requirement for special skills in food chemistry and animal disease diagnosis plus the continuing shortage of 92B enlis ted personnel indicate that key...to provide proper supervision and perform required bench ‘work in this major workload area. Sufficient technicians with laboratory skills in...Chorionic Gonadotropin 475 730 17 1,222 UCG or Human Pregnancy 147 42 189 Tularemia 332 332 OX—19 211 211 Salmonella 219 219 Trichinella 17 17 Venipuncture
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...
...; National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Surveillance Program Documents... associated with National Veterinary Services Laboratories diagnostic support for the bovine spongiform... Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Surveillance Program Documents. OMB Number...
... Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy... information collection associated with National Veterinary Services Laboratories diagnostic support for the... Staff Veterinarian, Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851...
...; National Veterinary Services Laboratories Request Forms AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... intention to request approval of an information collection associated with the National Veterinary Services... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on request forms associated with the National Veterinary...
See notes 7 & 8) 0 per ml (See note 7) 0 per ml (See note 7) Buttermilk and acidophilus milk ≤10 per gram Cottage cheese ≤10 per gram ≤10 per gram...Department of Agriculture , Agricultural Marketing Service, Dairy Division, Room 2750–South, P.O. Box 96456, Washington, DC 20090–6456. DLAR 4155.26/AR...Code USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture USDC U.S. Department of Commerce USPHS U.S. Public Health Service Section II Terms Aerobic plate count Method
Blach, Edward L
This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.
Kerby, Erin E
The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.
Batho, H L; Logar, B; Mariner, J C; W-A, Valder; Westergaard, J M
Veterinary Services (VS) as defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) are institutions that can have varied structures, from the centralised to the completely decentralised, with ranges in between these two extremes...
Erin E. Kerby, MSI
Conclusions: Lacking a standard definition of ‘‘research data’’ and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.
The beginning of the 21st Century has been characterised by changed political and economic realities affecting the prevention, control and eradication of animal diseases and zoonoses and presenting new challenges to the veterinary profession. Veterinary Services (VS) need to have the capacity and capabilities to face these challenges and be able to detect, prevent, control and eradicate disease threats. Animal health and VS, being a public good, require global initiatives and collective international action to be able to implement global animal disease eradication. The application of the 'One World, One Health' strategy at the animal-human interface will strengthen veterinary capacity to meet this challenge. Good governance of VS at the national, regional and global level is at the heart of such a strategy. In this paper, the author lists the key elements comprising good veterinary governance and discusses the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards for the quality of VS. The OIE Tool for the Evaluation of the Performance of Veterinary Services (OIE PVS Tool) is introduced and its relevance in assessing compliance with OIE standards to prevent the spread of pathogens through trade is highlighted. A firm political commitment at the national, regional and international level, with provision of the necessary funding at all levels, is an absolute necessity in establishing good governance of VS to meet the ever-increasing threats posed by animal and human pathogens.
Sacchini, Federico; Freeman, Kathleen P
An increasing number of veterinary laboratories worldwide have obtained or are seeking certification based on international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025. Compliance with any certification standard or quality management system requires quality documentation, an activity that may present several unique challenges in the case of veterinary laboratories. Research specifically addressing quality documentation is conspicuously absent in the veterinary literature. This article provides an overview of the quality system documentation needed to comply with a quality management system with an emphasis on preparing written standard operating procedures specific for veterinary laboratories. In addition, the quality documentation challenges that are unique to veterinary clinical pathology laboratories are critically evaluated against the existing quality standards and discussed with respect to possible solutions and/or recommended courses of action. Documentation challenges include the establishment of quality requirements for veterinary tests, the use or modification of human analytic methods for animal samples, the limited availability of quality control materials satisfactory for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories, the limited availability of veterinary proficiency programs, and the complications in establishing species-specific reference intervals.
2003; Halderman, 2005). Animals provide highly nutritious foods, and provide. Ethiop. Vet. .... providing veterinary services in the. District include veterinary drugs shops and mobile clinics providing full time ... 4) The public veterinary service was chosen as first choice for effectiveness and costliness compared to private ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The TVA Central Laboratories Services is a comprehensive technical support center, offering you a complete range of scientific, engineering, and technical services....
Shankar B.P.; H. S. Madhusudhan and Harish. D. B
Laboratory work should be carried out with a minimum of risk to the health of the staff working in laboratory. This requires careful consideration of the risks involved in a particular procedure,followed by appropriate measures to minimise the risk of human disease. This concerned exclusively with risks from infectious agents, but physical and chemical injuries in microbiology laboratories must also be prevented. Risks from infection are reduced by good laboratory techniques and secured facil...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: To process, store, and disseminate geospatial data to the Department of Defense and other Federal agencies.DESCRIPTION: The Geospatial Services Laboratory...
Shankar B. P.
Full Text Available Laboratory work should be carried out with a minimum of risk to the health of the staff working in laboratory. This requires careful consideration of the risks involved in a particular procedure,followed by appropriate measures to minimise the risk of human disease. This concerned exclusively with risks from infectious agents, but physical and chemical injuries in microbiology laboratories must also be prevented. Risks from infection are reduced by good laboratory techniques and secured facilities which aid in the containment of pathogens. It is important to understand that containment of pathogens can be used for preventing disease in humans and animals. Often the same methods of containment are used for both preventing laboratory-acquired infection in humans and for preventing escape of pathogens that could cause an outbreak of animal disease. Although the methods, techniques and facilities required may be the same, the list of pathogens and categorization into levels of risk will differ depending on whether it is human or animal disease control that is the primary objective. Existing national and international reference laboratories have considerable experience in the operation of safe working practices and provision of appropriate facilities. When new laboratories are being established, it would be prudent to seek advice from the competent authorities at established institutes and it is important to comply with legislative requirements. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 113-117
Demand of Fulani Pastoralists for veterinary services in North-western Nigeria. KM Baba, AO Ogungbile. Abstract. The demand of Fulani pastoralists for veterinary services was determined using data collected from 300 respondents in Sokoto and Zamfara States in north-western Nigeria. The interviewed pastoralists were ...
This paper examines the differences in the veterinary services provided by university and ministry based officers to livestock farmers in Oyo State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select veterinary clinics and livestock farmers who visited the clinics. One hundred and twenty five farmers were selected and ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers use computed tomography (CT) scanners at NETL’s Geological Services Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, to peer into geologic core samples to determine how...
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E
Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
... Collection; Veterinary Services; Customer Service Survey AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... service delivery by Veterinary Services to the public. DATES: We will consider all comments that we....gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Veterinary Services customer service...
This podcast highlights the importance of integrating laboratory services to maximize service delivery to patients. Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 4/7/2011.
... Collection; Veterinary Services Customer Service Survey AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... service delivery by Veterinary Services to the public. DATES: We will consider all comments that we... call (202) 799-7039 before coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Veterinary...
The study ascertained veterinary services needed by rural livestock farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 randomly selected livestock farmers in the study area with the aid of questionnaire and interview schedule. Data analysis was by frequency, percentage, mean, and Ordinary Least Square Multiple ...
The study examined operational modes of providing veterinary extension services to livestock farmers in Egba-Division, Ogun-State Nigeria. Information was obtained from 120 livestock farmers and 8 extension agents selected through multi-stage random sampling technique with the use of both structured questionnaire ...
This study was conducted to identify actors, their roles, competences and main constraints of veterinary service delivery system in Ada' a district of the Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Questionnaire, focus group discussions, key informant interviews and desk review were conducted to gather primary and secondary data.
Freeman, Kathleen P; Bauer, Natali; Jensen, Asger L; Thoresen, Stein
A trend in human and veterinary medical laboratory management is to achieve accreditation based on international standards. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 standard is the first developed especially for accreditation of medical laboratories, and emphasizes the laboratory-client interface. European veterinary laboratories seeking to train candidates for the certification examination of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) require approval by the ECVCP Laboratory Standards Committee, which bases its evaluation in part on adherence to quality systems described in the ISO 15189 standards. The purpose of this article was to introduce the latest ISO quality standard and describe its application to veterinary laboratories in Europe, specifically as pertains to accreditation of laboratories involved in training veterinary clinical pathologists. Between 2003 and 2006, the Laboratory Standards Committee reviewed 12 applications from laboratories (3 commercial and 9 university) involved in training veterinary clinical pathologists. Applicants were asked to provide a description of the facilities for training and testing, current methodology and technology, health and safety policy, quality assurance policy (including internal quality control and participation in an external quality assurance program), written standard operating procedures (SOPs) and policies, a description of the laboratory information system, and personnel and training. Also during this time period multiple informal and formal discussions among ECVCP diplomates took place as to current practices and perceived areas of concern with regard to laboratory accreditation requirements. Areas in which improvement most often was needed in veterinary laboratories applying for ECVCP accreditation were the written quality plan, defined quality requirements for the tests performed, written SOPs and policies, training records, ongoing audits and competency
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for other veterinary... FEES USER FEES § 130.17 User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at authorized sites. (a) User fees for veterinary diagnostics tests performed at the...
Mrs. Ulleberg, T.; Robben, J.H.; Nordahl, K.; Mr. Ulleberg, T.; Heiene, R.
Abstract BACKGROUND: There is substantial variation in reported reference intervals for canine plasma creatinine among veterinary laboratories, thereby influencing the clinical assessment of analytical results. The aims of the study was to determine the inter- and intra-laboratory variation in
Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite
The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members.
Aresu, L; Martini, V; Benali, S L; Brovida, C; Cianciolo, R E; Dalla Riva, R; Trez, D; Van Der Lugt, J J; Van Dongen, A; Zini, E
The European Veterinary Renal Pathology Service (EVRPS) is the first Web-based registry for canine renal biopsy specimens in Europe. The aim was to verify whether differences exist between the clinical and laboratory presentation of dogs with nephropathy according to renal pathological findings, as defined by light and electron microscopy of renal biopsy specimens submitted to EVRPS. Renal biopsy specimens of dogs were collected from the archive of the service (n = 254). Cases were included if both light and electron microscopy were available (n = 162). Renal biopsy specimens were classified based on the morphological diagnoses. Thereafter, they were grouped into 3 disease categories, including immune-complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN), non-immune-complex-mediated GN (non-ICGN), and renal lesions not otherwise specified (RL-NOS). Differences among morphological diagnoses and among disease categories were investigated for clinical and laboratory variables. Serum albumin concentration was lower in dogs with ICGN than in those with non-ICGN (P = 0.006) or RL-NOS (P = 0.000), and the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) was significantly higher in ICGN than in the other 2 disease categories. Regarding morphological diagnoses, albumin was significantly lower in amyloidosis (AMY) and membranous (MGN), membranoproliferative (MPGN) or mixed glomerulonephritis (MixGN) than in minimal change disease, primary (FSGS I) or secondary (FSGS II) focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and juvenile nephropathies (JN). The UPC was higher in MPGN than in FSGS I and FSGS II. Dogs with ICGN, in particular MPGN, had higher protein loss than those with non-ICGN or RL-NOS, leading to more severe hypoalbuminemia. Clinical and laboratory differentiation among dogs with the different morphological diagnoses and among dogs with different disease categories was difficult due to overlapping results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Sasidhar, P. V. K.; Van Den Ban, Anne W.
The changing nature of livestock outreach service delivery, manpower requirements and opportunities in the private sector provide both push and pull dynamics for veterinary graduates to engage in managerial, entrepreneurial, public and private service activities. The veterinary schools should support this transition by integrating Managerial,…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement interstate; specification by the Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services of treatment required when dipping facilities..., Veterinary Services of treatment required when dipping facilities unavailable. (a) Tick-infested cattle...
Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P
In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete
A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries......, whereas for Enterococcus spp., two laboratories had less than 90 % concordant results. Susceptibility testing of Salmonella to fluoroquinolones gave rise to almost 0.5% nonconcordant results and susceptibility testing of S. aureus to vancomycin resulted in that 1.8% of the strains were incorrectly...... reported as vancomycin resistant. Ten laboratories identified the Enterococcus spp. to species level. All five Enterococcus faecium and 10 Enterococcus faecalis selected from the strain collection at the Danish Veterinary Institute were correctly identified by all laboratories, whereas some problems were...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for other veterinary... User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials provided at NVSL (excluding FADDL). (a) User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials available from NVSL (excluding FADDL...
Melo, E Correa
The author describes the reasons why evaluation processes should be applied to the Veterinary Services of Member Countries, either for trade in animals and animal products and by-products between two...
focal species for conservation by the U.S. Navy. The Island Fox Veterinary and Pathology Services project was designed to assist the Navy in island fox...the U.S. Navy. The Island Fox Veterinary and Pathology Services project was designed to assist the Navy in island fox conservation and management...microscopes, centrifuges, autoclave, blood analysis machines, a -80° F freezer and a computer (Figure 1). It also had storage for medical supplies
Weaver, J; Leon, E; Edan, M; D'Alessio, F
The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) carries out Gap Analysis missions (if a country so wishes) as part of its programme to assess and improve the Performance of Veterinary Services (the 'PVS Pathway') in Member Countries. These Gap Analysis missions have found that many national Veterinary Services comply to only a limited extent with the international standards established by the OIE and that their competence is compromised by poor governance. This failure threatens animal and public health not only nationally but also internationally. The OIE PVS Gap Analysis reports reviewed found that all the Veterinary Services have a strong vision and commitmentto improvement but are held back by a weak chain of command, inadequate and outdated legislation, insufficient funding, weak technical competencies, compromised technical independence, poor communications and limited joint programmes. There are weaknesses across all the core technical areas of trade, animal health, veterinary public health and veterinary laboratories and also in the overall management of the Veterinary Services. The OIE PVS Gap Analysis missions recommend significant increases in budget in all countries.
... Coordinator, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, APHIS, 1800 Dayton Avenue, Ames..., position, telephone number, and e-mail address; emergency contact information; and proficiency test results... laboratory submissions, purpose and reason for laboratory submissions, test methods, test equipment, test...
Many animal diseases have received major media attention in recent years, including foot-and-mouth disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and avian influenza. Epizootics are on the increase, notably owing to globalization, ecological upheavals, and global warming. It is estimated that three-quarters of emerging and re-emerging diseases are zoonoses, i.e. diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Changes in eating habits, along with population growth and increasingly large populations at risk have all contributed to the upsurge of zoonoses. The fight against animal diseases is a major issue not only for animal health but also for human health, economics and politics. Veterinary services, whose work is recognized as an "international public good" by the World Bank, must be considered in terms of all those involved in animal health, including formal services, veterinarians and their assistants and organized livestock farmers, working together in close partnership. When veterinary services fail in a single country, it is the entire world that is threatened. Animal disease outbreaks are even more of a problem when they occur in countries that have no effective surveillance and preventive animal health network. Veterinary Services are an important instrument of public health and are necessary to protect the livestock economy. Industrialized countries must therefore help developing countries to eradicate their animal diseases, and countries with efficient veterinary infrastructures must encourage failing countries to adopt an effective early detection and rapid response system. OIE, the World Organization for Animal Health, has developed quality standards and norms for evaluating veterinary services, and provides an interactive tool (PVS, Performance of Veterinary Services) designed to facilitate their implementation. Assessments conducted by specifically trained experts allow international donors such as the World Bank to target investments where
Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R
Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.
Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; de Moraes, Geraldo Marcos
The application of epidemiology in national veterinary services must take place at the interface between science and politics. Animal health policy development and implementation require attention to macro-epidemiology, the study of economic, social and policy inputs that affect the distribution and impact of animal or human disease at the national level. The world has changed fast over the last three decades including the delivery of veterinary services, their remit and the challenges addressed by public and animal health policies. Rethinking the role of public services and how to make public programs more efficient has been at the heart of the political discussion. The WTO through its SPS Agreement has changed the way in which national veterinary services operate and how trade decisions are made. Most low and middle income countries are still struggling to keep up with the new international scene. Some of these countries, such as Brazil, have very important livestock industries and are key to the global food systems. Over the last two decades, Brazil became a leading player in exports of livestock products, including poultry, and this created a strong pressure on the national veterinary services to respond to trade demands, leading to focus animal health policies on the export-driven sector. During the same period, Brazil has gone a long way in the direction of integrating epidemiology with veterinary services. Epidemiology groups grew at main universities and have been working with government to provide support to animal health policy. The scope and quality of the applied epidemiological work improved and focused on complex data analysis and development of technologies and tools to solve specific disease problems. Many public veterinary officers were trained in modern epidemiological methods. However, there are important institutional bottlenecks that limit the impact of epidemiology in evidence-based decision making. More complex challenges require high levels
Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.
This report if the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in products of animal origin according to Council Directive 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2012. The main tasks of the NRL are communication with Official Laboratories
Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.
This report of the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs in products of animal origin according to 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2010. The main tasks of the NRL are the communication with Routine Field Laboratories (RFL), the preparation of quality
Full Text Available Nucleic acid testing (NAT designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90´s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnosis for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnosis approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease.
Amankwah, K.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Karbo, N.; Oosting, S.J.; Leeuwis, C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.
This study examines the effect of the post-1980s' structural adjustment reforms on the delivery and smallholders' use of veterinary services in two districts in Northern Ghana. Our analytical framework distinguishes between allocative, cognitive, and normative institutions to analyse the effects on
Schultze, A Eric; Bounous, Denise I; Bolliger, Anne Provencher
There is an international shortage of veterinary clinical pathologists in the workplace. Current trainees in veterinary clinical pathology may choose to pursue careers in academe, diagnostic laboratories, government health services, biopharmaceutical companies, or private practice. Academic training programs attempt to provide trainees with an exposure to several career choices. However, due to the proprietary nature of much of the work in the biopharmaceutical industry, trainees may not be fully informed regarding the nature of work for veterinary clinical pathologists and the myriad opportunities that await employment in the biopharmaceutical industry. The goals of this report are to provide trainees in veterinary clinical pathology and other laboratory personnel with an overview of the work-life of veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry, and to raise the profile of this career choice for those seeking to enter the workforce. Biographical sketches, job descriptions, and motivation for 3 successful veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are provided. Current and past statistics for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are reviewed. An overview of the drug development process and involvement of veterinary clinical pathologists in the areas of discovery, lead optimization, and candidate evaluation are discussed. Additional duties for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry include development of biomarkers and new technologies, service as scientific resources, diagnostic support services, and laboratory management responsibilities. There are numerous opportunities available for trainees in veterinary clinical pathology to pursue employment in the biopharmaceutical industry and enjoy challenging and rewarding careers.
Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R
Given the unique nature of programs in professional veterinary medicine (PVM), the increasing numbers of students requesting accommodations for emotional support animals (ESAs) in higher education settings is of growing interest to student affairs and administrative staff in PVM settings. Since the legislation pertaining to this type of support animal differs from the laws governing disability service animals, colleges and universities now need to develop new policies and guidelines. Representatives from a sample of 28 PVM programs completed a survey about the prevalence of student requests for ESAs and service animals. PVM associate deans for academic affairs also reported their perceptions of this issue and the challenges these requests might pose within veterinary teaching laboratories and patient treatment areas. Responses indicated that approximately one third of PVM programs have received requests for ESAs (32.1%) in the last 2 years, 17.9% have had requests for psychiatric service animals, and 17.9% for other types of service animals. Despite this, most associate deans reported not having or not being aware of university or college policies pertaining to these issues. Most associate deans are interested in learning more about this topic. This paper provides general recommendations for establishing university or PVM program policies.
Slana, Marko; Dolenc, Marija Sollner
The fate and environmental risk of antimicrobial compounds of different groups of veterinary medicine pharmaceuticals (VMP's) have been compared. The aim was to demonstrate a correlation between the physical and chemical properties of active compounds and their metabolism in target animals, as well as their fate in the environment. In addition, the importance of techniques for manure management and agricultural practice and their influence on the fate of active compounds is discussed. The selected active compounds are shown to be susceptible to at least one environmental factor (sun, water, bacterial or fungal degradation) to which they are exposed during their life cycle, which contributes to its degradation. Degradation under a number of environmental factors has also to be considered as authentic information additional to that observed in the limited conditions in laboratory studies and in Environmental Risk Assessment calculations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cunha, Mónica V; Inácio, João
Terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial animals, either domestic or wild, humans, and plants all face similar health threats caused by infectious agents. Multifaceted anthropic pressure caused by an increasingly growing and resource-demanding human population has affected biodiversity at all scales, from the DNA molecule to the pathogen, to the ecosystem level, leading to species declines and extinctions and, also, to host-pathogen coevolution processes. Technological developments over the last century have also led to quantic jumps in laboratorial testing that have highly impacted animal health and welfare, ameliorated animal management and animal trade, safeguarded public health, and ultimately helped to "secure" biodiversity. In particular, the field of molecular diagnostics experienced tremendous technical progresses over the last two decades that significantly have contributed to our ability to study microbial pathogens in the clinical and research laboratories. This chapter highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (or challenges) of molecular technologies in the framework of a veterinary microbiology laboratory, in view of the latest advances.
The control of animal health and food safety has undergone profound changes and is now seen in terms of a global approach, 'from the stable to the table'. The risks themselves have also evolved, principally due to changing practices, and this, coupled with increased knowledge and changes in consumer demands, has led to a more global conception of production chains. In terms of official controls, targeted control of the final food product has gradually been replaced by control of the production processes and an integrated approach to hazards throughout the production chain. This, in turn, has resulted in a new division of responsibilities among the producers (farmers), the manufacturers and the administration; namely, Veterinary Services. The areas in which veterinarians are involved have gradually been extended from animal production to all levels of the food production chain. Animal health interventions on farms are comparable to interventions in agri-food companies. Both are, or should be, included in veterinary training and education. To meet new challenges, the current trend is for Veterinary Services to be responsible for, or coordinate, sanitary interventions from the stable to the table. Coordination between Veterinary Services and other relevant authorities is a key component of good public governance, especially for effective action and optimal management of the resources available.
... diagnostic imaging and laboratory evaluations of specimens. Computers have also crept into the field of agro-veterinary consultancy services and have been useful here for clinical consultancy; agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of presentations as resource persons or instructor; ...
Milnes, A S; Binns, S H; Oliver, S L; Bridger, J C
A collaborative study was undertaken by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (vla) and the Royal Veterinary College (rvc) to determine the prevalence of bovine noroviruses in cattle with diarrhoea. Samples of bovine diarrhoea were provided by the vla from routine diagnostic submissions and a reverse transcription-pcr was used by the rvc to detect the viruses. Epidemiological information about the samples was provided retrospectively by the Farmfile database. Noroviruses were detected in 44 (11 per cent) of the 398 samples tested, and Farmfile data were used to investigate the differences between the positive and negative animals.
Melo, E Correa
The author describes the reasons why evaluation processes should be applied to the Veterinary Services of Member Countries, either for trade in animals and animal products and by-products between two countries, or for establishing essential measures to improve the Veterinary Service concerned. The author also describes the basic elements involved in conducting an evaluation process, including the instruments for doing so. These basic elements centre on the following:--designing a model, or desirable image, against which a comparison can be made--establishing a list of processes to be analysed and defining the qualitative and quantitative mechanisms for this analysis--establishing a multidisciplinary evaluation team and developing a process for standardising the evaluation criteria.
Ramessur, Vinaysing; Hurreeram, Dinesh Kumar; Maistry, Kaylasson
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a service quality framework that enhances service delivery in clinical laboratories by gauging medical practitioner satisfaction and by providing avenues for continuous improvement. The case study method has been used for conducting the exploratory study, with focus on the Mauritian public clinical laboratory. A structured questionnaire based on the SERVQUAL service quality model was used for data collection, analysis and for the development of the service quality framework. The study confirms the pertinence of the following service quality dimensions within the context of clinical laboratories: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, turnaround time, technology, test reports, communication and laboratory staff attitude and behaviour. The service quality framework developed, termed LabSERV, is vital for clinical laboratories in the search for improving service delivery to medical practitioners. This is a pioneering work carried out in the clinical laboratory sector in Mauritius. Medical practitioner expectations and perceptions have been simultaneously considered to generate a novel service quality framework for clinical laboratories.
Lord, Linda K; Brandt, Jennifer C; Newhart, Daniel W
Quality service for students has been identified as an important theme of higher education. In pursuing the aim of service quality, educational providers have long recognized that perceptions of service transcend the area of quality teaching and encompass the students' overall experience within the university. This article investigates the types of services that would be most beneficial to students, from the perspective of both current students and recent alumni. A cross-sectional survey of all students was conducted using an online survey. A separate survey was also conducted of alumni from the last five graduating classes. From these surveys, 94.0% of student respondents and 91.9% of alumni respondents strongly agreed with the statement "It is important for the OSU CVM (Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine) to provide on-site comprehensive student services." Both groups ranked job postings for post-graduation employment, fourth-year off-site rotation opportunities, and financial planning/budgeting among their top ranked preferred services. In addition, requests for continued or enhanced interviewing/communication skills training; individual mental, emotional, and spiritual counseling; and individual and group tutoring were predominant themes identified from the qualitative data as well as the Likert-scale questions. The findings from the study sheds light on the need for comprehensive services for veterinary students beyond those services traditionally provided in an academic setting, such as tutoring and course advising.
Coordination between Veterinary Services and other relevant authorities is a key component of good public governance, especially for effective action and optimal management of available resources. The importance of good coordination is reflected in the World Organisation for Animal Health'Tool forthe Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services', which includes a critical competency on coordination. Many partners from technical, administrative and legal fields are involved. The degree of formalisation of coordination tends to depend on a country's level of organisation and development. Contingency plans against avian influenza led to breakthroughs in many countries in the mid-2000s. While interpersonal relationships remain vital, not everything should hinge on them. Organisation and management are critical to operational efficiency. The distribution of responsibilities needs to be defined clearly, avoiding duplication and areas of conflict. Lead authorities should be designated according to subject (Veterinary Services in animal health areas) and endowed with the necessary legitimacy. Lead authorities will be responsible for coordinating the drafting and updating of the relevant documents: agreements between authorities, contingency plans, standard operating procedures, etc.
Herbert P. Schneider
Full Text Available Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid–1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.
Schneider, Herbert P
Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid-1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.
This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, required containers, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples.
This Services Catalog contains information about field supplies and analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., and field supplies available from the Quality Water Service Unit in Ocala, Fla., to members of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, this catalog lists sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation requirements for samples. (USGS)
Wobeser, B K; Kidney, B A; Powers, B E; Withrow, S J; Mayer, M N; Spinato, M T; Allen, A L
Amputation is commonly performed in an attempt to both treat and diagnose conditions affecting the digits of cats. The records of multiple veterinary diagnostic laboratories were searched to identify submissions of amputated digits from cats. Eighty-five separate submissions were reviewed for diagnosis, age, sex, limb of origin, and digits affected; and the original submitting clinics were surveyed to determine clinical outcome. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to determine the disease-free interval and survival time. Neoplastic disease was identified in 63 of 85 submissions, with exclusively inflammatory lesions composing the other 22 cases. In 60 (95.2%) of the neoplastic cases, a malignant tumor was identified. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most commonly identified malignant tumor (n = 15; 23.8%) and was associated with a median survival time of 73 days. Other diagnoses included fibrosarcoma (n = 14; 22.2%); adenocarcinoma, likely metastases of a primary pulmonary neoplasm (n = 13; 20.6%); osteosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); mast cell tumor (n = 4; 6.3%); hemangiosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 2; 3.2%); giant cell tumor of bone (n = 2; 3.2%); and hemangioma (n = 2; 3.2%). Giant cell tumor of bone has not been previously described in the digits of cats. Various neoplasms can occur in the digits of cats, and submission of the amputated digit for histopathologic diagnosis is essential to determine the histogenesis and predict the clinical outcome.
Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.
Full Text Available Abstract The decline in dairy herd fertility internationally has highlighted the limited impact of traditional veterinary approaches to bovine fertility management. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted at buiatrics conferences attended by veterinary practitioners on veterinary dairy herd fertility services (HFS in countries with a seasonal (Ireland, 47 respondents and non-seasonal breeding model (The Netherlands, 44 respondents and Portugal, 31 respondents. Of the 122 respondents, 73 (60% provided a HFS and 49 (40% did not. The majority (76% of all practitioners who responded stated that bovine fertility had declined in their practice clients' herds with inadequate cow management, inadequate nutrition and increased milk yield as the most important putative causes. The type of clients who adopted a herd fertility service were deemed more educated than average (70% of respondents, and/or had fertility problems (58% and/or large herds (53%. The main components of this service were routine postpartum examinations (95% of respondents, fertility records analysis (75% and ultrasound pregnancy examinations (69%. The number of planned visits per annum varied between an average of four in Ireland, where breeding is seasonal, and 23 in Portugal, where breeding is year-round. The benefits to both the practitioner and their clients from running a HFS were cited as better fertility, financial rewards and job satisfaction. For practitioners who did not run a HFS the main reasons given were no client demand (55% and lack of fertility records (33%. Better economic evidence to convince clients of the cost-benefit of such a service was seen as a major constraint to adoption of this service by 67% of practitioners.
In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in applied ethology and animal welfare, and an increase in the popularity of the domestic cat. This has stimulated research on the behaviour and welfare of cats kept in different environments. This article presents a review of the recent research and makes recommendations for the housing of domestic cats in the home, in catteries and animal shelters, in laboratories and in veterinary surgeries. Copyright 1999 W.B. Saunders Company Ltd.
Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E; Arnold, Jill E; Freeman, Kathleen P; Getzy, Karen; Lester, Sally; Friedrichs, Kristen R
In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and provides recommendations for control of preanalytical and analytical factors related to hematology for mammalian and nonmammalian species, hemostasis testing, and crossmatching and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.3 (mammalian hematology), 1.2 and 2.4 (nonmammalian hematology), 1.5 and 2.7 (hemostasis testing), and 1.6 and 2.8 (crossmatching) of the complete guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Forman, S; Plante, C; Murray, G; Rey, B; Belton, D; Evans, B; Steinmetz, P
Livestock contributes significantly to the world economy. However, animal diseases and food safety are still major constraints on livestock-sector productivity, economic growth, the reduction of poverty and food security. Efficient and effective governance of Veterinary Services throughout the world is a fundamental requirement for addressing the global animal health and related public health threats. Recent work by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) through the application of the Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) and related Gap Analysis (both of which form part of the PVS Pathway) has indicated that a significant proportion of the national Veterinary Services worldwide do not meet the essential requirements for good governance. This shortcoming poses a significant risk for many developing countries and their trading partners when considered in the context of the growing trade in animal-source foods, and the burgeoning global livestock population. Well-managed, transparent and credible Veterinary Services, in both the public and private sector, are essential for mitigating animal disease risks and ensuring sustainable incomes for vulnerable producers. They are also vital for limiting the public health risks posed by zoonotic diseases. This paper is intended to highlight the impact of governance on the delivery of veterinary services in a development context and the benefits generated by improving veterinary governance. It recognises 'global public good' elements embedded in the good governance of Veterinary Services, and it could also provide an operational development investment roadmap that builds on the OIE PVS Pathway, and innovative financing options based on government commitments supported by donor programmes.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services (CSELS) is to provide scientific service, expertise, skills, and tools in support of...
Gregório, Hugo; Santos, Patricia; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Queiroga, Felisbina Luísa
Client satisfaction gained great importance in health care as a measurement of service quality. One of the most popular methods to evaluate client satisfaction is the SERVQUAL inquiry which measures service quality by evaluating client expectations and services towards a service in five dimensions: Tangibles, Empathy, Assurance, Reliability and Responsiveness. In order to evaluate if owners of pets with cancer constitute a distinctive group from the general pet owner population and if these differences were perceived by the hospital staff we applied a SERVQUAL questionnaire to 51 owners of pet with cancer, 68 owners from the general pet population and 14 staff members. Owners of oncologic pets had different expectations of an ideal service granting importance to Assurance questions (6.75 vs 6.5, p= 0.045) while showing unmet needs in Reliability and Empathy dimensions. Veterinarians failed to understand these specificities and over evaluated characteristics of Tangible dimension (6.75 vs 6.25, p=0.027). Owners of pet with cancer seem to constitute a specific subpopulation with special needs and veterinary staff should invest resources towards Assurance instead of privileging tangible aspects of veterinary services. By aligning professionals expectations with those of pet owners veterinarians can achieve better client satisfaction, improved compliance and stronger doctor-owner relationships.
Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflicts challenge biodiversity conservation and local livelihoods, but the role of diseases of domestic animals in their predation by carnivores is poorly understood. We conducted a human-leopard (Panthera pardus conflict study throughout all 34 villages around Golestan National Park, Iran in order to find the most important conflict determinants and to use them in predicting the probabilities of conflict and killing of cattle, sheep and goats, and dogs. We found that the more villagers were dissatisfied with veterinary services, the more likely they were to lose livestock and dogs to leopard predation. Dissatisfaction occurred when vaccination crews failed to visit villages at all or, in most cases, arrived too late to prevent diseases from spreading. We suggest that increased morbidity of livestock makes them particularly vulnerable to leopard attacks. Moreover, conflicts and dog killing were higher in villages located closer to the boundaries of the protected area than in distant villages. Therefore, we appeal for improved enforcement and coordination of veterinary services in our study area, and propose several priority research topics such as veterinarian studies, role of wild prey in diseases of domestic animals, and further analysis of potential conflict predictors.
Khorozyan, Igor; Soofi, Mahmood; Khaleghi Hamidi, Amirhossein; Ghoddousi, Arash; Waltert, Matthias
Human-carnivore conflicts challenge biodiversity conservation and local livelihoods, but the role of diseases of domestic animals in their predation by carnivores is poorly understood. We conducted a human-leopard (Panthera pardus) conflict study throughout all 34 villages around Golestan National Park, Iran in order to find the most important conflict determinants and to use them in predicting the probabilities of conflict and killing of cattle, sheep and goats, and dogs. We found that the more villagers were dissatisfied with veterinary services, the more likely they were to lose livestock and dogs to leopard predation. Dissatisfaction occurred when vaccination crews failed to visit villages at all or, in most cases, arrived too late to prevent diseases from spreading. We suggest that increased morbidity of livestock makes them particularly vulnerable to leopard attacks. Moreover, conflicts and dog killing were higher in villages located closer to the boundaries of the protected area than in distant villages. Therefore, we appeal for improved enforcement and coordination of veterinary services in our study area, and propose several priority research topics such as veterinarian studies, role of wild prey in diseases of domestic animals, and further analysis of potential conflict predictors.
The current failure to evidence any link between laboratory tests, clinical decision-making and patient outcomes, and the scarcity of financial resources affecting healthcare systems worldwide, have put further pressure on the organization and delivery of laboratory services. Consolidation, merger, and laboratory downsizing have been driven by the need to deliver economies of scale and cut costs per test while boosting productivity. Distorted economics, based on payment models rewarding volume and efficiency rather than quality and clinical effectiveness, have underpinned the entrance of clinical laboratories into the production industry thus forcing them to relinquish their original mission of providing medical services. The sea change in laboratory medicine in recent years, with the introduction of ever newer and ever more complex tests, including 'omics', which impact on clinical decision-making, should encourage clinical laboratories to return to their original mission as long as payments models are changed. Rather than being considered solely in terms of costs, diagnostic testing must be seen in the context of an entire hospital stay or an overall payment for a care pathway: the testing process should be conceived as a part of the patient's entire journey.
Kreuzig, Robert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik
The technical protocol under consideration describes a laboratory test method to evaluate the transformation of chemicals in liquid bovine and pig manures under anaerobic conditions and primarily is designed for veterinary medicinal products and biocides. The environmentally relevant entry routes into liquid manures occur via urine and feces of cattle and pigs in stable housings after excretion of veterinary medicinal products as parent compounds or metabolites and after the application of biocides in animal housings. Further entry routes such as solid dung application and direct dung pat deposition by production animals on pasture are not considered by this technical protocol. Thus, this technical protocol focused on the sampling of excrements from cattles and pigs kept in stables and fed under standard nutrition conditions. This approach additionally ensures that excrement samples are operationally free of any contamination by veterinary medicinal products and biocides. After the matrix characterization, reference-manure samples are prepared from the excrement samples by adding tap water to adjust defined dry substance contents typical for bovine or pig manures. This technical protocol comprehends a tiered experimental design in two parts: (a) Sampling of excrements and preparation of reference bovine and pig manures; (b) Testing of anaerobic transformation of chemicals in reference manures.
Pritt, Jeffrey; Jones, Berwyn E.
PREFACE This catalog provides information about analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to support programs of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, the catalog lists cost, sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation techniques for samples to be submitted for analysis. Prices for services reflect operationa1 costs, the complexity of each analytical procedure, and the costs to ensure analytical quality control. The catalog consists of five parts. Part 1 is a glossary of terminology; Part 2 lists the bottles, containers, solutions, and other materials that are available through the NWQL; Part 3 describes the field processing of samples to be submitted for analysis; Part 4 describes analytical services that are available; and Part 5 contains indices of analytical methodology and Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. Nomenclature used in the catalog is consistent with WATSTORE and STORET. The user is provided with laboratory codes and schedules that consist of groupings of parameters which are measured together in the NWQL. In cases where more than one analytical range is offered for a single element or compound, different laboratory codes are given. Book 5 of the series 'Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey' should be consulted for more information about the analytical procedures included in the tabulations. This catalog supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-232 '1986-87-88 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog', October 1985.
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, 2Department of. Veterinary Anatomy ... laboratory technologists and academic staff of the departments of veterinary anatomy, pathology and public health. Design of the ... Early histology and histopathology based research was ...
Decker Sparks, Jessica L; Camacho, Bridget; Tedeschi, Philip; Morris, Kevin N
A retrospective database analysis (2011-2015) evaluated associations between race and ethnicity and veterinary service utilization by sampling 83,260 companion animals whose guardians (owners) self-identified as White, Black, or Latino/a from 39 Humane Society of the United States Pets for Life (PFL) sites across the United States. Controlling for socioeconomic status, the percentage of nonhuman animals sterilized through PFL whose owners were Latino/a or Black was substantially higher than in previously reported findings. While Latinos/as had the highest mean number of days from first contact with the program to consent, they also had the highest percentage of owners accepting the voucher during initial contact. Logistic regression models suggested that although meaningful, race and ethnicity were not primary determinants of veterinary service utilization. When veterinary and animal welfare organizations deliberately remove structural barriers embedded with racial inequalities, individuals, regardless of race and ethnicity, proceed with companion-animal sterilization. Therefore, service providers must use unbiased, informed, and culturally competent practices to improve companion-animal welfare through the optimization of veterinary services, including spay and neuter.
Petrovski, K R; Williamson, N B; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Parkinson, T J; Tucker, I G
To determine the pattern of isolation of major mastitis-causing organisms isolated from milk samples submitted to five veterinary diagnostic laboratories in New Zealand. The culture results of 25,288 milk samples that were collected from dairy cows throughout New Zealand from August 2003 to December 2006 and submitted to a group of veterinary diagnostic laboratories were assembled, reviewed and summarised. Logistic regression was used to analyse the effect of year, region (i.e. North vs South Island), and season on the probability of isolating the two most common organisms. The most commonly isolated mastitis causing organisms from all samples were: Streptococcus uberis (23.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (23.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 7.2%), Strep. dysgalactiae (6.2%), Bacillus spp. (4.0%), and coliforms (3.7%). The percentage of samples with isolates of Strep. uberis or Staph. aureus was affected by island, year and season (pculture of milk samples submitted to diagnostic laboratories in New Zealand, has changed significantly over the last 40 years, with a substantial increase in the percentage of isolates that are Strep. uberis and a decrease in isolates of Strep. agalactiae. There is a clear seasonal pattern to the isolation of both Strep. uberis and Staph. aureus, particularly the former. Knowledge of the aetiological agents causing bovine mastitis on a farm is of value in determining the choice of treatment. This dataset shows that, although there is seasonal pattern to the isolation of mastitis-causing organisms in New Zealand, both Strep. uberis and Staph. aureus are isolated throughout the year, so bacteriology is of value in determining aetiology even in late winter/early spring.
This paper presents a summary of findings from a research project that examined institutional arrangements for providing animal health services in Uganda and Kenya. Given the need to find solutions to the pervasive governance challenges encountered in the delivery of veterinary services in Africa, the study applied transaction economics theory to generate recommendations on how to improve the delivery of these services and minimise livestock production risks, including those that pose a risk to human health, e.g. zoonoses. The most notable recommendations are as follows: i) lower- and middle-income countries should invest in creating an enabling environment that supports the relationship between professional veterinarians and para-professionals, to ensure the timely reporting, treatment and control of animal diseases; ii) the provision of veterinary extension services should not focus solely on household 'heads', but also on other household members, such as wives and children, and on herdsmen; iii) strong government engagement is required in the provision of veterinary services for pastoral or extensive livestock production systems, because normal market forces have failed to attract professional veterinarians and trained para-professionals from the private sector to work in these sectors; iv) farmers must be empowered to hold service providers accountable, by the development and trialling of tools that would enable them to measure the quality of services that they receive and to verify the qualifications of different service providers; v) investment in veterinary education is vital, to ensure that enough qualified veterinary staff are available to offer veterinary services to farmers.
Harris, D. L.
Students responded favorably to a new approach to laboratory instruction of pathogenic bacteriology. For each of five course units students were given behavioral objectives, an autotutorial program using color slides and a script, and a formal laboratory exercise. Results included a saving of student time and opportunity for more individualized…
Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E
Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.
Miller, G Y; McSweeny, W T
The value of the marginal product (VMP) for veterinary services and medical supplies (VETMED), and the profit maximizing level of VETMED were estimated for dairy producers. Data from the Pennsylvania Farmers Association-Dairy Farm Business Analysis system during the years of 1986 to 1990 were used to evaluate the functional relationship between production and expenditures for VETMED. Other input variables examined were man-year equivalents of labor, asset values, value of feed fed, and culling rate. Data were screened to reflect economically viable dairy farms in Pennsylvania, and 173 such farms participated for each of the 5 years analyzed. The VMP was estimated for 1990. Profit maximizing levels for VETMED were estimated for 1990 holding other input variables at their mean values. Mean expenditures for VETMED were $2,606/farm, or $43/cow in 1990. The VMP for VETMED was estimated to be $3.22 or $4.98, depending on the method of calculation. In other words, the marginal dollar spent on VETMED generated $3.22 ($4.98) in additional revenue from milk production. The profit maximizing level of expenditures for VETMED was $138/cow, substantially more than the mean, indicating the potential for farms in this data set to improve profitability through additional expenditures on VETMED.
Ellie Patterson, Vetlife marketing officer, summarises the services offered by Vetlife - an independent, confidential and free charity for everyone in the veterinary community. British Veterinary Association.
John F. Antiabong
Full Text Available Aim: The interpretation of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay results is often limited to either positive or negative (non-detectable. The more robust quantitative PCR (qPCR method is mostly reserved for quantitation studies and not a readily accessible technology in laboratories across developing nations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a semi-quantitative method for conventional PCR amplicons using digital image analysis of electrophoretic gel. The potential applications are also discussed. Materials and Methods: This study describes standard conditions for the digital image analysis of PCR amplicons using the freely available ImageJ software and confirmed using the qPCR assay. Results and Conclusion: Comparison of ImageJ analysis of PCR-electrophoresis gel and qPCR methods showed similar trends in the Fusobacterium necrophorum DNA concentration associated with healthy and periodontal disease infected wallabies (p≤0.03. Based on these empirical data, this study adds descriptive attributes (“more” or “less” to the interpretation of conventional PCR results. The potential applications in low-income veterinary laboratories are suggested, and guidelines for the adoption of the method are also highlighted.
Vergnano, D; Bergero, D; Valle, E
Nutrition plays a very important role in the healthy and in the ill horse. Although research in this field clearly shows that incorrect nutritional practices may lead to severe pathologies, inappropriate feeding plans often continue to be used. A clinical nutrition counselling (CNC) service could thus be of great use to both horse owners and veterinarians. The aim of this study was to provide information on equine patients referred to the CNC service of the University of Turin and to provide standard dietary protocols as used in our Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the most common nutrition-related pathologies. The data were obtained by retrospective analysis of the nutritional records of referred equine patients. The data collected included information about anamnesis, nutritional assessment, current diet, referring person and follow-up of each patient. Sixty-one horses were included in the study. The majority were adult males. The most common breeds were the Italian Saddle Horse and the Friesian Horse. Old horses (>19 years) had a statistically lower BCS than brood mares or other adult horses (p < 0.01). The most common nutritional pathologies were chronic weight loss (CWL), chronic diarrhoea (CD) and equine gastric ulcer syndrome. All horses received first-cut meadow hay; 85% also ate concentrates. Young horses (<2 years) received more hay as a percentage of body weight (BW) than old horses or adults. The hay percentage of BW per day given to animals with CWL was statistically higher than those with CD (p < 0.01). The concentrate percentage of BW given to old horses was statistically lower compared to that given to young horses (p < 0.05). The concentrate percentage of BW per day given to horses with colic was statistically higher than that given to horses with CD (p < 0.05). 28% of cases were referred by the owner and 72% by a veterinarian. Follow-up evaluation was deemed to be 'good' in 92% cases and 'poor' in 8%. In summary, the CNC service could
Acierno, Mark J; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N
Although abnormalities in blood glucose concentrations in avian species are not as common as they are in mammals, the inability to provide point-of-care glucose measurement likely results in underreporting and missed treatment opportunities. A veterinary glucometer that uses different optimization codes for specific groups of animals has been produced. To obtain data for a psittacine bird-specific optimization code, as well as to calculate agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer, blood samples were obtained from 25 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) in a 2-phase study. In the initial phase, blood samples were obtained from 20 parrots twice at a 2-week interval. For each sample, the packed cell volume was determined, and the blood glucose concentration was measured by the veterinary glucometer. The rest of each sample was placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube and centrifuged, and plasma was removed and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days, tubes were thawed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured with a laboratory analyzer. The data from both procedures were used to develop a psittacine bird-specific code. For the second phase of the study, the same procedure was repeated twice at a 2-week interval in 25 birds to determine agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer. Neither glucometer was in good agreement with the laboratory analyzer (veterinary glucometer bias, 9.0; level of agreement, -38.1 to 56.2; standard glucometer bias, 69.4; level of agreement -17.8 to 156.7). Based on these results, the use of handheld glucometers in the diagnostic testing of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacine birds cannot be recommended.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIOSH Mobile Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Work Environment Laboratory is a 2005 Wheeled Coach Type III ambulance mounted on a Ford E-450 cut-away van chassis....
at the Maiduguri municipal abattoir and were used for this study. Thyroid glands collected were transported in ice packs to the Department of Veterinary Pathology laboratory, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria for gross examination and thereafter, fixed and sent to Department of Veterinary. Anatomy, University of Abuja, were it ...
Hilden, Jørgen; Magid, Erik
analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control......analytical error, bias, cost effectiveness, decision-making, laboratory techniques and procedures, mass screening, models, statistical, quality control...
... and pathology specimens. 414.510 Section 414.510 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a clinical laboratory test or the technical component of physician pathology service is as follows: (a...
Erika Balfour MD
Full Text Available From 2009 to 2015, the laboratories of the 19-hospital North Shore-LIJ Health System experienced 5 threatened interruptions in service and supported 2 regional health-care providers with threatened interruptions in their laboratory service. We report our strategies to maintain laboratory performance during these events, drawing upon the strengths of our integrated laboratory service line. Established in 2009, the laboratory service line has unified medical and administrative leadership and system-wide divisional structure, quality management, and standardization of operations and procedures. Among many benefits, this governance structure enabled the laboratories to respond to a series of unexpected events. Specifically, at our various service sites, the laboratories dealt with pandemic (2009, 2 floods (2010, 2012, 2 fires (2010, 2015, and laboratory floor subsidence (2013. We were also asked to provide support for a regional physician network facing abrupt loss of testing services from closure of another regional clinical laboratory (2010 and to intervene for a non-health system hospital threatened with closure owing to noncompliance of laboratory operations (2012. In all but a single instance, patient care was served without interruption in service. In the last instance, fire interrupted laboratory services for 30 minutes. We conclude that in a large integrated health system, threats to continuous laboratory operations are not infrequent when measured on an annual basis. While most threats are from external physical circumstances, some emanate from unexpected administrative events. A strong laboratory governance mechanism that includes unified medical and administrative leadership across the entirety of the laboratory service line enables successful responses to these threats.
Balfour, Erika; Stallone, Robert; Castagnaro, Joseph; Poczter, Hannah; Schron, Deborah; Martone, James; Breining, Dwayne; Simpkins, Henry; Neglia, Tom; Kalish, Paul
From 2009 to 2015, the laboratories of the 19-hospital North Shore-LIJ Health System experienced 5 threatened interruptions in service and supported 2 regional health-care providers with threatened interruptions in their laboratory service. We report our strategies to maintain laboratory performance during these events, drawing upon the strengths of our integrated laboratory service line. Established in 2009, the laboratory service line has unified medical and administrative leadership and system-wide divisional structure, quality management, and standardization of operations and procedures. Among many benefits, this governance structure enabled the laboratories to respond to a series of unexpected events. Specifically, at our various service sites, the laboratories dealt with pandemic (2009), 2 floods (2010, 2012), 2 fires (2010, 2015), and laboratory floor subsidence (2013). We were also asked to provide support for a regional physician network facing abrupt loss of testing services from closure of another regional clinical laboratory (2010) and to intervene for a non-health system hospital threatened with closure owing to noncompliance of laboratory operations (2012). In all but a single instance, patient care was served without interruption in service. In the last instance, fire interrupted laboratory services for 30 minutes. We conclude that in a large integrated health system, threats to continuous laboratory operations are not infrequent when measured on an annual basis. While most threats are from external physical circumstances, some emanate from unexpected administrative events. A strong laboratory governance mechanism that includes unified medical and administrative leadership across the entirety of the laboratory service line enables successful responses to these threats. PMID:28725768
Widyasari-Mehta, Arum; Suwito, Hanna Resti Kartika Ayu; Kreuzig, Robert
The veterinary antibiotic doxycycline (DOXY) is today frequently applied in conventional pig husbandry for the control of respiratory diseases. After the treatment, pigs excrete major amounts of DOXY as the unchanged active substance. Thus, DOXY residues were found in liquid manures and digestates of biogas plants at concentrations of mg kg(-1) dry weight. In order to assess the impact of field applications of contaminated manures and digestates on the entry of DOXY residues into arable and grassland soils, thorough information about the removal of DOXY during long-term storage of farm fertilizers is required. Since this aspect has been only less investigated for manures but not for digestates, first long-term storage simulation tests were performed at laboratory scale. Within the 170-d incubation periods under strictly anaerobic conditions, doxycycline was removed in liquid pig manure by 61% and in digestate by 76%. The calculated half-lives of 120 d and 91 d thus emphasized the persistence of doxycycline in both matrices. Due to the substance specific properties of DOXY, this removal was caused neither by mineralization, epimerization nor biotransformation. According to the high affinity of DOXY to manure and digestate solids, however, the formation of non-extractable residues has to be taken into account as the predominant concentration determining process. This was indicated by the sequential extraction procedure applied. Hence, these results confirmed that a full removal capacity for doxycycline cannot be reached through the long-term storage of farm fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
the investigation of individual patients by means of Jests and analyses made available in hospital pathology departments. The service component of clinical chemistry, while d.ependent on the research component for indicating which tests may be useful and for providing many ofthe methods for carrying them out, is in terms ...
Fernanda C Dórea
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance research has focused on two main themes: the search for data sources that can provide early disease detection; and the development of efficient algorithms that can detect potential outbreak signals. METHODS: This work combines three algorithms that have demonstrated solid performance in detecting simulated outbreak signals of varying shapes in time series of laboratory submissions counts. These are: the Shewhart control charts designed to detect sudden spikes in counts; the EWMA control charts developed to detect slow increasing outbreaks; and the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing, which can explicitly account for temporal effects in the data stream monitored. A scoring system to detect and report alarms using these algorithms in a complementary way is proposed. RESULTS: The use of multiple algorithms in parallel resulted in increased system sensitivity. Specificity was decreased in simulated data, but the number of false alarms per year when the approach was applied to real data was considered manageable (between 1 and 3 per year for each of ten syndromic groups monitored. The automated implementation of this approach, including a method for on-line filtering of potential outbreak signals is described. CONCLUSION: The developed system provides high sensitivity for detection of potential outbreak signals while also providing robustness and flexibility in establishing what signals constitute an alarm. This flexibility allows an analyst to customize the system for different syndromes.
Kim, Taehoon; Choi, Seung Ho; Lambert-Cheatham, Nathan; Xu, Zhengbin; Kritchevsky, Janice E.; Bertin, Francois-René; Kim, Young L.
Anemia associated with intestinal parasites and malnutrition is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in small ruminants worldwide. Qualitative scoring of conjunctival redness has been developed so that farmers can gauge anemia in sheep and goats to identify animals that require treatment. For clinically relevant anemia diagnosis, complete blood count-comparable quantitative methods often rely on complicated and expensive optical instruments, requiring detailed spectral information of hemoglobin. We report experimental and numerical results for simple, yet reliable, noninvasive hemoglobin detection that can be correlated with laboratory-based blood hemoglobin testing for anemia diagnosis. In our pilot animal study using calves, we exploit the third eyelid (i.e., palpebral conjunctiva) as an effective sensing site. To further test spectrometer-free (or spectrometerless) hemoglobin assessments, we implement full spectral reconstruction from RGB data and partial least square regression. The unique combination of RGB-based spectral reconstruction and partial least square regression could potentially offer uncomplicated instrumentation and avoid the use of a spectrometer, which is vital for realizing a compact and inexpensive hematology device for quantitative anemia detection in the farm field.
Dórea, Fernanda C; McEwen, Beverly J; McNab, W Bruce; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W
Syndromic surveillance research has focused on two main themes: the search for data sources that can provide early disease detection; and the development of efficient algorithms that can detect potential outbreak signals. This work combines three algorithms that have demonstrated solid performance in detecting simulated outbreak signals of varying shapes in time series of laboratory submissions counts. These are: the Shewhart control charts designed to detect sudden spikes in counts; the EWMA control charts developed to detect slow increasing outbreaks; and the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing, which can explicitly account for temporal effects in the data stream monitored. A scoring system to detect and report alarms using these algorithms in a complementary way is proposed. The use of multiple algorithms in parallel resulted in increased system sensitivity. Specificity was decreased in simulated data, but the number of false alarms per year when the approach was applied to real data was considered manageable (between 1 and 3 per year for each of ten syndromic groups monitored). The automated implementation of this approach, including a method for on-line filtering of potential outbreak signals is described. The developed system provides high sensitivity for detection of potential outbreak signals while also providing robustness and flexibility in establishing what signals constitute an alarm. This flexibility allows an analyst to customize the system for different syndromes.
Dórea, Fernanda C; McEwen, Beverly J; McNab, W Bruce; Revie, Crawford W; Sanchez, Javier
Diagnostic test orders to an animal laboratory were explored as a data source for monitoring trends in the incidence of clinical syndromes in cattle. Four years of real data and over 200 simulated outbreak signals were used to compare pre-processing methods that could remove temporal effects in the data, as well as temporal aberration detection algorithms that provided high sensitivity and specificity. Weekly differencing demonstrated solid performance in removing day-of-week effects, even in series with low daily counts. For aberration detection, the results indicated that no single algorithm showed performance superior to all others across the range of outbreak scenarios simulated. Exponentially weighted moving average charts and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing demonstrated complementary performance, with the latter offering an automated method to adjust to changes in the time series that will likely occur in the future. Shewhart charts provided lower sensitivity but earlier detection in some scenarios. Cumulative sum charts did not appear to add value to the system; however, the poor performance of this algorithm was attributed to characteristics of the data monitored. These findings indicate that automated monitoring aimed at early detection of temporal aberrations will likely be most effective when a range of algorithms are implemented in parallel.
Department of the Army, Washington, DC.
Presented are laboratory studies focusing on blood cells and the complete scheme of blood coagulation. Formed is the basis for the following types of laboratory operations: (1) distinguishing the morphology of normal and abnormal blood cells; (2) measuring the concentrations or number of blood cells; (3) measuring concentration and detecting…
This report endorses the author's own views on the subject after taking up a laboratory adviser mission in Africa. Taking the example of laboratory services practice in sub-Saharan countries, it is shown that diagnosis of diseases which require the use of laboratory suffer from lapses in the quality of case-detection and ...
Fernanda C Dórea
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes--syndromic surveillance--using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. METHODS: This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. RESULTS: High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995 was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F(1-macro, due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight. A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F(1-micro= 0.994 and F(1-macro = .955, however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. CONCLUSION: The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish
Dórea, Fernanda C; Muckle, C Anne; Kelton, David; McClure, J T; McEwen, Beverly J; McNab, W Bruce; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W
Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes--syndromic surveillance--using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees) and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995) was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F(1-micro) score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F(1-macro)), due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F(1-micro) score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight). A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F(1-micro)= 0.994 and F(1-macro) = .955), however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish automated methods to update model rules without user
Glick, Phillip Ray
Veterinary education must re-establish its teaching objectives. Students need practical knowledge in areas such as business management, communications, marketing, public relations, facility management, and personnel management. Industry must also meet its obligations to continue to provide safe, dependable products that fill a practice need. (MLW)
Toombs-Ruane, L J; Riley, C B; Kendall, A T; Hill, K E; Benschop, J; Rosanowski, S M
To describe antimicrobial susceptibility, and identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR), in bacteria isolated from New Zealand foals. A database search was performed of submissions to a veterinary pathology laboratory between April 2004 and December 2013 for bacterial culture of samples from foals foals were examined, and 127 bacterial isolates were cultured from 64 (63%) foals. Of the 127 isolates, 32 (25%) were Streptococcus spp., 30 (24%) were Staphylococcus spp., 12 (10%) were Enterococcus spp. and 26 (21%) were Escherichia coli. Of 83 Gram-positive isolates, 57 (69%) were susceptible to penicillin. Over all isolates, 92/126 (73%) were susceptible to gentamicin and 117/126 (93%) to enrofloxacin; 62/82 (76%) of Gram-positive, and 22/42 (52%) of Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to ceftiofur; 53/81 (65%) of Gram-positive, and 23/44 (52%) of Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to tetracycline; 59/82 (72%) of Gram-positive, and 23/44 (43%) of Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. Of 126 isolates, 33 (26%) had MDR; >1 isolate with MDR was cultured from 24/64 (38%) foals, and ≥2 isolates with MDR were recovered from 8/64 (13%) foals. Multi-drug resistance, including resistance to commonly used antimicrobials, was found in bacterial isolates from foals in New Zealand. The results of this study are of concern from a treatment perspective as they indicate a potential for antimicrobial treatment failure. For future surveillance of AMR and the creation of national guidelines, it is important to record more data on samples submitted for bacterial culture.
Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Toutain, Pierre-Louis
BACKGROUND: The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the
Tuxbury, D.C.; Srite, B.E.
The diverse facilities, operations and equipment at a major national research and development laboratory require a systematic, analytical approach to operating equipment maintenance. A computer-scheduled preventive maintenance program is described including program development, equipment identification, maintenance and inspection instructions, scheduling, personnel, and equipment history.
Department of the Army, Washington, DC.
This manual presents laboratory procedures for the differentiation and identification of disease agents from clinical materials. Included are procedures for the collection of specimens, preparation of culture media, pure culture methods, cultivation of the microorganisms in natural and simulated natural environments, and procedures in…
Department of the Army, Washington, DC.
Presented are laboratory procedures of a serologic or immunologic nature for use in the diagnosis of a variety of infectious and noninfectious conditions. Included are tests for the detection of specific antibodies in the patient's serum, as well as immunologic tests for the detection of other products in the patient's serum and biological fluids.…
May 5, 1999 ... Over half of the health centres had only one technician each, resulting into heavy workload. Laboratory reagents were insufficient, equipment lacking, and maintenance and repair were not accorded adequate attention. Eighty different tests were offered by the health centres in various combinations. Twenty.
May 1, 1999 ... ROLE OF LABORATORY SERVICES IN HEALTH CARE: THE PRESENT STATUS IN. EASTERN AFRICA AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ... health importance( 1). In the countries of eastern Africa, laboratory .... national standard of quality through regular structured support supervision and external quality ...
Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne
Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...... the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. Results The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time...
Objective: To identify current problems in laboratory services and elicit suggestions from the technicians aimed at improving the services in health centres within Amhara region, north Ethiopia. Design: Cross-sectional study using a pre-tested questionnaire. Settings: Twenty seven health centres in Amhara region, north ...
Heredia N., Ronald; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Perales C., Rosa; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Chavera C., Alfonso; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Tabacchi N., Luis; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú; Santillán A., Gilberto; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima
The aim of this retrospective study was to classify mastocytomas according to histologic grade from samples of canine necropsies and biopsies diagnosed by histopathology in the Pathology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru in the period 2000-2006. A total of 40 cases of mastocytomas were found (4.5%) in 881 neoplasms. The classification of the mastocytomas based on the histologic grade indicated that el 42.5% were of grade I (w...
Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.
Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.
Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…
Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E
Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.
Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J
The sensitivity of fecal examination methods can be influenced by both technician error and methodology. In this analysis, we compared the results of 335 passive fecal flotation examinations performed on the feces of stray dogs by 3rd-yr veterinary students at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, to the results obtained through zinc-sulfate centrifugation performed by the diagnostic parasitology laboratory on the same fecal samples. The students' passive flotation results agreed with the laboratory zinc-sulfate centrifugation for only 62.4% of samples. Students were able to diagnose 75.0% of Ancylostoma caninum cases, 71.4% of Toxocara canis cases, 54.2% of Trichuris vulpis cases, 26.7% of Cystoisospora spp. (C. ohioensis-like and C. canis) cases, and 14.7% of Giardia lamblia cases. There were also 70 instances where students reported the presence of parasites in the sample that were not diagnosed by zinc-sulfate centrifugation. Based on the overall study findings, passive fecal flotation examinations run in private practice could be missing up to 50.5% of infected dogs, due to either technician error or inherent limitations to the passive fecal flotation technique.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Veterinary Medicine Committee was...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the...-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug...
Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Pearl, David L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; McEwen, Scott A; Fairles, Jim
Antimicrobial susceptibility data on Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida, and Streptococcus suis isolates from Ontario swine (January 1998 to October 2010) were acquired from a comprehensive diagnostic veterinary laboratory in Ontario, Canada. In relation to the possible development of a surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance, data were assessed for ease of management, completeness, consistency, and applicability for temporal and spatial statistical analyses. Limited farm location data precluded spatial analyses and missing demographic data limited their use as predictors within multivariable statistical models. Changes in the standard panel of antimicrobials used for susceptibility testing reduced the number of antimicrobials available for temporal analyses. Data consistency and quality could improve over time in this and similar diagnostic laboratory settings by encouraging complete reporting with sample submission and by modifying database systems to limit free-text data entry. These changes could make more statistical methods available for disease surveillance and cluster detection.
An analysis of the demand for and revenue from companion animal veterinary services in Australia between 1996 and 2026 using industry revenue data and household census and pet ownership data and forecasts.
OBJECTIVE To examine the potential impact of household demographic and pet ownership trends on the demand for and revenue from companion animal veterinary services in Australia. DESIGN The size of the market for companion animal veterinary services was estimated by creating a model using assumptions derived from the revenue equation. The model was verified and validated through sensitivity analyses and comparisons between model outputs and available industry data. RESULTS The model provided outputs similar to alternative industry estimates and suggested that revenue growth in recent years has been much stronger than demand growth. Under the assumptions used in this model, forecast changes to household numbers and types are less important than pet ownership trends in determining the potential demand for and revenue from companion animal veterinary services. Forecast trends in household types and relatively stable pet ownership in the future will lead to growth in demand for companion animal veterinary services in real terms of approximately 1.2% per annum to 2026. CONCLUSION The market for companion animal veterinary services in Australia is mature and growth in demand is expected to remain low over the forecast period. For most veterinary practices within this environment, growth in revenue will be a function of growth in average client fees. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.
