes and 36 paratypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.

  6. Efeito do Envelhecimento de Isca na Captura de Moscas (Diptera: Brachycera em Área de Caatinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Nascimento

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Diptera species, especially flies, has shown potential as bioindicators for environmental changes. There are different methods to capture these animals, including traps with food baits. In this study, we assess the efficiency of traps for catching flies using bait of cane sugar molasses, analyzing the ecological parameters: abundance, species richness and species composition of flies during different periods of exposure of the traps in the field: 24, 48, 72 and 96h. Species richness and abundance showed significant change with respect to exposure time in the field, with stabilization after 48h, and species composition differed between the first and the other days.

  7. Dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae em condições de laboratório Post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae in laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M Pires

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os dípteros califorídeos são os primeiros indivíduos a compor a sucessão faunística de cadáveres em decomposição, auxiliando assim na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte. Estudos de dispersão pós-alimentar de suas larvas possuem relevância para investigações médico-criminais. Diante disto, uma arena circular, simulando o ambiente natural, foi montada em laboratório a fim de verificar-se a dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar de Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826, tentando assim estabelecer relações entre as variáveis peso, distância e profundidade de enterramento na arena. Os resultados demonstraram que 45% das pupas foram recuperadas a uma profundidade compreendida entre 6 cm e 8 cm e a uma distância entre 33 cm e 45 cm do centro da arena. Não houve diferenças significativas quanto à propagação e profundidade de enterramento de machos, fêmeas e indivíduos inviáveis. Com relação ao peso, verificou-se que a média das fêmeas (x = 32,35 mg foi superior a dos machos (x = 30,28 mg. A análise de correlação e de regressão entre peso e distância percorrida e entre peso e profundidade foram positivas, ou seja, pupas oriundas de larvas mais pesadas propagaram e se aprofundaram mais. O experimento permitiu ainda concluir que uma arena circular possibilita o deslocamento das larvas em todas as direções.Calliphorid flies are the first organisms of the faunal succession associated with decomposing bodies, and can help in the estimation of post-mortem interval. Therefore, studies on post-feeding larval dispersion are relevant to medico-criminal investigations. A circular arena simulating the natural environment was built in the laboratory in order to examine the radial post-feeding larval dispersion of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826 and the relationship between weight, distance, and depth of burial. Our findings indicated that most pupae were recovered at a depth between 6 cm and 8 cm and at a distance of 33 cm and 45 cm

  8. Quality control of a medicinal larval (Lucilia sericata) debridement device based on released gelatinase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Pickles, S.F.; Pritchard, David I.

    2017-01-01

    Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae are manufactured worldwide for the treatment of chronic wounds. Published research has confirmed that the primary clinical effect of the product, debridement (the degradation of non-viable wound tissue), is accomplished by a range of enzymes released by the larvae during feeding. The quality assessment of larval activity is currently achieved during production using meat-based assays, which monitor insect growth and/or the reduction in s...

  9. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Melia azedarach L. Fruit and Leaf for Use as Botanical Insecticide Caracterización Física y Química del Fruto y Hoja de Melia azedarach para Uso en Manejo Integrado de Plagas

    OpenAIRE

    Italo Chiffelle G; Amanda Huerta F; Diego Lizana R

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken of the physical and chemical characteristics and insecticide properties of melia (Melia azedarach L.) (Meliaceae) fruit and leaves; melia has been introduced in Chile for ornamental purposes. The physical and chemical properties were evaluated in two stages of fruit and leaf maturity, i.e., green /mature, and mature/juvenile, respectively. Laboratory bioassays were carried out on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as an insect model. The diameter of...

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes ( Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Westphal-Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Near-infrared spectroscopy and microstructure of the scales of Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus (Diptera: Culicidae. Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald individuals vary considerably in size and color of the reflections of the scales on their thorax, abdomen, antepronotal lobes and occiput. The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. A total of 201 adult females were analyzed for the characterization of color patterns. In addition, absorbance spectra and scanning electron microscope images were obtained from them. As a result of color analysis, two variations were identified, one represented by specimens with yellow or green scales and the other with blue or purple scales. The same two variations were corroborated using NIRS. Analysis of the microstructure of the scales lining the mesonotum, occiput and antepronotal lobes resulted in the same variations. The three methodologies, near-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and coloration of the reflections of the scales revealed two variations within Sa. albiprivus.

  11. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Susceptibility of wounded and intact black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtois, Joseph; Ali, Jared Gregory; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    Production costs and limited regional availability are two key factors limiting the widespread adoption of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) in biological control programs. We explore the potential of using black soldier fly larvae Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) as an alternative in vivo rearing host to the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). We injured black soldier fly larvae to test the hypothesis that the tough cuticle was preventing the penetration of founding infective juveniles (IJs) into the host and egress of offspring from the cadaver. Injuring the black soldier fly larvae increased the infection rate, the number of nematodes entering a host, and the number of IJs harvested from a cadaver. Black soldier fly larvae, however, provided at most 10-fold less IJs compared to G. mellonella. In olfactometer assays, we assessed nematode behavioral responses to wounded black soldier fly larvae. Steinernema carpocapsae did not move towards the insects. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora was attracted to black soldier fly larvae but not G. mellonella. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora did not show a preference for injured black soldier fly larvae over non-injured larvae. Thus, increased colonization on wounded black soldier fly larvae was likely due to additional entry points rather than an increase in their apparency in the soil solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diptera of forensic importance in the Iberian Peninsula: larval identification key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Y; Magaña, C; Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S

    2010-09-01

    A revision of the species and families of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Drosophilidae, Phoridae, Piophilidae and Stratiomyidae) suitable for forensic purposes in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. Morphological characteristics that allow the accurate identification of third instars of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula are described and presented in the form of a diagnostic key. For larval Calliphoridae, characteristics such as the spines of the body segments were useful for the genus Calliphora whereas features of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were useful for larvae of Lucilia. Identification of three Chrysominae species present in the Iberian Peninsula is included. For larval Sarcophagidae, characters such as the arrangement and shape of spiracular openings, structures of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were used for the first time. A new record of Sarcophaga cultellata Pandellé, from a human corpse, is also included as well as recent incursions into the European cadaveric entomofauna such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus). This work provides useful new information that could be applied to forensic investigations in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern Europe.

  14. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided.

  15. Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a new species associated with human cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola A; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Borrini, Matteo; Dadour, Ian R

    2013-09-10

    The analyses of necrophagous insects feeding on a corpse can be successfully used to estimate the minimum time since death. A minimum time frame is sometimes an underestimate, but it is actually the only method that can provide such information when decomposed remains are found at a crime scene. Many insects are known to be colonisers of a corpse, but because there is an endless spectrum of crime scene environments, the development data bases for necrophagous insects is incomplete. The two cases detailed in this paper show different entomological patterns due to the different environments (well and burial) and locations (south and central Italy) where the two cadavers were found. Common to both of these cases' was the discovery of the corpse in the same period of the year (January) and the presence of Syritta pipiens (Diptera: Syrphidae), a species that has never been associated with deceased humans. The ecological information concerning this insect was used in combination with the more typical entomofauna found on the corpse to provide a minimum post mortem interval. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival of the House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) on Truvia and Other Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael L; Fowler, Fallon E; Denning, Steven S; Watson, David W

    2017-07-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is a disease vector of mechanically transmitted pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Opportunities for pathogen transmission can increase as fly longevity increases. Dietary preferences play an important role in insect longevity; therefore, we investigated house fly preferences, sucrose availability, and caloric constraints on house fly longevity. Experimental goals were: 1) to test the effects of calorie restriction on survival of house flies by manipulating concentrations of erythritol (low caloric content) and sucrose (high caloric content), and comparing commercial sweeteners of differing calorie content, 2) to identify house fly preferences for either erythritol or sucrose, and 3) to evaluate the insecticidal activity or toxicity of erythritol on house flies. Our data show that house flies may prefer high calorie options when given a choice and that house fly longevity likely increases as calorie content increases. Additionally, no significant differences in longevity were observed between the water only control (zero calories) and erythritol treatments. This suggests that decreased survival rates and death could be the result of starvation rather than insecticidal activity. This research furthers our understanding of house fly survival and sugar-feeding behavior. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  18. DNA Barcoding for Species Identification of Insect Skins: A Test on Chironomidae (Diptera) Pupal Exuviae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrem, Torbjørn; Stur, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chironomidae (Diptera) pupal exuviae samples are commonly used for biological monitoring of aquatic habitats. DNA barcoding has proved useful for species identification of chironomid life stages containing cellular tissue, but the barcoding success of chironomid pupal exuviae is unknown. We assessed whether standard DNA barcoding could be efficiently used for species identification of chironomid pupal exuviae when compared with morphological techniques and if there were differences in performance between temperate and tropical ecosystems, subfamilies, and tribes. PCR, sequence, and identification success differed significantly between geographic regions and taxonomic groups. For Norway, 27 out of 190 (14.2%) of pupal exuviae resulted in high-quality chironomid sequences that match species. For Costa Rica, 69 out of 190 (36.3%) Costa Rican pupal exuviae resulted in high-quality sequences, but none matched known species. Standard DNA barcoding of chironomid pupal exuviae had limited success in species identification of unknown specimens due to contaminations and lack of matching references in available barcode libraries, especially from Costa Rica. Therefore, we recommend future biodiversity studies that focus their efforts on understudied regions, to simultaneously use morphological and molecular identification techniques to identify all life stages of chironomids and populate the barcode reference library with identified sequences.

  19. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764

  20. [Key to chironomid pupal exuviae (Diptera: Chironomidae) of tropical high Andean streams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Narcís; González-Trujillo, Juan David; Ospina-Torres, Rodulfo

    2014-12-01

    The Chironomidae is a cosmopolitan family of Nematoceran flies with more than 20,000 species described. However the diversity of genera and species of the family in the Andean region beyond the 2,000 m.a.s.l are scarcely known. We conducted faunal surveys and biomonitoring research in different streams of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru from May 2005 to October 2011. Based on specimens collections, a taxonomic key was developed to identify pupae and pupal exuviae of 46 genera of midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) collected from streams at high altitude areas on the Andean tropical mountains. We included illustrations and brief taxonomic descriptions for all genera, of which several ones have not yet been formally described; in this latter case we used the nomenclature of Roback & Coffman (1983). For two genera, Cricotopus and Genus 1, keys to the most com- mon morphospecies were provided. Results showed that in this area the chironomid assemblages are dominated by the members of the subfamily Orthocladiinae (22 genera) followed by the Chironominae (13). Six genera of Tanypodinae were identified, while only three and two genera were present from subfamilies Podonominae and Diamesinae. This key may be very useful for both studies about drift in streams, and for biomonitoring purposes.

  1. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-05-09

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future.

  2. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  3. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  4. A new genus and species of Australian Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) tolerant to mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S

    2017-05-09

    For over 25 years an undescribed Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) has been known to dominate the lotic invertebrate assemblage associated with long-term polluting mine adits in Captains Flat, on the Molonglo River, southern New South Wales, Australia. Although known in all life stages, it has been impossible to allocate the species to any described genus. Renewed interest in the taxonomy of the Tanypodinae, particularly associated with molecular investigations and pollution indicator status warrants formal description. All stages conform to tribe Pentaneurini, but each life stage differs in morphological resemblance. Yarrhpelopia Cranston gen. n. is proposed for the taxon previously referred to under the informal code name of 'genus A'. The genus name derives from south-east Australian aboriginal word yarrh, in recognition of its core distribution and presence in flowing waters. A single species, A. norrisi Cranston sp. n., is described, acknowledging the late Professor Richard Norris, an influential Australian limnologist. Larvae dominate the benthos immediately adjacent to mine adits that continue to leach heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, copper and lead) into downstream sediments. A wider distribution includes cleaner near pristine, eastern Australian rivers between 30° and 42°S, but these records are excluded from the type series pending molecular insights into species limits.

