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Sample records for vetiver oil nootkatone

  1. Quality and Chemical Composition of Organic and Non-Organic Vetiver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kadarohman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides has been used as perfume materials, cosmetics, fragrance soaps, anti-inflammation, repellent, and insecticidal agents. Organic vetiver oil has higher economical value than non-organic vetiver oil and it has been regarded to be able to compete in the global market. Therefore, studies have been carried out using 1 hectare of land and the first generation of organic vetiver oil has produced 0.57% of yield, greater than non-organic (0.50%. The quality of organic and non-organic vetiver oil was analyzed by Indonesian Standard (SNI parameter, pesticide residue test, chemical composition by GC/MS, and the appearance of vetiver root. In general, the result of organic and non-organic vetiver oil has fulfilled the national standard; the quality of organic vetiver oil was better than non-organic one. Physically, the appearance of organic vetiver root was better than non-organic vetiver root; organic vetiver root was denser, more appealing, and did not have any black spots. The pesticide residue of organic vetiver oil was lower than non-organic vetiver oil. Based on SNI test, vetiverol (oxygen compounds in organic vetiver oil was higher than non-organic vetiver oil.

  2. Alternative to conventional extraction of vetiver oil: Microwave hydrodistillation of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, H. S.; Altway, A.; Mahfud, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study the extraction of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides) has been carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation. In the extraction of vetiver oil using microwave hydrodistillation method is studied the effect of microwave power, feed to solvent (F/S) ratio and extraction time on the yield of vetiver oil. Besides, in this study can be seen that microwave hydrodistillation method offers important advantages over hydrodistillation, such as shorter extraction time (3 h vs. 24 h for hydrodistillation); better yields (0.49% vs. 0.46% for hydrodistillation); and environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing hydrodistillation than that required for extraction using microwave hydrodistillation). Based on the analysis using GC-MS can be seen 19 components on vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation. In addition, GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation method were β-Gurjunene (30.12%), α-Vetivone (20.12%), 4-(1-cyclohexenyl)-2-trimethylsilymethyl-1-buten-3-yne (13.52%) and δ-Selinene (7.27%).

  3. Quality and Chemical Composition of Organic and Non-Organic Vetiver Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Asep Kadarohman; Ratnaningsih Eko S.; Gebi Dwiyanti; Lela Lailatul K.; Ede Kadarusman; Ahmad Nur F.

    2014-01-01

    Vetiver oil (Vetiveria zizanoides) has been used as perfume materials, cosmetics, fragrance soaps, anti-inflammation, repellent, and insecticidal agents. Organic vetiver oil has higher economical value than non-organic vetiver oil and it has been regarded to be able to compete in the global market. Therefore, studies have been carried out using 1 hectare of land and the first generation of organic vetiver oil has produced 0.57% of yield, greater than non-organic (0.50%). The quality of organi...

  4. Modification of sleep-waking and electroencephalogram induced by vetiver essential oil inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Cheaha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Previously, efficacy of essential oil application has been considered as non evidence based. In this study, we performed scientific research of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides essential oil inhalation. The results confirmed its beneficial properties with quantitative data of sleep-waking and EEG profiles. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 72-78

  5. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negisa Darajeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME, a pollutant produced by the palm oil industry, was treated by the Vetiver system technology (VST. This technology was applied for the first time to treat POME in order to decrease biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD. In this study, two different concentrations of POME (low and high were treated with Vetiver plants for 2 weeks. The results showed that Vetiver was able to reduce the BOD up to 90% in low concentration POME and 60% in high concentration POME, while control sets (without plant only was able to reduce 15% of BOD. The COD reduction was 94% in low concentration POME and 39% in high concentration POME, while control just shows reduction of 12%. Morphologically, maximum root and shoot lengths were 70 cm, the number of tillers and leaves was 344 and 86, and biomass production was 4.1 kg m−2. These results showed that VST was effective in reducing BOD and COD in POME. The treatment in low concentration was superior to the high concentration. Furthermore, biomass of plant can be considered as a promising raw material for biofuel production while high amount of biomass was generated in low concentration of POME.

  6. Effect of calcium on growth performance and essential oil of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) grown on lead contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Foster, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effect of calcium on growth, survival, essential oil yield and chemical compositions of vetiver grass grown on lead contaminated soils. Calcium inform of CaCO3 (0, 2000, 4000, 6000 mg Ca kg(-1)) was added to river sand soils containing 4000 mg Pb kg(-1) dry soil. Results showed that, in the absence of calcium treatment, no plants survived after 2 weeks of cultivation, while the rest grew well to the end of the experimental period (42 weeks). Calcium treatments generally resulted in a slight decrease in biomass. Interestingly, an increase in calcium over 2000 mg kg(-1) did not result in a decrease in accumulation of lead in vetiver roots and shoots. The levels of lead in roots and shoots under calcium treatments were around 2000 and 90 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. The addition of CaCO3 did not improve vetiver essential oil yield and chemical composition compared to the control. A level of applied CaCO3 about half of the lead concentration in soils was sufficient to improve vetiver growth and survival, and accumulate high concentrations of lead in the roots. This finding can be applied for re-vegetation of lead contaminated soils using vetiver.

  7. Toxicity and growth inhibition potential of vetiver, cinnamon, and lavender essential oils and their blends against larvae of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem F; Ali, Ali M; Abouelella, Galal A; Marawan, Marawan A; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Abbas, Rao Z; Vaz, Nelissa P; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-02-08

    Myiasis induced by the sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata, represents a public health problem widely distributed throughout the world. L. sericata larval stages feed on both humans and animals. L. sericata adults and larvae can play a role in spreading agents of mycobacterial infections. It is critical to establish new and safe alternative methods of controlling L. sericata. The insecticidal effectiveness and growth inhibition potential of three commercially available essential oils (EOs), vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), as well as their blends, were tested against the second (L2) and third (L3) larval stages of L. sericata. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil was used as a carrier and tested on L2 and L3 larvae. To the best of our knowledge, all applied essential oils, except lavender, and oil blends were tested against L. sericata for the first time. All applied oils did not repel L2 from the treated liver but adversely affected their development. Contact treatments on L. sericata L3 indicated that vetiver and cinnamon oils significantly affected treated larvae. Total mortality rates were 93.33 and 95.56%, respectively. Furthermore, oil blends tested through contact assays killed larvae when used at higher concentrations; adult emergence was eliminated post-treatment with doses >30% for oil blend 1 and >10% for oil blend 2. Overall, cinnamon and vetiver oils (5%) were selected as reliable and cheap biopesticides for controlling larvae of L. sericata. The tested oils are inexpensive and represent new promising botanical insecticides in the fight against blowflies causing myiasis. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Acaricidal properties of vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides (Poaceae) against the tick species Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro

    2015-09-15

    Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Unravelling the scent of vetiver: identification of character-impact compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, Emilie; Baldovini, Nicolas; Brevard, Hugues; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Filippi, Jean-Jacques

    2014-11-01

    Vetiver oil is a highly esteemed basic ingredient of modern perfumery, but the nature of the constituents that really impart its typical and most sought woody-earthy scent has remained controversial. Indeed, vetiver oil is considered as one of the most complex essential oils, being mostly composed of several hundreds of sesquiterpene derivatives with a large structural diversity. Its complexity has hindered the direct identification of its odoriferous components. We thus aimed at using a combination of GC×GC/MS and GC-Olfactometry in order to identify most of its odor-impact constituents. The olfactory analysis of vetiver oil and vetiveryl acetate revealed a huge variety of odors in both products. While khusimone has almost unanimously been recognized as the most characteristic vetiver odorant, we have identified several even more important contributors to the typical vetiver character. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. LCA of bioethanol and furfural production from vetiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2015-06-01

    In this study a prospective life cycle assessment of biorefinery system from vetiver leaves was carried out to know the environmental benefits of this system over conventional systems considering the geographical context of India. The composition of vetiver leaves from the experimental analysis revealed that vetiver is rich in cellulose (32.6%), hemicellulose (31.5%) and lignin (17.3%) that could be used as a feedstock for biorefinery. The comparative life cycle assessment results show that the carbon dioxide emission and fossil oil depletion could be reduced by 95% and 23% respectively in case of standalone bioethanol system, and 99% and 17% respectively in case of bioethanol and furfural system compared to that of conventional petrol and furfural systems. The sensitivity study indicates that the impact could be further reduced if vetiver biomass is used as a source of energy in biorefinery plant instead to the coal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome in two distinct morphotypes of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakrabarty, Debasis; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chauhan, Abhishek Singh; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Lavania, Umesh Chandra; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    .... Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B...

  12. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome in two distinct morphotypes of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty

    OpenAIRE

    Debasis Chakrabarty; Puneet Singh Chauhan; Abhishek Singh Chauhan; Yuvraj Indoliya; Umesh Chandra Lavania; Chandra Shekhar Nautiyal

    2015-01-01

    Vetiver, a perennial C4 grass, has long been known for its multifarious uses in perfumery, medicine and environmental protection. Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B. South Indian type with more number of thin and hairy roots that produce inferior quality of dextrorotatory oil. The two morphotypes were targeted for transcriptome ...

  13. Use of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma Cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana M; Cantet, Rodolfo J C; Güemes, Daniel R; Pensel, Norma A

    2002-08-14

    The objective of this research was to study the usefulness of nootkatone as a senescence indicator for Rouge La Toma cv. grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.), simulating different treatments that included the normal postharvest handling of citrus fruits: temperature conditioning, cold storage, shipment periods to overseas markets such as Japan and the U.S., marketing conditions, and storage at nonchilling temperature (control treatments). The highest nootkatone levels, determined by GLC-MS analyses, were detected in fruits subjected to control treatments. No significant differences were observed in nootkatone levels between treatments either with or without temperature conditioning prior to the start of the cold storage. Levels of nootkatone increased throughout time for all assayed treatments. The linear regressions of nootkatone levels showed correlation coefficients of 0.80 and 0.83 with storage time (29 and 42 days, respectively). Therefore, nootkatone appears to be a good indicator of senescence for Rouge La Toma grapefruit.

  14. Molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, R S; Zucchi, M I; Pinheiro, J B; Campos, J B; Pereira, A A; Bianchini, F G; Lima, R N; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Alves, P B; Blank, A F

    2015-08-14

    Due to the economic interests in vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, molecular and chemical studies are essential to generate information for its sustainable exploitation. The aim of this study was to undertake a molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver accessions of the active germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe. The molecular characteristics of the accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, with a total of 14 primer combinations that generated 442 loci, allowing us to observe that these accessions have similar genomes. The vetiver accessions were divided into three distinct groups, where accession UFS-VET005 was the most differentiated and accession UFS-VET004 had the lowest essential oil content (0.70%). The content of the chemical constituents of the essential oils was observed to vary, with a predominance of khusimol, which ranged from 18.97 to 25.02%. It was possible to divide the vetiver accessions into two groups based on chemical composition, and these groups do not correlate with the molecular grouping. Therefore, it is necessary to perform molecular and chemical analyses to characterize vetiver accessions.

  15. Evaluation of enhanced soil washing process and phytoremediation with maize oil, carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin, and vetiver grass for the recovery of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals from a pesticide factory site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Liu, Zongtang; Ni, Ni; Chen, Yinwen; Gu, Chengang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin

    2014-08-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed in this study to remediate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals in a mixed contaminated site. Elevated temperature (60 °C) combined with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 50 mL L(-1) maize oil and 45 g L(-1) carboxylmethyl-β-cyclodextrin were effective in extracting pollutants from the soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total OCPs, mirex, endosulfans, chlordanes, Cd, and Pb were approximately 94.7%, 87.2%, 98.5%, 92.3%, 91.6%, and 87.3%, respectively. Cultivation of vetiver grass and addition of nutrients for 3 months further degraded 34.7% of the residual total OCPs and partially restored the microbiological functions of the soil. This result was indicated by the significant increase in the number, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p pollutants in the remediated soil was at an acceptable level. The proposed combined cleanup strategy proved to be effective and environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of the sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone by metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriessnegger, Tamara; Augustin, Peter; Engleder, Matthias; Leitner, Erich; Müller, Monika; Kaluzna, Iwona; Schürmann, Martin; Mink, Daniel; Zellnig, Günther; Schwab, Helmut; Pichler, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone is a highly demanded and highly valued aroma compound naturally found in grapefruit, pummelo or Nootka cypress tree. Extraction of (+)-nootkatone from plant material or its production by chemical synthesis suffers from low yields and the use of environmentally harmful methods, respectively. Lately, major attention has been paid to biotechnological approaches, using cell extracts or whole-cell systems for the production of (+)-nootkatone. In our study, the yeast Pichia pastoris initially was applied as whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of (+)-nootkatone from (+)-valencene, the abundant aroma compound of oranges. Therefore, we generated a strain co-expressing the premnaspirodiene oxygenase of Hyoscyamus muticus (HPO) and the Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that hydroxylated extracellularly added (+)-valencene. Intracellular production of (+)-valencene by co-expression of valencene synthase from Callitropsis nootkatensis resolved the phase-transfer issues of (+)-valencene. Bi-phasic cultivations of P. pastoris resulted in the production of trans-nootkatol, which was oxidized to (+)-nootkatone by an intrinsic P. pastoris activity. Additional overexpression of a P. pastoris alcohol dehydrogenase and truncated hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHmg1p) significantly enhanced the (+)-nootkatone yield to 208mg L(-1) cell culture in bioreactor cultivations. Thus, metabolically engineered yeast P. pastoris represents a valuable, whole-cell system for high-level production of (+)-nootkatone from simple carbon sources. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Pretreatment Methods on Vetiver Leaves for Efficient Processes of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Neurospora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Dewi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material for bioethanol production. Neurospora sp. can be used to convert lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol because of its ability to perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, lignin content, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity of cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass can inhibit cellulosic-biomass digestion by Neurospora sp, so that a suitable pretreatment method of lignocellulosic biomass is needed. The focus of this research was to investigate the suitable pretreatment method for vetiver leaves (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) used as a raw material producing bioethanol in the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Neurospora sp.. Vetiver plants obtained from Garut are deliberately cultivated to produce essential oils extracted from the roots of this plant. Since the vetiver leaves do not contain oil, some of harvested leaves are usually used for crafts and cattle feed, and the rest are burned. This study intended to look at other potential of vetiver leaves as a source of renewable energy. Pretreatments of the vetiver leaves were conducted using hot water, dilute acid, alkaline & dilute acid, and alkaline peroxide, in which each method was accompanied by thermal treatment. The results showed that the alkaline peroxide treatment is a suitable for vetiver leaves as indicated by the increase of cellulose content up to 65.1%, while the contents of hot water soluble, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash are 8.7%, 18.3%, 6.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. Using this pretreatment method, the vetiver leaves can be converted into bioethanol by SSF process using Neurospora sp. with a concentration of bioethanol of 6.7 g/L operated at room temperature.

  18. Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes Scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) in a Lyme Disease Endemic Area of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari : Ixodidae...the ability of the natural, plant-derived acaricides nootkatone and carvacrol to suppress Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) ( Acari ...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ability of Two Natural Products, Nootkatone and Carvacrol, to Suppress Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum ( Acari

  19. Peran Rumput Vetiver (Chrysopogon Zizanioides) Dalam Fitoremediasi Pencemaran Perairan Sungai

    OpenAIRE

    Komarawidjaja, Wage; Garno, Yudhi Soetrisno

    2016-01-01

    Dalam rangka memperbaiki kualitas perairan Sungai, vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) telah ditanampada kawasan bantaran Sungai CIkapundung selama 63 hari. Dua wadah dialiri dengan sumber air yangberbeda, yaitu air sungai dan air tanah (sumur). Produksi biomassa diukur setiap 20 harian sekali,dengan fokus pengukuran pada pertumbuhan tunas dan akar vetiver. Secara umum, pertumbuhan tunasdan akar vetiver yang ditanam pada wadah yang dialiri air sungai tumbuh lebih baik (panjang) daripadavetiver ...

  20. Nootkatone encapsulation by cyclodextrins: Effect on water solubility and photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Landy, David; Ruellan, Steven; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Nootkatone (NO) is a sesquiterpenoid volatile flavor, used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, possessing also insect repellent activity. Its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and stability; this could be resolved by encapsulation in cyclodextrins (CDs). This study evaluated the encapsulation of NO by CDs using phase solubility studies, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Solid CD/NO inclusion complex was prepared and characterized for encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity using UV-Visible. Thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis and release studies were performed using multiple headspace extraction. Formation constants (K f ) proved the formation of stable inclusion complexes. NO aqueous solubility, photo- and thermal stability were enhanced and the release could be insured from solid complex in aqueous solution. This suggests that CDs are promising carrier to improve NO properties and, consequently, to enlarge its use in foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of vetiver grass for radiocesium absorption ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualchavee Roongtanakiat

    2017-06-01

    The Surat Thani vetiver plantlets were cultured in 134Cs solution with a concentration of 5 MBq/L for different periods. The results of the radiographic image, PSL signals and the radioactivity levels in the vetiver samples strongly indicated that vetiver could absorb a greater amount of 134Cs when the period of culture was longer. After vetiver culture periods of 3 d, 6 d, 9 d, 12 d, 15 d and 18 d, the activity of 134Cs in the cultured solutions declined to 98.0%, 93.2%, 88.6%, 78.1%, 70.7% and 65.5%, respectively. These values indicated that vetiver could remediate 134Cs in the cultured solution by 2.0%, 6.8%, 11.4%, 21.9%, 29.3% and 34.5% for the respective durations.

  2. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome in two distinct morphotypes of vetiver, Chrysopogon zizaniodes (L.) Roberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Debasis; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chauhan, Abhishek Singh; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Lavania, Umesh Chandra; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2015-12-18

    Vetiver, a perennial C4 grass, has long been known for its multifarious uses in perfumery, medicine and environmental protection. Two distinct vetiver morphotypes have been identified in India, i.e., A. North Indian type characterized by thick and smooth fast growing roots that produce superior quality of laevorotatory oil; and B. South Indian type with more number of thin and hairy roots that produce inferior quality of dextrorotatory oil. The two morphotypes were targeted for transcriptome analysis to understand the contribution of genetic background on oil quality and root morphology. Sample A showed enhanced activity of flavonoid and terpenoid biosynthesis related genes, i.e. ERF, MYB, bHLH, bZIP and WRKY. Interestingly, expression analysis revealed that the genes involved in sesquiterpene biosynthesis pathway were up regulated in Sample A. Moreover, some of the genes involved in mevalonate pathway of sesquiterpene biosynthesis were unique to Sample A. Our results also demonstrated several transcripts involved in root development and hormonal regulation being up regulated in Sample A. To validate gene expression results of RNA-seq data, 20 transcripts were validated by qRT-PCR experiment. The present study provided an important start point for further discovery of genes related to root oil quality in different ecotypes of vetiver.

  3. Propagação e conservação in vitro de vetiver In vitro propagation and conservation of vetiver grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiana C Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides é um capim perene com características físico-químicas e agronômicas importantes que o torna uma espécie destaque. De suas raízes é extraído um óleo essencial utilizado amplamente na produção de perfumes e devido à sua baixa volatilidade, como fixador de odor. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um protocolo de propagação e de conservação in vitro de vetiver. Para o ensaio de multiplicação in vitro testaram-se combinações dos reguladores de crescimento BAP e ANA. Na aclimatização foram testados substratos contendo pó de coco e/ou vermiculita suplementado com calcário, fertilizante NPK (3-12-6 e concentrações dos sais do meio MS. Nos ensaios de conservação in vitro foram avaliadas as temperaturas de 18 e 25°C, reguladores osmóticos (sacarose, manitol e sorbitol, o inibidor de crescimento ABA e diferentes concentrações dos sais MS. Verificou-se que a micropropagação de vetiver UFS-VET003 é promovida em meio MS líquido acrescido de 3,33 mg L-1 de BAP, sendo a etapa de enraizamento das brotações proporcionada em meio MS básico, também líquido. Para aclimatização recomenda-se o substrato PBC. A conservação in vitro é possível em meio MS semissólido com 25% dos sais MS e temperatura de 18°C por um período de 270 dias.Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides is a perennial grass which presents physicochemical and agronomic characteristics that highlights the importance of this species. From the roots of vetiver grass essential oil is extracted which is widely used for perfume production, and because of its low volatility it is used as fragrance fixer. We developed a protocol for in vitro propagation and conservation of vetiver grass. For the in vitro multiplication assay, combinations of the growth regulators BAP and NAA were tested. For acclimatization, substrates containing coconut coir and/or vermiculite, supplemented with limestone, NPK (3-12-6 fertilizer and the

  4. (+)-Nootkatone inhibits tumor necrosis factor α/interferon γ-induced production of chemokines in HaCaT cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeon-Jae; Lee, Jin-Hwee [College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Yi-Sook, E-mail: yisjung@ajou.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • (+)-Nootkatone inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC and MDC expression in HaCaT cells. • PKCζ, p38 MAPK, or NF-κB mediate TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC and MDC expression. • (+)-Nootkatone inhibits TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of PKCζ, p38 MAPK, or NF-κB. • (+)-Nootkatone suppresses chemokine expression by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 pathways. - Abstract: Chemokines are important mediators of cell migration, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) are well-known typical inflammatory chemokines involved in atopic dermatitis (AD). (+)-Nootkatone is the major component of Cyperus rotundus. (+)-Nootkatone has antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and antiplatelet activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of (+)-nootkatone on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)/interferon γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of Th2 chemokines in HaCaT cells. We found that (+)-nootkatone inhibited the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 mRNA in HaCaT cells. It also significantly inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ). Furthermore, we showed that PKCζ and p38 MAPK contributed to the inhibition of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression by blocking IκBα degradation in HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that (+)-nootkatone may suppress TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 expression in HaCaT cells by inhibiting of PKCζ and p38 MAPK signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-κB. We propose that (+)-nootkatone may be a useful therapeutic candidate for inflammatory skin diseases such as AD.

  5. One-Pot Synthesis of (+-Nootkatone via Dark Singlet Oxygenation of Valencene: The Triple Role of the Amphiphilic Molybdate Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Hong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient one-pot catalytic synthesis of (+-nootkatone was performed from (+-valencene using only hydrogen peroxide and amphiphilic molybdate ions. The process required no solvent and proceeded in three cascade reactions: (i singlet oxygenation of valencene according to the ene reaction; (ii Schenck rearrangement of one hydroperoxide into the secondary β-hydroperoxide; and (iii dehydration of the hydroperoxide into the desired (+-nootkatone. The solvent effect on the hydroperoxide rearrangement is herein discussed. The amphiphilic dimethyldioctyl ammonium molybdate, which is also a balanced surfactant, played a triple role in this process, as molybdate ions catalyzed at both Step 1 and Step 3 and it allowed the rapid formation of a three-phase microemulsion system that highly facilitates product recovery. Preparative synthesis of the high added value (+-nootkatone was thus performed at room temperature with an isolated yield of 46.5%. This is also the first example of a conversion of allylic hydroperoxides into ketones catalyzed by molybdate ions.

  6. Plant regeneration from callus culture of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash

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    Somporn Prasertsongskun

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to establish cell suspension culture of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash from Surat Thani germplasm source and efficient plant regeneration from callus derived from such cultures. Cell suspension cultures were established from calli derived from inflorescence of vetiver. Optimum cell proliferation occurred in liquid N6 medium supplemented with 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 10 mM proline. The cell suspension formed the highest small colonies when plated on solid MS medium containing 0.45 μM 2,4-D. After subsequent transfer to regeneration medium (MS free medium 65% of plantlets were obtained.

  7. Performance of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Water

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    Syed Hasan Sharifah Nur Munirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tolerance towards metal uptake, there is a need to evaluate the performance of vetiver grass for metal removal to reduce water impurity. This study was aimed to evaluate contaminant removal by vetiver grass at varying root length and plant density and determine the metal uptake in vetiver plant biomass. Pollutant uptake of vetiver grass was conducted in laboratory experiment and heavy metal analysis was done using acid digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Findings indicated that the removal of heavy metal was decreased in seven days of the experiment where iron shows the highest percentage (96%; 0.42 ppm of removal due to iron is highly required for growth of vetiver grass. Removal rate of heavy metals in water by vetiver grass is ranked in the order of Fe>Zn>Pb>Mn>Cu. Results also demonstrated greater removal of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn at greater root length and higher density of vetiver grass because it increased the surface area for metal absorption by plant root into vetiver plant from contaminated water. However, findings indicated that accumulation of heavy metals in plant biomass was higher in vetiver shoot than in root due to metal translocation from root to the shoot. Therefore, the findings have shown effective performance of vetiver grass for metal removal in the phytoremediation of contaminated water.

  8. Phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)] for tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Das, Padmini; Smith, Stephanie; Punamiya, Pravin; Ramanathan, Dil M; Reddy, Ramana; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2013-01-01

    The presence of veterinary and human antibiotics in soil and surface water is an emerging environmental concern. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential of using vetiver grass as a phytoremediation agent in removing Tetracycline (TC) from aqueous media. The study determined uptake, translocation, and transformation of TC in vetiver grass as function of initial antibiotic concentrations and exposure time. Vetiver plants were grown for 60 days in a greenhouse in TC contaminated hydroponic system. Preliminary results show that complete removal of tetracycline occurred within 40 days in all TC treatments. Initial concentrations of TC had significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the kinetics of removaL Tetracycline was detected in the root as well as shoot tissues, confirming uptake and root-to-shoot translocation. Liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry analysis of plant tissue samples suggest presence of metabolites of TC in both root and shoot tissues of vetiver grass. The current data is encouraging and is expected to aid in developing a cost-effective, in-situ phytoremediation technique to remove TC group of antibiotics from wastewater.

  9. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  10. Tolerance and accumulation of lead in Vetiveria zizanioides and its effect on oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkittikhun, P; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; Baker, A J M

    2010-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate lead tolerance and accumulation in vetiver grass Vetiveria zizanioides (L.), grown in hydroponics and a pot study and to examine the effect of lead on vetiver oil production. Elevated concentrations of lead decreased the length of shoots and roots of plants. However, vetiver grown in highly contaminated soils showed no apparent phytotoxicity symptoms. Lead concentrations in the shoots and roots of vetiver plants grown in hydroponics were up to 144 and 19530 mg kg(-1) and those grown in soil were 38 and 629 mg kg(-1), respectively. Lead had an effect on vetiver oil production and composition by stimulating oil yield and the number of its constituents. Oil yield ranged from 0.4-1.3%; the highest yields were found in plants grown in nutrient solution with 100 mg Pb l(-1) for 5 weeks (1.29%) and 7 weeks (1.22%). The number of total constituents of vetiver oil also varied between 47-143 compounds when lead was presentin the growth medium. The highest number (143) was found in plants grown in soil spiked with 1000 mg Pb kg(-1). The predominant compound was khusimol (10.7-18.1%) followed by (E)-isovalencenol (10.3-15.6%). Our results indicated that lead could increase the oil production of vetiver.

  11. Contribuição para o estudo da destilação do vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash A contribution of the study of vetiver roots distillation

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    Cyro Côrte Brilho

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram executadas experiências preliminares de destilação das raízes do vetiver, abrangendo alguns tratamentos prévios do material e, por outro lado, ensaiando-se processos para se melhorar a separação do seu óleo essencial. Usou-se, por exemplo, material seco e, também, raízes submetidas a uma maceração prévia em água; empregou-se, nos dois sistemas, o material inteiro e o picado, adotando-se a picagem grossa, a média e a fina. Os resultados obtidos não proporcionam conclusões definitivas e devem ser interpretados, simplesmente, como uma contribuição para que sejam oferecidas melhores condições no desenvolvimento dos futuros trabalhos experimentais nesse setor. A primeira indicação é aquela que aponta a picagem fina das raizes e a sua maceração em água, como o preparo mais adequado. Tal medida traz maior facilidade na liberação da essência e, como fator de importância, um acréscimo na capacidade de carga do alambique, de até 37 por cento. Quanto à destilação, os estudos subseqüentes deverão abranger as questões relativas à duração do processo e à pressão e temperatura do vapor, buscando-se a solução dos problemas que dependem dêsses fatôres. O aquecimento externo, ou indireto, não apresentou diferenças sensíveis. O estudo da condensação patenteou a conveniência, para melhorar a separação, da manutenção da temperatura do condensado, entre 50 e 65ºC. No que diz respeito à decantação do óleo, no vaso separador, bons resultados foram obtidos com a instalação de um filtro retentor, de tecido fino.Because of the high boiling point of its chief volatile constituents, and their high viscosity, the distillation of vetiver roots is beset with considerable difficulties, particularly in regard to the separation of the oil from the distillation water. Its high peculiar viscosity ant the troublesome emoulsion which may occur make oil separation rather complex. Distillation is usually carried out

  12. Kajian Rumput Vetiver Sebagai Pengaman Lereng Secara Berkelanjutan

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    Susilawati Susilawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flores is the island in the NTT province, which has a row of volcanoes, with the mountainous topography. Transportation is state road, along the coast with high cliffs on the other side. That often causes problems during the rainy season as several landslides. Various methods are used to overcome this landslide. Studies on vetiver grass as slope protection done to secure the slopes on a sustainable basis. First, an evaluation done for the slope construction along the slope safety from Nangaroro to Aegela, which are using vetiver grass as a safety slopes in addition to other security structures. It is also done for the same job of the road from Ende to Nangaroro and Ende-Detusoko. This study covers the technical aspects, ecological, construction and sustainability of the infrastructure that has been built. Furthermore, it is done the literature study to find more appropriate method, environmentally friendly and sustainable in securing these slopes problematic. From the literature studies and the field survey done, it can be concluded and recommended several models of eco-friendly structural design of vetiver grass and geotextile for slope protection, which is based on technical-meet standard strength, ecologically-friendly environment, locally-developed local wisdom, so it is easy to construct.

  13. Vetiver grass is capable of removing TNT from soil in the presence of urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Padmini [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.c [Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School Of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, One Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ 07104 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The high affinity of vetiver grass for 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the catalytic effectiveness of urea in enhancing plant uptake of TNT in hydroponic media we earlier demonstrated were further illustrated in this soil-pot-experiment. Complete removal of TNT in urea-treated soil was accomplished by vetiver at the low initial soil-TNT concentration (40 mg kg{sup -1}), masking the effect of urea. Doubling the initial TNT concentration (80 mg kg{sup -1}) significantly (p < 0.002) increased TNT removal by vetiver, in the presence of urea. Without vetiver grass, no significant (p = 0.475) change in the soil-TNT concentrations was observed over a period of 48 days, suggesting that natural attenuation of soil TNT could not explain the documented TNT disappearance from soil. - Vetiver grass in the presence of urea effectively removes TNT from soil.

  14. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  15. Evaluation of DEET and eight essential oils for repellency against nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...

  16. Use of vetiver grass constructed wetland for treatment of leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, K M; Njau, K N; Minja, R J A

    2011-01-01

    Performance of Constructed Wetland planted with vetiver grasses for the treatment of leachate was investigated in controlled experiments involving horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW). The HSSFCW experimental unit had two cells, one planted with vetiver grasses and another bare. Both units were packed with limestone gravel as substrate and were operated with equal hydraulic loading and hydraulic retention time. Collected samples of influents and effluents were analysed for COD, Cr, Pb, Fe and pH. The results showed that vetiver grasses tolerated leachate with high loading of COD up to 14,000 mg L(-1). The planted cell outperformed the unplanted cell in terms of COD, Cr, Pb and Fe removal. The systems showed optimum points for COD and Pb removal as a function of feed concentrations. The optimum COD removal values of 210 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed COD concentration of 11,200 mg COD L(-1) and 89 mgm(-2) day(-1) at feed concentration of 7,200 mg COD L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted cells respectively. Similarly Pb removal values of 0.0132 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.0 mg Pb L(-1) and 0.0052 mgm(-2) day(-1) at 1.04 mgPb L(-1) were obtained for planted and unplanted units respectively. Removal of Fe as a function of feed Fe concentration showed a parabolic behaviour but Cr removal showed linear behaviour with feed Cr concentrations in both units. The system showed very good removal efficiencies with Cr and Fe but poor efficiencies were recorded for Pb.

  17. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  18. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms of Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) growing on gold mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, F A; Mokgalaka, N S; McCrindle, R I

    2016-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated for its potential use in the rehabilitation of gold mine tailings, its ability to extract and accumulate toxic metals from the tailings and its metal tolerant strategies. Vetiver grass was grown on gold mine tailings soil, in a hothouse, and monitored for sixteen weeks. The mine tailings were highly acidic and had high electrical conductivity. Vetiver grass was able to grow and adapt well on gold mine tailings. The results showed that Vetiver grass accumulated large amounts of metals in the roots and restricted their translocation to the shoots. This was confirmed by the bioconcentration factor of Zn, Cu, and Ni of >1 and the translocation factor of <1 for all the metals. This study revealed the defense mechanisms employed by Vetiver grass against metal stress that include: chelation of toxic metals by phenolics, glutathione S-tranferase, and low molecular weight thiols; sequestration and accumulation of metals within the cell wall that was revealed by the scanning electron microscopy that showed closure of stomata and thickened cell wall and was confirmed by high content of cell wall bound phenolics. Metal induced reactive oxygen species are reduced or eliminated by catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase dismutase.