Stewart, Linda D; McCallan, Lyanne; McNair, James; McGoldrick, Adrian; Morris, Rowan; Moyen, Jean-Louis; De Juan Ferré, Lucía; Romero, Beatriz; Alonso, Elena; Parsons, Sven D C; Van Helden, Paul; Araújo, Flábio R; Grant, Irene R
A novel lateral flow immunochromatographic device (LFD) was evaluated in several veterinary diagnostic laboratories. It was confirmed to be specific for Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae cells. The performance of the novel LFD was assessed relative to the confirmatory tests routinely applied after culture (spoligotyping or qPCR) in each laboratory; liquid (MGIT or BacT/Alert) and/or solid (Stonebrink, Coletsos or Lowenstein-Jensen) cultures were tested. In comparison to spoligotyping of acid-fast positive MGIT cultures, percentage agreement between positive LFD and spoligotyping results was excellent in two UK laboratories (97.7-100%), but lower in the Spanish context (76%) where spoligotyping was applied to MGIT cultures previously confirmed to be positive for M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) by qPCR. Certain spoligotypes of M. bovis and M. caprae were not detected by the LFD in Spanish MGIT cultures. Compared to qPCR confirmation, the percentage agreement between positive LFD and qPCR results was 42.3% and 50% for BacT/Alert and MGIT liquid cultures, respectively, and for solid cultures ranged from 11.1-89.2%, depending on solid medium employed (Coletsos 11.1%, Lowenstein-Jensen 55.6%, Stonebrinks 89.2%). Correlation between the novel LFD and BD MGIT TBc ID test results was excellent when 190 MGIT cultures were tested (r = 0.9791; P<0.0001), with the added benefit that M. bovis was differentiated from another MTBC species in one MGIT culture by the novel LFD. This multi-laboratory evaluation has demonstrated the novel LFD's potential utility as a rapid test to confirm isolation of M. bovis and M. caprae from veterinary specimens following culture. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Wiese, Ashley J; Muir, William W; Wittum, Thomas E
To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of pain in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service at a veterinary teaching hospital and evaluate the response of dogs and cats with signs of pain to analgesic treatment. Cross-sectional study. 317 dogs and 112 cats. A questionnaire was used to categorize the characteristics of pain. The location, cause, and signs of pain were determined by obtaining a thorough history and conducting a physical examination. Pain was categorized by type (superficial somatic, deep somatic, or visceral), mechanism (inflammatory, neuropathic, or both), severity (mild, moderate, or severe), and duration. Evidence for primary or secondary hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to manipulation was determined. The response to single or multiple analgesic drug administration was assessed. 179 (56%) dogs and 60 (54%) cats had signs of pain. In most of these dogs and cats, pain was classified as acute (dogs had deep somatic pain; most cats had visceral pain. Inflammation was the most common mechanism. One hundred nineteen (66%) dogs and 41 (68%) cats were treated with analgesic drugs. Analgesic treatment was considered effective in 73 (61%) dogs and 31 (76%) cats. Results suggest that moderate to severe acute somatic pain caused by inflammation is common in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service and that a combination of multiple analgesic drugs is more effective than any single analgesic drug in the treatment of pain in these dogs and cats.
This paper examines the establishment of Essential Medical Laboratory Services (EMLS) and their crucial role for delivering equitable health care to the poor population of Malawi as part of the Essential Health Package. We examine each of the major areas identified for intervention (maternal health, malaria, tuberculosis ...
The mission of the Analytical Services Group (ASG) is to provide analytical support for Savannah River Laboratory Research and Development Programs using onsite and offsite analytical labs as resources. A second mission is to provide Savannah River Site (SRS) operations with analytical support for nonroutine material characterization or special chemical analyses. The ASG provides backup support for the SRS process control labs as necessary.
tional health service. Laboratories provide confirmatory diagno- sis and improved management of disease, essential public health information and disease surveillance. Due to this wide-ranging ... ly, something which is difficult to achieve even in urban popu- ... quality of routine Hb measurement in Malawi was highlighted.
Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)
This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).
Luchins, Kerith R; Baker, Kate C; Gilbert, Margaret H; Blanchard, James L; Liu, David Xianhong; Myers, Leann; Bohm, Rudolf P
Alopecia in nonhuman primates in the biomedical research setting is often attributed to compromised psychologic wellbeing. Behavioral causes, mainly hair plucking, have become the unconfirmed and exclusive default diagnosis, and the possibility that alopecia may be secondary to a primary medical or dermatologic disease is often overlooked. Although nonbehavioral causes of alopecia in nonhuman primates are described in the literature, few prospective hypothesis-based studies have investigated medical and behavioral etiologies concurrently. We therefore undertook such a study with the aim of designing a clinical diagnostic guide for approaching cases of nonhuman primate alopecia. Because most cases of alopecia in nonhuman primates in the literature and at our facility are not associated with a definitive diagnosis, the hypothesis we tested was that the well-established diagnostic evaluation for alopecia used for traditional veterinary species is not applicable to nonhuman primates. Discounting differences in histopathology and behavioral assessment, the current study revealed few clinically relevant significant differences between nonhuman primates with and without alopecia. As a result, our hypothesis was confirmed, and we conclude that the standard dermatologic diagnostic plan typically described for alopecia diagnosis in traditional veterinary species and used as the basis for assessment of alopecia in nonhuman primates should be reassessed. PMID:22330789
Huang, Q; Gehring, R; Tell, L A; Li, M; Riviere, J E
Allometric scaling is widely used for the determination of first dosage regimen and the interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters across many animal species during drug development. In this article, 85 drugs used in veterinary medicine obtained from the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank database were selected for allometric scaling analysis. Outlier species were identified by statistical methods. The results showed that 77% and 88% of drugs displayed significant correlations between total systemic clearance (CL) and volume of distribution at steady status (Vss) vs. body weight (P allometric exponent b for CL and Vss displays approximate normal distribution, with means (0.87 and 0.99) and standard deviations (0.143 and 0.157) for CL and Vss, respectively. Twelve drugs were identified to have at least one outlier species for CL and ten drugs for Vss. The human CL and Vss were predicted for selected drugs by the obtained allometric equations. The predicted CL and Vss were within a threefold error compared to observed values, except the predicted CL values for antipyrine, warfarin and diazepam. The results can be used to estimate cross-species pharmacokinetic profiles for predicting drug dosages in veterinary species, and to identify those species for which interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetics properties may be problematic. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gwaltney-Brant, S M
Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Veterinary surgeons have a long tradition of consulting one another about problem cases and many have unwittingly practised telemedicine when discussing cases by telephone or by sending laboratory reports by telefax. Specific veterinary telemedicine applications have been in use since the early 1980s, but little research has been undertaken in this field. The Pubmed and CAB International databases were searched for the following Boolean logic-linked keywords; veterinary AND telemedicine, veterinary AND telecare, animal AND telemedicine, animal AND telecare and veterinary AND e-mail and an additional search was made of the worldwide web, using Google Scholar. This returned 25 papers which were reviewed. Of these only 2 report research. Sixteen papers had no references and 1 author was associated with 13 papers. Several themes emerge in the papers reviewed. These include remarks about the use of telemedicine, the benefits that can and are derived from the use of telemedicine, areas of practice in which telemedicine is being used, ethical and legal issues around the practice of telemedicine, image standards required for telemedicine, the equipment that is required for the practice of telemedicine, advice on ways in which digital images can be obtained and educational aspects of telemedicine. These are discussed. Veterinary practice has lagged behind its human counterpart in producing research on the validity and efficacy of telemedicine. This is an important field which requires further research.
Jarrett, James A.
The trend in agriculture is to fewer and larger farms--a trend that is evident in the food animal industry as well. The economic value of services delivered, and the need for veterinarians to improve relationships with people in all fields of animal science are discussed. (MLW)
according to International guiding principles for biochemical research involving animals. (C. I .O. M .S .1985). Source of Trypanosomes. Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federe strain) used for the study was obtained from donor rats maintained at the postgraduate laboratory of the Department of Veterinary. Microbiology and ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...
A questionnaire-based survey on veterinary herd health and production management services was conducted on 194 specialist dairy veterinarians and 466 dairy farmers. The farmers were randomly selected from greater than 6,000 farmer clients of the surveyed veterinarians. This paper reports these survey findings and the findings of an earlier survey conducted among the veterinarians. The survey included questions on the attributes of the service itself, the practitioners delivering the service, reasons for participation and the expected future of herd health and production management services. Reasons farmers participated in herd health and production management programmes included; access to routine screening of their herd; increasing profits; and receiving regular veterinary advice or solutions to remedy existing problems. Advantages of participation named included: good management support; higher profits; structural solutions to problems; and being better informed. Differences between farming styles were observed, pointing to the different needs and goals of farming styles. Farmers cited high costs and the time investment required as major disadvantages. The proportion of farmers citing these reasons was lower than expected by the veterinarians. In the future, preventive healthcare will be the main reason of farmers to participate. Farmers who are not using the service can potentially be encouraged to engage the services after gaining increased insight into the herd health and management service structure, the planning of activities, the cost-benefit of the service, veterinary surgeons being more co-operative with other farm advisors and veterinarians being more willing to pay attention to quality issues on the dairy farm. PMID:21851703
The practices (veterinary anatomy laboratory, veterinarian physiology laboratory I, veterinarian physiology laboratory II, and veterinarian physiology chemistry laboratory) in the area of basic veterinary medicine are important subjects for acquiring knowledge and the technique by the process of shifting from the liberal arts subject to a specialized subjects for the area of applied veterinary medicine and clinical veterinary medicine. The number of equipment is insufficient to practice effec...
Since January, the CERN Medical Service has been collaborating with Proxilis, a medical testing laboratory in Meyrin, to carry out blood tests. Sylvie Leprat, a nurse from the Proxilis laboratory, comes to the CERN Medical Service (Building 57, first floor) at 8 a.m. every morning to take blood samples. These samples are then taken from CERN to the Proxilis laboratory, where they are analysed by machines, lab technicians or the team's biologist. The results are first conveyed to CERN doctors over the telephone. Then, at the end of the day, they are incorporated into the patient's medical file for validation and possible comments by CERN doctors, before being e-mailed to the patient. People at CERN who are having blood tests done outside the context of their regular medical check-up receive an e-mail inviting them to choose a day and time for the blood samples to be taken. This provides a flexible service that allows appointments to be arranged according to their availability a...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on January... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...
Jones, Bruce Vivash
The American Veterinary Medical Association is marking its 150th anniversary in 2013, celebrating '150 years of education, science and service'. As Bruce Vivash Jones explains, veterinary surgeons from the UK played a key role in establishing a system of veterinary education in North America.
Melo, Murilo R; Rosenfeld, Luiz Gastão
In the recent years, two trends emerged in the clinical laboratory: the miniaturisation of equipments to provide point-of-care testing (POCT) and a concentration of laboratories through mergers and acquisitions. New technology has expanded both opportunities. POCT provides the benefit of a convenient test where it is needed, i.e. near the patient. For companies, it is easier and cheaper to develop such tests, since technical requirements are somewhat less stringent, being an interesting area for start-ups. Nanotechnology is one of the most fascinating technical advances, with some advocating a US$1 trillion market-size for it by 2015. Laboratory tests and biomaterials will probably be greatly influenced by it, with new approaches for molecular diagnosis, with tests that can target both DNA and proteins in a process that eliminates PCR and allows multiplex analysis. On the other hand, there is a strong trend towards the globalisation of clinical laboratories and that occurs in four areas: a) Consumption of health services abroad; b) Movement of Health Personnel; c) Cross-Border delivery of trade; and d) Commercial presence. Each of these areas presents new challenges and opportunities for clinical laboratories, what will certainly shape the way we work today and in the future.
Allen, Angela; Allen, Stephen; Olivieri, Nancy
The difficulties in establishing and delivering reliable clinical hematology and laboratory services in resource-limited settings are well recognized. However, much can be achieved by better use of existing resources through a concerted quality improvement approach. The recommendations of this article are based in part upon work in the thalassemias, inherited disorders of hemoglobin that are widely prevalent in Asia, which may serve as a model that is applicable to other common, chronic disorders in resource-poor settings. Available resources are highlighted and recommendations made regarding approaches to improving services. Over the last few years, a number of low and middle-income countries, obtaining support from appropriate governmental sources, have identified and overcome difficulties and significantly improved clinical services for patients with thalassemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
prevalence of diseases and available veterinary services were noticed to be present in these communities. The draught animal survival ability rather ... labour in farming and transportation. (Chantalakhana and Bunyavejehewin, 1994) ..... spreading of these diseases such as. Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis to these animals.
Bates, N S; Sutton, N M; Campbell, A
A retrospective analysis of telephone enquiries to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service found 772 cases with follow-up concerning suspected metaldehyde slug bait ingestion in dogs between 1985 and 2010. Half the enquiries occurred in the summer months. The amount and strength of the slug bait ingested was rarely known. In 56, cases the quantity consumed was estimated and was on average 229.6 grams of bait. Clinical signs developed in 77.3 per cent of dogs; common signs were convulsions, hypersalivation, twitching, hyperaesthesia, tremor, vomiting, hyperthermia and ataxia. Only 4.6 per cent of dogs developed hepatic changes, and only one developed renal impairment. The average time to onset of signs was 2.9 hours post-ingestion, with 50.3 per cent of dogs developing effects within one hour. Increased muscle activity (twitching, convulsions) lasted on average 15.2 hours. Recovery time was reported in 61 cases and occurred on average at 39.3 hours. Common treatments were gut decontamination, anticonvulsants, anaesthetics and intravenous fluids. Of the dogs that were treated with sedatives, 45.8 per cent required more than one sedative or anaesthetic agent. Methocarbamol was rarely used, probably due to unavailability. The outcome was reported in 762 dogs; 21.7 per cent remained asymptomatic, 61.7 per cent recovered and 16 per cent of dogs died or were euthanased. Where known (only six cases), the fatal dose of bait ranged from 4.2 to 26.7 g/kg (average 11.8 g/kg).
O'Sullivan, T; Friendship, R; Pearl, D L; McEwen, B; Ker, A; Dewey, C
An intuitive assumption is to believe that the number of submissions made to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory is dictated by the financial state of the industries using the laboratory. However, no research is available to document how the economics of a food animal industry affects laboratory submissions and therefore disease monitoring and surveillance efforts. The objective of this study was to determine if economic indices associated with the Ontario swine industry can account for the variability seen in these submissions. Retrospective swine submissions made to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario from January 1998 to July 2009 were compiled. The following economic, demographic, and health variables impacting Ontario swine production were selected for analysis: auction price, lean-hog futures, currency exchange rate, price of corn, an outbreak of porcine circovirus type-2 associated diseases (PCVAD), government incentive program, number of farms in province, and average farm size. All independent variables identified by unconditional associations to have a significance of P≤0.2 with the outcome of monthly submission count were included in a multivariable negative binomial model. A final model was identified by a backwards elimination procedure. A total of 30,432 swine submissions were recorded. The mean frequency of monthly submissions over 139 months was 212.9 (SD=56.0). After controlling for farm size, the number of pigs in Ontario, higher submission counts were associated with a weaker CAD$ versus US$, higher auction prices, and a PCVAD outbreak (Plaboratory. In conclusion, lab submissions are a useful source of animal health data for disease surveillance; however, surveillance activities should also monitor the economics of the industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
Full Text Available Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions. The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.. Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients. Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P<0.05. The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented.
Memon, Mushtaq A.
Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions). The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.). Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years) and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients). Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented. PMID:26798552
Anderson, Jamie G; Goldstein, Gary; Boudreaux, Karen; Ilkiw, Jan E
Dental disease is important in the population of pets seen by veterinarians. Knowledge and skills related to oral disease and dentistry are critical entry-level skills expected of graduating veterinarians. A descriptive survey on the state of veterinary dental education was sent to respondents from 35 veterinary schools in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Using the online SurveyMonkey application, respondents answered up to 26 questions. Questions were primarily designed to determine the breadth and depth of veterinary dental education from didactic instruction in years 1-3 to the clinical year programs. There was an excellent response to the survey with 86% compliance. Learning opportunities for veterinary students in years 1-3 in both the lecture and laboratory environments were limited, as were the experiences in the clinical year 4, which were divided between community-type practices and veterinary dentistry and oral surgery services. The former provided more hands-on clinical experience, including tooth extraction, while the latter focused on dental charting and periodontal debridement. Data on degrees and certifications of faculty revealed only 12 programs with board-certified veterinary dentists. Of these, seven veterinary schools had residency programs in veterinary dentistry at the time of the survey. Data from this study demonstrate the lack of curricular time dedicated to dental content in the veterinary schools participating in the survey, thereby suggesting the need for veterinary schools to address the issue of veterinary dental education. By graduation, new veterinarians should have acquired the needed knowledge and skills to meet both societal demands and professional expectations.
Rondon, F. C. M.; Bevilaqua, C.M.L.; Franke,C.R.; Barros, R. S.; Oliveira,F.R.; Alcântara, Adriano Costa de; Diniz, A. T.
Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 24-31 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations were analyzed, domestic dogs from clinics and the Veterinary ...
Díez, J R; Styles, D K
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services (VS) is charged with monitoring, controlling, and responding to select reportable diseases and all foreign animal diseases. Emergency Management and Diagnostics (EM&D) oversees Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) preparedness and response. In order to effectively prepare for and respond to FADs, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease, VS develops plans, strategies, and policies to effectively combat an intrusion. USDA APHIS VS has made significant gains in preparedness and response planning. However, much remains to be done especially in surveillance, diagnostic tools, and vaccines. There are significant needs for novel medical technologies to improve diagnostic capabilities and offer additional approaches for FAD response.
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal... (VICH) has developed a draft guideline titled ``Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products... guideline applies to pharmacovigilance and adverse event reporting on veterinary vaccines regulated by the...
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
King, L J
The veterinary profession finds itself in the midst of a new world order. Today veterinarians are part of a world that is exquisitely interconnected culturally, economically, socially, and professionally. As a consequence, societal needs and expectations of the profession are more demanding, critical and far-reaching. Veterinarians must play important roles in five intersecting domains of work: public health, bio-medical research, global food safety and security, ecosystem health and the more traditional role of caring for animals. To be successful in this broad and complex range of services and activities, veterinarians must possess an expanded knowledge base, acquire new skills, and develop a new mindset that will ensure their success and excellence in all these domains. The veterinary profession is becoming more fragmented and specialised, and it needs to be brought back together by a single sphere of knowledge or discipline that can serve as an intellectual foundation. The concept of One World of Veterinary Medicine can do just that. With this mindset veterinarians will become better connected to the world around and gain new public recognition and esteem. To achieve this, a special commitment by academic veterinary medicine is, of course, essential. Veterinary schools must lead an educational transformation that reaffirms the social contract of veterinarians and works to align diverse sectors, build a global community, find a common purpose and expand the 21st Century veterinary portfolio of services, activities, and new possibilities.
Vallat, B; Mallet, E
As an effect of increased globalisation, animal diseases, in particular those transmissible to man, have an immediate global economic and social impact. This fact, dramatically illustrated by the current avian influenza epizootic in South-East Asia and Eastern Europe, clearly demonstrates the crucial importance of the national Veterinary Services (VS) for the prevention, early detection and response for the efficient control of animal diseases. Complying with this mission for the VS presupposes the existence of appropriate governance and legislation and of an official system to control their quality and reliability- an obvious weakness in many developing and in transition countries. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has therefore developed a project aiming at strengthening the VS in those countries facing the greatest animal health threats and to bring them into line with OIE international standards already adopted by the same countries. Based on the evaluation of the VS and subsequent actions at the global, regional and national levels, the project will have a significant beneficial impact on the targeted countries as well as the international community as a whole, not only in the fields of agriculture, food security and production, and food safety, but also for the local and global prevention of emerging and re-emerging diseases of veterinary and public health importance. The project will be implemented in strong collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization. The actions proposed must be considered eligible for the concept of International Public Good.
Prasse, Keith W
Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project
Mission & contact information for EPA Region 3's Laboratory and Field Services located at EPA's Environmental Science Center: the Office of Analytical Services and Quality Assurance & Field Inspection Program
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diagnostic parasitology services in Ontario were assessed to determine whether the reduction in the number of provider laboratories from 209 to 70 over the period 1977 to 1994 has affected the availability and quality of service.
This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.
Koh, Young Rae; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, In Suk; Chang, Chulhun L; Lee, Eun Yup; Son, Han Chul; Kim, Hyung Hoi
We performed customer satisfaction surveys for physicians and nurses regarding clinical laboratory services, and for outpatients who used phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level to evaluate our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Thus, we wish to share our experiences with the customer satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Board members of our laboratory designed a study procedure and study population, and developed two types of questionnaire. A satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory services was conducted with 370 physicians and 125 nurses by using an online or paper questionnaire. The satisfaction survey for phlebotomy services was performed with 347 outpatients who received phlebotomy services by using computer-aided interviews. Mean satisfaction scores of physicians and nurses was 58.1, while outpatients' satisfaction score was 70.5. We identified several dissatisfactions with our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. First, physicians and nurses were most dissatisfied with the specimen collection and delivery process. Second, physicians and nurses were dissatisfied with phlebotomy services. Third, molecular genetic and cytogenetic tests were found more expensive than other tests. This study is significant in that it describes the first reference survey that offers a survey procedure and questionnaire to assess customer satisfaction with clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level.
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...
The study was conducted to. (1) determine the kinds of veterinary extension services that are provided to livestock farmers;. (2) determine the frequency of farmers contact with extension agents in relation to the extent of adoption of animal health innovations, and. (3) identify the various constraints to veterinary extension ...
Buchanan, Robert A; Wooldridge, Anne A
The body of knowledge in veterinary medicine and the biomedical sciences continues to grow logarithmically, and learning about new developments in veterinary medicine requires successful navigation of recently published literature worldwide. This article examines how veterinarians can use different types of automated services from databases and publishers to search the current and past literature, access articles, and manage references that are found.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...
Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.
Between April 2014 and March 2015, the South. African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS). CD4 network provided 3.9 million CD4 test results to referring health centres and clinics across South. Africa (SA). Although there is an extensive network of ~260 national laboratories that provide general pathology services.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Okorie-Kanu et al. 160. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): ... Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu state,. Nigeria. ...... (ASVCP), International Veterinary.
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.. 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Abeokuta, Ogun State,. Nigeria. *Corresponding Authors: .... medial and lateral canthi of each eye. Philtrum Height (PH). Measured ...
Jul 2, 2000 ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal 36(4). 2015. Owoyemi et al. 1341. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015 ... medicine, 3Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. .... in wound or burn healing, internal intake of.
The United States Postal Service (USPS) in cooperation with EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) is engaged in an effort to integrate waste prevention and recycling activities into the waste management programs at Postal facilities. This report describes the...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — In collaboration with the Navy, there are 12 RF Anechoic and static free exposure chambers located at TSRL. These chambers cover the majority of the RF spectrum and...
This page contains information about the ISM02.3 and ISM02.4 statement of work for the analysis of metals and cyanide at hazardous waste sites. The SOW contains the analytical method and contractual requirements for laboratories.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the... PROHEART 6 (NADA 141-189), the subsequent safety data collected under the Center for Veterinary Medicine's...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... need for improvements to the veterinary feed directive (VFD) regulation. The agency is taking this..., rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 91 and 162 RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary... amended the National Veterinary Accreditation Program regulations, adding new provisions and reorganizing... INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Todd Behre, National Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road...
Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Huang, Yao-Min; Chen, Tao-Chieh; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei
Pet markets involve in great commercial possibilities, which boost thriving development of veterinary hospital businesses. The service tends to intensive competition and diversified channel environment. Information technology is integrated for developing the veterinary hospital cloud service platform. The platform contains not only pet medical services but veterinary hospital management and services. In the study, QR Code andcloud technology are applied to establish the veterinary hospital cloud service platform for pet search by labeling a pet's identification with QR Code. This technology can break the restriction on veterinary hospital inspection in different areas and allows veterinary hospitals receiving the medical records and information through the exclusive QR Code for more effective inspection. As an interactive platform, the veterinary hospital cloud service platform allows pet owners gaining the knowledge of pet diseases and healthcare. Moreover, pet owners can enquire and communicate with veterinarians through the platform. Also, veterinary hospitals can periodically send reminders of relevant points and introduce exclusive marketing information with the platform for promoting the service items and establishing individualized marketing. Consequently, veterinary hospitals can increase the profits by information share and create the best solution in such a competitive veterinary market with industry alliance.
Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A
Good veterinary governance assumes the provision of veterinary services that are sustainably financed, universally available, and provided efficiently without waste or duplication, in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. Good veterinary governance is a necessary condition for sustainable economic development insomuch as it promotes the effective delivery of services and improves the overall performance of animal health systems. This article defines governance in Veterinary Services and proposes a framework for its measurement. It also discusses the role of Veterinary Services and analyses the governance dimensions of the performance-assessment tools developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These tools (OIE PVS Tool and PVS Gap Analysis) track the performance of Veterinary Services across countries (a harmonised tool) and over time (the PVS Pathway). The article shows the usefulness of the OIE PVS Tool for measuring governance, but also points to two shortcomings, namely (i) the lack of clear outcome indicators, which is an impediment to a comprehensive assessment of the performance of Veterinary Services, and (ii) the lack of specific measures for assessing the extent of corruption within Veterinary Services and the extent to which demand for better governance is being strengthened within the animal health system. A discussion follows on the drivers of corruption and instruments for perception-based assessments of country governance and corruption. Similarly, the article introduces the concept of social accountability, which is an approach to enhancing government transparency and accountability, and shows how supply-side and demand-side mechanisms complement each other in improving the governance of service delivery. It further elaborates on two instruments--citizen report card surveys and grievance redress mechanisms--because of their wider relevance and their possible applications in many settings, including Veterinary
Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K
Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.
Camus, Melinda S; Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathleen P; Cruz Cardona, Janice A
The purpose of this document is to educate providers of veterinary laboratory diagnostic testing in any setting about comparative testing. These guidelines will define, explain, and illustrate the importance of a multi-faceted laboratory quality management program which includes comparative testing. The guidelines will provide suggestions for implementation of such testing, including which samples should be tested, frequency of testing, and recommendations for result interpretation. Examples and a list of vendors and manufacturers supplying control materials and services to veterinary laboratories are also included. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for veterinary technologists and technicians. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of veterinary technologists and ...
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, ... Parasitic diseases have a debilitating impact on human and animal health worldwide particularly in developing countries. Haemoparasitism have largely been ..... exerts a major health concern in domestic.
Saharan Africa requires significant improvements in animal health with adequate access to veterinary services. Since the 1980s, veterinary services in developing countries including Nigeria has witnessed a decline in government involvement and ...
Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G
This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.
Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. British Veterinary Association.
The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock ...
The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the Journal are the ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(3). 2017. Gberindyer et al. 250. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2017. Vol 38 (3): 250-259. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Drugs Prescription Pattern in Dogs Diagnosed with Parvovirus Enteritis in Some Veterinary Clinics in Nigeria. Gberindyer, F. A.. 1.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Mustapha et al. 129 ... 1 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta,. Abeokuta, Ogun State; 2 ..... lamina 9; IB: Internal basilar nucleus; ICI: Intercalated nucleus; ICo9: Intercostal muscle motor neurons of lamina 9; ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Thomas et al. 123 .... Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture Abeokuta and were ..... immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology,. 162(1-2): 41–50. JOSHI ...
1288. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1288-1298. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Anatomical Studies of ... 1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; 2 Department of .... back, the internal organs were measured in.
Full Text Available Mobile devices are becoming more powerful, reliable and common every year. Hence we can use mobile devices for conducting laboratory sessions in distance education. This paper discusses issues of integrating Short Message Service (SMS to operate instruments of hardware-based remotely triggered laboratories. Components of the system include searching an experiment, performing experiment, result handling, error handling and method of exchanging information. It is designed using the National Instruments (NI Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW development system and web services. The scheme will enable students to conduct hardware experiments with mobile devices using SMS from anywhere and anytime.
van de Meerendonk, A.; Onderstal, S.
The design of tenders and contracts is a crucial factor in the success or failure of the contracting-out of reintegration services. In a laboratory experiment with professionals from private reintegration service providers, we tested two tender designs. In the first design, the government announces
Emilia P. Georgieva
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this article is to study the satisfaction of patients with laboratory services in outpatient care in Northeastern Bulgaria regarding access and quality of service. Study design: Prospective cohort study Material and methods: The survey was carried out on the territory of Northeastern Bulgaria and covered the districts of Varna, Dobrich and Shumen and thirty municipalities. The following methods were applied in the study: sociological method by applied direct anonymous questionnaire, documentary method and statistical methods for analysis and interpretation of the data in order to reveal the nature of the observed phenomena and their interrelations. Results: The research data show that 24,4% of the respondents live at a distance of more than ten kilometres from the nearest medico-diagnostic laboratory. The larger share of these patients are residents of small settlements in Northeastern Bulgaria. More than half (55% of the respondents are not satisfied with their provision of laboratory services, but the majority of patients claim that the location of the selected laboratory is accessible (69,4% and the quality of the laboratory service is high (83,7%. Conclusion: The main problems in outpatient care are related to the poor provision of medico-laboratory services and specialized outpatient care in the smaller settlements in Northeastern Bulgaria.
Pastoret, P P; Chaisemartin, D
Good veterinary certification is possible only if a country's veterinary governance complies with the quality standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). The standards in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code stipulate that the main prerequisite for good veterinary governance is for Veterinary Services to be independent, that is to say they are able to carry out their mandate while remaining autonomous and free from any commercial, financial, hierarchical or political pressures that could lead them to make technical decisions that were contrary to OIE standards. Veterinary Services should include, in particular, a veterinary administration with nationwide jurisdiction for implementing the animal health measures and veterinary certification procedures recommended by the OIE and for overseeing or auditing their implementation. They should also include veterinary authorities and persons authorised by the veterinary statutory body to perform tasks under the responsibility and supervision of a veterinarian (veterinary paraprofessionals). This veterinary governance must be sustainable over time in order to administer long-term animal health policies. Good governance relies on appropriate legislation that is in compliance with OIE guidelines and on the requisite human and financial resources for ensuring its enforcement. The evaluation of this governance, either by an importing country in the context of international trade, as authorised by OIE standards, or by the country itself (self-evaluation or an evaluation requested from the OIE [using the OIE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services]), helps to facilitate the proper operation of Veterinary Services and to ensure the reliability of any certification granted under the authority of the veterinary administration.
Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Binyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew; Girma, Veronica
Quality laboratory service is an essential component of health care system but in Sub-Saharan Africa such as Ethiopia, laboratories quality system remains weak due to several factors and it needs more attention to strengthen its capacity and quality system. A cross sectional study was conducted using a questionnaire to assess factors affecting the quality of laboratory service at private and public health institutions in Addis Ababa. A total of 213 laboratory professionals participated in the study and 131 (61.5%) participants had bachelor degree. Majority, 133 (62.4%), of the professionals did not attend any work related training. Seventy five (35.2%) respondents believed that their laboratories did not provide quality laboratory services and the major reported factors affecting provision of quality services were shortage of resources (64.3%), poor management support (57.3%), poor equipment quality (53.4%), high workload (41.1%), lack of equipment calibration (38.3%) and lack of knowledge (23.3%). Moreover logistic regression analysis showed that provision of quality laboratory service was significantly associated with result verification (AOR=9.21, 95% CI=2.26, 37.48), internal quality control (AOR= 6.11, 95% CI=2.11, 17.70), turnaround time (AOR=5.11, 95% CI=1.94, 13.46), shortage of equipment (AOR=7.76, 95% CI=2.55, 23.66), communication with clinicians (AOR=3.24, 95% CI=1.25, 8.41) and lack of job description (AOR=3.67, 95% CI=1.319, 10.22). In conclusion, the major factors that affecting the quality of laboratory service were associated with poor human resource management, poor resources provision, poor management commitment, ineffective communication system and lack of well-established quality management system.
Edgil, Dianna; Williams, Jason; Smith, Peter; Kuritsky, Joel
The Supply Chain Management System (SCMS) is a contract managed under the Partnership for Supply Chain Management (PFSCM) consortium by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). SCMS procures commodities for programmes supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). From 2005 to mid-2012, PEPFAR, through SCMS, spent approximately $384 million on non-pharmaceutical commodities. Of this, an estimated $90m was used to purchase flow cytometry technology, largely for flow cytometry platforms and reagents. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the cost differences between low, medium and high utilisation rates of common CD4 testing instruments that have been procured though PEPFAR funding. A scale of costs per test as a function of test volume through the machine was calculated for the two most common CD4 testing machines used in HIV programmes: Becton Dickinson (BD) FACSCount™ and BD FACSCalibur™. Instrument utilisation data collected at the facility level in three selected countries were then used to calculate the onsite cost-per-test experienced in each country. Cost analyses indicated that a target of at least 40% utilisation for FACSCount™ and 15% utilisation for FACSCalibur™, respectively, closely approach maximal per-test cost efficiency. The average utilisation rate for CD4 testing instruments varies widely by country, level of laboratory and partner (0% - 68%). Our analysis indicates that, because cost-per-test is related inversely to sample throughput, the underutilisation of flow cytometry machines is resulting in an increase in average cost-per-test for many instruments.