  5. Are sex ratio distorting endosymbionts responsible for mating system variation among dance flies (Diptera: Empidinae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rosalind L; Herridge, Elizabeth J; Ness, Rob W; Bussière, Luc F

    2017-01-01

    Maternally inherited bacterial endosymbionts are common in many arthropod species. Some endosymbionts cause female-biased sex ratio distortion in their hosts that can result in profound changes to a host's mating behaviour and reproductive biology. Dance flies (Diptera: Empidinae) are well known for their unusual reproductive biology, including species with female-specific ornamentation and female-biased lek-like swarming behaviour. The cause of the repeated evolution of female ornaments in these flies remains unknown, but is probably associated with female-biased sex ratios in individual species. In this study we assessed whether dance flies harbour sex ratio distorting endosymbionts that might have driven these mating system evolutionary changes. We measured the incidence and prevalence of infection by three endosymbionts that are known to cause female-biased sex ratios in other insect hosts (Wolbachia, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma) across 20 species of dance flies. We found evidence of widespread infection by all three symbionts and variation in sex-specific prevalence across the taxa sampled. However, there was no relationship between infection prevalence and adult sex ratio measures and no evidence that female ornaments are associated with high prevalences of sex-biased symbiont infections. We conclude that the current distribution of endosymbiont infections is unlikely to explain the diversity in mating systems among dance fly species.

  6. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Reissig, W Harvey; Forsline, Phillip L

    2008-02-01

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hybrid selections. However, a large number of exotic accessions housed in USDA collections have never been evaluated for their susceptibility to apple pests. Additionally, previous reports of resistance need to be confirmed under both field conditions and with more rigorous laboratory evaluations. Thus, studies were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of a number of Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit "core" collection. Contrary to earlier published reports, these results suggest that some selections previously described as "resistant" are in fact susceptible to both oviposition damage and larval feeding damage by apple maggot. One domestic, disease-resistant apple accession, 'E36-7' is resistant to survival of apple maggot larvae except when the fruit is nearly ripe in late fall. This is the first report of an apple cultivar that is confirmed to be resistant to larval feeding of apple maggot. Although adults can successfully oviposit on all accessions examined, larval survival was zero in a number of small-fruited crabapple accessions classified as resistant in previous studies and also in two accessions, Malus tschonoskii (Maxim) C. K. Schneid. and M. spectabilis (Aiton) Borkh., that have not been previously evaluated.

  7. Citrus essential oils and four enantiomeric pinenes against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Koliopoulos, George; Giatropoulos, Athanasios; Polissiou, Moschos G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of pinenes (enantiomers of alpha- and beta-) and essential oils from Greek plants of the Rutaceae family against the mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from fruit peel of orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limon L.), and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.). The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Citrus essential oils contained in high proportion limonene and in lower quantities p-menthane molecules and pinenes. The insecticidal action of these essential oils and enantiomers of their pinenes on mosquito larvae was evaluated. Plant essential oils exhibited strong toxicity against larvae with the LC(50) values ranging from 30.1 (lemon) to 51.5 mg/L (orange) depending on Citrus species and their composition. Finally, the LC(50) value of pinenes ranging from 36.53 to 66.52 mg/L indicated an enantioselective toxicity only for the beta-pinene enantiomer.

  8. Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

    2008-06-01

    We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight.

  9. Olfactory response of the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Citrus aurantium volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasgado, Milton A; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Toledo, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of male and female Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to volatiles of bitter orange fruit, Citrus aurantium L. In field cage tests, the number of A. ludens caught in Multilure traps baited with mature green bitter orange fruit was significantly higher than the number captured in traps baited with ripe yellow bitter orange fruit and control (unbaited traps). Both sexes were more attracted to mature green bitter orange fruit extracts than to controls in both flight tunnel and field cage assays. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the mature green bitter orange fruit volatiles identified 10 different compounds. Limonene was the most abundant volatile compound, followed by an unknown compound, tentatively identified as trans-ocimene. Linalool, beta-pinene, and methyl salicylate were found in lower proportions. Both sexes of A. ludens evoked higher antennal response to linalool, methyl salicylate, and to a blend of these four components in comparison with limonene, and beta-pinene. In flight tunnel, both sexes were more attracted and landed more often on spheres baited with the four-component blend compared with control spheres. In field cage tests, Multilure traps baited with the four-component blend captured significantly more A. ludens flies than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein or control traps.

  10. Traumatic myiasis in farmed animals caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica in southern Italy (Diptera: Sarcophagidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Bonacci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten herds of sheep and goats (455 heads were inspected for the presence of traumatic myiasis between May and September 2013 in the province of Cosenza, Calabria, southern Italy. Nine cases were discovered in sheep, goats and a sheepdog. Infested body sites included external genitalia, wounds (sheep and sheepdog and hooves (goats. Larvae were removed from the infested body areas and reared to adult stage in the laboratory. Both the larvae and the adults were identified as belonging to the Mediterranean screwworm fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner, 1862 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae, an obligatory parasite of humans and warm-blooded vertebrates. To our knowledge, these are the first cases of wohlfahrtiosis in sheep and goats to be reported from Calabria. The infested animals were living outdoors in spring and summer, and enclosed in sheds during the autumn and winter months. Observed effects of the myiases included severely impeded walking and tissue damage. Wohlfahrtiosis can cause significant economic loss to farmers. Data about the local distribution, seasonality and types of infestation caused by W. magnifica are useful to farmers and vets to improve control systems, in Calabria as elsewhere within the distributional range of the species

  11. Does autocthonous primary production influence oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in container habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Amanda R; Walker, Edward D; Kaufman, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues.

  12. Phylogeography of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janique, Solene; Sriratanasak, Wantana; Ketsuwan, Kulchana; Jairin, Jirapong; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai

    2017-02-01

    The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.

  13. ENTEROBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM SYNANTHROPIC FLIES (DIPTERA, CALYPTRATAE IN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA

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    ISABEL CRISTINA CADAVID-SANCHEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae causing enteric diseases can be carried and dispersed through insects that act as mechanical vectors, especially flies (Insecta: Diptera. In this study, enterobacteria associated with synanthropic flies were isolated and identified; four different urban areas in the municipality of Medellín were surveyed. Thirteen taxa of calyptrate flies belonging to four families were identified and classified according to the Mechanical Vector Risk Index (MVRI value, which is proposed in this study. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1819, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 are of high risk; Fannia sp., Atherigona orientalis Schiner, 1868, and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 of moderate risk; remaining species were classified as low or no risk. Escherichia coli was the most frequent bacterium according to the number of isolations (32%, followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (12%, Pasteurella pneumotropica (11%, and Kluyvera spp. (8%. Raoultella ornithinolitica, Stenotrophomponas maltophilia, and Chryseobacterium menigosepticum were isolated for the first time from flies. Finally, 22 new records of bacteria associated with eight fly species are documented. These results allow us to foresee the existence of a generalist pattern in the interaction between flies and bacteria and indicate that synanthropic flies have a quantifiable potential as vectors of infectious diseases according to the index proposed.

  14. Description of Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Peruvian Equadorean interandean areas

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    Eunice A. Bianchi Galati

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Description of Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp. (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from interandean areas of Peru and Equador. Lutzomyia robusta, n. sp., probable vector of human bartonellosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis, is described and illustrated. This species presents strong affinity with L. serrana (Damasceno & Arouck, 1949 but they can be distinguished by variance analysis of four male characteristics and only one female characteristic. In the variance analysis, populations of L. serrana, of Amazonian areas of Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, the coast of Equador and other areas of Brazil were studied. The synonymy of Lutzomyia guayasi (Rodriguez and L. serrana was corroborated.Descreve-se Lutzomyia (Pifanomyia robusta, sp.n., provável vetora de bartonelose e leishmaniose tegumentar, de ocorrência em vales interandinos no Peru e Equador e que apresenta estreita afinidade com L. serrana (Damasceno e Arouck. A separação de ambas foi possível, por meio de análise de variância de alguns caracteres do macho e apenas um da fêmea. Na análise de variância, foram estudadas populações de L. serrana da região amazônica do Brasil, Peru e Bolívia; costa do Equador; região atlântica e outras áreas do Brasil. Corrobora-se a sinonímia de Phlebotomus guayasi Rodríguez com L. serrana.

  15. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

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    Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

  16. “Jejenes” (Diptera: Simuliidae of Nahuel Huapi National Park, Patagonia, Argentina: Preliminary results

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    Luis M. HERNÁNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los simúlidos pertenecen a una familia de Diptera(Simuliidae con alrededor de 2.072 especies descritas a nivel mundial. Las hembras de la mayoría de las especies se alimentan con sangre de vertebrados, lo cual las convierte en importantes plagas que afectan tanto al hombre como al ganado, aves y otros vertebrados. Los objetivos de este trabajo son llevar a cabo un inventario de Simuliidae y dar a conocer algunos aspectos de la biología y la distribución de esta familia de insectos acuáticos en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. Además, se proporciona información sobre la biogeografía de Simuliidae en la Patagonia. Cinco géneros, un subgénero y 32 especies de simúlidos han sido registrados para Patagonia: Cnesia (3 spp., Cnesiamima (1 sp., Gigantodax (14 spp., Paraustrosimulium (1 sp., Simulium (Ectemnaspis (1 sp., S. (Psaroniocompsa (1 sp. y Simulium (Pternaspatha (11 spp.. Hasta el presente, se han colectado los cinco géneros, un subgénero (Pternaspatha y 19 especies de Simuliidae en el PNNH, lo cual representa el 57% de la fauna de Simuliidae en esta área. La mayor diversidad de Simuliidae se encontró en Puerto Blest, zona característica del bosque de la provincia fitogeográfica Alto-Andina.

  17. Unexpected diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in tourist caves in Northern Thailand.

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    Sukantamala, Jedsada; Sing, Kong-Wah; Jaturas, Narong; Polseela, Raxsina; Wilson, John-James

    2017-11-01

    Certain species of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of the protozoa which causes leishmaniasis. Sandflies are found breeding in enclosed places like caves. Thailand is a popular tourist destination, including for ecotourism activities like caving, which increases the risk of contact between tourists and sandflies. Surveillance of sandflies is important for monitoring this risk but identification of species based on morphology is challenged by phenotypic plasticity and cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes have been used for the identification of sandflies in Thailand. We collected sandflies using CDC light trap from four tourist caves in Northern Thailand. Female sandflies were provisionally sorted into 13 morphospecies and 19 unidentified specimens. DNA was extracted from the thorax and legs of sandflies and the DNA barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase I mtDNA amplified and sequenced. The specimens were sorted into 22 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) based on the 145 DNA barcodes, which is significantly more than the morphospecies. Several of the taxa thought to be present in multiple caves, based on morphospecies sorting, split into cave-specific MOTU which likely represent cryptic species. Several MOTU reported in an earlier study from Wihan Cave, Thailand, were also found in these caves. This supports the use of DNA barcodes to investigate species diversity of sandflies and their useful role in surveillance of sandflies in Thailand.