  19. Treatment of domestic wastewater by vertical flow constructed wetland planted with umbrella sedge and Vetiver grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, Suwasa; Sattayapanich, Somsiri; van Dien, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of wastewater treatment by vertical flow constructed wetland systems under different hydraulic loading rates (HLR). The comparison of two types of plants, Cyperus alternifolius (Umbrella sedge) and Vetiveria zizanioides (Vetiver grass), was also conducted. In this study, six circular concrete tanks (diameter 0.8 m) were filled with fine sand and gravel to the depth of 1.23 m. Three tanks were planted with Umbrella sedge and the other three tanks were planted with Vetiver grass. Settled domestic wastewater from Chiang Mai University (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4(+)-N and suspended solids (SS) of 127.1, 27.4 and 29.5 mg/L on average, respectively) was intermittently applied for 45 min and rested for 3 h 15 min. The HLR of each tank was controlled at 20, 29 and 40 cm/d. It was found that the removal efficiency of the Umbrella sedge systems was higher than the Vetiver grass systems for every parameter, and the lowest HLR provided the maximum treatment efficiency. The removal efficiency of COD and nitrogen in terms of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) was 76 and 65% at 20 cm/d HLR for Umbrella sedge compared to only 67 and 56% for Vetiver grass. Nitrogen accumulation in plant biomass was also higher in Umbrella sedge than in Vetiver grass in every HLR. Umbrella sedge was thus proved to be a suitable constructed wetland plant in tropical climates.

  20. Isolation and culture of suspension protoplasts of vetiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somporn Prasertsongskun

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, protoplasts were isolated from cell suspension derived from inflorescence of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash Surat Thani germplasm. The optimum condition for protoplast isolation was established by using 2% cellulase Onozuka R10, 2% macerozyme R10, 0.5% pectinase in 0.4 M mannitol and 7 mM CaCl2.2H2O at pH 5.8 and incubated for 10 hours in the dark on the rotary shaker at 50 rpm. Maximum protoplast yields were 8.4 × 104 protoplasts/ml PCV. Division of protoplasts was observed only in liquid medium. The first cell division was observed after 3 days of culture initiation, and the average division was 5.0% in the N6 medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/l BA (Benzyladenine. An optimal density for culture division was 1 × 105 protoplasts/ml.

  1. Tetracycline uptake and metabolism by vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Nash).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Aparupa; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Das, Padmini; Panja, Saumik; Parikh, Chinmayi; Ramanathan, Dilrukshi; Bagley, Susan; Datta, Rupali

    2016-12-01

    Environmental contamination by antibiotics not only perturbs the ecological balance but also poses a risk to human health by promoting the development of multiantibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study focuses on identifying the biochemical pathways associated with tetracycline (TC) transformation/degradation in vetiver grass that has the potential to be used as a biological remediation system in TC-contaminated water sources. A hydroponic experimental setup was used with four initial TC concentrations (0, 5, 35, 75 ppm), and TC uptake was monitored over a 30-day period. Results show that TC transformation in the media occurred during the first 5 days, where a decrease in the parent compound and an increase in the concentration of the isomers such as epitetracycline (ETC) and anhyrotetracycline (ATC) occurred, and TC disappeared in 20 days in tanks with vetiver grass. However, the isomers ETC and ATC remained in the control tanks for the duration of the trial. Transformation products of TC in plant tissue were analyzed by using ultra HPLC high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometery (HRMS/MS), which indicates amide hydrolysis of TC in vetiver roots. Metabolic profiling revealed that glyoxylate metabolism, TCA cycle, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, tryptophan metabolism, and inositol phosphate metabolism were impacted in vetiver root by TC treatment.

  2. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L{sup -1} for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit ({approx}1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media.

  3. EFFICIENCY OF SIMPLE SUPER PHOSPHATE IN THE VETIVER GRASS DEVELOPMENT SUBJECTED TO SOIL BIOENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENISSON NEPONUCENO DE ARAÚJO FILHO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L. has been evaluated under differ-ent levels of phosphorus on slopes of the right-side bank of the San Francisco River, in the municipality of Am-paro do São Francisco, SE. Techniques of soil bioengineering were used, characterized by the combination of vegetated riprap with stakes, seedlings of vetiver grass and sediment retainers. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five doses (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 g pit-1 of simple superphosphate and five replicates. The growth of vetiver seedlings were observed in periods of 30, 60, 90, e 180 days, carrying out the following pa-rameters: number of roots, external root surface, root density, root length, root length density, root and shoot dry weight, root and shoot fresh weight, and shoot length, at each evaluation period. The phosphorus doses and periods of morphological development interacted in all variables of plant biomass mentioned above. Higher superphosphate doses than 9.0 g pit-1 did not offer advantages in terms of cost-benefit for the production of vetiver seedings.

  4. Cultivation of vetiver in saline tailings contaminated with arsenic under phosphorus doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. de O. P. Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The processing of gold ores exploited in Paracatu, MG, generates tailings that are challenging for revegetation, mainly because of the high content of arsenic and salinity. Aiming at the revegetation of the area of disposal of these tailings, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of phosphorus doses on vetiver plants (Chrysopogon zizanioides and on the planting substrate, which consisted of tailings from the processing of ore named B1, exploited in Paracatu, with water restriction. Vetiver was grown for four months in the substrate under doses of 0, 140, 280, 560 and 1280 mg kg-1 of P2O5. Increasing doses of phosphorus improved the chemical characteristics of the substrate. However, the highest dose (1280 mg kg-1 P2O5 resulted in higher toxicity of arsenic for the plants. Under the evaluated conditions, the dose of 560 mg kg-1 of P2O5 is the most suitable for the fertilization of vetiver and, therefore, also for the revegetation of the substrate. Vetiver survives under low availability of water in the tailings.

  5. Technical note: Vetiver can grow on coal fly ash without DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to open lands or ash ponds located near power plants and this has lain to waste thousands of hectares all over the world. Wind and leaching are often the causes of off-site contamination from fly ash dumpsites. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown on fly ash for three months showed massive, mesh-like growth of roots which could have a phytostabilizing effect. The plant achieved this without any damage to its nuclear DNA as shown by comet assay done on the root nuclei, which implies the long-term survival of the plant on the remediation site. Also, when Vetiver is used for phytoremediation of coal fly ash, its shoots can be safely grazed by animals as very little of heavy metals in fly ash were found to be translocated to the shoots. These features make planting of Vetiver a practical and environmentally compatible method for restoration of fly ash dumpsites. Lack of DNA damage in Vetiver has been compared to that in a sensitive plant i.e. Allium cepa. Our results suggested that apart from traditional end-points viz. growth parameters like root length, shoot length and dry weight, comet assay could also be included in a battery of tests for initial, rapid and effective selection of plants for restoration and phytoremediation of polluted sites.

  6. Removal of nutrient and heavy metal loads from sewage effluent using vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wuta, M; Mvumi, B.M; Mapanda, F; Mudhiriza, T

    2015-01-01

    .... A study was conducted in Harare, Zimbabwe, to assess the potential of vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides, in removing N, P, Zn, Mn and Ni loads in sewage effluent from primary clarification...

  7. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andra, Syam S., E-mail: syam.andra@gmail.co [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Datta, Rupali [Biological Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ (United States); Saminathan, Sumathi K.M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX (United States); Mullens, Conor P.; Bach, Stephan B.H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PC{sub n}, metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PC{sub n}, and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg {sup -1} EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg{sup -1} dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC{sub 1}) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC{sub 1}-Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass. - Chelated lead in conjunction with phytochelatins synthesis and complexation reduces stress in the lead tolerant vetiver grass.

  8. The possible role of hydroxylation in the detoxification of atrazine in mature vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides Nash) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcacci, Sylvie; Raventon, Muriel; Ravanel, Patrick; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The resistance mechanism of vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) to atrazine was investigated to evaluate its potential for phytoremediation of environment contaminated with the herbicide. Plants known to metabolise atrazine rely on hydroxylation mediated by benzoxazinones, conjugation catalyzed by glutathione-S-transferases and dealkylation probably mediated by cytochromes P450. All three possibilities were explored in mature vetiver grown in hydroponics during this research project. Here we report on the chemical role of benzoxazinones in the transformation of atrazine. Fresh vetiver roots and leaves were cut to extract and study their content in benzoxazinones known to hydroxylate atrazine, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA) and their mono- and di-glucosylated forms. Identification of benzoxazinones was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and comparison of retention factors (Rf) and UV spectra with standards: although some products exhibited the same Rf as standards, UV spectra were different. Furthermore, in vitro hydroxylation of atrazine could not be detected in the presence of vetiver extracts. Finally, vetiver organs exposed to [14C]-atrazine did not produce any significant amount of hydroxylated products, such as hydroxyatrazine (HATR), hydroxy-deethylatrazine (HDEA), and hydroxy-deisopropylatrazine (HDIA). Altogether, these metabolic features suggest that hydroxylation was not a major metabolic pathway of atrazine in vetiver.

  9. Analysis of phytochelatin complexes in the lead tolerant vetiver grass [Vetiveria zizanioides (L.)] using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Saminathan, Sumathi K M; Mullens, Conor P; Bach, Stephan B H

    2009-07-01

    Ethylenediamene tetraacetic acid (EDTA) has been used to mobilize soil lead (Pb) and enhance plant uptake for phytoremediation. Chelant bound Pb is considered less toxic compared to free Pb ions and hence might induce less stress on plants. Characterization of possible Pb complexes with phytochelatins (PCn, metal-binding peptides) and EDTA in plant tissues will enhance our understanding of Pb tolerance mechanisms. In a previous study, we showed that vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) can accumulate up to 19,800 and 3350 mg Pb kg(-1) dry weight in root and shoot tissues, respectively; in a hydroponics set-up. Following the basic incubation study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to elucidate the efficiency of vetiver grass (with or without EDTA) in remediating Pb-contaminated soils from actual residential sites where Pb-based paints were used. The levels of total thiols, PCn, and catalase (an antioxidant enzyme) were measured in vetiver root and shoot following chelant-assisted phytostabilization. In the presence of 15 mM kg (-1) EDTA, vetiver accumulated 4460 and 480 mg Pb kg(-1) dry root and shoot tissue, respectively; that are 15- and 24-fold higher compared to those in untreated controls. Despite higher Pb concentrations in the plant tissues, the amount of total thiols and catalase activity in EDTA treated vetiver tissues was comparable to chelant unamended controls, indicating lowered Pb toxicity by chelation with EDTA. The identification of glutathione (referred as PC1) (m/z 308.2), along with chelated complexes like Pb-EDTA (m/z 498.8) and PC(1)-Pb-EDTA (m/z 805.3) in vetiver root tissue using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ES-MS) highlights the possible role of such species towards Pb tolerance in vetiver grass.

  10. Salt tolerance of a wild ecotype of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Gou; Liu, Jin-Xiang; Yao, Mei-Ling; Ma, Qi-Fu

    2016-12-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is widely used in more than 120 countries for land management (e.g. rehabilitation of saline lands). A wild ecotype of vetiver grass was found in southern China in the 1950s, but little is known about its adaptability to saline stress. For the purpose of understanding its tolerance to salinity as well as corresponding tolerance mechanisms, in a greenhouse with natural lighting, seedlings were grown in culture solutions and subjected to a range of NaCl concentrations for 18 days. Compared to no NaCl treatment, 200 mM NaCl significantly reduced leaf water potential, leaf water content, leaf elongation rate, leaf photosynthetic rate and plant relative growth rate and increased leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content, but the parameters showed only slight reduction at 150 mM NaCl. In addition, salinity caused an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in leaves. Moreover, increasing NaCl levels significantly increased Na+ but decreased K+ concentrations in both roots and leaves. The leaves had higher K+ concentrations at all NaCl levels, but lower Na+ concentrations compared to the roots, thereby maintaining higher K+/Na+ ratio in leaves. Our results showed that the salinity threshold of this wild vetiver grass is about 100 mM NaCl, i.e. highly tolerant to salt stress. This wild vetiver grass has a high ability to exclude Na+ and retain K+ in its leaves, which is a critical strategy for salt tolerance.

  11. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  12. Symbiotic role of Glomus mosseae in phytoextraction of lead in vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Barber, Summer; Patel, Mandakini; Das, Padmini

    2010-05-15

    Lead (Pb) has limited solubility in the soil environment owing to complexation with various soil components. Although total soil Pb concentrations may be high at a given site, the fraction of soluble Pb that plants can extract is very small, which is the major limiting factor for Pb phytoremediation. The symbiotic effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae was examined on growth and phytoextraction of lead (Pb) by vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)]. A hydroponic study, Phase I (0, 1, 2, and 4mM Pb) was conducted followed by an incubation pot study, Phase II (0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg kg(-1) Pb) where vetiver plants were colonized with G. mosseae. The results obtained indicate that plants colonized by the AM fungi not only exhibit better growth (increase in plant biomass), but also significantly increase Pb uptake in root and higher translocation to the shoot at all given treatments. Moreover, plants colonized with AM fungi had higher chlorophyll content and reduced levels of low molecular weight thiols, indicating the ability to better tolerate metal-induced stress. Results from this study indicate that vetiver plants in association with AM fungi can be used for improved phytoextraction of Pb from contaminated soil. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of Biochemical Pathways Associated with Lead Tolerance and Detoxification in Chrysopogon zizanioides L. Nash (Vetiver) by Metabolic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidatala, Venkataramana R; Li, Kefeng; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Datta, Rupali

    2016-03-01

    Lead (Pb) is a major urban pollutant, due to deteriorating lead-based paint in houses built before 1978. Phytoremediation is an inexpensive and effective technique for remediation of Pb-contaminated homes. Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), a noninvasive, fast-growing grass with high biomass, can tolerate and accumulate large quantities of Pb in its tissues. Lead is known to induce phytochelatins and antioxidative enzymes in vetiver; however, the overall impact of Pb stress on metabolic pathways of vetiver is unknown. In the current study, vetiver plants were treated with different concentrations of Pb in a hydroponic setup. Metabolites were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS/MS. Multivariate analysis of metabolites in both root and shoot tissue showed tremendous induction in key metabolic pathways including sugar metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and an increase in production of osmoprotectants, such as betaine and polyols, and metal-chelating organic acids. The data obtained provide a comprehensive insight into the overall stress response mechanisms in vetiver.

  14. Agronomic and economic evaluation of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) as means for phytoremediation of diesel polluted soils in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, Nativ; Tsion, Itai; Shamir, Shiri Zemah; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Shachter, Alona; Haim, Abraham

    2018-01-29

    Soil pollution in Israel, due to diesel contamination, is a major concern, with gas stations, factories and refineries being the main polluters (>60%). Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is a perennial grass belonging to the Poaceae family, and is recognized world-wide for its potential as a plant with phytoremediation traits to contaminated soils. It is demonstrated here to decrease diesel contamination in field and court-yard trials. Chemical soil analysis indicated up to a 79% decrease (P diesel pollution of contaminated soil planted with Vetiver; and at high soil contamination levels of 10 L/m2, a significant (P diesel and planted with Vetiver, weeds' biomass recovered to non-polluted levels following 8 to 9 months of Vetiver treatment. An economic evaluation conducted based on the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) principles, utilizing the Net Present Value (NPV) compared phytoremediation to other currently used decontamination procedures. The economic comparison showed that phytoremediation cleanup costs are lower and more beneficial to society at large, primarily from an ecosystem services perspective. Combining the results of the agronomic examination with the economic valuation, this research pointed out that phytoremediation with Vetiver has a non-negligible potential, making it a good solution for cleansing diesel from soils on a state-wide scale in Israel and worthy of further research and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Absorption Reduction Capacity with Chromium (Cr and Cadmium (Cd Contaminants of Vetiver Phytoremediation Process on Compost Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Zubair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the large of reduction capacity of chromium metals and cadmium in the soil compost media and absorption capacity of chrome and cadmium in phytoremediation process of vetiver; to compare the reduction-absorption capacities of chromium and cadmium metals in phytoremediation process of vetiver (Vetivera zizanioides. The study was carried out for 2 months with a range of sampling every 7 days, and then analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Contaminants used as artificial contaminants containing heavy metals chromium (Cr and cadmium (Cd. This study is an experimental research includes two variables. First, the variations of Cr concentrations used were 400 ppm, 600 ppm and 800 ppm and Cd concentrations used were 40 ppm, 60 ppm, 800 ppm. Secondly, the variations of total plant are 3, 6, and 9 plant. The period of observation is made every week. Planting media used is compost soil with compost and clay composition of 20%, 30% and 40%. The results of study showed that there are a significant relationship between the reduction capacity of Cr and Cd of compost soil and the absorption capacity of Cr and Cd for vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides. The higher of Cr and Cd decreases in soil followed by increased levels of Cr and Cd in vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides. The capacity of Cr reduction varies between 57% - 86% and Cd 36% - 64% where as the absorption capacity of vetiver on Cr between 38% - 75% and Cd between 34%-74%. The capacity of reduction-absorption of Cr is relatively higher than Cd in phytoremediation process of vetiver.

  16. Phytoremediation of Cu and Zn by vetiver grass in mine soils amended with humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carmen; Pérez-Esteban, Javier; Escolástico, Consuelo; Masaguer, Alberto; Moliner, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Phytoremediation of contaminated mine soils requires the use of fast-growing, deep-rooted, high-biomass, and metal-tolerant plants with the application of soil amendments that promote metal uptake by plants. A pot experiment was performed to evaluate the combined use of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) and humic acid for phytoremediation of Cu and Zn in mine soils. Vetiver plants were grown in soil samples collected from two mine sites of Spain mixed with a commercial humic acid derived from leonardite at doses of 0, 2, 10, and 20 g kg(-1). Plant metal concentrations and biomass were measured and metal bioavailability in soils was determined by a low molecular weight organic acid extraction. Results showed that humic acid addition decreased organic acid-extractable metals in soil. Although this extraction method is used to estimate bioavailability of metals, it was not a good estimator under these conditions due to competition with the strong chelators in the added humic acid. High doses of humic acid also promoted root growth and increased Cu concentrations in plants due to formation of soluble metal-organic complexes, which enhanced removal of this metal from soil and its accumulation in roots. Although humic acid was not able to improve Zn uptake, it managed to reduce translocation of Zn and Cu to aerial parts of plants. Vetiver resulted unsuitable for phytoextraction, but our study showed that the combined use of this species with humic acid at 10-20 g kg(-1) could be an effective strategy for phytostabilization of mine soils.

  17. Uptake of 2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine by Vetiver Grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) from Hydroponic Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S X; Li, Y M; Zheng, Y; Hua, Y; Datta, R; Dan, Y M; Lv, P; Sarkar, D

    2016-04-01

    2,4-bis(Isopropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triazine (prometryn) poses a risk to aquatic environments in several countries, including China, where its use is widespread, particularly due to its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) was tested for its potential for phytoremediation of prometryn. Vetiver grass was grown in hydroponic media in a greenhouse, in the presence of prometryn, with appropriate controls. Plant uptake and removal of prometryn from the media were monitored for a period of 67 days. The results showed that the removal of the prometryn in the media was expedited by vetiver grass. The removal half-life (t1/2) was shortened by 11.5 days. Prometryn removal followed first-order kinetics (Ct = 1.8070e(-0.0601t)). This study demonstrated the potential of vetiver grass for the phytoremediation for prometryn.

  18. Genetic diversity of Vetiver clones (Chrysopogon zizanioides and Chrysopogon nigritana) available in South Africa based on sequencing analyses and anatomical structure / Vickey Diedericks

    OpenAIRE

    Diedericks, Vickey

    2014-01-01

    Vetiver grass or Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (1960) is a sterile grass which can regenerate vegetatively from clumps of the rootstock. This, as well as its vigorous and deep root system and flood tolerance makes it an ideal candidate for the use in soil remediation and erosion control. In South Africa, Hydromulch (Pty) Ltd. is part of the landscape, soil reclamation and erosion control industry. The company uses vetiver grass on a wide scale and has accumulated a collecti...

  19. Genetic diversity of vetiver isolates (Chrysopogon zizanioides/nigritanus) available in South Africa based on ITS, ndhF and rbcL sequencing analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, S.; Diedericks, V.; Conradie, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty) is sterile and only regenerates vegetatively from clumps of the rootstock. Together with its vigorous and deep root system this makes it ideal for use in soil remediation and erosion control. In South Africa, Hydromulch (Pty) Ltd is part of the landscape, soil reclamation and erosion control industry. The company uses vetiver grass on awide scale and has compiled a collection of isolates to serve as possible germ lines for indus...

  20. Modeling BOD and COD removal from Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent in floating wetland by Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darajeh, Negisa; Idris, Azni; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Abolfazl; Truong, Paul; Sairi, Nor Asrina

    2016-10-01

    While the oil palm industry has been recognized for its contribution towards economic growth and rapid development, it has also contributed to environmental pollution due to the production of huge quantities of by-products from the oil extraction process. A phytoremediation technique (floating Vetiver system) was used to treat Palm Oil Mill Secondary Effluent (POMSE). A batch study using 40 L treatment tanks was carried out under different conditions and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the treatment process. A three factor central composite design (CCD) was used to predict the experimental variables (POMSE concentration, Vetiver plant density and time). An extraordinary decrease in organic matter as measured by BOD and COD (96% and 94% respectively) was recorded during the experimental duration of 4 weeks using a density of 30 Vetiver plants. The best and lowest final BOD of 2 mg/L was obtained when using 15 Vetiver plants after 13 days for low concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 50 mg/L). The next best result of BOD at 32 mg/L was obtained when using 30 Vetiver plants after 24 days for medium concentration POMSE (initial BOD = 175 mg/L). These results confirmed the validity of the model, and the experimental value was determined to be quite close to the predicted value, implying that the empirical model derived from RSM experimental design can be used to adequately describe the relationship between the independent variables and response. The study showed that the Vetiver system is an effective method of treating POMSE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  2. Greenhouse study on the phytoremediation potential of vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides L., in arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Rupali; Quispe, Mario A; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this greenhouse study was to assess the capacity of vetiver grass to accumulate arsenic from pesticide-contaminated soils of varying physico-chemical properties. Results indicate that vetiver is capable of tolerating moderate levels of arsenic up to 225 mg/kg. Plant growth and arsenic removal efficiency was strongly influenced by soil properties. Arsenic removal was highest (10.6%) in Millhopper soil contaminated with 45 mg/kg arsenic, which decreased to 4.5 and 0.6% at 225 and 450 mg/kg, respectively. High biomass, widespread root system and environmental tolerance make this plant an attractive choice for the remediation of soils contaminated with moderate levels of arsenic.

  3. Changes in content of free, conjugated and bound polyamines and osmotic adjustment in adaptation of vetiver grass to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Bingjun

    2010-06-01

    Osmotic adjustment and alteration of polyamines (PAs) have been suggested to play roles in plant adaptation to water deficit/drought stress. In this study, the changes in cell intactness, photosynthesis, compatible solutes and PAs [including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) each in free, conjugated and bound forms] were investigated in leaves of vetiver grass exposed to different intensity of water deficit stress and subsequent rewatering. The results showed that, when vetiver grass was exposed to the moderate (20% and 40% PEG-6000 solutions) and severe (60% PEG solution) water deficit for 6days, the plant injury degree (expressed as the parameters of plant growth, cell membrane integrity, water relations and photosynthesis) increased and contents of free and conjugated Put decreased with the rise of PEG concentration. Under the moderate water deficit, the plants could survive by the reduced osmotic potential (psi(s)), increased free and conjugated Spd and Spm in leaves. After subsequent rewatering, the osmotic balance was re-established, most of the above investigated physiological parameters were fully or partly recovered to the control levels. However, it was not the case for the severely-stressed and rewatering plants. It indicates that, vetiver grass can cope well with the moderate water deficit/drought stress by using the strategies of osmotic adjustment and maintenance of total contents of free, conjugated and bound PAs in leaves.

  4. Application Effect’s Research of Vetiver Eco Blanket in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the ecological disasters in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone, ecological blanket governance model is proposed in this paper, which may provide good early environment for plants’ survival in fluctuation zone, and then play the function of greening and sustainable development to ensure the slopes’ stability. Meanwhile, based on the result of vetiver ecological blanket in Hanyuan experimental zone, we find that three kinds of typical Fluctuating Zone slope’s greening effect is good, which includes the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope, and it gets an average coverage of 90.3 % as well as good strength. Due to the different geological conditions, the ecological blankets’ governance effect differs from slope to slope. Using analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight, we get the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope’s weights are 0.41, 0.17, 0.42, respectively, namely, the dirt piling up slope and the gravel piling up slope have good results overall, followed by the whole lump of rock slope.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the growth and extraction of trace elements by Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) in a substrate containing coal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edenilson; Londoño, Diana Marcela Morales; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Giachini, Admir José; Rossi, Márcio José; Stoffel, Shantau Camargo Gomes; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2017-02-01

    Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) is a fast-growing, high biomass producing plant employed for environmental rehabilitation. The study evaluated the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the growth and trace element phytoextracting capabilities of vetiver in a substrate containing coalmine wastes in Southern Brazil. AMF included Acaulospora colombiana, Acaulospora morrowiae, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita, and Rhizophagus clarus. Among those, A. colombiana, G. margarita, and R. clarus promoted higher growth. AMF stimulated average increments in the accumulated P of 82% (roots), 194% (shoots first harvest-90 days) and 300% (shoots second harvest-165 days) and affected the phytoextraction of trace elements by vetiver, with larger concentrations in the roots. Plants inoculated with A. colombiana, A. morrowiae, and A. scrobiculata, in addition to the control, presented the highest levels of Cu and Zn in the roots. Overall, G. margarita stimulated the highest production of biomass, and, therefore, showed the most significant levels of trace elements in the plants. This work shows the benefits of certain AMF (especially A. morrowiae, G. margarita, and R. clarus) for the production of biomass and P uptake by vetiver, demonstrating the potential of those species for the rehabilitation of coal-mine-degraded soils.

  6. A greenhouse study on arsenic remediation potential of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria Zizanioides) as a function of soil physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, M. A.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic is one of the most harmful and toxic metals, being a Group A human carcinogen. Mining activities as well as the use of arsenic-containing pesticides have resulted in the contamination of a wide variety of sites including mine tailings, cattle dip sites, wood treatment sites, pesticide treatment areas, golf courses, etc. Phytoremediation has emerged as a novel and promising technology, which uses plants to clean up contaminated soil and water taking advantage of plant's natural abilities to extract and accumulate various contaminants. This method has distinct advantages, since it maintains the biological properties and physical structure of the soil, is environment friendly, and above all, inexpensive. However, effective remediation of contaminated residential soils using a specific plant species is an immensely complex task whose success depends on a multitude of factors including the ability of the target plant to uptake, translocate, detoxify, and accumulate arsenic in its system. One of the major challenges in phytoremediation lies in identifying a fast- growing, high biomass plant that can accumulate the contaminant in its harvestable parts. vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a fast-growing perennial grass with strong ecological adaptability and large biomass. While this plant is not a hyperaccumulator of arsenic, it has been reported to be able to tolerate and accumulate considerable amounts of arsenic. Being a high biomass, fast-growing plant, vetiver has the potential to be used for arsenic remediation. The present study investigates the potential of vetiver grass to tolerate and accumulate arsenic in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. A greenhouse study is in progress to study the uptake, tolerance and stress response of vetiver grass to inorganic arsenical pesticide. A column study was set up using 5 soils (Eufaula, Millhopper, Orelia, Orla, and Pahokee Muck) contaminated with sodium arsenite at 4 different concentrations of

  7. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater in a constructed wetland system using vetiver grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Araújo Almeida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash efficiency in removing nitrogen and phosphorus from the wastewater in a constructed wetlands treatment system. The experimental unit had twelve treatment modules, filled with layers of substrate. From the bottom to the surface, the following materials were placed: 0.15 m of gravel # 3; 0.10 m of gravel # 1; 0.20 m of washed sand and 0.05 m of gravel # 1. Inside the modules, the wastewater was maintained at 0.05 m or 0.25 m below the substrate surface, resulting in hydraulic retention times of 3.4 days and 1.9 days, respectively. The influent wastewater was captured in the entrance of a facultative pond, and it was applied to the surface of each treatment module, automatically, on a surface application rate of 51 L.m-2.d-1. The sewage percolated vertically in the system, in a sub-surface flow downward until it was captured in a drain pipe at the bottom of the module. The wastewater concentrations of total phosphorus and ammonium were analyzed before and after passing through the treatment modules. Evapotranspiration rates were measured and the efficiencies in removing the contaminant load were calculated. The results were submitted to F and Tukey tests, at 5% of probability. Treatment with the presence of the plant and sewage at 0.05 m from the surface had higher efficiency in the removal of nutrients reaching 90.5% of phosphorus removal and 93.9% for ammonia.

  8. UTILIZAÇÃO DO CAPIM VETIVER NA REMOÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES DO ESGOTO SANITÁRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ernesto Ucker

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do capim Vetiver na remoção de nutrientes presentes no esgoto sanitário. O experimento foi realizado na Estação de Pesquisas em Tratamento de Esgotos com Plantas, localizada na Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos Samambaia, em Goiânia, GO. A unidade experimental possuiu doze módulos de tratamento, preenchidos com camadas sobrepostas de substrato. Seis módulos foram vegetados com o capim Vetiver e seis módulos permaneceram sem planta. Por um período de 200 dias, coletaram-se amostras do esgoto antes e após o tratamento e analisaram-nas para determinação de nitrogênio amoniacal e fósforo total, e cálculo da eficiência em sua remoção, considerando-se as taxas de evapotranspiração. Os resultados foram submetidos aos testes F e de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. O tratamento com a presença da planta e nível de esgoto H1 apresentou eficiência mais elevada na remoção da carga contaminante, sendo de 90,5% para fósforo total e 93,9% para nitrogênio amoniacal.

  9. A preliminary study to design a floating treatment wetland for remediating acid mine drainage-impacted water using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiskila, Jeffrey D; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Feuerstein, Kailey A; Datta, Rupali

    2017-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is extremely acidic, sulfate-rich effluent from abandoned or active mine sites that also contain elevated levels of heavy metals. Untreated AMD can contaminate surface and groundwater and pose severe ecological risk. Both active and passive methods have been developed for AMD treatment consisting of abiotic and biological techniques. Abiotic techniques are expensive and can create large amounts of secondary wastes. Passive biological treatment mainly consists of aerobic or anaerobic constructed wetlands. While aerobic wetlands are economical, they are not effective if the pH of the AMD is < 5. Anaerobic wetlands use organic-rich substrates to provide carbon source to iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The efficiency of these systems declines overtime and requires continuous maintenance. Our objective is to develop an alternative, low-cost, and sustainable floating wetland treatment (FWT) system for AMD for the abandoned Tab-Simco coal mining site in Illinois using vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides). Tab-Simco AMD is highly acidic, with mean pH value of 2.64, and contains high levels of sulfate and metals. A greenhouse study was performed for a 30-day period in order to screen and optimize the necessary parameters to design a FWT system. Water quality and plant growth parameters were continuously monitored. Results show significant SO42- removal, resulting in increased pH, particularly at higher planting densities. Vetiver also helped in metal removal; high amounts of Fe, Zn, and Cu were removed, with relatively lower amounts of Pb, Al, and Ni. Iron plaque formation on the root was observed, which increased metal stabilization in root and lowered root to shoot metal translocation. Vetiver was tolerant of AMD, showing minimal change in biomass and plant growth. Results obtained are encouraging, and a large scale mesocosm study is now in progress, as the next step to develop the vetiver-based system for AMD treatment.

  10. Comparison of the bacterial community and characterization of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria from different genotypes of Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (vetiver) rhizospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Juliana Mendes; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Seldin, Lucy

    2009-08-01

    Molecular approaches [PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] were used to determine whether three different vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) genotypes, commercially used in Brazil and considered economically important over the world, select specific bacterial populations to coexist in their rhizospheres. DGGE profiles revealed that the predominant rhizospheric bacterial community hardly varies regarding the vetiver genotype. Moreover, using traditional cultivation methods, bacterial strains were isolated from the different rhizospheres. Colonies presenting different morphologies (83) were selected for determining their potential for plant growth promotion. More than half of the strains tested (57.8%) were amplified by PCR using nifH-based primers, specific for the enzyme nitrogenase reductase. The production of siderophores was observed in 88% of the strains, while the production of antimicrobial substances was detected in only 14.5% of the isolates when Micrococcus sp. was used as the indicator strain. Production of indole-3-acetic acid and the solubilization of phosphate were observed in 55.4% and 59% of the isolates, respectively. In total, 44 strains (53%) presented at least three characteristics of plant growth promotion and were submitted to amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Twenty-four genetic groups were formed at 100% similarity and one representative of each group was selected for their identification by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. They were affiliated with the genera Acinetobacter, Comamonas, Chryseobacterium, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Dyella, Burkholderia, or Pseudomonas. These strains can be considered of great importance as possible biofertilizers in vetiver.