Murphy, M J; Dryburgh, F J; Shepherd, J
To ascertain the views of Scottish hospital laboratory users on aspects of regional and supraregional biochemical services offered by the Institute of Biochemistry at Glasgow Royal Infirmary. A questionnaire was circulated asking questions or inviting opinions under various headings, including current patterns of usage of the services provided, availability of information on specimen collection requirements and reference ranges, current arrangements for transport of specimens, turnaround times for delivery of reports, layout and content of request and report forms, quantity and quality of interpretive advice, potential changes in laboratory services, and overall impression of the services provided. Opportunities were provided for free text comment. The questionnaire was circulated in 1992 to heads of department in 23 Scottish hospital biochemistry laboratories. Twenty one replies were received. Services used widely included trace metals/vitamins (n = 20) and specialised endocrine tests (n = 19). Other services also used included specialised lipid tests (n = 13), toxicology (n = 12), thyroid function tests (n = nine), and tumour markers (n = eight). Fifteen laboratories used one or more of the services at least weekly. Most (n = 20) welcomed the idea of a handbook providing information on specimen collection and reference ranges. Nine identified loss of specimens as a problem. Other perceived problems included the absence of reference ranges from report forms, quantity and quality of interpretive advice, and turnaround times of some tests. Overall impressions of the service(s) offered were very good (n = 12); adequate (n = seven); poor (n = one). Useful information was obtained about patterns of use and transport arrangements. Areas identified as requiring follow up included provision of information, alternative ways of communicating reports, and improvement in quantity and quality of interpretive advice.
Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Oversight of Antimicrobial Use in Livestock... areas that may lack access to adequate veterinary services. The meetings are jointly sponsored by FDA...: Patricia Arnwine, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-6), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl...
Quinn, P. J
"Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...
The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.
Treatment history and antimicrobial susceptibility results for Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolates from bovine respiratory disease cases submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2013 to 2015.
Magstadt, Drew R; Schuler, Adlai M; Coetzee, Johann F; Krull, Adam C; O'Connor, Annette M; Cooper, Vickie L; Engelken, Terry J
Bovine respiratory disease is the most costly disease facing the cattle industry. Increasing resistance to antimicrobial treatment has been presented as a significant contributing factor, often through summarized susceptibility testing data. We assessed the relationship between previous antimicrobial treatment and antimicrobial susceptibility results from isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni cultured from bovine respiratory cases submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2013 to 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1,251 bacterial isolates were included for analysis. More bacterial isolates from cattle that received antimicrobial treatment showed resistance compared to isolates from untreated cattle, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased as the number of antimicrobial treatments increased. Resistance to enrofloxacin, spectinomycin, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin was present in >75% of M. haemolytica isolates from cattle that had received 3 or more antimicrobial treatments; resistance to each of those 4 antimicrobials was present in ≤10% of M. haemolytica isolates from untreated cattle. Similar but less dramatic trends were apparent for isolates of P. multocida and H. somni. The percentage of multi-drug resistant bacterial isolates also increased with the number of treatments. Results of our study suggest that previous antimicrobial treatment may have a profound effect on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Summarized susceptibility results from diagnostic laboratories should not be used to make generalized statements regarding trends in antimicrobial resistance without providing context regarding antimicrobial treatment history.
Agarwal, Anuradha; Singh, Maithili R P
One of the most important parts of healthcare system is diagnostics. Nowadays, Indians have become more aware of their health, due to improved and better availability of health related information, increase in medical tourism, and expanding health insurance. The demand for better diagnostic facilities have increased with the increase in lifestyle related diseases, excesses use of chemicals in agriculture practices and change in food habits. It is expected that the Indian diagnostic market will grow from USD $5 billion in the year 2012 to USD $32 billion by the year 2020 with 20% CAGR (India Brand Equity Foundation 2015 ). Today patients have easy access of information regarding the health services and they have become more concerned about it as they look forward to receiving the maximum value for their money. To win the confidence of the patients and to maintain that trust, it is required to deliver the right services to the right person at the right time. The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure the service quality at pathology laboratory. A thorough review of literature revealed that there are studies related to healthcare service quality but there is no such established scale to measure service quality of pathology laboratory. Thus, the authors strived to develop a reliable and valid instrument to measure the patients' perception toward pathology laboratory service quality. For this exploratory study was conducted on the sample of 80 patients of the laboratories in Jaipur city. The reliability and factor structures were tested to purify the scale. The findings revealed 13 items, comprising of three dimensions of service quality: responsiveness, tangibility, and reliability.
... for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919k Purchase of medical examinations... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services. 416.919k Section 416.919k Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...
... Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519k Purchase of medical examinations... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services. 404.1519k Section 404.1519k Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY...
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture,. Umudike, P.M.B 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: Email: email@example.com; Tel. No:+234 8034509991. SUMMARY. This study investigated comparatively the genetic influence on the ...
Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...
The importance of computers in all works of life need not to be overemphasized. However, in. Nigeria, the application of computers in veterinary medicine has not been fully utilized. Computer aided diagnosis is a process that has significantly improved the practice of veterinary medicine in other parts of the world. This paper ...
SCOPE The Editorial Board of the Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) welcomes contributions in the form of original research papers, review articles, clinical case reports, and short communications on all aspects of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery and Animal Production. Submissions are accepted on the understanding that ...
Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...
Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 15 of 15 Items ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Meseko et al. 155. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 155-159. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Detection of Haemagglutination inhibition antibody to Pandemic and. Classical Swine Influenza Virus in Commercial Piggery in ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(1). 2016. Igado et al. 54. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 54-63. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cranio-facial and Ocular Morphometrics of the Male Greater Cane Rat. (Thryonomys swinderianus). Igado, O. O.. 1. *; Adebayo, A. O.. 2.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Ogunro et al. 187. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 187-191. CASE REPORT. Management of Epitheliogenesis Imperfecta in a Piglet (Sus Scrofa domesticus) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ogunro, B. N.. 1. ; Otuh, P. I.. 1.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Meseko et al. 124. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., June 2017. Vol 38 (2): 124-128. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain.
Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...
Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ...
variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks from Nigeria. Ogo, N. I.. 1. ; Okubanjo, O. O.. 2. ; Inuwa, H. M.. 3 and Agbede, R. I. S.. 4. 1National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State. 2Department of Veterinary Parasitology and. Entomology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 3Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu ...
Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1272-1282. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Gross and Morphometric Anatomical Changes of the Thyroid Gland in the West African Dwarf ... Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. .... common carotid artery, internal jugular vein,.
Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 45-53. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous Fluid Usage in Animal. Patients Treated at Veterinary Teaching Hospital Nsukka, 2005-2015 ... 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ... they carried with them their own internal sea.
SUMMARY. The prevalence and morphological pathology of renal failure in exotic breeds of dog in Lagos and Ogun States, within Southwestern Nigeria were determined from postmortem records of the. Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture, Abeokuta ...
Makaen, Johnson; Omena, Mathew
The reemergence of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant strains, in Papua New Guinea highlights the never ending nature of the antituberculosis (anti-TB) campaign in that country and warrants the need for constant vigilance against the condition. Through surveillance, early detection, and management, the spread and incidence of TB can be kept in check. To maintain successful TB control programs, the government and partners committed to this campaign need to overhaul essential aspects of laboratory services. Clinical laboratories play a critical role in diagnostics; their functions cannot be substituted nor relegated. It is time to end neglect of these services in Papua New Guinea and to arm the laboratories in that country with full financial and logistical support so that they can lead the campaign against TB. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).
Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D
To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. British Veterinary Association.
Flatland, Bente; Weiser, Glade
Over 30 yr of technological evolution have resulted in sophisticated instrumentation for in-clinic laboratories, yet there is no regulatory oversight of diagnostic testing quality. Long overdue, the veterinary profession must address quality assurance (QA) of diagnostic testing. Each practice must weigh the responsibility for laboratory instrumentation test results that are often a combination of in-clinic and send-out testing. Challenges faced by clinic staff maintaining in-clinic laboratories include lack of training in QA and quality control (QC), lack of emphasis placed on QA/QC by instrument suppliers, QC financial and time costs, and a general lack of laboratory QA/QC support resources in the veterinary community. Possible solutions include increased continuing education opportunities and the provision of guidelines and other resources by national veterinary organizations; specialty certification of veterinary technicians; an increasing role of veterinary clinical pathologists as QA/QC consultants; and development of external quality assessment programs aimed at veterinary practices. The potential exists for animal health companies to lead in this effort by innovating instrument design, providing QC services, and exploiting instrument connectivity to monitor performance. Veterinary laboratory QA/QC is a neglected aspect of the profession. In coming years, veterinarians will hopefully find increased support for this core practice component.
Cerra, F.; Heaton, H.T. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Rockville, MD (United States)
The X-ray Calibration Laboratory (XCL) of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) provides calibration services for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The instruments calibrated are used by FDA and contract state inspectors to verify compliance with federal x-ray performance standards and for national surveys of x-ray trends. In order to provide traceability of measurements, the CDRH XCL is accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for reference, diagnostic, and x-ray survey instrument calibrations. In addition to these accredited services, the CDRH XCL also calibrates non-invasive kVp meters in single- and three-phase x-ray beams, and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips used to measure CT beam profiles. The poster illustrates these services and shows the traceability links back to the National Standards.
Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo; Arifiantini, Iis
The beginning of the veterinary profession in Indonesia dates back to the middle of the 19th century. During the Dutch colonization period a development program for large ruminants was started by the 'Nederlandsch-Indië' government. In 1907 this government established a veterinary laboratory, planned by Dr. J.K.F. de Does. The laboratory was then merged with a veterinary training course for Indonesian (bumiputera) 'veterinarians' named 'Cursus tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Veeartsen'. In 1910 the name of the training course was changed to 'Inlandsche Veeartsenschool', and in 1914 the school was named 'Nederlandsch-Indische Veeartsenijschool' (NIVS). During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) the veterinary school was named 'Bogor Semon Zui Gakko'. After the declaration of independence by Indonesia in August 1945, it became the High School of Veterinary Education. In 1946 the curriculum was extended from 4 to 5 years. Thereafter the school was closed and re-opened a few times due to the changing political circumstances. In 1947 the first Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ('Diergeneeskundige Faculteit') of the University of Indonesia was established in the former building of NIVS at Taman Kencana Campus in Bogor. Between 1948 and 1963, four more veterinary faculties were established in Indonesia: Gajah Mada, Syiahkuala, Airlangga and Udayana. The Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association (IVMA) was established on January 9, 1953. The membership now exceeds 20,000 veterinarians and the association has 15 special interest groups. Since 2008, five new faculties of veterinary medicine have been established, bringing the total to 10.
Full Text Available To compare the validity of diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI through urine culture between samples processed in routine health service laboratories and those processed in a research laboratory.We conducted a prospective diagnostic cohort study in 4808 acutely ill children aged <5 years attending UK primary health care. UTI, defined as pure/predominant growth ≥105 CFU/mL of a uropathogen (the reference standard, was diagnosed at routine health service laboratories and a central research laboratory by culture of urine samples. We calculated areas under the receiver-operator curve (AUC for UTI predicted by pre-specified symptoms, signs and dipstick test results (the "index test", separately according to whether samples were obtained by clean catch or nappy (diaper pads.251 (5.2% and 88 (1.8% children were classified as UTI positive by health service and research laboratories respectively. Agreement between laboratories was moderate (kappa = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.43, and better for clean catch (0.54; 0.45, 0.63 than nappy pad samples (0.20; 0.12, 0.28. In clean catch samples, the AUC was lower for health service laboratories (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.69, 0.80 than the research laboratory (0.86; 0.79, 0.92. Values of AUC were lower in nappy pad samples (0.65 [0.61, 0.70] and 0.79 [0.70, 0.88] for health service and research laboratory positivity, respectively than clean catch samples.The agreement of microbiological diagnosis of UTI comparing routine health service laboratories with a research laboratory was moderate for clean catch samples and poor for nappy pad samples and reliability is lower for nappy pad than for clean catch samples. Positive results from the research laboratory appear more likely to reflect real UTIs than those from routine health service laboratories, many of which (particularly from nappy pad samples could be due to contamination. Health service laboratories should consider adopting procedures used
Nkengasong, John N; Nsubuga, Peter; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Gershy-Damet, Guy-Michel; Roscigno, Giorgio; Bulterys, Marc; Schoub, Barry; DeCock, Kevin M; Birx, Deborah
The $63 billion comprehensive global health initiative (GHI) emphasizes health systems strengthening (HSS) to tackle challenges, including child and maternal health, HIV/AIDS, family planning, and neglected tropical diseases. GHI and other initiatives are critical to fighting emerging and reemerging diseases in resource-poor countries. HSS is also an increasing focus of the $49 billion program of the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Laboratory systems and services are often neglected in resource-poor settings, but the funding offers an opportunity to end the neglect. To sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in resource-poor countries, the following approaches are needed: (1) developing integrative national laboratory strategic plans and policies and building systems to address multiple diseases; (2) establishing public-private partnerships; (3) ensuring effective leadership, commitment, and coordination by host governments of efforts of donors and partners; (4) establishing and/or strengthening centers of excellence and field epidemiology and laboratory training programs to meet short- and medium-term training and retention goals; and (5) establishing affordable, scalable, and effective laboratory accreditation schemes to ensure quality of laboratory tests and bridge the gap between clinicians and laboratory experts on the use of test results.
Full Text Available Otto J.B. Hübschle passed away in Paris on 16 July 2008.Born on 9 October 1945 in Radolfzell, Germany, Otto qualified as a veterinarian from the universities of Munich and Zurich. In 1970, he received a scholarship from the German student exchange programme to study at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute where he was awarded the degree of M Med Vet having majored in virology.Otto Hübschle worked in the Virology section at Onderstepoort for several years. In 1976, he joined the Federal Research Institute for Virus Animal Diseases in Tübingen where he worked on foot and mouth disease and other airborne viral diseases. During this period he obtained the Dr Med Vet and Fachtierarzt qualifications (specialist microbiology/ serology. He also worked on different developmental projects in Madagascar and Kenya as was a consultant to the European Union.In 1983, he was appointed Deputy Director responsible for the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL in Windhoek. Under his guidance, the laboratory was entirely renovated and new sections were introduced, such as the rabies diagnostic and molecular biology sections. He was a prolific researcher who authored or co-authored over 60 scientific papers.In 2006, Otto Hübschle was appointed Chief Veterinary Officer, a position he held until his untimely death. During this time, he strived to achieve freedom for the communal areas of Namibia from foot and mouth disease and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia to provide farmers with greater access to local, regional and international markets for animals and animal products. Otto Hübschle was a man of science who faithfully served his country of adoption and its livestock industry for many years. As Head of the CVL in Windhoek and then Chief Veterinary Officer, he succeeded in elevating the Namibian Veterinary Services to the status of an internationally recognised institution. He will be missed not only by his family, his Namibian colleagues and friends but also
Vicente R., Karla; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Perales C., Rosa; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Tabacchi N., Luis; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of perianal neoplasms in dogs from samples histopathologically diagnosed in the Animal Pathology Laboratory of the National University of San Marcos in the period 2005 to 2012. A total of 52 cases of perianal tumors were diagnosed in 1283 cases of canine tumors (4.1%). The hepatoid gland adenoma was the most frequent (46.2%, 24/52). El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de neoplasias perianales en caninos mediante...
Harman, Gonca; Cokelez, Aytekin; Dal, Burckin; Alper, Umut
The aim of this study was to examine pre-service science teachers' views about laboratory applications in science education and how their views changed through laboratory applications that were carried out for two semesters. 63 (52 females, 11 males) pre-service teachers participated in the study. The study was carried out by using pre-test and…
Karatas, F. O.
One of the prerequisites for chemistry teacher candidates is to demonstrate certain laboratory skills. This article aims to determine and discuss the competencies of pre-service chemistry teachers in a chemistry laboratory context working with solution chemistry content. The participants in this study consisted of a group of pre-service chemistry…
Sewell, Robin R; Funkhouser, Norma F; Foster, Christine L
The Texas A&M University Medical Sciences Library (MSL) supports lifelong learning for Texas veterinarians and College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS) alumni through several ongoing outreach efforts. The MSL provides free document delivery and literature search services to practicing veterinarians in support of patient care. The MSL also responded to unique opportunities to expand services and increase its visibility through collaborations with the American Association of Equine Practitioners and CABI, provider of VetMed Resource. The MSL continues to explore ways to expand its mission-critical veterinary outreach work and market library services to veterinarians through participation in continuing education, regional meetings, and veterinary student instruction.
Sanders, W.M.; Saunders, G.C.; Bartlett, M.L.; Holm, D.M.; Payne, R.J.; Lester, J.V.
Small-scale experiments and feasibility studies were performed for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Included were computer support for the payment of indemnity for brucellosis in Texas; the measurement of cattle ear canal temperatures and its automation was continued at the Veterinary Services Laboratory (VSL), Ames, IA; and two short serological probes experiments were supported. Also funds were transferred to support the Electronic Identification Project to enable this work to continue without interruption.
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills. For this purpose, eight laboratory activities related to chemical kinetic, chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, acids-bases, and electrochemistry were developed. Those activities were performed in virtual laboratory environment by the pre-service teachers in the experimental group and in the real laboratory environment by c the preservice teachers in the control group during eight weeks. Scientific process skills test developed by Burns, Okey and Wise , and translated into Turkish by Ateş and Bahar  was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to results, while there was no significant difference between pre-test mean scores (U=133.500, p>0.05, significant difference between post-test mean scores was found in favour of experimental group (U=76.000, p<0.05. In addition, while no significant difference between pre-test mean scores for each sub-dimension was found, significant difference between post-test mean scores for designing investigation and formulating hypothesis skills was found in favour of experimental group.
Oja, Paula I; Kouri, Timo T; Pakarinen, Arto J
To find out the satisfaction of clinical units with laboratory services in a university hospital, to point out the most important problems and defects in services, to carry out corrective actions, and thereafter to identify the possible changes in satisfaction. and Senior physicians and nurses-in-charge of the clinical units at Oulu University Hospital, Finland. Customer satisfaction survey using a questionnaire was carried out in 2001, indicating the essential aspects of laboratory services. Customer-specific problems were clarified, corrective actions were performed, and the survey was repeated in 2004. In 2001, the highest dissatisfaction rates were recorded for computerized test requesting and reporting, turnaround times of tests, and the schedule of phlebotomy rounds. The old laboratory information system was not amenable to major improvements, and it was renewed in 2004-05. Several clinical units perceived turnaround times to be long, because the tests were ordered as routine despite emergency needs. Instructions about stat requesting were given to these units. However, no changes were evident in the satisfaction level in the 2004 survey. Following negotiations with the clinics, phlebotomy rounds were re-scheduled. This resulted in a distinct increase in satisfaction in 2004. Satisfaction survey is a screening tool that identifies topics of dissatisfaction. Without further clarifications, it is not possible to find out the specific problems of customers and to undertake targeted corrective actions. Customer-specific corrections are rarely seen as improvements in overall satisfaction rates.
Lescinsky, D. T.; Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J. K.; Allen, C.; Fraser, R.; Rankine, T.
We present collaborative work on a generic, modular infrastructure for virtual laboratories (VLs, similar to science gateways) that combine online access to data, scientific code, and computing resources as services that support multiple data intensive scientific computing needs across a wide range of science disciplines. We are leveraging access to 10+ PB of earth science data on Lustre filesystems at Australia's National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) Research Data Storage Infrastructure (RDSI) node, co-located with NCI's 1.2 PFlop Raijin supercomputer and a 3000 CPU core research cloud. The development, maintenance and sustainability of VLs is best accomplished through modularisation and standardisation of interfaces between components. Our approach has been to break up tightly-coupled, specialised application packages into modules, with identified best techniques and algorithms repackaged either as data services or scientific tools that are accessible across domains. The data services can be used to manipulate, visualise and transform multiple data types whilst the scientific tools can be used in concert with multiple scientific codes. We are currently designing a scalable generic infrastructure that will handle scientific code as modularised services and thereby enable the rapid/easy deployment of new codes or versions of codes. The goal is to build open source libraries/collections of scientific tools, scripts and modelling codes that can be combined in specially designed deployments. Additional services in development include: provenance, publication of results, monitoring, workflow tools, etc. The generic VL infrastructure will be hosted at NCI, but can access alternative computing infrastructures (i.e., public/private cloud, HPC).The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) was developed as a pilot project to demonstrate the underlying technology. This base is now being redesigned and generalised to develop a Virtual Hazards Impact and Risk Laboratory
Raack, C; Lessing, R
This article gives a review over the beginning, the aims and the centres of gravidity of the association, which was founded on the 4th of January 1919 with the designation "German Veterinary Officers Association". The priority of its aims was the representation of the professional and commercial interests of the members before the background of the disarmament of the German Army, which was inforced by the victor nations. The federation supported the responsible veterinary officers of the Ministry of the "Reichswehr" in the matter of planing a new structure of the veterinary service of the "Reichswehr" in a very effective manner. In addition numerous members were represented in the sphere of commercial interests and public assistance. In 1936 the general meeting decided to dissolve the association, because there existed the danger, that the national socialistic leadership could forbid the membership of the active veterinary officers. In 1952 the federation was founded again and received the designation "Association of former Veterinary Officers and Members of the Veterinary Troops and their Survivors". One primary aim of the federation was the search of missing and killed members of the veterinary service of the "Wehrmacht". Further aims were the cultivation of comradship, the information and representation in the sphere of publical assistance of former professional veterinary officers and their survivors. Also the documentation of the history of the former army veterinary service was a task. In 1966 the veterinary officers of the "Bundeswehr" and the reservists received the possibility to become a member by a changing the statutes. At the same time the association was renamed in "Association of German Veterinary Officers". After temporary rising of the number of members it sank continuously at the end of the eighties. Because of the sinking of the rates of subscription, the general meeting decided on 12th May 2000 to dissolve the association.
Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Long, Kendra C
The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and degree of coverage of human relations and the human-animal bond in veterinary curricula across North America. The attitudes and opinions of a cohort of veterinary students and alumni about human relations skills and human-animal bond training in the veterinary program was also investigated. Twenty veterinary schools across North America were contacted and data were collected regarding their coverage of human relations and the human-animal bond in the curriculum. A survey was developed to measure attitudes and opinions about this type of training. The survey was disseminated to students in years 1 to 4 and alumni from the Ontario Veterinary College (OVC). Data were analyzed descriptively. Based on availability of contact people, 20 schools in North America were contacted, and all participated in the study. Each of the veterinary schools surveyed has incorporated strategies for teaching human relations skills through required courses, electives, guest speakers, and/or community service programs. The overall participation rate for OVC students was 53%. Ninety-nine percent of all students surveyed agreed that their ability to deal with people using effective human relations skills was a concern, and all students said they would like to receive more training in this area. There was a 41% participation rate for OVC alumni. Fifty-five percent of alumni said they had learned enough in the veterinary program to employ effective human relations skills in practice, yet 65% felt they had not received enough instruction in addressing the human-animal bond specifically. It is apparent that veterinary schools recognize the need to prepare entry-level practitioners to deal with the human-animal bond and with human relations. It is also evident that students and practitioners value receiving information of this nature in the curriculum and desire further training. Specific learning objectives for veterinary curricula have
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J
Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in recent years as a significant public health threat, which requires both an ethical and a scientific approach. In a recent Policy Delphi study, on-farm use of antimicrobials was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the second in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring the challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and emergency/casualty slaughter certification) we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and possible opportunities for responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials in Ireland. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely veterinarians working in public and private organisations, a representative from the veterinary regulatory body, a dairy farmer and a general medical practitioner. Three overarching constraints to prudent on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials emerged from the thematic analysis: 'Defective regulations', 'Lack of knowledge and values' regarding farmers and vets and 'Farm-centred concerns', including economic and husbandry concerns. Conversely, three main themes which reflect possible opportunities to the barriers were identified: 'Improved regulations', 'Education' and 'Herd health management'. Five main recommendations arose from this study based on the perspectives of the study participants including: a) the potential for regulatory change to facilitate an increase in the number of yearly visits of veterinarians to farms and to implement electronic prescribing and shorter validity of prescriptions; b) a 'One Health' education plan; c) improved professional guidance on responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials; d) improved on-farm herd health management practices; and e) the promotion of a 'One Farm-One Vet' policy. These findings may assist Veterinary Council of
Achterbosch, T.J.; Rau, M.L.
The official veterinary export certificate is a comprehensive instrument to regulate risks of animal disease transmission in global food trade. This paper documents how veterinary health attestation by public veterinary service in the Netherlands prevents export impediments. In order to maintain the
... HUMAN SERVICES International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine... ``International Workshop on Alternative Methods for Human and Veterinary Rabies Vaccine Testing: State of the... approaches that may reduce, refine, or replace animal use in human and veterinary rabies vaccine potency...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public...: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) eSubmitter Workshop.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration, 7520 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD...
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 161 RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation... veterinarians who are currently accredited in the National Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP) may continue...: Effective Date: August 23, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Todd Behre, National Veterinary...
... Veterinary Inspection AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This... certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI). The data standards would define the minimum data elements... system to be used to generate an official interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI). The...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 Veterinary Feed Directive; Draft Text for... draft text for a proposed regulation intended to improve the efficiency of FDA's Veterinary Feed... CONTACT: Sharon Benz, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-220), Food and Drug Administration, 7519...
... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 161 RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program... National Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP) may continue to perform accredited duties and to elect to.... Todd Behre, National Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 200, Riverdale...
Calgary Laboratory Services: A Unique Canadian Model for an Academic Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Succeeding in the Face of Provincial Integration of Public, Private, and Academic Laboratories.
Wright, James R
Calgary Laboratory Services provides global hospital and community laboratory services for Calgary and surrounding areas (population 1.4 million) and global academic support for the University of Calgary Cumming School of Medicine. It developed rapidly after the Alberta Provincial Government implemented an austerity program to address rising health care costs and to address Alberta's debt and deficit in 1994. Over roughly the next year, all hospital and community laboratory test funding within the province was put into a single budget, fee codes for fee-for-service test billing were closed, roughly 40% of the provincial laboratory budget was cut, and roughly 40% of the pathologists left the province of Alberta. In Calgary, in the face of these abrupt changes in the laboratory environment, private laboratories, publicly funded hospital laboratories and the medical school department precipitously and reluctantly merged in 1996. The origin of Calgary Laboratory Services was likened to an "unhappy shotgun marriage" by all parties. Although such a structure could save money by eliminating duplicated services and excess capacity and could provide excellent city-wide clinical service by increasing standardization, it was less clear whether it could provide strong academic support for a medical school. Over the past decade, iterations of the Calgary Laboratory Services model have been implemented or are being considered in other Canadian jurisdictions. This case study analyzes the evolution of Calgary Laboratory Services, provides a metric-based review of academic performance over time, and demonstrates that this model, essentially arising as an unplanned experiment, has merit within a Canadian health care context.
To address the economic hardships of the 1980‟s, Tanzania under pressure from its development partners both bilateral and multilateral embarked on structural adjustment program. In the case of veterinary services delivery systems reforms were advocated founded on privatisation and liberalisation. The government ...
Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C
The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and
Santos, Maria Angelica Borges dos; Moraes, Ricardo Montes de; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert
To develop performance indicators for outsourcing clinical laboratory services, based on information systems and public administrative records. In the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Southern Brazil, the public health laboratory network comprised 33 laboratories with automated equipment (but no integrated information system), 90 primary care units (where sample collection was performed) and 983 employees. Information records were obtained from the administrative records of the Budget Information System for Public Health and the Outpatient and Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System. Performance indicators (production, productivity, usage and costs) were generated from data collected routinely from 2006 to 2008. The variations in production, costs and unit prices for tests were analyzed by Laspeyres and Paasche indices, which specifically measure laboratory activity, and by the Consumer Price Index from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. A total of 10,359,111 tests were performed in 2008 (10.6% increase over 2006), and the test/employee ratio grew by 8.6%. The costs of supplies, wages and providers increased by 2.3%, 45.4% and 18.3%, respectively. The laboratory tests per visit and hospitalizations increased by 10% and 20%, respectively. The direct costs totaled R$ 63.2 million in 2008, representing an increase of 22.2% in current values during the period analyzed. The direct costs deflated by the Brazilian National Consumer Price Index (9.5% for the period) showed an 11.6% increase in production volumes. The activity-specific volume index, which considers changes in the mix of tests, showed increases of 18.5% in the test price and 3.1% in the production volume. The performance indicators, particularly the specific indices for volume and price of activity, constitute a baseline of performance potential for monitoring private laboratories and contractors. The economic performance indicators demonstrated the need for network
Pickles, K J; Rhind, S M; Miller, R; Jackson, S; Allister, R; Philp, J; Waterhouse, L; Mellanby, R J
Considerable evidence suggests that veterinary surgeons' mental health is often poorer than comparable populations and that the incidence of suicide is higher among veterinary surgeons than the general public. Veterinary students also appear to suffer from high levels of anxiety and stress, and may possess inadequate coping strategies when faced with adversity. Veterinary students may find it difficult to access central university support systems due to their heavy workload and geographical isolation on some veterinary campuses. A previous study of University of Edinburgh fourth-year veterinary students found that support services located several miles from the main veterinary campus was a barrier to students accessing counselling services. Consequently, a pilot project was initiated, which provided a counselling service at the University of Edinburgh's rural Easter Bush veterinary campus one afternoon a week during 2010. As part of the evaluation of this service, web-based questionnaires were delivered via e-mail to all veterinary staff and students towards the end of the 12-month pilot period to evaluate perceptions of barriers to student counselling and to investigate student-valued support services. Questionnaire responses were received from 35 per cent of veterinary students and 52 per cent of staff. Stigmatisation of being unable to cope was a potent inhibitor of seeking support within the veterinary environment, but counselling was perceived as valuable by the majority of staff and students. Provision of an on-site counselling service was considered important for increasing ease of access; however, students viewed friends and family as their most important support mechanism. Workload was cited as the main cause of veterinary student stress. The majority of staff and student respondents perceived veterinary students as having an increased need for counselling support compared with other students.
Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G
There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (pworking in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.
Lunney, Joan K; Kai, Chieko; Inumaru, Shigeki; Onodera, Takashi
This special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune systems of numerous food animals and wildlife, probing basic immunity and the influence of stress, genetics, nutrition, endocrinology and reproduction. Major presentations addressed defense against pathogens and alternative control and prevention strategies including vaccines, adjuvants and novel biotherapeutics. A special Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Co-operative Research Programme Sponsored Conference on "Vaccination and Diagnosis for Food Safety in Agriculture" highlighted the particular issue of "Immunology in Bovine Paratuberculosis". In April 2010 there was an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the southern part of Japan. This stimulated a special 9th IVIS session on FMD, sponsored by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) of Japan, to discuss improvements of FMD vaccines, their use in FMD control, and risk assessment for decision management. The 9th IVIS was supported by the Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) and included workshops for its MHC and Toolkit Committees. Finally VIC IUIS presented its 2010 Distinguished Service Award to Dr. Kazuya Yamanouchi for "outstanding contributions to the veterinary immunology community" and its 2010 Distinguished Veterinary Immunologist Award to Dr. Douglas F. Antczak for "outstanding research on equine immunology". Published by Elsevier B.V.
Addis, Zelalem; Birhan, Wubet; Derseh, Dejene; Sahle, Biruktawit; Gizaw, Netsanet
To assess physicians' and nurses' satisfaction with the service provided by the laboratory at Gondar University Hospital. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 196 nurses and physicians. Overall level of satisfaction was 51.1% for nurses and 51.5% for physicians. Lack of consistency in the quality of laboratory work, absence of a timely report of critical values, test turnaround time, acceptability of results released, and reporting of reference ranges with test results were areas mentioned as sources of dissatisfaction. The study showed wide room for improvement. In addition to taking intervention, root causes of dissatisfaction need to be investigated and means of improving the satisfaction level should be designed and implemented.
Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L
Urine drug testing (UDT) services are provided by a variety of clinical, forensic, and reference/specialty laboratories. These UDT services differ based on the principal activity of the laboratory. Clinical laboratories provide testing primarily focused on medical care (eg, emergency care, inpatients, and outpatient clinics), whereas forensic laboratories perform toxicology tests related to postmortem and criminal investigations, and drug-free workplace programs. Some laboratories now provide UDT specifically designed for monitoring patients on chronic opioid therapy. Accreditation programs for clinical laboratories have existed for nearly half a century, and a federal certification program for drug-testing laboratories was established in the 1980s. Standards of practice for forensic toxicology services other than workplace drug testing have been established in recent years. However, no accreditation program currently exists for UDT in pain management, and this review considers several aspects of laboratory accreditation and certification relevant to toxicology services, with the intention to provide guidance to clinicians in their selection of the appropriate laboratory for UDT surveillance of their patients on opioid therapy.
Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C
Veterinarians could be the expected sparring partners of organic dairy farmers in promoting animal health which is one of the main organic principles. However, in the past organic dairy farmers did not always consider veterinarians to be pertinent advisors for them. The objectives of this study...... not always able to establish themselves an advisory role supporting farmers in improving this. Indeed, organic production principles, regulations and farmers’ health approaches challenged veterinarians’ values on animal health and welfare and their perceptions of ‘good veterinary practices’. Also, some...... veterinarians considered that there was no direct economic interest for them in the organic dairy sector and that could diminish their willingness to invest in this sector. Possible opportunities for improvement were identified; for example proposing more proactively advice via existing organisations, by making...