  18. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

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    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  19. Development of a trap for collecting Cochliomyia hominivorax (diptera: caliphoridae flies

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    Bruna Carolina Druzian Salinas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The insect Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Caliphoridae causes primary cutaneous myiasis, and the use of traps is an alternative to monitor this fly in the field. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a low-cost trap for collecting C. hominivorax in the field. Three experiments were conducted, with six replications, in the experimental field of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Agropecuária Oeste, in Ponta Porã, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Traps were developed using two-liter polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles cut in half, with 30 grams of bovine liver and water covering 90 % of the liver mass placed in the bottom half, using the upper half as a cover funnel to keep the captured flies in the bottom half. The experiments consisted of evaluations of different opening diameter of the trap entrance (3, 4, 6 and 7 mm with traps installed at 1.16 m from the ground (Experiment 1, heights of installation of the traps (0.00, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20, 1.60 and 2.00 m from the ground (Experiment 2 and bottle colors (yellow, blue, white, green, red and transparent (Experiment 3. The collected data were subjected to Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. The ideal traps for collecting C. hominivorax in the field were those with opening diameter of 6 mm, height installation of 1.20 m from the ground, using transparent PET bottles.

  20. Demographic Structure and Evolutionary History of Drosophila ornatifrons (Diptera, Drosophilidae) from Atlantic Forest of Southern Brazil.

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    Gustani, Emanuele C; Oliveira, Ana Paula F; Santos, Mateus H; Machado, Luciana P B; Mateus, Rogério P

    2015-04-01

    Drosoph1la ornatifrons of the guarani group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is found mainly in humid areas of the Atlantic Forest biome, especially in the southern region of Brazil. Historical and contemporary fragmentation events influenced species diversity and distribution in this biome, although the role of paleoclimatic and paleogeographic events remain to be verified. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the demographic structure of D. ornatifrons from collection sites that are remnants of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil, in order to contribute to the understanding of the processes that affected the patterns of genetic variability in this species. To achieve this goal, we sequenced 51 individuals from nine localities and 64 individuals from six localities for the mitochondrial genes Cytochrome Oxidase I and II, respectively. Our results indicate that D. ornatifrons may have experienced a demographic expansion event from the southernmost locations of its distribution, most likely from those located next to the coast and in fragments of Atlantic Forest inserted in the Pampa biome (South 2 group), towards the interior (South 1 group). This expansion probably started after the last glacial maximum, between 20,000 and 18,000 years ago, and was intensified near the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, around 12,000 years ago, when temperature started to rise. In this work we discuss how the haplotypes found barriers to gene flow and dispersal, influenced by the biogeographic pattern of Atlantic Forest.

  1. Pupal development and pigmentation process of a polka-dotted fruit fly, Drosophila guttifera (Insecta, Diptera).

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    Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki

    2017-06-01

    Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of Miltogramminae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae): Implications for classification, systematics and evolution of larval feeding strategies.

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    Piwczyński, Marcin; Pape, Thomas; Deja-Sikora, Edyta; Sikora, Marcin; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Szpila, Krzysztof

    2017-11-01

    Miltogramminae is one of the phylogenetically most poorly studied taxa of the species-rich family Sarcophagidae (Diptera). Most species are kleptoparasites in nests of solitary aculeate wasps and bees, although parasitoids and saprophagous species are also known, and the ancestral miltogrammine life habit remains unsettled. Here, we present for the first time a comprehensive phylogenetic tree consisting of 58 representatives of Miltogramminae, reconstructed using sequence data from three mitochondrial (COI, cytB, ND4) and one nuclear (Ef-1α) genes. Our phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that: (1) Miltogramminae are sister to Paramacronychiinae, (2) Miltogramminae can be divided into the "lower miltogrammines" containing two clades of mainly saprophages and a clade of "higher miltogrammines" with mainly kleptoparasitic species, (3) only three genera turn out to be non-monophyletic: Miltogramma, Senotainia and Pterella and (4) the genus Sarcotachina, which traditionally has been considered as belonging to the Paramacronychiinae, is placed in one of the clades of "lower miltogrammines". Ancestral state reconstruction of larval feeding strategy and five larval characters reveals that the ancestor of Miltogramminae was likely a saprophage retaining plesiomorphic oral ridges and a cephaloskeleton with sclerotized dorsal bridge. Synapomorphies like large pseudocephalic sensory organs and well-developed cuticular sculpture suggest that the ancestral first instar larva actively searched for a buried food supply. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Salivary glands of second and third instars of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

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    Evangelista, L G; Leite, A C R

    2007-05-01

    Salivary glands of Dermatobia hominis (L., Jr.) (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae were studied under light and electron microscopy. The salivary glands of second (L2) and third instars (L3) are similar and consist of pairs of translucent tubules. The individual efferent ducts unite to form a single deferent duct, which inserts dorsally into the cephalopharingeal skeleton. Each gland has a monolayer of epithelial cells surrounded by basement membrane and connective tissue. The cellular plasma membrane is enfolded at its base, forming a labyrinthine area. The cell surface is linked to the basement membrane (BM) by hemidesmosomes and to adjacent cells by septet junctions and desmosomes. Irregular channels with several vesicles occur between the cytoplasm and BM. Golgi complex, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome, lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and myelin figures are usually present in the cells. The nucleus is large, with diffuse chromatin. The connective tissue circling the BM contains collagen fibrils, muscle fibers and tracheal tubes. Lined cuticle encloses the efferent and deferent ductal cells, which have few, widely dispersed mitochondria, free ribosomes, microtubules, and a large nucleus with diffuse chromatin.

  4. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.

  5. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.

  6. Pupation Behavior and Predation on Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Pupae in Maine Wild Blueberry Fields.

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    Ballman, Elissa S; Collins, Judith A; Drummond, Francis A

    2017-09-27

    Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive vinegar fly and pest of soft fruits in North America, including wild blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine. Despite its presence in the continental United States for 9 yr, little is known about its natural enemy complex. Here we report the results of a 3-yr study designed to identify naturally-occurring predators in Maine's wild blueberry fields. Experiments were conducted to determine pupation site and pupation depth to understand D. suzukii's predation vulnerability. Predation rates in the field of fully-exposed, caged, and buried pupae were measured. Pitfall traps were deployed to identify the potential predator assemblage, and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine how many pupae were consumed by commonly occurring ground beetle species (Carabidae) and field crickets (Gryllus pennsylvanicus Burmeister). The most commonly collected predators were ants, ground beetles, harvestmen, and field crickets. Significantly more pupae were found to occur in the soil compared to blueberry fruit, with most pupae in the top 0.5 cm layer of soil. Pupal predation rates in the field were high, with higher rates of predation on exposed pupae compared to buried pupae. Laboratory studies revealed that ground beetles and field crickets are likely predators of D. suzukii pupae. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  8. Sexual chemoecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Current knowledge and implications for vector control programs.

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    Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Larvicidal efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

    2010-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinal plants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plant extracts.

  10. Oviposition of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and its relation with the pericarp of citrus fruits

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    N. P. Dias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae represent a threat to fruit growing worldwide, mainly the citrus culture, however, biological studies show that fruit flies are not perfectly adapted to this host. This study investigated oviposition of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824 and its relation with the pericarp of citrus fruits. We evaluated the relationship between depth of oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata and epicarp thickness of orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] ‘Navelina’ and tangerine [C. reticulata (L.] ‘Clemenules’ and the influence of fruit mesocarp of tangerine ‘Clemenules’ on oviposition of these species. The study was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C, relative humidity (70 ± 10% RH and photophase (12 h. A. fraterculus and C. capitata laid their eggs in the flavedo region of orange ‘Navelina’ and between the albedo and flavedo of tangerine ‘Clemenules’. When fruits with mesocarp exposed were offered, there was no oviposition by both fruit fly species. The results show that epicarp thickness of citrus fruits did not influence oviposition of A. fraterculus and C. capitata as oviposition did not occur only in the presence of the mesocarp, suggesting that other factors are involved in oviposition of these species.

  11. The first fossil streblid bat fly, Enischnomyia stegosoma n. g., n. sp. (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea: Streblidae).

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    Poinar, George; Brown, Alex

    2012-02-01

    The first fossil streblid, Enischnomyia stegosoma n. g., n. sp. (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea: Streblidae), is described from Dominican amber. Placed in the subfamily Nycterophiliinae Wenzel, 1966, which includes two New World extant genera, Nycterophilia Ferris, 1916 and Phalconomus Wenzel, 1984 (=Phalcophila Wenzel, 1976), the male specimen of E. stegosoma is characterised by the following features: a laterally compressed body, well-developed two-segmented antennae with the scape fused with the head, a tubular pedicel with an annulated basal portion and swollen apical portion bearing setae and bristles, a distinct flagellum with a dorsal boss bearing microsetae and a subterminal pectinate arista, a large tubular labium (proboscis) with the tip held upwards, eyes reduced to three facets, an expanded and flattened profemur, an anteriorly curved protarsus, and a well-developed wing with an entire distal margin. The possession of wings separates E. stegosoma from the species of Phalconomus, and the wing outline and venation, as well as the structure of the antennae and palps, distinguish it from species of Nycterophilia.

  12. Molecular Confirmation of Frogs (Anura) as Hosts of Corethrellidae (Diptera) in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jeremy V; Irby, William S

    2017-09-01

    Flies in the family Corethrellidae Edwards 1932 (Diptera) are known to be attracted to the mating calls of male frogs. For the first time, the hosts of corethrellids were identified to species by analyzing bloodmeals taken from resting female flies. A portion of the cytochrome b gene was amplified and sequenced from blood-engorged flies using vertebrate-specific primers. The flies were collected over 6 yr at two locations in the southeastern United States from resting boxes and natural resting sites (rodent burrows). Potential host abundance focused on frog surveillance, and estimation relied on visual encounters, passive trapping (artificial refugia), and call surveys. This study confirms that corethrellids take blood from tree frogs (Hylidae); however, it was found that true frogs (Lithobates Fitzinger 1843 (Ranidae: Anura) sp.) were the principal host selected by Corethrella brakeleyi (Coquillett 1902) (~73% of identified bloodmeals). These preliminary data suggest that host selection of Corethrella Freeman 1962 sp. is not necessarily correlated with host calling abundance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  13. Species Composition and Distribution of Adult Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOAIZA, J. R.; BERMINGHAM, E.; SCOTT, M. E.; ROVIRA, J. R.; CONN, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates were recorded from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus (Wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula (Dyar and Knab) (6.2 bites/person/night). These two species were also the most common, present in 99.1 and 74.9%, respectively, of the sites. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Curry) was encountered mostly in the indigenous Kuna Yala Comarca along the eastern Atlantic coast, where malaria case history and average human biting rate (9.3 bites/person/night) suggest a local role in malaria transmission. An. albimanus, An. punctimacula, and Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis (Dyar and Knab) were more abundant during the rainy season (May–December), whereas An. aquasalis was more abundant in the dry season (January–April). Other vector species collected in this study were Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai (Howard, Dyar, and Knab) and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis s.l. (Theobald). High diversity of Anopheles species and six confirmed malaria vectors in endemic areas of Panama emphasize the need for more detailed studies to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:18826025

  14. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  15. Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) from Yucatan and Updated Species List for Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuxim-Koyoc, Alan; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Bolívar-Cimé, Beatriz; Laborde, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the diversity of ectoparasitic bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Fieldwork was carried out from June 2010 to January 2012 in seven municipalities of Yucatan, where 13 sampling sites were selected to capture bats using mist nets. Over 156 sampling nights a total of 910 bats were captured; these belonged to 19 species in four families: Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Natalidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae was the richest family (13 bat species), followed by Mormoopidae (3 spp.), Vespertilionidae (2 spp.), and Natalidae (1 spp.). After careful inspection of the bats, a total of 2,134 Streblid bat flies were collected, belonging to 17 species in six genera (Nycterophilia coxata Ferris, N. natali Wenzel, Trichobius diphyllae Wenzel, T. dugesii Townsend, T. galei Wenzel, T. hirsutulus Bequaert, T. intermedius Peterson and Hurka, T. parasiticus Gervais, T. uniformis Curran, T. yunkeri Wenzel, Megistopoda aranea Coquillett, M. proxima Séguy, Aspidoptera delatorrei Wenzel, Strebla alvarezi Wenzel, S. diphyllae Wenzel, S. wiedemanni Kolenati, and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett). The richest and most diverse genus was Trichobius. Five species--N. natali, T. diphyllae, M. proxima, A. delatorrei, and M. pseudopterus, are new records for Yucatan, and T. galei is a new record for the country, increasing the total number of Streblidae species for Mexico to 49. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ultrastructure of antennal sensory organs of horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D

    2015-07-01

    Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla.