  11. Phytoremediation of palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE) by Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darajeh, Negisa; Idris, Azni; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza; Nourani, Abolfazl; Truong, Paul; Rezania, Shahabaldin

    2017-05-04

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used to solve the problems because of their reliable, robust, and salient characteristics in capturing the nonlinear relationships between variables in complex systems. In this study, ANN was applied for modeling of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and biodegradable organic matter (BOD) removal from palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE) by vetiver system. The independent variable, including POMSE concentration, vetiver slips density, and removal time, has been considered as input parameters to optimize the network, while the removal percentage of COD and BOD were selected as output. To determine the number of hidden layer nodes, the root mean squared error of testing set was minimized, and the topologies of the algorithms were compared by coefficient of determination and absolute average deviation. The comparison indicated that the quick propagation (QP) algorithm had minimum root mean squared error and absolute average deviation, and maximum coefficient of determination. The importance values of the variables was included vetiver slips density with 42.41%, time with 29.8%, and the POMSE concentration with 27.79%, which showed none of them, is negligible. Results show that the ANN has great potential ability in prediction of COD and BOD removal from POMSE with residual standard error (RSE) of less than 0.45%.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Cabo, Marta L; Rodríguez-Herrera, Juan J

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils to remove the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus from food-processing facilities. The effectiveness of 19 essential oils against planktonic cells of S. aureus was firstly assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration. Planktonic cells showed a wide variability in resistance to essential oils, with thyme oil as the most effective, followed by lemongrass oil and then vetiver oil. The eight essential oils most effective against planktonic cells were subsequently tested against 48-h-old biofilms formed on stainless steel. All essential oils reduced significantly (p oils were the most effective, but high concentrations were needed to achieve logarithmic reductions over 4 log CFU/cm(2) after 30 min exposure. Alternatively, the use of sub-lethal doses of thyme oil allowed to slow down biofilm formation and to enhance the efficiency of thyme oil and benzalkonium chloride against biofilms. However, some cellular adaptation to thyme oil was detected. Therefore, essential oil-based treatments should be based on the rotation and combination of different essential oils or with other biocides to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. THE NATURE COMPOSITE OF VETIVER FIBER AND THE WASTE OF POWDER SAWN AS AN SOUND ABSORPTION MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of composites in all fields is engineered materials that many people do to obtain the new alternative materials, one of the materials such as natural vetiver fiber (SAW which is strong and lightweight and powder sawn (SGK, which is waste material. In this research, manufacturing the composite of  SAW and SGK then testing acoustic/absorption power by measuring the absorption coefficient of the sound and the observation of microstructure. The method used in the study is an experiment in the laboratory to make composites based on the ratio of the weight fraction between SAW and SGK from 1: 5, 2: 5, 3: 5, 4: 5 and 5: 5. Having formed the composites, then the specimen has made by an acoustic test that compatible to ASTM E-1050-98 standard with B & K 4206 Small Tube Set test instrument. Furthermore, to determine the composition of fibers in the composites, there do the micro observation. From the results of the show the composites produced the sound absorption ability for the low frequency (1000 Hz with an absorption coefficient (α of 0.25 occurred in comparative fraction of 2: 5 (SAW20, SGK50. While at high frequency (5000 Hz has a value of coefficient (α of 0.41 occurred in the ratio of 1: 5 (SAW10, SGK50. The number of composition number fiber influence the composite tensile strength and micro observations occurred in the composition ratio of 5: 5 its highest strength.

  14. Phytoremediation of Gold Mine Tailings Amended with Iron-Coated and Uncoated Rice Husk Ash by Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash)

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, F. S.; Samsuri, A. W.; Karam, D. S.; A. Z. Aris

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of rice husk ash (RHA) and iron-coated rice husk ash (Fe-RHA) on phytoavailability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to vetiver grass grown in gold mine tailings amended with either RHA or Fe-RHA at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (w/w). The results showed that the RHA amended tailings recorded higher concentration of As in the shoot and the root and higher concentration of Cr and Mn in the root compared to the untreated tailings which was used as a con...

  15. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G.T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  16. Phytoremediation of Gold Mine Tailings Amended with Iron-Coated and Uncoated Rice Husk Ash by Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn. Nash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the effects of rice husk ash (RHA and iron-coated rice husk ash (Fe-RHA on phytoavailability of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn to vetiver grass grown in gold mine tailings amended with either RHA or Fe-RHA at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% (w/w. The results showed that the RHA amended tailings recorded higher concentration of As in the shoot and the root and higher concentration of Cr and Mn in the root compared to the untreated tailings which was used as a control. The biological accumulation coefficient (BAC and bioconcentration factor (BCF values of the vetiver grass for As and Zn increased with RHA application rate but the biological transfer coefficient (BTC values of As and Zn were decreased. In Fe-RHA amended samples, As concentration in the shoot and root concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher compared to the control. The Fe-RHA treated samples had lower BAC and BTC values for As and Zn than the control. However, the BCF values for those elements were higher than the control. The concentration of Pb was not detected in any of the samples.

  17. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda.

  18. Contact and fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils and efficacy of spray formulations containing the oils against B- and Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Il; Chae, Song-Hwa; Youn, Hee-Sung; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-09-01

    The contact + fumigant toxicity of 92 plant essential oils and control efficacy of 18 experimental spray formulations containing nine selected essential oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and six commercial insecticides to females from B- and Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci were evaluated using vapour-phase mortality and spray bioassays. Garlic and oregano (LC50 , 0.15 mL cm(-3) ) were the most toxic oils against B- and Q-biotype females. Strong fumigant toxicity to both biotype females was also obtained from catnip, cinnamon bark, clove bud, clove leaf, davana, savory and vetiver Haiti oils (LC50 , 0.17-0.48 mL cm(-3) ). The 0.5% sprays of these oils (except for thyme red oil) resulted in 90-100% mortality against both biotype females. Only garlic applied as 0.1% spray provided 100% mortality. Spinosad 100 g L(-1) suspension concentrate (SC) treatment resulted in 92 and 95% mortality against both biotype females, whereas acetamiprid 80 g L(-1) wettable powder (WP), imidacloprid 80 g L(-1) SC, thiamethoxam 100 g L(-1) water-dispersible granule (WDG) and pyridaben 200 g L(-1) WP treatments resulted in 89-100% mortality against B-biotype females only. In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment, the essential oils described, particularly garlic, cinnamon bark and vetiver Haiti, merit further study as potential insecticides for the control of B. tabaci populations as fumigants with contact action. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Novel Technique to improve the pH of Acidic Barren Soil using Electrokinetic-bioremediation with the application of Vetiver Grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Nabila, A. T. A.; Nurshuhaila, M. S.; Zaidi, E.; Azim, M. A. M.; Zahin, A. M. F.

    2016-11-01

    Residual acidic slopes which are not covered by vegetation greatly increases the risk of soil erosion. In addition, low soil pH can bring numerous problems such as Al and Fe toxicity, land degradation issues and some problems related to vegetation. In this research, a series of electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio) treatments using Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida with a combination of Vetiver grass were performed in the laboratory. Investigations were conducted for 14 days and included the observation of changes in the soil pH and the mobilization of microorganism cells through an electrical gradient of 50 V/m under low pH. Based on the results obtained, this study has successfully proven that the pH of soil increases after going through electrokinetic bioremediation (EK-Bio). The treatment using Bacillus sphaericus increases the pH from 2.95 up to 4.80, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 4.66. Based on the overall performance, Bacillus sphaericus show the highest number of bacterial cells in acidic soil with a value of 6.6 × 102 cfu/g, followed by Bacillus subtilis with a value of 5.7 × 102 cfu/g. In conclusion, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis show high survivability and is suitable to be used in the remediation of acidic soil.

  20. Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Dye under UV‐A Irradiation Using TiO2‐Vetiver Multifunctional Nano Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Song Thao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and photocatalytic performance of anatase nanoparticles of pure TiO2 and a core–shell structure of TiO2 on calcined vetiver grass leaves have been compared. Samples were fabricated by sol‐gel and heating at 450 °C for 5h.The comparison was based on data for X‐ray diffraction(XRD, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, photoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area measurement, pore volume assessment, and methylene blue degradation testing. The results showed that the pure TiO2 consisted of agglomerated equiaxed nanoparticles of individual grain sizes in the range 10–20 nm. In contrast, the TiO2‐vetiver composite exhibited a core–shell structure consisting of a carbonaceous core and TiO2 shell of thickness 10–15nm. These features influenced the photocatalytic performance in such a way that the lower crosssectional area, greater surface area, and higher pore volume of the TiO2 shell increased the number of active sites, reduced the charge carrier diffusion distance, and reduced the recombination rate, thereby improving the photocatalytic activity. This improvement derived from morphological characteristics rather than crystallographic, semiconducting, or optical properties. The improved performance of the TiO2‐vetiver core–shell was unexpected since the X‐ray diffraction data showed that the crystallinity of the TiO2 was lower than that of the pure TiO2. These outcomes are attributed to the reducing effect of the carbon on the TiO2 during heating, thereby facilitating the formation of oxygen vacancies, which enhance charge separation and hence photocatalysis by TiO2.

  1. Drought and salt stress in Chrysopogon zizanioides leads to common and specific transcriptomic responses and may affect essential oil composition and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja George

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses affect crop productivity worldwide. Understanding molecular mechanisms of plant abiotic stress tolerance is important for developing stress tolerant crop plants for sustaining crop productivity in future. Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver is a perennial C4 grass reported to be tolerant to water, salinity and submergence stress. Here, we subjected C. zizanioides seedlings to salt and drought stress and carried out whole transcriptome profiling of leaf and root tissues. Assessing the global transcriptome changes under drought and salt stress resulted in the identification of several genes contributing to stress response in this species. Overall, more transcriptomic changes were observed in leaf tissue compared to root tissue. The response to either stress manifested primarily as upregulation of gene expression in both leaf and root. The study identified stress responsive genes commonly and differently regulated under stress/tissue conditions. Several DEGs in our data were identified as enzymes involved in biosynthesis of essential oil components. The differential expression of these genes under drought and salt stress may affect the vetiver essential oil composition under these stresses. Similarly, several genes involved in the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphin were found to be differentially expressing in our data. Our data may facilitate further molecular studies on stress tolerance of C. zizanioides. The DEGs from our results are potential candidates for understanding and engineering abiotic stress tolerance in plants.

  2. Absorção e distribuição de chumbo em plantas devetiver, jureminha e algaroba Absorption and distribution of lead in vetiver, mimosa and mesquite plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do Carmo Alves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas como agentes remediadores de áreas contaminadas com metais pesados (fitorremediação é uma técnica emergente, sendo necessários estudos sobre tolerância, absorção e distribuição destes elementos em plantas para se obter sucesso em programas dessa natureza. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância, absorção e distribuição de Pb em plantas de vetiver [Vetiveria zizanioides (L. Nash], jureminha [Desmanthus virgatus (L. Willd] e algaroba [Prosopis juliflora (SW DC], submetidas a doses crescentes do elemento em solução. As espécies foram cultivadas em estufa telada do DSER/CCA/UFPB, Areia-PB, em solução nutritiva que continha doses crescentes de Pb (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1, por 45 dias. O delineamento empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em parcela subdividida, com três repetições. A parcela principal foi representada pelas espécies, enquanto a subparcela foi constituída pelas doses de Pb. Foram constatadas reduções significativas na matéria seca da raiz, parte aérea e planta inteira das três espécies estudadas de acordo com a elevação das doses de Pb. Com base nas doses críticas de toxidez, constatou-se que o vetiver demonstrou maior tolerância à contaminação com Pb que as demais espécies. A raiz apresentou maior sensibilidade à contaminação com Pb nas plantas de vetiver e algaroba, tendo a jureminha apresentado comportamento similar entre os compartimentos da planta. Os teores e conteúdos de Pb nos compartimentos das plantas foram significativamente alterados pela elevação das doses de Pb em solução, tendo sido verificado maior acúmulo deste elemento nas raízes das três espécies estudadas. O vetiver apresentou maiores teores e conteúdos de Pb em todos os compartimentos, evidenciando o seu potencial para programas de fitorremediação de áreas contaminadas com Pb.The use of plants for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated areas is an emerging technology

  3. Biofiltro con cascarilla de arroz y pasto vetiver (C. Zizanioides para el tratamiento del efluente de la PTAR del INPEC – Yopal, Casanare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Katheryne Higuera Infante

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación se evaluó un biofiltro a escala laboratorio para el tratamiento del efluente de la PTAR del Inpec de Yopal, Casanare, cuya finalidad era lograr un efluente de calidad óptima para reúso del agua en riego agrícola. Se contemplaron tres fases, la primera caracterización y análisis de los parámetros microbiológicos como fisicoquímicos del efluente. La segunda fase diseño y construcción del sistema a escala laboratorio del humedal artificial, se construyó en vidrio, usando cascarilla de arroz, intercalada con grava, se sembró pasto vetiver (C. Zizanioides y se inundó el sistema para que funcionará con flujo subsuperficial, el tiempo de retención hidráulico TRH fue de 3.4 días. La desinfección con cloro se diseñó a partir de una prueba de demanda de cloro. La tercera fase consistió en la operación del sistema a flujo continuo, el seguimiento se realizó a través de 4 muestreos con frecuencia semanal, en dos de estos muestreos se incluyó medición de DBO5, coliformes totales y fecales y conductividad.  Los resultados mostraron que la cascarilla de arroz como sustrato funciona bien, las plantas crecieron permanentemente, ayudando a disminuir la carga orgánica. Como conclusión la cascarilla puede ser un sustituto total o parcial de otros sustratos de biofiltros o humedales de flujo subsuperficial, al ser menos costosa y estar disponible especialmente en la región de la Orinoquía. Sin embargo, su uso debe complementarse con un proceso de reoxigenación del agua, ya que su condición anaerobia es un aspecto negativo para los cuerpos de agua receptores de vertimientos.

  4. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  5. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  6. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approach evaluating oil spill conditions. You are here Home | Oil and Chemical Spills | Oil Spills On Our Radar ... US Department of Commerce | USA.gov Main menu Home Oil and Chemical Spills Environmental Restoration Marine Debris Training ...

  7. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  8. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it by mouth to lose weight and lower cholesterol. Coconut oil is sometimes applied to the skin as a ... coconut oil by mouth as a medicine. High cholesterol: Coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase ...

  9. Oil Spill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  10. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  11. Peanut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut oil is high in monounsaturated “good” fat, and low in saturated “bad” fat, which is believed to help prevent heart disease and lower cholesterol. However, in animal studies, peanut oil has been shown to ...

  12. Oil spills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moghissi, A.A

    1980-01-01

    Contents: Oil spills on land as potential sources of groundwater contamination / J.J. Duffy, E. Peake and M.F. Mohtadi -- Ecological effects of experimental oil spills in eastern coastal plain estuaries...

  13. Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks formed in many different depositional environments (terrestrial, lacustrine, marine) containing large quantities of thermally immature organic matter in the forms of kerogen and bitumen. If defined from an economic standpoint, a rock containing a sufficient concentration of oil-prone kerogen to generate economic quantities of synthetic crude oil upon heating to high temperatures (350–600 °C) in the absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) can be considered an oil shale.

  14. Mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, N. W.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of lubricants made from mineral oils are discussed. Types and compositions of base stocks are reviewed and the product demands and compositions of typical products are outlined. Processes for commercial production of mineral oils are examined. Tables of data are included to show examples of product types and requirements. A chemical analysis of three types of mineral oils is reported.

  15. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  16. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    The foam height of the soap was found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled ...

  17. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    ABSTRACT. Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly soap products. The chemical analysis of seed oil was carried out using the methods reported by AOAC (1998), Akpan et al., (2006) and Bassir, (1978) which revealed that it had.

  18. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from waste marble. The barium enhanced waste m methods and showed high performance to methyl activity of the solid oxide catalyst resulted from th with high dispersion of .... RANSESTERIFICATION OF CRUDE JATROPHA OIL USING WASTE MARBLE CATALYST ..... methanol will interfere with the glycerin separation.

  19. Efficacy of Olive oil, Groundnut oil, Soybean oil and Palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potentials of four different vegetable oils (olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil) for the protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus. Ife-brown seeds (a susceptible variety) used for the experiment were subjected to the different ...

  20. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  1. Environ: E00562 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Geranyl acetate [CPD:C09861], Nootkatone [CPD:C17914] Citrus aurantium [TAX:43166] Ruta...C06078] Essential oils [BR:br08321] Dicot plants: rosids Rutaceae (rue family) E00562 Bitter orange oil CAS: 68916-04-1 ...

  2. Fish oil for use as hydraulic oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, T.E. [Maine Univ., Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Bio-Resource Engineering; Bimbo, A.P. [Zapata Protein, Inc., Reedville, VA (United States). Menhaden Oil Refinery

    1996-04-01

    A study initiated to find a non-toxic environmentally friendly fluid suitable for use in hydraulic systems, such as in marine and food processing operations, has resulted in a fish-oil-based fluid that appears promising. This paper describes the fluid testing and laboratory and field system tests used to evaluate the fish oil with additive packages. The fish oil with non-toxic additives was endurance tested for durability in complete hydraulic systems in the laboratory and introduced into a commercial system. The results indicate that the oil functioned very well in the systems and the components were compatible with the oil, giving no degradation, wear or performance problems. (author)

  3. Too much oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Fear for oil exhaustion and its consequences for economic growth has been a driver of a rich literature on exhaustible resources. But our view on oil has remarkably changed. We now also worry about too much oil because of climate change damages associated with oil and other fossil fuel use. In this

  4. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described previously in only 3 patients. The allergen(s) is/are unknown.

  5. Soluble oil flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, L.W.; Knight, R.K.

    1976-11-01

    A soluble oil-polymer flooding process used in previously waterflooded reservoirs utilizes oleic, micellar solutions which, when injected as small slugs and driven by polymer thickened water, are capable of displacing all oil and water contacted. During the micellar flood, oil and water are displaced from reservoir rock by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) miscible-type displacement of oil by soluble oil; (2) miscible-type displacement of resident water by injection water and soluble oil; (3) formation of microemulsions by the intermingling of soluble oil and injected water; and (4) reduction of interfacial tension between oil and water phases where both are present. The Higgs Unit, site of a field test of soluble oil flooding, is a small pool in the Jones County Regular field near Abilene, Tex. Field data, special equipment, test evaluation, and field test conclusions are given for this operation.

  6. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  7. Base Oils from Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, R. J.

    The source, composition and suitability of crude oils for base oil production are reviewed. The physical and chemical properties of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics and their characteristics for lubricant applications are examined. Properties and applications of various base oils are defined and specified. Production of conventional mineral oils is described, including the various processes to remove wax and other deleterious substances, followed by increasingly severe hydrogenation to produce base oils of increased quality and performance. The API categorization of mineral base oils, either direct from the refinery or after hydrotreatment of increasing severity, is described, together with sub-categories.

  8. SUITABILITY OF SOYBEAN SEED OIL AS TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from soybean seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using n-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by transesterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  9. Sassafras oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oil. It is a clear or slightly yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts. ... breathing Shallow breathing NERVOUS SYSTEM Dizziness Hallucinations Unconsciousness SKIN Burns (if the oil is on the skin)

  10. Oil market outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.; Kastelein, M.; Zeilstra, A.

    2013-01-01

    The price of oil has a huge impact on the profitability of many and varied industries. In this report, we explore the factors that affect that price and look at the likely future development of the oil market.

  11. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  12. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  13. Crude oil desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  14. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  15. Oil Spill Response Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandra Heins; Marieke Zeinstra; Wierd Koops

    2014-01-01

    A two year programme has been carried out by the NHL University of Applied Sciences together with private companies in the field of oil and chemical spill response to finalize these manuals on oil and chemical spill response. These manuals give a good overview of all aspects of oil and chemical

  16. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin ... condition called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of ...

  17. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms

  18. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  19. efficacy of olive oil, groundnut oil, soybean oil and palm kernel oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    against C. maculatus in laboratory bioassays. However Singh et al. (1978) reported that groundnut oil applied to cowpeas has no effect on mortality or longevity of adult C. maculatus. Tikku et al. (1981) similarly showed that topical application of several vegetable oils, including groundnut and coconut oils, had no effect on ...

  20. Valencene oxidase CYP706M1 from Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cankar, K.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Goedbloed, M.A.; Renirie, R.; Jong, de R.M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Sonke, Th.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    (+)-Nootkatone is a natural sesquiterpene ketone used in grapefruit and citrus flavour compositions. It occurs in small amounts in grapefruit and is a major component of Alaska cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) heartwood essential oil. Upon co-expression of candidate cytochrome P450 enzymes from

  1. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  2. Oil on the market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, K.; Ukert, T.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of the German mineral oil market, supply and consumption as well as the particularities of this market are investigated and explained. The authors deal in particular with the market for light fuel oil, the petrol market, the market for heavy fuel oil and the market of lubricants. As different as these markets may be - the unavoidable coupled production produces interdependences. This and the balance caused by imports and exports have the effect that the price level on the German mineral oil markets is closely connected with the development of prices on the internal mineral oil markets.

  3. Nutritional properties of poppyseed oil relative to some other oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L; Nera, E A; Levin, O L

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed a purified basal diet with 20% lard and corn oil (3:1), sunflower oil, poppyseed oil, low-erucic rapeseed oil from Brassica napus, cultivar Tower, or mixtures of these oils, for 1 or 26 weeks. None of the hearts exhibited lipidosis at 1 week. At 26 weeks, the level of serum triglycerides was higher in rats fed the mixture of lard and corn oil than in those fed only vegetable oil, and the incidence of cardiac necrosis and fibrosis was higher in rats fed the rapeseed oil than in the other animals. Cardiac phospholipids in rats fed the rapeseed oil contained an elevated level of omega 3 docosahexaenoic acid, particularly in phosphatidylethanolamine. Poppyseed oil exhibited properties similar to those of sunflower oil, was absorbed as well as olive oil, and appeared to be a promising oil for human consumption.

  4. 27 CFR 21.98 - Bone oil (Dipple's oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone oil (Dipple's oil....98 Bone oil (Dipple's oil). (a) Color. The color shall be a deep brown. (b) Distillation range. When... below 90 °C. (c) Pyrrol reaction. Prepare a 1.0 percent solution of bone oil in 95 percent alcohol...

  5. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ourrach, I; Rada, M; Pérez-Camino, M. C; Benaissa, M; Guinda, Á

    2012-01-01

    ... 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection...

  7. Credit and Oil Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Credit greases the wheels of oil consumption—it is prevalent in purchases of cars, trucks, and even the construction of factories. But the traditional view is that it affects oil consumption only through economic activity and the price of oil. I argue that credit is important in its own right. To make my case, I first show that an association between credit and oil consumption growth exists across countries and time. I then give a nod to the traditional view, and conclude by showing that ...

  8. Oil spill statistics and oil spill monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viebahn, C. von [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geography

    2001-09-01

    The main parts of the report describe the analysis and it's results of German and international oil spill data (North Sea and Baltic Sea). In order to improve the current oil spill monitoring of the Baltic Sea regarding oil spill data, the report proposes the establishment of a combined monitoring system; its suitability is shown on selected examples. This contains today's pollution control aircraft plus in-service aircraft and satellites. (orig.) [German] Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt in der Analyse von Daten ueber marine Oelschadensfaelle in deutschen und internationalen Gewaessern (Nord- und Ostsee). Um die heutige Ueberwachung der Ostsee im Hinblick auf Oelschadensfaelle zu verbessern, wird die Einrichtung eines kombinierten Ueberwachungssystems vorgeschlagen und dessen Eignung an ausgewaehlten Beispielen dargestellt. Dieses umfasst sowohl die heute eingesetzten Ueberwachungsflugzeuge sowie zusaetzlich Linienflugzeuge und Satelliten. (orig.)

  9. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  10. Krill oil: new nutraceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a new available health product which is produced from deep marine species. Its property is to promote good health. The good lipid composition and antioxidant enrichment make krill oil a new nutraceutical for reducing health problems.

  11. Fossil Energy: Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Detailed are the highlights of the history and technology of crude oil and its end products. Included also are some of the important programs that American industry and the Federal government are planning and undertaking in order to enhance the benefits of oil and make use of the limited available quantities as wisely as possible, both now and in…

  12. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  13. Intraventricular Silicone Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Stéphane; Boissonnot, Michèle; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Simonet, Charles; Ciron, Jonathan; Neau, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intracranial silicone oil is a rare complication of intraocular endotamponade with silicone oil. We describe a case of intraventricular silicone oil fortuitously observed 38 months after an intraocular tamponade for a complicated retinal detachment in an 82 year-old woman admitted in the Department of Neurology for a stroke. We confirm the migration of silicone oil along the optic nerve. We discuss this rare entity with a review of the few other cases reported in the medical literature. Intraventricular migration of silicone oil after intraocular endotamponade is usually asymptomatic but have to be known of the neurologists and the radiologists because of its differential diagnosis that are intraventricular hemorrhage and tumor. PMID:26735537

  14. Solubility and Permeability Studies of Aceclofenac in Different Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: UV spectrophotometeric method was used at the wavelength of 276 nm to measure the dissolved quantity of aceclofenac in each of the oils (almond oil, oleic acid, castor oil, paraffin oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, canola oil, sesame oil, isopropyl myristate (ipm), sunflower oil, corn oil, coconuts oil and eucalyptus oil) at ...

  15. Oil elite networks in a transforming global oil market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, N.A.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses oil elite formation in light of the wider transformation that is taking place in the global oil order due to the rise of powers from the Global South, including Russia: in particular, the expansion and integration of the state-owned oil companies into the global oil market.

  16. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  17. Fuels and Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, L.A.; Kalinina, E.V.; Shekter, Y.N.; Shkol' nikov, V.M.

    1984-03-01

    This article describes procedures which can be used to calculate the quantity of information obtained in laboratory and test-stand evaluations of fuels and oils by various methods. The evaluation of the protective properties of oils by means of the methods of GOST 9.054-75 is compared to a system for the coordinated investigation of the protective properties (CIPP) of the oils. According to GOST 9.054-75, the protective properties of oils are determined by the percentage of corrosion-damaged surface on metal panels that have been coated with a film of the oil, after a certain test time under various conditions. In tests on oils by the CIPP system, each index is evaluated on a rating scale containing three classes: ''good,'' ''satisfactory,'' and ''poor.'' According to GOST 9.054-75, the protective properties of oils are evaluated by 5 methods: in a humidity cabinet, in a salt fog cabinet, in a sulfur dioxide cabinet, in sea water, and in a test for hydrobromic acid displacement. It is demonstrated that the tests by the CIPP system using the desirability scale give the highest level of informativity. The informativity of the methods, along with the repeatability and reproducibility of the results, can serve as quantitative characterization of the quality of the test methods. Includes 2 tables.

  18. Ricinoleic acid in common vegetable oils and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kouhei; Kinoshita, Akemi; Shibahara, Akira

    2008-05-01

    An original gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for quantifying trace amounts of ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid) is detailed. Data are presented on trace amounts of ricinoleic acid found in several common vegetable oils and oils extracted from common oil seeds: e.g., ca. 30 ppm in commercial olive oil was the lowest amount; and ca. 2,690 ppm in oil extracted from cottonseeds was the highest amount.

  19. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  20. Exposure Standard for Fog Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-15

    specifications. Solvent refining selectively removes PAH and some sulfur and nitrogen compounds by extraction of oils with organic solvents such as furfural ...Mineral oils are classified as paraffinic or naphthenic, depending on their degree of aromaticity. Paraffinic oils are characterized by high wax...sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen. Thus, solvent extraction physically removes some of the undesirable compounds from the oil, while hydrotreatment converts

  1. An oil heating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinin, N.S.; Alpatov, G.K.; Glovatskiy, Ye.A.; Plyusnin, D.V.; Zhuravlev, V.S.

    1979-05-30

    The goal of the invention is to ensure complete utilization of the fuel combustion heat in simplification of a method for heating oil in a pipeline and to reduce the expenditures of its implementation. This goal is achieved by the fact that in the known method, which provides for the action on the oil being transported of high temperature, the oil is degassified inside the pipe in the pipeline sector, an oxidant (air) is supplied into the gas isolation zone and the obtained mixture is ignited.

  2. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  3. Oil Spills Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA monitors impacts and mitigates the effects of spilled oil, which threatens public health and safety, contaminates drinking water, causes fire and explosion, diminishes air and water quality, harms ecosystems, and more.

  4. Evening Primrose Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemisphere as well. It has yellow flowers that bloom in the evening. Evening primrose oil contains the ... skin, sometimes caused by allergies), rheumatoid arthritis, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), breast pain, menopause symptoms, and other conditions. ...

  5. Mel Calman on Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, James

    2011-01-01

    James Baker analyses an apparently simple cartoon by Mel Calman: a man watching a blank TV that weeps oil. Baker describes the context in which Calman tells an economic story, with a few minimalist pencil traces, the artist provides...

  6. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  7. Oil Origin and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Barenbaum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of oil age is discussed on the basis of the biosphere concept of oil and gas formation. It considers oil and gas deposits as underground carbon traps circulating through the Earth’s surface in the three main cycles of the circulation. A theoretical model has been developed that makes it possible to explain from these positions the phenomenon of replenishment of oil and gas deposits in the process of field development. The model provides a balance between carbon flows on the ascending and descending branches of its circulation through the Earth’s surface. In this model, the ascending flow of carbon is represented by the products of subsoil degassing (СН4, СО2 and extracted by the person from the depths of oil, gas and coal. A descending flow is an organic matter and carbonates that are submerged in the subsoil in the processes of sedimentation and subduction of lithospheric plates, as well as atmospheric COsub>2, entering the Earth’s surface with meteoric waters in the process of their climatic circulation. Since the fields are filled with hydrocarbons formed in cycles of carbon with widely differing circulation times, instead of the term ‘age of oil’, it is suggested to use the terms ‘trap formation time’ and ‘hydrocarbon life time in the trap’. This approach to the question of oil age in the biosphere concept leads to a number of conclusions, from which it follows that: 1 the ‘old’ petroleum of biogenic genesis is extracted at the initial stage of the development of deposits, whereas in the depletion stage the ‘young’ hydrocarbons of abiogenic synthesis prevail; 2 the age of industrial accumulations of oil on our planet is hardly older than the Pleistocene, while gaseous, liquid and bituminous fractions of oil have different lifetimes in traps.

  8. Algeria's New Oil Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Addi, Lahouari

    1995-01-01

    Since the collapse of oil prices in the mid-1980s, Algeria has attempted to modify its national petroleum strategy in order to encourage foreign investment in oil and gas production. This effort was justified by a con stantly growing need for external resources to meet internal demands created by a growing population and to defray the increasing budgetary deficit in the public sector. In this chapter I will attempt to show that the contradictions of the Algerian economy and the rentier state ...

  9. Tofu wastewater treatment using vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides) and zeliac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroja, Romi; Effendi, Hefni; Hariyadi, Sigid

    2018-03-01

    Tofu production is a domestic industry, that most of it has no appropriate wastewater treatment facilities. Wastewater of tofu contains high organic matter which can decrease the water quality. This study aimed to analyze capability of Vetiveria zizanioides, L and zeliac in treating tofu wastewater industry. Zeliac is a new adsorbent, which consists of zeolite, activated carbon, limestone, rice husk ash and cement. Response surface methodology was applied to analyze the data, using central composite design with two factors, i.e., time (3, 9, and 15 days) and waste concentration (20, 40, and 60%). The optimum treatment occurred at the time of 15 days and 38.41% of tofu wastewater concentration decreasing up to 76% of COD, 71.78% of BOD, and 75.28% of TSS.

  10. Environmental consequences of oil production from oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Lorenzo; Davis, Kyle F.; Rulli, Maria C.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Crude oil from oil sands will constitute a substantial share of future global oil demand. Oil sands deposits account for a third of globally proven oil reserves, underlie large natural forested areas, and have extraction methods requiring large volumes of freshwater. Yet little work has been done to quantify some of the main environmental impacts of oil sands operations. Here we examine forest loss and water use for the world's major oil sands deposits. We calculate actual and potential rates of water use and forest loss both in Canadian deposits, where oil sands extraction is already taking place, and in other major deposits worldwide. We estimated that their exploitation, given projected production trends, could result in 1.31 km3 yr-1 of freshwater demand and 8700 km2 of forest loss. The expected escalation in oil sands extraction thus portends extensive environmental impacts.

  11. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  12. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  13. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    OpenAIRE

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammat...