Romero, A M; Rodríguez, R; López, J L; Martín, R; Benavente, J F
In 2008, the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service decided to implement a quality management system, in accordance with established requirements, in order to achieve ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. Although the Service comprises the approved individual monitoring services of both external and internal radiation, this paper is specific to the actions taken by the External Dosimetry Service, including personal and environmental dosimetry laboratories, to gain accreditation and the reflections of 3 y of operational experience as an accredited laboratory. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
... and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. Keywords: Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine, Integrative veterinary course, Integrative veterinary curriculum, Integrative veterinary medicine, ...
R Clive Landis; Kelly Carmichael-Simmons; Hambleton, Ian R; Anton Best
Objective Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. ...
Meehan, Merrill L.; Wiersma, William
As one of the federally-funded regional educational laboratories, the Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) is committed to assessing the impact of its products and services on a variety of client subgroups. These include educators and administrators at the elementary, secondary, and higher levels. To address the issue of measuring impact, the…
191-203. FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY. P.M.B. 2346, SOKOTO. NIGERIA. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. ISSN 1595-093X. Nwanta et al. /Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2008). 7(2): 42-45. Field trial of Malaysian thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine in.
Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... ... of the Kenya Veterinary Association. It publishes original papers in English, within the whole field of animal science and veterinary medicine and those addressing legal and policy issues related to the veterinary profession. The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy and Histology, ...
Funiciello, Francesca; Rosenau, Matthias; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Tesei, Telemaco; Trippanera, Daniele; Spires, Chris; Drury, Martyn; Kan-Parker, Mirjam; Lange, Otto; Willingshofer, Ernst
The EC policy for research in the new millennium supports the development of european-scale research infrastructures. In this perspective, the existing research infrastructures are going to be integrated with the objective to increase their accessibility and to enhance the usability of their multidisciplinary data. Building up integrating Earth Sciences infrastructures in Europe is the mission of the Implementation Phase (IP) of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) project (2015-2019). The integration of european multiscale laboratories - analytical, experimental petrology and volcanology, magnetic and analogue laboratories - plays a key role in this context and represents a specific task of EPOS IP. In the frame of the WP16 of EPOS IP working package 16, European geosciences multiscale laboratories aims to be linked, merging local infrastructures into a coherent and collaborative network. In particular, the EPOS IP WP16-task 4 "Data services" aims at standardize data and data products, already existing and newly produced by the participating laboratories, and made them available through a new digital platform. The following data and repositories have been selected for the purpose: 1) analytical and properties data a) on volcanic ash from explosive eruptions, of interest to the aviation industry, meteorological and government institutes, b) on magmas in the context of eruption and lava flow hazard evaluation, and c) on rock systems of key importance in mineral exploration and mining operations; 2) experimental data describing: a) rock and fault properties of importance for modelling and forecasting natural and induced subsidence, seismicity and associated hazards, b) rock and fault properties relevant for modelling the containment capacity of rock systems for CO2, energy sources and wastes, c) crustal and upper mantle rheology as needed for modelling sedimentary basin formation and crustal stress distributions, d) the composition, porosity, permeability, and
Hassan, I A; Critten, P; Isalska, B; Denning, D W
Fungal infection is increasingly recognised as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. Little information exists on laboratory services available and the methods used by general microbiology laboratories to diagnose these important infections. To investigate the services microbiology laboratories in northwest England provide towards the diagnosis and management of superficial and deep fungal infections. A questionnaire was sent to laboratories to get a holistic view of the support given to clinicians looking after patients with fungal infections. The aim was not to investigate details of each laboratory's standard operating procedures. The completed questionnaires, which formed the basis of this report, were returned by all 21 laboratories which were recruited. This study was conducted between March 2004 and September 2004. Services were provided to District General Hospitals and to six tertiary centres, including eight teaching hospitals by 16 laboratories. Their bed capacity was 250-1300 beds. Total specimens (including bacterial and viral) processed annually were 42 000-500,000 whereas fungal ones were 560-5400. In most microbiology laboratories of northwest England, clinicians were aware of the potential of fungal pathogens to cause infections especially in immunocompromised patients. Additional measures such as prolonged incubation of samples were introduced to improve fungal yield from patients at high risk. It is necessary to train and educate laboratory and medical staff about the role of serology and molecular methods in diagnosis and management of patients with fungal infection.
Full Text Available Homeopathy is an alternative medicine practice, which has been used for the past 200 years but, until now, scientific methods have not proven its effectiveness. The use of highly diluted natural substances based on the principal that similar heals similar is contrary to the scientific theories of the conventional medicine. In veterinary medicine homeopathic remedies are most frequently used for chronic conditions of small animals, but also their application in organic farming is increasing. Minimal number of clinical studies about the use of homeopathy in veterinary medicine has been published in scientific literature. The results of effectiveness are contradictory, which can be explained by being a consequence of different research methodologies. However, there is a significant inverse proportionality between the quality of research and results that approve of the use of homeopathy. In evidence based veterinary medicine scientific approach is fundamental for objective diagnostics and treatment prescription, and homeopathy is an excellent teaching model for possible methodological failures in scientific research. Key words: homeopathy, alternative medicine, evidence based veterinary medicine
1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria; 2Department of Animal Health .... and Tucker, 2004). Even for animals for which direct observation of intraocular structures is possible, ultrasonography may be helpful for tumor identification, ..... determination of the size of eye prosthesis in.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Vol 34 pi res-sea. Epizootiologicul Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in. Nomadic Pastoral ... brucellosis in the pastoral herds of Niger State despite its high cattle population and no research has ..... Brucella abortus infection in Cattle in Chile. Archivos de Med.Veterin.. 27: 45-50. ROTH, F., ZINSSTAG ...
Hikke, Mia C.; Pijlman, Gorben P.
Vaccination is essential in livestock farming and in companion animal ownership. Nucleic acid vaccines based on DNA or RNA provide an elegant alternative to those classical veterinary vaccines that have performed suboptimally. Recent advances in terms of rational design, safety, and efficacy have
leptospirosis. Case report. An 1 1 year old male Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the. University of lbadan (VTH-Ul) with a hist01y of anorexia, weakness and exercise intolerance of5 days duration. On clinical examination, the rectal temperature was normal andlung auscultation revealed a ...
Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...
'*Nigerian Veterinary Journal. ~. Vol35 (1)9~8· 955. ARTICLE. Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Isolates in cultured and Feral Clarias gariepinus of the Kainji Lake Area, Nigeria,. OMEJE, V.O.' and CHUKWU, C.C.. Aquaculture Programme. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Researcl1. PMB 6006, New Bussa, ...
Although the safety profile of short term dexamethasone treatment has been established, there has been ... Although low-dose dexamethasone treatment has been used in veterinary and human clinics for many years and produced no severe ..... in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PcOS) (Keay et al., 2001).
Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…
ovemight in a cool box. Serum was extracted using a plastic micropipette and transferred into sample bottles and was frozen until tested. Detection of antibodies to N DV. Antigen. Newcastle disease virus LaSota strain obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute. (NVRI), Vom, was used as antigen for HI-test.
Vet. J., March 2017. Vol 38 (1): 57-68. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. An Audit of Castration of Male Dogs in Enugu Metropolis, South. Eastern Nigeria. Raheem, K. A.. 1Department of Veterinary ..... The internal genital organs like the prostate gland, urethra, penis, bulbis ... As biotechnology and medicine continue to advance, other ...
Vet. J., June 2016. Vol. 37 (2): 82-87. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cystographic Evaluation Post Colocystoplasty in Two Nigerian. Indigenous Dogs. Muhammad S. T.*. 1 ., Awasum C. A.. 2 ... integrity/morphology of most internal body organs or system(s) of an individual, ..... Journal of Veterinary. Medicine and Animal Health, 7(1):.
Lungworms of Small Ruminants Slaughtered in Restaurants of Ambo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. 1. 1. 1. 2. GAROMSSA, T. , BERSISSA, K. , DINKA, A.* and ENDRIAS, Z. 1. 2. School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University. Ambo University. *Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org. INTRODUCTION.
NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 24-31. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Occurrence of Klebsiella Species in Cultured African Catfish in Oyo. State, South-West Nigeria. Adeshina, I. 1. *; Abdrahman, S. A.. 2 and Yusuf, A. A.. 3. 1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, ...
SUMMARY. An audit of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, lbadan between 2008 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate the level of compliance with standard practices. The study involved retrospective case note audit of surgical procedures performed during the period. A total number of 108.
In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.
Full Text Available Research Data Management (RDM provides a framework that supports researchers and their data throughout the course of their research and is increasingly regarded as one of the essential areas of responsible conduct of research. New tools and infrastructures make possible the generation of large volumes of digital research data in a myriad of formats. This facilitates new ways to analyse, share and reuse these outputs, with libraries, IT services and other service units within academic institutions working together with the research community to develop RDM infrastructures to curate and preserve this type of research output and make them re-usable for future generations. Working on the principle that a rationalised and continuous flow of data between systems and across institutional boundaries is one of the core goals of information management, this paper will highlight service integration via Electronic Laboratory Notebooks (ELN, which streamline research data workflows, result in efficiency gains for researchers, research administrators and other stakeholders, and ultimately enhance the RDM process.
The Veterinary Public Health Service and the National Organization for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response in the Netherlands: Development of a measurement strategy in case of nuclear accidents. De Veterinaire Hoofdinspectie en het NPK: Ontwikkeling van een meetstrategie
Lembrechts, J.F.M.M.; Pruppers, M.J.M.
In this report the position of the Veterinary Public Health Service (VHI), which is part of the Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs, within the National Organisation for Nuclear Emergency Planning and Response (NPK), is evaluated. NPK is activated in case of nuclear accidents in order to describe and model the evolution of the environmental contamination, to advise on countermeasures and to supervise their application and effects. Within this organisation VHI has to organize or execute measurements on animals and veterinary products and to coordinate countermeasures pertaining to their field of work. The suggestion is made to integrate the tasks of VHI and those of the Inspectorate for Health Protection (IGB) and to attune the activities of VHI and those of the State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (RIKILIT). Advices are given on how to detail the tasks of VHI adequately in the context of NPK, amongst others by describing methods to collect and interpret data. It is suggested to firstly put into practice in vivo monitoring techniques for '3'I and [sup 134]Cs/[sup 137]Cs and to agree with other institutions on plans for sampling, sample preparation and measurements of milk. Finally a monitoring strategy for VHI is broadly outlined. It provides the framework for the definition of a detailed programme on sampling and measurement in case of a real accident. The monitoring strategy gives answers on the crucial question 'what has to be measured why and how by which person'. Since questions on where, when and how frequently measurements have to made should be tailored to the actual emergency situation, they are not dealt with in this report. 5 figs., 5 tabs., 66 refs.
Clarke, Patricia M; Al-Alawneh, John; Pitt, Rachael E; Schull, Daniel N; Coleman, Glen T
Client or service user perspectives are important when designing curricula for professional programs. In the case of veterinary technology, an emerging profession in the veterinary field in Australasia, client views on desirable graduate attributes, skills, and knowledge have not yet been explored. This study reports on a survey of 441 veterinary clients (with 104 responses) from four veterinary practices in Brisbane, Queensland, conducted between October 2008 and February 2009. The included veterinary practices provided clinical placements for veterinary technology undergraduates and employment for veterinary technology graduates (2003-2007). Client socio-demographic data along with ratings of the importance of a range of technical (veterinary nursing) skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes for veterinary technology graduates were collected and analyzed. Overall, the majority of clients viewed technical skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes as important in the clinical practice of veterinary technology graduates with whom they interacted in the veterinary practice. Client interviews (n=3) contextualized the survey data and also showed that clients attached importance to graduates demonstrating professional competence. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four distinct groupings of clients within the data based on their differing perceptions. Using a multivariable proportional-odds regression model, it was also found that some client differences were influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, and number of visits annually. For example, the odds of female clients valuing emotionality and sociability were greater than males. These findings provide useful data for the design of a professionalizing and market-driven veterinary technology curriculum.
Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E
Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. © 2015 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.
Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.
Corley, Kevin T T; Mathews, Karol; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Bain, Fairfield T; Hughes, Dez
Veterinary species experience similar perturbations of their health to those of human patients. When the long-term prognosis is good and providing suffering can be minimized, animals stand to benefit greatly from recent advances in the field of emergency and critical care. Outcomes in many conditions in small and large animals have improved markedly in the last 15 years, as management has improved, making the financial and emotional investment in critical care worthwhile for many owners.
Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... of Veterinary Professional(s) G Appendix G to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. G Appendix G to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s) Part I—Geographic Areas A. Criteria for Food Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will...
Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.
Kontis, Alexios-Patapios; Siassiakos, Konstantinos; Kaimakamis, Georgios; Lazakidou, Athina
The field of the Laboratory Diagnostics (in vitro), a sector of the field of health services, constitutes an industrial market that includes activities of research, development, production and products distribution that are designated for laboratory use. These products are defined as techno-medical products including various categories of products such as simple medicines, advanced technological systems, etc. Despite the high performance, the enlargement and the increasing trends of the field, it is not recorded the expected progress in the methods and the ways of promotion, trading and supporting of these products in the market. The present paper aims at the investigation of the consumers' opinion and the specification of those services that are possible to be implemented in electronic services and commerce for a strongly competitive advantage for the enterprises of the sector. The analysis of the findings from the Consumer Purchase Decision Centres (CPDC) shows how important it is to implement web-based applications in the proposed services.
Full Text Available Background Given that the protection of children's health is of special importance due to their special age and physical conditions, the present study aimed to investigate the condition of children's Geographic access to health services (Health Centers and Clinical Laboratories in Kermanshah city, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this applied study, the research approach was descriptive-analytic using quantitative models in Geographic information system (GIS environment. The statistical population was the whole population of young girls aged 0-14 years old in Kermanshah, Iran. Moreover, to evaluate the spatial deployment pattern of health services and the correct and true access of this groupto such services, all data and information were collected through the Iranian Statistics Center and evaluated using the Arc-GIS Software. The latest published population statistics on the Population and Housing Census in 2011 were considered the basis for the analyses. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that more than 40% and 60% of the young girls aged 0-14 years old in Kermanshah were deprived of proper access to health centers and clinical laboratories, respectively. In terms of the status of children’s access in the Second Scenario (access to health services by vehicles and during 5, 10, and 15 minutes, about 5.53%, 93.1% and 15.1% lacked access to health centers, respectively. In addition, in terms of the status of children’s access to clinical laboratories during 5, 10, and 15 minutes, 17.26%, 65.4% and 51% lacked access to clinical laboratories, respectively. Conclusion: The access of young girls aged 0-14 years old to health services in Kermanshah was undesirable in the access to health services through walking. Additionally, the access of this groupto health services in the access to health services by vehicles was far better than the first one.
Rodrigo Gracia Motta
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the medical records of the patients whose mycological culture of the hair in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide was positive for dermathophytes, and review the cases of dermatophytosis. One hundred and thirty six medical records of patients (114 dogs and 22 cats with dermatophytosis attended in a period of 54 months in the Veterinary Hospital of the UNESP – Botucatu were evaluated. Results obtained in this analysis have shown that the majority of the cultures were positive for Mycrosporum canis. There was no statistical difference between genders, but the number of defined breed dogs presenting dermatophytosis was higher than mongrel dogs. Among feline cases, however, there were a higher number of mongrel cats. The majority of the people and animals in contact with the patients did not report skin lesions. 32,5% 0f the dogs presented middle intensity itchiness, while in cats itchiness was absent in 77,3% of cases. 69,3% of the animals did not present clinical signs other than dermatological. Mean ages were 4 years in dogs and 3 years in cats. There was no statistical effect of season in the occurrence of dermatophytosis. Among animals submitted to Wood lamp evaluation, 40,9% of the dogs and 33,3% of the cats were positive for dermatophytes. Most dogs had generalized lesions, while the majority of cats presented focal lesions. The most common lesions observed were: alopecia, crusts and erythema.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os prontuários dos pacientes cuja cultura micológica do pêlo, em meio Ágar Sabouraud dextrose, suplementado com cloranfenicol e ciclohexamida, foi positiva para dermatófitos, e realizar um levantamento da casuística de dermatofitose. Foram avaliados 136 prontuários de pacientes (114 caninos e 22 felinos com dermatofitose atendidos em período de 54 meses, no Hospital Veterinário da UNESP de Botucatu. Pela análise dos
Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bergman, Philip J
The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hamood, Wendy J; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L
To explore and gain an understanding of what "clinical communication skills" mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Participants' accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be "communication". Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession.
Schuurmans, A J; Smidts, A
An increase in the number of veterinarians, while at the same time the number of animals has remained constant, has resulted in growing competition. By extending the range of products and by enlarging the veterinarians' scope of activities this competition can be decreased. A marketing-orientation will be helpful in this respect. This article indicates in which way marketing concepts can be used in a veterinary practice. The services of the veterinarian will be looked at by means of the Abell approach. This focuses on the functions performed by the services and examines, per function performed, for whom this might be interesting and which alternatives there might be. Next the concept of market segmentation is filled in for a veterinary practice by means of a hypothetical example. The marketing mix (product, place, price, promotion and personnel) is given considerable attention. The last element of marketing in a veterinary practice that is discussed here is the marketing information system. In a next article the question will be answered how marketing-directed the Dutch veterinarian works nowadays. To find this out research has been done; 166 vets were interviewed by telephone for approximately 40 minutes each.
Roeder, Peter; Mariner, Jeffrey; Kock, Richard
Rinderpest was a devastating disease of livestock responsible for continent-wide famine and poverty. Centuries of veterinary advances culminated in 2011 with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health declaring global eradication of rinderpest; only the second disease to be eradicated and the greatest veterinary achievement of our time. Conventional control measures, principally mass vaccination combined with zoosanitary procedures, led to substantial declines in the incidence of rinderpest. However, during the past decades, innovative strategies were deployed for the last mile to overcome diagnostic and surveillance challenges, unanticipated variations in virus pathogenicity, circulation of disease in wildlife populations and to service remote and nomadic communities in often-unstable states. This review provides an overview of these challenges, describes how they were overcome and identifies key factors for this success.
Full Text Available The Internet has become a major source of health information and has the potential to offer many benefits for both human and animal health. In order for impact to be positive, however, it is critical that users be able to access reliable, trustworthy information. Although more pet owners are using the Internet to research animal health information than ever before, there remains limited research surrounding their online activities or the ability to influence owners’ online search behaviors. The current study was designed to assess the online behaviors and perceptions of pet owners after receiving either general or topic-specific information prescriptions as part of their veterinary appointment. Results indicate that nearly 60% of clients accessed the suggested websites and nearly all of these clients reported positive feelings about this addition to their veterinary services. These results suggest that offering information prescriptions to clients can facilitate better online searches by clients and positively impact both animal health and client satisfaction.
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's (VMRCVM) Class of 2011 was formally admitted to the college recently following a "White Coat Ceremony" at Virginia Tech in which the 91 new students were issued white laboratory coats and administered the "Veterinary Student's Oath."
Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.
Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential…
Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William
The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…
Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena
The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.
...: Background Science and Technology (S&T) Programs has been performing voluntary laboratory services under the...). These capital improvement costs are included in the normal operations of the Science and Technology... nearest whole dollar. ] With this action, the AMS will amend its regulations to provide for three annual...
Ishengoma, D R S; Rwegoshora, R T; Mdira, K Y
of supplies. If the health services in Tanga are not to be overwhelmed by the progressively increasing burden of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other emerging and re-emerging diseases, more funding and appropriate policies to improve the availability and quality of the area's diagnostic services......Although critical for good case management and the monitoring of health interventions, the health-laboratory services in sub-Saharan Africa are grossly compromised by poor infrastructures and a lack of trained personnel, essential reagents and other supplies. The availability and quality...
Newman, H. C.
Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.
This is a clinician's view of the current state of veterinary dentistry at the level of the general practitioner across the different species. An indication of the work done and the hazards commonly encountered are covered. To increase awareness within the dental profession of the current state of veterinary dentistry.
Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...
1Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology. 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine. Ahmadu Bello .... and cresol as its active ingredients. The most common disinfectant reported to be used in the various hatcheries investigated was Morigad® which has phenol as its active ingredient.
Focus and Scope. Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.
Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S
It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.
Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Engineering and Technology); Kusama, Tomoko
To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author).
Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John
Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.
Yagui, Martin; Ascencios, Luis; Yale, Gloria; Suarez, Carmen; Quispe, Neyda; Bonilla, Cesar; Blaya, Joaquin; Taylor, Allison; Contreras, Carmen; Cegielski, Peter
Over the past 10 years, the Peruvian National Tuberculosis (TB) Program, the National Reference Laboratory (NRL), Socios en Salud, and US partners have worked to strengthen the national TB laboratory network to support treatment of multidrug-resistant TB. We review key lessons of this experience. The preparation phase involved establishing criteria for drug susceptibility testing (DST), selecting appropriate DST methods, projecting the quantity of DST and culture to ensure adequate supplies, creating biosafe laboratory facilities for DST, training laboratory personnel on methods, and validating DST methods at the NRL. Implementation involved training providers on DST indications, validating conventional and rapid first-line DST methods at district laboratories, and eliminating additional delays in specimen transport and result reporting. Monitoring included ongoing quality control and quality assurance procedures. Hurdles included logistics, coordinating with policy, competing interests, changing personnel, communications, and evaluation. Operational research guided laboratory scale-up and identified barriers to effective capacity building. PMID:18439349
Tellez Iregui Gonzalo
Full Text Available The possession of animals represents one of the main sources of income for the majority of rural populations of developing countries. In addition, contribute to the generation and strengthening of financial capital, social and natural. In olombia, the livestock sector contributes with good part of Gross Domestic Product (GDP and is one of the main livelihoods for rural communities. The indigenous communities have traditionally had animals as a means of livelihood and in cultural determinants that characterize and differentiate between if. However, there are serious limitations of health and animal production, which influence negatively the traditional productive systems, reducing the efficiency of them and the quality of life of families. This work was developed with an indigenous community of Guachucal (Nariño, in which it use quantitative research methodologies and qualitative, involving various actors in animal production (producers and providers of services of public and private sectors. The results of work, allowed identify the factors that determine the demand for livestock services on the part of small indigenous producers, as well as identifying and prioritizing the needs and problems facing them, to keep their animals healthy and productive. In the same way, it was possible to identify and raise some patterns of improvement of the system of supply of services livestock.La tenencia de animales representa una de las principales fuentes de ingresos para la mayoría de poblaciones rurales de países en desarrollo. Además, coadyuva a la generación y fortalecimiento del capital financiero, social y natural. En Colombia, el sector pecuario contribuye con buena parte del producto interno bruto (PIB y es uno de los principales medios de vida para las comunidades rurales. Las comunidades indígenas tradicionalmente han mantenido animales como medio de subsistencia y atendiendo a las determinantes culturales que las caracterizan y diferencian
Alexander, C L; Currie, S; Pollock, K; Smith-Palmer, A; Jones, B L
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals through the ingestion of infective faeces. Whereas Cryptosporidium species can be acquired locally or through foreign travel, there is the mis-conception that giardiasis is considered to be largely travel-associated, which results in differences in laboratory testing algorithms. In order to determine the level of variation in testing criteria and detection methods between diagnostic laboratories for both pathogens across Scotland, an audit was performed. Twenty Scottish diagnostic microbiology laboratories were invited to participate with questions on sample acceptance criteria, testing methods, testing rates and future plans for pathogen detection. Reponses were received from 19 of the 20 laboratories representing each of the 14 territorial Health Boards. Detection methods varied between laboratories with the majority performing microscopy, one using a lateral flow immunochromatographic antigen assay, another using a manually washed plate-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and one laboratory trialling a plate-based EIA automated with an EIA plate washer. Whereas all laboratories except one screened every stool for Cryptosporidium species, an important finding was that significant variation in the testing algorithm for detecting Giardia was noted with only four laboratories testing all diagnostic stools. The most common criteria were 'travel history' (11 laboratories) and/or 'when requested' (14 laboratories). Despite only a small proportion of stools being examined in 15 laboratories for Giardia (2%-18% of the total number of stools submitted), of interest is the finding that a higher positivity rate was observed for Giardia than Cryptosporidium in 10 of these 15 laboratories. These findings highlight that the underreporting of Giardia in Scotland is likely based on current selection and testing algorithms.
Diana L. Eubanks
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.
van Foreest, Andries
Rooted in human dentistry, veterinary dentistry has developed steadily in the Netherlands since the 1980s and is now recognized as an essential discipline of veterinary medicine. The availability of specialized tools and techniques has led to improved treatment outcomes and results, with the choice of treatment being largely determined by the functionality of the dentition and the costs involved. Domestic animals and horses with dental problems should be referred to dental veterinarians. The Working Group Veterinary Dentistry in the Netherlands is an association for skilled veterinarians with professional dental equipment at their disposal.
... Biological Products for Swine Influenza Vaccines AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service... methods of use as Veterinary Influenza Vaccines. Sustained outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza in... mechanism. These veterinary influenza vaccines are specifically designed for poultry, swine and equine...
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health...
Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D
A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Nault, Andre J.
Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…
Li, Jiakui; Guo, Dingzong; Zhou, Donghai; Wu, Xiaoxiong
Veterinary internal medicine (VIM) is a core subject and important clinical discipline for undergraduate students of veterinary science. The present paper reviews current information about the teaching of VIM, presents a description of the veterinary science curriculum, suggests methods to improve the quality of VIM teaching in China, and describes difficulties, problems, and trends in veterinary education in China.
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
Tinga, C E; Adams, C L; Bonnett, B N; Ribble, C S
To determine perceptions of veterinary technical and professional skills among veterinary students and recent graduates. Cross-sectional study. 281 students and 142 recent graduates from the Ontario Veterinary College. A survey was designed and administered to first- through fourth-year students and veterinarians who had graduated either 1 or 6 years before survey administration. Overall response rate was 70%. Learning about technical and professional skills was highly valued. Most participants felt they had not received instruction about professional skills, but those who had felt more competent about them. Perceptions of competence increased slightly with increased comfort discussing emotional veterinary issues with instructors. Neither gender nor increased age was related to increased feelings of competence. Almost all fourth-year students felt competent and comfortable about examining an animal with the client present, assessing suffering, diagnosing parvovirus infection, performing surgery, and working as group members. However, many did not feel competent or comfortable about delivering bad news, setting time limits yet providing quality service, helping clients with limited funds make treatment decisions, dealing with demanding people, and euthanasia. Feelings of competence and comfort were closely related but were not identical. In the interests of best preparing entry-level veterinarians, technical and professional skills need to be emphasized in a learning environment where students feel comfortable discussing emotional veterinary issues. A professional skills curriculum addressing underlying self-awareness, communication, and interpersonal issues, as well as procedural matters, would likely increase the proportion of fourth-year students who feel competent and comfortable about professional skills by the end of their undergraduate training.
Full Text Available In 1908 a Pan-African Veterinary Conference formed part of the inauguration ceremony of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Laboratory. Attended by 18 delegates from 12 countries in southern Africa, including the four colonies and three protectorates forming British South Africa, Rhodesia, German South West Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Madagascar and the Belgian Congo, discussions focussed on the animal diseases of the region with the emphasis on trypanosomosis (nagana and East Coast fever. The successful meeting was followed by a series of similar conferences held in different African countries during the first half of the 20th Century.
Richardson, Anastasia Dawn
This Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (PPOA) was conducted for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Fleet Services Department between December 2001 and August 2002. This is the third PPOA conducted at Fleet in the last decade. The primary purpose of this PPOA was to review progress of past initiatives and to provide recommendations for future waste reduction measures of hazardous and solid waste streams and increasing the purchase of environmentally friendly products. This report contains a summary of the information collected and analyses performed with recommended options for implementation. The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Pollution Prevention Group will work with SNL/NM's Fleet Services to implement these options.
This report has been developed in response to a request from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to evaluate the need for fire department services so as to enable the Laboratory to plan effective fire protection and thereby: meet LANL`s regulatory and contractual obligations; interface with the Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies on matters relating to fire and emergency services; and ensure appropriate protection of the community and environment. This study is an outgrowth of the 1993 Fire Department Needs Assessment (prepared for DOE) but is developed from the LANL perspective. Input has been received from cognizant and responsible representatives at LANL, DOE, Los Alamos County (LAC) and the Los Alamos Fire Department (LAFD).
Barbarossa, A; Rambaldi, J; Miraglia, V; Giunti, M; Diegoli, G; Zaghini, A
This investigation provides for the first time a general view of the prescribing patterns of antimicrobials in small animal practice in Emilia Romagna, Italy. In the context of a project on antimicrobial resistance managed by the Regional Veterinary Service, veterinary clinicians were invited to voluntarily complete an online questionnaire. This was designed to gather information on antimicrobial prescribing practices and biosecurity measures and to understand the perception of the issue specific to this region of Italy. In total, 266 questionnaires correctly completed were collected. Although clinicians seemed to follow different approaches when using antimicrobials, the data analysis revealed a general awareness on resistance. Penicillins were the most commonly prescribed class, followed by (fluoro)quinolones and cephalosporins. Among those who use laboratory testing more or less frequently (microbiological analysis and susceptibility testing) to support their prescribing habits, only 7 per cent make a habit of always waiting for the results before starting the treatment. Seventy-eight per cent of the respondents declared the use of antimicrobials licensed for human beings. Biosecurity measures were carefully taken into account by the majority of the veterinarians. The results identified the antimicrobial classes that are commonly prescribed and highlighted that perioperative hygiene measures and the use of laboratory diagnosis are critical aspects that need to be emphasised in drawing up guidelines on the prudent use of these drugs in pets.
Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Board on Higher Education and Workforce; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council
In a study of the issues related to the veterinary medical workforce, including demographics, workforce supply, trends affecting job availability, and capacity of the educational system to fill future...
Martinsen, Siri; Jukes, Nick
There is a vast array of learning tools and approaches to veterinary education, many tried and true, many innovative and with potential. Such new methods have come about partly from an increasing demand from both students and teachers to avoid methods of teaching and training that harm animals. The aim is to create the best quality education, ideally supported by validation of the efficacy of particular educational tools and approaches, while ensuring that animals are not used harmfully and that respect for animal life is engendered within the student. In this paper, we review tools and approaches that can be used in the teaching of veterinary students, tools and approaches that ensure the dignity and humane treatment of animals that all teachers and students must observe as the very ethos of the veterinary profession that they serve. Veterinary education has not always met, and still often does not meet, this essential criterion.
Adane, Kasaw; Abiy, Zenegnaw; Desta, Kassu
The rapid and continuous growth of health care cost aggravates the frequently low priority and less attention given in financing laboratory services. The poorest countries have the highest out-of-pocket spending as a percentage of income. Higher charges might provide a greater potential for revenue. If fees raise quality sufficiently, it can enhance usage. Therefore, estimating the revenue generated from laboratory services could help in capacity building and improved quality service provision. Panel study design was used to determine revenue generated from clinical chemistry and hematology services at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Activity-Based Costing (ABC) model was used to determine the true cost of tests performed from October 2011 to December 2011 in the hospital. The principle of Activity-based Costing is that activities consume resources and activities consumed by services which incur the costs and hence service takes the cost of resources. All resources with costs are aggregated with the established casual relationships. The process maps designed was restructured in consultation with the senior staffs working and/or supervising the laboratory and pretested checklists were used for observation. Moreover, office documents, receipts and service bills were used while collecting data. The amount of revenue collected from services was compared with the cost of each subsequent test and the profitability or return on investment (ROI) of services was calculated. Data were collected, entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 software program and Statistical Software Package for Social Sciences version 19 (SPSS). Paired sample t test was used to compare the price and cost of each test. P-value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. A total of 25,654 specimens were analyzed during 3 months of regular working hours. The total numbers of clinical chemistry and hematology tests performed during
Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy
This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Fortier, Lisa A; Travis, Alexander J
The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The same methods can be used to generate transgenic animals for production o...
Musser Jeffrey MBDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, TX, USAThis year marks the 250th anniversary of the Royal Veterinary School in Lyon, France, the world's first veterinary college. Since its inception, many changes have occurred in veterinary medicine such as views on education and didactic learning, demographics of our profession, and standards of practice in animal husbandry, medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and vacci...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Geomechanics Laboratory allows its users to measure rock properties under a wide range of simulated service conditions up to very high pressures and complex load...
Fish is capable of habouring diseases and therefore, must be safe and free of .... significant work on occurrence of Klebsiella ... The samples were brought to the laboratory and subjected to microbiological analysis under sterile conditions.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary feed directive drugs. 558.6 Section 558.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions...