  17. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Maria E Macêdo

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  18. Phenology of Dasineura oxycoccana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on cranberry and blueberry indicates potential for gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Melissa A; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Roitberg, Bernard D

    2012-08-01

    Dasineura oxycoccana (Johnson) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a pest of cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericales: Ericaceae), and highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum (L.) (Ericales: Ericaceae), in North America. In British Columbia, Canada, D. oxycoccana was first found on highbush blueberry in 1991 and then on cranberry seven years later. Because many cranberry and highbush blueberry farms are adjacent to one another, we hypothesized that D. oxycoccana was moving from highbush blueberry onto cranberry. Cranberry and highbush blueberry differ in phenology, and adaptation to these different phenologies may result in host races or cryptic species on these two crops. We recognized the alternative hypothesis that D. oxycoccana had arrived as immature stages with cranberry vines imported from another region of North America. During spring and summer, we recorded the phenology of D. oxycoccana and the development of plant shoots from three cranberry and three highbush blueberry farms to determine whether the opportunity exists for successful movement of D. oxycoccana between the two crops. Our results show that D. oxycoccana from cranberry and highbush blueberry overlap in phenology for much of the season, indicating a high potential for movement and gene flow. However, differences were seen in number of larvae per shoot, location of pupae, and heat unit accumulation during larval development suggesting that instead there may be the potential for host race or cryptic species formation.

  19. Flight and swarming behaviour of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on a livestock farm in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonza Lez, Mikel; Alarco N-Elbal, Pedro M; Venter, Gert J; Lo Pez, Sergio

    2017-06-30

    The efficacy of sweep nets and a CDC white light-suction trap for the sampling of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were compared on a livestock farm in Northern Spain during the Summer of 2013. A total of 6,082 specimens representing 26 species were collected with sweep nets in 4 areas at di erent heights (ground level, 1.5 m, and 3 m), and 8,463 specimens representing 28 species with a single white light trap. Eight species - Culicoides brunnicans, Culicoides punctatus, Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus, Culicoides lupicaris, Culcoides picturatus, Culicoides achrayi, and Culicoides simulator - were dominant and accounted for 97.4% and 97.2% of the total specimens collected with both methods, sweep nets, and light traps, respectively. The sex ratios with sweep netting and light trapping were strongly female biased (78.4% and 97.1%, respectively). Nulliparous and parous females were predominantly captured with both methods. A high percentage (17%) of gravid females was, however, captured on manure at ground level while sweeping. Searches for male swarms revealed the presence of several C. punctatus swarms consisting of 26 to 196 males and 3 swarms of C. obsoletus that ranged from 1 to 12 males in size. This study suggested that both methods are suitable and complementary tools for Culicoides sampling.

  20. Toxicity of plant essential oils and their components against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Kwon; Kim, Junheo N; Lee, Yeon-Suk; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2008-02-01

    Plant essential oils from 20 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activity against larvae of Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) by using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity (>90%) against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of caraway seed Carum carvi (L.)], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.], mandarine (Citrus reticulate Blanco), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt), cade (Juniperus oxycedrus L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and thyme red [Thymus vulgaris (L.)] oils at 30 X 10-3 mg/1 air. Among them, caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red essential oils were highly effective against L. ingenua at 20 x 10(-3) mg/ml air. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to identification of 4, 9, 8, and 17 compounds from caraway seed, spearmint, cumin, and thyme red oils, respectively. These compounds were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua, and compared with the toxicity of dichlorvos. Carvacrol, thymol, linalool, cuminaldehyde, p-cymen, terpinen-4-ol, and carvone was effective at 10 x 10(-3) mg/l. The insecticidal activity of dichlorvos was 60% at 10 x 10(-3) mg/ml. Effects of four selected plant essential oils on growth of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, also were investigated.

  1. Temperature and Tissue Type Impact Development of Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambaradeniya, Y Tharindu B; Karunaratne, W A Inoka P; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Goonerathne, Induwara; Kotakadeniya, Rasika B

    2017-11-23

    Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann; Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a facultative ecto-parasitic fly, distributed throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world. This blow fly species is of medical, veterinary, and forensic importance due to it being used in maggot debridement therapy (MDT), a causative agent of myiasis, and a decomposer of vertebrate carrion. The current study examined the combined effects of temperature and tissue type on the development of L. cuprina. Specimens were reared on three tissue types; swine muscle, swine liver, and bovine muscle at 20°C, 25°C, 27°C, and 38°C. The optimum condition for L. cuprina development was for immatures reared on bovine muscle (287.4 h) followed by those reared on swine muscle (288.0 h) and swine liver (288.4 h) at 27°C. The minimum temperature threshold of L. cuprina was deduced to be 14°C. No significant differences in larval width and length over time were determined for the tissue type. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Large scale artificial rearing of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae in Brazil

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    Julio Marcos Melges Walder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some species of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae are successfully managed by matching the sterile insect technique with parasitoid releases. Such strategies used in integrated pest management can be implemented only where insect mass-rearing programs are feasible. In this study, we show the process of domestication, rearing technology and quality control data obtained from 54 generations of Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 kept under fully artificial conditions. Eggs were collected by an artificial oviposition panel consisting of one side of the cage made of blue voile fabric externally covered with a thin layer of silicon rubber. They were then air-bubbled in water at 25 ºC for 48 h before seeding. Larvae were reared on the regular laboratory artificial diet with 66 % of agar reduction turning over a semi-liquid diet, which reduced costs and improved insect quality. The adult and larval diets were composed of local ingredients including hydrolyzed yeast. When large-scale production of this fly is contemplated, the critical stage is larval development. This system of artificial rearing for A. fraterculus sp.1 developed in Brazil, allows for the production of a large number of insects of excellent quality using local ingredients and less agar in diet composition than the original medium used for this species. By reducing the interval of egg collection, the system might be optimized in terms of insect yield and, therefore, meet the demands of A. fraterculus sp.1 with regard to integrated pest management purposes.

  3. Wing shape is influenced by environmental variability in Polietina orbitalis (Stein (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Michelon Alves

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We measured variation and covariation in wing morphology in six populations of the fly Polietina orbitalis (Stein (Diptera: Muscidae to test for geographic morphological structure. Additionally, we examined the role of environmental variables in determining geographic variation in wing shape. We sampled five populations in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil (Colombo, Fênix, Guarapuava, Jundiaí do Sul and Ponta Grossa, and one in Paraguay (Mbaracayú. We choose 15 landmarks to describe the wing shape and size and 19 environmental variables to describe the local environmental conditions. Our results showed that P. orbitalis wing shape, but not size, varies geographically. A canonical variate analysis showed the existence of two clusters of populations based on wing shape. These groups compare populations in which the wing is slender with groups in which the wings are broad. These shape differences were correlated with variation in elevation, precipitation and temperature but were not allometric. Taken together, these results suggest that wing shape differences in P. orbitalis populations are due to a plastic response to local environmental conditions.

  4. Comparative studies on effects of three chitin synthesis inhibitors on common malaria mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun Yan; Heise, Stephanie; Zhang, Jianzhen; Anderson, Troy D; Starkey, Sharon R

    2007-11-01

    Toxicities of three chitin synthesis inhibitors (diflubenzuron, nikkomycin Z and polyoxin D) were evaluated using second instars of the common malaria mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Neither nikkomycin Z nor polyoxin D at 50 microg/liter caused significant larval mortality, although they reduced the body weight of the survivors by 20.5 and 33.8%, respectively, in 48 h. In contrast, exposures of the larvae to diflubenzuron at 12.5 microg/liter for 48 h resulted in 86.7% larval mortality and reduced the body weight of the survivors by 29.1%. Exposure of the pupae (affect chitin contents in the guts. Our results indicated that diflubenzuron was highly toxic to second instars by not only causing high larval mortality but also by affecting their growth. Diflubenzuron was also fairly toxic to pupae by not only causing pupal mortality but also affecting the adult emergence. Our results suggest that diflubenzuron might affect only chitin synthesis in the cuticle but not in the peritrophic matrix, which is probably due to diflubenzuron's direct contact to mosquito larvae in water, slow distribution in insect body, rapid degradation in the insect gut, or a combination.

  5. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  6. Ultrastructure of male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Wannasan, Anchalee; Sukontason, Kom; Amendt, Jens; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2018-03-01

    Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental factors affecting early carcass attendance by four species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-05-01

    As the most common primary colonizer of carrion, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) play an important role in initiating arthropod-mediated breakdown of soft tissue; however, their timing is highly variable. This variability complicates the estimation of precolonization intervals or periods of insect activity by forensic entomologists. In this study, the size of the adult blow fly on swine carcasses was compared with various environmental conditions including time of day, temperature, wind speed, and light levels. Four trials were conducted: two in August and September 2008, one in January 2009, and one in February-March 2010. Of the measured variables, time of day was the only consistent factor explaining the population size of blow fly on a carcass, although precipitation and high winds affected winter-active Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Male flies were also collected, suggesting that carcasses may play additional roles in adult blow fly ecology beyond that of a simple oviposition site. For both sexes of flies, a strong diel pattern of behavior emerged, which could be useful in estimating precolonization intervals by considering the environmental conditions at a scene, and thus forensic entomologists may be better able to estimate the likelihood of adult activity at a carcass.

  8. Ultrastructure of immature stages of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly of medical and veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is known as the secondary screwworm because it causes secondary or facultative myiasis when the larvae feed on necrotic tissues. This fly has a significant medical and veterinary importance since it has been reported to transport eggs of Dermatobia hominis (human botfly), which can cause significant economic losses to livestock. Since this screwworm has been collected colonizing both pig carcasses and human cadavers, it is considered one of the most important species for forensic entomology studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives detailed information on the morphological characteristics which can help identify the immature forms of the flies. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the eggs, all the larval instars, and the puparia of Cochliomyia macellaria using SEM. The egg is ellipsoid and the dorsal surface is concave. The islands inside the median area had no anastomosis, but some perforations could be observed. From the second larval instar onwards, besides the intersegmental spines, other bands of spines were observed at the abdominal segments. Two spiracular openings were visible on the first and second larval instars, which were not expected. These characteristics are specific to Cochliomyia genus. The number and the general aspect of the spine tips in the cephalic region, the intersegmental bands on the abdomen, and the number of the spiracular openings could together help identify C. macellaria.

  9. Evaluation of significance of bacteria in larval development of Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Broce, Alberto; Zurek, Ludek

    2006-11-01

    Bacteria were isolated and identified from the digestive tract of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and their role in the larval development of this insect was assessed in laboratory bioassays. The analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the bacterial isolates represented four species: Providencia sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Escherich), Enterococcus faecalis (Orla-Jensen), and Ochrobactrum sp. (Holmes). Developmental assays demonstrated that C. macellaria larvae are able to develop on a sterile blood agar, and no bacteria are required to complete larval development. Indeed, developmental times were shorter and survival rates of C. macellaria on a sterile blood agar and the modified Harris rearing diet were greater compared with that on the blood agar inoculated with individual and mixed bacterial isolates. The cultures of Ochrobactrum sp. and E. faecalis supported larval development to a significantly greater extent than those of Providencia sp. and E. coli O157:H7. The presence of bacteria in newly emerged C. macellaria adults also was assessed and revealed that the bacteria in the gut of larvae can survive pupation and colonize the gut of adult flies. This study shows that development of larvae of C. macellaria does not depend on bacteria and that some bacterial isolates negatively impact larval development.