  14. Vegetable oil as a diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Callaghan, C.

    1982-05-01

    There are a wide range of vegetable oils which may be used in the diesel engine such as palm oil, soyabean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. This paper reports on preliminary work with rapeseed oil as a possible alternative to diesel. The oil was degummed by hydration. Physical and chemical properties of the oil are compared to diesel fuel. Three types of fuel were tested in a tractor: (a) pure diesel oil; (b) a 50:50 mixture of diesel oil and rapeseed oil; and (c) pure rapeseed oil. Power-speed curves were constructed for each fuel type and observations on nozzle cooking and smoke emissions made.

  15. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  16. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Maritza F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observed in both oils but they were higher in ozonized sunflower oil. Iodine value was zero in ozonized olive oil whereas in ozonized sunflower was 8.8 g Iodine per 100 g. The antimicrobial activity was similar for both ozonized oils except for Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of Pseudomona aeruginosa. Composition of fatty acids in both ozonized oils showed gradual decrease in unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1, C18:2 with gradual increase in ozone doses.

  17. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  18. Implication of Oil Exploration on Livelihood of Residents Around oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Humanities and Development Studies ... of the influence of development interventions was negatively and significantly related with respondents' perception of household income, nutrition and education. ... Key words: oil exploration, developmental intervention, community livelihoods, oil exploration policies ...

  19. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  20. Nonisocyanate polyurethane materials, and their preparation from epoxidized soybean oils and related epoxidized vegetable oils, incorporation of carbon dioxide into soybean oil, and carbonation of vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Novel carbonated vegetable oils (such as carbonated soybean oil) are made by reacting carbon dioxide with an epoxidized vegetable oil. The carbonated vegetable oils advantageously may be used for producing nonisocyanate polyurethane materials.

  1. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  2. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil (Curcas Oil) | Oladeji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work deals with the production of Biodiesel from Jatropha oil also known as Curcas oil. Material used for the production was sourced for locally. Basic test for the suitability of the Jatropha oil was carried out in the lab. The test carried out to determine if the produced Biodiesel met standards set was carried out at the ...

  3. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  4. Oil scenarios; Escenarios petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros Corradi, Alberto [Oxford Energy Policy Club (United States)

    2003-04-15

    If there is a war in Middle East affecting the Saudi Arabian crude oil production, the crude oil prices will increase at unimaginable levels. This is due to both the current decrease of the production capacity of Venezuela and the Nigeria's political fragility. Therefore, despite the fact that the majority of the reasons why the United States invade Irak are unknown, it is clear that the crude oil is one of them and is playing a major role. [Spanish] Cualesquiera que sean las verdaderas razones de Estados Unidos para invadir Irak, esta claro que el petroleo tiene un papel muy importante. Una guerra en Medio Oriente que afectara la produccion petrolera de Arabia Saudita elevaria los precios del crudo a niveles nunca vistos, debido al actual descenso de la capacidad de produccion de Venezuela y a la fragilidad politica de Nigeria.

  5. Aromatherapy and Essential Oils (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as with standard treatments , for symptom management . Essential oils (also known as volatile oils) are the fragrant ( aromatic ) part found in many plants, often under the surface of leaves, bark, or peel. The fragrance is released if ...

  6. Olive oil for tuna canning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cucurachi, A

    1967-01-01

    The paper presents studies on the phenomenon of contamination of the preserving oil by contact with the tunnyfish, and attempts to discover a method for guaranteeing the genuineness of the olive oil...

  7. Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    non-petroleum oils are also regulated under CFR 112. Like petroleum oils, they can cause devastating physical effects, be toxic, destroy food supplies and habitats, produce rancid odors, foul shorelines and treatment plants, be flammable, and linger.

  8. Remote sensing of oil slicks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Airborne remote sensing is very useful for oil-spill monitoring ans surveillance. It ranks very high among available methods due to its capability of large area coverage with good resolution and speed for detection of oil slicks. It overcomes...

  9. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  10. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  11. 7 CFR 985.4 - Spearmint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.4 Spearmint oil. Spearmint oil, hereinafter referred to as oil, means essential oil extracted by distillation from... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spearmint oil. 985.4 Section 985.4 Agriculture...

  12. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  13. WEO-2006 Fact Sheet: Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    We have revised upwards our assumptions for oil prices in this Outlook, reflecting current market conditions. Globally, fossil fuels will remain the dominant source of energy to 2030 in both scenarios. Rising oil and gas demand and imports, if unchecked, would accentuate the consuming countries' vulnerability to a severe supply disruption and resulting price shock. The growing insensitivity of oil demand to price accentuates the potential impact on international oil prices of such a disruption.

  14. Inflazione da "Oil Push"? (Oil push inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. PARKIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il presente lavoro indaga la visione " oilpush " dell'inflazione  , la linea ict di ragionamento e le sue conclusioni esaminando l'evoluzione dell'inflazione e variabili correlate in sei paesi , nel periodo 1968-1978 . L'articolo è principalmente  empirico , con proposte di standard di macroeconomia e teorie qui monetaria sono sullo sfondo . L'ipotesi di Oil push  viene prima esaminata e giudicata essere privo diefficacia  empirica . Le politiche monetarie degli ultimi dieci anni sono esaminate e riscontrate  per spiegare l' evoluzione dell'inflazione . Infine sono brevemente esaminati i costi della riduzione dei tassi di inflazione nel periodo post - 1973 .The present work investigates the “oilpush” view of inflation, its line of reasoning and its conclusions, by examining the evolution of inflation and related variables in six countries, over the period 1968-1978. The paper is mainly empirical, using standard propositions from macroeconomics and monetary theory which are in the background, however, rather than the forefront. The oil push hypothesis is first examined and found to be lacking in empirical content. The monetary policies of the last decade are then reviewed and found to account well for the evolution of inflation. Finally, the costs of the reduction of inflations in the post-1973 period are briefly examined. JEL: E31

  15. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  16. Analysing oil-production subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblik, Ronald

    2017-11-01

    Understanding how subsidies affect fossil-fuel investment returns and production is crucial to commencing new reforms. New analysis on the impact of subsidies on US crude-oil producers finds that, at recent oil prices of around US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new oil investments into profitability.

  17. Oil and fat absorbing polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for forming a solid network polymer having a minimal amount of crosslinking for use in absorbing fats and oils. The polymer remains solid at a swelling ratio in oil or fat of at least ten and provides an oil absorption greater than 900 weight percent.

  18. Ozonated Olive Oils and Troubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 49-50

  19. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  20. Towards sustainable oil revenue management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Challenges to oil revenue management in existing and emerging African oil economies are examined, with a special emphasis on countries in UNDP's Central and Eastern Africa (CEA) Region. It is part of the first phase of UNDP/CEA's Oil Revenue Initiative (ml)

  1. Industrial uses of vegetable oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erhan, Sevim Z

    2005-01-01

    ..., cotton, sunflower, flax, and rape. Although a major part of these oils are used for food products such as shortenings, salad and cooking oils and margarines, large quantities serve feed and industrial applications. Other vegetable oils widely used industrially include palm, palm kernel, coconut, castor, and tung. However, these are not of domestic or...

  2. Oil Content and Oil Quality Properties of Some Grape Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDAR, Nilgün GÖKTÜRK

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the oil contents and some oil quality properties of seeds taken from 18 grape cultivars were examined. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 11.6 to 19.6%. Grape seeds were rich in oleic and linoleic acids, ranging from 17.8 to 26.5% and 60.1 to 70.1%, respectively. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 86%, and the average concentration of total tocopherol in oil was around 454 mg/kg. The results indicate that grape seed...

  3. HOW PROPERTIES OF EDIBLE OILS ARE IMPROVED BY ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA AMARIEI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to find out whether the addition of essential oils determines better oxidation stability and positive change of sensory and hedonic perception of edible oils. The oxidation stability of sunflower, corn and grape seed oils was analyzed in the presence of antioxidants in essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and basil (Ocimum basilicum during storage, under conditions of accelerated oxidative processes (4 days, at 60 °C. The total phenolic compounds of these essential oils were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of basil, rosemary and thyme essential oils in comparison with known synthetic antioxidant L(+-ascorbic acid. The addition of essential oils to edible oils, the amounts proposed in analyses, determines a favorable influence on their oxidation stability as well as their taste. The influence of addition of essential oils on the taste of edible oils was studied in two products consumed mainly at breakfast, bread and spinach leaves. The results recommend the use of these plant extracts as additives in edible oils rather than synthetic antioxidants.

  4. Fuel conversional aspects of palm oil and sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demi-Rbas, A. [PK 216, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2003-05-15

    There are great differences between palm oil and palm kernel oil in physical and chemical characteristics. Palm oil contains mainly palmitic (16:0) and oleic (18:1) acids, the 2 common fatty acids and about 50% saturated, while palm kernel oil contains mainly lauric acid (12:0) and is more than 89% saturated. Palm is widely grown in Southeast Asia, and 90% of the palm oil produced is used for food, while the remaining 10% is used for nonfood consumption, such as production of oleo-chemicals. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. Compared to No. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oils are much more viscous, while methyl esters of vegetable oils are slightly more viscous. The methyl esters are more volatile than the vegetable oils. The soaps obtained from the vegetable oils can be pyrolyzed into hydrocarbon-rich products. The yield of conversion of the sunflower oil reached the maximum 78.3% at 660 K over ZnCl{sub 2} catalyst. (Author)

  5. Engine bearing oil film thickness measurement and oil rheologh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cryvoff, S.A.; Spearot, J.A.; Bates, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    An American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Task Force was formed in 1984 to: (1) establish a series of reference oils, (2) measure the minimum bearing oil film thicknesses provided by the oils in fired engine, and (3) interpret the results in terms of oil rheological properties. Minimum oil film thickness (MOFT) measurement and analysis techniques using a capacitance method were developed. At steady-state operating conditions, laboratories evaluated a matrix of eighteen monograde and multigrade oils, blended with four widely-used viscosity index improves (VIIs). Analyses showed increasingly better correlations between MOFTs and viscosities of both single grade and multigrade oils as temperatures and shear rates used to calculate viscosities more-closely approximated in-bearing conditions.

  6. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Agwu, Okorie E.; Anietie N. Okon; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  7. Striking Oil: Another Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Driesprong (Gerben); B. Jacobsen (Ben); B. Maat (Benjamin)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe find that changes in oil prices strongly predict future stock market returns in many countries in the world. In our thirty year sample of monthly data for developed stock markets, we find statistically significant predictability in 12 out of the 18 countries and in a world market

  8. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  9. Between Oil and Reindeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulaeva, S.; Tysyachnyouk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This research provides insight into various modes of benefit-sharing agreements between oil and gas companies and indigenous people in the Russian Arctic and Subarctic regions. We indicate three main modes of benefit sharing, as follows: (1) paternalism, (2) corporate social responsibility, and (3)

  10. Smallholder Oil Palm Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Woittiez, L.S.; Haryono, S.; Turhina, S.; Dani, H.; Dukan, T.P.; Smit, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Module 1: Planting Materia., 24 pages.Module 2: Harvesting, Grading, Transport, 25 pages.Module 3: Plantation Maintenance, 53 pages.Smallholder Oil Palm Handbook Module 4: Fertiliser Application, The Netherlands, 64 pages.Module 5: Pests and Diseases, The Netherlands, 29 pages.

  11. Kicking the oil addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilenchik, Yaakov; Peled, Emanuel; Andelman, David

    2010-01-01

    Few people were left unaffected by the soaring oil prices of summer 2008. Motorists were the hardest hit as the price at the pumps reached an all time high, but nobody could avoid paying more for their food as higher transport costs were passed on from the retailer to the consumer.

  12. (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plant that is indigenous to the tropics. It belongs to the Malvaceae family and has various local names as documented in a work reported by Schippers (2000). .... and/or the ultraviolet rays in the ambient light. (Ngassapa et al., 2016), hence faster rate shown for the oil under L and AF. The variation of saponification values of ...

  13. Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats--compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunima, S; Rajamohan, T

    2012-11-01

    Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P cholesterol, LDL+ VLDL cholesterol, Apo B and triglycerides in serum and tissues compared to rats fed CO, OO and SFO, while HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 were significantly (P cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis and degradation of lipids.

  14. Flaxseed oil, a fish oil challenger?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurette Jean-Marc

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The too low level of omega-3 intake in the modern diet is a fact which is worrying health professional and authorities. Among the “traditional” recommendation for a safe and equilibrated diet, recommending food containing omega-3, is there, out of the inescapable fish oil leading to some digestive discomforts, any alternative? Two human clinical trials conducted to verify the effective efficiency of this re equilibrated diet on various skin parameters (hydration, surface evaluation, inflammation are reviewed here. The results of the clinical trials on various skin parameters (hydration, trans epidermal water loss, roughness, scaling, superficial inflammation and blood flow were quite convincing about the interest of such a supplementation.

  15. Heavy oil markets and investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Jackie [CERA North America (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, the exploitation of heavy oil resources is increasing. The aim of this paper is to present the heavy oil sector and to show which are the factors influencing heavy oil growth and production. A large part of heavy oil reserves lies in the Americas, with about 45% of the world's reserves in Latin America and over 35% in North America. The development of the heavy oil sector is dependent on economic, technological and environmental factors; greenhouse gas policies have important impacts on the development of the heavy oil industry as well as downstream market access. This presentation highlighted the great potential that North and South America have in terms of heavy oil but that the development of this sector will depend on several factors.

  16. Aerobic microbial enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torsvik, T. [Univ. of Bergen (Norway); Gilje, E.; Sunde, E.

    1995-12-31

    In aerobic MEOR, the ability of oil-degrading bacteria to mobilize oil is used to increase oil recovery. In this process, oxygen and mineral nutrients are injected into the oil reservoir in order to stimulate growth of aerobic oil-degrading bacteria in the reservoir. Experiments carried out in a model sandstone with stock tank oil and bacteria isolated from offshore wells showed that residual oil saturation was lowered from 27% to 3%. The process was time dependent, not pore volume dependent. During MEOR flooding, the relative permeability of water was lowered. Oxygen and active bacteria were needed for the process to take place. Maximum efficiency was reached at low oxygen concentrations, approximately 1 mg O{sub 2}/liter.

  17. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorie E. Agwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-based mud (OBM was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low yield point and gel strength when compared with the diesel oil mud. The mud density measurement showed that soybean OBM was slightly higher than diesel OBM with mud density values of 8.10 lb/gal and 7.98 lb/gal, respectively, at barite content of 10 g. Additionally, the filtration loss test results showed that soybean mud fluid loss volumes, water and oil, were 13 mL and 10 mL, respectively, compared to diesel oil mud volume of 15 mL and 12 mL. Furthermore, the filtration loss test indicated that the soybean oil mud with filter cake thickness of 2 mm had a cake characteristic of thin and soft while the diesel oil mud resulted in filter cake thickness of 2.5 mm with cake characteristic of firm and rubbery. In comparison with previous published works in the literature, the soybean oil mud exhibits superior rheological and filtration property over other vegetable oil-based muds. Therefore, the formulated soybean oil mud exhibited good drilling mud properties that would compare favourably with those of diesel oil muds. Its filter cake characteristic of thin and soft is desirable and significant to avert stuck pipe during drilling operations, meaning that an oil-based drilling mud could be formulated from soybean oil.

  18. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    OpenAIRE

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood...

  19. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  20. Slick oil advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Technological innovations in oil and gas exploration and production during the past 30 years have led to increased efficiency and environmental benefits, according to an October 5 report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy.With these innovations, it now takes 22,000 fewer wells annually to develop the same amount of oil and gas reserves as it did in 1985, according to the report. In addition, fewer wells translate into less drilling waste. As much as 148 million barrels of drilling wastes annually are avoided due to increased well productivity at fewer sites, the report estimates. Industry advances also are leading to a reduction in the “footprint” of well pads and in the area cleared for drilling operations.

  1. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    -, HPO42-, and HCO3- (anions), were studied through gas chromatographic analysis. Crude oil from the North Sea was doped with various fractions of organic acids to mimic different polar behavior. Increased brine concentration showed up to 15% upsurge of polar fractions on the oil-water emulsion formation...... mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions....... During emulsion formation the relative interactions at the oil-water interface are proved to follow the Hofmeister series: K+

  2. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  3. Comparative study of ozonized olive oil and ozonized sunflower oil

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Maritza F.; Hernández,Rebeca; Martínez,Goitybell; Vidal,Genny; Gómez,Magali; Fernández,Harold; Garcés,Rafael

    2006-01-01

    In this study the ozonized olive and sunflower oils are chemical and microbiologically compared. These oils were introduced into a reactor with bubbling ozone gas in a water bath at room temperature until they were solidified. The peroxide, acidity and iodine values along with antimicrobial activity were determined. Ozonization effects on the fatty acid composition of these oils were analyzed using Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Technique. An increase in peroxidation and acidity values was observ...

  4. Colombian fusel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Montoya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By-products valorization in bio-fuels industry is an important issue for making the global process more efficient, more profitable and closer to the concept of biorefinery. Fusel oil is a by-product of bioethanol production that can be considered as an inexpensive and renewable raw material for manufacturing value-added products. In this work, results in terms of composition and physicochemical properties of six samples of fusel oil from industrial alcohol facilities are presented. Composition of the main components was established by gas chromatography. Complementary techniques, such as headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, were used for detection of minor components. Fifty-five compounds were identified. Physicochemical properties such as density, acid value, moisture content and true boiling point curves were determined. Results are useful in the conceptual design of separation strategies for recovering higher alcohols, as well as to consider new options of valorization alternatives for fusel oil.

  5. Electrobioremediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daghio, Matteo; Aulenta, Federico; Vaiopoulou, Eleni; Franzetti, Andrea; Arends, Jan B A; Sherry, Angela; Suárez-Suárez, Ana; Head, Ian M; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-05-01

    Annually, thousands of oil spills occur across the globe. As a result, petroleum substances and petrochemical compounds are widespread contaminants causing concern due to their toxicity and recalcitrance. Many remediation strategies have been developed using both physicochemical and biological approaches. Biological strategies are most benign, aiming to enhance microbial metabolic activities by supplying limiting inorganic nutrients, electron acceptors or donors, thus stimulating oxidation or reduction of contaminants. A key issue is controlling the supply of electron donors/acceptors. Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have emerged, in which an electrical current serves as either electron donor or acceptor for oil spill bioremediation. BES are highly controllable and can possibly also serve as biosensors for real time monitoring of the degradation process. Despite being promising, multiple aspects need to be considered to make BES suitable for field applications including system design, electrode materials, operational parameters, mode of action and radius of influence. The microbiological processes, involved in bioelectrochemical contaminant degradation, are currently not fully understood, particularly in relation to electron transfer mechanisms. Especially in sulfate rich environments, the sulfur cycle appears pivotal during hydrocarbon oxidation. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the research on bioelectrochemical remediation of oil spills and of the key parameters involved in the process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Colombian fusel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Montoya

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available By-products valorization in bio-fuels industry is an important issue for making the global process more efficient, more profitable and closer to the concept of biorefinery. Fusel oil is a by-product of bioethanol production that can be considered as an inexpensive and renewable raw material for manufacturing value-added products. In this work, results in terms of composition and physicochemical properties of six samples of fusel oil from industrial alcohol facilities are presented. Composition of the main components was established by gas chromatography. Complementary techniques, such as headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, were used for detection of minor components. Fifty-five compounds were identified. Physicochemical properties such as density, acid value, moisture content and true boiling point curves were determined. Results are useful in the conceptual design of separation strategies for recovering higher alcohols, as well as to consider new options of valorization alternatives for fusel oil.

  7. Extraction of soybean oil from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Naoya; Imashiro, Yusuke; Morita, Naofumi

    2003-10-08

    Single cells prepared from autoclaved soybeans and cellulase treatment of the cells were effective in digesting the cell walls of and extracting the oil from soybeans. The first cell wall of the soybean single cell was completely removed using cellulases; the thin and transparent second cell wall of the cell was swollen. Oil in the cell formed spherical or hemispherical oil drops, and oil leaking from the oil bodies was observed. The oil was almost retained within the second cell wall. Water-extractable substances were obtained at approximately >60% of the weight. Flotation of oil drops by centrifugation was easily done. Ambient n-hexane extraction was also possible; however, residual oil remained in the oil bodies. Protease or peptidase digested the structure of the oil bodies; however, separation of the oil and the hydrolysates was impossible. The oil from the oil bodies was obtained effectively (>85%) by pressing the single cells and/or cellulase-treated single cells.

  8. Detection of Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration mixed with soybean oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil by using GC and HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Makni, Jamel; Rebai, Ahmed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-05-28

    Fatty acid composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra/virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil, and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ΔECN42 proved to be effective in Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil, and 3% of corn oil. The sterol profile is almost decisive in clarifying the adulteration of olive oils with other cheaper ones: 1% of sunflower oil could be detected by the increase of Δ7-stigmastenol and 4% of corn oil by the increase of campesterol. Linear discriminant analysis could represent a powerful tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.

  9. Environ: E00735 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00735 Vetiver oil Essential oil Zizanol, Vetiselinenol, Cyclocopacamphenol, beta-...Eudesmol [CPD:C09664], beta-Vetivone [CPD:C09745], alpha-Vetivone [CPD:C09744], Elemol, 10-epi-gamma-Eudesmol Vet...iveria zizanoides [TAX:167337] ... Poaceae Vetiveria zizanoides root Obtained by steam distillation Major component: Zizanol CAS: 8016-96-4

  10. Rape-seed oil - a substitute for mineral oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badent, R.; Kist, K.; Schwab, A.J. [University of Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute of Electric Systems and High-Voltage Technology

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the study on the basic characteristics of rape-seed oil considered to be a substitute of mineral oil in power transformers. The results show that rape- seed oil is usable as an insulating liquid. Furthermore, results are presented concerning the breakdown behaviour in uniform (plane-plane geometry) and non-uniform (rod-plane geometry) fields under impulse conditions with gaps up to 40 mm and voltages up to 650 kV. A sufficient high 50 Hz breakdown voltage is the most important precondition for a medium to be used as an insulator. The dielectric strength of rape-seed oil exceeds more than 50 kV/2,5 mm and consequently fulfils the requirements of the standards. The measurement of the permittivity and tan {delta} at 90{sup o}C yields to 3,18 and 0,015, respectively and is comparable to the values of standard mineral oil. However, there are still some problems to be overcome. Beside the insulating task the liquid dielectric has also a cooling function in power apparatus. Since the dynamic viscosity of rape-seed oil (about 70 mm{sup 2}/s at 40{sup o}C) is higher than that of mineral oil, rape-seed oil has a lower ability for heat conduction. A further problem is the solidification of rape-seed oil below -5{sup o}C. (author)

  11. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    . To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  12. CASTOR SEED BIO -TRANSFORMER OIL AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CONVENTIONAL TRANSFORMER OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Egbuna, S.O.*, Ude, O.C., Ude, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    In search of solution to the harmful ecological problems due to toxicity and non-biodegradability posed by conventional transformer insulation oil (mineral oil), the production of transformer oil from castor seed oil (vegetable oil) was carried out. The oil was extracted using N-hexane and was refined. The transformer oil was produced by trans-esterification and was characterized using American Society for Testing Material (ASTM) standard test. The solvent employed gave good yield of oil from...

  13. Fish oil in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Hansen, B V; Nielsen, F S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies in nondiabetic kidney diseases suggest that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish oil) may have beneficial effects on albuminuria, kidney function, arterial blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term effect of fish...... oil in diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 1-year double-blind randomized controlled study comparing fish oil (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) with placebo (olive oil) was performed in an outpatient clinic in a tertiary referral center. Thirty-six normotensive IDDM patients with diabetic...... nephropathy were included; 18 were treated with fish oil. Seven patients dropped out (four received fish oil), and results for the remaining 29 are presented. Albuminuria (enzyme immunoassay), glomerular filtration rate (51Cr-labeled EDTA plasma clearance), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and lipid profile...

  14. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  15. Methanolysis of used frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasevic, A.V. [Institute for Plant Protection and Environment, PO Box 33-79, Teodora Drajzera 9, 11040 Belgrade (Serbia); Siler-Marinkovic, S.S. [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, PO Box 484, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2003-04-15

    The result of the investigation on methyl esters obtained on the basis of heated refined sunflower oil and used frying oils are given in the paper. Transesterification reaction conditions that affect yield and purity of the product esters including oil quality, molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil, type and concentration of alkaline catalyst, temperature and reaction time were examined. The methanolysis of different oils at 25 C with 0.5-1.5% potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide were studied. The effect of molar ratio 4.5:1, 6:1 and 9:1 on ester yield and its quality were investigated. With 1% potassium hydroxide, temperature at 25 C, molar ratio 6:1 and 30 min, all investigated oils were sufficiently transesterified and could be used as fuel in diesel engines.

  16. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  17. Enzymatic transesterification of Jatropha oil

    OpenAIRE

    Garlapati Vijay; Mahapatra Paramita; Kumari Annapurna; Banerjee Rintu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Transesterification of Jatropha oil was carried out in t-butanol solvent using immobilized lipase from Enterobacter aerogenes. The presence of t-butanol significantly reduced the negative effects caused by both methanol and glycerol. The effects of various reaction parameters on transesterification of Jatropha oil were studied. Results The maximum yield of biodiesel was 94% (of which 68% conversion was achieved with respect to methyl oleate) with an oil:methanol molar rati...

  18. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  19. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  20. Optimization of walnut oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Jokić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Walnut is recognized worldwide as a functional health food. In the walnut oil production it is very important to find an appropriate method to recover the oil from seeds. Walnut oil in this study was obtained by pressing the seeds followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. The effects of pressing temperature (70, 85, 100 °C, frequency (20, 30, 40 Hz and nozzle size (8, 10, 12 mm in pressing experiments on oil recovery and oil temperature were monitored. The optimal calculated pressing condition within the experimental range of the variables studied was determined. In obtained walnut oil the following parameters were analyzed: peroxide value, free fatty acids, insoluble impurities, moisture content, iodine value, saponification value, p-anisidine value and Totox value. The residual oil from pressed cake obtained at optimal conditions was extracted with CO2 with a goal to extract tocopherols residue from walnut after applied screw press process. Content of tocopherols in walnut oil obtained by pressing and oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were compared.

  1. Financial and monetary policy responses to oil price shocks: evidence from oil-importing and oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Filis, George; Chatziantoniou, I.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the financial and monetary policy responses to oil price shocks using a Structural VAR framework. We distinguish between net oil-importing and net oil-exporting countries. Since the 80s, a significant number of empirical studies have been published investigating the effect of oil prices on macroeconomic and financial variables. Most of these studies though, do not make a distinction between oil-importing and oil-exporting economies. Overall, our results indicate ...

  2. Multiphase Flow Techniques in Oil Spill Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isamu FUJITA

    2013-01-01

      Oil spill response requires multiphase flow techniques in various aspects. Among them, methods for treating water-in-oil emulsion, which is often formed when oil spills on the sea surface, are very important...

  3. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. PMID:26401346

  4. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users.

  5. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1013 Oil... turbine engine, that can retain any appreciable quantity of oil, must have provisions for fitting a drain...

  6. Therapeutic Impacts of Almond Oil and Olive Oil on Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diet plays a seminal role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Therefore the present study was conducted to verify the cholesterol lowering and antioxidant activities of two promising Mediterranean oils namely almond and olive oils and to elucidate some of their mechanism of actions. The study ...

  7. Improving oil biodegradability of aliphatic crude oil fraction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples were collected from three oil polluted stations, two replicates for each station, from southern region of Shatt Al-Arab estuary, and southern of Basrah city during the period from September to October 2011. The mineral salts medium was used to isolating oil biodegrading bacteria. Four bacterial species were ...

  8. Oil spills abatement: factors affecting oil uptake by cellulosic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Katharine C; Jackson, Colby D; Aizpurua, Carlos E; Rojas, Orlando J; Hubbe, Martin A

    2012-07-17

    Wood-derived cellulosic fibers prepared in different ways were successfully employed to absorb simulated crude oil, demonstrating their possible use as absorbents in the case of oil spills. When dry fibers were used, the highest sorption capacity (six parts of oil per unit mass of fiber) was shown by bleached softwood kraft fibers, compared to hardwood bleached kraft and softwood chemithermomechanical pulp(CTMP) fibers. Increased refining of CTMP fibers decreased their oil uptake capacity. When the fibers were soaked in water before exposure to the oil, the ability of the unmodified kraft fibers to sorb oil was markedly reduced, whereas the wet CTMP fibers were generally more effective than the wet kraft fibers. Predeposition of lignin onto the surfaces of the bleached kraft fibers improved their ability to take up oil when wet. Superior ability to sorb oil in the wet state was achieved by pretreating the kraft fibers with a hydrophobic sizing agent, alkenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). Contact angle tests on a model cellulose surface showed that some of the sorption results onto wetted fibers could be attributed to the more hydrophobic nature of the fibers after treatment with either lignin or ASA.

  9. VEGETABLE OILS AS SUBSTITUTION FOR DIESEL OIL Test results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test results obtained on a Diesel Engine with direct injection. W. Scheer, Professor. Mechanical ... oils as diesel engine fuel had been conducted during the last three years in the .... Table 2. Performance, consumption, starting behaviour and smoke levels of the Daimler-Benz Diesel engine OM314 run with vegetable oils in ...

  10. Environmental emergency in the oil production and oil products transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čopan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the experience of the environmental emergency response in the case of accidental leakages of oil or oil products into the environment. The gained experience is demonstrated on four different sites where the remediation of contaminated soil / groundwater and emergency response were carried out by the Czech environmental company DEKONTA a.s.

  11. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  12. Life cycle of transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđević Ksenija R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil plays a very important role in transformer operation, since it provides insulation and cooling, helps extinguishing sparks and dissolves gases formed during oil degradation. In addition to this, it also dissolves moisture and gases from cellulose insulation and atmosphere it is exposed to. Further and by no means less important functions of transformer are of diagnostic purpose. It has been determined that examination and inspection of insulation oil provide 70% of information on transformer condition, which can be divided in three main groups: dielectric condition, aged transformer condition and oil degradation condition. By inspecting and examining the application oil it is possible to determine the condition of insulation, oil and solid insulation (paper, as well as irregularities in transformer operation. All of the above-mentioned reasons and facts create ground for the subject of this research covering two stages of transformer oil life cycle: (1 proactive maintenance and monitoring of transformer oils in the course of utilization with reference to influence of transformer oil condition on paper insulation condition, as well as the condition of the transformer itself; (2 regeneration of transformer oils for the purpose of extension of utilization period and paper insulation revitalization potential by means of oil purification. The study highlights advantages of oil-paper insulation revitalization over oil replacement. Besides economic, there are

  13. Olive oil and haemostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Christine M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the traditional Mediterranean diet; a diet that may explain the low rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Southern European. (Extra virgin Olive oil is a good source of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and phenolic compounds, both of which have been investigated for their effects on plasma lipids and lipoproteins, measures of oxidation and factors related to thrombosis. This issue aims to summarise the current understanding of the effects of such dietary components on the haemostatic system and subsequent risk of CVD. To date, evidence suggests that diets rich in MUFA and thus in olive oil attenuate the thrombotic response via a reduction in platelet aggregation and in postprandial FVII levels. Thrombosis is a key event in causing heart attacks and strokes, which if modulated by diet could pose a cost-effective way of reducing CVD incidence in populations that adhere to MUFA/olive oil-rich diets long-term.El aceite de oliva es un componente esencial de la dieta Mediterránea que puede explicar el bajo índice de enfermedad cardiovascular (CVD en los países del sur de Europa. El aceite de oliva (extra virgen es una fuente de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA y de compuestos fenólicos, de gran interés por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre las lipoproteínas y los lípidos plasmáticos, su capacidad antioxidante y su papel en la expresión de factores relacionados con la trombosis. En este capítulo se presenta un resumen del conocimiento actual sobre la influencia derivada del consumo de aceite de oliva (extra virgen en el sistema hemostático y el riesgo de CVD. Por ahora se sabe que dietas ricas en MUFA (aceite de oliva pueden atenuar la respuesta trombótica mediante la reducción de la agregación plaquetaria y de las concentraciones postprandiales del factor VII de coagulación (FVII. La trombosis es un evento relevante en los ataques al corazón y el ictus, de manera que su modulación con la dieta puede

  14. Solubility and Permeability Studies of Aceclofenac in Different Oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microemulsion-based gel for improved bioavailability. Methods: UV spectrophotometeric method was used at the wavelength of 276 nm to measure the dissolved quantity of aceclofenac in each of the oils (almond oil, oleic acid, castor oil, paraffin oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, canola oil, sesame oil, isopropyl myristate (ipm), ...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    as soybean oil, canola oil, palm oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, linseed oil and nahar seed oil7–9 have been exten- sively studied as bases for various polyols used for the manufacture of PUs for different applications. The preparation of polymers from vegetable oils is currently receiving increasing attention because of the.