Tomlinson, Lindsay; Boone, Laura I; Ramaiah, Lila; Penraat, Kelley A; von Beust, Barbara R; Ameri, Mehrdad; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Weingand, Kurt; Workman, Heather C; Aulbach, Adam D; Meyer, Dennis J; Brown, Diane E; MacNeill, Amy L; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Bounous, Denise I
The purpose of this paper by the Regulatory Affairs Committee (RAC) of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) is to review the current regulatory guidances (eg, guidelines) and published recommendations for best practices in veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, and to utilize the combined experience of ASVCP RAC to provide updated recommendations. Discussion points include (1) instrumentation, validation, and sample collection, (2) routine laboratory variables, (3) cytologic laboratory variables, (4) data interpretation and reporting (including peer review, reference intervals and statistics), and (5) roles and responsibilities of clinical pathologists and laboratory personnel. Revision and improvement of current practices should be in alignment with evolving regulatory guidance documents, new technology, and expanding understanding and utility of clinical pathology. These recommendations provide a contemporary guide for the refinement of veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology best practices. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
A K Srikrishnan
Full Text Available To describe the changes in HIV services provided and the patient population utilizing voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services at private testing laboratories in Chennai, India in 2001 and 2006.In 2001, a cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted to assess the services provided and client population of 1,031 private laboratories. A subset of labs (9% that had been surveyed in 2001 were also studied in 2006.In 2001, significantly more high volume labs (>10 HIV tests per month offered HIV diagnostic tests than low volume labs (<10 HIV test per month (p<0.001. More high volume labs (20.0% provided pre-test counseling as part of HIV testing than low volume labs (11.1% (p = 0.003. Between 2001 and 2006, the number of labs that provided HIV diagnostic tests significantly increased, including ELISA (87.8% vs. 40.0%, Western Blot (84.4% vs. 13.3%, and Tridot (98.9% vs. 72.2% (p<0.001. Also the number of labs that reported greater than 10 women seeking HIV testing per month significantly increased from 14.5% to 79.0% (p = 0.006. More labs provided pre-test counseling in 2006 (34.4% than in 2001 (21.1% (p = 0.046.Though HIV diagnostic testing services have increasingly become available, counseling services have not expanded commensurately. Further outreach and education is necessary to expand comprehensive HIV VCT services in both urban and rural India.
Corrosion/rust. j. Cuts/abrasions/scratches. k. Peeling /flaking/chipping. l. Etching/grazing/checking. m. Detinning, flaking of enamel lining. n...to paragraph 1–14. C–2. Step–by–Step example procedure for inspecting canned pineapple An inspector is directed to perform a class 9 inspection on a...lot consisting of 3500 cases of pineapple , regular pack, packed 6 cans per case. The lot has not exceeded the storage life recommended in DoD 4145.19–R
...) Participating with the Administrator of APHIS and other officials in the planning and formulation of policies... Marketing Act of 1946, as amended, with respect to voluntary inspection and certification of animal products.... 9701), and sections 2508 and 2509 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, as...
Temporomandibular disorder patients in maintenance therapy. c. Class 3. Patients who have oral conditions that if not treated are expected to result in dental...oral infections, or provide timely follow-up care (for example, drain or suture removal) until resolved. (8) Temporomandibular disorders requiring...Standards. Cervical cytological smear (Papanicolaou smear) screening results should be available to the patient within 14 days of specimen collection
Catton, Michael; Druce, Julian; Papadakis, Goergina; Tran, Thomas; Birch, Christopher
In Australia, the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 began in Melbourne, Victoria; in the first 17 days, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory detected 977 cases. Although the laboratory had a pandemic plan in place, a retrospective evaluation found 3 major variations from plan assumptions: 1) higher peak demand not limited by a case definition, 2) prolonged peak demand because containment attempts continued despite widespread influenza, and 3) unexpected influence of negative test results on public health actions. Although implementation of the plan was generally successful, the greatest challenges were limited availability of skilled staff and test reagents. Despite peak demand of 1,401 tests per day, results were provided within the usual 24 hours of specimen receipt; however, turnaround time seemed slower because of slow transport times (>3 days for 45% of specimens). Hence, effective laboratory capability might be enhanced by speeding transport of specimens and improving transmission of clinical data.
Bogale, Agajie Likie; Kassa, Habtamu Belay; Ali, Jemal Haidar
The most effective strategies in the fight against malaria are to correctly diagnose and timely treat the illness. A diagnosis based on clinical symptoms alone is subjected to misuse of anti-malarial drugs, increased costs to the health services, patient dissatisfaction and also contributes to an increase in non-malaria morbidity and mortality. Among others, inappropriate perception and inadequate satisfaction of patients are significant challenges reported to affect the quality of laboratory malaria diagnostic services. A facility-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from November to December 2013 among 300 patients. Their level of satisfaction was measured using both pre-tested structured and open ended questionnaires. A 5-point Likert scales and their weighted average were used to categorize satisfaction level of the patients. Data were entered in Epi-Info version 3.5.3 and analysed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was used to see the association between the outcome variable and independent and the strength of the association was identified using odds ratio in the binary logistic regression. In addition the open ended questionnaire findings were coded and analysed thematically. Over half (52.6%) of the patients were satisfied with the malaria diagnostic service with a 98.7% response rate. The majority (89.3%) of patients perceived they were well diagnosed in facing fever upon giving blood for laboratory malaria diagnosis within 30 min waiting time in most (62.5%) of the patients. Ethnicity, residence, knowing malaria diagnosis after consulting clinician, and time period to receive malaria result were the independent predictors for patient satisfaction (pscale-up in the enhancement of malaria laboratory diagnostic service in the fight against malaria.
This article suggests that veterinary medicine has a leadership role to play in our society on ethical matters involving non-human animals. The article contrasts two trends within veterinary medicine; the first trend is a continuation of the avowedly utilitarian attitude toward non-humans that has its roots in Western veterinary medicine's eighteenth-century origins, and the second is the implicit view in veterinary practice that animals matter in and of themselves. Using the idea of alternatives in research and teaching, the article suggests that, in the years to come, veterinary medicine's answers to the relationships of these two trends will shape not only the soul of veterinary medicine, veterinary education, and the veterinary profession but, just as importantly, the larger society and culture themselves. This text is based on the keynote address delivered at the AAVMC Education Symposium in Washington, DC, on March 9, 2006, under the title "Ethical Issues Impacting Animal Use in Veterinary Medical Teaching."
The Symposium on Technology in Laboratories was held on March 14 and 15 at Ceratopia Toki in Toki City, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. This symposium was hosted by National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). There were 407 participants from many Japanese universities, national laboratories, technical colleges and from some Japanese Industrial world. One hundred and thirty one papers were presented in the symposium. Technical experience and new techniques were reported and discussed being divided into five sessions; technology of fabrication, device technology, diagnostic and control system, cryogenics, computer and data processing. (author)
Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are common high-impact diseases in tropical and subtropical areas. However, other non-mosquito vector-borne pathogens (VBPs may share their geographic distribution, seasonality, and clinical manifestations, thereby contributing their share to the morbidity and mortality caused by febrile illnesses in these regions. The purpose of this work was to collect and review existing information and identify knowledge gaps about tick, flea-, and louse-borne diseases of veterinary and public health significance in Nigeria. Full-length articles about VBPs were reviewed and relevant information about the vectors, their hosts, geographic distribution, seasonality, and association(s with human or veterinary diseases was extracted. Specific laboratory tools used for detection and identification of VBPs in Nigeria were also identified. A total of 62 original publications were examined. Substantial information about the prevalence and impacts of ticks and fleas on pet and service dogs (18 articles, and livestock animals (23 articles were available; however, information about their association with and potential for causing human illnesses was largely absent despite the zoonotic nature of many of these peri-domestic veterinary diseases. Recent publications that employed molecular methods of detection demonstrated the occurrence of several classic (Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia africae, Bartonella sp. and emerging human pathogens (R. aeschlimannii, Neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks and fleas. However, information about other pathogens often found in association with ticks (R. conorii and fleas (R. typhi, R. felis across the African continent was lacking. Records of louse-borne epidemic typhus in Nigeria date to 1947; however, its current status is not known. This review provides an essential baseline summary of the current knowledge in Nigeria of non-mosquito VBPs, and should stimulate improvements in the surveillance of the veterinary and
The Aschheim–Zondek reaction is generally regarded as the first reliable hormone test for pregnancy and as a major product of the ‘heroic age’ of reproductive endocrinology. Invented in Berlin in the late 1920s, by the mid 1930s a diagnostic laboratory in Edinburgh was performing thousands of tests every year for doctors around Britain. In her classic history of antenatal care, sociologist Ann Oakley claimed that the Aschheim–Zondek test launched a ‘modern era’ of obstetric knowledge, which asserted its superiority over that of pregnant women. This article reconsiders Oakley’s claim by examining how pregnancy testing worked in practice. It explains the British adoption of the test in terms less of the medicalisation of pregnancy than of clinicians’ increasing general reliance on laboratory services for differential diagnosis. Crucially, the Aschheim–Zondek reaction was a test not directly for the fetus, but for placental tissue. It was used, less as a yes-or-no test for ordinary pregnancy, than as a versatile diagnostic tool for the early detection of malignant tumours and hormonal deficiencies believed to cause miscarriage. This test was as much a product of oncology and the little-explored world of laboratory services as of reproductive medicine. PMID:24388014
The Aschheim-Zondek reaction is generally regarded as the first reliable hormone test for pregnancy and as a major product of the 'heroic age' of reproductive endocrinology. Invented in Berlin in the late 1920s, by the mid 1930s a diagnostic laboratory in Edinburgh was performing thousands of tests every year for doctors around Britain. In her classic history of antenatal care, sociologist Ann Oakley claimed that the Aschheim-Zondek test launched a 'modern era' of obstetric knowledge, which asserted its superiority over that of pregnant women. This article reconsiders Oakley's claim by examining how pregnancy testing worked in practice. It explains the British adoption of the test in terms less of the medicalisation of pregnancy than of clinicians' increasing general reliance on laboratory services for differential diagnosis. Crucially, the Aschheim-Zondek reaction was a test not directly for the fetus, but for placental tissue. It was used, less as a yes-or-no test for ordinary pregnancy, than as a versatile diagnostic tool for the early detection of malignant tumours and hormonal deficiencies believed to cause miscarriage. This test was as much a product of oncology and the little-explored world of laboratory services as of reproductive medicine. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper illustrates and discusses the key issues of the geographical information system (GIS developed by the Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology of the Veneto region (CREV, defined according to user needs, spatial data (availability, accessibility and applicability, development, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationships, constraints and policies. GeoCREV, the support system for decision-making, was designed to integrate geographic information and veterinary laboratory data with the main aim to develop a sub-national, spatial data infrastructure (SDI for the veterinary services of the Veneto region in north-eastern Italy. Its implementation required (i collection of data and information; (ii building a geodatabase; and (iii development of a WebGIS application. Tools for the management, collection, validation and dissemination of the results (public access and limited access were developed. The modular concept facilitates the updating and development of the system according to user needs and data availability. The GIS management practices that were followed to develop the system are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of the key elements of the GIS implementation process (data model, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationship, user dimension and institutional framework. Problems encountered in organising the non-spatial data and the future work directions are also described.
Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür
The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…
Northeast Missouri State College developed a Teaching Skills Center providing a program of early professional laboratory experiences for all elementary and secondary education majors. The program includes four components: audiovisual utilization, instructional materials preparation, microteaching, and actual school experience. Each training…
Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jensen, Asger L
The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review and selection of publications as standard references. The following recommendations are provided in the format and order commonly found in veterinary publications. A checklist is provided to aid in planning, implementing, and evaluating veterinary studies on biologic variation (Appendix S1). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Rosane Regina Pilger
Full Text Available O trabalho avalia aspectos referentes à classificação e segregação dos resíduos gerados no Hospital Veterinário da Ulbra (RS, a partir de estudos realizados para a elaboração do Plano de Gerenciamento dos Resíduos de Serviço de Saúde (PGRSS, para a instituição. O plano foi baseado na resolução RDC nº 306/2004 da ANVISA (Brasil, 2004, que define as diretrizes para o manejo dos resíduos de instituições de saúde, incluindo a segregação, coleta, armazenamento, transporte interno e externo, tratamento e disposição final. A partir da caracterização, classificação e do diagnóstico das atividades de manejo dos resíduos do hospital, foi possível avaliar a importância da segregação, no local de origem, para a redução de resíduos que necessitam de tratamentos especiais, bem como para a redução de riscos de propagação de doenças.This work evaluates some referring aspects to the residues classification and segregation generated in Ulbra’s Veterinary Hospital (RS, starting from studies accomplished in the elaboration of a Residues Health Service Management Plan (PGRSS, for the institution. The plan was based on RDC nº 306/2004 ANVISA’s Resolution (Brasil, 2004, that defines the guidelines for handling the health institutions residues, including the segregation, collection, storage, internal and external transportation, treatment and final disposition. From the characterization, classification and the diagnostic handling activities of hospital residues, it was possible to evaluate the segregation importance, in the origin location, for the residues reduction that need special treatments, as well as for the risks reduction of diseases propagation.
Medical historians have recently become interested in the veterinary past, investigating the development of animal health in countries such as France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. An appreciation of the German context, however, is still lacking - a gap in the knowledge that the present article seeks to fill. Providing a critical interpretation of the evolution of the veterinary profession, this investigation explains why veterinary and medical spheres intersected, drifted apart, then came back together; it also accounts for the stark differences in the position of veterinarians in Germany and Britain. Emphasis is placed on how diverse traditions, interests and conceptualisations of animal health shaped the German veterinary profession, conditioned its field of operation, influenced its choice of animals and diseases, and dictated the speed of reform. Due to a state-oriented model of professionalisation, veterinarians became more enthusiastic about public service than private practice, perceiving themselves to be alongside doctors and scientists in status, rather than next to animal healers or manual labourers. Building on their expertise in epizootics, veterinarians became involved in zoonoses, following outbreaks of trichinosis. They achieved a dominant position in meat hygiene by refashioning abattoirs into sites for the construction of veterinary knowledge. Later, bovine tuberculosis helped veterinarians cement this position, successfully showcasing their expertise and contribution to society by saving as much meat as possible from diseased livestock. Ultimately, this article shows how veterinarians were heavily 'entangled' with the fields of medicine, food, agriculture and the military.
SUMMARY. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an acute, severe and economically important transboundary disease of cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV). Suspected outbreaks of LSD are frequently reported in. Nigeria, but laboratory diagnosis is seldom carried out and the economic impact of the disease is unknown. This study ...
practice in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of drugs prescription in dogs diagnosed with CPE in some small animal clinics in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... presumptive and/or laboratory diagnoses. Data obtained from individual .... be appropriate and prudent. There is currently no ...
INTRODUCTION. Rabbits are widely used as laboratory animals for biomedical research. (Flecknell, 1987). They have also gained popularity among urban dwellers as domestic pets (Kilic, 2004). As a result, the same level of attention in the form of cares given to other pets by veterinarians has been extended to them.
DeForge, Donald H
Ergonomics is the application of a body of knowledge addressing the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace. Work related musculoskeletal injuries, caused by poor posture, have been discussed in human dentistry for several years. Veterinary dentistry, as a relatively new specialty within veterinary medicine, should address the ergonomics of poor posture without further delay to prevent work-related injuries. The generalist, as well as the specialist and their technicians, are subject to various neck and back disorders if proper ergonomic recommendations are not followed. This review article highlights basic ergonomic design principles for illumination and posture in veterinary dentistry.
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathleen P; Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E
Point-of-care testing (POCT) refers to any laboratory testing performed outside the conventional reference laboratory and implies close proximity to patients. Instrumental POCT systems consist of small, handheld or benchtop analyzers. These have potential utility in many veterinary settings, including private clinics, academic veterinary medical centers, the community (eg, remote area veterinary medical teams), and for research applications in academia, government, and industry. Concern about the quality of veterinary in-clinic testing has been expressed in published veterinary literature; however, little guidance focusing on POCT is available. Recognizing this void, the ASVCP formed a subcommittee in 2009 charged with developing quality assurance (QA) guidelines for veterinary POCT. Guidelines were developed through literature review and a consensus process. Major recommendations include (1) taking a formalized approach to POCT within the facility, (2) use of written policies, standard operating procedures, forms, and logs, (3) operator training, including periodic assessment of skills, (4) assessment of instrument analytical performance and use of both statistical quality control and external quality assessment programs, (5) use of properly established or validated reference intervals, (6) and ensuring accurate patient results reporting. Where possible, given instrument analytical performance, use of a validated 13s control rule for interpretation of control data is recommended. These guidelines are aimed at veterinarians and veterinary technicians seeking to improve management of POCT in their clinical or research setting, and address QA of small chemistry and hematology instruments. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide a minimum standard for maintenance of POCT instruments in the veterinary setting. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
R Clive Landis
Full Text Available Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service.Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama. VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples.A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2% mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001.We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.
Landis, R Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R; Best, Anton
Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.
Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative.
Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270
Ghatak, S; Singh, B B
Veterinary public health (VPH) assumes huge significance in developing countries such as India. However, the implementation of VPH services throughout the country is still in its infancy. From 1970 onwards, many institutes, national and international organisations, professional societies, policies and personalities have contributed towards the development of VPH in India. Nevertheless, there is an urgent need to develop VPH still further as there are many issues, such as high population density, the re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance, that require attention. The time has surely come to involve all stakeholders, ranging from primary producers (e.g., farmers) to policy-makers, so as to garner support for the holistic implementation of VPH services in India. To improve VPH activities and services, science-based policies enforced through stringent regulation are required to improve human, animal and environmental health. The emergence of the 'One Health' concept has ushered in new hopes for the resurrection of VPH in India. Applying tools such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OlE) Day One Competencies and the OlE Tool for the Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS Tool) is essential to improve the quality of national Veterinary Services and to identify gaps and weaknesses in service provision, which can be remedied to comply with the OlE international standards. VPH initiatives started modestly but they continue to grow. The present review is focused on the current status and future needs of VPH in India.
Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B
Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lasers have been used in human dentistry since the 1960's. Lasers can provide a veterinary dentist access to difficult to reach areas with a relatively bloodless surgical field. Due to vaporization of nerve endings, human patients undergoing laser dental treatment reveal less pain compared to scalpel driven procedures. Dental applications for the commonly used lasers are discussed, as are special safety precautions. Many dental procedures enhanced by a carbon dioxide laser are covered. Future applications for the laser in veterinary dentistry are also discussed.
Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L
Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications.
... Control Point (HACCP) systems, processing establishments should be able to freely operate at any... inspection service. The commenters' concern relates to a separate issue that is whether HACCP systems in... 500 employees) and 2,720 very small establishments (with fewer than 10 employees) based on HACCP...
Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.
All submitted manuscripts are checked for plagiarism using PlagScan Plagiarism Detection Software: The image shows our cooperation with the online plagiarism detection service PlagScan. Submission ... For case reports, text should be organized as follows: Introduction, Case Details, Discussion, and References. Review ...
Walker, S; Dimech, W; Kiely, P; Smeh, K; Francis, B; Karakaltsas, M; Dax, E M
Laboratories screening for blood-borne virus infections in blood and blood products are required by international standards and guidelines to ensure that their testing processes remain within control. An effective means of ensuring this aim is through participation in a quality control programme. Analyses of results from a quality control (QC) programme conducted for the Abbott PRISM (PRISM) assays are reported. Laboratories participating in the National Serology Reference Laboratory, Australia's PRISM QC programme were provided with aliquots of a multimarker QC sample which were tested regularly in each PRISM subchannel. Test results were submitted to a single database using an Internet-based QC monitoring system, EDCNet. The QC test results submitted between 15 October 2001 and 5 March 2006 for each PRISM instrument and each lot of PRISM reagent were analysed to determine the imprecision and bias in each test system. A total of 157,404 test results from approximately 47,000 test runs submitted into the EDCNet database were analysed. Six batches of the multimarker QC samples were tested in 454 PRISM reagent lots. The coefficient of variation of QC sample test results ranged from 9.17 to 15.83%, 8.29 to 9.44%, 10.50 to 15.38% and 7.05 to 10.32% when tested in the PRISM anti-hepatitis C virus, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-human T-cell lymphotrophic virus and hepatitis B surface antigen assays, respectively. Analysis of QC test results reported from testing in the anti-HTLV assay detected one lot of reagent (10572HN00) which was identified to be an outlier using Tukey's filter. Analysis of test results of an external QC sample can be used as a statistical process control through ongoing measurement of imprecision. When laboratories test the same QC sample in the same assay and submit test results to a single database, the results can be compared and a measure of bias can be calculated. The resulting QC programme can offer detection of unexpected variation
Maintaining a multifacility national laboratory in a safe, reliable condition is a complex management responsibility in terms of budgets, costs, and proper utilization of personnel and material resources. Increasing wage rates and material costs, combined with decreased budgets and aging facilities, create unusual challenges to maintenance managers. A ten-year history of building-maintenance costs, a brief description of the maintenance program, analyses of personnel requirements, cost increase indexes, unit costs, cost controls, procedures, and a brief discussion of alterations and improvements are presented.
Battelli, Giorgio; Mantovani, Adriano
The concept of 'one medicine' and its evolution are discussed and some considerations on the relationship between 'one medicine' and veterinary profession are made, with particular reference to Italy. The concept of 'one medicine' is mainly associated with public health and has its roots in the Italian tradition and health organisation. In a future which is already with us, the veterinary profession will be called upon to deal with many problems at worldwide level (e.g. the emergence/re-emergence of new/old zoonotic pathogens, biological and chemical contaminants in food, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, non-epidemic emergencies associated with natural or man-made disasters, animal well-being, etc.), integrating with other professions. In Italy, most of these problems find the Veterinary Services prepared, but not homogeneously throughout the country. At the present time, doubts are expressed on maintaining and improving these services, mainly due to the lack of students interested in veterinary public health (VPH) training. The globalisation of the veterinary profession imposes changes, in both culture and training. The expertise required for 'one medicine' must be considered and aspects of veterinary training should be changed to promote sharing expertise with other professionals, mainly within the Italian Health Service. The public should be informed about professional competence and activities of veterinarians, in both the private and public sectors, in order to offer a true picture of the profession, one that is not limited to the conventional model which the public generally has of veterinary medicine.
Lockhart, Laura E; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A; Simpson, Wendy M; Posner, Lysa P
The current prevalence of onychectomy (declawing) in cats is unknown, and education regarding the procedure appears to vary greatly among veterinary schools. The purpose of this project was to determine the prevalence of onychectomized cats near Raleigh, NC and to document the frequency and style (laboratory or lecture) with which the procedure is taught in USA veterinary schools. One thousand seven hundred ninety four cats ranging in age from 8 days to 21 years, of which 938 (52.3%) were female and 1719 (95.8%) were sterilized. Data were collected over a 10-week period regarding cats seen for appointments in five veterinary facilities (two cat-only, two general, and one tertiary). Data collection included signalment and onychectomy status. During this time, 28 veterinary schools were polled regarding education of veterinary students in onychectomy. Three hundred and seventy four (20.8%) cats had undergone onychectomy. A significantly higher percentage of declawed cats were seen in the general practices compared with the other practice types (p declawed. Less than 50% of veterinary schools in the USA include a mandatory lecture or laboratory to teach the procedure. There appears to be a discrepancy between the popularity of the onychectomy procedure and the emphasis placed on relevant instruction in veterinary schools in the USA. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
Jean Louis, Frantz; Buteau, Josiane; Boncy, Jacques; Anselme, Renette; Stanislas, Magalie; Nagel, Mary C; Juin, Stanley; Charles, Macarthur; Burris, Robert; Antoine, Eva; Yang, Chunfu; Kalou, Mireille; Vertefeuille, John; Marston, Barbara J; Lowrance, David W; Deyde, Varough
Before the 2010 devastating earthquake and cholera outbreak, Haiti's public health laboratory systems were weak and services were limited. There was no national laboratory strategic plan and only minimal coordination across the laboratory network. Laboratory capacity was further weakened by the destruction of over 25 laboratories and testing sites at the departmental and peripheral levels and the loss of life among the laboratory health-care workers. However, since 2010, tremendous progress has been made in building stronger laboratory infrastructure and training a qualified public health laboratory workforce across the country, allowing for decentralization of access to quality-assured services. Major achievements include development and implementation of a national laboratory strategic plan with a formalized and strengthened laboratory network; introduction of automation of testing to ensure better quality of results and diversify the menu of tests to effectively respond to outbreaks; expansion of molecular testing for tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, malaria, diarrheal and respiratory diseases; establishment of laboratory-based surveillance of epidemic-prone diseases; and improvement of the overall quality of testing. Nonetheless, the progress and gains made remain fragile and require the full ownership and continuous investment from the Haitian government to sustain these successes and achievements.
N. Mavrikakis; K. Siderakis; Koudoumas, E.; Drakakis, E.; Kymakis, E
Silicone rubber (SIR) insulators are known to maintain their surface hydrophobicity even under severe pollution conditions in contrast to the other composite insulator materials used at the last decades. This critical advantage of silicone rubber insulators has made them dominant in high voltage power systems despite the fact that there are other composite materials with better static hydrophobicity. In service conditions, priority is given to the dynamic performance of hydrophobicity due to ...
Full Text Available The veterinary profession as a health service is facing new market conditions of business management. In the conditions of increased competition it is necessary to look for new ways of expanding the business and increase the economic efficiency and profitability. The introduction of the prospective customers to the activities and promotion of its services is one of the ways of expanding the veterinary clinic. The promotion is a crucial tool in the market penetration in every field, but one of the disadvantages of this tool is the often extremely high price and is not appropriate for small business, such as veterinary practice. This is why the Internet as a medium is interesting means of promotion of the veterinary clinic due to its many advantages. It is accessible to everyone, has a great number of users and at the same time, is fairly affordable. Its important feature is the room for modern, creative and interactive approach. In certain countries there are certain limitations in the promotion of veterinary facilities, and the Internet is useful in such cases. The veterinary clinic has a great choice of means of promotion. Some of them are completely free, and those which cost usually have a symbolic price. Their usage enables the veterinarian to be more competitive, and helps their clinic to increase its successful work. At the same time this type of promotion provides the opportunity for interactive relationship with the clients and for promotion of the facilities and the accomplishments of the clinic. The increase in the market share and the economic efficiency is also an important factor in favor of this type of promotion. The example with the veterinary clinic Animal Medica, which has managed to increase its frequency in 15 % is another proof. Almost 60% f the clients talked that they heard first time for Animal Medica on the net (Facebook or website. Therefore the veterinarians in their ruthless competition should use the limitless
Cankovic, Milena; Varney, Ruan C.; Whiteley, Lisa; Brown, Ron; D'Angelo, Rita; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zarbo, Richard J.
Accurate and timely molecular test results play an important role in patient management; consequently, there is a customer expectation of short testing turnaround times. Baseline data analysis revealed that the greatest challenge to timely result generation occurred in the preanalytic phase of specimen collection and transport. Here, we describe our efforts to improve molecular testing turnaround times by focusing primarily on redesign of preanalytic processes using the principles of LEAN production. Our goal was to complete greater than 90% of the molecular tests in less than 3 days. The project required cooperation from different laboratory disciplines as well as individuals outside of the laboratory. The redesigned processes involved defining and standardizing the protocols and approaching blood and tissue specimens as analytes for molecular testing. The LEAN process resulted in fewer steps, approaching the ideal of a one-piece flow for specimens through collection/retrieval, transport, and different aspects of the testing process. The outcome of introducing the LEAN process has been a 44% reduction in molecular test turnaround time for tissue specimens, from an average of 2.7 to 1.5 days. In addition, extending LEAN work principles to the clinician suppliers has resulted in a markedly increased number of properly collected and shipped blood specimens (from 50 to 87%). These continuous quality improvements were accomplished by empowered workers in a blame-free environment and are now being sustained with minimal management involvement. PMID:19661386
Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie
This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…
Focus and Scope. The Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted.
Austin, Heidi E; Hyams, Jennifer H; Abbott, Kym A
Charles Sturt University in New South Wales, Australia, is responding to a national need for veterinarians with the skills and attributes to fulfill roles in rural practice and the large-animal industries. Rural practitioners must competently and confidently handle a range of large animals if they are to build a relationship of mutual trust with clients and deliver effective animal-health services. Training in animal handling begins in the first year of the course with highly structured small-group practical classes involving cattle, horses, sheep, dogs, cats, pigs, poultry, and laboratory animals (rats and mice). Other experiences with animals in the first three years build on basic animal-handling skills while performing other veterinary activities. Students who provide documented evidence of prior animal-handling experiences are admitted, and learning and teaching strategies aim to enhance skills and knowledge. Rigorous examinations use a competency-based approach prior to extramural placements on farms and in veterinary practices. A continuing process of evaluation, review, and refinement will ensure continual improvement and graduate veterinarians with strong skills in animal handling.
2. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello Unviersity, Zaria, Nigeria. 2College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Mando, Kaduna, Nigeria. Correspondence Author: Abstract. Village chickens in Kaduna State, Nigeria were vaccinated once with a Malaysian heat-resistant Newcastle disease ...
Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...
Coles, G C
Current evidence suggests research in veterinary parasitology is in decline despite its importance. This is particularly true in the UK where research funds have been diverted into BSE. Decline in interest in veterinary parasitology is at least in part due to the success of major pharmaceutical companies in producing a range of effective and safe anti-parasitic drugs. Research is needed because of the effects of parasites on animal welfare and the economic costs of parasites. However, there is little information on the actual costs of animal parasites. Another major reason for research is the development of drug resistance in protozoa, helminths and arthropods of veterinary importance. This is a serious problem particularly for sheep and goats in the southern hemisphere. A prioritised list of research requirements is suggested: (i) new drugs; (ii) resistance management; (iii) vaccines; (iv) breeding for resistance; (v) improved diagnostics; (vi) zoonoses; (vii) global warming and parasites. There is a major political challenge to raise the profile of veterinary parasitology and thus the funding essential for its advancement and the continued welfare and productivity of animals.
Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K
The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review......). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing....
Tomasi, Suzanne; Roberts, Kristin J; Stull, Jason; Spiller, Henry A; McKenzie, Lara B
To describe the epidemiology of veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures to children based on calls to a regional poison control center. A retrospective analysis of pediatric (≤19 years of age) exposures to pharmaceutical products intended for animal use, managed by a regional poison control center from 1999 through 2013, was conducted. Case narratives were reviewed and coded for exposure-related circumstances and intended species. Descriptive statistics were generated. From 1999 through 2013, the Central Ohio Poison Center received 1431 calls that related to a veterinary pharmaceutical exposure for children ≤19 years of age. Most of the pediatric calls (87.6%) involved children ≤5 years of age. Exploratory behavior was the most common exposure-related circumstance (61.4%) and ingestion accounted for the exposure route in 93% of cases. Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%). Based on substance and quantity, the majority of exposures (96.9%) were not expected to result in long-term or lasting health effects and were managed at home (94.1%). A total of 80 cases (5.6%) were referred to a health care facility, and 2 cases resulted in a moderate health effect. Children ≤5 years of age are most at risk for veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures. Although most exposures do not result in a serious medical outcome, efforts to increase public awareness, appropriate product dispensing procedures, and attention to home storage practices may reduce the risk of veterinary pharmaceutical exposures to young children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
van Soest, E M; Fritschi, L
The aims of this exploratory study were to survey the prevalence of certain exposures and health problems among a group of veterinary nurses attending the International Veterinary Nurses' Conference in Brisbane, Australia, 2003 and to identify the main concerns among those veterinary nurses with regard to occupational health hazards they may face. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all attendees of the International Veterinary Nurses' Conference 2003, Brisbane, Australia (N=147 respondents among 215 surveyed). The prevalence of exposure to X-radiation (97%), anaesthetics (96%), disinfectants (96%) and vaccines (85%) was high. More than 70% of the nurses were exposed to formaldehyde (76%) and pesticides/insecticides (71%). For all exposures except vaccines, about 50% of the nurses exposed were worried about negative health consequences. Acute injuries were common with 98% of the nurses experiencing dog/cat bites/scratches, 71% experiencing needle stick injuries and 43% experiencing lacerations. More than half of the nurses (52%) suffered from chronic back/neck pain and 39% reported having allergy or hay fever. Sixteen cases (11%) of Cat Scratch Fever were reported. Job related affective well-being was similar to a large sample of workers in comparable level jobs. Among attendees of a veterinary nurses conference, the proportion of this group of nurses exposed to hazards in their work environment was high and acute and chronic injuries were common. Considering that nurses account for more than 40% of total employment in the veterinary service industry, the results of this study show that the occupational health hazards of this professional group require further study.
Ivancic, William D.; Brooks, David E.; Frantz, Brian D.