  10. New Records of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae at Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

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    Eduar Elías BEJARANO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available NUEVOS HALLAZGOS DE FLEBOTOMÍNEOS (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE EN LA SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIAEl componente entomológico de la leishmaniasis ha sido poco estudiado en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, incluido el departamento del Magdalena, donde a la fecha están registradas trece especies de Lutzomyia. En la presente nota se informa el hallazgo de tres especies y un subgénero más en la región. Se recolectaron 885 flebotomíneos en Seywiaka y las veredas Las Tinajas y Calabazo, estribaciones de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (117-130 m.s.n.m.. El 84% de los ejemplares se obtuvieron con trampa CDC, el 11% con trampa Shannon y el 5% fueron capturados, en reposo, con un dispositivo eléctrico de succión.  Se identificaron nueve especies, Lu. gomezi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. trinidadensis, Lu. carpenteri, Lu. evansi, Lu. dysponeta, Lu. dubitans, Lu. shannoni, y Lu. micropyga, la más abundante fue Lu. gomezi (69%, seguida por Lu. panamensis (14%. También se recolectaron ejemplares de la serie Lu. osornoi del subgénero Helcocyrtomyia. Entre el material hallado sobresalen Lu. carpenteri, Lu. dubitans y Lu. dysponeta como primeros registros para el departamento del Magdalena, además de Lu. (Helcocyrtomyia sp., que representa el primer hallazgo del subgénero en el Caribe colombiano.

  11. ECOLOGY AND PARASITOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HORSE FLIES (DIPTERA: TABANIDAE IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-HENAO GABRIEL

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available During the months of June to September 2006, collections of tabanids (Diptera:Tabanidae and ticks were conducted in the Caucasia municipality, Antioquia,Colombia. Tabanids were caught on horses during daylight using hand nets and pots atthe ecotone zone between secondary forests and paddock habitats. Ticks were collecteddirectly from cattle by hand. The purpose of the study was to identify possible vectorsof bovine trypanosomosis, and register the diversity and abundance of tabanids inthe zone. The arthropods were brought to the laboratory for taxonomic determinationand protozooans searching in proboscis, midgut, and salivary glands of flies. Inthe case of ticks, protozoans were searched in hemolymph. One hundred and fortytabanids belonging to four genera and nine species were caught. Among the species,Lepiselaga crassipes was the most abundant (43.6%, with the highest abundancein July and a biting peak at 14:00 h. The highest diversity of tabanids was observedduring September. Three tabanids were found infected with flagellates morphologicallycompatible with Trypanosoma vivax. 315 ticks belonging to Boophilus microplusspecies were collected, all of them negative to flagellates. These results suggest T.vivax transmission by tabanids in the study area. However, the specific status ofthe parasites should be determined by molecular techniques and the transmissionmechanism should be established too by controlled studies

  12. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of and (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Grant T. Mcquate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett, and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel. In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges ( Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck and Clementine tangerines ( C. reticulata L. var. Clementine, but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae , including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed.

  13. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in fresh commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Swedman, Allison; Prices, Donald K

    2014-06-01

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on larval and pupal development and adult reproduction in D. suzukii were examined. Larvae (first, second, and third instars) and pupae (1-2-d-old, 3-5-d-old, and 7-8-d-old) on diet were irradiated at target doses of 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy in replicated factorial experiments and survival to the adult stage was recorded. Tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. Males and females were equally susceptible. A radiation dose of 40 Gy applied to first- and second-instar larvae prevented adult emergence. The late-stage pupa was the most radiation-tolerant stage that occurs in fruit, and individuals irradiated at this stage readily emerged as adults; therefore, prevention of F1 adults was the desired treatment response for large-scale validation tests with naturally infested fruit. In large-scale tests, a radiation dose of 80 Gy applied to late-stage pupae in sweet cherries or grapes resulted in no production of F1 adults in > 33,000 treated individuals, which meets the zero tolerance requirement for market access. A minimum absorbed dose of 80 Gy is recommended for quarantine control of D. suzukii.

  14. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Franz Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae. Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs.

  15. Relative Tolerance of Six Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) Species to Phytosanitary Cold Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Scott W; Cancio-Martinez, Elena; Hallman, Guy J; Fontenot, Emily A; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-12-01

    To compare relative cold treatment tolerance across the economically important tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), four populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), eggs (in vitro), and larvae (in infested fruit or on carrot diet) were cold treated at 2.0 ± 0.2 °C for selected durations. The study was performed to assess whether a single (i.e., generic) cold treatment could be developed that would control the entire group of fruit flies that were tested. Probit regression models showed that the hierarchy of cold resistance was third-instar larvae reared on carrot diet > third-instar larvae reared on orange > eggs test in vitro. Differences in mortality responses of third-instar larvae reared in oranges across populations of B. dorsalis were observed only at subefficacious levels of control. The majority of Bactrocera species responded the same at the high levels of control demanded of phytosanitary treatments, which indicated that cold treatments would be similarly effective across the species and populations tested. B. cucurbitae was found to be the most cold tolerant of all the species tested. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Desiccation resistance of wild and mass-reared Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, C W; Yap, S; Taylor, P W

    2013-12-01

    In pest management programmes that incorporate the sterile insect technique (SIT), the ability of mass-reared insects to tolerate dry conditions may influence their survival after release in the field. In the present study, desiccation resistance of adult mass-reared Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni (Frogatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), that are routinely released in SIT programmes was compared with that of wild flies at 1, 10 and 20 days after adult eclosion. Under dry conditions without access to food or water, longevity of mass-reared B. tryoni was significantly less than that of their wild counterparts. Desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies declined monotonically with age, but this was not the case for wild flies. The sharp decline in desiccation resistance of mass-reared flies as they aged was likely explained by decreased dehydration tolerance. As in an earlier study, desiccation resistance of females was significantly lower than that of males but this was particularly pronounced in mass-reared females. Female susceptibility to dry conditions corresponded with declining dehydration tolerance with age and associated patterns of reproductive development, which suggests that water content of their oocyte load is not available for survival during periods of water stress.

  17. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Suitability of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pupae for Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

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    Tang, Liang-De; Lu, Yong-Yue; Zhao, Hai-Yan

    2015-06-01

    Spalangia endius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is found to be one of the most important natural enemies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae) pupae in China. In this study, the influence of host pupal age on the preference for and suitability of the host by the parasitoid S. endius was determined using choice and nonchoice tests. S. endius females accepted the 1-7 d-old B. dorsalis pupae for oviposition, and their offspring developed successfully. However, the S. endius preferentially parasitized the 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old host pupae. The emergence rate of the adult progeny was not affected by the host pupal age, nor was the male body weight, male longevity, and sex ratio of the parasitoid offspring. However, the shortest development time of both male and female progeny and the greatest size and adult longevity of female progeny were observed in hosts that were ≤4 d old. Females emerged later and lived longer than males, and they weighed more than the males. Host mortality decreased as the age of the host increased for 1-7-d-old hosts. Our findings suggest that 2-, 3-, and 4-d-old B. dorsalis pupae would be the best host ages at which to rear S. endius for effective control in field releases. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Small-Scale Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Using Probability Kriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S Q; Zhang, H Y; Li, Z L

    2016-10-01

    Understanding spatio-temporal distribution of pest in orchards can provide important information that could be used to design monitoring schemes and establish better means for pest control. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was assessed, and activity trends were evaluated by using probability kriging. Adults of B. minax were captured in two successive occurrences in a small-scale citrus orchard by using food bait traps, which were placed both inside and outside the orchard. The weekly spatial distribution of B. minax within the orchard and adjacent woods was examined using semivariogram parameters. The edge concentration was discovered during the most weeks in adult occurrence, and the population of the adults aggregated with high probability within a less-than-100-m-wide band on both of the sides of the orchard and the woods. The sequential probability kriged maps showed that the adults were estimated in the marginal zone with higher probability, especially in the early and peak stages. The feeding, ovipositing, and mating behaviors of B. minax are possible explanations for these spatio-temporal patterns. Therefore, spatial arrangement and distance to the forest edge of traps or spraying spot should be considered to enhance pest control on B. minax in small-scale orchards.

  20. MORPHOMETRIC STUDY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTROCERA DORSALIS COMPLEX (DIPTERA : TEPHRITIDAE USING WING IMAGE ANALYSIS

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    A. ADSAVAKULCHAI

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bactrocera dorsalis complex (Diptera: Tephritidae used in this study included B. dorsalis, B. arecae, B. propinqua, B. pyrifoliae, B. verbascifoliae, and three new species complexes are species E, species K and species P. Bactrocera tau was used as an out-group. A total of 424 adults, which emerged from pupae collected from natural populations in Thai land, were prepared for wing measurements. Morphometric analysis was performed on measurements of wing vein characters. Wing images were captured in digital format and taken through digital image processing to calculate the Euclidean distance between wing vein junctions. Discriminant and cluster analyses were used for dichotomy of classification processes. All 424 wing specimens were classified to species in terms of the percentage of "grouped" cases which yielded about 89.6% accurate identificati on compared with the formal description of these species. After clustering, the percentage of "grouped"cases yielded 100.0%, 98.9%, 98.1%, 95.2% and 84.6% accurate identification between the B. dorsalis complex and B. tau; B. arecae and Species E; B. dorsalis and B. verbascifoliae; B. propinqua and B. pyrifoliae; and species K and species P, respectively. This method of numerical taxonomy may be useful for practical identification of other groups of agricultural pests.

  1. Genetic consequences of domestication and mass rearing of pest fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, A S; Cameron, E C; Sved, J A; Meats, A W

    2012-06-01

    Tephritid fruit flies, an important pest of horticulture worldwide, are increasingly targeted for control or eradication by large-scale releases of sterile flies of the same species. For each species treated, strains must be domesticated for mass rearing to provide sufficiently large numbers of individuals for releases. Increases in productivity of domesticated tephritid strains are well documented, but there have been few systematic studies of the genetic consequences of domestication in tephritids. Here, we used nine DNA microsatellite markers to monitor changes in genetic diversity during the early generations of domestication in replicated lines of the fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The observed changes in heterozygosity and allelic richness were compared with the expected changes in heterozygosity generated by a stochastic simulation including genetic drift but not selection. The results showed that repeatable genetic bottlenecks occur in the early generations and that selection occurs in the later generations. Furthermore, using the same simulation, we show that there is inadvertent selection for increased productivity for the entire life on a mass-rearing colony, in addition to intentional selection for increased productivity. That additional selection results from the common practice of establishing the next generation of the breeding colony from a small proportion of one day's pupae collection (the pupal raffle). That selection occurs during all generations and acts only on fecundity variation. Practical methods to counter that unavoidable loss of genetic diversity during the domestication process in B. tryoni are discussed.

  2. Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions

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    João Antonio C. Zequi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.