  16. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  17. Oil Pollution Act (OPA) and Federal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Oil Pollution Prevention regulation sets forth requirements for prevention of, preparedness for, and response to oil discharges at specific non-transportation-related facilities, including federal facilities.

  18. Oil pollution signatures by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoe, C. E.; Mclean, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the possibility of developing an effective remote sensing system for oil pollution monitoring which would be capable of detecting oil films on water, mapping the areal extent of oil slicks, measuring slick thickness, and identifying the oil types. In the spectral regions considered (ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave, and radar), the signatures were sufficiently unique when compared to the background so that it was possible to detect and map oil slicks. Both microwave and radar techniques are capable of operating in adverse weather. Fluorescence techniques show promise in identifying oil types. A multispectral system will be required to detect oil, map its distribution, estimate film thickness, and characterize the oil pollutant.

  19. Recent Dynamics of Crude Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices have been on a run-up spree in recent years. Their dynamics were characterized by high volatility, high intensity jumps, and strong upward drift, indicating that oil markets were constantly out-of-equilibrium. An explanation of the oil price process in terms of the underlying fundamentals of oil markets and world economy was provided, viewing pressure on oil prices mainly as a result of rigid crude oil supply and an expanding world demand for crude oil. A change in the oil pr...

  20. Consequences of oil film degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravendran, Rathesan

    2017-01-01

    In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution.......In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution....

  1. Press Oil Final Release Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    There are forty-eight 55 gallon barrels filled with hydraulic oil that are candidates for release and recycle. This oil needs to be characterized prior to release. Principles of sampling as provided in MARSAME/MARSSIM approaches were used as guidance for sampling.

  2. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  3. Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum) is one of the most popular and healthy culinary herbs in the world. Essential oil derived from basil (basil oil) through steam distillation has traditionally been used for a wide range of applications such as cooking spices, aromatherapy, perfumery, medicinal treatments, pes...

  4. A biological oil adsorption filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasila, A. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering and Household Technology

    2005-12-01

    A new oil adsorption method called adsorption filtration (AF) has been developed. It is a technology where by oil residues can be cleaned from water by running it through a simple filter made from freeze treated, dried, milled and then fragmented plant material. By choosing suitable plants and fragmentation sizes it is possible to produce filters, which pass water but adsorb oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of manufacturing oil adsorbing filter materials from reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) or hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa L.). The oil (80 ml) was mixed with de-ionised water (200 ml) and this mixture was filtered through 10 or 20 g adsorption filters. Fine spring harvested hemp fibre (diameter less than 1 mm) and reed canary grass fragments adsorb 2-4 g of oil per gram of adsorption material compared to 1-3 g of water. Adsorption filtration is thus a novel way of gathering spilled oil in shallow coastal waters before the oil reaches the shore. (author)

  5. Oil price and the dollar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudert, V. [Banque de France, Paris (France); Mignon, V. [Paris Univ., Paris (France). Economix-CNRS; Penot, A. [Lyon Univ., Lyon (France). CNRS

    2007-10-01

    Oil prices and the United States (US) dollar exchange rate are driving the evolution of the world economy. This paper investigated long-term relationships between oil prices and the US effective exchange rate. An empirical study was performed on oil prices and the dollar real effective exchange rate between 1974 to 2004. The impact of the dollar exchange rate was also explored, and the effects of oil prices on supply and demand were considered. A dynamic partial equilibrium framework study was evaluated in order to compare how other countries used revenues from oil exports in dollars. The study showed that both variables had similar evolutions when price fluctuations were low. Strong increases in the dollar were associated with lower oil prices. However, adjustment speeds of the dollar real effective exchange rate was slow. Co-integration and causality tests showed that oil prices influenced the exchange rate, and that the link between the 2 variables was transmitted through the country's net foreign asset position. It was concluded that higher oil prices improved US net foreign asset position in relation to other countries, and had a positive impact on dollar appreciation. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  6. Fish oil in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangle, Samir; Kolasinski, Sharon L

    2011-02-01

    In current practice, dietary interventions and over-the-counter dietary supplements, including fish oil, vitamins, and others, comprise a significant proportion of alternate therapy use. The aim of this article is to clarify the appropriate place for the use of fish oil in rheumatologic practice amid the complexities of modern management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oil Analysis by Fast DSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal analysis of Olive and Sunflower Oil is done by Fast DSC to evaluate its potential to replace DSC for adulteration detection. DSC measurements take hours, Fast DSC minutes. Peak temperatures of the crystallisation peak in cooling for different Olive and Sunflower Oils are both comparable to

  8. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented

  9. Enzymatic transesterification of Jatropha oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garlapati Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transesterification of Jatropha oil was carried out in t-butanol solvent using immobilized lipase from Enterobacter aerogenes. The presence of t-butanol significantly reduced the negative effects caused by both methanol and glycerol. The effects of various reaction parameters on transesterification of Jatropha oil were studied. Results The maximum yield of biodiesel was 94% (of which 68% conversion was achieved with respect to methyl oleate with an oil:methanol molar ratio of 1:4, 50 U of immobilized lipase/g of oil, and a t-butanol:oil volume ratio of 0.8:1 at 55°C after 48 h of reaction time. There was negligible loss in lipase activity even after repeated use for seven cycles. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on biodiesel synthesis using immobilized E. aerogenes lipase.

  10. Are olive oil diets antithrombotic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L.F.; Jespersen, J; Marckmann, P.

    1999-01-01

    with respect to nonfasting factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:c), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) concentrations, or with respect to fasting plasma values of FVII protein, FVII:c, FVIIa, F1+2, or TFPI. CONCLUSION: A background diet rich in olive oil may attenuate...... compared the effects of virgin olive oil with those of rapeseed and sunflower oils on blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), a key factor in thrombogenesis. DESIGN: In a randomized and strictly controlled crossover study, 18 healthy young men consumed diets enriched with 5 g/MJ (19% of total energy) olive...... FVII (FVIIa) were 11.3 +/- 5.1 U/L lower after olive oil than after sunflower oil, an 18% reduction (P diets...

  11. Oil Analysis and Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, A.; Toms, L.

    Lubricants are essential and expensive components of machine systems needing sampling, analysis and monitoring. Monitoring can be either performance testing or oil condition monitoring. Knowledge of the system's critical failure modes is essential for cost-effective oil and machinery monitoring. Contamination occurs by water, fuel, glycol, dirt, wrong oil, metal particulate, soot, oil degradation and additive depletion. Oil test methods include in situ or laboratory FT-IR, electronic particle counting, elemental metal measurement, X-ray fluorescence, viscosity, gas chromatography, water determination and RULER®. Condition monitoring data must be managed by storage, analysis and interpretation. Status levels must be established from the database and reported upon for individual and sequential runs of samples as condition indicators.

  12. Fuel oil quality task force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laisy, J.; Turk, V. [R.W. Beckett Corp., Elyria, OH (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In April, 1996, the R.W. Beckett Corporation became aware of a series of apparently unrelated symptoms that made the leadership of the company concerned that there could be a fuel oil quality problem. A task force of company employees and industry consultants was convened to address the topic of current No. 2 heating oil quality and its effect on burner performance. The task force studied changes in fuel oil specifications and trends in properties that have occurred over the past few years. Experiments were performed at Beckett and Brookhaven National Laboratory to understand the effect of changes in some fuel oil properties. Studies by other groups were reviewed, and field installations were inspected to gain information about the performance of fuel oil that is currently being used in the U.S. and Canada. There was a special concern about the use of red dye in heating oils and the impact of sulfur levels due to the October, 1993 requirement of low sulfur (<0.05%) for on-highway diesel fuel. The results of the task force`s efforts were published in July, 1996. The primary conclusion of the task force was that there is not a crisis or widespread general problem with fuel oil quality. Localized problems that were seen may have been related to refinery practices and/or non-traditional fuel sources. System cleanliness is very important and the cause of many oil burner system problems. Finally, heating oil quality should get ongoing careful attention by Beckett engineering personnel and heating oil industry groups.

  13. A Study of the Effect of Relative Permeability and Residual Oil Saturation on Oil Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ediriweera, Mahesh Priyankara; Halvorsen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    The depletion of oil production and the low recovery rate are the major challenges faced in oil production. Several studies have shown that considerable amount of oil still remains in the reservoir after the well shutdown. Heavy oil reservoirs occupy more than two third of globally oil reserves. The recovery factor and the lifetime of a well in heavy oil reservoirs is strongly affected by reservoir properties as permeability and porosity, residual oil saturation and the time of water breakthr...

  14. Heavy oils produced by Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2011-06-01

    From a survey of more than 50 diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans, 21 produced extracellular heavy oils. Most oil producers fell into phylogenetic clades 8, 9, and 11. Oil colors ranged from bright yellow to malachite. More than half of the strains produced oil that was fluorescent. In medium containing 5% (w/v) sucrose, oil yields ranged from 0.5 to 6 g oil/l. Strain CU 43 reached stationary growth phase at day 4 while oil yields were maximal at day 6. CU 43 produced bright yellow, highly fluorescent oil that also was visible as intracellular droplets under fluorescent microscopy. Oil was surface active, suggesting that it functions as a biosurfactant. Oil from two strains (CU 43 and NRRL Y-12974) differentially inhibited mammalian cancer cell lines. MALDI-TOF MS spectra suggested that A. pullulans strains produce a family of related oil structures.

  15. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  16. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be

  17. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  18. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  19. Olive oil and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriana, Francisco J.G.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, numerous studies have examined the association of dietary fat and cancer. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA from n -6 family display a strong promoting effect, this may be partially due to the especially prone to lipid peroxidation of PUFA that leads to formation of aldehydes, which react with DNA bases, forming genotoxic exocyclic etheno(epsilon-adducts. On the contrary, there are growing evidences that monounsaturated oils, like olive oil, may be associated with a decreased risk of some cancers. However, the epidemiological data do not fully agree with the experimental ones previously published. Minor compounds from (extra virgin olive oil, mainly phenolics like hydroxytyrosol and tocopherol, are antioxidants and radical scavenging. They can minimize the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by fatty acid peroxidation and in the case of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA the DNA damage can be reduced by a lower lipid peroxidation.Numerosos estudios en los últimos años han determinado la existencia de una asociación entre las grasas procedentes de la dieta y el cáncer. Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA de la familia n -6 pueden tener efectos proliferativos y angiogénicos, lo cual se debe en parte a que son especialmente sensibles a la peroxidación lipídica, formándose aldehídos que reaccionan con las bases del ADN y por lo tanto aductos exocíclicos con propiedades genotóxicas. Por el contrario, el consumo de dietas ricas en ácidos grasos monoinsaturados (MUFA está relacionado con un menor riesgo de distintos tipos de cáncer. Si bien, los datos epidemiológicos no siempre concuerdan con los datos experimentales. Los componentes menores del aceite de oliva (extra virgen, fundamentalmente el hidroxitirosol y tocoferol, son antioxidantes y secuestradores de radicales libres. Pueden minimizar la cantidad de especies reactivas de oxígeno que se generan por la peroxidación lipídica y además los

  20. Biodiesel production from palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiatsimkul, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

  1. Manitoba 2004 oil activity review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.N. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented data on oil and gas activities in Manitoba during 2004, the busiest year in Manitoba's oil patch since the mid 1980s. Increases in the leasing of Crown and freehold acreage were also noted, with accompanying increases in drilling activity for the latter part of 2004. Details of Crown land sales were presented, with a total of 43,725 hectares of crown oil and gas rights under lease. During 2004, over 15,000 hectares of Crown oil and gas leases were sold, the highest figures since 1997. More wells were licensed and drilled in 2004 than in any year since 1986. Overall drilling success rate was 96.7 per cent. Details of top drillers in Manitoba were presented, with drilling activity focused in Waskada and Daly fields and the Sinclair area. Oil production increased by 0.7 per cent, with 1474 wells in production. Daily oil production statistics were presented, with the total value of Manitoba's oil production being $196 million. Details of the top 5 producers were provided, in addition to details of horizontal well production. Recent developments in Sinclair Field, Pierson L. Amaranth MC 3b A Pool, Waskada L. Amaranth I Pool and Virden Lodgepole D Pool were reviewed. The Manitoba Drilling Incentive Program was discussed with reference to the following enhancements: new well incentives, horizontal well incentives; holiday oil volume accounts; and marginal well major workover programs. Various Oil and Gas Act amendments were reviewed. In addition, the Williston Basin Architecture and Hydrocarbon Potential Project was discussed. 3 figs.

  2. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. Cheap oil. Good news - for most

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorié, J.

    2014-01-01

    - The oil price has fallen by 40% in recent months, as a result of increasing oil supply, and is expected to be in the range of USD 70 - 80 per barrel in 2015. - The global economy is set to benefit, as are oil importing regions such as Europe and Asia. - Oil exporting countries like Brazil, Russia

  4. 'venadillo' ( Swietenia humilis Zucc.) seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of Swietenia humilis Zucc seed oils were determined along with its fatty acid composition, by using gas-liquid chromatography. The oil content found in the germ portion of the seeds was 45.38%. From physicochemical oil evaluations, an oil density of 0.9099 mg∙ml-1 at 28°C; a refraction index of ...

  5. 7 CFR 985.58 - Exempt oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempt oil. 985.58 Section 985.58 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.58 Exempt oil. Oil held by a producer or handler on the effective date of this subpart shall not be...

  6. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified as...

  7. Immiscible foam for enhancing oil recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simjoo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Growing worldwide oil demand increased the need of new and efficient oil recovery methods. Gas injection in oil reservoirs is deemed one of the most widely used methods to increase oil recovery. However, the full potential of gas injection is often not realized due to poor vertical and areal sweep

  8. oils marketed in dar es salaam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b) Palm Oil Mpishi Tradeco Oil Industries Ltd., Tanzania c) Cotton Seed Okay VOIL, Tanzania d) Soya bean Marhaba Tradeco Oil Industries Ltd., Tanzania e) Coconut Maſutaya Nazi Coastal region of Tanzania. * All brands except for Mafutaya Nazi indicated an expiry date of about a year at the time the oils were bought.

  9. Chemical characteristics of palm oil biodeterioration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    Examination of the palm oil from dura and tenera varieties of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Jacquin for growth of microorganisms ... composition of the palm oil types revealed that crude protein contents of the fresh oil samples which ranged from 0.037 to 0.066% ..... Changes in Palm Kernels. Nig Stored. Products Res Inst ...

  10. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  11. Aerogel Microparticles from Oil-in-Oil Emulsion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Senlong; Zhai, Chunhao; Jana, Sadhan C

    2016-06-07

    This paper reports preparation of polymer aerogel microparticles via sol-gel reactions inside micrometer size droplets created in an oil-in-oil emulsion system. The oil-in-oil emulsion system is obtained by dispersing in cyclohexane the droplets of the sols of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) or polyimide (PI) prepared in dimethylformamide. The sol droplets transform into harder gel microparticles due to sol-gel reactions. Finally, the aerogel microparticles are recovered using supercritical drying of the gel microparticles. The PBZ and PI aerogel microparticles prepared in this manner show mean diameter 32.7 and 40.0 μm, respectively, mesoporous internal structures, and surface area 55.4 and 512.0 m(2)/g, respectively. Carbonization of PBZ aerogel microparticles maintains the mesoporous internal structures but yields narrower pore size distribution.

  12. Deepwater Horizon MC252 - Oil Spill: Oil Trajectories Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Trajectory maps are produced using GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment), which is an oil spill trajectory model developed by OR and academic...

  13. Effect Supermint oil (Peppermint oil on children's pain during Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Najafi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain during colonoscopy, especially in children, including the challenges faced by the medical team. The aim of study was investigation the analgesic effect Supermint oil (peppermint oil on pain in children during colonoscopy. Methods and Materials: In this clinical trial study, 101 children (7-14 years old candidate colonoscopy were randomly divided into two groups, respectively. About half an hour before the colonoscopy case group (n=51 was administrated oral drops Supermint oil (peppermint oil. Patients were filled a pediatric pain questionnaire. In control group (n=50 filled a questionnaire without any administration. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 and (T-test and Paired sample t-test, Corraletion,Man withney. Results: Mean value of pain, duration of colonoscopy in control group was 5/60+1/85 and in case group was 4/20+1/70 and this diference was significant (P

  14. Olive Oil and Healthy Life

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZATA, Esra; CÖMERT, Menekşe

    2016-01-01

    The demand for food that is produced naturally by being conscious and healthy people in the world are increasing rapidly. Consumers are turning to food produced in high quality and natural conditions as possible. In this respect, olives and olive oil is having a significant market share. Olive oil that combines health and taste, creating a source of vitamin E, which is soluble in fat and is a unique oil with a high calorific value. Natural juice can be consumed as has the distinction of being...

  15. Catalytic cracking with deasphalted oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, W.I.; Taylor, J.L.; Peck, L.B.; Mosby, J.F.

    1990-07-10

    This patent describes a catalytic cracking process. It comprises: hydrotreating resid; thereafter deasphalting the hydrotreated resid to produce substantially deasphalted oil; catalytically cracking the hydrotreated oil in a catalytic cracking unit in the presence of a cracking catalyst to produce upgraded oil leaving coked catalyst; and regenerating the coked catalyst in the presence of a combustion-supporting gas comprising excess molecular oxygen in an amount greater than the stoichiometric amount required for substantially completely combusting the coke on the catalyst to carbon dioxide.

  16. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a mixture of edible fats and oils containing less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent...

  17. World oil price behavior during oil supply disruptions: what can we learn from the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsall, T.H.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to: (1) examine how world oil prices have behaved during past oil supply disruptions, (2) attempt to understand why world oil prices have behaved during disruptions as they have, and (3) see what history foretells, if anything, for the behavior of world oil prices during future oil supply disruptions.

  18. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hopson, Janet L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  19. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid, fish oil and soybean oil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted on broiler chickens to study the effects of dietary fats rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), fish oil (n-3 rich oil), soybean oil (n-6 rich oil), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) alone or in dual mixtures, as well as palm oil as a more saturated fat on tissue fat deposition and serum lipid ...

  20. Research on Oil Recovery Mechanisms in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis M. Castanier; William E. Brigham

    1998-03-31

    The goal of this project is to increase recovery of heavy oils. Towards that goal studies are being conducted in how to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the absolute and relative permeability to oil and water and on capillary pressure; to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the in site combustion process; to develop and understand mechanisms of surfactants on for the reduction of gravity override and channeling of steam; and to improve techniques of formation evaluation.

  1. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent Uysal

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financ...

  2. Virgin almond oil: Extraction methods and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncero, J.M.; Alvarez-Orti, M.; Pardo-Gimenez, A.; Gomez, R.; Rabadan, A.; Pardo, J.E.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the extraction methods of virgin almond oil and its chemical composition are reviewed. The most common methods for obtaining oil are solvent extraction, extraction with supercritical fluids (CO2) and pressure systems (hydraulic and screw presses). The best industrial performance, but also the worst oil quality is achieved by using solvents. Oils obtained by this method cannot be considered virgin oils as they are obtained by chemical treatments. Supercritical fluid extraction results in higher quality oils but at a very high price. Extraction by pressing becomes the best option to achieve high quality oils at an affordable price. With regards chemical composition, almond oil is characterized by its low content in saturated fatty acids and the predominance of monounsaturated, especially oleic acid. Furthermore, almond oil contains antioxidants and fat-soluble bioactive compounds that make it an oil with interesting nutritional and cosmetic properties.

  3. Efek Olive Oil dan Virgin Coconut Oil terhadap Striae Gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Pratami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of striae gravidarum (SG in pregnant women ranges from 50% to 90%. Effects of SG include itchy and hot feeling as well as dry skin. This situation also causes emotional disturbances that poses a cosmetic problem for most pregnant women. Nowadays, many pregnant women use olive oil to prevent SG, but it is relatively difficult to find and costly. In Indonesia, a similar oil, virgin coconut oil (VCO, has been used by many pregnant women for the same reason. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences and correlation between effects of olive oil and VCO against SG. The study was conducted in March−July 2012. An experimental study was performed on 80 pregnant women in Surabaya Municipality and they were divided into 2 groups using random permuted blocks. The results of this study showed that there was no difference in SG appearance based on the number of lines and levels of erythema between groups (p=0.156 and 1.00. Furthermore, there was a strong negative correlation between the effect of olive oil or VCO on the number of lines (r=-0.576 and -0.560 and the level of erythema (r=-0.699 and -0.586. In conclusion, there is no difference in the effect of olive oil and VCO against SG.

  4. Oil flow in deep waters: comparative study between light oils and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Ultra deeper waters fields are being exploited due to technological development. Under this scenario, the flow design is accomplished through pipelines subjected to low temperature and high pressure. Moreover, these flow lines are usually long causing a fast fluid cooling, which may affect flow assurance in some cases. Problems during topsides production plant's restart might occur if the oil is viscous and even in steady state a significant different behavior can be noticed, if compared to a less viscous oil. A comparison between light and heavy oil through a case study with the objective to show some heavy oil flow particularities is the purpose of this paper. Permanent and transient analyses for a specific geometry are presented. The results showed that thermal and proper viscosity modeling are required for heavy oil flow, differently from that of light oil flow, due to the exponential viscosity dependence to temperature and because the predominant laminar regime. In addition, on heavier and heavier oil flow systems, it is essential to consider exportation system's restart. (author)

  5. Enzymes for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Hamidreza

    2011-01-01

    Primary oil recovery by reservoir pressure depletion and secondary oil recovery by waterflooding usually result in poor displacement efficiency. As a consequence there is always some trapped oil remaining in oil reservoirs. Oil entrapment is a result of complex interactions between viscous, gravity and capillary forces. Improving recovery from hydrocarbon fields typically involves altering the relative importance of the viscous and capillary forces. The potential of many EOR me...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  7. Oil droplets as light absorbents in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otremba, Zbigniew

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents spectra of light absorption coefficient of oil-in-water emulsion, derived using the Mie theory. In order to achieve that concentration of oil, degree of oil dispersion in seawater as well as spectra of light absorption coefficient and refractive index of chosen oils must be known. A significant role of the size distribution of oil droplets has been revealed: light absorption coefficient of emulsion increases with the rate of dispersion.

  8. Oil for development 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    In this report present key achievements for each of the various cooperation countries. Oil for Development (OfD) assistance has been important for the ability of a country like Ghana to improve petroleum resource management on its most important oil and gas field, and to better safeguard that the petroleum activities are conducted in an environmentally sustainable way. Competence building on Increased Oil Recovery (IOR), and negotiation training have helped to increase both the resource extraction potential and the revenue generation potential of a more mature oil producing country like Iraq. Furthermore, OfD has contributed to improving the legislative frameworks in several of our cooperating countries, including Afghanistan, Cambodia and Madagascar, although it will take time before we can assess to what extent the laws have been implemented. OfD's strong focus on providing legal assistance reflects our belief that clear divisions of roles and firm legal mandates are prerequisites for good governance of the petroleum sector and for attracting serious investors. A lot of our capacity building took place through seminars and more tailored workshops with a national or regional scope. We believe that some of these events have significantly increased awareness as well as the level of debate among government institutions and civil society. The oil production accounting workshop in Nigeria and the NOC workshop in Timor-Leste are particularly valid examples. Timor-Leste also addressed other petroleum sector governance issues with a focus on including civil society and by the end of 2009 had nearly fulfilled all criteria for becoming Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) compliant. It should be noted that OfD assistance only made a relatively small contribution to this process, which was very much nationally driven. Petroleum related environmental issues were addressed at different levels and from different angles. A thorough environmental needs

  9. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  10. BLM Colorado Oil Shale Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — KMZ File Format –This data set contains the Oil Shale Leases for the State of Colorado, derived from Legal Land Descriptions (LLD) contained in the US Bureau of Land...

  11. Oil additive and its effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper are experimental approaches, selected for analysis of the engine oils and described above, are surely sufficient for the needs of presented research. The spectrometry was used for determination of presence of selected chemical elements and especially metals in oil. Particles monitoring was employed in order to describe the amount, type, and size of friction particles. The temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was evaluated by use of rotary viscometer. In case of all three approaches it is advantageous to compare the measured values with the results received for unused engine oil of the same marking and viscosity index. If the degradation of oil is classified as low or medium, it is possible to increase its service life for several thousands of kilometers. Mathematical model (polynomial 6th degree it was used for fitting experimental values.

  12. Polymer additives for engine oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.K.; Saxton, R.G. [Texaco R and D, Beacon, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Polymers and oligomers are an important area of research for the oil industry, and many uses for them have been discovered over the years. One important application for polymers is in crankcase lubricants, in which various specialty polymers and copolymers are used as viscosity modifiers, dispersants, and pour-point depressants. These polymers give an oil all-season properties and are the most effective additives in producing multigrade oils. Polymer structures can be modified to produce multi-functional polymer additives that improve the viscosity index and impart other properties to the oil (i.e., dispersancy, antioxidant, and antiwear properties). In this article the authors will present an overview of the role of polymers in crankcase lubricants and then describe some work Texaco has done in the field.

  13. Recovery of waterflood residual oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orkiszewski, J.

    1966-03-15

    This is a method of recovering additional oil from a reservoir that has been depleted both by primary production and then by waterflooding. A bank of solvent is injected into the reservoir through an injection well. The solvent is followed with the injection of a scavenging and propelling fluid. Oil is withdrawn from the production wells. The solvent consists of a blend of liquid propane and a highly viscous distillate oil. The distillate oil has a true boiling range between 680-1,250$F and a viscosity of 200-6,000 cp at 100$F. The blend consists of 60-90% propane by volume, and the scavenging fluid can be water. (7 claims)

  14. USGS releases Alaska oil assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. Congress gearing up for a House-Senate conference committee battle about whether to open the Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for oil drilling, a new assessment of the amount of oil in the federal portion of the U.S. National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NRPA) is influencing the debate.The U.S. Geological Survey has found that the NPRA holds "significantly greater" petroleum resources than had been estimated previously This finding was disclosed in a 16 May report. The assessment estimated that technically recoverable oil on NPRA federal lands are between 5.9 and 13.2 billion barrels of oil; a 1980 assessment estimated between 0.3 and 5.4 billion barrels.

  15. Method for retorting oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  16. Large scale fuel oil production experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-08-04

    The effect of the coal throughput and the composition of the pasting oil, in particular the effect of different middle oil contents in the pasting oil, was previously tested in small scale experiments of hydrogenation of coal. Possibilities of increasing the throughput through the converter when producing heavy oil together with middle oil is shown in this work. The proper industrial detail for the production of heavy oil had to be developed first on a semi-commercial plant. The Upper Silesian coal was used to study the production of gasoline, middle oil, and heavy oil at 700 atm in a 1.6 m/sup 3/ converter and to relate the results with the small scale experiments (10-liter converter). Paste heat exchange was carried out successfully. The following experiments, among others, were carried out: mixed coals were hydrogenated to 100% gasoline plus middle oil, to 65% gasoline and middle oil and 35% heavy oil, as well as 50% gasoline and middle oil plus 50% heavy oil, in part with the usual iron catalyst combination and in part with the sulfurated Bayer mass together with the iron sulfate and sulfigran. The Heinity coal had been hydrogenated with the usual iron catalyst to 65% gasoline and middle oil plus 35% heavy oil. The important results were summarized in a table. Details of the experiments and processes used were given in 3 graphs and 42 tables.

  17. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: new markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourrach, I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil.

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es contribuir al control de la autenticidad del aceite argán, un producto marroquí muy valorado. Con el fin de detectar la adulteración del aceite de argán con aceites vegetales comestibles, se han estudiado los siguientes parámetros: ácidos grasos, fracción de hidrocarburos, 3,5-estigmastadieno, ésteres alquílicos, pigmentos clorofílicos y propiedades físicas como la viscosidad, densidad e índice de refracción. Los resultados de este estudio muestran que el 3,5-estigmastadieno, kaureno y la feofitina-a podrían utilizarse como nuevos marcadores en la detección del aceite de argán adulterado con aceites refinados y aceite oliva virgen al 5%. La composición en ácidos grasos puede emplearse para la detección de la adulteración del aceite de argán a niveles superiores al 10%, debido a la similitud en la composición de los aceites estudiados. Entre las propiedades físicas analizadas, el índice de refracción mostró diferencias significativas entre el aceite de arg

  18. Direct olive oil analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, F.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The practical impact of “direct analysis” is undeniable as it strong contributes to enhance the so-called productive analytical features such as expeditiousness, reduction of costs and minimisation of risks for the analysts and environment. The main objective is to establish a reliable bypass to the conventional preliminary operations of the analytical process. This paper offers a systematic approach in this context and emphasises the great field of action of direct methodologies in the routine analysis of olive oil. Two main types of methodologies are considered. On the one hand, the direct determination of volatile components is systematically considered. On the other hand, simple procedures to automatically implement the preliminary operations of the oil analysis using simple devices in which the sample is directly introduced with/without a simple dilution are present and discussed.El impacto práctico del análisis directo es tan innegable como que el contribuye decisivamente a mejorar las denominadas características analíticas relacionadas con la productividad como la rapidez, la reducción de costes y la minimización de riesgos para los analistas y el ambiente. El principal objetivo es establecer un adecuado "bypass" a las operaciones convencionales preliminares del proceso analítico. Este artículo ofrece una propuesta sistemática en este contexto y resalta el gran campo de acción de las metodologías directas en los análisis de rutina del aceite de oliva. Se analizan los dos tipos principales de metodologías. Por una lado, se analiza la determinación directa de los compuestos volátiles. Por el otro, se presentan y discuten los procedimientos simples para implementar automáticamente las operaciones preliminares del análisis del aceite usando sistemas simples en los que la muestra se introduce directamente con/sin un dilución simple.

  19. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  20. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Andersen, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  1. [Antioxidant properties of essential oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2009-01-01

    By the method of capillary gas-liquid chromatography we studied antioxidant properties and stability during the storage of hexane solutions of 14 individual essential oils from black and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.), mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt), juniperberry (Juniperus communis L.), seed of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., var. dulce Thelling), caraway (Carvum carvi L.), dry leaves of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bl.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and clove bud (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.). We assessed the antioxidant properties by the oxidation of aliphatic aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal) into the according carbon acid. We established that essential oils of garlic, clove bud, ginger and leaves of cinnamon have the maximal efficiency of inhibition of hexenal oxidation (80-93%), while black pepper oil has the minimal (49%). Antioxidant properties of essential oils with a high content of substituted phenols depended poorly on its concentration in model systems. We studied the changes in essential oils content during the storage of its hexane solutions for 40 days in the light and out of the light and compared it with the stability of essential oils stored for a year out of the light.

  2. Saving oil in a hurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    During 2004, oil prices reached levels unprecedented in recent years. Though world oil markets remain adequately supplied, high oil prices do reflect increasingly uncertain conditions. Many IEA member countries and non-member countries alike are looking for ways to improve their capability to handle market volatility and possible supply disruptions in the future. This book aims to provide assistance. It provides a new, quantitative assessment of the potential oil savings and costs of rapid oil demand restraint measures for transport. Some measures may make sense under any circumstances; others are primarily useful in emergency situations. All can be implemented on short notice ? if governments are prepared. The book examines potential approaches for rapid uptake of telecommuting, ?ecodriving?, and car-pooling, among other measures. It also provides methodologies and data that policymakers can use to decide which measures would be best adapted to their national circumstances. This ?tool box? may help countries to complement other measures for coping with supply disruptions, such as use of strategic oil stocks.

  3. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO: sunflower oil (SnF and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil.

    Se analizaron diversos parámetros físico-químicos para la evaluación de mezclas de aceites en diferentes proporciones que incluyen: aceite de salvado de arroz físícamente refinado (PRBO: aceite de girasol (SNF y las mezclas PRBO: aceite de cártamo (SAF en diferentes proporciones. La cuantificación de la presencia del aceite de salvado de arroz en las mezclas se llevó a cabo por diferentes métodos, como cromatografía de gases (GC, cromatografía líquida (HPLC, ultrasonidos y métodos basados en otros parámetros f

  4. Near infrared spectroscopic determination of olive oil adulteration with sunflower and corn oil

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Durmuş; Öztürk, Betül

    2007-01-01

    Determination of authenticity of extra virgin olive oils has become very important in recent years due to the increasing public concerns about possible adulterations with relatively cheap vegetable oils such as sunflower oil. This study was focused on the application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate calibration to identify the adulteration of olive oils. NIR transmittance measurements were made on pure olive oil and olive oil adulterated with varying concen...