A digitized video application was used to help determine minimum quality of service parameters for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) over satellite. For these tests, binomially distributed and other errors were digitally inserted in an intermediate frequency link via a satellite modem and a commercial gaussian noise generator. In this paper, the relation- ship between the ATM cell error and cell loss parameter specifications is discussed with regard to this application. In addition, the video-encoding algorithms, test configurations, and results are presented in detail.
Ivancic, William D.; Bobinsky, Eric A.
Results of 45-Mbps DS3 intermediate-frequency loopback measurements of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service parameters (cell error ratio and cell loss ratio) are presented. These tests, which were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research, represent initial efforts to quantify the minimum parameters for stringent ATM applications, such as MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video transmission. Portions of these results were originally presented to the International Telecommunications Union's ITU-R Working Party 4B in February 1996 in support of their Draft Preliminary Recommendation on the Transmission of ATM Traffic via Satellite.
Tans-Kersten, Julie; Grace Lin, Shou-Yean; Desmond, Edward; Warshauer, David
We explored sharing nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and molecular and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing between two state public health tuberculosis (TB) laboratories, and evaluated turnaround times and cost-effectiveness. From September 1, 2012, to May 30, 2013, the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene (Wisconsin Lab) submitted specimens to the Microbial Diseases Laboratory of the California Department of Public Health (California Lab) for NAAT and molecular drug susceptibility testing (MDST) by pyrosequencing, and culture-based TB drug susceptibility testing by the BACTEC(TM) MGIT(TM) 960 system. A total of 182 specimens were referred to the California Lab, and 47 TB cases and 12 drug-resistant cases were identified. The average time for specimen transport was two days, which included one day for processing and packaging in the submitting laboratory. The average turnaround time for NAAT was 0.3 days at the Wisconsin Lab and 3.8 days at the California Lab, including time for specimen transport. Turnaround time for culture-based drug susceptibility testing increased by a median of 16 days when specimens were sent to the California Lab, but MDST results were reported in fewer than four days, a median of 22 days sooner than any culture-based drug susceptibility testing results. This study revealed advantages and disadvantages associated with sharing services, and identified opportunities for improvement. Referral of specimens resulted in longer turnaround times for mycobacteriology test results and additional costs for transporting specimens. However, specialized testing such as pyrosequencing may not be available in low TB incidence areas, and these rapid results can have positive effects on patient management and TB control.
B. Loth; R.P. Karrfalt
The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA FS) National Seed Laboratory (NSL) began long term seed storage for genetic conservation, in 2005, for USDA FS units and cooperators. This program requires secure storage of both seeds and the data documenting the identification of the seeds. The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has provided both of these...
Scott Aaron, W.; Tracy, Joe G.; Collins, Emory D.
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supplying enriched stable and radioactive isotopes to the research, medical, and industrial communities for over 50 y. Very significant changes have occurred in this effort over the past several years, and, while many of these changes have had a negative impact on the availability of enriched isotopes, more recent developments are actually improving the situation for both the users and the producers of enriched isotopes. ORNL is still a major producer and distributor of radioisotopes, but future isotope enrichment operations to be conducted at the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) will be limited to stable isotopes. Among the positive changes in the enriched stable isotope area are a well-functioning, long-term contract program, which offers stability and pricing advantages; the resumption of calutron operations; the adoption of prorated conversion charges, which greatly improves the pricing of isotopes to small users; ISO 9002 registration of the IEF's quality management system; and a much more customer-oriented business philosophy. Efforts are also being made to restore and improve upon the extensive chemical and physical form processing capablities that once existed in the enriched stable isotope program. Innovative ideas are being pursued in both technical and administrative areas to encourage the beneficial use of enriched stable isotopes and the development of related technologies.
Dunning, Dianne; Martin, Michael P; Tickel, Jimmy L; Gentry, William B; Cowen, Peter; Slenning, Barrett D
The nation's veterinary colleges lack the curricula necessary to meet veterinary demands for animal/public health and emergency preparedness. To this end, the authors report a literature review summarizing training programs within human/veterinary medicine. In addition, the authors describe new competency-based Veterinary Credential Responder training at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU CVM). From an evaluation of 257 PubMed-derived articles relating to veterinary/medical disaster training, 14 fulfilled all inclusion requirements (nine were veterinary oriented; five came from human medical programs). Few offered ideas on the core competencies required to produce disaster-planning and response professionals. The lack of published literature in this area points to a need for more formal discussion and research on core competencies. Non-veterinary articles emphasized learning objectives, commonly listing an incident command system, the National Incident Management System, teamwork, communications, and critical event management/problem solving. These learning objectives were accomplished either through short-course formats or via their integration into a larger curriculum. Formal disaster training in veterinary medicine mostly occurs within existing public health courses. Much of the literature focuses on changing academia to meet current and future needs in public/animal health disaster-preparedness and careers. The NCSU CVM program, in collaboration with North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Emergency Programs and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, operates as a stand-alone third-year two-week core-curriculum training program that combines lecture, online, experiential, and group exercises to meet entry-level federal credentialing requirements. The authors report here its content, outcomes, and future development plans.
Full Text Available Silicone rubber (SIR insulators are known to maintain their surface hydrophobicity even under severe pollution conditions in contrast to the other composite insulator materials used at the last decades. This critical advantage of silicone rubber insulators has made them dominant in high voltage power systems despite the fact that there are other composite materials with better static hydrophobicity. In service conditions, priority is given to the dynamic performance of hydrophobicity due to the unpredictable environmental pollution conditions. This dynamic performance of silicone rubber insulators is also known as hydrophobicity transfer mechanism. In literature, the hydrophobicity transfer mechanism of silicone rubber is related to the reorientation of methyl-groups and the existence of low molecular weight components. However there are many parameters which can change the effectiveness of this mechanism. Some of them referred to the ageing effects on the material structure. Thus it is of great importance to investigate the hydrophobicity transfer mechanism of field aged composite insulators. For this reason a new experimental procedure is introduced based on Cigre TB 442. The results of field aged insulators are compared to that of a new SIR insulator revealing the superiority of silicone rubber even after 17 years of field ageing.
Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Maley, Stephen; Katzer, Frank; Buxton, David
Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff
in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination......The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... anxiety questionnaires (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory and Cox and Kenardy's performance anxiety questionnaire) were used. Anxiety levels were measured before the non-surgical course (111 students from 2009) and before live-animal surgery during the surgical course (153 students from 2009...
Elisabeth A Innes
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard
A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...... of emotions; 63% of students experienced negative emotions, while 58% experienced positive ones. In addition, 61% of students reported feeling excited or tense. Students' statements reveal that anxiety is perceived as counterproductive to learning, while excitement seems to enhance students' focus...
H. S. Vedpathak
Full Text Available The veterinary practitioner has an ethical obligation to help alleviate animal pain. Although most veterinarians accept the fact that animals feel pain, still, postoperative pain relief is not a routine practice in all veterinary hospitals and clinics today. Nociception is a physiological process which involves transduction, transmission, modulation and perception of the noxious stimuli. Chemical mediators are important components of the nociceptive reflex and offer a target of pharmacologic modulation. Assessment of pain in animals is the most important step in the successful management of pain. Choosing appropriate method of pain control would depend upon the type of procedure followed, severity of pain and economic considerations for each individual circumstance. Our understanding of the pain in its manifestation, mechanisms, assessment and alleviation in animals is still although improving, limited. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 360-363
Diana L. Eubanks
Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changin...
Brownlie, H W Brooks; Munro, R
Investigation of animal-related crime, and therefore submission of forensic cases to veterinary pathology facilities, is increasing, yet many veterinary pathologists are unfamiliar and often uncomfortable with involvement in the forensic necropsy. This article discusses various aspects of the forensic necropsy without specific attention to any particular species group or crime. General advice is given on procedures, documentation, and recording of the examination, and the article indicates how these features may differ from those used in investigation of natural disease. It also discusses evidence management, including recordkeeping, identification of evidence, labeling of photographs, and use of standard operating procedures and protocols. Various written and visual methods for documentation of the forensic necropsy are covered, and adjunctive topics such as sample collection, assessment, and description of wounds and taphonomy are included. Cause, mechanism, and manner of death are defined, and guidance to the use of these terms is given. The aim of this article is to offer guidance on procedural aspects of the forensic necropsy that will help those developing their forensic services, contribute to standardization of the provision of forensic veterinary pathology, and build the confidence of the "uncomfortable" forensic veterinary pathologist. © The Author(s) 2016.
Mossop, Liz H; Cobb, Kate
The teaching and assessment of professional behaviors and attitudes are important components of veterinary curricula. This article aims to outline some important considerations and concepts which will be useful for veterinary educators reviewing or developing this topic. A definition or framework of veterinary professionalism must be decided upon before educators can develop relevant learning outcomes. The interface between ethics and professionalism should be considered, and both clinicians and ethicists should deliver professionalism teaching. The influence of the hidden curriculum on student development as professionals should also be discussed during curriculum planning because it has the potential to undermine a formal curriculum of professionalism. There are several learning theories that have relevance to the teaching and learning of professionalism; situated learning theory, social cognitive theory, adult learning theory, reflective practice and experiential learning, and social constructivism must all be considered as a curriculum is designed. Delivery methods to teach professionalism are diverse, but the teaching of reflective skills and the use of early clinical experience to deliver valid learning opportunities are essential. Curricula should be longitudinal and integrated with other aspects of teaching and learning. Professionalism should also be assessed, and a wide range of methods have the potential to do so, including multisource feedback and portfolios. Validity, reliability, and feasibility are all important considerations. The above outlined approach to the teaching and assessment of professionalism will help ensure that institutions produce graduates who are ready for the workplace.
The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mouseli, Ali; Barouni, Mohsen; Amiresmaili, Mohammadreza; Samiee, Siamak Mirab; Vali, Leila
It is believed that laboratory tariffs in Iran don't reflect the real costs. This might expose private laboratories at financial hardship. Activity Based Costing is widely used as a cost measurement instrument to more closely approximate the true cost of operations. This study aimed to determine the real price of different clinical tests of a selected private clinical laboratory. This study was a cross sectional study carried out in 2015. The study setting was the private laboratories in the city of Kerman, Iran. Of 629 tests in the tariff book of the laboratory (relative value), 188 tests were conducted in the laboratory that used Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology to estimate cost-price. Analyzing and cost-price estimating of laboratory services were performed by MY ABCM software Version 5.0. In 2015, the total costs were $641,645. Direct and indirect costs were 78.3% and 21.7% respectively. Laboratory consumable costs by 37% and personnel costs by 36.3% had the largest share of the costing. Also, group of hormone tests cost the most $147,741 (23.03%), and other tests group cost the least $3,611 (0.56%). Also after calculating the cost of laboratory services, a comparison was made between the calculated price and the private sector's tariffs in 2015. This study showed that there was a difference between costs and tariffs in the private laboratory. One way to overcome this problem is to increase the number of laboratory tests with regard to capacity of the laboratories.
Keller, J. M.; Rebar, B.; Buxner, S.
The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides pre-service and beginning teachers the opportunity to develop identity as both teachers and researchers early in their careers. Founded and implemented by the Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) at California Polytechnic State University on behalf of the California State University (CSU) system, STAR provides cutting edge research experiences and career development for students affiliated with the CSU system. Over the past three summers, STAR has also partnered with the NSF Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to include Noyce Scholars from across the country. Key experiences are one to three summers of paid research experience at federal research facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Anchoring beginning teachers in the research community enhances participant understanding of what it means to be both researchers and effective teachers. Since its inception in 2007, the STAR Program has partnered with 15 national lab facilities to provide 290 research experiences to 230 participants. Several of the 68 STAR Fellows participating in the program during Summer 2012 have submitted abstracts to the Fall AGU Meeting. Through continued partnership with the Noyce Scholar Program and contributions from outside funding sources, the CSU is committed to sustaining the STAR Program in its efforts to significantly impact teacher preparation. Evaluation results from the program continue to indicate program effectiveness in recruiting high quality science and math majors into the teaching profession and impacting their attitudes and beliefs towards the nature of science and teaching through inquiry. Additionally, surveys and interviews are being conducted of participants who are now teaching in the classroom as
Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.
Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential expansion of the knowledge base through ongoing biomedical research, educational goals to increase student engagement and clinical reasoning earlier in the curriculum, and students' desire to access course materials and enhance their educational experience through the use of technology all support the need to reassess traditional microscope laboratories within Professional Veterinary Medical (PVM) educational programs. While there is clear justification for teaching veterinary students how to use a microscope for clinical evaluation of cytological preparations (i.e., complete blood count, urinalysis, fecal analysis, fine needle aspirates, etc.), virtual microscopy may be a viable alternative to using light microscopy for teaching and learning fundamental histological concepts. This article discusses results of a survey given to assess Professional Veterinary Medical students' perceptions of using virtual microscope for learning basic histology/microscopic anatomy and implications of these results for using virtual microscopy as a pedagogical tool in teaching first-year Professional Veterinary Medical students' basic histology.
Full Text Available Musser Jeffrey MBDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, TX, USAThis year marks the 250th anniversary of the Royal Veterinary School in Lyon, France, the world's first veterinary college. Since its inception, many changes have occurred in veterinary medicine such as views on education and didactic learning, demographics of our profession, and standards of practice in animal husbandry, medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and vaccinology. In fact, the concept of infectious diseases has changed - remember the germ theory was proposed a mere 140 years ago. However, one constant tenet in our profession has been the need to disseminate progresses, innovations, advances, and developments in veterinary sciences. Published reports are the foundation for the growth of medicine and science. What would the state of medicine be if Pasteur, Koch, Bourgelat, or Theobald Smith had not published their works?
..., Director, Planning, Finance & Strategy, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 39, Riverdale, MD 20737- 1231; (301... user fees are authorized by section 2509(c)(1) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of... authorized by section 2509(c) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, as amended (21 U...
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.
McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Peaston, Anne; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy
VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.
Full Text Available VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses. Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1 roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2 development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation platform; and (3 creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.
Milorad Radakovic is a teaching fellow in veterinary public health (VPH) at the University of Cambridge. Here, he explains why he believes the challenges in this field of veterinary medicine make for an exciting career path. In a second article to be published in Vet Record Careers next week, he will share some of his own experiences of working in this field. British Veterinary Association.
Adriano Mantovani was born in 1926 in Altedo, Malalbergo (Bologna). After graduating in veterinary medicine from Bologna University in 1948, he gained his Masters in public health from the University of Minnesota in 1952 and qualified to lecture in microbiology and immunology in 1957 and in parasitology in 1963. He held numerous positions over the years: Assistant, Aide and Vice-Director of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Teramo(1949-1962), Researcher at the Faculty of Medicine in Rome (1962-1965), Professor of Infectious Diseases, Prophylaxis and Veterinary Police Work at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Bologna, Director of the Institute of the same name (1965-1982) and Research Manager and Director of the Parasitology Laboratory at the Italian National Institute of Health and the WHO/FAO Collaboration Centre for Veterinary Public Health in Rome (1983-1991). He was active in numerous national and international organisations, including as a member of the National Health Council (1974-1982), Secretary of the World Federation of Parasitologists (1971-1987) and from 1972 President, Vice President or presenter in various WHO, FAO and OIE working groups. He worked in numerous countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and North America as an expert, presenter and lecturer. From 1978, the year in which the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Plan was established, he was one of the major collaborators of the WHO Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre in Athens (MZCC). In 1989, he was the first Italian to be awarded the OIE's international award for contributions to veterinary public health and in 2001 was publicly recognised by the MZCC for his many years of activities carried out to support the zoonoses control plan and promote well-being in the Mediterranean. He had been a member of the Italian National Guard's Commission for Predicting and Preventing Great Risks since 1994. In 2002, he was presented with the Italian Parasitology Society's Battista
Full Text Available Adriano Mantovani was born in 1926 in Altedo, Malalbergo (Bologna. After graduating in veterinary medicine from Bologna University in 1948, he gained his Masters in public health from the University of Minnesota in 1952 and qualified to lecture in microbiology and immunology in 1957 and in parasitology in 1963.He held numerous positions over the years: Assistant, Aide and Vice‐Director of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Teramo(1949‐1962, Researcher at the Faculty of Medicine in Rome (1962-1965, Professor of Infectious Diseases, Prophylaxis and Veterinary Police Work at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Bologna, Director of the Institute of the same name (1965-1982 and Research Manager and Director of the Parasitology Laboratory at the Italian National Institute of Health and the WHO/FAO Collaboration Centre for Veterinary Public Health in Rome (1983-1991.He was active in numerous national and international organisations, including as a member of the National Health Council (1974-1982, Secretary of the World Federation of Parasitologists (1971-1987 and from 1972 President, Vice President or presenter in various WHO, FAO and OIE working groups. He worked in numerous countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and North America as an expert, presenter and lecturer. From 1978, the year in which the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Plan was established, he was one of the major collaborators of the WHO Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre in Athens (MZCC. In 1989, he was the first Italian to be awarded the OIE’s international award for contributions to veterinary public health and in 2001 was publicly recognised by the MZCC for his many years of activities carried out to support the zoonoses control plan and promote well-being in the Mediterranean. He had been a member of the Italian National Guard’s Commission for Predicting and Preventing Great Risks since 1994. In 2002, he was presented with the Italian Parasitology
Gelberg, Susan; Gelberg, Howard
Two-hundred-and-eighty-nine veterinary students from all four years of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) were invited to complete the Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP)1 and an original Demographic Data Profile (DDP). The DSP assessed the students' current experiences of perceived stress, and the DDP was designed to gather information about students' academic year, their living situations, their financial situations, their interest area within the veterinary medical profession, and their current methods of coping with stress. These data were gathered as a baseline measure of veterinary medical students' perceived level of stress and quality of life. In an earlier study, data were also collected from faculty and staff about the perceived quality of the climate and culture of the veterinary college. The results of the DSP and DDP suggest that, although veterinary students at UTCVM do not experience significant levels of stress overall, they do report higher levels of subjective stress, time pressure, and depression than the general population. The more companion animals that veterinary students cared for in their personal lives, the more likely they were to report higher levels of perceived stress. Lastly, there were significant differences between genders, with female veterinary students reporting higher levels of perceived stress than their male counterparts. The preliminary results of the climate and culture data suggest that faculty and staff of the veterinary college individually feel that they are cared for in the work environment and collectively believe that the college strives for excellence.
Buesa, René J
The information from 221 US histology laboratories (histolabs) and 104 from 24 other countries with workloads from 600 to 116 000 cases per year was used to calculate productivity standards for 23 technical and 27 nontechnical tasks and for 4 types of work flow indicators. The sample includes 254 human, 40 forensic, and 31 veterinary pathology services. Statistical analyses demonstrate that most productivity standards are not different between services or worldwide. The total workload for the US human pathology histolabs averaged 26 061 cases per year, with 54% between 10 000 and less than 30 000. The total workload for 70% of the histolabs from other countries was less than 20 000, with an average of 15 226 cases per year. The fundamental manual technical tasks in the histolab and their productivity standards are as follows: grossing (14 cases per hour), cassetting (54 cassettes per hour), embedding (50 blocks per hour), and cutting (24 blocks per hour). All the other tasks, each with their own productivity standards, can be completed by auxiliary staff or using automatic instruments. Depending on the level of automation of the histolab, all the tasks derived from a workload of 25 cases will require 15.8 to 17.7 hours of work completed by 2.4 to 2.7 employees with 18% of their working time not directly dedicated to the production of diagnostic slides. This article explains how to extrapolate this productivity calculation for any workload and different levels of automation. The overall performance standard for all the tasks, including 8 hours for automated tissue processing, is 3.2 to 3.5 blocks per hour; and its best indicator is the value of the gross work flow productivity that is essentially dependent on how the work is organized. This article also includes productivity standards for forensic and veterinary histolabs, but the staffing benchmarks for histolabs will be the subject of a separate article. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wright, James R
- The first major project of the American College of Surgeons (Chicago, Illinois), founded in 1913, was implementing Minimum Standards for Hospitals. The 1918 standard (1) established medical staff organizations in hospitals; (2) restricted membership to licensed practitioners in good standing; (3) mandated that the medical staff work with hospital administration to develop and adopt regulations and policies governing their professional work; (4) required standardized, accessible medical records; and (5) required availability of diagnostic and therapeutic facilities. One hundred years ago, these were radical expectations. - To describe the origin, "marketing," and voluntary adoption of the 1918 standards, and to describe how the evolution of those standards profoundly affected laboratory medicine after 1926. - Available primary and secondary historical sources were reviewed. - The college had no legal mandate, so it used a highly consultative approach, funded by its membership and the Carnegie Foundation (New York, New York), to establish the Minimum Standards, followed by a nonthreatening mechanism to determine which hospitals met them. Simultaneously, the college educated the public to fuel their expectations. Compliance by more than 100-bed hospitals in the United States and Canada, although entirely voluntary, rose from negligible when first implemented in 1918 to more than 90% in only a few years. From 1922 to 1926, the American Society for Clinical Pathology (Chicago, Illinois) worked creatively with the college to establish Minimum Standards for "adequate" laboratory services. - The birth and implementation of this program exemplifies how a consultative approach with full engagement of grassroots stakeholders facilitated a voluntary, rapid, sweeping North America-wide change-management process. This program eventually evolved into the Joint Commission (Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois).
... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Act of 1995, invites the general public to comment on an information collection for the Veterinary...
Sisk, Dudley B.; And Others
Members of the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges-Council of Educators were surveyed in an attempt to measure their opinions and feelings towards veterinary medical education. Their opinions on such topics as relationships between students, faculty, the curriculum, and the identity of veterinary medicine are reported. (LBH)
Pryor, Brian; Millis, Darryl L
Laser therapy is an increasingly studied modality that can be a valuable tool for veterinary practitioners. Mechanisms of action have been studied and identified for the reduction of pain and inflammation and healing of tissue. Understanding the basics of light penetration into tissue allows evaluation of the correct dosage to deliver for the appropriate condition, and for a particular patient based on physical properties. New applications are being studied for some of the most challenging health conditions and this field will continue to grow. Additional clinical studies are still needed and collaboration is encouraged for all practitioners using this technology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.
Hubbert, William T.
The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)
Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem
-pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...
Wright, James R
-Prior to 1900, laboratory tests were simple enough to be performed by clinicians on the wards and most pathologists were academicians with little involvement in patient care issues. In the next 2 decades, laboratory test menus expanded rapidly and the increasing complexity of the tests created a potential niche for clinical pathologists (ie, pathologists providing patient-oriented anatomic and clinical pathology services). In the late 1910s and early 1920s, most of these services were provided by mail-order commercial laboratories or state public health laboratories rather than by hospital-based pathologists. -To describe the political events in the 1920s that would drastically alter the practice of pathology and laboratory medicine and that would have been important to the discipline at the time the Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine was being conceived and first published. -Available primary and secondary historical sources were reviewed. -In the 1920s, clinical pathologists organized, forming the American Society of Clinical Pathologists, and took on the powerful American Medical Association for permitting advertisements by private laboratories in the pages of the Journal of the American Medical Association that listed test prices as if these were commodities. They found a strong partner in the American College of Surgeons, which was attempting to elevate surgical practice by creating minimum standards for hospitals. Through this symbiotic relationship, hospital-based practice was firmly established and the commercial laboratory model faltered. -The Roaring Twenties was the time when the practice of pathology and laboratory medicine evolved into what we recognize today.
Smith, Ronald D.; Williams, Mitsuko
This study used the peer-reviewed biomedical literature to define the veterinary informatics knowledgebase and associated subspecialties, and assesses the level of activity in the field over the thirty-year period from 1966 through 1995. Grateful Med was used to search the MEDLINE bibliographic database for articles that shared one or more Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords from the veterinary and medical informatics subject headings. Each of ninety-five MeSH medical informatics terms was assigned to one of twelve veterinary informatics subspecialties. The number of articles retrieved by each MeSH keyword and subspecialty was calculated. A total of 611 articles were retrieved, representing the contributions of 1,338 authors published in 153 journals. The field experienced slow growth over the twenty-year period from 1966 through 1985. In the following decade, the cumulative number of veterinary informatics articles almost tripled and the percentage of veterinary-related articles that included an informatics component increased almost two-and-one-half fold. Despite this recent growth, the number of veterinary-related articles with an informatics component has never exceeded 1% of either the veterinary or medical informatics literature over the past thirty years, and representation of veterinary subspecialties in the literature varied widely. PMID:10658963
Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.
This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...
Horne, R. D.
Graduate training in clinical veterinary medicine is discussed. The options available to the student and problems that must be dealt with are presented, along with the requirements to accomplish a finely structured program that satisfies the needs of both the trainee and clinical veterinary medicine. (Author/MLW)
Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol. 26 (2), 2005. EFFECT OF ETHYLENE DIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID (EDTA) ON IN VI TRO. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TETRACYCLINE AND AMPICILLIN AGAINST. ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS. CHAH*1, K.F. AND OBOEGBULEMz, S.I.. [Department of I Veterinary Pathology and ...
McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J
Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.
Womack, James E.; Templeton, Joe W.
Areas that will influence the development of veterinary medical genetics as a clinical discipline are discussed, some critical research areas of immediate concern are suggested, and misconceptions held by many practicing veterinarians which must be corrected at the level of veterinary education are identified. (JMD)
Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.
Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)
Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.
The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of
Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.
The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of
This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...
Nigerian VeterinaryJournal. ~. Vol35(2) 995·1006 ... ADEN KOLA, A Y: and OKORO, L.1. Departm,entof Physiology Pharmacology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nlgena. Corresponding ... defenses against external and internal aggressions such as ROS (SIES, 1993,.
Full Text Available An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM has been proposed to provide 'full-coverage' of CD4 services throughout South Africa. Five tiers are described, defined by testing volumes and number of referring health-facilities. These include: (1 Tier-1/decentralized point-of-care service (POC in a single site; Tier-2/POC-hub servicing processing 600 samples/day and serving > 100 or > 200 health-clinics, respectively. The objective of this study was to establish costs of existing and ITSDM-tiers 1, 2 and 3 in a remote, under-serviced district in South Africa.Historical health-facility workload volumes from the Pixley-ka-Seme district, and the total volumes of CD4 tests performed by the adjacent district referral CD4 laboratories, linked to locations of all referring clinics and related laboratory-to-result turn-around time (LTR-TAT data, were extracted from the NHLS Corporate-Data-Warehouse for the period April-2012 to March-2013. Tiers were costed separately (as a cost-per-result including equipment, staffing, reagents and test consumable costs. A one-way sensitivity analyses provided for changes in reagent price, test volumes and personnel time.The lowest cost-per-result was noted for the existing laboratory-based Tiers- 4 and 5 ($6.24 and $5.37 respectively, but with related increased LTR-TAT of > 24-48 hours. Full service coverage with TAT < 6-hours could be achieved with placement of twenty-seven Tier-1/POC or eight Tier-2/POC-hubs, at a cost-per-result of $32.32 and $15.88 respectively. A single district Tier-3 laboratory also ensured 'full service coverage' and < 24 hour LTR-TAT for the district at $7.42 per-test.Implementing a single Tier-3/community laboratory to extend and improve delivery of services in Pixley-ka-Seme, with an estimated local ∼ 12-24-hour LTR-TAT, is ∼ $2 more than existing referred services per-test, but 2-4 fold cheaper than implementing eight Tier-2/POC-hubs or providing twenty-seven Tier-1/POCT CD4
Ortega S, César
This article analyzes curriculum offerings related to aquaculture and/or aquatic-animal health taught in veterinary medical schools or colleges in Mexico. The information database of the Mexican Association of Schools and Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and the Web sites of veterinary institutions indicate that 60% of veterinary colleges include courses related to aquaculture in their curriculum, but most of these are optional courses. There are few specialized continuing education programs or graduate level courses. There is also a lack of veterinary participation, in both public and private sectors, in aquatic-animal health. It is evident that there should be a greater involvement by the veterinary profession in Mexico's aquaculture to ensure food production in a safe and sustainable manner; to achieve this, veterinary medical institutions must include more aquaculture and aquatic-animal health courses in their curricula.
Killinger, Stacy L; Flanagan, Sean; Castine, Eleanor; Howard, Kimberly A S
While existing literature suggests that professional students (e.g., medical, dental, law, nursing, etc.) experience high levels of stress and depression, the experiences of veterinary medical students have been less well examined. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of stress and depression among veterinary medical students and to examine the relationship between these variables. Study participants were 1,245 veterinary medical students from North America. The findings provide support for the assertion that veterinary medical students experience high levels of stress and depression. Results also indicated that there is a correlation between stress and depression for veterinary medical students and that female students experience higher levels of stress and depression than their male counterparts.
Conn, David Bruce
Tropical veterinary parasites have been maintained by the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) at Harvard University since the mid 1800s. Most of these are maintained by the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, but many vectors and intermediate hosts are maintained by the Departments of Entomology and Malacology. The largest collections are of avian and mammalian ticks (Acarina) that are important as both parasites and vectors. Nematodes are second in numbers, followed by cestodes, trematodes, and several minor helminth groups, crustacean parasites of fish, and protozoan parasites of various hosts. The MCZ directed or participated in several major expeditions to tropical areas around the globe in the early 1900s. Many of these expeditions focused on human parasites, but hundreds of veterinary and zoonotic parasites were also collected from these and numerous, smaller, tropical expeditions. Host sources include companion animals, livestock, laboratory species, domestic fowl, reptiles, amphibians, exotics/zoo animals, commercially important fishes, and other wildlife. Specimens are curated, either fixed whole in vials or mounted on slides as whole mounts or histopathological sections. The primary emphasis of MCZ's current work with tropical veterinary parasites is on voucher specimens from epidemiological, experimental, and clinical research.
Degernes, Laurel A; Osborne, Julie A Nettifee
Injured or sick wild avian species, especially raptors (birds of prey, including hawks, owls, falcons, and eagles), can present different challenges to veterinary students and veterinarians who are trained in companion avian medicine (e.g., parrot medicine). Proper capture and restraint, feeding, housing, and certain diagnostic and treatment techniques involving raptors require different skills, knowledge, and resources than working with parrots. We developed an innovative raptor medicine program that enables students to acquire proficiency in safe capture, restraint, and examination techniques and in common diagnostic and treatment procedures. A self-assessment survey was developed to determine students' confidence and proficiency in 10 procedures taught in the lab. Groups were compared by class status (Year 1 vs. Year 2 and 3) and level of prior raptor experience (non-experienced or experienced). In surveys conducted before and after teaching two sets of raptor training labs, students rated themselves significantly more proficient in all 10 diagnostic and treatment procedures after completing the two raptor laboratories. The greatest improvements were observed in technical skill procedures such as fluid administration, intramuscular injections, cloacal swabs, venipuncture, and bandaging. Our approach to incorporating elective wildlife learning experiences into the veterinary curriculum may be replicable in other veterinary schools, with or without a wildlife rehabilitation program.
Full Text Available Abstract The use of large animals as an experimental model for novel treatment techniques has many advantages over the use of laboratory animals, so veterinary medicine is becoming an increasingly important translational bridge between preclinical studies and human medicine. The results of preclinical studies show that gene therapy with therapeutic gene encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12 displays pronounced antitumor effects in various tumor models. A number of different studies employing this therapeutic plasmid, delivered by either viral or non-viral methods, have also been undertaken in veterinary oncology. In cats, adenoviral delivery into soft tissue sarcomas has been employed. In horses, naked plasmid DNA has been delivered by direct intratumoral injection into nodules of metastatic melanoma. In dogs, various types of tumors have been treated with either local or systemic IL-12 electrogene therapy. The results of these studies show that IL-12 based gene therapy elicits a good antitumor effect on spontaneously occurring tumors in large animals, while being safe and well tolerated by the animals. Hopefully, such results will lead to further investigation of this therapy in veterinary medicine and successful translation into human clinical trials.
Pavlin, Darja; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor; Tozon, Natasa
The use of large animals as an experimental model for novel treatment techniques has many advantages over the use of laboratory animals, so veterinary medicine is becoming an increasingly important translational bridge between preclinical studies and human medicine. The results of preclinical studies show that gene therapy with therapeutic gene encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12) displays pronounced antitumor effects in various tumor models. A number of different studies employing this therapeutic plasmid, delivered by either viral or non-viral methods, have also been undertaken in veterinary oncology. In cats, adenoviral delivery into soft tissue sarcomas has been employed. In horses, naked plasmid DNA has been delivered by direct intratumoral injection into nodules of metastatic melanoma. In dogs, various types of tumors have been treated with either local or systemic IL-12 electrogene therapy. The results of these studies show that IL-12 based gene therapy elicits a good antitumor effect on spontaneously occurring tumors in large animals, while being safe and well tolerated by the animals. Hopefully, such results will lead to further investigation of this therapy in veterinary medicine and successful translation into human clinical trials.
Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed
Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The Class of 1934 included 2 graduates who created milestones for the veterinary profession in South Africa. Jack Boswell was the first Onderstepoort graduate to start his own private practice without ever joining the government service. George van der Wath has the distinction of being the only South African veterinarian to become Chairman of the prestigious South African Wool Board. Ashton Tarr was President of the South African Veterinary Medical Association from 1966-1969. Concise descriptions are given of the varied life histories of the 14 members of the Classes of 1934 and 1935. All except Boswell initially joined government service, one serving mainly in the Colonial Service before eventually returning to South Africa. Three spent their entire careers in the South African Veterinary (Field Services, finally occupying very senior positions in that division. One ended his career lecturing at a university. Lambrechts was the first veterinarian to occupy the 'resurrected' post of Director of Veterinary Services reserved for field veterinarians. Only one of the graduates opted for research, but went farming after obtaining a DVSc degree. Three spent the greater part of their careers in private practice, Thiel from as early as 1937. Two went into municipal (public health service, one becoming director of an abattoir. Only one saw military service in World War II. Two died before they were 50 years old. Unfortunately, virtually nothing is known about Erasmus' career. At 97 Thiel holds the distinction of being the oldest Onderstepoort graduate.
Cacaci, Margherita; Lelli, Rossella Colomba
The role of the veterinarian as a public health officer is intrinsic to the history and the culture of veterinary organization in Italy. The Veterinary service being part of the Health administration since the birth of the Italian State in the XIX Century. In the second half of the last century the birth of the Italian National Health Service confirmed that the function of the Italian veterinary service was to analyze and reduce the risks for the human population connected to the relationship man-animal-environment, animal health, food safety and security. The Italian Veterinary Medicine School curricula, reflected this "model" of veterinarian as well. In the majority of countries in the world, Veterinary Services are organized within the Agriculture Administration with the main function to assure animal health and wellbeing. After the so-called "Mad-cow crisis" the awareness of the direct and essential role of veterinary services in the prevention of human illness has been officially recognized and in the third millennium the old concept of "one health" and "human-animal interface" has gained popularity worldwide.The concept of Veterinary Public Health, has evolved at International level and has incorporated the more than a century old vision of the Italian Veterinary medicine and it is defined as "the sum of the contributions to the physical, mental and social development of people through the knowledge and application of veterinary science" (WHO, Future trends in veterinary public health. Gruppo di lavoro OMS: TE, Italy, 1999, Available from: http://www.who.int/zoonoses/vph/en/ . Last visited 16 Feb 2016, 1999).On the subject of Cooperation, Sustainability and Public Health, the EXPO 2015 event and the activities of international organizations WHO, FAO and World Organization for Animal Health are refocusing at present their worldwide mandate to protect human health and the economy of both the poorest Countries and the developed countries, according to the "new
Erin E. Kerby
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in research data output, reuse, and sharing of the college of veterinary medicine faculty members at a large academic research institution. METHODS: This bibliographic study was conducted by examining original research articles for indication of the types of data produced, as well as evidence that the authors reused data or made provision for sharing their own data. Findings were recorded in the categories of research type, data type, data reuse, data sharing, author collaboration, and grants/funding and were analyzed to determine trends. RESULTS: A variety of different data types were encountered in this study, even within a single article, resulting primarily from clinical and laboratory animal studies. All of the articles resulted from author collaboration, both within the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, as well as with researchers outside the institution. There was little indication that data was reused, except some instances where the authors acknowledged that data was obtained directly from a colleague. There was even less indication that the research data was shared, either as a supplementary file on the publisher’s website or by submission to a repository, except in the case of genetic data. CONCLUSIONS: Veterinary researchers are prolific producers and users of a wide variety of data. Despite the large amount of collaborative research occurring in veterinary medicine, this study provided little evidence that veterinary researchers are reusing or sharing their data, except in an informal manner. Wider adoption of data management plans may serve to improve researchers’ data management practices.
Skeldon, N; Dewhurst, E
To establish the proportion of cytology samples sent to a commercial veterinary laboratory that yields diagnostically useful information in the context of current use and perceptions of cytology. Nine hundred and forty-five cytology submissions were retrospectively collected and categorised according to diagnostic utility. A survey into the use and perceptions of cytology was distributed at the British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress 2008. A specific diagnosis was reached in 23.1 per cent of samples and a cytological diagnosis in 35.3 per cent. 22.4 per cent of samples yielded some useful information, but 19.2 per cent were unacceptable. Seventy-four participants in the survey took an average of 3.9 cytological samples per week, of which they examined 27.0 per cent in-house only, 21.6 per cent in-house before sending to an external laboratory and 51.4 per cent were sent externally without prior examination. "To obtain a definitive diagnosis" was the principal reason cited for performing cytology. Results suggest that cytology is underused and may be applied in an inappropriate context in the UK. It is hoped that illustrating the diagnostic outcome of samples received by a commercial laboratory will encourage increased, appropriate use of cytology.
Full Text Available The concept of ‘one medicine’ and its evolution are discussed and some considerations on the relationship between ‘one medicine’ and veterinary profession are made, with particular reference to Italy. The concept of ‘one medicine’ is mainly associated with public health and has its roots in the Italian tradition and health organisation. In a future which is already with us, the veterinary profession will be called upon to deal with many problems at worldwide level (e.g. the emergence/re-emergence of new/old zoonotic pathogens, biological and chemical contaminants in food, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, non-epidemic emergencies associated with natural or man-made disasters, animal well-being, etc., integrating with other professions. In Italy, most of these problems find the Veterinary Services prepared, but not homogeneously throughout the country. At the present time, doubts are expressed on maintaining and improving these services, mainly due to the lack of students interested in veterinary public health (VPH training. The globalisation of the veterinary profession imposes changes, in both culture and training. The expertise required for ‘one medicine’ must be considered and aspects of veterinary training should be changed to promote sharing expertise with other professionals, mainly within the Italian Health Service. The public should be informed about professional competence and activities of veterinarians, in both the private and public sectors, in order to offer a true picture of the profession, one that is not limited to the conventional model which the public generally has of veterinary medicine.
Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia van Drunen
The prevention of infectious diseases of animals by vaccination has been routinely practiced for decades and has proved to be one of the most cost-effective methods of disease control. However, since the pioneering work of Pasteur in the 1880s, the composition of veterinary vaccines has changed very little from a conceptual perspective and this has, in turn, limited their application in areas such as the control of chronic infectious diseases. New technologies in the areas of vaccine formulation and delivery as well as our increased knowledge of disease pathogenesis and the host responses associated with protection from disease offer promising alternatives for vaccine formulation as well as targets for the prevention of bacterial disease. These new vaccines have the potential to lessen our reliance on antibiotics for disease control, but will only reach their full potential when used in combination with other intervention strategies.
Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N
Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Hesbach, Amie Lamoreaux
As it matures, the field of animal rehabilitation is welcoming utilization of interventions that have proven efficacy in the specialty of physical therapy for human patients. More recently, manual therapy techniques have become more accepted. Range-of-motion and stretching techniques; mobilization or manipulation of soft tissues, peripheral joints, and the spine; neuromuscular facilitation techniques; techniques unique to osteopathy; chest physical therapy; manual lymphatic drainage techniques; and neural mobilization techniques are now commonly incorporated in clinical practice, and these interventions are more commonly cited in the veterinary literature. The following is a brief review of these manual therapy approaches including the goals, effects, indications, precautions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McCobb, Emily; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Malcolm, Elizabeth A; Wolfus, Gregory; Rush, John E
Providing veterinary students with opportunities to develop clinical skills in a realistic, hands-on environment remains a challenge for veterinary education. We have developed a novel approach to teaching clinical medicine to fourth-year veterinary students and technical high school students via development of a primary care clinic embedded within a technical high school. The primary care clinic targets an underserved area of the community, which includes many of the participating high school students. Support from the veterinary community for the project has been strong as a result of communication, the opportunity for veterinarians to volunteer in the clinic, and the careful targeting of services. Benefits to veterinary students include the opportunity to build clinical competencies and confidence, as well as the exposure to a diverse client population. The financial model of the clinic is described and initial data on outcomes for case load, clinic income, veterinary student evaluations, and high school students' success in passing the veterinary assisting examination are reported. This clinical model, involving a partnership between a veterinary school and a technical high school, may be adoptable to other clinical teaching situations.
... reasonable educational expenses, including fees, books, and laboratory expenses, incurred by the individual... Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3151a). The purpose of this program... Policy Act of 1977 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (7 U...
.... Loans eligible for repayment include educational loans made for one or more of the following: Loans for tuition expenses; other reasonable educational expenses, including fees, books, and laboratory expenses..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan...
R. D. Bigalke
Full Text Available Concise descriptions are given of the life histories of the 10 members of the classes of 1938 and 1939. All of them initially joined the government service, Hugo, Steenekamp and Schatz spending their entire careers in the South African Veterinary (Field Services. Mansvelt, the first recipient of the much-coveted Theiler medal, was the 2nd veterinarian to be appointed Director of Veterinary Services, a position specially created for the 'Field' in 1962. Having first established a successful private practice, Hofmeyr was appointed as the 1st full-time Professor of Surgery of the Onderstepoort Faculty in 1958 and its 1st full-time Dean in 1976. Albertyn opted for a career in public health, becoming director of 1 of the largest local municipal abattoirs. Turner spent virtually his entire career in private practice and was eventually joined by Brown who had served in the British Colonial Veterinary Service for many years. Fick was a government veterinarian for his entire career, first in South Africa, then in the British Colonial Service (for 13 years and finally returning to South Africa. Like Hugo, Muller filled a senior position in Veterinary (Field Services before he opted for a farming career.
Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN
Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.
Kochevar, Deborah T
Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.
Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.
Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009
The undergraduate teaching of veterinary parasitology in an African perspective is reviewed. Information was gathered from 8 of approximately 20 veterinary schools/faculties in Africa. In order to compare teaching in the different schools a standard questionnaire was designed for collecting data on different aspects of the curriculum, including the curriculum structure, the year(s) in which veterinary parasitology is taught, the contact hours allocated to teaching and the methods of teaching. The results of the eight faculties/schools reveal that veterinary parasitology is taught in a disciplinary approach allocating a total of 90-198 h to lectures (46-75%) and practicals 38-196 h (25-54%) during the full curriculum. There are considerable differences in structure of the curricula and methods of teaching undergraduate veterinary parasitology between the various schools/faculties. Availability of teaching staff and the cost of running practical classes are the most limiting factors in teaching of veterinary parasitology. There is a need to constantly review the curriculum of undergraduate veterinary parasitology and to standardise the materials and methods in light of new knowledge. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
Bell, Melinda A; Cake, Martin A; Mansfield, Caroline F
The purpose of this article is to explore employability as a complement to competency in defining the overarching objectives of veterinary education. Although the working usage of the term competency has evolved and stretched in recent years, and contemporary competence frameworks have expanded to better reflect the range of capabilities required of a veterinary professional, the potential remains for the dominance of competency-lead discourse to obscure the aim of producing not only competent but also successful and satisfied veterinarians. Expanding the educational mission to include employability may provide this broader focus, by stretching the end point, scope, and scale of veterinary education into the crucial transition to practice period, and beyond. In this article we review available evidence from multiple stakeholder perspectives and argue that employability expands the focus beyond servicing the needs of the public to better integrate and balance the needs of all the stakeholders in veterinary education, including the graduates themselves. By refocusing the goal of veterinary education to include the richer end point of success, turning the attention to employability could enhance current attribute frameworks and result in veterinarians who not only better meet the needs of those they serve but are also better prepared to experience fulfilling and satisfying careers. Finally, we suggest one educational approach may be to conceptualize competency, professionalism, and employability as overlapping dimensions of the successful veterinary professional.
Karara, Adel H; Hines, Ryan; Demir, Zehra; Nnorom, Bethran; Horsey, Robert; Twigg, Geoffrey
Extemporaneous drug formulation is essential to provide optimal pharmaceutical care to veterinary patients. The need for this is exacerbated by the fact that commercially produced veterinary-specific products, without a human indication, require specialty veterinary manufacturing facilities and a new animal drug application process to gain marketing approval. This study examined the prescription patterns of extemporaneously compounded veterinary preparations in the compounding department at a large independent community pharmacy. Data was obtained from a total of 1348 prescriptions requiring extemporaneous compounding over the course of a two-year period (2014-2015). A database was constructed and each compounded prescription was allocated to a therapeutic category based on the American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information. Data analysis showed that the most commonly prescribed preparations belonged to the central nervous system (39%), anti-infective agents (21%), and hormones (12%) therapeutic categories. Overall, suspensions were the most dispensed (47%), extemporaneously compounded dosage forms followed by solutions (28%), and capsules (10%). The majority (88%) of compounded preparations were administered by the oral route. The top three drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine were (1) potassium bromide oral solution for canine epilepsy, (2) methimazole solution used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats, and (3) metronidazole suspension, an antibiotic for the treatment of diarrhea and other infections in dogs and cats. Remarkably, our findings are in good agreement with previously published survey data on the top drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine. In the era of personalized medicine, veterinary extemporaneous compounding for specialized needs will continue to play an important role providing optimum therapy for veterinary patients. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.
Abdou, A H
Brucellosis, rabies, salmonellosis, anthrax and hydatidosis are among the main zoonotic diseases which constitute a threat to human health and welfare. Surveillance, prevention and control of such zoonoses and related food-borne diseases are problems of considerable magnitude. Despite their obvious importance, relatively few systematic control efforts have been made by national authorities. Major constraints include the scarcity of public health veterinarians and related sub-professional staff to plan and implement adequate surveillance and control of zoonoses, and the lack of appropriate legislation and adequate laboratory services. Veterinarians have been contributing to public health for many years, but despite considerable efforts by the World Health Organisation (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and other organisations in establishing veterinary public health (VPH) programmes over several decades, the veterinarian as a career specialist in public health is a relatively new phenomenon. In the last decade, emphasis has been placed on: --supporting the training and development of human resources to promote VPH services and cover all its components --promoting and upgrading national epidemiological surveillance and control programmes for the major zoonotic and food-borne diseases --cooperating and assisting in local production of safe and effective vaccines, primarily for the control of rabies and brucellosis. The most encouraging aspects of the present situation is the growing awareness among governments of the need to develop programmes for the control of zoonoses and related food-borne diseases.
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US). PMID:15494763
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).
Exposure to chemotherapy is a health hazard for all personnel in facilities that store, prepare, or administer antineoplastic agents. Contamination levels have been measured as much as 15 times higher in the veterinary medicine sector than in human facilities. Recent publications in human and veterinary medicine indicate that exposure extends beyond the clinic walls to affect the patient's home and family. This article provides an update on the advances in chemotherapy safety, the current issues, and the impact on cancer management in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.
Yoon, Heojeong; Woo, Ae Ja; Treagust, David; Chandrasegaran, A. L.
The efficacy of problem-based learning (PBL) in an analytical chemistry laboratory course was studied using a programme that was designed and implemented with 20 students in a treatment group over 10 weeks. Data from 26 students in a traditional analytical chemistry laboratory course were used for comparison. Differences in the creative thinking…
Dean, R; Brennan, M; Ewers, R; Hudson, C; Daly, J M; Baillie, S; Eisler, M C; Place, E J; Brearley, J; Holmes, M; Handel, I; Shaw, D; McLauchlan, G; McBrearty, A; Cripps, P; Jones, P; Smith, R; Verheyen, K
The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons now lists 'How to evaluate evidence' as a day one competence for newly qualified vets. In this article, representatives from each of the veterinary schools in the UK discuss how the challenge of delivering and assessing the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine in a crowded undergraduate curriculum can be met. British Veterinary Association.
..., veterinarian in the practice of veterinary medicine, clinical laboratory or hospital to receive, acquire... only by physicians, veterinarians in the practice of veterinary medicine, clinical laboratories or... laboratory tests not involving internal or external administration of byproduct material, or the radiation...
Smith, Donald F
This article is the first in a series of three to be published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME). These articles are abridged versions of six lectures that make up an elective course on the history of the veterinary profession in North America offered at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine in spring 2010. The course was based in large part on an oral history collection titled "An Enduring Veterinary Legacy"(1) that captures interesting and relevant veterinary stories. The course was designed to increase awareness of the history of veterinary medicine as we approach the sesquicentennial of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in 2013 and as we join with our international colleagues in marking the 250th anniversary of the establishment of the world's first veterinary college in Lyon, France, in 2011.(2) The overarching goal of this course and the articles is to record and also to share first-person stories that describe the development of veterinary education and the veterinary profession in North America from the mid-1860s to the present. In the process, it is hoped that this history will encourage respect, love, and admiration for the veterinary profession and an appreciation of veterinary medicine as a versatile profession. The articles are somewhat Cornell-centric because the lectures on which they are based were presented to Cornell students at their home institution. However, it is hoped that the events are representative of the broader American experience. For educators interested in the course itself, a brief synopsis and a summary of student evaluations for the first year of presentation is appended here and in subsequent articles in this series.
Impact of horizontal approach in vertical program: continuous quality improvement of malaria and tuberculosis diagnostic services at primary-level medical laboratories in the context of HIV care and treatment program in Ethiopia.
Marinucci, Francesco; Manyazewal, Tsegahun; Paterniti, Antonio D; Medina-Moreno, Sandra; Wattleworth, Matthew; Hagembe, Juliana; Redfield, Robert R
The use of standardized tools for continuous quality improvement of laboratory services is crucial to identify service gaps, plan targeted interventions, and prove successes. Laboratory quality improvement tools (LQITs) were developed and applied for 18 months at five health centers and one faith-based hospital laboratories in Southwest Showa Zone in Ethiopia to assess and monitor the quality of malaria and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy total testing processes. For the six laboratories, baseline malaria microscopy scores were 55%, 42%, 52%, 55%, 54%, and 61%. Similarly, baseline AFB microscopy scores were 49%, 41%, 46%, 58%, 44%, and 70%. On the sixth quarter for the first four laboratories and the fourth quarter for the last two laboratories, malaria microscopy scores were 89%, 88%, 88%, 90%, 88%, and 89%, whereas AFB microscopy scores were 90%, 88%, 89%, 95%, 88%, and 90%. All laboratories scored above 85% for both services at the end of interventions.
rodents, rabbits, dogs, cats , nonhuman primates, domestic farm animals, other vertebrates, invertebrates, and biological resource materials for research...on Dog and Cat Standards, Committee on Standards. 1973. Washington D.C.: Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. 48 pp. 21. Laboratory Animal...by P. Tomasovic and K. Gray. 31 4 S 89 World Veterinary Association Policy Statement on Animal Welfare, Well-being, and Ethology . E. Mayer, Chairman
Full Text Available Animal paleopathology is not a very well known scientific discipline within veterinary science, but it has great importance for historical and archaeological investigations. In this paper, authors attention is focused on the description of one of the most common findings on the skeletal remains of animals - osteoarthropathies. This review particularly emphasizes the description and classification of the most common pathological changes in synovial joints. The authors have provided their observations on the importance of joint diseases in paleopathology and veterinary medicine. Analysis of individual processes in the joints of the animals from the past may help in the understanding of diseases in modern veterinary medicine. Differential diagnosis was made a point of emphasis and discussion, so that this work could have practical significance for paleopathology and veterinary medicine
Mar 28, 2016 ... and sports medicine and herbal therapy. Current curricular trends ..... competitive pursuits and in the demand from veterinary clients for accelerated ..... Effects of nutrition choices and lifestyle changes on the well- being of cats ...
Principal Contact. Prof. B. M. Agaie Editor-in-Chief Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, UDUS City Campus. P. M. B. 2346. Sokoto- Nigeria. Phone: +2348035073563. Email: email@example.com ...
Topically administered dosage forms included solutions, sprays, ointments, creams, shampoos and powders, while those delivered via the intrauterine route included pessaries, solutions and suspensions. Keywords: dosage forms, administration route, veterinary pharmaceutical products, animal species, drug delivery.
Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F
Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...
There is the urgent need to retract our steps on unpopular policies to ensure that patient care is not compromised by ensuring adequate staffing level and mix, ensuring adequate remuneration of laboratory staff, implementing evidenced-based specialty oriented service, determining the root cause/s for the high staff turnover and implementing corrective action, identifying other potential sources of waste in the system rather than pruning the already dangerously low staffing levels and promoting a quality delivery side by side cost effectiveness.
Dent, N J
The requirements for Good Laboratory (GLP) and Good Clinical Practices (CGP) were established as a matter of urgency by the United States in the early 1970s. These were in response to gross misconduct and, in many instances, fraud. Over the next 15 years, a plethora of regulatory principles, guidelines, and regulations was produced by many countries of the world, culminating in single standards for European, Japanese, and United States authorities. Although with regard to GLP this has basically become a worldwide recognized standard within the preclinical (toxicology) studies, in the veterinary, chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries, the GCPs are now seeing a rebirth. Within a clinical trials environment, there is most certainly a requirement for compliance with GCP, especially with regard to the harmonization of data within the European Community. The goal of this article is to cover the following aspects: Why should we have good practices? Why should laboratory data be audited? Why is there a need for a QA unit or function? What is the QA operational approach? How does a laboratory audit take place within laboratories? In discussing the laboratories and their subsequent data audits, the pitfalls and benefits are addressed and an examination of the data from the sponsor's viewpoint is compared with that produced by the laboratory. The types of laboratories present in a clinical environment are examined. They obviously comprise clinical pathology, microbiology, and analytical as well as ancillary hospital areas such as X-ray and cardiology. These laboratories may also be in the private sector, the National Health Service, contract laboratories, universities, or the general practitioner population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Keller, S M; Vernau, W; Moore, P F
The accurate distinction of reactive and neoplastic lymphoid proliferations can present challenges. Given the different prognoses and treatment strategies, a correct diagnosis is crucial. Molecular clonality assays assess rearranged lymphocyte antigen receptor gene diversity and can help differentiate reactive from neoplastic lymphoid proliferations. Molecular clonality assays are commonly used to assess atypical, mixed, or mature lymphoid proliferations; small tissue fragments that lack architecture; and fluid samples. In addition, clonality testing can be utilized to track neoplastic clones over time or across anatomic sites. Molecular clonality assays are not stand-alone tests but useful adjuncts that follow clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic assessment. Even though clonality testing provides valuable information in a variety of situations, the complexities and pitfalls of this method, as well as its dependency on the experience of the interpreter, are often understated. In addition, a lack of standardized terminology, laboratory practices, and interpretational guidelines hinders the reproducibility of clonality testing across laboratories in veterinary medicine. The objectives of this review are twofold. First, the review is intended to familiarize the diagnostic pathologist or interested clinician with the concepts, potential pitfalls, and limitations of clonality testing. Second, the review strives to provide a basis for future harmonization of clonality testing in veterinary medicine by providing diagnostic guidelines. © The Author(s) 2016.
Smith, Ronald D.; Williams, Mitsuko
This study used the peer-reviewed biomedical literature to define the veterinary informatics knowledgebase and associated subspecialties, and assesses the level of activity in the field over the thirty-year period from 1966 through 1995. Grateful Med was used to search the MEDLINE bibliographic database for articles that shared one or more Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords from the veterinary and medical informatics subject headings. Each of ninety-five MeSH medical informatics terms w...
Bartels, Kenneth E.
As in other facets of medical science, the use of lasers in veterinary medicine is a relatively new phenomenon. Economic aspects of the profession as well as questionable returns on investment have limited laser applications primarily to the academic community, research institutions, and specialty practices. As technology improves and efficacy is proven, costs should decrease and allow further introduction of laser surgical and diagnostic devices into the mainstream of clinical veterinary medicine.
Daas, A; Bruckner, L; Milne, C
Rabies is a deadly zoonotic disease. Control of rabies in animals by vaccination is an important strategy to protect humans from infection and control the spread of the disease. Requirements for the quality control of rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use include an in vivo quantitative potency determination as outlined in the Ph. Eur. monograph 0451. Performance of this assay requires a reference preparation calibrated in International Units (IU). A European Pharmacopeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use, calibrated in IU, has been established for this purpose. Due to the dwindling stocks of the current batch (batch 4) of Ph. Eur. BRP for rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use, a collaborative study was run as part of the EDQM Biological Standardisation Programme to establish BRP batch 5. Ten laboratories, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories and manufacturers, participated. The candidate BRP5 was assayed against the 6(th) International Standard for rabies vaccine using the in vivo vaccination-challenge assay (monograph 0451) to assign a potency value. The candidate was also compared to BRP batch 4 to establish continuity. Taking into account the results from the comparisons a potency of 10 IU/vial was assigned and in March 2015 the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the material as Ph. Eur. BRP for rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use batch 5. In addition to the in vivo assay 3 laboratories tested the candidate material using their in-house in vitro assays for information.
Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.
Watson, Elizabeth; Heng, Hock Gan
Imaging studies are often of evidentiary value in medicolegal investigations involving animals and the role of the veterinary radiologist is to interpret those images for courts as an expert or opinion witness. With progressing interest in prosecuting animal crimes and strengthening of penalties for crimes against animals, the participation of veterinary radiologists in medicolegal investigations is expected to increase. Veterinary radiologists who are aware of radiographic and imaging signs that result in animal suffering, abuse, or neglect; knowledgeable in ways radiology and imaging may support cause of death determinations; conversant in postmortem imaging; comfortable discussing mechanisms and timing of blunt or sharp force and projectile trauma in imaging; and prepared to identify mimics of abuse can assist court participants in understanding imaging evidence. The goal of this commentary review is to familiarize veterinary radiologists with the forensic radiology and imaging literature and with the advantages and disadvantages of various imaging modalities utilized in forensic investigations. Another goal is to provide background information for future research studies in veterinary forensic radiology and imaging. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida
Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.
Subramanian, Karthik H.; Thien, Michael G.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Herman, Connie C.
The National Laboratories are a critical partner and provide expertise in numerous aspects of the successful execution of the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste Program. The National Laboratories are maturing the technologies of the Low-Activity Waste Pre-Treatment System (LAWPS) consistent with DOE Order 413.3B “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets” expectations. The National Laboratories continue to mature waste forms, i.e. glass and secondary waste grout, for formulations and predictions of long-term performance as inputs to performance assessments. The working processes with the National Laboratories have been developed in procurements, communications, and reporting to support the necessary delivery-based technology support. The relationship continues to evolve from planning and technology development to support of ongoing operations and integration of multiple highly coordinated facilities.
McNulty, Cliodna A M; Verlander, Neville Q; Moore, Philippa C L; Larcombe, James; Dudley, Jan; Banerjee, Jaydip; Jadresic, Lyda
quarter of laboratories were providing a service that would allow clinicians to fully comply with the first line recommendations in the 2007 NICE UTI in children guidance. Laboratory urine submission report figures suggest that the guidance has not led to an increase in diagnosis of UTI in children under 3 years old.
Aguirre, A A
The current veterinary curriculum leaves graduates ill-equipped for careers in the field of zoological and wildlife medicine. Further postgraduate training is required to be an effective zoo or wildlife veterinarian. However, whether or not students choose to specialise in this field at a later date, the veterinary curriculum should cover several issues that are related to wildlife and zoo animals, including conservation biology, zoology, behaviour, physiology and conservation medicine. These subjects are essential, as we are preparing students to work in a world in which there is a global trade in wild animals, an increasing number of emerging infectious diseases and numerous environmental threats (habitat fragmentation, climate change) linked to anthropogenic change. Veterinary students should also be exposed to new opportunities to identify field and laboratory tools for the management and possible treatment of diseases in captive and wild populations and ecosystems using both in situ and ex situ approaches to conservation.
Van Borm, S; Wang, J; Granberg, F; Colling, A
Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies and sequence data analysis have revolutionised research in many areas of biology and medicine, including veterinary infection biology. New technology is poised to bridge the gap between the research and diagnostic laboratory. This paper defines the potential diagnostic value and purposes of next-generation sequencing (NGS) applications in veterinary infection biology and explores their compatibility with the existing validation principles and methods of the World Organisation for Animal Health. Critical parameters for validation and quality control (quality metrics) are suggested, with reference to established validation and quality assurance guidelines for NGS-based methods of diagnosing human heritable diseases. Although most currently described NGS applications in veterinary infection biology are not primary diagnostic tests that directly result in control measures, this critical reflection on the advantages and remaining challenges of NGS technology should stimulate discussion on its diagnostic value and on the potential to validate NGS methods and monitor their diagnostic performance.
Chatfield, Jenifer A; Dewell, Reneé; Miranda, Astrid J; Wilcox, Stefania; Vannieuwenhoven, Ty J
To describe on-site veterinary medical care for working dogs and horses deployed for the 2012 Republican National Convention (RNC) in Tampa, Fla, August 24 to 30, 2012. Retrospective case series. 130 dogs and 45 horses. Data collected included breed, age, history, task assignment, reason for evaluation, and physical examination findings. A patient encounter report was recorded each time an animal was seen by veterinary staff for a physical evaluation. 46 of the 130 (35%) dogs and all 45 (100%) horses underwent at least 1 on-site veterinary evaluation, for a total of 478 patient encounters. The most common reason for an on-site veterinary evaluation was a wellness check (446 patient encounters). On the basis of veterinary recommendations, 1 dog and 4 horses were removed from continued service for the duration of the event. In addition, 1 dog and 1 horse were removed from active service for 12 to 24 hours but allowed to return to service for the duration of the event following a veterinary reevaluation. Results suggested that working dogs and horses deployed for large planned events face different health concerns, compared with concerns previously reported for animals deployed following disasters. Pre-event planning and training of handlers and riders may have helped reduce the number of health concerns, particularly health concerns related to high heat.
Andberg, Wendy L.; And Others
A college of veterinary medicine in a large state university compared its male and female students and found differences in the influences on their career choice and in their academic experiences, gender-role expectations and conflicts, attitudes regarding professional dedication and competence, and need for support services. (Author)
Within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Program 104 conducts research on veterinary, medical, and urban entomology. The goal of this program is to develop more effective methods of preventing or suppressing insects, ticks, and mites that affect animal and human well-being....
... animal health, behavior, and well-being is conveyed to the attending veterinarian; (4) Guidance to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care. 2.33 Section 2.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Turnaround time (TAT is an important indicator of laboratory performance. It is often difficult to achieve fast TAT for blood tests conducted at clinics in developing countries. This is because clinics where the patient is treated are often far away from the laboratory, and transporting blood samples and test results between the two locations creates significant delay. Recent efforts have sought to mitigate this problem by using Short Message Service (SMS to reduce TAT. Studies reporting the impact of this technique have not been published in scientific literature however. In this paper we present a study of LabPush, a system developed to test whether SMS delivery of HIV related laboratory results to clinics could shorten TAT time significantly. METHOD: LapPush was implemented in six clinics of the Kingdom of Swaziland. SMS results were sent out from the laboratory as a supplement to normal transport of paper results. Each clinic was equipped with a mobile phone to receive SMS results. The laboratory that processes the blood tests was equipped with a system for digital input of results, and transmission of results via SMS to the clinics. RESULTS: Laboratory results were received for 1041 different clinical cases. The total number of SMS records received (1032 was higher than that of paper records (965, indicating a higher loss rate for paper records. A statistical comparison of TAT for SMS and paper reports indicates a statistically significant improvement for SMS. Results were more positive for more rural clinics, and an urban clinic with high workload. CONCLUSION: SMS can be used to reduce TAT for blood tests taken at clinics in developing countries. Benefits are likely to be greater at clinics that are further away from laboratories, due to the difficulties this imposes on transport of paper records.
Hendricks, Joan C
Point 1: the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education's (AVMA COE's) accreditation pro-cess is aimed at minimum training for entry-level veterinarians. This has a two-fold consequence: 1. The opportunity to discover the absolute minimum number of necessary resources is opened. While this is a threat to the standard model of veterinary education, it might have value if it is cost-efficient and students graduate with minimal or no debt. 2. There is no mechanism to measure training,research, or service programs above the minimum or beyond the entry level. Point 2: the implication of the minimum entry-level general standard is also two-fold: 1. We must measure performance above the mini-mum. A separate process is necessary (a) to develop and implement objective metrics and (b) to publicize superior achievement as opposed to minimal performance. 2. We must measure and publicize institutions or programs that advance the field beyond training entry-level veterinarians. Service, research, and training aimed at advancing the field, providing leadership, and improving public health and safety(One Health) require separate measurement and advocacy in order to obtain and justify the necessary resources. I conclude that in the absence of a new process by which to measure excellence, market forces will push the entire profession toward the most cost-effective method of providing minimal training for entry-level veterinarians. But what about the far more expensive goal of providing a global public good of which our profession is so proud?The public health and safety mission of veterinary medi-cine, including the entire One Health initiative, requires separate measurement in order to give objective metrics to the institutions and components of the profession committed to those goals to pursue vigorous advocacy and obtain or retain the necessary resources.