  3. Bacteria and Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Tree Hollows From the Iberian Mediterranean Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Galván, I R; Ferrer, J; Galante, E; Marcos-García, M A

    2017-02-01

    Saproxylic insect communities inhabiting tree hollows in Mediterranean forests depend on a combination of physical characteristics and interactions occurring between community member species. Despite the need to preserve these organisms, little is known about their interrelationships, in particular those relationships between saproxylic insects and microbiota occurring in these microhabitats. In tree hollows of Quercus rotundifolia Lamark that hold water and contain dead leaves, abundant microbial populations can be found. Developing on them are the larvae of Mallota dusmeti Andréu, 1926 (Diptera: Syrphidae), a vulnerable species (IUCN category: Marcos-García and Quinto 2011). This study provides the first data on the microbiota living inside the gut of the larvae of M. dusmeti, as well as the microbiota in the hollow where these larvae develop. Bacteria were identified by amplification and partial sequencing of the V1-V3 regions and the complete nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA genes. We found eight species of bacteria living in tree hollows and three species in the gut of M. dusmeti larvae: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus toyonensis, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The filter-feeding mechanism characteristic of M. dusmeti larvae is selective in enabling ingestion of bacteria only above 2.1 µm in diameter. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity.

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    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-02-25

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies.

  5. Olfactory response of Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava and sweet orange volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santiz, Edvin; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Hernández, Emilio; Malo, Edi A

    2016-10-01

    The behavioral responses of virgin and mated female Anastrepha striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) to guava (Psidium guajava L.) or sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) were evaluated separately using multilure traps in two-choice tests in field cages. The results showed that flies were more attracted to guava and sweet orange volatiles than to control (unbaited trap). The physiological state (virgin or mated) of females did not affect their attraction to the fruit volatiles. Combined analysis of gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) of volatile extracts of both fruits showed that 1 and 6 compounds from orange and guava, respectively elicited repeatable antennal responses from mated females. The EAD active compounds in guava volatile extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as ethyl butyrate, (Z)-3-hexenol, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, and ethyl octanoate. Linalool was identified as the only antennal active compound in sweet orange extracts. In field cage tests, there were no significant differences between the number of mated flies captured by the traps baited with guava extracts and the number caught by traps baited with the 6-component blend that was formulated according to the relative proportions in the guava extracts. Similar results occurred when synthetic linalool was evaluated against orange extracts. From a practical point of view, the compounds identified in this study could be used for monitoring A. striata populations. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Laboratory and field evaluation of an oviposition trap for Culex quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae

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    Rosângela MR Barbosa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ovitrap (BR-OVT based on physical and chemical stimuli for attracting gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae females was developed and evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Attractants were assayed using alternative chamber bioassays prior to being used in the BR-OVT oviposition trap. A significant preference of gravid females for sites containing conspecific egg rafts was observed, as a response to the natural oviposition pheromone, as well as for sites treated with the synthetic pheromone erythro-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide. Five- to 20-day old grass infusion was strongly attractive to gravid females for laying eggs. On the other hand, entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus (Bs did not influence the choice of an oviposition site when used in combination with grass infusion and can therefore be used as a larvicide in ovitraps. Results from field trials showed that the BR-OVT with grass infusion and with or without Bs works as a preferred oviposition site for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The BR-OVT was more effective for egg collection when placed indoors and comparison with the number of egg rafts laid in cesspits over 40 days indicates that this very simple ovitrap may be a useful tool for monitoring populations of the most important of the vectors of bancroftian filariasis.

  7. Sex-biased Patterns of Saprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) Collected With Different Baits of Animal Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulieri, P R; Patitucci, L D; Olea, M S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the response behavior of males and females of different families of Calyptratae (Diptera) to two different baits (rotten liver and feces) as separate attractants. We describe the sex bias toward these baits for species of Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae and compare the general patterns of this sex bias according to the family or trophic guild. In total, 15 species of Sarcophagidae, 10 species of Muscidae, and 9 species of Calliphoridae were analyzed. A female-biased pattern was observed for most calliphorids and for all muscids, whereas a male-biased pattern was more frequent among sarcophagids. The female captures on each kind of bait were assessed as a potential indicator of potential breeding substrates of the species. Three different trophic guilds and their pattern of sex bias were compared. The results obtained allow hypothesizing on the biological traits of saprophagous species, especially on their potential breeding substrates, and assessing proper sampling methods. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Aedes aegypti survival in the presence of Toxorhynchites violaceus (Diptera: Culicidae fourth instar larvae

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    Daniel S Albeny

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Different methods have been used to control A. aegypti, including chemical and biological tools. However, chemical control can lead to a subsequent increase in the mosquitoes' insecticide resistance, and biological control represents an important method as an alternative to insecticide usage. Larvae from the Toxorhynchites genus (Diptera: Culicidae are predators of other mosquitoes and represent a potential natural biocontrol agent of A. aegypti larvae. In the present work, A. aegypti larval survival was studied in the presence of the neotropical Toxorhynchites violaceus (Wiedemann, 1821 fourth instar larvae. Toxorhynchites violaceus consumption of A. aegypti increased during the 192 hours of the experiment and was more marked in the intervals between 96 and 120 hours and between 168 and 192 hours, when the A. aegypti survival reached 0%. During the fourth instar, T. violaceus increased its predation on A. aegypti larvae, possibly in order to increase its nutrient storage prior to pupation. Otherwise, low prey consumption can lead to a nutritional deficit for the larvae, delaying the adult's sexual development and reducing its egg production. Here we show that A. aegypti survival can be reduced by the T. violaceus fourth larvae predation under laboratory conditions

  9. Jenis dan habitat “lalat mata bertangkai” (Diptera: Diopsidae di bogor

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    Sopian Sopian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stalk eye flies (Diptera: Diopsidae is an insect family which has unique eye morphology. Their eyes are in the distal end of a long stalk. The information of species and their habitats is still very limited in Indonesia. Therefore, the objectives of this research were studying species diversity, habitat, and distribution areas of stalk eye flies in soroundings in Bogor. The sample sites are classified into three areas; lowland, middle, and upland. The flies ware taken with two methods: net sweeping and direct capture, then parts of the body were measured. The observation of stalk eye flies activity and behavior was done in the morning, midday, and afternoon. The result of observation indicated that stalk eye flies were found almost in all areas, from lowland to upland. On 15 survey locations, stalk eye flies were found in 10 locations with the same habitat. The species are Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni and Teleopsis sp.. C. dalmanni was found in 5 locations, and Teleopsis sp. in 9 locations. The observation result of stalk eye flies activity and behavior indicated that the number of stalk eye flies which captured in three period of time were not obviously different. Result from measuring stalk eye flies bodyparts indicated that the average size of male and female flies was not obviously different, except the male stalk is longer than female. In addition, C. dalmanni stalks are longer than Teleopsis sp. stalks.

  10. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control. PMID:28553626

  11. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae

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    Jukka Salmela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae. In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I. boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I. intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I. intricata and D. (I. esbeni (Nielsen. The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I. intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia.

  12. Phylogenetics of Australasian gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae): Evolutionary patterns of host-shifting and gall morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, S J; Davies, K A; Taylor, G S; Thornhill, A H; Lewis, M L; Winkler, I S; Yeates, D K; Purcell, M F; Makinson, J; Giblin-Davis, R M

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated host-specificity and phylogenetic relationships in Australian galling flies, Fergusonina Malloch (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), in order to assess diversity and explore the evolutionary history of host plant affiliation and gall morphology. A DNA barcoding approach using COI data from 203 Fergusonina specimens from 5gall types on 56 host plant species indicated 85 presumptive fly species. These exhibited a high degree of host specificity; of the 40 species with multiple representatives, each fed only on a single host genus, 29 (72.5%) were strictly monophagous, and 11 (27.5%) were reared from multiple closely related hosts. COI variation within species was not correlated with either sample size or geographic distance. However variation was greater within oligophagous species, consistent with expectations of the initial stages of host-associated divergence during speciation. Phylogenetic analysis using both nuclear and mitochondrial genes revealed host genus-restricted clades but also clear evidence of multiple colonizations of both host plant genus and host species. With the exception of unilocular peagalls, evolution of gall type was somewhat constrained, but to a lesser degree than host plant association. Unilocular peagalls arose more often than any other gall type, were primarily located at the tips of the phylogeny, and did not form clades comprising more than a few species. For ecological reasons, species of this gall type are predicted to harbor substantially less genetic variation than others, possibly reducing evolutionary flexibility resulting in reduced diversification in unilocular gallers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Phylogeographic Structure in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations Inferred With mtDNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Owen, Christopher L; Thomas, Donald B; Barr, Norman B; McPheron, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mexican fruit fly, is a major pest of citrus and mango. It has a wide distribution in Mexico and Central America, with infestations occurring in Texas, California, and Florida with origins believed to have been centered in northeastern Mexico. This research evaluates the utility of a sequence-based approach for two mitochondrial (COI and ND6) gene regions. We use these markers to examine genetic diversity, estimate population structure, and identify diagnostic information for A. ludens populations. We analyzed 543 individuals from 67 geographic collections and found one predominant haplotype occurring in the majority of specimens. We observed 68 haplotypes in all and see differences among haplotypes belonging to northern and southern collections. Mexico haplotypes differ by few bases possibly as a result of a recent bottleneck event. In contrast to the hypothesis suggesting northeastern Mexico as the origin of this species, we see that specimens from two southern collections show high genetic variability delineating three mitochondrial groups. These data suggest that Central America is the origin for A. ludens. We show that COI and ND6 are useful for phylogeographic studies of A. ludens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Primer reporte de miasis hospitalaria por Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae en Costa Rica

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    Lucía Quesada-Lobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las miasis hospitalarias son entidades con una importancia manifiesta en salud pública. La documentación de este tipo de casos es escasa en la literatura biomédica regional y mundial. Objetivo. Informar un caso de miasis hospitalaria en Costa Rica, donde el agente etiológico implicado fue Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Este caso de miasis hospitalaria figura como el primer informe para Latinoamérica asociado con este agente etiológico. Presentación del caso. Una paciente de 91 años de edad, con signos de inmunosupresión, afectación grave de la función pulmonar y asistencia respiratoria mecánica, presentó larvas en ambas fosas nasales al séptimo día después del ingreso hospitalario. Varios ejemplares fueron recolectados y procesados para su identificación. La identificación taxonómica de los ejemplares recolectados estableció que la especie de los muscomorfos correspondía a L. cuprina. Conclusión. El presente constituye el primer caso de miasis hospitalaria por L. cuprina en la literatura biomédica de Costa Rica y el primero registrado en Latinoamérica.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.690

  15. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alcaine-Colet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866 (Diptera, phoridae is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint.

  16. Effects of contaminants of emerging concern on Megaselia scalaris (Lowe, Diptera: Phoridae) and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Marcus J; Rothman, Jason A; Jones, Michael B; McFrederick, Quinn S; Gan, Jay; Trumble, John T

    2017-08-15

    Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae). Larvae were reared on artificial diets spiked with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Female flies showed no oviposition preference for treated or untreated diets. Larvae exposed to caffeine in diets showed increased mortality, and larvae fed antibiotics and hormones showed signs of slowed development, especially in females. The normal sex ratio observed in M. scalaris from control diets was affected by exposure to caffeine and pharmaceutical mixture treatments. There was an overall effect of treatment on the flies' microbial communities; notably, caffeine fed insects displayed higher microbial variability. Eight bacterial families accounted for approximately 95% of the total microbes in diet and insects. Our results suggest that CECs at environmentally relevant concentrations can affect the biology and microbial communities of an insect of ecological and medical importance.

  17. Temperature-Dependent Development Modeling of the Phorid Fly Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, S; Zamani, A A; Abbasi, S; Vafaei Shooshtari, R; Shirvani Farsani, N

    2016-10-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of Megaselia halterata (Wood) (Diptera: Phoridae) on A15 variety of button mushroom in the stages of casing and spawn-running was investigated at eight constant temperatures (10, 12.5, 15, 18, 20, 22.5, 25, and 27°C) and developmental rates were modeled as a function of temperature. At 25 and 27°C, an average of 22.2 ± 0.14 and 20.0 ± 0.10 days was needed for M. halterata to complete its development from oviposition to adult eclosion in the stages of casing and spawn-running, respectively. The developmental times of males or females at various constant temperatures were significantly different. Among the linear models, the Ikemoto and Takai linear model in the absence of 12.5 and 25°C showed the best statistical goodness-of-fit and based on this model, the lower developmental threshold and the thermal constant were estimated as 10.4°C and 526.3 degree-days, respectively. Twelve nonlinear temperature-dependent models were examined to find the best model to describe the relationship between temperature and development rate of M. halterata. The Logan 10 nonlinear model provided the best estimation for T opt and T max and is strongly recommended for the description of temperature-dependent development of M. halterata.