  5. Replacement of Coconut Oils with Unsaturated Oils in Recombined Filled Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    elevation of serum cholesterol level by saturated fats and oils has led to attempts to replace coconut oil with less saturated vegetable oils . Modler et...TECHNICAL REPORT AD . NATICK/TR-931/004 REPLACEMENT OF COCONUT OILS WITH UNSATURATED OILS IN RECOMBINED FILLED MILK DI T C by ELECT_ I.J. Jeon NOV 3...activities took place during the period 5 April 1990 through 17 May 1991. This report presents data indicating that coconut oil in filled milk

  6. Oil Industry Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The accompanying photos show two types of offshore oil platforms used by Exxon Corporation. In the upper photo is a leg-supported gravity platform; the other structure is a "jackettype" platform, built in sections, towed to sea and assembled on-site. In construction of platforms like these, Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, Texas, conducts extensive structural investigations of decks, supporting members and other platform components, making use of the NASTRAN @ (NASA Structural Analysis) computer program. NASTRAN is a predictive tool which analyzes a computerized design and reports how the structure will react to a great many conditions it will encounter in its operational environment; in this case, NASTRAN studies the effects of waves, winds, ocean storms and other stress-inducing factors. NASTRAN allows Exxon Production Research to perform more complex and more detailed analysis than was possible with previous programs. The same program has also been used by Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, New Jersey, in analysis of pressure vessels, turbine components and composite building boards.

  7. Oil Mist Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.

  8. Offshore oil prospects improve

    Science.gov (United States)

    The issues, prospects, and environmental concerns about drilling for offshore oil and gas are being seen in a different light than at any other time during the past decade. Exploration drilling on offshore locations is proceeding at a high rate, and environmental concerns, while recognized as real, appear to be a lot less worrisome than might have been predicted a decade ago. Part of the reason for the changes in levels of concern results from the close monitoring programs that have been in effect for the past few years. Paul R. Ryan of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution recently described exploration activities on Georges Bank: “We now have the results of the first year of monitoring, and, although eight wells are considered a minimal observational test, there were no biological changes in the benthic community that could be attributed to drilling activity.” (Oceanus, 26, 2, 1983). The U.S. Geological Survey studied the Georges Bank drilling activities as well. Barium from drilling muds was detected at the sites, but in decreasing concentrations at distances away from drilling rigs. There was no evidence that the discharges caused biological changes. According to Ryan: “Postdrilling concentrates of barium were found to be within the range of predilling concentrations measured at other locations on the Bank. Concentrations of other metals measured were low and characteristic of unpolluted, coarse-grained sediment in other Continental Shelf areas.”

  9. Fifth DOE symposium on enhanced oil and gas recovery and improved drilling technology. Volume 2. Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: residual oil determination; thermal methods; heavy oil-tar sands; technology transfer; and carbon dioxide flooding. Individual papers were processed.

  10. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  11. Extended oil spill spreading with Langmuir circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Lehr, William J

    2017-09-15

    When spilled in the ocean, most crude oils quickly spread into a thin film that ruptures into smaller slicks distributed over a larger area. Observers have also reported the film tearing apart into streaks that eventually merge forming fewer but longer bands of floating oil. Understanding this process is important to model oil spill transport. First, slick area is calculated using a spreading model. Next, Langmuir circulation models are used to approximate the merging of oiled bands. Calculations are performed on Troll blended and Alaska North Slope crude oils and results compared with measurements from the 1990s North Sea field experiments. Langmuir circulation increases the oil area but decreases the surface coverage of oil. This work modifies existing oil spreading formulas by providing a surface area correction due to the effects of Langmuir circulation. The model's simplicity is advantageous in situations with limited data, such as emergency oil spill response. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C.; Jones, Samuel T.; Pollard, Anthony

    2017-04-04

    The present invention relates to a method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also disclosed are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  13. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  15. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-10-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil.

  16. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  17. Essential oils: from extraction to encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asbahani, A; Miladi, K; Badri, W; Sala, M; Aït Addi, E H; Casabianca, H; El Mousadik, A; Hartmann, D; Jilale, A; Renaud, F N R; Elaissari, A

    2015-04-10

    Essential oils are natural products which have many interesting applications. Extraction of essential oils from plants is performed by classical and innovative methods. Numerous encapsulation processes have been developed and reported in the literature in order to encapsulate biomolecules, active molecules, nanocrystals, oils and also essential oils for various applications such as in vitro diagnosis, therapy, cosmetic, textile, food etc. Essential oils encapsulation led to numerous new formulations with new applications. This insures the protection of the fragile oil and controlled release. The most commonly prepared carriers are polymer particles, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of Calorific Ability of Fuel Briquettes on the Basis of Oil and Oil Slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyaeva, O. A.; Poshelyuzhnaya, E. G.; Rakhmatulina, E. M.; Zakharov, V. A.; Fisenko, T. E.

    2018-01-01

    Utilization and neutralization of oil slimes is one of important environmental problems of the oil-extracting, oil-processing and petrochemical industry. The easiest and economic way of utilization of oil slimes is their use as a part of the bricketed boiler fuel. In this work the highest calorific ability of crude oil, the oil slimes and fuel briquettes made on their basis is defined. A research problem was carrying out the technical analysis of oil fuels on the content in them analytical moisture, the cindery rest and volatiles. It is established that in comparison with oil slimes crude oil possesses bigger highest calorific ability, has smaller humidity and an ash-content. The highest calorific abilities of the boiler briquettes made of samples of crude oil, oil slimes and peat made 14 – 26 MJ/kg.

  19. Oil drainage by CO2 gas diffusion, dissolution and foaming in heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, H; Sasaki, K.; Sugai, Y. [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan); Takahashi, T.; Ito, D.; Okabe, T. [Research Center, JAPEX (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the injection of carbon dioxide into reservoirs is used as a method to enhance oil recovery and store CO2. During this process, dissolution of gas takes place and contributes to cold production through a reduction in oil viscosity and capillarity pressure and swelling of the oil. The aim of this study was to investigate oil drainage from the sandstone cores. Experiments were conducted in a high pressure cell with pressures up to 10MPa, to measure the swelling factors of heavy and light oils for CO2 gas dissolution and thus evaluate the swelling coefficient and diffusion coefficient of the oil. Results allowed the development of an equation to determine gas solubility in the heavy oil based on measurements of apparent density. This study showed that gas dissolution does not affect oil mobility but that foamy oil contributes to oil drainage.

  20. Comparison of thermal stability of grape seed oil with virgin sesame oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heating causes extensive physical and chemical changes in oil and fats, which can change all physical and chemical characteristics and quality of oil during frying is so critical. This study was aimed to compare the thermal stability of virgin sesame oil and grape seed oil. Methods: The grape seed oil and virgin sesame oil were heated at 180 ° C for 8 hours. Every hour, a sample of the heated oils was taken to determine the changes in acid value, peroxide, anisidine and Totox. Results: Heating the oil caused extensive chemical variations both oils. The acidity index increased over time (p<0.05, there were fluctuations inperoxide value, and anisidine and Totox values also increased during thermal processes (p<0.05. Conclusion: Grape seed oil showed more resistance to heat than sesame oil.

  1. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the oxidative stability of fish oil blended with crude plant oils rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, camelina oil and oat oil, respectively, in bulk and after supplementation of 1 wt% of oil blends to skimmed milk emulsions. Ability of crude...... oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat......, skimmed milk supplemented with fish-oat oil blend gave the highest scores for off-flavors in the sensory evaluation, demonstrating that several methods, including sensory analysis, should be combined to illustrate the complete picture of lipid oxidation in emulsions....

  2. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  4. International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund was established under a 1971 Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization Convention to supplement the 1969 Civil Liability Convention (CLC) under which shipowners were held liable for damage caused by oil spills up to $18 million per incident; the new fund increases the amount payable per incident to $57 million as of April 1979. A further increase up to about $76 million is now under consideration. During 1979, the Fund has been concerned in particular with claims arising out of oil spills in Japan and the Baltic Sea. In the former case, some 540 tons of oil was lost by Miya Maru No. 8 after a collision in March 1979 in the Japanese Inland Sea; cleanup costs and compensation to fishermen were about (pound sterling)400,000. In the latter phase, crude oil apparently coming from the Russian tanker Antonio Gramsci, which grounded off Ventspils in February 1979, drifted across the Baltic and was trapped in or under the ice. After the ice melted, it spread to more than 2000 islands in the Swedish Archipelaso; cleanup measures may result in claims as high as (pound sterling) 8 million.

  5. Noise exposure in oil mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G V Prasanna; Dewangan, K N; Sarkar, Amaresh

    2008-04-01

    Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL and noise spectrum at each reading was

  6. Antimicrobial activity of commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Lalit Kumar D; Jawale, Bhushan Arun; Sharma, Sheeba; Sharma, Hemant; Kumar, C D Mounesh; Kulkarni, Pooja Adwait

    2012-01-01

    Many essential oils have been advocated for use in complementary medicine for bacterial and fungal infections. However, few of the many claims of therapeutic efficacy have been validated adequately by either in vitro testing or in vivo clinical trials. To study the antibacterial activity of nine commercially available essential oils against Streptococcus mutans in vitro and to compare the antibacterial activity between each material. Nine pure essential oils; wintergreen oil, lime oil, cinnamon oil, spearmint oil, peppermint oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil were selected for the study. Streptococcus mutans was inoculated at 37ºC and seeded on blood agar medium. Agar well diffusion assay was used to measure antibacterial activity. Zone of inhibition was measured around the filter paper in millimeters with vernier caliper. Cinnamon oil showed highest activity against Streptococcus mutans followed by lemongrass oil and cedarwood oil. Wintergreen oil, lime oil, peppermint oil and spearmint oil showed no antibacterial activity. Cinnamon oil, lemongrass oil, cedarwood oil, clove oil and eucalyptus oil exhibit antibacterial property against S. mutans. The use of these essential oils against S. mutans can be a viable alternative to other antibacterial agents as these are an effective module used in the control of both bacteria and yeasts responsible for oral infections.

  7. Time-varying correlation between oil and stock market volatilities: Evidence from oil-importing and oil-exporting countries

    OpenAIRE

    Boldanov, R.; Degiannakis, S.; Filis, George

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the time-varying conditional correlation between oil price and stock market volatility for six major oil-importing and oil-exporting countries. The period of the study runs from January 2000 until December 2014 and a Diag-BEKK model is employed. Our findings report the following regularities. (i) The correlation between the oil and stock market volatilities changes over time fluctuating at both positive and negative values. (ii). Heterogeneous patterns in the time-vary...

  8. SUPRI heavy oil research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, K.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Castanier, L.M.

    1991-12-01

    The 14th Annual Report of the SUPRI Heavy Oil Research Program includes discussion of the following topics: (1) A Study of End Effects in Displacement Experiments; (2) Cat Scan Status Report; (3) Modifying In-situ Combustion with Metallic Additives; (4) Kinetics of Combustion; (5) Study of Residual Oil Saturation for Steam Injection and Fuel Concentration for In-Situ Combustion; (6) Analysis of Transient Foam Flow in 1-D Porous Media with Computed Tomography; (7) Steam-Foam Studies in the Presence of Residual Oil; (8) Microvisualization of Foam Flow in a Porous Medium; (9) Three- Dimensional Laboratory Steam Injection Model; (10) Saturation Evaluation Following Water Flooding; (11) Numerical Simulation of Well-to-Well Tracer Flow Test with Nonunity Mobility Ratio.

  9. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  10. Oils degradation in agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of oils condition in agricultural machinery is very important. With monitoring and evaluating we can prevent technical and economic losses. In this paper there were monitored the liquid lubricants taken from mobile thresher New Holland CX 860. Chemical and viscosity degradation of the lubricants were evaluated. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was observed in the range of temperature from −10 °C to 80 °C (for all oils. Considerable temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was found and demonstrated in case of all samples, which is in accordance with theoretical assumptions and literature data. Mathematical models were developed and tested. Temperature dependence dynamic viscosity was modeled using a polynomial 6th degree. The proposed models can be used for prediction of flow behavior of oils.

  11. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were oil.

  12. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  13. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  14. Modeling Asymmetric Volatility In Oil Prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Aun Hassan

    2011-01-01

    .... The paper uses daily crude oil price data for the past 10 years to test and model the oil price volatility by fitting different variations of GARCH including a univariate asymmetric GARCH model to the series...

  15. (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    , palm oil mill effluent. could solve several problems including reducing the high load of waste produced by palm oil industry. It can also create a market for biofertilizer which have proven to be more effective and cheaper than ...

  16. Palm Pulverisation in Sustainable Oil Palm Replanting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ooi, Ling-Hoak; Heriansyah

    2005-01-01

    Malaysia has banned open burning of old oil palm biomass at replanting. The most widely adopted zero burn techniques of replanting oil palms in Malaysia currently are the "chipped and windrow" and "under-planting" methods...

  17. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Caspian Sea region historically has been an oil and natural gas producer, but many believe that the region contains large reserves of oil and gas capable of much greater production than at present...

  18. Oil and Gas Extraction Sector (NAICS 211)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulatory information for oil and gas extraction sectors, including oil and natural gas drilling. Includes information about NESHAPs for RICE and stationary combustion engines, and effluent guidelines for synthetic-based drilling fluids

  19. Prospects for Non-OPEC Oil Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seán O'Dell

    1995-01-01

    .... But this is likely to occur only if the price of oil rises enough to justify the needed investment in the exploration for and the development of increasingly more expensive oil found in increasingly...

  20. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, Shawn P

    2007-01-01

    The United States, its industries, livelihood, and economy depend on oil. The United States is the world's largest consumer of oil, with daily usage of approximately 20 million barrels. Approximately...

  1. Identification of Oil Spills by GC/MS Fingerprinting in Relation to the Danish Maritime Oil Spill Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Avnskjold, J.

    2000-01-01

    From the Second International Conference on Oil and Hydrocarbon Spills. Modelling, Analysis and Control : OIL SPILL 2000.......From the Second International Conference on Oil and Hydrocarbon Spills. Modelling, Analysis and Control : OIL SPILL 2000....

  2. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum on dental biofilm control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini Filogônio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1 received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol® for group 2 (G2 or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care® for group 3 (G3 at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3 or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p < 0.05 and G3 (p < 0.0001 in comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease.

  3. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil) and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum) on dental biofilm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filogônio, Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Penido, Cláudia Valéria de Sousa Resende; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol®) for group 2 (G2) or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care®) for group 3 (G3) at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3) or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days) on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p < 0.05) and G3 (p < 0.0001) in comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease.

  4. [Efficiency evaluation of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oils from edible vegetable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lisha; Liu, Honghe; Kang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Liao, Shicheng; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Pingjian

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oil from edible vegetable oil. 14 raw vegetable oils, 24 fried waste oils, 34 kitchen-waste oils, 32 edible non-peanut vegetable oil, 32 edible peanuts oil, 16 edible oil add flavorand and 11 refined bio-waste oils were prepared and examined for capsaicinoids including capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nonylic acid vanillylamide. The detection results of the above samples were statistically tested based on sample category to assessment identify the effectiveness of the bio-waste oils with capsaicinoids. As a indicator, capsaincin was possessed of high detection sensitivity and has the highest efficiency to discern kitchen-waste oils and refined bio-waste oils samples from edible non-peanut vegetable oil correctly. The accuracy rate of identification were 100% and 90.1% respectively. There is the background in peanut oil. CONCLUSION Capsaicin added in cooking process can be retained in the refining process and hardly be removed in the refining process. In the case of fully eliminating the background interference, capsaicinoids can effectively identify bio-waste oils and edible vegetable oil in combination.

  5. Development of new antioxidant systems for frying oil and omega-3 oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of natural antioxidant systems for frying oil will be discussed in this presentation. This study aimed to utilize vegetable oils such as soybean oil for frying, of which the United States is the world’s largest producer. To overcome the vulnerability of soybean oil to oxidation due t...

  6. Effects of Crude Oil and Oil Products on Growth of Some Edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetative growth response of three local edible mushrooms: Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pp), Pleurotus tuber-regium (Pt) and Lentinus squarrosulus (Ls) on different concentrations of Crude oil (COIL), Automotive Gasoline Oil (AGO), Fresh Engine Oil (ENGOIL) and Spent Engine Oil (SENGOIL) was investigated. The result ...

  7. Improving oil classification quality from oil spill fingerprint beyond six sigma approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juahir, Hafizan; Ismail, Azimah; Mohamed, Saiful Bahri; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wah, Wong Kok; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Retnam, Ananthy; Taib, Mohd Zaki Mohd; Mokhtar, Mazlin

    2017-07-15

    This study involves the use of quality engineering in oil spill classification based on oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS employing the six-sigma approach. The oil spills are recovered from various water areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). The study approach used six sigma methodologies that effectively serve as the problem solving in oil classification extracted from the complex mixtures of oil spilled dataset. The analysis of six sigma link with the quality engineering improved the organizational performance to achieve its objectivity of the environmental forensics. The study reveals that oil spills are discriminated into four groups' viz. diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) according to the similarity of the intrinsic chemical properties. Through the validation, it confirmed that four discriminant component, diesel, hydrocarbon fuel oil (HFO), mixture oil lubricant and fuel oil (MOLFO) and waste oil (WO) dominate the oil types with a total variance of 99.51% with ANOVA giving F stat >F critical at 95% confidence level and a Chi Square goodness test of 74.87. Results obtained from this study reveals that by employing six-sigma approach in a data-driven problem such as in the case of oil spill classification, good decision making can be expedited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Assessment of an oil palm population from Nigerian Institute for Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), a monocotyledonous plant belonging to the Arecaceae family, is one of the most important oil crops in the world. In Nigeria, oil palm has benefited immensely from conventional breeding efforts resulting in high yields that have been achieved with this breeding material. However, oil palm ...

  9. Development of karanja oil based offset printing ink in comparison with linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Roy, Ananda Sankar; Ghosh, Santinath; Dey, Munmun

    2011-01-01

    The conventional offset lithographic printing ink is mainly based on linseed oil. But in recent years, due to stiff competition from synthetic substitutes mainly from petroleum products, the crop production shrinks down to an unsustainable level, which increases the price of linseed oil. Though soyabean oil has replaced a major portion of linseed oil, it is also necessary to develop alternate cost effective vegetable oils for printing ink industry. The present study aims to evaluate the performance of karanja oil (Pongamia glabra) as an alternative of linseed oil in the formulation of offset printing ink because karanja oil is easily available in rural India. Physical properties of raw karanja oil are measured and compared with that of alkali refined linseed oil. Rosin modified phenolic resin based varnishes were made with linseed oil as well as with karanja oil and their properties are compared. Sheetfed offset inks of process colour yellow and cyan is chosen to evaluate the effect of karanja oil in ink properties. In conclusion, karanja oil can be accepted as an alternate vegetable oil source with its noticeable effect on print and post print properties with slower drying time on paper. However, the colour and odour of the oil will restrict its usage on offset inks.

  10. Formulation of soy oil products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerfel, John B.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments different formulations of soy oil products such as salad and cooking oils, margarine, shortenings, commercial shortenings, frying shortenings, and fluid shortenings. Hydrogenation and its influence on final products is also included.

    El trabajo presenta diferentes formulaciones a base de aceite de soja tales como aceites para ensalada y cocinado, margarina, grasas sólidas (shortenings, grasas sólidas comerciales, grasas sólidas para frituras y grasas fluidas. Hace también referencia al proceso de hidrogenación y a sus efectos en los productos finales.

  11. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  12. The use of antioxidants in vegetable oils – A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Canola oil is a type of rapeseed oil with reduced erucic acid content (Applewhite, 1978). It is a stable oil used in salad dressings, margarine and shortenings. Soybean oil is an important oil with numerous increasing applications in the modern day world. It is classed as a linolenic acid oil since it contains.

  13. Enhancing The Wash Oil Antifouling Action In A Cracked Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure grade samples from operational wash oil (used in cracked gas compression unit), light cycle oil, heavy residue and heavy diesel oil were obtained. Miscible blend samples of ratio 1:1 were also obtained from wash oil/light cycle oil and wash oil/heavy residue. These samples were subjected to characterization and the ...

  14. Vegetable oil based liquid nanocomposite dielectric

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Chetty; Isaac W. Serukenya; Nelson M. Ijumba

    2013-01-01

    Physically smaller dielectric materials would improve the optimisation of space for power systems. Development of nanotechnology provides an effective way to improve the performances of insulating oils used in power system applications. In this research study, we focused on the development of nanomodified vegetable oils to be used in power transformers. Higher conduction currents were observed in virgin linseed oil than in virgin castor oil. However, for both virgin linseed and virgin castor ...

  15. PROPERTIES OF TRANSFORMER OIL THAT AFFECT EFFICIENCY.

    OpenAIRE

    TANTEH, DERICK NJOMBOG; AL-LIDDAWI, SHAFIQ YOUSEF; SSEKASIKO., DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Transformer explosions caused by dielectric failure account for over 50% of the disasters. The aim of this thesis is to examine, compare and outline the differences, in function, as dielectric insulators, vegetables oil has, with respect to the mineral oil used in high-power transformers. We will first consider the vegetable oil which has less dielectric capabilities than the mineral oil used in power transformers. Later in the experiments, we will focus mainly to examine the breakd...

  16. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  17. Viscometric changes of engine oils during use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumpf, K.K.

    1983-12-01

    During the use in an engine the oil suffers some changes of its original properties due to oxidation, ageing, by contamination with soot (in Diesel service), by evaporation of lower boiling oil fractions, by fuel dilation, and, in the case of multigrade oils, by degradation of the polymers. It is shown that each of these different processes results in a different individual change of the viscosity properties. Therefore analysing the viscometric changes allows to draw conclusions regarding the type of the oil changes.

  18. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  19. Contamination of grape seed oil with mineral oil paraffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Dennis; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann, Maurus; Ballini, Roberto; Coni, Ettore; Grob, Konrad

    2008-12-10

    The contamination of 11 commercial grape seed oils with paraffins of mineral oil origin was analyzed by online-coupled HPLC-HPLC-GC-FID and ranged from 43 to 247 mg kg(-1). The analysis of the marc and seeds indicated that the contamination is primarily from the peels. Since superficial extraction of the seeds with hexane removed most of the mineral paraffins, the contamination of the seeds is largely on the surface, perhaps transferred from the peels during storage of the marc. Mechanical purification of the seeds combined with washing with hexane reduced the contamination of the oil by a factor of about 10. The refining process removed 30% of the mineral paraffins, primarily the more volatile components. Oil obtained from the seeds of fresh grapes, including grapes not having undergone any phytochemical treatment, contained clearly less mineral paraffins (up to 14 mg kg(-1)), and the peels were less contaminated, suggesting an environmental background contamination. To this an additional contamination might be added by a treatment of the grapes used for wine making.

  20. Commentary on a trial comparing krill oil versus fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Peter D; Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda

    2014-01-02

    Considerable interest exists presently in comparing the performance of krill oil (KO) and fish oil (FO) supplements. Ramprasath et al. (Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013) have recently compared use of KO and FO in a trial with healthy individuals to examine which oil is more effective in increasing n-3 PUFA, decreasing the n-6:n-3 ratio and improving the omega-3 index. The authors concluded that KO was more effective than FO for all three criteria. However, careful examination of the fatty acid profiles of the oils used showed that the FO used was not a typical FO; it contained linoleic acid as the dominant fatty acid (32%) and an n-6:n-3 ratio of >1. Due to the fatty acid profile being non-representative of typically commercially marketed FO, the conclusions presented by Ramrasath et al. (Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013) are not justified and misleading. Considerable care is needed in ensuring that such comparative trials do not use inappropriate ingredients.

  1. Genetic determinism of oil acidity among some DELI oil palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acidity analysis of 457 individuals from 11 progenies, issued from nine parents showed that, the segregation of forms with respect to this trait is compatible with a monohybridism with dominance. The dominant allele denoted that “Pa” determines high acidity while the recessive allele “pa” favours production of oil with low ...

  2. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil through bioprocess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy-polyol oils (oxygenated acylglycerols) are important starting materials for the manufacture of polymers such as polyurethane. Currently, they are produced by a two-step chemical process involving epoxidation and then the subsequent opening of the oxirane ring. The objective of this study is to d...

  3. Comparison of thermal stability of grape seed oil with virgin sesame oil

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh; Peyman; Fayegh Moulodi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heating causes extensive physical and chemical changes in oil and fats, which can change all physical and chemical characteristics and quality of oil during frying is so critical. This study was aimed to compare the thermal stability of virgin sesame oil and grape seed oil. Methods: The grape seed oil and virgin sesame oil were heated at 180 ° C for 8 hours. Every hour, a sample of the heated oils was taken to determine the changes in acid value, peroxide, anisidine and Totox. ...

  4. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Berasategi, I. (Izaskun); Barriuso, B. (Blanca); D. Ansorena; I. Astiasarán

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0 h and after different times of heating process (180 °C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t = 0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t = 0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0 h (339.64; 228.27...

  5. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Bakre, S.M.; Gadmale, D. K.; Toche, R. B.; V. B. GAIKWAD

    2014-01-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxid...

  6. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  7. Biodegradation of dispersed oil in seawater is not inhibited by a commercial oil spill dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Ribicic, Deni; Winkler, Anika; Netzer, Roman

    2017-10-24

    Chemical dispersants are well-established as oil spill response tools. Several studies have emphasized their positive effects on oil biodegradation, but recent studies have claimed that dispersants may actually inhibit the oil biodegradation process. In this study, biodegradation of oil dispersions in natural seawater at low temperature (5°C) was compared, using oil without dispersant, and oil premixed with different concentrations of Slickgone NS, a widely used oil spill dispersant in Europe. Saturates (nC10-nC36 alkanes), naphthalenes and 2- to 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were biotransformed at comparable rates in all dispersions, both with and without dispersant. Microbial communities differed primarily between samples with or without oil, and they were not significantly affected by increasing dispersant concentrations. Our data therefore showed that a common oil spill dispersant did not inhibit biodegradation of oil at dispersant concentrations relevant for response operations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oil Prophets: Looking at World Oil Studies Over Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Steve [Denver, CO (United States); Udall, Randy [Carbondale, CO (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Early reports of world oil assessments date back to the 1940s. In the intervening 60 years, the number of studies projecting Estimated Ultimately Recoverable (EUR) oil reached well over 50. A detailed search would undoubtedly lengthen the list that will be provided with this paper. How have their estimates fared? Given general agreement that we haven't yet reached the halfway point in eventual production, it's too early to offer definitive assessments. However, several factors stand out: The learning curve. It took over a decade of effort for projections to emerge that are in line with lower-end projections of more recent studies. The learning curve has flattened. For those individuals and groups who conducted multiple studies, their subsequent EUR numbers generally trend higher. The analyses lack a common definitional framework. Beyond crude oil, what liquids are included? Heavy oil and tar sands? Some or all gas liquids? Polar and deepwater oil? While the ability to locate, evaluate and extract oil in the field has drastically improved over time, analysts continue to be hampered by a lack of access to definitive data plus disagreements about assessment methodologies. Striving to determine how many petroleum liquids we have left is a useful exercise, but primarily as a means to help determine when daily worldwide production is likely to peak. To that end, a key point is that 'not all liquids resources are created equal'; many of the larger new fields are located in harsh and remote regions, in politically unstable environments, or require large energy inputs during extraction. Production rates and costs will vary dramatically. Since demand is somewhat fickle, identifying a year or range of years when liquids production will peak qualifies as part art, part science. That said, the paper will list estimates by 'oil prophets' as to when they project that petroleum liquids production will peak. The estimates range from 1995 to 2025. How

  9. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NIGERIA'S OIL WEALTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    Oil is a very important resource for Nigeria, as it remains the major economic driver and mainstay of the country. .... Nigeria, the biggest oil exporter with the largest natural gas reserves in. Africa24 and one of the largest in ..... management and control over all minerals and mineral oil in Nigeria puts it in a dominant position in ...

  10. Oil Pollution and Eastern Obolo Human Ecology,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Pipelines were laid from all the oil wells to the terminals of the oil firms. Owing to this fact, the area is crisscrossed with high pressure oil pipelines and other installations; some manifold ones carry the instructions, “DO ... It specifically gave severe corrosion to corrugated iron sheets used in roofing houses and turned them.

  11. Oil price shocks and European industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Yurtsever, Cenk

    We investigate the impact of oil price shocks at the industry level in the Euro area for the period 1983-2007. We use different oil price specifications and use dynamic VAR models and multivariate regression to investigate how 38 different industries respond to oil price shocks. We pay specific

  12. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  13. Managing and Harnessing Volatile Oil Windfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, T.S.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2013-01-01

    Three funds are necessary to manage an oil windfall: intergenerational, liquidity, and investment funds. The optimal liquidity fund is bigger if the windfall lasts longer and oil price volatility, prudence, and the GDP share of oil rents are high and productivity growth is low. The paper applies the

  14. Review of oil water core annular flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Mandal, T.K.; Das, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, P.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2009-10-15

    The emerging energy efficient technology in the field of high viscous oil transportation is water-lubricated transport of heavy oil, known as core annular flow or CAF. This paper provides a brief review of the past studies on oil-water core annular flows - including studies on hydrodynamics as well as stability of flow. (author)

  15. Utilization of used oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascetti, G.J.; White, H.M.

    1978-08-01

    This report assesses the potential impact of re-refining used automotive and industrial lubricating oils on the national petroleum consumption. The technical base for this assessment is derived from a comprehensive review of the processes utilized in re-refining used oil and those processes used to produce lube oil from crude. Both existing and recently proposed processes are considered. Additionally, an extensive review of processes described in the patent literature is provided. Re-refining processes are surveyed and evaluated. Process descriptions are provided; hardware is identified; and process energy and economic requirements are calculated. Factors affecting the profitability of a re-refining operation are discussed. Economic projections of the demand for lube oil and the ability to satisfy this demand from crude oil are made and the value of lube oil as a vital resource and the need for conservation are addressed. Other factors related to re-refining are discussed, including lube oil characteristics, degradation, lube oil quality and engine sequence testing, and legislative and institutional barriers. Finally, an energy assessment of used oil utilization is made. Two options are considered in this assessment: (1) all used oil is re-refined and recycled back to lube oil; (2) all used oil is burned to recover its heat content.

  16. Kinetic Characteristics of Oil Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radzievska, I.G.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parameters of oxidability of sunflower, corn, walnut, palm and palm kernel oils are defined with Tsepalov`s graphical and DPPH methods. The influence of oil natural antioxidants and the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids on the rate of oxidation is shown. The methods can be used to predict oil oxidation stability during storage.

  17. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  18. Chemical characteristics of palm oil biodeterioration | Ekwenye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of the palm oil from dura and tenera varieties of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) Jacquin for growth of microorganisms (fungi and bacteria), revealed that tenera was more stable to bacteria and fungal deterioration while dura was less biostable. Determination of the chemical composition of the palm oil types ...

  19. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  20. Too Much Coal, too little Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Our main message is that it is optimal to use less coal and more oil once one takes account of coal being a backstop which emits much more CO2 than oil. The way of achieving this is to have a steeply rising carbon tax during the initial oil-only phase, a less-steeply rising carbon tax during the

  1. Marine microbes make a meal of oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, I.M.; Jones, D.M.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of litres of petroleum enter the environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources every year. The input from natural marine oil seeps alone would be enough to cover all of the world's oceans in a layer of oil 20 molecules thick. That the globe is not swamped with oil is

  2. 78 FR 63235 - Tank Vessel Oil Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... engaged in oil transfer operations? 12. Are there conflicts or areas of improvement with regard to... SECURITY Coast Guard Tank Vessel Oil Transfers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard announces that it is considering new measures to reduce the risks of oil...

  3. HEAVY-OIL PRODUCTION USING EMULSION FLOODING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Several researchers have found it difficult to achieve oil in-water (O/W) emulsion stability status. In an effort to minimize the viscosity, heavy crude needs modification. The morphology and stability of oil-in-water emulsions were studied as a function of aqueous phase salinity. In reducing the viscosity of the heavy-oil, brine.

  4. Sensitization to olive oil (olea europeae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joost, T.; Smitt, J. H.; van Ketel, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitization to olive oil is seldom reported in the literature. By use of epicutaneous tests a delayed type of hypersensitivity to pure freshly-prepared olive oil could be demonstrated in two patients. Patch tests with certain major constituents of olive oil; the methyl ester of linoleic acid, the

  5. Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

    In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

  6. Oil price: Endless ability to surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Baltasar

    2016-05-01

    Economic agents have varying expectations on oil price fluctuations that play an important role in determining the timing and magnitude of oil price shocks. A study now shows that heterogeneous expectations should be included when modelling oil price shocks to grasp their impact on macroeconomic outcomes and energy policies.

  7. Detection of hazelnut oil adulteration using FT-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Banu F; Mauer, Lisa J

    2002-07-03

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to detect the adulteration of hazelnut oil with different types of oils and to detect the adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil with hazelnut oil. Spectra of hazelnut oil, seven other types of oils, extra-virgin olive oil, and the adulterated oils were collected with a FT-IR equipped with a ZnSe-ATR accessory and a MCTA detector. Discriminant analysis and partial least-squares analysis were used to analyze the data. Classification of hazelnut oil, olive oil, and the other types of oils was achieved successfully with FT-IR. The detection level for sunflower oil adulteration of hazelnut oil was 2%, and the correlation coefficient for the PLS model was 0.99. Adulteration of virgin olive oil with hazelnut oil could be detected only at levels of 25% and higher.

  8. Oxidative stability of diacylglycerol oil and butter blends containing diacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni Brogaard; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) oils produced from sunflower oil and traditional sunflower oil were stored for 20 wk at 38 degrees C, and their oxidative stability was measured. Moreover, two butter blends were produced containing 40 wt-% DAG oil made from sunflower oil or rapeseed oil, respectively, as well...... as two control butter blends with sunflower oil or rapeseed oil. Their oxidative stability during storage at 5 degrees C for up to 12 wk was examined by similar means as for the pure oils. The storage study of the oils indicated that the DAG oil was oxidatively less stable as compared to sunflower oil......, but that they had similar sensory quality. Storage of the butter blends revealed that blends with the two types of rapeseed oil (triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG oil) were oxidatively more stable than the blends containing oils from sunflower. There was no unambiguous indication of DAG butter blends having a different...

  9. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  10. Oil Risks and Firm Attributes in Oil Share Prices: Empirical Evidence from Bursa Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Safian, Dayana

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the oil risks and firm attributes that could affect the share prices of oil and gas companies in Malaysia. Most of the studies conducted in regards to the oil and gas sector takes into account the contributing factors such as the condition of oil futures in NYMEX and focuses on prominent oil exporting and importing countries. In contrast, this paper empirically assesses the dynamics of global, national and company level factors that could influence the share p...

  11. Intestinal absorption of fish oil in rats previously adapted to diets containing fish oil or corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, G R; Chernenko, G A; Barrowman, J A; Kean, K T; Keough, K M

    1992-03-04

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether the composition of previous dietary fat affects the absorption and composition of lymph obtained after a meal of fish oil. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either corn oil or fish oil (MaxEPA) for 2 weeks. They were then given intraduodenally a bolus of an emulsion of 0.5 ml of fish oil plus 0.5 ml of 20 mM sodium taurocholate. Intestinal lymph was collected from a cannula in the main intestinal lymph trunk for various times after oil administration. Rats proportion of the test dose fo fish oil than those fed corn oil. There was an effect of previous diet on the fatty acid composition of the lymph. Rats fed fish oil had a higher percentage of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the lymph lipids than those fed corn oil while those fed corn oil had a higher percentage of linoleic acid. These results rule out decreased intestinal absorption as a mechanism for the hypotriacylglycerolemic effect of dietary fish oils. They also indicate a significant contribution of endogenous lipids to the fatty acids in lymph.

  12. for palm kernel oil extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The oil could be used as a lubricant and an emulsifier [6]. It is an ingredient in paint making as a drying base, and in the manufacture of candles and soaps. [6, 7]. ..... of Bio-energy Potential of Palm Kernel Shell by. Physicochemical haracterization”, Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 31, Number 3, pp 329-335. 2012. [4].

  13. Essential oils in broiler nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Kyung-woo

    2002-01-01

    Dietary antibiotics at low, subtherapeutic levels have been shown to improve growth performance in farm animals. However, there is a trend to look for alternatives to dietary antibiotics, due to occurrence of antibiotic-resistance bacteria. The present thesis explored the essential oils as the

  14. Pakistan : Oil and Gas Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Substantial progess has been made in Pakistan in the restructuring and reform of the oil and gas sectors, deregulation of prices, and privatization of selected assets. The reforms have enhanced transparency, making decisionmakers aware of the various aspects of the business. This review documents the accomplishments to date, and attempts to identify measures that merit priority attention w...

  15. LLNL oil shale project review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cena, R.J. (ed.)

    1990-04-01

    Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

  16. Cambodia: World Oil Report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khin, J.A. (AFKA Co., PTE Ltd. (SG))

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the Ministry of Industry which has the that hydrocarbon potential exists in the 57,600-sq-mi sedimentary basin covering both onshore and offshore Cambodia. It is also reported that 13 foreign oil companies have contacted the government, regarding obtaining interests in Kampot and Koh Kong Provinces in the southwestern part of the country.

  17. (Oil Palm Shell) Lightweight Concrete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compressive strength as destructive test and, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Ed) as non-destructive tests have been carried out on a new lightweight concrete produced using oil palm shell (OPS) as coarse aggregate, as a way to establish the usefulness of these tests to determine the ...

  18. Fats and oils: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  19. Marine oils: Complex, confusing, confounded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Albert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine oils gained prominence following the report that Greenland Inuits who consumed a high-fat diet rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs also had low rates of cardiovascular disease. Marine n-3 PUFAs have since become a billion dollar industry, which will continue to grow based on current trends. However, recent systematic reviews question the health benefits of marine oil supplements, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Marine oils constitute an extremely complex dietary intervention for a number of reasons: i the many chemical compounds they contain; ii the many biological processes affected by n-3 PUFAs; iii their tendency to deteriorate and form potentially toxic primary and secondary oxidation products; and iv inaccuracy in the labelling of consumer products. These complexities may confound the clinical literature, limiting the ability to make substantive conclusions for some key health outcomes. Thus, there is a pressing need for clinical trials using marine oils whose composition has been independently verified and demonstrated to be minimally oxidised. Without such data, it is premature to conclude that n-3 PUFA rich supplements are ineffective.

  20. Pyrolitics Oils in Coal Flotation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čáblík, V.; Išek, J.; Herková, M.; Halas, J.; Čáblíková, L.; Vaculíková, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2014), s. 9-14 ISSN 1640-4920 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : pyrolytic oils * flotation, black coal * new flotation reagents Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation http://homen.vsb.cz/hgf/546/IM_2014_02.pdf

  1. Bacterial encountering with oil droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; Molaei, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    Encountering of microorganisms with rising oil droplets in aqueous environments is the first and one of the critical steps in the biodegradation of crude oil. Several factors such as droplet sizes, rising velocity, surfactant, and motility of bacteria are expected to affect the encounter rate. We establish well controlled microfluidic devices by applying layer-by-layer technique that allows us to produce horizontal micro droplets with different sizes. The encounter rates of passive particles, motile and non-motile bacteria with these droplets are measured by high speed microscopy. The effects of mobility and motility of these particles on encounter rates are assessed quantitatively. Meanwhile, we visualize reorientation of the particle due to flow filed around the oil droplet. Results show that the motile bacteria have higher probabilities to interact with an oil droplet compare to the passive particles. Ongoing analyses focus on the effect of shear rates, angular dispersion, curvatures of streamlines, and the swimming velocity of bacteria. The ratios of the encounter area to the entire droplet surface at various flow regimes will also been measured. GoMRI.

  2. Response to commentary on a trial comparing krill oil versus fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Eyal, Inbal; Zchut, Sigalit; Jones, Peter J H

    2014-01-22

    Nichols et al. (Lipids Health Dis13:2, 2014) raised concern about the higher n-6 concentration in fish oil used in our recent study which is different from typical commercial fish oils (Ramprasath et al. Lipids Health Dis12:178, 2013). The aim of our study was to compare the effect of consumption of similar amount of n-3 PUFA from krill and fish oil with placebo on plasma and RBC fatty acids. As the concentration of n-3 PUFA in the fish oil utilised was higher than that in krill oil, we deemed it important to keep consistent the concentration of n-3 PUFA and volumes to be administered to participants between krill versus fish oils. As such, the fish oil used in the study was diluted with corn oil. Although the n-6 PUFA concentration in fish oil was higher compared to traditionally used fish oil, consumption of the fish oil used in our study actually reduced the total n-6 PUFA in plasma and RBC to a similar extent as did krill oil. Overall, our conclusion was that the increases in plasma and RBC concentrations of EPA and DHA along with improvement in the omega-3 index observed with consumption of krill oil compared with fish oil are due to differences in absorption and bioavailability based on the structural difference of the two oils rather than their n-6 PUFA content.

  3. Oxygen content and oxidation in frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Mori, Terutoshi; Hammond, Earl G

    2013-01-01

    The relation between oxygen content and oxidation was investigated in frying oils. When canola oil, a canola-soybean oil blend or a trioctanoylglycerol (glycerol tricaprate) sample were heated with stirring, their dissolved oxygen content decreased abruptly at about 120°C and the carbonyl values (CV) increased gradually with heating and reached values of 6-7 at 180°C in the blended and canola oils, while the CV of trioctanoylglycerol was zero up to 150°C. Probably this abrupt decrease in oxygen content above 120°C can be attributed to the solubility of oxygen in oil rather than because of oxidative reactions. The oxygen content of oil that has been stripped of part of its oxygen, increased at temperatures between 25 and 120°C. In oils that have lost their oxygen by being heated to 180°C, standing at room temperature will slowly restore their oxygen content as the oil cools. Intermittent simple heating of oil promoted oxygen absorbance during cooling periods and standing times, and it resulted in an elevated content of polar compounds (PC). Domestic deep-frying conditions also favor the presence of oxygen in oil below 120°C and during the oil's long standing at room temperature. The oxygen content in oil was low during deep-frying, but oxidation was active at the oil/air interface of bubbles generated by foods being fried. Repeated use of oil at temperatures between 25-180°C resulted in oil with low oxygen values.

  4. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...... of funding liquidity constraints suggesting an economic channel for the effect....

  5. Flammability properties of typical aviation functional oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianlong; Zhou, Tiannian; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    A sequence of experiments were conducted in a cone calorimeter to measure the flammability properties of 4050# lubricating oil and 15# hydraulic oil. Meanwhile, the heat release rate, mass loss rate and ignition time were used to investigate the combustion characteristics of the two kinds of oil with varying external radiant heat fluxes. The results show that the 15# oil is easier to be ignited than the 4050# oil and -0.55 power of the ignition time is linear with the external radiant heat flux, which agrees with the previous studies.

  6. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy content of pyrolysis oil is approximately half of fossil crude. Just like for crude oil, further reprocessing is necessary to arranged pyrolysis oil as fuel in e.g. combustion engines. This thesis des...

  7. Intraventricular Silicone Oil: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Stéphane; Boissonnot, Michèle; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Simonet, Charles; Ciron, Jonathan; Neau, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial silicone oil is a rare complication of intraocular endotamponade with silicone oil. We describe a case of intraventricular silicone oil fortuitously observed 38 months after an intraocular tamponade for a complicated retinal detachment in an 82 year-old woman admitted in the Department of Neurology for a stroke. We confirm the migration of silicone oil along the optic nerve. We discuss this rare entity with a review of the few other cases reported in the medical literature. Intraventricular migration of silicone oil after intraocular endotamponade is usually asymptomatic but have to be known of the neurologists and the radiologists because of its differential diagnosis that are intraventricular hemorrhage and tumor.

  8. Composting of oil polluted sea-weed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halmoe, G.; Hoddoe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The report describes 2 years experience of a rank composting experiment with forced airing from the bottom. Efforts to optimize the degradation of the oil in the waste is made by adding fertilizer and oil absorbing substances. This also affects the mass porosity. During the year about 75% degradation of n-alkanes in a crude oil was obtained. Good growth on the compost was obtained. An article on biodegradation of oil by G. Halmoe, presented at the Oil Spill Conference in Los Angeles the 24th to 28th February 1985 is included as an appendix. 11 tables, 5 drawings.

  9. Performance advantages of multigrade manual transmission oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikemoto, Y.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain better performance at both low and high temperatures and to improve fuel economy, the performance of an SAE 75W-90 manual transmission gear oil was evaluated in comparison with conventional SAE 90 and SAE 80W gear oils. Good shift characteristics at low temperatures and reduction of gear noise at high temperatures were obtained with the SAE 75W-90 gear oil. Tests with a friction-modified oil indicate that further improvement in fuel economy of the multigrade oil can be obtained by the addition of friction modifiers. 14 refs.

  10. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  11. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  12. Oil Price Risk and Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The oil price risk refers to the uncertainty of the change in oil price and the stock markets studied in this paper are the so called emerging ones. Fourteen countries are selected for a quantitative research on the link between the oil price fluctuation and the stock market performance. A multi-factor model is applied and specifically an OLS regression is conducted separately for the data on Brazilian stock market. As a result, the rising oil price decreases stock price in oil-importing coun...

  13. Olive oil and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli, Claudio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the fatty acid profile of olive oil, which is high in the monounsaturated oleic acid and appears to be beneficial in reducing several risk factors for coronary heart disease and certain cancers, extra virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, e.g. hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. A body of evidence demonstrates that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants. Although most of these studies have been carried out in vitro, some in vivo experiments confirm that olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed and that they retain their biological activities after ingestion. These data could in part explain the lower incidence of coronary heart disease in the Mediterranean area, where (extra virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat.La composición del aceite de oliva virgen extra se caracteriza por su contenido en ácidos grasos, fundamentalmente monoinsaturados (ácido oleico beneficiosos para reducir el riesgo de enfermedad coronaria, y en componentes menores, particularmente polifenoles (p.e. hidroxitirosol y oleuropeína responsables de su sabor y estabilidad. Diversos estudios demuestran el poder antioxidante de los compuestos fenólicos del aceite de oliva (virgen extra. Aunque la mayoría de ellos se han realizado in vitro, algunos in vivo parecen confirmar que los polifenoles se absorben dependiendo de la dosis y que retienen las actividades biológicas después de su ingestión. Estos resultados pueden explicar en parte la menor incidencia de enfermedad coronaria en los países del área Mediterránea, donde el aceite de oliva (extra virgen es la principal fuente de grasas.

  14. Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis 24: avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritchevsky, David; Tepper, Shirley A; Wright, Scott; Czarnecki, Susanne K; Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2003-02-01

    To determine atherogenicity of avocado oil relative to saturated (coconut oil), monounsaturated (olive oil) and polyunsaturated (corn oil) fats. New Zealand White rabbits were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.2% cholesterol and 14% fat for 90 days. They were then necropsied and severity of atherosclerosis was determined visually. Coconut oil was the most atherogenic fat. Corn oil was only slightly less atherogenic than either olive or avocado oils. Percentage of serum HDL cholesterol was highest in the rabbits fed the two monounsaturated fats. Avocado oil is of the same order of atherogenicity as corn oil and olive oil.

  15. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health effects research in oil shale development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, T.W.; Witschi, H.; Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Holland, J.M.; Epler, J.L.; Fry, R.J.M.; Rao, T.K.; Larimer, F.W.; Dumont, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    This task includes the testing of primary effluents and products of oil shales to determine the risk posed to the shale oil industrial worker as well as consumer. Paraho/Sohio Shale Oil was found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay and confirmed in the yeast system. After chemical fractionation of the crude shale oil, it was found that the mutagenic activity was contributed by the organic constituents of the basic and neutral fractions. Hydrotreatment of the shale oil abolished the detectable mutagenic activity and also reduced the cytotoxicity as measured in cellular systems. Refined shale oil, jet fuel, and diesel fuel marine samples were not mutagenic. The samples rank for their mutagenic activity as coal oils > shale oil > natural petroleum crudes and only qualitatively agree with carcinogenic activity. Acute toxicity of Paraho Crude Shale Oil and its upgraded derivatives does not appear to be a problem of immediate concern. The data obtained in the lung adenoma bioassay suggest that Crude Shale Oil has tumorigenic potential. Paraho shale oil is carcinogenic in mouse skin. Hydrotreatment reduces but does not eliminate skin carcinogenicity and appreciable carcinogenic activity remains in the residue material. Kidney injury was noted following chronic dermal exposure to shale and petroleum derived middle distillates.

  17. Vegetable oil based liquid nanocomposite dielectric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Chetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically smaller dielectric materials would improve the optimisation of space for power systems. Development of nanotechnology provides an effective way to improve the performances of insulating oils used in power system applications. In this research study, we focused on the development of nanomodified vegetable oils to be used in power transformers. Higher conduction currents were observed in virgin linseed oil than in virgin castor oil. However, for both virgin linseed and virgin castor oil, the DC conduction current increased approximately linearly with the applied DC voltage. In nanomodified linseed oil, the characteristic curve showed two distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage and a saturation region (at slightly higher voltage. Conversely, in nanomodified castor oil, the characteristic curve showed three distinct regions: a linear region (at lower applied voltage, a saturation region (at intermediate applied voltage and an exponential growth region (at higher applied voltage. The nanomodified linseed oil exhibited a better dielectric performance than the nanomodified castor oil. Overall, the addition of nanodielectrics to vegetable oils decreased the dielectric performance of the vegetable oils. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the pre-breakdown phenomenon in liquid nanocomposite dielectrics.

  18. Review of oil spill remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl

    2014-06-15

    Remote-sensing for oil spills is reviewed. The use of visible techniques is ubiquitous, however it gives only the same results as visual monitoring. Oil has no particular spectral features that would allow for identification among the many possible background interferences. Cameras are only useful to provide documentation. In daytime oil absorbs light and remits this as thermal energy at temperatures 3-8K above ambient, this is detectable by infrared (IR) cameras. Laser fluorosensors are useful instruments because of their unique capability to identify oil on backgrounds that include water, soil, weeds, ice and snow. They are the only sensor that can positively discriminate oil on most backgrounds. Radar detects oil on water by the fact that oil will dampen water-surface capillary waves under low to moderate wave/wind conditions. Radar offers the only potential for large area searches, day/night and foul weather remote sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Application of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu

    Enzymes have recently been reported as effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Both laboratory and field tests demonstrated significant increase in the ultimate oil production. Up to16% of additional oil was produced in the laboratory conditions and up to 269 barrels of additional oil per day...... were recovered in the field applications. The following mechanisms were claimed to be responsible for the enhancement of the oil production due to enzymes: wettability improvement of the rock surface; formation of the emulsions; reduction of oil viscosity; and removal of high molecular weight paraffins....... However, the positive effect of enzymes on oil recovery is not that obvious. In most of the studies commercial enzyme products composed of enzymes, surfactants and stabilisers were used. Application of such samples makes it difficult to assign a positive EOR effect to a certain compound, as several...

  20. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Surfactant Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandersen, Sara Bülow

    behavior inside the reservoir can be manipulated by the injection of surfactants and co-surfactants, creating advantageous conditions in order to mobilize trapped oil. Correctly designed surfactant systems together with the crude oil can create microemulsions at the interface between crude oil and water...... at constant salinity (6.56 %), constant surfactant-alcohol ratio (SAR) but with varying water-oil ratios (WOR). At all temperatures it was very clear that the effect of pressure was significant. The system changed from the two phase region, Winsor II, to the three phase region, Winsor III, as pressure...... characterization of the two crude oils using gas chromatography and SARA analysis confirmed that the heavier components in the crude oils, (in the case of the Latin American crude oil), are correlated to the observed decrease of viscosity, where the viscosity decrease may be explained from change of the shape...

  1. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  2. Role of dispersion in fuel oil bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderhorst, J.R.; Gibson, C.I.; Moore, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Three methods of oil-seawater contact were used to measure aqueous phase concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil and the resulting mortality of shrimp, PANDALUS DANAE. Oil--water entry methods included: (1) separate inflow below the water surface, (2) mixture inflow above the water surface, and (3) separate inflow above the water surface. The importance of standardizing the conditions under which oil and water are mixed prior to use in bioassay studies and the amount of dispersion that occurs during the exposure period was noted. Under the three sets of mixing conditions, identical volumes of oil and water resulted in significant differences in observed mortality and measured amounts of oil in the water column, as either total or soluble oil.

  3. Susceptibility of Postharvest Pathogens to Esential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božik M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial volatile substances from plants represent alternatives to synthetic pesticides and food preservatives. In this study, the compositions of some essential oils were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and the inhibitory properties of the essential oils and their components against the bacterial postharvest pathogens Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (CCM 1008, Pseudomonas syringae (CCM 7018, Xanthomonas campestris (CCM 22 were determined by the microdilution method. Essential oils from oregano, cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender, clove, rosemary, tea tree, eucalyptus, garlic, and ginger and their components cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, thymol, and carvacrol were used in the tests. The essential oil components exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. The oregano and cinnamon essential oils were most effective. The rosemary, lavender, tea tree, eucalyptus, garlic, and ginger oils were not effective at the tested concentrations. In conclusion, certain essential oils, particularly their components, are highly effective and could be used for the control of postharvest bacterial pathogens.

  4. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  5. Oil mixing behavior after an oil spill: identification conflicts of different fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shijie; Yu, Hongjun; Luo, Yongming; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Xueshuang; Li, Zhongping

    2018-01-22

    Clearing up whether spilled oil is mixed or not can strengthen the accuracy of oil spill identification. In the present study, the biomarkers in spilled oil samples were detected. The weathering modes of different types of diagnostic ratio and carbon isotope values of individual n-alkanes were also analyzed. The results showed that the diagnostic ratios of steroids, terpenes and aromatics, and weathering characteristics of carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C) of individual n-alkanes supported the idea that Dalian oil spill emerged from a single oil source. Furthermore, commonly used diagnostic ratios of n-alkanes indicated that the Dalian oil spill had undergone the oil mixing process. The different identifying outcomes indicate that some kinds of n-alkane-rich substance (such as oil dispersants) were mixed in the Dalian spilled oil and interfered with the routine diagnosis ratios of n-alkanes.

  6. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  7. Dielectric study of important medicinal oil: Clove oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyendra Pratap; Chandel, Vishal Singh; Manohar, Rajiv

    2017-12-08

    Dielectric properties of clove oil were determined using an impedance gain phase analyzer (HP 4194 A) at discrete frequencies between 10 kHz and 3 MHz and a range of temperature between 25 °C and 45 °C. A micro processor controller based temperature controller (Julabo F-25) was used for keeping the temperature of clove oil constant. Dielectric constant of the sample is found to decrease with increase in frequency and temperature, while dielectric loss decreases with increase in frequency but increases with increase in temperature. Penetration depth has been calculated with the help of dielectric data and is found to decrease with increase in frequency. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Kolkhoung (Pistacia khinjuk Hull Oil and Kernel Oil as Antioxidative Vegetable Oils with High Oxidative Stability and Nutritional Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asnaashari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to introduce natural antioxidative vegetable oil in food industry, the kolkhoung hull oil and kernel oil were extracted. To evaluate their antioxidant efficiency, gas chromatography analysis of the composition of kolkhoung hull and kernel oil fatty acids and high–performance liquid chromatography analysis of tocopherols were done. Also, the oxidative stability of the oil was considered based on the peroxide value and anisidine value during heating at 100, 110 and 120 °C. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid of both types of oil (hull and kernel and based on a low content of saturated fatty acids, high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, and the ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, they were nutritionally well-balanced. Moreover, both hull and kernel oil showed high oxidative stability during heating, which can be attributed to high content of tocotrienols. Based on the results, kolkhoung hull oil acted slightly better than its kernel oil. However, both of them can be added to oxidation–sensitive oils to improve their shelf life.

  9. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  10. Evolutionary responses to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill by the copepod Eurytemora affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Remfert, Jane Louise; Opgenorth, Taylor; Lee, Kristin M; Stanford, Elizabeth; Connolly, Joseph William; Kim, Jinwoo; Tomke, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Disaster was the most catastrophic offshore oil spill in U.S. history, yet we still have a poor understanding of how organisms could evolve in response to the toxic effects of crude oil. This study offers a rare analysis of how fitness-related traits could evolve rapidly in response to crude oil toxicity. We examined evolutionary responses of populations of the common copepod Eurytemora affinis residing in the Gulf of Mexico, by comparing crude oil tolerance of populations collected before versus after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010. In addition, we imposed laboratory selection for crude oil tolerance for ~8 generations, using an E. affinis population collected from before the oil spill. We found evolutionary increases in crude oil tolerance in the wild population following the oil spill, relative to the population collected before the oil spill. The post-oil spill population showed increased survival and rapid development time in the presence of crude oil. In contrast, evolutionary responses following laboratory selection were less clear; though, development time from metamorphosis to adult in the presence of crude oil did become more rapid after selection. We did find that the wild population, used in both experiments, harbored significant genetic variation in crude oil tolerance, upon which selection could act. Thus, our study indicated that crude oil tolerance could evolve, but perhaps not on the relatively short time scale of the laboratory selection experiment. This study contributes novel insights into evolutionary responses to crude oil, in directly examining fitness-related traits before and after an oil spill, and in observing evolutionary responses following laboratory selection.

  11. Bioinspired oil strider floating at the oil/water interface supported by huge superoleophobic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueli; Gao, Jun; Xue, Zhongxin; Chen, Li; Lin, Ling; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Shutao

    2012-06-26

    Oil pollution to aquatic devices, especially to those oil-cleaning devices and equipment-repairing robots during oil spill accidents, has drawn great attention and remains an urgent problem to be resolved. Developing devices that can move freely in an oil/water system without contamination from oil has both scientific and practical importance. In nature, the insect water strider can float on water by utilizing the superhydrophobic supporting force received by its legs. Inspired by this unique floating phenomenon, in this article, we designed a model device named "oil strider" that could float stably at the oil/water interface without contamination by oil. The floating capability of the oil strider originated from the huge underwater superoleophobic supporting force its "legs" received. We prepared the micro/nanohierarchical structured copper-oxide-coated copper wires, acting as the artificial legs of oil strider, by a simple base-corrosion process. The surface structures and hydrophilic chemical components of the coatings on copper wires induced the huge superoleophobic force at the oil/water interface, to support the oil strider from sinking into the oil. Experimental results and theoretical analysis demonstrate that this supporting force is mainly composed of three parts: the buoyancy force, the curvature force, and the deformation force. We anticipate that this artificial oil strider will provide a guide for the design of smart aquatic devices that can move freely in an oil/water system with excellent oil repellent capability, and be helpful in practical situations such as oil handling and oil spill cleanup.

  12. Producing quality synthetic crude oil from Canadian oil sands bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yui, S. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2008-07-01

    This study discussed the bitumen upgrading process and bitumen properties. Recent research on bitumen upgrading was reviewed, and methods of processing bitumens in conventional oil refineries were discussed. The study determined that bitumens contain large amounts of sulfur, aromatics, carbon residues, asphaltenes, and nitrogen, the majority of which is located in the last 15 per cent of the bitumen, or end cut. New upgrading processes used by Syncrude included an extraction and froth treatment plant, a diluent recovery unit (DRU) and vacuum distillation unit (VDU). Liquid products from the hydrotreaters were blended as synthetic crude oil (SCO) and shipped to refineries. The study also reviewed hydrotreating methods for gas oils; hydrocracking technologies; olefins and diolefins hydrogenation of coker naphtha; and aromatics hydrogenation. Tools to monitor the performance of commercial hydrotreaters were discussed, and the kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation were reviewed. Details of molecular structure analyses were presented. It was concluded that hydrotreating is an effective means of producing good quality SCO. 53 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. A review of oil, dispersed oil and sediment interactions in the aquatic environment: influence on the fate, transport and remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiao; Cai, Zhengqing; O'Reilly, S E; Hao, Xiaodi; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-02-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has spurred significant amounts of researches on fate, transport, and environmental impacts of oil and oil dispersants. This review critically summarizes what is understood to date about the interactions between oil, oil dispersants and sediments, their roles in developing oil spill countermeasures, and how these interactions may change in deepwater environments. Effects of controlling parameters, such as sediment particle size and concentration, organic matter content, oil properties, and salinity on oil-sediment interactions are described in detail. Special attention is placed to the application and effects of oil dispersants on the rate and extent of the interactions between oil and sediment or suspended particulate materials. Various analytical methods are discussed for characterization of oil-sediment interactions. Current knowledge gaps are identified and further research needs are proposed to facilitate sounder assessment of fate and impacts of oil spills in the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of filtration properties of locally sourced base oil for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of locally sourced oil like, groundnut oil, melon oil, vegetable oil, soya oil and palm oil as substitute for diesel oil in formulating oil base drilling fluids relative to filtration properties. The filtrate volumes of each of the oils were obtained for filtration control analysis. With increasing potash and industrial starch quantities during ...

  15. Olive oil adulterated with hazelnut oils: simulation to identify possible risks to allergic consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Arlorio, Marco; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Garino, Cristiano; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Van Ree, Ronald; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Conti, Amedeo; Martelli, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract To be labelled as ?extra-virgin?, olive oil should be cold-pressed and may not contain refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts (Reg. EC 1531/2001). Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers and consumers. The high degree of similarity between the two fats complicates the detection of low percentage of HAO in EVOO. Many analytical approaches have been developed during last years to trace ...

  16. Nylon 6,6 Nonwoven Fabric Separates Oil Contaminates from Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Ryan A.; Carter, Erin S.; Ortega, Albert E.

    2016-01-01

    Industrial oil spills into aquatic environments can have catastrophic environmental effects. First responders to oil spills along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southern United States have used spunbond nylon fabric bags and fences to separate spilled oil and oil waste from contaminated water. Low area mass density spunbond nylon is capable of sorbing more than 16 times its mass in low viscosity crude oil and more than 26 times its mass in higher viscosity gear lube oil. Nylon bags se...

  17. Oil and geopolitics: the oil crises of the 1970s and the Cold War

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of the geopolitics of oil in the 1970s provides important insights into the nature and dynamics of the Cold War. Possession of ample domestic oil supplies and the ability to ensure access to foreign oil reserves were significant elements in the power position of the United States in its Cold War competition with the Soviet Union. U.S. oil production peaked in 1970,however, making the United States increasingly dependent on oil imports and ending its ability to provide oil to it...

  18. Intensification of Tatar oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannanov, A.

    1984-11-13

    The industrial workers of the Tatneft Order of Lenin Production Association have extracted 250 million tons of oil from the depths of the earth since the beginning of the 11th Five-Year Plan. Especially gratifying is the fact the 2 million tons above the plan have been produced. The Tatar oilmen reached high boundaries by intensifying production, constant research of ways to increase the oil production of fields, capable organization of prospecting-exploration tasks, and accelerated drilling of wells. In less than 4 years, more than 37,000 single technical innovations have been adopted in enterprises of the association. All of this has made it possible to significantly boost labor productivity and lower the prime cost of production.

  19. White oil production from western Siberian petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenkov, L.A.; Potanina, V.A.; Popova, L.V.; Marcheva, Y.N.; Radchenko, K.A.

    1981-08-01

    The technology of producing white oils was investigated in multistage sulfonization of the initial raw material by oleum or gaseous sulphuranhydride (SO/sub 3/) with subsequent neutralization and contact prepurification. The use of gaseous sulphuranhydride instead of oleum has the advantage of lower consumption of the sulfonating agent, lower volume of acid tar formed and an increase of the yield of sulfonic acids which are used as a raw material to produce sulfonate additives. White oils are used to produce medical vaseline, perfume bases, a solvent of the ethylene polymerization reaction initiator, lubricating oil for high-pressure compressors and as cable lubricant. The technology of producing a variety of white oils based on neutral oil from a mixture of low-sulphur Fergana and Turkemen oils from sulfonate additive production was developed to expand the raw material resources produced from other oil fields. The yield of low-soluble sulfonic acids increases as SO/sub 3/ consumption increases in sulphurization of the fourth oil fraction of Western Siberian oils; yield decreases as SO/sub 3/ consumption increases during sulphurization of neutral oil of first degree of sulphurization, while the yield of acid tar increases. (JMT)

  20. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Field performance of a premium heating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuels, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States); Jetter, S.M. [Mobil Oil R & D Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1996-07-01

    As part of our ongoing research to provide quality improvements to heating oil, Mobil Oil together with Santa Fuel, Inc., conducted a field trial to investigate the performance of a new premium heating oil. This premium heating oil contains an additive system designed to minimize sludge related problems in the fuel delivery system of residential home heating systems. The additive used was similar to others reported at this and earlier BNL conferences, but was further developed to enhance its performance in oil heat systems. The premium heating oil was bulk additized and delivered to a subset of the customer base. Fuel related, unscheduled service calls were monitored in this test area, as well as in a similar baseline area that did not receive the premium heating oil. Overall, the premium fuel provided a 45% reduction in the occurrence of fuel related, unscheduled service calls as compared to the baseline area. Within this population, there was a reduction of 38% in systems with 275 gallon tanks, and 55% in systems that had >275 gallon tanks showing that the additive is effective in the various configurations of residential oil heat systems. In addition, photographic documentation collected at two accounts supported this improvement by clearly showing that the equipment remained cleaner with the premium heating oil than with regular heating oil. Based on these results, a full marketing trial of this new product has been initiated by Mobil and Santa Fuel, Inc., during the 1995-1996 heating season.

  2. Genetics of oil pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. belongs to alternative crops grown for seeds and high quality seed oil. One of the basic prerequisites of successful production of oil pumpkin is the proper choice of cultivar. The genetics of different traits of oil pumpkin represents the basis for breeding of new cultivars of oil pumpkin. Of special interest for oil pumpkin breeding are the genetics of seed- coat, plant growth type, resistance to diseases and genetic basis of male sterility. For practical breeding of oil pumpkin the theory of monogenic inheritance of seed coat is quite satisfactory. In light of the theory of developmental reversal of dominance, it may be concluded for C. pepo that the bush type of growth is almost completely dominant over the vine habit at the beginning of plant growth, be- coming incompletely dominant in the second part of the season. In C. moshata several resistance genes of interest in oil pumpkin breeding for virus resistance were discovered. Male sterility, which was transferred to different genotypes of naked seeded oil pumpkin has potential for production of F1 hybrid seed. In addition to traits mention above, other genes of interest for genetics and breeding of oil pumpkin are also mentioned in this paper.