  18. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaine-Colet, Anna; Wotton, Karl R; Jimenez-Guri, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint.

  19. Nocturnal oviposition of the forensic scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew (Diptera: Phoridae indoors

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    A.B. Siti Zulaikha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In forensic entomology, nocturnal oviposition of flies could reduce discrepancy of minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin estimation which is due to assumption that oviposition only occurs during day time hours. Previous records indicate that some forensic species of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae displayed nocturnal oviposition and larviposition but such occurrences can be inconsistent. Apart from blow flies and flesh flies, the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are known to be forensically important indoors and they exhibit diurnal and nocturnal behaviour. To investigate if oviposition by scuttle flies occurs during night or day time hours, baited scuttle fly traps consisting decomposed cow’s liver were placed inside the Forensic Entomology Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia on diurnal and nocturnal intervals. The traps were divided into two groups, i.e. light-exposed and total dark conditions. It was discovered that all specimens collected were Megaselia scalaris (Loew and they were active and performed oviposition during day and night times. Light exposure did not affect oviposition activity during diurnal and nocturnal periods. Therefore, it is recommended that nocturnal oviposition must be taken into consideration when using this fly as reference for PMImin estimation.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Qinlai; Luo, Baihua; Wu, Chang; Wen, Jifang

    2016-01-01

    More than 1400 scuttle flies species in worldwide comprise the Megaselia genus, the largest genus in the family Phoridae. The complete mitochondrial genome of Megaselia scalaris, a medically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 15,599 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. The arrangement of the genes was identical with other insect. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.87%, G: 13.74%, C: 9.46%, T: 37.93% and the A + T content 76.80%. The mitochondrial genome of M. scalaris presented may be valuable for determining phylogenetic relationships within the order Diptera and especially for the family Phoridae. These sequences could also be used to select reliable molecular markers for species identification in forensic entomology.

  1. Community patterns of nectivorous adult parasitoids (Diptera, Bombyliidae) on their resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Catherine A

    1983-03-01

    Highly diverse assemblages of nectivorous bee flies (Diptera: bombyliidae) occur at desert sites in California presenting an opportunity to investigate the ecology of this little-known group. This study compared communities of adult bee flies visiting flowers at two sites, one in the Mojave Desert (Darwin Plateau) and one in the Great Basin (Mono Basin), during periods of higher and lower resource abundance. The range of resources used by single species varied inversely with the number of species present, with the greatest number of species and smallest niche breadths occurring at the Darwin Plateau. Adult bee flies did not visit flower resources at random. Rather the two major divisions of the family exhibited contrasting patterns of specialization on plant species. Results of this study support the hypothesis that resources were limiting for adult bee flies in the period of lower food abundance at the Darwin Plateau and not limiting at the Mono Basin during this study. Bee flies at the Mono Basin exhibited lower densities per flower (despite higher densities per unit area), lower frequency of feeding, a lower degree of specialization, and less pronounced phenological changes than bee flies at the Darwin Plateau. The data suggest that episodes of population regulation in the non-parasitic (i.e. adult) stage, due to short supply of the adults' food, contribute to determining the structure of parasitoid communities.

  2. Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae em Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Pseudolynchia canariensis (Diptera:Hippoboscidae on Buteogallus aequinoctialis (Ciconiiformes: Accipitridae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gredilha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Registro de Pseudolynchia canariensis em dois gaviões caranguejeiros de vida livre atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da Fundação RioZoo. Os dezenoves exemplares coletados foram identificados no Laboratório de Diptera da Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. O encontro de P. canariensis fora do hospedeiro natural (Columba livia, representa uma contribuição aos estudos da família Hippoboscidae, visto que não há registros sobre aves nativas do continente americano parasitadas por P. canariensis.The record of Pseudolynchia canariensis on two Rufous Crab-Hawk in situ taken care of the Hospital Veterinarian of the RioZoo Foundation. The nineteen collected specimens had been identified in the Laboratory of Diptera, Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The findings of P canariensis out natural hosty (Columba livia it represents a contribution to the studies of the family Hippoboscidae considering that it does not have records about native birds of the american continent parasitized by P canariensis.

  3. Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Josiane Somariva Prophiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.

  4. Distribucion geografica de Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae, vector de la batonellosis humana en el Peru Geographical distribution of Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae vector of human bartonellosis in Peru

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    Abraham G. Caceres

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae, vector natural de la verruga peruana o enfermedad de Carrión es una especie propia del Perú. Su distribución geográfica esta entre los paralelos 5º y 13º25' de latitud Sur, se encuentra en los valles Occidentales e Interandinos de los Andes. La distribución altitudinal de Lu. verrucarum en los diversos valles es variable; asi: Occidentales, desde 1100 hasta 2980 msnm e Interandinos, de 1200 a 3200 msnm. En ciertas áreas verrucógenas no hay correlación entre la presencia de Lu. verrucarum y la enfermedad de Carrión lo que suguiere la existencia de vectores secundarios.Lutzomyia verrucarum (Townsend, 1913 (Diptera: Psychodidae; the natural vector of Bartonella bacilliformis, agent of human bartonellosis (peruvian verruga or Carrion's disease, is a native specie of Peru; its geographic distribution occurres between latitudes 5º and 13º 25' South: in the Occidental and Interandean valleys of the Andean. The altitudinal distribution of Lu. verrucarum in the different valleys is as follows: Occidental between 1100 and 2980 m sea level and Interandean from 1200 to 3200 m sea level. Some discrepancies between the distribution of Carrion's disease and Lu. verrucarum suggest the existence of secondary vectors in certain areas where Lu. verrucarum is not present

  5. Vetufebrus ovatus n. gen., n. sp. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) vectored by a streblid bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Both sexes of bat flies in the families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) reside in the hair or on the wing membranes of bats and feed on blood. Members of the Nycteribiidae transmit bat malaria globally however extant streblids have never been implemented as vectors of bat malaria. The present study shows that during the Tertiary, streblids also were vectors of bat malaria. Results A new haemospororidan, Vetufebrus ovatus, n. gen., n. sp., (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) is described from two oocysts attached to the midgut wall and sporozoites in salivary glands and ducts of a fossil bat fly (Diptera: Streblidae) in Dominican amber. The new genus is characterized by ovoid oocysts, short, stubby sporozoites with rounded ends and its occurrence in a fossil streblid. This is the first haemosporidian reported from a streblid bat fly and shows that representatives of the Hippoboscoidea were vectoring bat malaria in the New World by the mid-Tertiary. Conclusions This report is the first evidence of an extant or extinct streblid bat fly transmitting malaria. Discovering a mid-tertiary malarial parasite in a fossil streblid that closely resembles members of a malarial genus found in nycteribiid bat flies today shows how little we know about the vector associations of streblids. While no malaria parasites have been found in extant streblids, they probably occur and it is possible that streblids were the earliest lineage of flies that transmitted bat malaria to Chiroptera. PMID:22152687

  6. Lista das espécies de Bibionomorpha (Diptera do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Sarah Siqueira Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho, é fornecida uma lista de espécies de Bibionomorpha conhecidas para o estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Das famílias dessa subordem de Diptera, apenas Anisopodidae, Sciaridae, Keroplatidae e Mycetophilidae foram registradas até o momento para essa região. Anisopodidae é representada por um gênero e uma espécie, Sciaridae por três gêneros e nove espécies, Keroplatidae por cinco gêneros e seis espécies, enquanto que Mycetophilidae é conhecida por oito gêneros e 14 espécies. São elencadas possíveis espécies das famílias de Bibionomorpha já conhecidas da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil cuja presença é esperada no Mato Grosso do Sul. Este levantamento é bastante indicativo da enorme diferença existente entre o conhecimento efetivo da biodiversidade de um grupo importante, como Diptera, em uma área grande, como o Mato Grosso do Sul, e a diversidade real do grupo em uma região do Brasil.

  7. Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Little is known about the morphology of the chitinized structures of the spermathecae of the Calliphoridae. In this work, the spermathecae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 and C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 are described and illustrated. The occurrence in one species of four spermathecae, an atypical form for blow flies, was recorded for the first time. The analysis of these structures will allow a better understanding of this group as well as provide taxonomic characters for future phylogenetic studies.Morfologia comparada das espermatecas de espécies de Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy e Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Pouco se conhece sobre a morfologia das estruturas quitinizadas das espermatecas de Calliphoridae. Nesse trabalho as espermatecas de Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 e C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 são descritas e ilustradas. Foi registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência em uma espécie com quatro espermatecas, uma forma atípica em califorídeos. A análise dessas estruturas possibilitará uma melhor compreensão do grupo e fornecerá caracteres taxonômicos para futuros estudos filogenéticos.

  8. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  9. Necrophagous species of Diptera and Coleoptera in northeastern Brazil: state of the art and challenges for the Forensic Entomologist

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    Simão D. Vasconcelos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventories on necrophagous insects carried out in Brazil encompass mostly species from the southeastern and central-western regions of the country. This review aims to produce the first checklist of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera species of forensic relevance in northeastern Brazil, an area that concentrates high rates of homicides. We performed a literature survey on scientific articles, theses and dissertations regarding necrophagous insect species in the region, and contacted scientists who develop research on forensic entomology. Fifty-two species of Diptera belonging to eight families with previous record of necrophagy were reported in the region: Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Piophilidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae. Coleopteran species from six families of forensic relevance were registered, although taxonomical identification remained superficial. Bait traps were the most frequent methodology used, followed by collection on animal carcasses. Seven Dipteran species from two families were registered on human cadavers. All species had been previously reported in other Brazilian states and/or other countries, although none has been effectively used in legal procedures in the region. The status of research on forensic entomology in northeastern Brazil is incipient, and the checklist produced here contributes to the knowledge on the local diversity of necrophagous insects.

  10. Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    , 1988; ... cient way to detect gene flow, reproductive isolation, species boundaries and population ..... NJ tree based on partial mitochondrial (a) 16S rRNA, (b) COI and (c) COII genes (left to right). Statistical support for nodes ...