  3. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2011? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? The International Energy Agencys (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEAs monthly Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop in the next five years. The forecasts look in detail at product demand and the supply potential from all the firmly planned individual upstream and downstream projects around the world. The results provide invaluable insights on vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. The rapid pace of change in the oil market means that forecasts can become outdated very quickly. This interim update provides the opportunity to rebase the data and forecasts in the annual Medium-Term Oil Market Report and to discuss and analyse new issues affecting the oil industry. Policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following trends in the oil market should find this report extremely useful.

  4. Dillingham plan attacks oil spill cleanup problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1970-07-27

    A detailed scheme has been proposed for combating oil spills in U.S. offshore waters, hopefully moving oil spill control out of its infancy and at least into the toddler stage. In a comprehensive one-year systems study for the American Petroleum Institute (API), the results of which were released this week, Dillingham Environmental Co., studied major past oil spills and analyzed equipment and control techniques currently available to deal with them. The project director and his 5-man group recommend a multicomponent scheme including booms, absorbents, sinking agents, and chemical dispersants for oil containment and cleanup. The first phase, definition of the nature and scope of the problem, includes analysis of past oil spills to determine the basic characteristics of major oil spills; delineation of geographic regions where oil spills are likely to occur; and analysis of how oil spills affect, and are affected by the environment. The Dillingham report examines the effect of past oil spills on the environment. It concludes that isolated oil spills do not appear to present a major environmental threat resulting in lasting damage.

  5. Blends of olive oil and sunflower oil: characterisation and olive oil quantification using fatty acid composition and chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfreda, M; Gobbi, L; Grippa, A

    2012-10-15

    A method capable of recognising the percentage of olive oil in a blend is required to verify whether its labelling complies with the statements set out by the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1019/2002. In this study an analytical methodology was developed in order to define blends of olive oil and sunflower oil, which contain 50% of olive oil, compared to blends with 40% and 60% of it, respectively. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed by GC-FID and processed through chemometric tools (PCA, TFA, SIMCA and PLS). A strong differentiation of blends according to the amount of olive oil contained and a quantification model with a standard error of prediction of 1.51% were obtained. As this issue represents a significant analytical challenge, variability associated with the fatty acid composition of olive oil was first studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Life cycle of transformer oil

    OpenAIRE

    Đurđević Ksenija R.; Vojinović-Miloradov Mirjana; Sokolović Slobodan M.

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of electric power is constantly increasing due to industrialization and population growth. This results in much more severe operating conditions of transformers, the most important electrical devices that make integral parts of power transmission and distribution systems. The designed operating life of the majority of worldwide transformers has already expired, which puts the increase of transformer reliability and operating life extension in the spotlight. Transformer oil pla...

  7. Production of pomace olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Méndez, Mª Victoria

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pomace oil is the principal by-product in olive oil processing and is currently developing considerably due to the technological advances which the mills have undergone in recent years. This investigation aims at presenting an overview of the complexity of this sector which, with around 100 years of existence, is searching for a role in the new integral strategy of the olive oil industry after the crisis suffered in 2001. Physical extraction, drying and solvent extraction are discussed, along with the influence of the technological treatments on the chemical composition of pomace oil.El aceite de orujo es el principal subproducto en el procesado de aceite de oliva y su obtención se ha transformado considerablemente en los últimos tiempos debido a los avances tecnológicos que han experimentado las almazaras. Este trabajo tiene la finalidad de presentar una panorámica de la complejidad de este sector, de casi 100 años de existencia, que se afana en encontrar su función dentro de la nueva estrategia integral de la industria oleícola después de la crisis sufrida en el año 2001. En el mismo se comentan la extracción física, el secado, así como la extracción con disolvente, y la influencia que tienen los tratamientos tecnológicos sobre la composición química del aceite de orujo.

  8. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Lim-Sylianco; A.P. Guevara; L. Sylianco-Wu

    1992-01-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the f...

  9. Corrosion in the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brondel, D. (Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France)); Edwards, R. (Schlumberger Well Services, Columbus, OH (United States)); Hayman, A. (Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Clamart (France)); Hill, D. (Schlumberger Dowell, Tulsa, OK (United States)); Mehta, S. (Schlumberger Dowell, St. Austell (United Kingdom)); Semerad, T. (Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc., Sumatra (Indonesia))

    1994-04-01

    Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. Attention is paid to how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing. Also the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids is reviewed. Methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion are discussed, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion. 21 figs., 32 refs.

  10. Imported resources - gas/oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to provide information on issues of crude oil and natural gas supply at a conference addressing the problems of energy in Eastern and Central Europe. Although this can inevitably be performed through the {open_quotes}binoculars{close_quotes} of the petroleum sector of my country, I will try to present the issues and challenges that are thought to be characteristic in general for the region.

  11. Geochemical evidence for a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bata, Timothy; Parnell, John; Samaila, Nuhu K.; Abubakar, M. B.; Maigari, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Paleogeographic studies have shown that Earth was covered with more water during the Cretaceous than it is today, as the global sea level was significantly higher. The Cretaceous witnessed one of the greatest marine transgressions in Earth's history, represented by widespread deposition of sands directly on underlying basement. These sand bodies hold much of the world's heavy oil. Here, we present for the first time, geochemical evidence of a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria. Bima oil sand is similar to other Cretaceous oil sands, predominantly occurring at shallow depths on basin flanks and generally lacking a seal cover, making the oil susceptible to biodegradation. The bulk properties and distribution of molecular features in oils from the Bima oil sand suggest that they are biodegraded. Sterane maturity parameters and the trisnorhopane thermal indicator for the oils suggest thermal maturities consistent with oils generated as conventional light oils, which later degraded into heavy oils. These oils also show no evidence of 25-norhopane, strongly suggesting that biodegradation occurred at shallow depths, consistent with the shallow depth of occurrence of the Bima Formation at the study locality. Low diasterane/sterane ratios and C29H/C30H ratios greater than 1 suggest a carbonate source rock for the studied oil. The Sterane distribution further suggests that the oils were sourced from marine carbonate rocks. The C32 homohopane isomerization ratios for the Bima oil sand are 0.59-0.60, implying that the source rock has surpassed the main oil generation phase, consistent with burial depths of the Fika and Gongila Formations, which are both possible petroleum source rocks in the basin.

  12. Application of synthetic fire-resistant oils in oil systems of turbine equipment for NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimova, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Results of the investigation of the synthetic fire-resistant turbine oil Fyrquel-L state in oil systems of turbosets under their operation in the equipment and oil supply facilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are presented. On the basis of the analysis of the operating experience, it is established that, for reliable and safe operation of the turbine equipment, at which oil systems synthetic fire-resistant oils on the phosphoric acid esters basis are used, special attention should be paid to two main factors, namely, both the guarantee of the normalized oil water content under the operation and storage and temperature regime of the operation. Methods of the acid number maintenance and reduction are shown. Results of the analysis and investigation of influence of temperature and of the variation of the qualitative state of the synthetic fair-resistant oil on its water content are reported. It is shown that the fire-resistant turbine oils are characterized by high hydrophilicity, and, in distinction to the mineral turbine oils, are capable to contain a significant amount of dissolved water, which is not extracted under the use of separation technologies. It is shown that the more degradation products are contained in oil and higher acid number, the more amount of dissolved water it is capable to retain. It is demonstrated that the organization of chemical control of the total water content of fireresistant oils with the use of the coulometric method is an important element to support the reliable operation of oil systems. It is recommended to use automatic controls of water content for organization of daily monitoring of oil state in the oil system. Recommendations and measures for improvement of oil operation on the NPP, the water content control, the use of oil cleaning plants, and the oil transfer for storage during repair works are developed.

  13. Oil-Impregnated Polyethylene Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Ranit; Habibi, Mohammad; Rashed, Ziad; Berbert, Otacilio; Shi, Shawn; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) minimize the contact angle hysteresis of a wide range of liquids and aqueous food products. Although hydrophobic polymers are often used as the porous substrate for SLIPS, the choice of polymer has been limited to silicone-based or fluorine-based materials. Hydrocarbon-based polymers, such as polyethylene, are cost effective and widely used in food packaging applications where SLIPS would be highly desirable. However, to date there have been no reports on using polyethylene as a SLIPS substrate, as it is considered highly impermeable. Here, we show that thin films of low-density polyethylene can be stably impregnated with carbon-based oils without requiring any surface modification. Wicking tests reveal that oils with sufficient chemical compatibility follow Washburn's equation. The nanometric effective pore size of the polyethylene does result in a very low wicking speed, but by using micro-thin films and a drawdown coater, impregnation can still be completed in under one second. The oil-impregnated polyethylene films promoted ultra-slippery behavior for water, ketchup, and yogurt while remaining durable even after being submerged in ketchup for over one month. This work was supported by Bemis North America (AT-23981).

  14. Synthetic polyester from algae oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesle, Philipp; Stempfle, Florian; Hess, Sandra K; Zimmerer, Julia; Río Bártulos, Carolina; Lepetit, Bernard; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-06-23

    Current efforts to technically use microalgae focus on the generation of fuels with a molecular structure identical to crude oil based products. Here we suggest a different approach for the utilization of algae by translating the unique molecular structures of algae oil fatty acids into higher value chemical intermediates and materials. A crude extract from a microalga, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, was obtained as a multicomponent mixture containing amongst others unsaturated fatty acid (16:1, 18:1, and 20:5) phosphocholine triglycerides. Exposure of this crude algae oil to CO and methanol with the known catalyst precursor [{1,2-(tBu2 PCH2)2C6H4}Pd(OTf)](OTf) resulted in isomerization/methoxycarbonylation of the unsaturated fatty acids into a mixture of linear 1,17- and 1,19-diesters in high purity (>99 %). Polycondensation with a mixture of the corresponding diols yielded a novel mixed polyester-17/19.17/19 with an advantageously high melting and crystallization temperature. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M

    2004-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in the cleanup of oiled sands (up to 96%) than recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel (70%). In microcosm and mesocosm experiments, oiled sediments were sprayed with biodiesel and subjected to simulated tides. Microcosm experiments revealed that, of those tested, the highest ratio of biodiesel to crude oil, had the highest effectiveness for cleaning fine sands, with ratios of 2:1 (biodiesel:crude oil) giving the best results. In the mesocosm experiments a ratio 1:1 of soybean biodiesel to crude oil removed 80% of the oil in cobbles and fine sands, 50% in coarse sand and 30% in gravel. Most of the oil was removed with the surface water, with only a small amount being flushed through the sediments. Particle size and pore size were important determinants in the cleanup and mobility of crude oil in the sediments in these static systems. It is expected that the biodiesel effectiveness should improve in the natural environment particularly in exposed beaches with strong wave action. However, more laboratory and field trials are required to confirm the operational use of biodiesel as a shoreline cleaner.

  16. Study of the co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil for hydrocarbon oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigang; Wang, Chao; Lu, Weipeng; Yang, Zhengyu

    2010-06-01

    Hydrocarbon oil was obtained by co-deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and vegetable oil in the work. Results showed the weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil exerted a great effect on the quality of obtained hydrocarbon oil. The optimum weight ratio of biomass to vegetable oil was 4.4:1, when alkanes with the content of 50.43% were detected in obtained hydrocarbon oil, with lower oxygen content of 2.52%, which resulted in higher calorific value-up to 43.36 MJ kg(-1). At the same time, removal rate of carbonyl group of vegetable oil in the mixture reached at least 75.11%. The overall efficiency of the deoxy-liquefaction of biomass and the decarboxylation of vegetable oil were both enhanced by adding vegetable oil into biomass. Compared with the oils obtained from vegetable oil and biomass, respectively, distribution of hydrocarbon oil obtained from the mixture was much more similar to that of diesel oil. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  18. Stability of avocado oil during heating: comparative study to olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2012-05-01

    The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0h and after different times of heating process (180°C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t=0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t=0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0h (339.64; 228.27mg/100g) and at 9h (270.44; 210.30mg/100g) of heating. TBARs was higher in olive oil after 3h, reaching the maximum values in both oils at 6h of heating treatment. Vitamin E was higher in olive oil (35.52 vs. 24.5mg/100g) and it disappeared earlier in avocado oil (at 4 vs. 5h). The stability of avocado oil was similar to that of olive oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents.

  20. Use of paraffin containing oil which cannot be pressed out after crude oil deparaffinization for white oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potanina, V.A.; Marcheva, Y.N.; Ponomareva, T.P.

    1983-04-01

    Low solidification temperature oils are obtained by low temperature deparaffinization which results in a by-product paraffin containing oil which cannot be pressed out, consisting of 99% naphthene-paraffin hydrocarbons with a composition similar to medical and cosmetic oils. This material was examined as a possible source for production of vaseline. It was discovered that vaselines prepared from this material satisfied the GOST standard for the use in medical, veterinary and capacitor application.

  1. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  2. Pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in common used mineral oils and their transformation during oil regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yue, Bo; Su, Yi; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei; Wang, Qunhui; Cai, Hongying

    2017-06-01

    The pollution characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in common used mineral oils, semi-refined oils, refined oils and solid wastes produced during the used mineral oil regeneration process was analyzed. The results showed that total PAHs content in six common used mineral oils was as follows: used engine oil>used quenching oil>used casting oil>used hydraulic oil>used antirust oil>used industrial lubricating oil. Furthermore, this order was dependent on the source of PAHs and oil working temperatures. Additionally, total PAHs content in regenerated oils was as follows: semi-refined oil>refined oil>crude oil, which was related to the catalytic cracking process of crude oil and adsorption refining process of semi-refined oil. The ranking of total PAHs content in regenerated wastes varied depending on the regeneration technology used as follows: waste adsorption sand>acid sludge>waste clay>precipitation sludge>cracked residue. In all types of used mineral oils and regenerated wastes, the maximum and minimum proportions of the total PAHs content were composed of 2-3 ring-PAHs and 5-6 ring-PAHs, respectively. The majority of PAHs in the used mineral oils entered into regenerated wastes during regeneration process, while a small number remained in the regenerated oil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Strategic Importance of the Global Oil Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    would often cause oil prices to rise. Not so much anymore. Short of a major oil disruption in the Mideast, low oil prices now reflect an oil glut ... glut .18 To be fair, U.S. shale oil producers are not the only ones creating this glut . The Bank for International Settlements correctly argues...shale oil is fuelling an oil glut . The crude oil market is now over-supplied by as much as 2 million barrels a day. As a result, crude oil inventories

  4. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-05-09

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle

  5. Hypolipidemic effect of oils with balanced amounts of fatty acids obtained by blending and interesterification of coconut oil with rice bran oil or sesame oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reena, Malongil B; Lokesh, Belur R

    2007-12-12

    Blended oils comprising coconut oil (CNO) and rice bran oil (RBO) or sesame oil (SESO) with saturated fatty acid/monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid at a ratio of 1:1:1 and polyunsaturated/saturated ratio of 0.8-1 enriched with nutraceuticals were prepared. Blended oils (B) were subjected to interesterification reaction using sn-1,3 specific Lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Fatty acid composition and nutraceutical contents of the blended oil were not affected by interesterification reaction. Male Wistar rats were fed with AIN-76 diet containing 10% fat from CNO, RBO, SESO, CNO+RBO blend (B), CNO+SESO(B), CNO+RBO interesterified (I), or CNO+SESO(I) for 60 days. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerols (TAGs) were reduced by 23.8, 32.4, and 13.9%, respectively, in rats fed CNO+RBO(B) and by 20.5, 34.1, and 12.9%, respectively, in rats fed CNO+SESO(B) compared to rats given CNO. Rats fed interesterified oils showed a decrease in serum TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and TAGs in CNO+RBO(I) by 35, 49.1, and 23.2 and by 33.3, 47, and 19.8% in CNO+SESO(I), respectively, compared to rats given CNO. Compared to rats fed CNO+RBO blended oils, rats on CNO+RBO interesterified oil showed a further decrease of 14.6, 24.7, and 10% in TC, LDL-C, and TAG. Rats fed CNO+SESO interesterified oils showed a decrease in serum TC, LDL-C, and TAG by 16.2, 19.6, and 7.8%, respectively, compared to rats given blended oils of CNO+SESO (B). Liver lipid analysis also showed significant change in the TC and TAG concentration in rats fed blended and interesterified oils of CNO+RBO and CNO+SESO compared to the rats given CNO. The present study suggests that feeding fats containing blended oils with balanced fatty acids lowers serum and liver lipids. Interesterified oils prepared using Lipase have a further lowering effect on serum and liver lipids even though the fatty acid composition of blended and interesterified

  6. Verification of Some Vegetable Oils as Cutting Fluid for Aluminium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable oils (palm oil, groundnut oil, shear butter oil and cotton seed oil) have been used as lubricants in the turning operation of aluminum under varying spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut and the results compared with kerosene (due to the gummy nature of aluminium metal). The parameters investigated are ...

  7. Evaluation of essential oil composition and DNA diversity of mint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... cultivated for their essential oils. Essential oil composition from the leaves of M. spicata has been described pre- viously, such as carvone and menthone-rich oils (Sticher and Flőck 1968), carvone and neodihydrocarveol-rich oils. (Nagasawa et al., 1976a, b), dihydrocarveol and carvone- rich oils ...

  8. Combustion for Enhanced Recovery of Light Oil at Medium Pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshnevis Gargar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Using conventional production methods, recovery percentages from oil reservoirs range from 5% for difficult oil to 50% for light oil in highly permeable homogeneous reservoirs. To increase the oil recovery factor, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are used. We distinguish EOR that uses chemical

  9. 33 CFR 151.25 - Oil Record Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oil Record Book. 151.25 Section... Treaty as it Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.25 Oil Record Book. (a) Each oil tanker... fixed or floating drilling rig or other platform shall maintain an Oil Record Book Part I (Machinery...

  10. Verification of Some Vegetable Oils as Cutting Fluid for Aluminium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    ABSTRACT: Vegetable oils (palm oil, groundnut oil, shear butter oil and cotton seed oil) have been used as lubricants in the turning operation of aluminum under varying spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut and the results compared with kerosene (due to the gummy nature of aluminium metal). The parameters ...

  11. Macroeconomics of oil price volatility | Ahuru | Journal of Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria has a long history with oil. Among the challenges associated with oil, frequent changes in the prices of oil have produced macro-fiscal risk for the country. This study attempts to verity the direct and indirect impact of oil price volatility on Nigeria's economy. The indirect impact attempts to trace the impact of oil price ...

  12. Numerical Simulation of Oil Spill in Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sik Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spreading of oil in an open ocean may cause serious damage to a marine environmental system. Thus, an accurate prediction of oil spill is very important to minimize coastal damage due to unexpected oil spill accident. The movement of oil may be represented with a numerical model that solves an advection-diffusion-reaction equation with a proper numerical scheme. In this study, the spilled oil dispersion model has been established in consideration of tide and tidal currents simultaneously. The velocity components in the advection-diffusion-reaction equation are obtained from the shallow-water equations. The accuracy of the model is verified by applying it to a simple but significant problem. The results produced by the model agree with corresponding analytical solutions and field-observed data. The model is then applied to predict the spreading of an oil spill in a real coastal environment.

  13. Vacuum lubricants based on neutral oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artem' yeva, V.P.; Potanina, V.A.; Kucheryavaya, N.N.; Orlova, S.N.; Gorbacheva, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    Basic parameters for high-vacuum pumps such as minimal residual vapor pressure, rapid operation and vacuum collapse resistance depend on type and properties of hydraulic fluids, which include mineral oils, esters of organic alcohols and acids and organic silicon compounds. Mineral oils have been used most because of their thermal stability and low cost. This article reports studies of such oils based on domestic naphthene-paraffin hydrocarbons and medical vaseline processed from Balakhan petroleum. Neutral naphthene oil with 90% saturated hydrocarbons was found suitable for vacuum oils after purification and distillation. Its origin as a by-product of sulfonate additive production, and resultant low cost, recommend this oil for full production.

  14. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oil heritage district : Lambton County Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, W. [Wendy Shearer Landscape Architect, Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a project conducted to assess the cultural heritage values of oil field equipment in Lambton County, Ontario. Oil was discovered in the region in 1858, after which a boom and bust cycle of exploration created a large rural-industrial landscape. The region now contains a unique collection of historic oil equipment. The region's industrial footprint is interwoven with village settlements, agricultural settlements, and a railway and road network linking the region to remote refineries. Oil wells in the region still operate using a jerker line system developed in the early twentieth century. The operational oil wells are subject to fluctuating oil prices and environmental protection requirements. The project presents a rare opportunity to place industrial heritage conservation directly in the hands of business operators and regulators, while also functioning as part of a living community. 2 figs.

  16. Essential oils: renewal of interest and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigan, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils are complex mixtures of substances from vegetable matter, the definition of which is based on their method of extraction. They are characterized by their ambivalence, their ambiguity and their disparity: plant families from which essential oils are extracted are numerous; the composition of each essential oil depends not only on the family but also on the part of the plant from which it is extracted, and sometimes on the soil where the plant grows, or even on the time of the harvest. Gas chromatography is therefore necessary to characterize an essential oil. Essential oils can be found in cosmetics, in drugs, and in food. They are natural substances, but natural is not synonymous with harmless. Evaluation of the toxicity of essential oils and European regulation are underway.

  17. Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Jilani, Muhammad Idrees; Hanif, Muhammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the antioxidant activity of essential oil of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), hydro distillation and steam distillation. The cinnamon bark essential oil exhibited a wide range of total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50). Bioactivity of cinnamon essential oil was assayed against various bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pastrurella multocida and Straphylococcus aureus and fungal strains including Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. More essential oil yield was obtained using SCFE in comparison to other methods. The oil extracted by SCFE was dominated by cinnamaldehyde, limonene, copaene, naphthalene, heptane, bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-triene and 2-propenal. Due to the presence of cinnamaldehyde in the essential oil of cinnamon bark it acts as a good antioxidant and antimicrobial agent.

  18. Thermal calculations of underground oil pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseev Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of oil pipelines in the frozen soil causes heat exchange between the pipeline and the soil and formation of a melt zone which leads to deformation of pipelines. Terms of construction and operation of oil pipelines are greatly related to their temperature conditions. In this regard it is necessary to know the laws of formation of thawing halos around oil pipelines. Thus, elucidation of laws of formation of thawing halos around oil pipelines and determination of optimal conditions for their installation during construction in areas of permafrost in the north of Tyumen region is a very urgent task. The authors developed an algorithm and a computer program for construction of the temperature field of the frozen soil. Some problems have been solved basing on the obtained dependences and graphs of the dependence were constructed. Research and calculations made on the underground oil pipeline construction allowed the authors to give recommendations aimed at increasing the reliability of oil pipelines.

  19. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  20. Oxidative stability of krill oil (Euphausia superba)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Bruheim, I.

    Krill oil has been reported in many studies to have high oxidative stability when evaluated by peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). However, recent studies have shown that other compounds than primary and secondary oxidation products are formed when krill oil is exposed to oxidative...... conditions. These compounds include Strecker degradation compounds and pyrroles. Some of these compounds may have antioxidative effect. Commercial scale processing of krill prior to extraction may affect the oxidative stability of krill oil. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to compare lipid...... oxidation in krill oil produced in a commercial process and krill oil carefully extracted from frozen krill in the laboratory. Krill oil was incubated at different temperatures (20, 30 and 40 oC) for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks, under conditions of constant stirring while being exposed to air. The oxidative...

  1. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  2. Modelling oil plumes from subsurface spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2017-11-15

    An oil plume model to simulate the behavior of oil from spills located at any given depth below the sea surface is presented, following major modifications to a plume model developed earlier by Malačič (2001) and drawing on ideas in a paper by Yapa and Zheng (1997). The paper presents improvements in those models and numerical testing of the various parameters in the plume model. The plume model described in this paper is one of the numerous modules of the well-established MEDSLIK oil spill model. The deep blowout scenario of the MEDEXPOL 2013 oil spill modelling exercise, organized by REMPEC, has been applied using the improved oil plume module of the MEDSLIK model and inter-comparison with results having the oil spill source at the sea surface are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distillation time as tool for improved antimalarial activity and differential oil composition of cumin seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given...

  4. Skin-effect down hole electric heater for heavy oil and high wax content oil applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenglin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanhua [Liaoning Huafu Petroleum High-Tech Co., Ltd. (China); Xiao, Jon H; Klotz, Eric [ANDMIR Environmental Group Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the increased production of oil and the depletion of conventional reserves, operators have started to exploit heavy oil and high wax content oil. Adequate production of such oils is difficult to achieve due to viscosity increase and mobility decrease during lifting as a result of heat loss. The down-hole electric heater has been developed to resolve these issues with the application of skin-effect electric heating technology. The aim of this paper is to present how this technology improves the production of heavy oil and waxy oil. Applications of the technology to wells in Chinese oilfields are studied. Results proved the technology to be efficient while being based on a simple process and operating in an easy and safe manner. This paper showed that the down-hole electric heater is a breakthrough technology, resolving the issues encountered in the heavy oil and waxy oil exploitation field, with broad application prospects.

  5. Screening of thermotolerant microorganisms and application for oil separation from palm oil mill wastewater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aran H-Kittikun; Treetippa Laohaprapanon; Poonsuk Prasertsan

    2007-01-01

    ... 1.19 g and oil and grease 1.07 g. In order to release oil and grease trapped in palm fiber debris in the POMW, cellulase- and/or xylanase-enzyme-producing and thermotolerant microorganisms wereisolated...

  6. Waste oil management: Analyses of waste oils from vehicle crankcases and gearboxes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V Pelitli; Ö Doğan; H J Köroğlu

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with waste strategy for Turkey, the study was carried out to analyses waste engine crankcase oils and waste gearbox oils generated from vehicle maintenance services in order to determine...

  7. Oil and Gas Field Locations, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_fields_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS layer consists of oil and gas field approximate center point locations (approximately 1,800). Oil and gas fields not assigned a center point by the DNR...

  8. Effects of oil and drug concentrations on droplets size of palm oil esters (POEs) nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakeena, M H F; Elrashid, S M; Munavvar, A S; Azmin, M N

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the present work is to study the effects of oil and drug concentrations on droplets size of a nanoemulsion. Newly introduced oil, palm oil esters (POEs) by Universiti Putra Malaysia researchers was selected for the oil phase of the nanoemulsion, because the oil was reported to be a good vehicle for pharmaceutical use. Nanoemulsions were prepared with different concentrations of oil and drug and their effects on droplets size were studied by laser scattering spectroscopy (Nanophox). The results of droplets size analysis shows the droplets size increase with increasing concentration of oil and drug concentrations. It can be concluded from this study, that oil and drug concentrations have an effect on the droplets size of POEs nanoemulsion system.

  9. Application of biosurfactant produced from peanut oil cake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii in biodegradation of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, Rengathavasi; Jayalakshmi, Singaram; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii cultured with peanut oil cake as the carbon source yielded 5.35 mg ml(-1) of biosurfactant production. Five sets of microcosm biodegradation experiments were carried out with crude oil as follows: set 1 - bacterial cells+crude oil, set 2 - bacterial cells+crude oil+fertilizer, set 3 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant, set 4 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant+fertilizer, set 5 - with no bacterial cells, fertilizer and biosurfactant (control). Maximum degradation of crude oil was observed in set 4 (75%). Interestingly, when biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used (set 3), significant oil biodegradation activity occurred and the difference between this treatment and that in set 4 was 7% higher degradation level in microcosm experiments. It is evident from the results that biosurfactants alone is capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  11. Gene coexpression network analysis of oil biosynthesis in an interspecific backcross of oil palm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerin, Chloé; Joët, Thierry; Serret, Julien; Lashermes, Philippe; Vaissayre, Virginie; Agbessi, Mawussé D. T; Beulé, Thierry; Severac, Dany; Amblard, Philippe; Tregear, James; Durand‐Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    .... To gain insights into the mechanisms that govern oil synthesis and fatty acid ( FA ) composition in the oil palm fruit, we used a multilevel approach combining gene coexpression analysis, quantification of allele...

  12. Biotransformation of natural gas and oil compounds associated with marine oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Almås, Inger K; Krause, Daniel Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Field data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) suggested that oxidation of gas compounds stimulated biodegradation of oil compounds in the deep sea plume. We performed experiments with local seawater from a Norwegian fjord to examine if the presence of dissolved gas compounds (methane, ethane and propane) affected biodegradation of volatile oil compounds, and if oil compounds likewise affected gas compound oxidation. The results from the experiment showed comparable oil compound biotransformation rates in seawater at 5 °C between seawater with and without soluble gases. Gas oxidation was not affected by the presence of volatile oil compounds. Contrary to DWH deep sea plume data, propane oxidation was not faster than methane oxidation. These data may reflect variations between biodegradation of oil and gas in seawater environments with different history of oil and gas exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical stability of extra-virgin olive oil added with oregano essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2011-09-01

    Extra virgin olive oil is highly consumed and well known for its nutritional and health benefits. However, it is fatty food highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preserving effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp vulgare called "oregano compacto") essential oil on physical and chemical properties in extra virgin olive oil during storage. Oregano essential oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. This essential oil was added into extra virgin olive oil at 0.05%. The samples were stored in 3 different conditions: darkness, light exposure, and temperature (60 °C). Chemical indicators of lipid oxidation (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, conjugated dienes, free fatty acidity, and carotenoid and chlorophyll contents) were measured. High content in carvomenthol (22.52%), terpinolene (19.77%), thymol (13.51%), and γ-terpinene (10.30%) were detected in oregano essential oil. Olive oil samples without oregano essential oil stored at 60 °C and exposure at artificial light had the highest peroxide values during storage. Higher p-anisidine and K232 values after day 7 of storage were detected in temperature, darkness, and light exposure treatments. Light treatment was the main factor that degraded chlorophyll causing loss of color. The highest chlorophyll content (3.87 mg/kg) was observed in olive oil with essential oil at the end of storage. In general, olive oil samples added with oregano essential oil had lower peroxide, conjugated dienes, and p-anisidine values and higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents during storage. Oregano essential oil retards lipid oxidation process in olive oil prolonging its shelf life. Oregano essential oil was and is used with the purpose of flavoring and aromatizing food. This essential oil due to its composition has shown antioxidant activity. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are thought to be promoters of carcinogenesis

  14. Fish oil supplements, longevity and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, MR; Müller, Michael; Rainger, G.E.; Steegenga, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil supplementation is of great medical and public interest with epidemiological evidence of health benefits in humans, in particular by conferring protection against heart diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have also been reported. Initial results from short-lived mouse strains showed that fish oil can increase lifespan, affecting pathways like inflammation and oxidation thought to be involved in the regulation of aging. Could fish oil and its omega-3 fatty acids act as geroprot...

  15. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  16. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    indoors or leave the area to limit their exposure to toxic fumes. Specific information about the diluent added to an oil sands mixture of concern would...known as upgraders. These refineries essentially strip much of the carbon from the bitumen and produce a light synthetic crude oil (known as Syncrude...Minnesota’s new law, states: (Douglass, 2014) “ Essentially , there’s no meaningful regulation or requirements or standards for oil spill response for

  17. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Phakakrong Trongkaew; Thanes Utistham; Prasert Reubroycharoen; Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-01-01

    Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO 2 , Degussa P-25) to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen co...

  18. Pemanfaatan Limbah Virgin Coconut Oil (Blondo)

    OpenAIRE

    Haerani, Haerani

    2010-01-01

    Coconuts and coconut oil have been traditional, staple foods of Asia, Africa, Central America and the Pacific Islands for thousands of years. Pacific Islanders, those who still eat traditional diets, have a reputation for good health and strong beautiful bodies. Many of these traditional diets obtain 30% to 60% of their calories from coconuts and coconut oil. They tend to have normal cholesterol levels and no cardiovascular disease. Prior to the early 1900s, coconut oil was an important dieta...

  19. Oil Price Shocks and Stock Return Predictability

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Lars Qvigstad

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has documented that oil price changes lead the aggregate market in most industrialized countries, and has argued that it represents an anomaly - an underreaction to information that investors can profit from. I identify oil price changes that are caused by exogenous events and show that it is only these oil price changes that predict stock returns. The exogenous events usually correspond to periods of extreme turmoil - either military conflicts in the Middle East or OPEC colla...

  20. Do Oil Exports Fuel Defense Spending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Nigeria is rapidly becoming one of the world’s leading oil producers. Washington has great interest in the Nigerian government’s political...oil exploration. Pollution has destroyed fisheries and agricultural lands. Economic returns from oil have largely bypassed these residents...crime, and border disputes. Military-led coups have strained relations among the civil government, the public, and military members. The Nigerian