  11. Ultramorphological features of the egg of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston (Diptera, Psychodidae

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    Thalita Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultramorphological features of the egg of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston (Diptera, Psychodidae. Psychodidae flies, also known as sewage, sand and filter flies are important for medical and veterinary purposes. General information about life cycle and adult habits is available, but few species are known about the egg morphology. Therefore, in this study, the egg ultramorphology of Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston, 1893 was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to describe its structure, generating data for further comparison between different fly species and genera. General aspects of T. albipunctatus egg are similar to other Psychodidae; egg measuring approximately 0.4 mm in length and 0.1 mm in width. However, based on the continuous and discontinuous longitudinal ridge sculptures observed on the exochorion, which can be species-specific, we can infer that T. albipunctatus eggs can survive under dry or moist conditions, making their control much more difficult. Our data emphasize the advantages of the electron microscope approach in the study of the exochorion patterns. Eggshell morphology of T. albipunctatus can be used as basis for further studies and as a tool to compare different species of Psychodidae flies.Aspectos ultramorfológicos do ovo de Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston (Diptera, Psychodidae. As moscas da família Psychodidae, também conhecidas como moscas de banheiro, são de importância médica e veterinária. Informações gerais sobre ciclo de vida e hábitos do adulto são facilmente encontradas, mas pouco se sabe sobre a morfologia do ovo. Dessa forma, neste estudo, a ultramofologia do ovo de Telmatoscopus albipunctatus (Williston, 1893 foi analisada por microscopia eletrônica de varredura com o objetivo de descrever sua estrutura, provendo importantes dados para futuras comparações entre moscas de diferentes espécies e gêneros. O aspecto geral do ovo de T. albipunctatus é similar a outros

  12. Biology of immature stages of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae in sugarcane and vinasse

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    Otávia Reis e Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Silva O.R., Andriotti P.A., Leal L.C.S.R. & Bittencourt A.J. [Biology of immature stages of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae in sugarcane and vinasse.] Biologia de estágios imaturos de Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae em cana de açúcar e vinhoto. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:45-50, 2015. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: bittenc@ufrrj.br To evaluate the effect of vinasse associated with sugarcane in the preoviposition, oviposition and immature stages of S. calcitrans, flies were collected, divided into groups of 15 (six cages and maintained in BOD (26.5±1°C/80% RH. The rearing media (77g of cane was deposited into beaker and stored for three days of fermentation. The vinasse was added in proportions of 1Kg/2L, 1kg/1L and 1Kg/0.5L; Groups I, II and III, and a Control (water for each group with vinasse. The adults were exposed to vinasse in cages, containing blood, water and 10g of the diet. The eggs were deposited in Petri dishes with moistened filter paper (0.5mL distilled water and a drop of blood. The hatched larvae (24h were counted and transferred to beakers containing diet. On the tenth day, the L3 were counted, weighed and returned to the diet. The pupae were removed on the 15th day post-oviposition and deposited in Petri dishes into the cage for emergence of adults. The preoviposition lasted four days and oviposition in Groups I (16 days and II (20 days was longer when compared to Group III (11 days. Larval viability showed how critical this stage is, as at the highest concentration of vinasse, viability was lower than in its control (Group I-2.4%/Control I-29%. Fungal contamination occurred in Group II, affecting larval viability (0.51% and the following stages, being lower than its control (8.75%. In Group III (19

  13. Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae biology in byproducts of sugar cane industry

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    Camila de Oliveira Ferreira Mendes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mendes C.deO.F., Silva A.C., Leal L.C.deS.R., Barbosa C.G & Bittencourt A.J. [Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae biology in byproducts of sugar cane industry.] Biologia de Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae em subprodutos da indústria sucroalcoleira. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:23-30, 2016. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23.890-000, Brasil. E-mail: camilamendes1009@gmail.com Stomoxys calcitrans fly is one of the dipterans of importance for livestock farming due to the considerable economic losses it determines worldwide. An aspect that favors the occurrence of this insect's outbreaks in Brazil is the generation of large quantities of by-products from the alcohol industry, such as vinasse, sugarcane straw, bagasse, filtercake and ashes. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible interference of vinasse and ashes on the immature stages of S. calcitrans, by comparing the biological parameters observed with or without the presence of these substrates. In Experiment I, three groups of 50 eggs were deposited in a diet composed of one kilogram of chopped cane and 250mL, 500mL and 1L of vinasse (groups 1, 2 and 3. In the control groups, distilled water was added to the chopped cane in the same proportions used in the groups treated with vinasse. In Experiment II, three groups of 50 larvae from eight to 10 days of emergence were deposited on a diet composed of cane, vinasse and ashes. The ashes were used in the proportion of 1, 2 and 3% (groups 1, 2 and 3 of sugar cane (100g and vinasse was used in the proportion of 100mL for all groups and their respective controls. The control group contained only sugarcane and vinasse. Both experiments were kept in a climatized chamber (27 ± 1°C and 70-80% RH, and three replications were performed. After Experiment I, it was verified that

  14. First colony of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae successfully established under laboratory conditions in Argentina

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    Maricel ANGULO LEWYLLE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas de los establos, Stomoxys calcitrans (L. (Diptera:Muscidae son insectos hematófagos que representan un problema, no solo por su hemato - fagia y transmisión de patógenos, sino además, porque su impacto económico en las producciones pecuarias es relevante. En Argentina aún no existe una cría de la plaga. El objetivo de este trabajo es establecer y describir la primera cría de Stomoxys calcitrans en el país y registrar la duración de cada estadio bajo condi - ciones controladas de laboratorio. Los adultos fueron exitosamente criados en una cámara de cría (28 ± 1 ºC y 47 ± 1 %RH bajo un fotoperiodo de 14 h: 10 h (Luz: Oscuridad, mientras que los estadios inmaduros se criaron a 25 ± 2 ºC y luz na - tural. El ciclo desde los huevos hasta la emergencia de adultos duró 16,75 ± 2,9 días. El tiempo de desarrollo requerido para alcanzar el nuevo estado fue de: 2,0 ± 0,8, 6,75 ± 1,3 y 7,75 ± 1,7 días para huevos, larvas y pupas; respectivamente. Los adultos vivieron 16,5 ± 1,91 días. El período de preoviposición fue de 5,0 ± 0,8 días. La supervivencia de larvas y pupas fue de 93,28% y 70,25%, respectivamen - te. Estos resultados pueden ser usados como referencia por otras colonias que se establecieren en un futuro en el país.

  15. Assessment of Vegetable and Fruit Substrates as Potential Rearing Media for Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae.

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    Jucker, Costanza; Erba, Daniela; Leonardi, Maria Giovanna; Lupi, Daniela; Savoldelli, Sara

    2017-10-13

    Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is able to consume a wide range of organic matter and is of particular interest for waste management. The nutritional value of preimaginal stages, in particular the protein content, makes this species a valid candidate for use as feed for other organisms. Vegetables and fruits are promising rearing substrates for insects produced for this purpose according to the EU regulation. In order to examine the effects of diets on insect performance and chemical composition, larvae were reared on the following substrates: 1) fruit (apple, pear, and orange); 2) vegetable (lettuce, green beans, and cabbage); and 3) mixed fruits and vegetables. High percentages of survival were observed on all diets, but there were differences among weights of larvae, pupae, and adults, with weights of larvae reared on mixed fruits and vegetables lower than on other diets. Pupae reared on the mixed diet were heaviest, and also morphometric measurements of adults were highest. Larvae reared on fruit diets had the highest fat content, comprising mostly saturated fatty acids; the highest content of essential n-3 fatty acids was found in vegetable reared larvae and that of n-6 in mixed reared larvae. Larvae reared on the mixed diet had the highest protein content. Calcium contents were high and moderate amounts of iron and zinc were found. H. illucens showed the capability to develop on vegetable and fruits diets displaying different nutrient profiles and biological performances. The best-performing rearing strategy should vary in relation to the final use of H. illucens. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Grass Pollen Affects Survival and Development of Larval Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Asmare, Yelfwagash; Hopkins, Richard J; Tekie, Habte; Hill, Sharon R; Ignell, Rickard

    2017-09-01

    Nutrients in breeding sites are critical for the survival and development of malaria mosquitoes, having a direct impact on vectorial capacity. Yet, there is a limited understanding about the natural larval diet and its impact on the individual fitness of mosquitoes. Recent studies have shown that gravid Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) are attracted by and oviposit in grass-associated habitats. The pollen provided by these grasses is a potential source of nutrients for the larvae. Here, we assess the effect of Typha latifolia L. (Poales: Typhaceae), Echinochloa pyramidalis Lamarck, Pennisetum setaceum Forsskål, and Zea mays L. pollen on larval survival and rate of development in An. arabiensis under laboratory conditions. In addition, we characterize the carbon to nitrogen ratio and the size of pollen grains as a measure of diet quality. Carbon-rich pollen with a small grain size (T. latifolia and P. setaceum; 9.7 ± 0.3 × 103 and 5.5 ± 0.2 × 104 µm3, respectively) resulted in enhanced rates of development of An. arabiensis. In contrast, the larva fed on the nitrogen-rich control diet (TetraMin) was slower to develop, but demonstrated the highest larval survival. Larvae fed on carbon-rich and large-grained Z. mays pollen (4.1 ± 0.2 × 105 µm3) survived at similar levels as those fed on the control diet and also took a longer time to develop compared with larvae fed on the other pollens. While males and females did not appear to develop differently on the different pollen diets, males consistently emerged faster than their female counterparts. These results are discussed in relation to integrated vector management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  17. Bloodmeal analysis reveals avian Plasmodium infections and broad host preferences of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae vectors.

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    Diego Santiago-Alarcon

    Full Text Available Changing environmental conditions and human encroachment on natural habitats bring human populations closer to novel sources of parasites, which might then develop into new emerging diseases. Diseases transmitted by host generalist vectors are of special interest due to their capacity to move pathogens into novel hosts. We hypothesize that humans using forests for recreation are exposed to a broad range of parasites from wild animals and their vectors. A corollary of this is that new vector-host, parasite-host, and vector-parasite associations could eventually develop. Thus, we expect to observe atypical vector-host associations. Using molecular bloodmeal analysis via amplification of the mtDNA COI gene we identified the vertebrate hosts of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae species in a sub-urban forest of Southwestern Germany. Bloodmeals were also checked for haemosporidian infections by amplifying a fragment of the mtDNA cyt b gene. We identified a total of 20 Culicoides species, thirteen of which fed on humans. From 105 screened bloodmeals we obtained high quality sequences for 77 samples, 73 (94.8% originated from humans, two from livestock (Bos taurus and Equus caballus, and two from wild birds (Sylvia atricapilla and Turdus merula. We found that four Culicoides species previously assumed to feed exclusively on either birds (C. kibunensis or domestic mammals (C. chiopterus, C. deltus, C. scoticus fed also on humans. A total of six Culicoides abdomens were infected with avian haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, four of those abdomens contained blood derived from humans. Our results suggest that parasites of wild animals may be transferred to humans through infectious bites of Culicoides vectors. Further, we show that Culicoides vectors believed to be a specialist on specific vertebrate groups can have plastic feeding preferences, and that Culicoides are susceptible to infection by Plasmodium parasites, though vector

  18. Effects of adhesive powders on the mating and flight behavior of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Armsworth, Clare G; Baxter, Ian H; Barton, Lucy E E; Poppy, Guy M; Nansen, Christian

    2006-08-01

    Powders that adhere to insect cuticle can be used as carrier particles for synthetic insecticides, entomopathogens, or pheromones in insect control systems, and insects can be lured into contact with such powder mixtures by using attractants. Secondary transfer of adhesive powders to conspecifics during social interactions has been reported; however, this transfer relies on insects leaving the source of powder and continuing normal behavior when contaminated. We examined the ability of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae), to fly and mate after being contaminated with one of two adhesive powders: an electrostatic wax powder, Entostat, and a proprietary metallic powder, Entomag. During continuous observations for 1 h in a flight tunnel, male C. capitata made significantly more flights than females. Treating C. capitata with either powder significantly suppressed the flight activity of male C. capitata compared with untreated controls, whereas powder treatment had a negligible effect on female flight activity. Within 1 h, male C. capitata treated with Entomag recovered normal flight activity, but Entostat-treated males were not fully recovered. Virgin male C. capitata treated with either Entostat or Entomag were able to mate with virgin female C. capitata, but the onset of mating was delayed compared with control C. capitata by approximately 1 h. Even though the effect of powder uptake on behavior seemed to be temporary, scanning electron micrograph images of treated C. capitata showed that both powders were retained for > 24 h on most body parts. The adhesive powders showed potential for use as carrier particles for pesticides, entomopathogens, or pheromones in novel C. capitata control systems.

  19. Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae

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    Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.

  20. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

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    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.